Sample records for experiment k-6-09 morphological

  1. Experiments on the morphology of icicles (United States)

    Chen, Antony Szu-Han; Morris, Stephen W.


    Icicles form when cool water drips from an overhanging support under ambient conditions which are below freezing. Ice growth is controlled by the removal of latent heat, which is transferred into the surrounding air via a thin film of water flowing over the ice surface. We describe laboratory experiments in which icicles were grown under controlled conditions. We used image analysis to probe the evolution of the icicle shape under various conditions. A recent asymptotic theory suggests that, overall, icicles converge to self-similar shapes which are predicted to be attractors. On the other hand, stability theory predicts that the ice-water interface can become unstable to form ripple patterns on the icicle surface. Our experimental results show that the predicted self-similar profile is only found in certain cases, and that icicles can also exhibit unpredicted nonuniformities such as branching near the tip. We find that pure water icicles are more likely to be self-similar than those grown from tap water. Ripples, which are also deviations from the self-similar profile, were observed to climb upward during icicle growth.

  2. Morphological Instabilities in a Growing Yeast Colony: Experiment and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sams, Thomas; Sneppen, Kim; Jensen, Mogens


    We study the growth of colonies of the yeast Pichia membranaefaciens on agarose film. The growth conditions are controlled in a setup where nutrients are supplied through an agarose film suspended over a solution of nutrients. As the thickness of the agarose film is varied, the morphology of the ...... of the front of the colony changes. The growth of the front is modeled by coupling it to a diffusive field of inhibitory metabolites. Qualitative agreement with experiments suggests that such a coupling is responsible for the observed instability of the front.......We study the growth of colonies of the yeast Pichia membranaefaciens on agarose film. The growth conditions are controlled in a setup where nutrients are supplied through an agarose film suspended over a solution of nutrients. As the thickness of the agarose film is varied, the morphology...

  3. Stagnation morphology in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments (United States)

    Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Chandler, G. A.; Glinsky, M. E.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Knapp, P. F.; Martin, M. R.; Peterson, K. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schmit, P. F.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Weis, M. R.; Yu, E. P.


    In Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments on the Z facility, an axial current of 15-20 MA is driven through a thick metal cylinder containing axially-magnetized, laser-heated deuterium fuel. The cylinder implodes, further heating the fuel and amplifying the axial B-field. Instabilities, such as magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor, develop on the exterior of the liner and may feed through to the inner surface during the implosion. Monochromatic x-ray emission at stagnation shows the stagnation column is quasi-helical with axial variations in intensity. Recent experiments demonstrated that the stagnation emission structure changed with modifications to the target wall thickness. Additionally, applying a thick dielectric coating to the exterior of the target modified the stagnation column. A new version of the x-ray self-emission diagnostic has been developed to investigate stagnation with higher resolution. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.


    The morphological basis for olfactory perception of steroids during agonistic behavior in lobsters: preliminary experiments. Borsay Horowitz, DJ1, Kass-Simon, G2, Coglianese, D2, Martin, L2, Boseman, M2, Cromarty, S3, Randall, K3, Fini, A.3 1US EPA, NHEERL, ORD, Atlantic Ecology...

  5. Lava Flow Interactions with Topographic Obstacles: Morphologic Analysis, Analogue Modeling, and Molten Basalt Experiments (United States)

    Dietterich, H. R.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Lev, E.; Dietrich, J. T.


    Underlying topography controls lava flow emplacement by influencing flow paths, lengths, and advance rates. The morphology of the pre-eruptive surface provides input into lava flow models and the design of artificial diversion barriers, although the dynamics of interactions between topographic obstacles and lava flows are not well known. We investigate these factors by combining morphologic analysis of Hawaiian lava flows with scaling derived from analogue and molten basalt experiments. A comparison of pre- and post-eruptive topographic data shows that flows thicken on the upslope side of topographic barriers, a feature that has been employed to calculate flow velocities from simple energy conversion. Observations also document effects of flow branching and confinement on flow advance rate, with confined flows in Hawai'i traveling further and faster than those that branch. To explain these observations we perform laboratory experiments using Newtonian and Bingham analogue fluids, as well as molten basalt. Conditions of flow splitting and subsequent advance are defined using experiments with both V-shaped and cylindrical obstacles that divide an unconfined flow. Oblique linear obstacles are used to explore flow confinement and diversion. We find that the degree of thickening, which determines the height of an obstacle capable of holding back the flow, is controlled by both initial flow velocity and obstacle geometry. Key is the ability of the flow to pass around the obstacle, such that larger and wider obstacles cause greater thickening than smaller and narrower obstacles. Flow advance rate is largely unaffected by branching in the Newtonian analogue experiments, but decreases after splitting in the molten basalt experiments because of surface cooling. Interestingly, flows into oblique obstacles are diverted but travel faster. Together these data provide the basis for a theoretical description of the interaction dynamics of viscous (and cooling) lava flows with

  6. Controls of the water and sediment fluxes on alluvial fans morphology: theory and experiments (United States)

    Guerit, Laure; Delorme, Pauline; Métivier, François; Lajeunesse, Eric; Devauchelle, Olivier; Barrier, Laurie


    Alluvial fans are major sedimentary bodies that make the transition between the reliefs in erosion and the sedimentary basins, where deposition occurs. Understanding their dynamics of formation and evolution is a great problem of sediment transport, which leads to a better understanding of the control exerted by the water and sediment fluxes on the fan morphology. At the cost of several simplifications, we propose a totally predictive model for one-dimensional fans composed by one grain size and built under laminar flow. In this simplified context, it is possible to propose a unique relationship between the water flux, the sediment flux, the grain size and the slope of the fan. The theory is validated by one-dimension experiments, performed with glass beads and glycerine: the fan grows quasi-statically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. In addition, at leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. These main predictions are then successfully tested in two-dimensional experiments.

  7. Exploring the Morphology of oceanic ridges with experiments using colloidal dispersions (United States)

    Davaille, Anne; Sibrant, Aurore; Mittelstaedt, Eric; Aubertin, Alban; Auffray, Lionel; Pidoux, Raphael


    Mid-ocean ridges exhibit significant changes in their structural, morphological, and volcanic characteristics with changes in lithospheric thickness and/or spreading velocity. However, to separate the respective roles of those two partly correlated effects is difficult with only field data. We therefore designed a series of laboratory experiments using colloidal silica dispersions as an Earth analogue. Saline water solutions placed in contact with these fluids, cause formation of a skin through salt diffusion, whose rheology evolves from purely viscous to elastic and brittle with increasing salinity. Applying a fixed spreading rate to this pre- formed, brittle plate results in cracks, faults and axial ridge structures. Lithospheric (skin) thickness at a given extension rate can be varied by changing the surface water layer salinity. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the skin can also be independently controlled by changing the type of colloid. We focus here on cases where the spreading direction is perpendicular to the ridge axis. For a given dispersion and salinity, we observe four regimes as the spreading rate increases: (1) at the slowest spreading rates, the spreading axis is composed of several segments separated by non-transform offsets and has a fault-bounded, deep, U-shaped axial valley. The axis has a large sinuosity, rough topography, and jumps repeatedly. (2) At intermediate spreading rates, the spreading axis shows low sinuosity, overlapping spreading centers (OSC) , a smooth axial morphology, and very few to no jumps. The axial valley is shallow and shows a V-shape morphology. The OSCs have a ratio of length to width of 3 to 1. (3) At faster spreading rates, the axis is continuous and presents an axial high topography. (4) At the fastest spreading rates tested, the spreading axis is again segmented. Each segment is offset by well developed transform faults and the axis has a sinuosity comparable to those of regimes 2 and 3. Rotating and growing

  8. Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids, a Fluid Physics Experiment Conducted on Mir, Complete (United States)

    Wilkinson, R. Allen


    The Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids (GMSF) is an international experiment facilitated by the NASA Glenn Research Center and under the guidance of U.S. principal investor Professor Hegseth of the University of New Orleans and three French coinvestigators: Daniel Beysens, Yves Garrabos, and Carole Chabot. The GMSF experiments were concluded in early 1999 on the Russian space station Mir. The experiments spanned the three science themes of near-critical phase separation rates, interface dynamics in near-critical boiling, and measurement of the spectrum of density fluctuation length scales very close to the critical point. The fluids used were pure CO2 or SF6. Three of the five thermostats used could adjust the sample volume with the scheduled crew time. Such a volume adjustment enabled variable sample densities around the critical density as well as pressure steps (as distinct from the usual temperature steps) applied to the sample. The French-built ALICE II facility was used for these experiments. It allows tightly thermostated (left photograph) samples (right photograph) to be controlled and viewed/measured. Its diagnostics include interferometry, shadowgraph, high-speed pressure measurements, and microscopy. Data were logged on DAT tapes, and PCMCIA cards and were returned to Earth only after the mission was over. The ground-breaking near critical boiling experiment has yielded the most results with a paper published in Physical Review Letters (ref. 1). The boiling work also received press in Science Magazine (ref. 2). This work showed that, in very compressible near-critical two-phase pure fluids, a vapor bubble was induced to temporarily overheat during a rapid heating of the sample wall. The temperature rise in the vapor was 23-percent higher than the rise in the driving container wall. The effect is due to adiabatic compression of the vapor bubble by the rapid expansion of fluid near the boundary during heatup. Thermal diffusivity is low near the

  9. Particle Morphology and Size Results from the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2 (United States)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Fischer, David; Meyer, Marit; Mulholland, George; Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Bryg, Victoria; Cleary, Thomas; Yang, Jiann


    Results are presented from the Reflight of the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME-2) which was conducted during Expedition 24 (July-September 2010). The reflight experiment built upon the results of the original flight during Expedition 15 by adding diagnostic measurements and expanding the test matrix. Five different materials representative of those found in spacecraft (Teflon, Kapton, cotton, silicone rubber and Pyrell) were heated to temperatures below the ignition point with conditions controlled to provide repeatable sample surface temperatures and air flow. The air flow past the sample during the heating period ranged from quiescent to 8 cm/s. The smoke was initially collected in an aging chamber to simulate the transport time from the smoke source to the detector. This effective transport time was varied by holding the smoke in the aging chamber for times ranging from 11 to 1800 s. Smoke particle samples were collected on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids for post-flight analysis. The TEM grids were analyzed to observe the particle morphology and size parameters. The diagnostics included a prototype two-moment smoke detector and three different measures of moments of the particle size distribution. These moment diagnostics were used to determine the particle number concentration (zeroth moment), the diameter concentration (first moment), and the mass concentration (third moment). These statistics were combined to determine the diameter of average mass and the count mean diameter and, by assuming a log-normal distribution, the geometric mean diameter and the geometric standard deviations can also be calculated. Overall the majority of the average smoke particle sizes were found to be in the 200 nm to 400 nm range with the quiescent cases producing some cases with substantially larger particles.

  10. Quantification of river hydraulics, morphology, and vegetation interactions in flume experiments: A deeper look at vegetation encroachment management. (United States)

    Javernick, Luke; Bertoldi, Walter


    The interdisciplinary knowledge and ability for river managers to effectively predict flood risks, restore rivers, and assess future alterations are currently restricted to the limited understanding of how river hydraulics, morphology, and vegetation alter a river's planform, effect sediment mobility, and control the surrounding habitats. To improve this knowledge, flume experiments of a 24 m x 1.6 m wide channel with 1 mm sediment and a 1% slope were ran to develop a braided river. Once developed, the flume was seeded with Rucola Coltivata (eruca sativa) at a density of 1.5 seeds/cm2 and grown until an approximate height of 1.1 cm. Experiments evaluated low-, medium-, and large-flood events and documented morphological changes and impacts to vegetation at four intervals during the experiments with high resolution imagery that was utilized to produce accurate Structure-from-Motion derived topography (average errors 2 mm). The aim of this research is to evaluate and quantify how rivers naturally control vegetation encroachment through morphodynamics and the impacts of both naturally occurring and manipulated avulsion. Through such quantification of river hydraulics, morphology, and vegetation removal, anticipated results will provide evidence leading to the ability to better retain bare sediment areas, locality of most/least commonly cleared areas, and the effects of manipulation to maximize flood impacts. Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship: River-HMV, 656917

  11. On the equilibrium morphology of systems drawn from spherical collapse experiments (United States)

    Boily, C. M.; Athanassoula, E.


    We present a purely theoretical study of the morphological evolution of self-gravitating systems formed through the dissipationless collapse of N-point sources. We explore the effects of resolution in mass and length on the growth of triaxial structures formed by an instability triggered by an excess of radial orbits. We point out that as resolution increases, the equilibria shift, from mildly prolate, to oblate. A number of particles N ~= 100000 or larger is required for convergence of axial aspect ratios. An upper bound for the softening, ɛ ~ 1/256, is also identified. We then study the properties of a set of equilibria formed from scale-free cold initial mass distributions, ρ ~ r-γ 0 values of γ). We map the run of density in space and find no evidence for a power-law inner structure when γ violent relaxation for more peaked profiles when more phase mixing takes place at the centre. We map out the velocity field of the equilibria and note that at small radii the velocity coarse-grained distribution function (DF) is Maxwellian to a very good approximation. We extend our study to non-scale-free initial conditions and finite but subvirial kinetic energy. For cold collapses, the equilibria are again oblate, as the scale-free models. With increasing kinetic energy, the equilibria first shift to prolate morphology and then to spherical symmetry.

  12. Studies of corrosion morphologies by use of experiments and computer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Terje


    CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel is frequently encountered in the oil industry. This thesis studies the morphology of corroded metals and the dynamical evolution of corrosion attacks, especially pits and general corroded fronts, experimentally and by computerized simulation. Two experimental systems of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} bearing waters and aluminium in chloride containing electrolytes were used. Fractal geometry was used in analysing the corrosion patterns and found to be a fruitful technique. The position of the corroding fronts was obtained by destructive methods as well as non-destructive ones. To study fragile corrosion product layers or the corrosion process in situ, a grazing angle lighting technique was developed and found superior to other techniques. A computer model was developed that uses Monte Carlo technique to simulate the generation of localized pits and more general corroded front morphologies. A three-dimensional model and two versions of a two-dimensional model were developed. The three-dimensional model was used to provide incremental data of corroded volume and depth as a function of the simulation time. 185 refs., 97 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Immunological Subtypes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia- Beyond Morphology: Experience from Kidwai State Cancer Institute, Bengaluru, India. (United States)

    Rajkumar, Namrata N; Vijay, Raghavendra H


    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is disease of lymphoid precursors and is the most common cancer. Diagnosis of ALL is made by evaluating morphology and flowcytometric Immunophenotyping (FCI)and is an important adjunct in diagnosis and determining treatment in ALL, with availability of extensive monoclonal antibodies in the recent years there is tremendous progress in the field of FCI, and is a requirement by World Health Organisation for the classification of acute lymphoblastic Leukemia. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of the leukemic blasts helps in categorization of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as B-ALL or T-ALL. Though ALL is the most common cancer, there is paucity of study in Indian scenario, and very few reports of immunologically subtyping of ALL is reported. To confirm the clinical/morphological diagnosis and to determine immunological subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as per requirement by World Health Organization for the classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At Kidwai State Cancer institute, Bangalore, we have performed of Immunophenotyping in 1425 untreated cases of acute leukemias during January 2012 - August 2015. Flow cytometry analysis of 1425 cases of acute Leukemias were performed, 918 (64.42%) were acute lymphoblastic Leukemia, 688 were B-ALL (74.94%), majority(480) of B-ALL were in children (69.76%), 230 were T-ALL (25.05 %), B-ALL was the most common subtype of acute leukemias. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common leukemia in adults and children. Immunophenotping helps in confirming the clinical/morphological diagnosis and in determining the immunological subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, thus has an important role in deciding on the treatment regime. ALL is the disease of lymphoid precursors and is more common cancer in children than adults. B-ALL was the most common subtype of acute leukemias both in adults and in children. T-ALL is less common in pediatric population. Flowcytometric techniques are used

  14. Flow Cytometric Analysis to Evaluate Morphological Changes in Giant Liposomes as Observed in Electrofusion Experiments. (United States)

    Sunami, Takeshi; Shimada, Kunihiro; Tsuji, Gakushi; Fujii, Satoshi


    Liposome fusion is a way of supplying additional components for in-liposome biochemical reactions. Electrofusion is a method that does not require the addition of fusogens, which often alter the liposome dispersion, and is therefore useful for repetitive liposome fusion. However, the details of electrofusion have not been elucidated because of the limitations surrounding observing liposomes using a microscope. Therefore, we introduced fluorescent markers and high-throughput flow cytometry to analyze the morphological changes that occur in liposome electrofusion. i) The content mixing was evaluated by a calcein-Co2+-EDTA system, in which green fluorescence from dequenched free calcein is detected when the quenched calcein-Co2+ complex and EDTA are mixed together. ii) Liposome destruction was evaluated from the decrease in the total membrane volume of giant liposomes. iii) Liposome fission was evaluated from the increase in the number of giant liposomes. By applying the flow cytometric analysis, we investigated the effect of three parameters (DC pulses, AC field, and lipid composition) on liposome electrofusion. The larger numbers or higher voltages of DC pulses induced liposome fusion and destruction with higher probability. The longer application time of the AC field induced liposome fusion, fission, and destruction with higher probability. Higher content of negatively charged POPG (≥19%) strongly inhibited liposome electrofusion.

  15. Morphological differentiation of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrid larvae in experiment and under natural conditions. (United States)

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Karganova, Galina G


    The objective of the study was detection of hybrid larvae in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus cohabitation sites. To this end, the following three tasks were solved: interspecies crossing of ticks, evaluation of typical morphological signs of the hybrid larvae, and analysis of collected specimens from sites of sympatry. Under experimental conditions, hybrid larvae of I. persulcatus (female) and I. ricinus (male) were obtained that differed from the parental species by the size of setae on the scutum and alloscutum. Discriminant analysis yielded 87.5% classification accuracy for the priory set groups of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrids. Of 88 hybrid larvae, 13 (15%) were classified as I. persulcatus and 4 (5%) as I. ricinus. We measured larvae of Ixodes ticks (n=141) collected from small mammals in 1950-1970 in Karelia in cohabitation sites of these species that were previously classified as I. persulcatus or I. ricinus. According to the results of discriminant analysis, 31 larvae (22%) were classified as hybrids with probability p≥0.52; for 10 larvae (7%), the probability of placement to the hybrid group was >0.95. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of tissue morphology and gene expression as biomarkers of pollution in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caging experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Federica; Palombella, Silvia; Pirrone, Cristina [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università dell’Insubria, Via Dunant 3, Varese (Italy); Mancini, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e Informatica Università di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania (Italy); Bernardini, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università dell’Insubria, Via Dunant 3, Varese (Italy); “The Protein Factory” Research Center, Politecnico di Milano, ICRM-CNR Milano and Università dell' Insubria, Via Mancinelli 7, Milano (Italy); Gornati, Rosalba, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università dell’Insubria, Via Dunant 3, Varese (Italy); “The Protein Factory” Research Center, Politecnico di Milano, ICRM-CNR Milano and Università dell' Insubria, Via Mancinelli 7, Milano (Italy)


    Highlights: • The paper describes how marine pollution modifies the biology of aquatic species. • Measurable parameters at different levels of biological organization are introduced. • The evaluation of mRNA is widely used as a biomarker to highlight side effects. • mRNA expression, even if transient, can anticipate morphological changes. • mRNA is a useful endpoint for an integrated evaluation of marine ecosystem pollution. - Abstract: The ecosystem is being anthropogenically disturbed, which has serious consequences for the environment and human health, having strong social and economic impacts on the community. One of the most common methods to evaluate the effects of toxic contaminants is based on biomonitoring, e.g., placing Mytilus galloprovincialis in the polluted areas investigated. In this study, we have combined two different methods, transcriptomic and morphological analysis, with the purpose of determining whether cell morphology and the ultrastructural organization of our animal model are related to gene expression in outdoor experiments. The most pronounced changes were observed in mussel gills and digestive gland for mRNA involved in protein machinery (18S, 28S and EF1), while HSP70, MT10, CYP4Y1, SOD1, and CAT mRNAs showed scattered modifications not related to the studied area. In agreement with 18S, 28S, and EF1 mRNA evaluation, optical and electron microscopy demonstrated an initial inflammatory response of the cells that can lead to apoptosis in the caged mussels in all the polluted areas. In conclusion, the application of a multi-disciplinary approach proved to be effective for assessing the biological effects of contaminations on the health of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in eco-toxicological studies. Although affected by several uncontrolled environmental variables, the assessment of mRNA can represent a useful endpoint for an integrated estimation of the overall threats to the sea environment within a field

  17. Role of Muscle Morphology in Jumping, Sprinting, and Throwing Performance in Participants With Different Power Training Duration Experience. (United States)

    Methenitis, Spyridon K; Zaras, Nikolaos D; Spengos, Konstantinos M; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta E; Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Terzis, Gerasimos D


    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between muscle morphology and jumping, sprinting, and throwing performance in participants with different power training duration experience. Thirty-six power-trained young men were assigned to 3 groups according to the length of their power training: less experienced (performed countermovement and squat jumps, 60-m sprint, and shot throws twice. Lean body mass (LBM) was evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) with anthropometry. The vastus lateralis architecture and fiber type composition were evaluated with ultrasonography and muscle biopsies, respectively. When all subjects were considered as 1 group (n = 36), jumping performance was correlated with LBM, fascicle length, and type II fiber CSA; sprinting performance was correlated with estimated thigh muscle CSA alone; and shot throwing was correlated with LBM and type I, IIA fiber CSA. In the least experienced group, the LBM of the lower extremities was the most significant contributor for power performance, whereas in the moderately experienced group, the LBM, architectural properties, and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant contributors. For the experienced group, fascicle length and type II fiber percentage CSA were the most significant factors for power performance. These data suggest that jumping performance is linked with muscle morphology, regardless of strength or power training. The vastus lateralis muscle morphology could only partially explain throwing performance, whereas it cannot predict sprinting performance. Power performance in experienced participants rely more on the quality of the muscle tissue rather than the quantity.

  18. [Toxicological evaluation of nanosized colloidal silver, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, in 92-day experiment on rats. II. Internal organs morphology]. (United States)

    Zaytseva, N V; Zemlyanova, M A; Zvezdin, V N; Dovbysh, A A; Gmoshinsky, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Akafieva, T I


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the safe doses of commercially available nanosized colloidal silver (NCS), stabilized with polyvinilpirrolidone (PVP, food additive E1201) when administered in gastrointestinal tract of rats in the 92-day experiment in terms of the morphological changes in the internals of animals. The sample studied contained non-aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) of silver belonging to size fractions with a diameter of less than 5 nm, 10-20 nm or 50-80 nm. 80% of NPs were inside the range of hydrodynamic diameters 10.6-61.8 nm. The preparation of NCS was administered to growing male Wistar rats. (initial body weight 80 ± 10 g) for 1 month by intragastric gavage and then consumed with food at doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight based on silver. The control animals received water or vehicle of nanomaterial--water solution of PVP. After withdrawal of animals from the experiment by exsanguination under ether anesthesia organs (liver, spleen, kidney, ileum) were isolated and their slides were prepared by standard methods following 'by staining with hematoxylin-eosin. Analysis was performed in light optical microscope equipped with a digital camera at a magnification from 1 x 100 to 1 x 1000. It was shown that the experimental animals treated with the NCS developed series of morphological changes in the tissues of the internal organs (liver, spleen and kidney) with the elevation of the range and severity of structural changes with increasing doses of silver. The most sensitive target of NCS action was apparently liver, which has already shown at a dose of 0.1 mg of silver NP/kg of body weight marked eosinophilic infiltration of portal tracts, which was accompanied at doses of 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg by the emergence of medium and large-drop fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, swelling and lympho-macrophage. infiltration of the portal tracts. Detectable changes can be regarded as symptoms of inflammation of hepatocytes, at least, at a

  19. Pressure and temperature dependence of growth and morphology of Escherichia coli: Experiments and Stochastic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pradeep


    We have investigated the growth of Escherichia coli E.coli, a mesophilic bacterium, as a function of pressure $P$ and temperature $T$. E.coli can grow and divide in a wide range of pressure (1-400atm) and temperature ($23-40^{\\circ}$C). For $T>30^{\\circ}$ C, the division time of E.coli increases exponentially with pressure and exhibit a departure from exponential behavior at pressures between 250-400 atm for all the temperatures studied in our experiments. For $T<30^{\\circ}$ C, the division time shows an anomalous dependence on pressure -- first decreases with increasing pressure and then increases upon further increase of pressure. The sharp change in division time is followed by a sharp change in phenotypic transition of E. Coli at high pressures where bacterial cells switch to an elongating cell type. We propose a model that this phenotypic changes in bacteria at high pressures is an irreversible stochastic process whereas the switching probability to elongating cell type increases with increasing press...

  20. Is pollen morphology of Salix polaris affected by enhanced UV-B irradiation? Results from a field experiment in high arctic tundra.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; Blokker, P.; Boelen, P.; Rozema, J.


    This study tested the hypothesis that the thickness of the pollen wall will increase in response to enhanced UV-B irradiation, by examining the effect of enhanced UV-B irradiance on the pollen morphology of Salix polaris Wahlem. grown in a field experiment on the Arctic tundra of Svalbard.

  1. Is pollen morphology of Salix polaris affected by enhanced UV-B irradiation? Results from a field experiment in High Arctic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; Blokker, P.; Boelen, P.; Rozema, J.


    This study tested the hypothesis that the thickness of the pollen wall will increase in response to enhanced UV-B irradiation, by examining the effect of enhanced UV-B irradiance on the pollen morphology of Salix polaris Wahlem. grown in a field experiment on the Arctic tundra of Svalbard.

  2. Variations of mesoscale and large-scale sea ice morphology in the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment as observed by microwave remote sensing (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Gloersen, P.; Josberger, E. G.; Johannessen, O. M.; Guest, P. S.; Mognard, N.; Shuchman, R.; Burns, B. A.; Lannelongue, N.; Davidson, K. L.


    During the summer 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait and Greenland Sea (MIZEX '84), passive and active microwave sensors on five aircraft and the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) acquired synoptic sequential observations which when combined give a comprehensive sequential description of the mesoscale and large-scale ice morphology variations during the period June 9 through July 16, 1984. The high-resolution ice concentration distributions in these images agree well with the low-resolution SMMR distributions. For diffuse ice edges the 30% SMMR ice concentration isopleth corresponds to the ice edge, while for compact conditions the ice edge falls within the 40 to 50% SMMR isopleths. Throughout the experiment, ice edge meanders and eddies repeatedly formed, moved, and disappeared, but the ice edge remained within a 100-km-wide zone. The ice pack behind this alternately diffuse and compact edge underwent rapid and pronounced variations in ice concentration over a 200-km-wide zone. The aircraft microwave images show the complex structures and ephemeral nature of the mesoscale sea ice morphology. The difference in oceanographic forcing between the eastern and western sectors of the experiment area generated pronounced ice morphology differences. On the Yermak Plateau, from 3°E to 10°E, the weak ocean circulation allowed the wind to be the dominant force in determining the ice morphology. To the southwest of this region, over the Molloy Deep and the Greenland continental shelf break, from 3°E to 8°W, the ice morphology was dominated by the energetic East Greenland Current with its associated eddies and meanders.

  3. Pressurized groundwater systems in Lunae and Ophir Plana (Mars) : Insights from small-scale morphology and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Hauber, Ernst; de Jong, Steven M.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.


    Outflow channels on Mars reveal the past presence of water, possibly released from pressurized groundwater reservoirs. We aim to improve our understanding of such outflow systems in order to better constrain past hydrological conditions on Mars. We investigate the morphology of possible pressurized

  4. Analysis of morphology and residual porosity in selective laser melting of Fe powders using single track experiments (United States)

    Shutov, I. V.; Gordeev, G. A.; Kharanzhevskiy, E. V.; Krivilyov, M. D.


    Morphology and residual porosity of single tracks obtained by pulse selective laser melting (SLM) of Fe powder have been studied by metallography. Multiple cross sections of the stainless substrate with the single tracks deposited by SLM are examined and classified depending on processing parameters. A sustainable scanning strategy to reduce residual porosity is suggested for pulse laser annealing. The developed method is suitable both for improvement of processing regimes in commercial SLM machines and validation of numerical models in additive manufacturing of metal parts. The effect of the beam radius, pulse energy, its frequency and duration on a shape of the single track and its adhesion to the substrate is revealed.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of nano-sized colloidal silver in experiments on mice. behavioral reactions, morphology of internals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva


    Full Text Available The results of toxicity studies of nano-sized colloidal silver (NCC, the most widely used in medicine, food and life, are given. When evaluating safe doses of silver NP (using commercially available NCC solution stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, with the size of silver NP at the range of 5-80 nm when orally administered to male mice, BALB/c mice at doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight per silver different effects from the motor and orienting-exploratory activity were revealed, for the part of them the dependence on the dose of the NCC was typical. The following peculiarities were found: reduction in motor activity to reduce the frequency of activities requiring physical effort, reduction of the execution time of these actions; increasing anxiety in terms of frequency and duration of attacks of orienting-investigative activity and animals washing. Morphological examination revealed a series of tissue changes of internal organs (especially liver and spleen, to a lesser extent – kidney, heart and colon with increase of the spectrum and severity of structural changes with increasing doses of the NCC. From the combination of the data the conclusion was made that maximal ineffective dose (NOAEL of this nanomaterial at subacute oral administration is no more than 0.1 mg/kg body weight.

  6. Morphologically Complex Words in L1 and L2 Processing: Evidence from Masked Priming Experiments in English (United States)

    Silva, Renita; Clahsen, Harald


    This paper reports results from masked priming experiments investigating regular past-tense forms and deadjectival nominalizations with -ness and -ity in adult native (L1) speakers of English and in different groups of advanced adult second language (L2) learners of English. While the L1 group showed efficient priming for both inflected and…

  7. Quantifying Morphological Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Ay


    Full Text Available The field of embodied intelligence emphasises the importance of the morphology and environment with respect to the behaviour of a cognitive system. The contribution of the morphology to the behaviour, commonly known as morphological computation, is well-recognised in this community. We believe that the field would benefit from a formalisation of this concept as we would like to ask how much the morphology and the environment contribute to an embodied agent’s behaviour, or how an embodied agent can maximise the exploitation of its morphology within its environment. In this work we derive two concepts of measuring morphological computation, and we discuss their relation to the Information Bottleneck Method. The first concepts asks how much the world contributes to the overall behaviour and the second concept asks how much the agent’s action contributes to a behaviour. Various measures are derived from the concepts and validated in two experiments that highlight their strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Change in phenotypic plasticity of a morphological defence in Daphnia galeata (Crustacea: Cladocera in a selection experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi FUJII


    Full Text Available Some water fleas Daphnia change their head morphology to reduce predation risk in response to chemical substances (kairomones released from larvae of the invertebrate predator Chaoborus (Insecta: Diptera. We tested for evidence of the costs associated with elongation of the head spine in Daphnia galeata and the consequences of these costs on the inducibility of head spine elongation in predictable and unpredictable environments. We exposed D. galeata in outdoor experimental ponds to conditions under which predation pressure by Chaoborus larvae and the concentration of kairomones from this predator were controlled for about 70 days. In the laboratory, we then used Daphnia clones collected from the outdoor ponds to investigate the inducibility of head spine formation in response to Chaoborus kairomones. The inducibility of head spine formation increased in D. galeata from the ponds that had contained both predators and kairomones, whereas in water fleas from the ponds containing only kairomones the plasticity (inducibility of head spine formation decreased compared with that in the control ponds. These results suggest that the production of a defensive head spine, its phenotypic plasticity, or both entail some costs. Contrary to our predictions, exposure to Chaoborus kairomones in the laboratory resulted in head lengths that were not significantly different among any of the clones from the three outdoor treatments. We found no evidence for costs associated with head spine elongation in terms of fecundity, time to maturity, or intrinsic rate of natural population increase. Average within-clone partial correlations calculated for head length and intrinsic rate of natural population increase, corrected for body length, were not significantly negative, indicating no cost of defence. This was probably because food conditions in the laboratory were so good that the costs of defence could not be detected. Furthermore, community-level changes, such as

  9. Subtle changes in myelination due to childhood experiences: label-free microscopy to infer nerve fibers morphology and myelination in brain (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Gasecka, Alicja; Tanti, Arnaud; Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Mechawar, Naguib; Cote, Daniel C.


    Adverse childhood experiences have lasting detrimental effects on mental health and are strongly associated with impaired cognition and increased risk of developing psychopathologies. Preclinical and neuroimaging studies have suggested that traumatic events during brain development can affect cerebral myelination particularly in areas and tracts implicated in mood and emotion. Although current neuroimaging techniques are quite powerful, they lack the resolution to infer myelin integrity at the cellular level. Recently demonstrated coherent Raman microscopy has accomplished cellular level imaging of myelin sheaths in the nervous system. However, a quantitative morphometric analysis of nerve fibers still remains a challenge. In particular, in brain, where fibres exhibit small diameters and varying local orientation. In this work, we developed an automated myelin identification and analysis method that is capable of providing a complete picture of axonal myelination and morphology in brain samples. This method performs three main procedures 1) detects molecular anisotropy of membrane phospholipids based on polarization resolved coherent Raman microscopy, 2) identifies regions of different molecular organization, 3) calculates morphometric features of myelinated axons (e.g. myelin thickness, g-ratio). We applied this method to monitor white matter areas from suicides adults that suffered from early live adversity and depression compared to depressed suicides adults and psychiatrically healthy controls. We demonstrate that our method allows for the rapid acquisition and automated analysis of neuronal networks morphology and myelination. This is especially useful for clinical and comparative studies, and may greatly enhance the understanding of processes underlying the neurobiological and psychopathological consequences of child abuse.

  10. Efficacy of two Measures of Relative Sea Level in Predicting Stratal Geometry and Surface Morphology in an Experiment with Varying Base Level (United States)

    Strong, N.; Sheets, B. A.; Wonsuck, K.; Kelberer, M.; Paola, C.


    Using experimental data, we compare two methods of measuring relative sea level as predictors of stratal and surface morphology. The first method is the "local" relative sea level (LRSL), defined as the sum of rate of eustatic sea level change and local subsidence rate. The second is the shoreline-following RSL (SFRSL), which is the local RSL evaluated at the shoreline as the shoreline moves across the depositional surface. The two methods are compared using data from an experiment conducted in the eXperimental EarthScape (XES) facility at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. The experiment was designed to investigate morphodynamic and stratigraphic response to both isolated and superimposed slow and rapid base-level cycles, in a fluvial deltaic system. The experimental system was subject to steady, nonuniform passive-margin style subsidence and constant rates of sediment and water supply. The experimental conditions were ideal for evaluating and comparing these two measures of relative sea level. We find that the LRSL variation does a good job predicting overall stratal preservation of sea level cycles as a function of downstream position in the basin: preserved cycle thickness is predicted well using the relative vertical distances between successive diminishing minima in the LRSL curve at each position. On the other hand, the SFRSL correlates well to the temporal history of incised valley initiation and development.

  11. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion

  12. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent


    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  13. Morphological demosaicking (United States)

    Quan, Shuxue


    Bayer patterns, in which a single value of red, green or blue is available for each pixel, are widely used in digital color cameras. The reconstruction of the full color image is often referred to as demosaicking. This paper introduced a new approach - morphological demosaicking. The approach is based on strong edge directionality selection and interpolation, followed by morphological operations to refine edge directionality selection and reduce color aliasing. Finally performance evaluation and examples of color artifacts reduction are shown.

  14. The relationships between morphological features and social signalling behaviours in juvenile dogs: the effect of early experience with dogs of different morphotypes. (United States)

    Kerswell, Keven J; Butler, Kym L; Bennett, Pauleen; Hemsworth, Paul H


    Research on dog communication has tended to focus on breed differences and the use of lupine signals by the domestic dog. However, the relationship between morphological change and communication has received little empirical study. The link between morphology and behavioural selection in a canid undergoing domestication, the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), has been well documented. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose a similar link may be present in another canid species that has undergone domestication, namely the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Inter-morphotype interactions (587 interactions) of 115 juvenile dogs aged 8-20 weeks from over 30 breeds and various hybrids, enrolled in veterinary "Puppy Socialisation Classes", were video taped. Each signal that could be sent, was recorded, and the sending and the intended receiving dog identified. The frequencies with which a dog sent each category of signal, and the frequency with which each category of signal was directed at the dog (elicited), were calculated. The relationship between these frequencies and the morphology of the dog was then studied using generalized linear models. Overall morphology of the dog was not related to either the sending or eliciting of any social signaling behaviours (social signals). However, snout length was related to both the signals sent by a dog, and especially the signals that were directed to a dog (elicited). Relationships to eye cover and coat length were also found. Possible explanations for the results are discussed, and avenues for further research are indicated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiment K-6-02. Biomedical, biochemical and morphological alterations of muscle and dense, fibrous connective tissues during 14 days of spaceflight (United States)

    Vailas, A.; Zernicke, R.; Grindeland, R.; Kaplanski, A.


    Findings on the connective tissue response to short-term space flight (12 days) are discussed. Specifically, data regarding the biochemical, biomechanical and morphological characteristics of selected connective tissues (humerus, vertebral body, tendon and skeletal muscle) of growing rats is given. Results are given concerning the humerus cortical bone, the vertebral bone, nutritional effects on bone biomechanical properties, and soft tense fiber connective tissue response.

  16. Understanding the size selectivity in diamond mesh codends based on flume tank experiments and fish morphology: effect of catch size and fish escape behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Junita Diana; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent


    (Gadus morhua) and Nephrops (N. norvegicus) to simulate potential size selection. By assuming certain patterns of fish escape behaviour in the codend, it was demonstrated that it was possible to replicate results for size selection based on sea trials with similar codends. Results show that L50 can......This study quantifies potential size selection of a fish and a crustacean species in di-amond mesh codends during a fishing process. Changes in mesh geometry along the codends and at different catch weights were recorded in a flume tank and subse-quently used together with the morphology of cod...

  17. [The first experience in Russia of using DNA diagnosis in Alport's syndrome in a family with a unique morphological picture of the kidney lesion]. (United States)

    Tsalikova, F D; Ignatova, M S; Krasnopol'skaia, K D; Tverskaia, S M; Brydun, A V


    Clinicomorphological findings are reported for two children from families with hereditary predisposition to hematuria characterized by early occurrence of chronic renal insufficiency, neurosensory hypoacusis, congenital ocular abnormalities inherited by sex-linked dominant type. Light microscopy of nephrobiopsies revealed diffuse mesangial proliferation in both children. Final diagnosis of Alport's syndrome was feasible only on molecular-genetic level after polymerase chain reactions had identified mutation in collagen type 4 alpha-5-chain gene on a long arm of X-chromosome in genotypes of both patients and their mothers. Genetical, clinical, morphological, evolutional and diagnostic aspects of Alport's syndrome are reviewed.

  18. Lessons from a “Failed” Experiment: Zinc Silicates with Complex Morphology by Reaction of Zinc Acetate, the Ionic Liquid Precursor (ILP Tetrabutylammonium Hydroxide (TBAH, and Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert


    Full Text Available At elevated temperatures, the ionic liquid precursor (ILP tetrabutylammonium hydroxide reacts with zinc acetate and the glass wall of the reaction vessel. While the reaction of OH- with the glass wall is not surprising as such and could be considered a failed experiment, the resulting materials are interesting for a variety of applications. If done on purpose and under controlled conditions, the reaction with the glass wall results in uniform, well-defined hemimorphite Zn4Si2O7(OH2·nH2O and willemite Zn2SiO4 microcrystals and films. Their morphology can be adjusted by variation of the reaction time and reaction temperature. The hemimorphite can be transformed to Zn2SiO4 via calcination. The process is therefore a viable approach for the fabrication of porous films on glass surfaces with potential applications as catalyst support, among others.

  19. Morphological control and polarization switching in polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The precise control of the liquid crystal droplet morphology in the polymer matrix is essentially required to meet the prerequisites of display device. Experiments have been carried out to investigate and identify the material properties and processing conditions required for the precise control of the droplet morphology of the ...

  20. Gross morphology betrays phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Fregin, Silke


    .). Superficial morphological similarity to cisticolid warblers has previously clouded the species true relationship. Detailed morphology, such as facial bristles and claw and footpad structure, also supports a closer relationship to Cettiidae and some other non-cisticolid warblers....

  1. [Neotropical plant morphology]. (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto


    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  2. Computing Prosodic Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraz, G A


    This paper establishes a framework under which various aspects of prosodic morphology, such as templatic morphology and infixation, can be handled under two-level theory using an implemented multi-tape two-level model. The paper provides a new computational analysis of root-and-pattern morphology based on prosody.

  3. Therapeutic Hypothermia Following Traumatic Spinal Injury Morphological and Functional Correlates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yezierski, Robert P


    The primary objective of experiments carried out during the third year focused on determining the behavioral and morphological effects of systemic hyperthermia following moderate spinal cord injury...

  4. Crystallization Experiments in the MgO-CO2-H2O system: Role of Amorphous Magnesium Carbonate Precursors in Magnesium Carbonate Hydrated Phases and Morphologies in Low Temperature Hydrothermal Fluids (United States)

    Giampouras, Manolis; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Garrido, Carlos J.


    critical role of internal molecule re-organization to form crystalline structures. Aggregation of AMC spherulites triggers biomimetic morphologies forming curling laminar structures and rings. The size and number of nesquehonite (MgCO3.3H2O) crystals are controlled by pH and Mg2+ ions at pH < 9. As pH increases, nesquehonite transforms to spherical, rosette-like dypingite and/or hydromagnesite. Crystallization experiments within silica gel impedes the normal growth of prismatic nesquehonite crystals and generates peculiar dendritic crystalline structures. Finally, vapor diffusion techniques resulted in synthesis of NH4+-bearing hydrated compounds after ammonium incorporation when [NH4+]/[Mg2+] ≥ 1 and ≥ 0.5M [NH4+]. Funding: We acknowledge funding from the People programme (Marie Curie Actions - ITN) of the European Union FP7 under REA Grant Agreement n˚ 608001.

  5. Scaling laws for coastal overwash morphology (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.


    Overwash is a physical process of coastal sediment transport driven by storm events and is essential to landscape resilience in low-lying barrier environments. This work establishes a comprehensive set of scaling laws for overwash morphology: unifying quantitative descriptions with which to compare overwash features by their morphological attributes across case examples. Such scaling laws also help relate overwash features to other morphodynamic phenomena. Here morphometric data from a physical experiment are compared with data from natural examples of overwash features. The resulting scaling relationships indicate scale invariance spanning several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, these new relationships for overwash morphology align with classic scaling laws for fluvial drainages and alluvial fans.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION. Rudolf P. Botha. Introduction ... The morphological representation assigned to a complex word must provide the formal structure required ..... It has been argued in the literature that "markedness" claims such as. (16)(a) and (b) are unacceptable ...

  7. Generalized Morphology using Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.


    Mathematical morphology has traditionally been grounded in lattice theory. For non-scalar data lattices often prove too restrictive, however. In this paper we present a more general alternative, sponges, that still allows useful definitions of various properties and concepts from morphological

  8. Morphological image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, H; Kawakatsu, T; Landau, DP; Lewis, SP; Schuttler, HB


    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer

  9. Neutrosophic Crisp Mathematical Morphology


    EMAN.M.EL-NAKEEB; Hewayda ElGhawalby; A. A. Salama; S.A.EL-Hafeez


    In this paper, we aim to apply the concepts of the neutrosophic crisp sets and its operations to the classical mathematical morphological operations, introducing what we call "Neutrosophic Crisp Mathematical Morphology". Several operators are to be developed, including the neutrosophic crisp dilation, the neutrosophic crisp erosion, the neutrosophic crisp opening and the neutrosophic crisp closing.

  10. Morphological image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Kawakatsu, T.


    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer

  11. Morphological image analysis


    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Kawakatsu, T.


    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer chemistry.

  12. Channel morphology [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary


    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 31, 2014 ... surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous ... semiconductor offer much stronger absorption coefficient; therefore, the ... measured in two geometries: The first one by measuring the photo-resistance of PS ...

  14. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  15. Morphological sensitivity in deaf readers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, A.H. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Schreuder, R.; Knoors, H.E.T.


    Deaf children experience difficulties with reading comprehension. These difficulties are not completely explained by their difficulties with the reading of single short words. Whether deaf children and adults lag behind in the morphological processing of longer words is therefore examined in two

  16. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch (United States)

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.


    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  17. Morphological characterisation of two endemic species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was laid out as randomized complete block design with three replications and five treatments per block. The collections were characterized for morphological diversity complimenting with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster characters using the XLSTAT statistical software. The results showed no ...

  18. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; Eerd, A.R.T. van; Meekes, H.L.M.


    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 31, 2014 ... Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustanseriyah University, Iraq. Received: 18 May 2014 / Accepted: 18 ... surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous silicon by optical microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction. The metal–semiconductor–metal.

  20. Evolution of morphological allometry


    Pelabon, Christophe; Firmat, Cyril Joel Patrick; Bolstad, Geir Hysing; Voje, Kjetil L.; Houle, David; Cassara, Jason; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Hansen, Thomas F


    Morphological allometry refers to patterns of covariance between body parts resulting from variation in body size. Whether measured during growth (ontogenetic allometry), among individuals at similar developmental stage (static allometry), or among populations or species (evolutionary allometry), allometric relationships are often tight and relatively invariant. Consequently, it has been suggested that allometries have low evolvability and could constrain phenotypic evolution by forcing evolv...

  1. Dissociations in Processing Derivational Morphology: The Right Basal Ganglia Involvement (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Piras, Fabrizio


    In the neuropsychological literature, there is converging evidence for a dominant role of the left hemisphere in morphological processing. However, two right hemisphere patients were described with a clear dissociation between impaired derivational morphology and preserved inflectional processing. A recent fMRI experiment confirmed the involvement…

  2. Morphological Analysis in Learning to Read Pseudowords in Hebrew (United States)

    Bar-On, Amalia; Ravid, Dorit


    This paper examines the role of morphology in gradeschool children's learning to read nonpointed Hebrew. It presents two experiments testing the reading of morphologically based nonpointed pseudowords. One hundred seventy-one Hebrew-speaking children and adolescents in seven age/schooling groups (beginning and end of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 7th, and 11th…

  3. Morphology and Spelling in Arabic: Development and Interface (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor


    In the current study, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the development of derivational root and word-pattern morphological awareness in Arabic; the second tested morphological processing in Arabic spelling. 143 Arabic native speaking children with normal reading skills in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade participated in the study. The…

  4. Judgment of functional morphology in agrammatic aphasia. (United States)

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Milman, Lisa H; Thompson, Cynthia K


    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia show deficits in production of functional morphemes like complementizers (e.g., that and if) and tense and agreement markers (e.g., -ed and -s), with complementizers often being more impaired than verbal morphology. However, there has been comparatively little work examining patients' ability to comprehend or judge the grammaticality of these morphemes. This paper investigates comprehension of complementizers and verb inflections in two timed grammaticality-judgment experiments. In Experiment 1, participants with agrammatic Broca's aphasia and grammatical-morphology production deficits (n=10) and unimpaired controls (n=10) heard complement clause sentences, subject relative clause sentences, and conjoined sentences. In Experiment 2, the same participants heard sentences with finite auxiliaries, sentences with finite main verbs, and sentences with uninflected verbs. Results showed above-chance accuracy in aphasic participants' judgments for complementizer sentences in Experiment 1, but chance performance for verb inflections in Experiment 2. This pattern held regardless of whether the verb inflections were affixes or free-standing auxiliaries. Implications of these results for theories of agrammatic morphological impairments, including feature underspecification accounts (Wenzlaff & Clahsen, 2004; Burchert, Swoboda-Moll & DeBleser, 2005a) and hierarchical structure-based accounts (Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997; Izvorski & Ullman, 1999), are discussed.

  5. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  6. Morphology of leukaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ladines-Castro


    Full Text Available Acute leukaemias are characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of immature blood cells with lymphoid or myeloid lineage. Morphological classification is based on the identification of the leukaemia cell line and its stage of differentiation. The first microscopic descriptions dating from the 1930s pointed to 2 different types of leukaemia cells: lymphoid and myeloid. In 1976, the consensus that led to the French-American-British (FAB classification was achieved. This includes criteria for identifying myeloid and lymphoid leukaemias, and gives a list of morphological subtypes, describing how these affect the patient's prognosis. Today, despite new classifications based on sophisticated studies, FAB classification is widely used by experts due to its technical simplicity, good diagnostic reliability and cost-effectiveness.

  7. New grayscale morphological operators on hypergraph (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Liang, Gangming; Zheng, Yahui; Wu, Yao


    New grayscale morphological operators on hypergraph are proposed to avoid the loss of details caused by fixed structure element effectively. Hypergraph, the most general structure in discrete mathematics, is also a subset of a finite set. Being a structured representation of information, the ordinary image can be transformed into a hypergraph model, which can integrate hypergraph theory with mathematical morphology theory. Because hypergraphs have good performance in structuring information, first of all, this paper designs a reasonable method of turning grayscale images into hypergraph space. Then based on hypergraph theory, new grayscale morphological operators on hypergraph are defined. Experiments show that using the new operators can avoid the loss of image detail information, and improve the precision of image processing.

  8. Morphological mutants of garlic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, A.D.; Dnyansagar, V.R. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)


    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order.

  9. [Morphological identification of blastocystis]. (United States)

    Prodeus, T V; Fedianina, L V; Frolova, A A


    The authors have attempted to systematize the currently known specific morphological features of the composition of Blastocystis spp. existing in different forms and to present this material as a reference table, by understanding the need for further data clarification. In addition, the paper describes observations of variations in the forms of human blastocysts. In particular, it depicts the species of multinucleated cysts, the identification of which may cause difficulties in diagnosing and differentiating these forms with some representative species of the genus Entamoeba.

  10. Morphology targets: What do seedling morphological attributes tell us? (United States)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto


    Morphology is classically defined as the form and structure of individual organisms, as distinct from their anatomy or physiology. We use morphological targets in the nursery because they are easy to measure, and because we can often quantitatively link seedling morphological traits with survival and growth performance in the field. In the 20 years since the Target...

  11. Using a Morphological Analyzer to Teach Theoretical Morphology. (United States)

    Klavans, Judith L.; Chodorow, Martin S.


    Discusses the use of an instructional morphological parser (IMP) in the teaching of courses in theoretical and computational morphology. Provides an overview of computational morphology. Outlines the two courses and speculates on computational and linguistic concepts that students learned. Examines problems encountered in teaching about recursion.…

  12. Lenient morphological analysis


    Oflazer, Kemal


    This paper presents a scheme that allows one to relax the all-or-none nature of twolevel constraints in two-level morphology in a controlled manner, so that word forms with violations of some of the two-level constraints can be analyzed and ranked. The problem has been motivated by a recent phenomenon in Turkish with imported words that violate a fundamental assumption of Turkish that pronunciation and orthography have almost a one-to-one correspondence, and by a problem in Basque words with ...

  13. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies


    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan


    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  14. [Morphologic aspects of angle grinder injury]. (United States)

    Thurner, W; Pollak, S


    Experiments were conducted on soft-tissue and bone preparations to determine the morphological characteristics of angle grinder injuries. The grinding effect of the rotating cutting-off wheel causes severances with local loss of tissue, resulting in tool-specific wound features. Superficial skin notches and (incomplete) severances of bony structures are of particular significance. Mutual trace transfer is a valuable means for determining the tool used and for interpreting the scene.

  15. Analysis of tracheostoma morphology. (United States)

    Leemans, Maartje; van Alphen, Maarten J A; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Hekman, Edsko E G


    Existing fixation methods of automatic speaking valves (ASVs) suffer from shortcomings which partly are the result of insufficient conformity of the intratracheal fixation method's shape to the tracheostoma anatomy. However, quantitative data are lacking and will be helpful to analyse solutions for airtight fixation. This article provides such data. The tracheostoma morphology was measured in computerized tomography scans of 20 laryngectomized patients. Measured were transverse and sagittal diameters, transition angle between skin level and tracheostoma lumen and between the tracheostoma lumen to the trachea, TE valve placement and stoma depth. The mean transverse and sagittal diameters of the stoma at the peristomal lip are 19.2 mm [standard deviation (SD 5.2 mm)] and 17.6 mm (SD 5.3 mm), respectively. The mean transition angles are 84.5° (SD 15.6°) at skin level and 153.6° (SD 11.7°) into the trachea. The mean distance between TE valve and peristomal lip is 13.5 mm (SD 7.0 mm). The mean stoma depth is 14.0 mm (SD 6.4 mm). Due to the large variation, no 'average tracheostoma morphology', suitable for shaping a generic intratracheal fixation device, can be defined. Therefore, providing an airtight fixation in each patient would require a large range of different sizes, customization or a new approach.

  16. Coral morphology and sedimentation. (United States)

    Duckworth, Alan; Giofre, Natalie; Jones, Ross


    The sediment rejection ability of 8 coral species of 5 families and 3 morphologies were assessed in a series of short term exposure tests over a sedimentation range of 0.5-40mgcm(-2)d(-1) and one longer term exposure test of 235mgcm(-2). Sediment accumulation rates on live corals and dead (enamel-covered) skeletons varied between morphologies, with branching species often more adept at self-cleaning. Flow rates (0-17cms(-1)) significantly affected sediment-shedding ability as did differences in particle sizes, with coarse silt rejected faster than fine silt, but only at very high (235mgcm(-2)) deposition rates. Siliciclastic sediment was rejected faster than carbonate sediments and smothering for many days by mms of low organic content carbonate sediment resulted in bleaching, but no mortality. The findings are discussed with respect to turbidity generated in natural and dredging-related resuspension events and in the context for impact prediction for dredging projects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Morphological Analysis for Statistical Machine Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Young-Suk


    We present a novel morphological analysis technique which induces a morphological and syntactic symmetry between two languages with highly asymmetrical morphological structures to improve statistical...

  18. [On the methodology of morphology and levels of morphologic analysis]. (United States)

    Vorontsov, N N


    Unjustified narrowing of the problems of morphology by merging the terms "morphology" and "anatomy" leads to stagnation in morphology. The merging of "classic" and "modern" biology will enrich both morphology and molecular biology and genetics. The latter will be able apply conceptual models of morphology to more primitive structural level of life. The possibility to apply V. A. Dogel' 's ideas on the role of oligomerization and polymerization in science to the analysis of molecular evolution has been demonstrated with the analysis of DNA content in the genomes of Chordata taken as an example. The data on DNA content do not allow both to consider lungfishes as ancestors of all Tetrapoda and develop monophyletic concept of Tetrapoda origin at the same time. The possibility of application of concepts of comparative morphology to analysis of molecular evolution has been considered.

  19. Early Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition: Dissociating Morphology, Form, and Meaning (United States)

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi


    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic…

  20. Experimental Trichomonas infection: Morphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Shumkova


    Full Text Available Background. Growth tendency the asymptomatic forms of an urogenital trichomoniasis, frequency of complications from reproductive organs, uncertainty of many aspects of the violations of a spermatogenesis influencing reproductive function all this proves need of search of the urogenital trichomoniasis adequate experimental model. Lack of the corresponding experimental model is limited by our opportunities for carrying out the standardized, controlled researches on studying of transmission, pathogenesis, the immune answer, therapy and development of vaccines at a triсhomonas infection.Objective is studying action of Trichomonas vaginalis on a spermatogenny epithelium the mature of individuals of guinea pigs in the conditions of sharp and chronic experience.Materials and methods. Experiments are made on the “Reproductive System (Guinea Pigs + Trichomonas vaginalis” modeling the natural course of an infection. In experiment 2 groups of animals: 1st (n = 8 – experimental, 2nd (n = 8 – control were formed. Against the background of the reduction of the immune status (hydrocortisone 125 mg/kg intramuscularly 1 time in day during 2 days the animals of the 1st group were injected intraurethral suspension containing 1 × 106 Trichomonas on 0.5 ml of culture medium, the animals of the 2nd group – 0.5 ml of medium. Under the condition of the acute experiment the animals were sacrificed on day 9 (the middle of the cycle of spermatogenesis – I experienced group and on day 30 (full spermatogenic cycle – II experimental group. The control animals were slaughtered in the same period. The material for histological study was prepared by the traditional way.Results. In an experimental model of “Reproductive system (guinea pigs + T. vaginalis”, staging and degree of disturbance of spermatogenesis, depending on the duration of trichomonas infection were shown. So, in acute experience morphological changes correspond to changes in the

  1. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin


    in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations......, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented......, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability of the model concept....

  2. Crinoid Ecological Morphology (United States)

    Baumiller, Tomasz K.


    Recent studies of crinoids reveal that their connective tissue, known to be mutable, is also contractile, and that certain stalked taxa are capable of crawling and subject to predation by cidaroid sea urchin. Aspects of crinoid functional morphology, ecology, and paleobiology are reviewed in the context of these findings. Mutability and contractility of ligament are important to autotomy, posture maintenance, and motility, and those, in turn, are shown to play a role in how crinoids acquire nutrients, select habitats and respond to predation pressure. A review of predation on crinoids supports the view that it is ecologically significant. Motility, a trait critical for handling predation pressure by stalkless crinoids, is shown to play an analogous role in stalked crinoids. The distribution of traits required for motility among extant and fossil crinoids reveals that their frequency increased dramatically following the Permo-Triassic extinction, with low values characterizing the Paleozoic and high values characterizing the post-Paleozoic.

  3. Glucagon Amyloid-like Fibril Morphology Is Selected via Morphology-Dependent Growth Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.B.; Otzen, D.; Christiansen, Gunna


    twisted fibril seeds cannot grow at high concentrations. We conclude that there exists a morphology-dependent mechanism for inhibition of glucagon fibril growth. Light scattering experiments indicate that glucagon is mainly monomeric below 1 mg/mL and increasingly trimeric above this concentration. We......, University of Aarhus, Wilhelm Meyers Alle, DK-8000 Arhus C, Denmark. The 29-residue peptide hormone glucagon readily fibrillates at low pH, but the structure and morphology of the fibrils are very sensitive to the environmental conditions. Here we have investigated the mechanism behind the differences...... in morphology observed when glucagon fibrils are formed at different peptide concentrations. Electron microscopy shows that fibrils formed at low glucagon concentration (0.25 mg/mL) are twisted, while fibrils formed at high concentration (8 mg/mL) are straight. Monitoring the fibrillation kinetics at different...

  4. Morphological characters and ascorbic acid content of an elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture stress can be deleterious to physicochemical properties of crop species to a varying degree. The influence of moisture stress on the ascorbic acid content in the leaf and morphological characters of an elite genotype of Corchorus olitorius were tested in a glasshouse experiment. The experiment was arranged in a ...

  5. On the Morphology of Icicles (United States)

    Chen, A.; Morris, S. W.


    Icicles form when cool water drips from an overhanging support into air whose temperature is below freezing, and they grow when latent heat is transferred into the surrounding air via a thin film of water flowing down their surface. Predicting the emergent shape of an icicle is a non-trivial free-boundary growth problem. Recent theory suggests that icicle shapes are self-similar and related to those of stalactites [1]. The ice-water interface can also become unstable to form rippling patterns on the surface of icicles [2]. We conducted controlled icicle experiments using a table-top icicle-growing machine, and we made movies of the evolving morphology of icicles. We use edge detection to analyze the evolution of the icicle shape and the rippling instability, and we investigate their dependence on ambient temperature, water supply rate, and supercooling. Under certain conditions, time-averaged profiles of lab-grown icicles are in excellent agreement with the self-similarity theory. However, non-uniformities such as tip splitting can sometimes occur, causing the icicle shape to deviate significantly from the theory. Our experiments also show the ripples climb the icicle during growth, in qualitative agreement with linear stability theory. [1] M. B. Short, J. C. Baygents, and R. E. Goldstein, “A free-boundary theory for the shape of the ideal dripping icicle,” Phys. Fluids 18, 083101 (2006). [2] K. Ueno, “Pattern formation in crystal growth under parabolic shear flow. II,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 051604 (2004).

  6. Functional equivalence of morphologies enables morphological and ecological diversity. (United States)

    Young, Rebecca L; Haselkorn, Tamara S; Badyaev, Alexander V


    Diversity in organismal forms among taxa is thought to reflect distinct selection pressures across environments. The central assumption underlying this expectation is that taxa experiencing similar selection have similar response to that selection. However, because selection acts on trait function, taxa similarity in selection response depends crucially on the relationship between function and morphology. Further, when a trait consists of multiple parts, changes in function in response to selection can result from modification of different parts, and adaptation to the same environment might result in functional but not morphological similarity. Here, we address the extent to which functional and morphological diversity in masticatory apparatus of soricid shrews reflects a shared ecological characteristic of their diet type. We examine the factors limiting morphological variation across shrew species by assessing the relative contribution of trait function (biomechanics of the jaw), ecology, and phylogeny to species similarity in mandibular traits. We found that species that shared diet type were functionally but not morphologically similar. The presence of multiple semi-independently varying traits enabled functional equivalence of composite foraging morphologies and resulted in variable response to selection exerted by similar diet. We show that functional equivalence of multiple morphologies enabled persistence of differences in habitat use (e.g., habitat moisture and coverage) among species that specialize on the same diet. We discuss the importance of developmental and functional integration among traits for evolutionary diversification of morphological structures that generate equivalent functions.

  7. [Morphological classification of glioblastomas]. (United States)

    Figarella-Branger, D; Bouvier, C; Moroch, J; Michalak, S; F Burel-Vandenbos


    In the 2007 WHO classification, glioblastomas are classified among the group of astrocytic tumors. They are highly malignant (grade IV). This group of tumors is morphologically heterogeneous. The WHO distinguishes between clinico-pathological entities, variants of entities and histological pattern. Variants are defined as being reliably indentified histologically and having some relevance for clinical outcome but as still being part of a previously defined overarching entity. Patterns of differentiation are identifiable by histological appearances but without clinical or pathological significance. The description of the histological and immunohistochemical features is based on the 2007 WHO classification. In addition to the classic form of glioblastoma, two variants exist: the giant cell GBM and the gliosarcoma. The first but not the second would have a better outcome than the classic glioblastoma. The WHO classification also distinguishes several patterns of differentiation: small cells glioblastoma; glioblastoma with lipidized cells; glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component; glioblastoma with heterologous differentiation. These patterns have to be recognized because they represent sometimes a diagnostic challenge. GFAP, Olig2 and Mib1/Ki67 are the most relevant immunohistochemical markers. Diagnostic value of neuronal markers is still controversial. EGFR or p53 expression can be detected and their prognosis value is discussed in this chapter. A systematic analysis of some markers in routine, for example IDH1 or internexin-a, could help to define more homogeneous groups of patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of morphological allometry. (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Firmat, Cyril; Bolstad, Geir H; Voje, Kjetil L; Houle, David; Cassara, Jason; Rouzic, Arnaud Le; Hansen, Thomas F


    Morphological allometry refers to patterns of covariance between body parts resulting from variation in body size. Whether measured during growth (ontogenetic allometry), among individuals at similar developmental stage (static allometry), or among populations or species (evolutionary allometry), allometric relationships are often tight and relatively invariant. Consequently, it has been suggested that allometries have low evolvability and could constrain phenotypic evolution by forcing evolving species along fixed trajectories. Alternatively, allometric relationships may result from natural selection for functional optimization. Despite nearly a century of active research, distinguishing between these alternatives remains difficult, partly due to wide differences in the meaning assigned to the term allometry. In particular, a broad use of the term, encompassing any monotonic relationship between body parts, has become common. This usage breaks the connection to the proportional growth regulation that motivated Huxley's original narrow-sense use of allometry to refer to power-law relationships between traits. Focusing on the narrow-sense definition of allometry, we review here evidence for and against the allometry-as-a-constraint hypothesis. Although the low evolvability and the evolutionary invariance of the static allometric slope observed in some studies suggest a possible constraining effect of this parameter on phenotypic evolution, the lack of knowledge about selection on allometry prevents firm conclusions. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Generic model of morphological changes in growing colonies of fungi (United States)

    López, Juan M.; Jensen, Henrik J.


    Fungal colonies are able to exhibit different morphologies depending on the environmental conditions. This allows them to cope with and adapt to external changes. When grown in solid or semisolid media the bulk of the colony is compact and several morphological transitions have been reported to occur as the external conditions are varied. Here we show how a unified simple mathematical model, which includes the effect of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, can account for the morphological changes observed. Our numerical results are in excellent agreement with experiments carried out with the fungus Aspergillus oryzae on solid agar.

  10. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition. (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P


    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions.

  11. Differential morphology and image processing. (United States)

    Maragos, P


    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

  12. Bio-Liquid Morphological Analysis


    S. N. Shatokhina; Shabalin, V.N.; Buzoverya, M.E.; V.T. Punin


    Information is presented on the new scientific line in medicine and biology: bio-liquid morphology. The interdisciplinary character of the given research area is emphasized. The problems and prospects of bio-liquid morphological analysis development both in applied and fundamental aspects are discussed.

  13. Sample size for morphological traits of pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Facco


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size (i.e., number of plants required to accurately estimate the average of morphological traits of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. and to check for variability in sample size between evaluation periods and seasons. Two uniformity trials (i.e., experiments without treatment were conducted for two growing seasons. In the first season (2011/2012, the seeds were sown by broadcast seeding, and in the second season (2012/2013, the seeds were sown in rows spaced 0.50 m apart. The ground area in each experiment was 1,848 m2, and 360 plants were marked in the central area, in a 2 m × 2 m grid. Three morphological traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter were evaluated 13 times during the first season and 22 times in the second season. Measurements for all three morphological traits were normally distributed and confirmed through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Randomness was confirmed using the Run Test, and the descriptive statistics were calculated. For each trait, the sample size (n was calculated for the semiamplitudes of the confidence interval (i.e., estimation error equal to 2, 4, 6, ..., 20% of the estimated mean with a confidence coefficient (1-? of 95%. Subsequently, n was fixed at 360 plants, and the estimation error of the estimated percentage of the average for each trait was calculated. Variability of the sample size for the pigeonpea culture was observed between the morphological traits evaluated, among the evaluation periods and between seasons. Therefore, to assess with an accuracy of 6% of the estimated average, at least 136 plants must be evaluated throughout the pigeonpea crop cycle to determine the sample size for the traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter in the different evaluation periods and between seasons. 

  14. Modeling and characterization of wavefront morphologies of laser induced damages on dielectric coating (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Liu, Zhichao; Luo, Jin; Pan, Feng; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao


    The specific morphologies of laser induced damages on dielectric coating can cause wavefront modulations and influence the downstream propagation properties of transmitted beam, which is so called wavefront morphologies. In this paper, the modeling and characterization of these wavefront morphologies are carried out. In theory, the modulation effects of different morphologies are discussed and their influence on downstream beam propagation properties are simulated based on diffraction integral. In experiment, a pump-and-probe system is developed to characterize different wavefront morphologies, and in correspondence, their geometric morphologies are characterized by microscopic instruments. The simulation and experiment match well with each other, and the geometric characterization explains the origins of wavefront properties of different morphologies.

  15. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of resident,...

  16. Morphology of methane hydrate host sediments (United States)

    Jones, K.W.; Feng, H.; Tomov, S.; Winters, W.J.; Eaton, M.; Mahajan, D.


    The morphological features including porosity and grains of methane hydrate host sediments were investigated using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) technique. The sediment sample was obtained during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 164 on the Blake Ridge at water depth of 2278.5 m. The CMT experiment was performed at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source facility. The analysis gave ample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity. The method was found to be highly effective for the study of methane hydrate host sediments.

  17. Morphological component analysis: an adaptive thresholding strategy. (United States)

    Bobin, Jérôme; Starck, Jean-Luc; Fadili, Jalal M; Moudden, Yassir; Donoho, David L


    In a recent paper, a method called morphological component analysis (MCA) has been proposed to separate the texture from the natural part in images. MCA relies on an iterative thresholding algorithm, using a threshold which decreases linearly towards zero along the iterations. This paper shows how the MCA convergence can be drastically improved using the mutual incoherence of the dictionaries associated to the different components. This modified MCA algorithm is then compared to basis pursuit, and experiments show that MCA and BP solutions are similar in terms of sparsity, as measured by the l1 norm, but MCA is much faster and gives us the possibility of handling large scale data sets.

  18. Morphological Evolution of Block Copolymer Particles: Effect of Solvent Evaporation Rate on Particle Shape and Morphology. (United States)

    Shin, Jae Man; Kim, YongJoo; Yun, Hongseok; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Bumjoon J


    Shape and morphology of polymeric particles are of great importance in controlling their optical properties or self-assembly into unusual superstructures. Confinement of block copolymers (BCPs) in evaporative emulsions affords particles with diverse structures, including prolate ellipsoids, onion-like spheres, oblate ellipsoids, and others. Herein, we report that the evaporation rate of solvent from emulsions encapsulating symmetric polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) determines the shape and internal nanostructure of micron-sized BCP particles. A distinct morphological transition from the ellipsoids with striped lamellae to the onion-like spheres was observed with decreasing evaporation rate. Experiments and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations showed that the evaporation rate affected the organization of BCPs at the particle surface, which determined the final shape and internal nanostructure of the particles. Differences in the solvent diffusion rates in PS and PB at rapid evaporation rates induced alignment of both domains perpendicular to the particle surface, resulting in ellipsoids with axial lamellar stripes. Slower evaporation rates provided sufficient time for BCP organization into onion-like structures with PB as the outermost layer, owing to the preferential interaction of PB with the surroundings. BCP molecular weight was found to influence the critical evaporation rate corresponding to the morphological transition from ellipsoid to onion-like particles, as well as the ellipsoid aspect ratio. DPD simulations produced morphologies similar to those obtained from experiments and thus elucidated the mechanism and driving forces responsible for the evaporation-induced assembly of BCPs into particles with well-defined shapes and morphologies.

  19. Genetic Determinism vs. Phenotypic Plasticity in Protist Morphology. (United States)

    Mulot, Matthieu; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Grandgirard, Lara; Lara, Enrique; Kosakyan, Anush; Robroek, Bjorn J M; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Payne, Richard J; Mitchell, Edward A D


    Untangling the relationships between morphology and phylogeny is key to building a reliable taxonomy, but is especially challenging for protists, where the existence of cryptic or pseudocryptic species makes finding relevant discriminant traits difficult. Here we use Hyalosphenia papilio (a testate amoeba) as a model species to investigate the contribution of phylogeny and phenotypic plasticity in its morphology. We study the response of H. papilio morphology (shape and pores number) to environmental variables in (i) a manipulative experiment with controlled conditions (water level), (ii) an observational study of a within-site natural ecological gradient (water level), and (iii) an observational study across 37 European peatlands (climate). We showed that H. papilio morphology is correlated to environmental conditions (climate and water depth) as well as geography, while no relationship between morphology and phylogeny was brought to light. The relative contribution of genetic inheritance and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology varies depending on the taxonomic group and the trait under consideration. Thus, our data call for a reassessment of taxonomy based on morphology alone. This clearly calls for a substantial increase in taxonomic research on these globally still under-studied organisms leading to a reassessment of estimates of global microbial eukaryotic diversity. © 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International Society of Protistologists.

  20. Modeling structural information for building extraction with morphological attribute filters (United States)

    Dalla Mura, M.; Benediktsson, J. A.; Bruzzone, L.


    In this paper we propose to model the structural information in very high geometrical resolution optical images with morphological attribute filters. In particular we propose to perform a multilevel analysis based on different features of the image in contraposition to the use of conventional morphological profiles. We show how morphological attribute filters are conceptually and experimentally more capable to describe the characteristics of buildings with respect to morphological filters by reconstruction. Furthermore, we address the issue of selecting the most suitable parameters of the filters by proposing an architecture which embeds in the filtering procedure an optimization step based on genetic algorithms. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is stated by the experiments which were carried out on a panchromatic image acquired by the Quickbird satellite.

  1. Morphology of the Vitreoretinal Border Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane......Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane...

  2. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles (United States)

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.


    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10{sup 6} g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  3. The morphology of emulsion polymerized latex particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wignall, G.D.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Linne, M.A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L.H.; Wai, M.P.; Gelman, R.A.; Fatica, M.G.; Hoerl, R.H.; Fisher, L.W.


    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structre as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10/sup 4/ < M < 6 x 10/sup 6/ g/mol. For M > 10/sup 6/ the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10/sup 6/ g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. The Time Course of Morphological Processing in a Second Language (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Balkhair, Loay; Schutter, John-Sebastian; Cunnings, Ian


    We report findings from psycholinguistic experiments investigating the detailed timing of processing morphologically complex words by proficient adult second (L2) language learners of English in comparison to adult native (L1) speakers of English. The first study employed the masked priming technique to investigate "-ed" forms with a group of…

  5. Growth, yield and fiber morphology of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot-culture experiment was conducted in shade house to determine the effects of carbon levels on plant growth, yield and fiber morphology of different kenaf varieties. The plants of five kenaf varieties were grown in pots containing sandy beach ridges interspersed with swales (BRIS) soil. Organic carbons at the levels of 0, ...

  6. Morphological Adaptation of Cercis Griffithii Seedlings in Response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 3, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: The experiment for evaluate the effect of drought and salinity stresses on the morphological behaviours of Afghan redbud seedlings was done in Torogh nursery in Iran country. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design; without stress (tap common water in the nursery- EC ...

  7. Radiation Capture and Use as Affected by Morphologically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis ...

  8. Radiation Capture and Use as Affected by Morphologically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars ...

  9. Free surface effect on dune morphology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqshband, Suleyman; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.


    Our aim in this paper is to illustrate the importance of free water surface effects and sediment transport mode in the morphological evolution of sand dunes to upper stage plane beds. We have analyzed a large number of bed form data, 414 experiments from flumes and field, showing significantly

  10. Effect of yoghurt waste on gut morphology and growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of yoghurt waste on intestinal morphology and growth performance of pigs weaned at 7 weeks of age. A total of 20 weaned pigs (15.6 ± 2kg, initial body weight {BW}) were randomly assigned in groups of four, to 5 experimental treatments in a randomized block design.

  11. Effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment evaluated effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological characteristics and nutritive value of burgundy bean (Macroptilium bracteatum) at the screen house of Department of Agronomy, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The treatments were 3 stages of growth repeated 3 times in a completely ...

  12. Morphological disambiguation of Tunisian dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Zribi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to disambiguate the output of a morphological analyzer of the Tunisian dialect. We test three machine-learning techniques that classify the morphological analysis of each word token into two classes: true and false. The class label is assigned to each analysis according to the context of the corresponding word in a sentence. In failure cases, we combine the results of the proposed techniques with a bigram classifier to choose only one analysis for a given word. We disambiguate the result of the morphological analyzer of the Tunisian Dialect Al-Khalil-TUN (Zribi et al., 2013b. We use the Spoken Tunisian Arabic Corpus STAC (Zribi et al., 2015 to train and test our method. The evaluation shows that the proposed method has achieved an accuracy performance of 87.32%.

  13. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang


    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  14. Genetic dissimilarity among sweet potato genotypes using morphological and molecular descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Knoblauch Viega de Andrade


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic dissimilarity among sweet potato genotypes using morphological and molecular descriptors. The experiment was conducted in the Olericulture Sector at Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM and evaluated 60 sweet potato genotypes. For morphological characterization, 24 descriptors were used. For molecular characterization, 11 microsatellite primers specific for sweet potatoes were used, obtaining 210 polymorphic bands. Morphological and molecular diversity was obtained by dissimilarity matrices based on the coefficient of simple matching and the Jaccard index for morphological and molecular data, respectively. From these matrices, dendrograms were built. There is a large amount of genetic variability among sweet potato genotypes of the germplasm bank at UFVJM based on morphological and molecular characterizations. There was no duplicate suspicion or strong association between morphological and molecular analyses. Divergent accessions have been identified by molecular and morphological analyses, which can be used as parents in breeding programmes to produce progenies with high genetic variability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benin Murić


    Full Text Available We wanted to help solving the problems we meet every day, and through this research we did. Research was done on population of boxers 15-19 years old, who compete in Serbian Youth League. We keep being asked: “How big is the morphological characteristics influence on a boxer`s success? While selecting boys for boxing, on which morphological characteristics we need to pay our attention most?” Based on results we got in this research, boys must have a good relation of height and weight, and relatively long legs and arms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available El primer curso de Urbanismo en la Escuela de Arquitectura de Alcalá está organizado en dos partes relacionadas, teoría y práctica, e introduce a los estudiantes en el Diseño y el Planeamiento Urbanos. Por un lado, los estudiantes adquieren un conocimiento teórico, todavía incipiente mientras, por otro lado, comienzan a proyectar en la ciudad. Ambas tareas se realizan mediante una aproximación morfológica que parte de métodos heredados tanto del Laboratori d’Urbanisme de Barcelona de Manuel de Solá-Morales, como de la escuela italiana. La parte teórica se subdivide en dos segmentos. Los conceptos principales de la aproximación morfológica se presentan primero a los estudiantes, quienes después aprenden una breve historia de la ciudad tradicional y la forma urbana desde la era preindustrial a la recuperación urbana de los años setenta del siglo XX. La parte práctica incluye análisis y propuesta. El primero se inicia a escala estructural a través de diversas indagaciones y a continuación se enfoca en diferentes aspectos morfológicos. La propuesta se desarrolla en esta segunda escala morfológica, empleando las categorías previamente analizadas. Finalmente, los estudiantes proponen una serie de normas urbanísticas a escala tipológica. El artículo establece vínculos entre ejercicios de clase y prácticas profesionales, y finaliza explicando las sesiones críticas y algunos resultados del curso.

  17. Computer Vision and Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Kropratsch, W.; Klette, R.; Albrecht, R.


    Mathematical morphology is a theory of set mappings, modeling binary image transformations, which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This framework turns out to be too restricted for many applications, in particular for computer vision where group theoretical considerations

  18. Pollen morphology of the Alangiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Tj.


    This paper presents a pollen-morphological study of Alangium, a genus mainly restricted to the tropics of the Old World, of which 18 of the 19 known species were studied. The pollen grains, studied with the use of a light microscope, a transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron

  19. with morphological and molecular markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    sourced fruits and bred up to F3 generation. The F3 plants grown in the University of Port Harcourt garden were used for the study. A total of 15 male and 15 female plants were selected. Vegetative morphological features like foliar dimensions and ...

  20. Stochastic Modelling of Seafloor Morphology (United States)


    combination of tectonic and constructional volcanic processes related in a complex way to the spreading rate, magmatic budget and tectonic forces along a mid...morphology correspond to variations in magmatic budget along the length of the ridge. Where the magma supply is relatively abundant, the shallow-level

  1. Image sharpening by morphological filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Gerbrands, J.J.; Backer, E.


    This paper introduces a class of iterative morphological image operators with applications to sharpen digitized gray-scale images. It is proved that all image operators using a concave structuring function have sharpening properties. By using a Laplacian property, we introduce the underlying partial

  2. Cartography – morphology – topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    I 2004 a Summer School was established on the Greek island of Hydra. The was to be the basis of research-based morphological and topological studies, which have since taken place for 4 weeks of every year. Starting with Hydra’s topography different ways of considering topology were developed. The...

  3. Mandibular morphological changes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report described the morphological alterations on the mandible in a 3- year- old West African dwarfdoe caused by Actinomycesviscosus infection. The animal recovered after treatment but was later culled and the head submitted to the Department of Veterinary Anatomy. Hot water maceration of the lower jaw and the ...

  4. Human morphology and temperature regulation (United States)

    Anderson, G. S.

    For nearly a century individuals have believed that there is a link between human morphology and one's thermoregulatory response in adverse environments. Most early research was focussed on the rate of core cooling in a male adult population and the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to withstand varying degrees of cold stress. More recently research has addressed heat tolerance in various populations, exploring the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to maintain thermal equilibrium in warm and hot, dry and humid environments. Since the late 1970s an emphasis has been placed on the role of muscle and muscle perfusion in total-body thermal insulation. Yet, despite the history of research pertaining to human morphology and temperature regulation there is little consensus as to the impact of variations in human morphology on thermoregulatory responses. Individuals differing in body size, shape and composition appear to respond quantitatively differently to variations in both ambient and core temperatures but the interrelations between morphological components and temperature regulation are complex. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the literature pertaining to the impact of variations in muscularity, adipose tissue thickness and patterning, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio on thermoregulation and thermal stability in response to both heat and cold stress.

  5. Morphological, thermal and annealed microhardness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of annealing temperature on the microhardness of IPNs were studied using the Vickers method. SEM indicates the homogeneous morphological features for IPN. The role of gelatin, AN and crosslinker on the developed hard biopolymer has been described with the help of DSC thermograms and microhardness ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Rykov


    Full Text Available The results of longstanding investigations devoted to study of morphologic evolution of tendinous and bone allografts sterilized using methods developed at tissue bank of RRITO n.a. R. Vreden. The experiments were performed in 370 rats and showed high information value of morphological study of biografts and its sufficiency for transplant assessment from the clinical standpoint.

  7. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.


    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  8. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C


    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic...... methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of the biopsies. Portal inflammation was also common (33 per cent). Fibrosis, mainly portal or periportal, was observed in 29 per cent. Cirrhosis, however, involved only 3 per cent. Study of relationships between the degree of liver change and certain possible pathogenetic factors (eg degree and duration...

  9. Cultural evidence for the morphologic plasticity of Entophysalis deusta (Meneghini) Drouet and Daily (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Hoek, van den C.


    Cultural experiments with Entophysalis deusta support Drouet and Daily’s concept of this species as a morphologically highly plastic taxon, showing forms traditionally identified as Entophysalis granulosa, Gloeocapsa crepidinum, Pleurocapsa fuliginosa, and Hyella caespitosa. These results are in

  10. An analysis of morphological differences between salmon of various geographic origins (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In September of 1955 the Service commenced an experiment to determine the utility of morphological and morphometric characters as indices for the racial separation...

  11. Morphological Analysis and Solubility of Lead Particles: Effect of Phosphates and Implications to Drinking Water (Presentation) (United States)

    Describe lead synthesis experiments conduced to model the impact of water quality on lead particles and solubility Develop a model system that can be used for lead solubility studies Understand how phosphates impact morphology and solubility transformations with time

  12. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev


    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  13. Morphological instabilities of lamellar eutectics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A.; Sarkissian, A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Physics Dept.


    The authors present the results of a numerical study based on the boundary integral technique of interfacial pattern formation in directional solidification of thin-film lamellar eutectics at low velocity. Microstructure selection maps that identify the stability domains of various steady-state and nonsteady-state growth morphologies in the spacing-composition ({lambda} {minus} C{sub 0}) plane are constructed for the transparent organic alloy CBr{sub 4}-C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} and for a model eutectic alloy with two solid phases of identical physical properties. In CBr{sub 4}-C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6}, the basic set of instabilities that limit steady-state growth is richer than expected. It consists of three primary instabilities, two of which are oscillatory, which bound the domain of the commonly observed axisymmetric lamellar morphology, and two secondary oscillatory instabilities, which bound the domain of the nonaxisymmetric (tilted) lamellar morphology. Four stable oscillatory microstructures, at least three of which have been seen experimentally, are predicted to occur in unstable regimes. In the model alloy, the structure is qualitatively similar, except that a stable domain of tilted steady-state growth is not found, in agreement with previous random-walk simulations. Furthermore, the composition range of stability of the axisymmetric morphology decreases sharply with increasing spacing away from minimum undercooling but extends further off-eutectic than predicted by the competitive growth criterion. In addition, oscillations with a wavelength equal to two {lambda} lead to lamella termination at a small distance above the onset of instability. The implications of these two features for the eutectic to dendrite transition are examined with the conclusion that in the absence of heterogeneous nucleation, this transition should be histeritic at small velocity and temperature gradient.

  14. Foot Anthropometry and Morphology Phenomena


    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir


    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in ...

  15. Microsymbiont and Morphological Phenotype Analysis


    Marzuki, Ismail


    Determination biomass and phenotypic analysis of microsymbionts sponge is a comprehensive effort to discover the specificity of the sponge, not only on the identification and characterization studies that have been growing. Research directed at diversification of knowledge of the functions and benefits of a sponge for the life and welfare of mankind. The purpose of this research is the analysis of biomass morphology and phenotype test microsymbionts sponge. Histomorfologi analysis method to d...

  16. Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Solounias

    Full Text Available The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae.

  17. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology. (United States)

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G


    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  18. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari


    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MORPHOLOGICAL STRATEGIES IN TEXT MESSAGING AMONG NIGERIAN USERS OF GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION. ... becoming standardized forms being adopted by the Nigerian users of GSM. Keywords: Morphology and Syntax, SMS texts, GSM (Mobile Phone), Semantics, Nigerian English.

  20. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese. (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald


    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words.

  1. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eNakano


    Full Text Available The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii a semantically-related form, and (iv a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i, (ii and (iii, but not for (iv. This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i, but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii and (iii. In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts – orthographically related, but which - in their commonly written form - share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system affect the processing of (morphologically complex words.

  2. Morphological families in the mental lexicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Nivja Helena de


    Words can occur as constituents of other words. Some words have a high morphological productivity, in that they occur in many complex words, whereas others are morphological islands. Previous studies have found that the size of a word's morphological family can co-determine response latencies in

  3. Improving word coverage using unsupervised morphological analyser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of morphology of inflectional language like Hindi. It is an unsupervised learning approach, suitable for languages with a rich concatenative morphology. Broadly, our work is carried out in three steps: 1. Acquire the morphology of Hindi from a raw (un annotated) Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore text corpus ...

  4. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, Allston J. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)


    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  5. Slip Morphology of Elastic Strips on Frictional Rigid Substrates. (United States)

    Sano, Tomohiko G; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Hirofumi


    The morphology of an elastic strip subject to vertical compressive stress on a frictional rigid substrate is investigated by a combination of theory and experiment. We find a rich variety of morphologies, which-when the bending elasticity dominates over the effect of gravity-are classified into three distinct types of states: pinned, partially slipped, and completely slipped, depending on the magnitude of the vertical strain and the coefficient of static friction. We develop a theory of elastica under mixed clamped-hinged boundary conditions combined with the Coulomb-Amontons friction law and find excellent quantitative agreement with simulations and controlled physical experiments. We also discuss the effect of gravity in order to bridge the difference in the qualitative behaviors of stiff strips and flexible strings or ropes. Our study thus complements recent work on elastic rope coiling and takes a significant step towards establishing a unified understanding of how a thin elastic object interacts vertically with a solid surface.

  6. Effect of cadmium on the morphology and anatomy of Salvinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the morphological and anatomical changes of Salvinia auriculata exposed to different concentrations 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 μM of cadmium (Cd) and its effect on plant growth. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Plant Anatomy of the IF Goiano/Rio Verde Campus, Goiás. Cd free ...

  7. Morphologies of omega band auroras (United States)

    Sato, Natsuo; Yukimatu, Akira Sessai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Hori, Tomoaki


    We examined the morphological signatures of 315 omega band aurora events observed using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm ground-based all-sky imager network over a period of 8 years. We find that omega bands can be classified into the following three subtypes: (1) classical (O-type) omega bands, (2) torch or tongue (T-type) omega bands, and (3) combinations of classical and torch or tongue (O/T-type) omega bands. The statistical results show that T-type bands occur the most frequently (45%), followed by O/T-type bands (35%) and O-type bands (18%). We also examined the morphologies of the omega bands during their formation, from the growth period to the declining period through the maximum period. Interestingly, the omega bands are not stable, but rather exhibit dynamic changes in shape, intensity, and motion. They grow from small-scale bumps (seeds) at the poleward boundary of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, rather than via the rotation or shear motion of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, and do not exhibit any shear motion during the periods of auroral activity growth. Furthermore, the auroral luminosity is observed to increase during the declining period, and the total time from the start of the growth period to the end of the declining period is found to be about 20 min. Such dynamical signatures may be important in determining the mechanism responsible for omega band formation.

  8. Evolutionary Developmental Robotics: Improving Morphology and Control of Physical Robots. (United States)

    Vujovic, Vuk; Rosendo, Andre; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya


    Evolutionary algorithms have previously been applied to the design of morphology and control of robots. The design space for such tasks can be very complex, which can prevent evolution from efficiently discovering fit solutions. In this article we introduce an evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) experiment with real-world robots. It allows robots to grow their leg size to simulate ontogenetic morphological changes, and this is the first time that such an experiment has been performed in the physical world. To test diverse robot morphologies, robot legs of variable shapes were generated during the evolutionary process and autonomously built using additive fabrication. We present two cases with evo-devo experiments and one with evolution, and we hypothesize that the addition of a developmental stage can be used within robotics to improve performance. Moreover, our results show that a nonlinear system-environment interaction exists, which explains the nontrivial locomotion patterns observed. In the future, robots will be present in our daily lives, and this work introduces for the first time physical robots that evolve and grow while interacting with the environment.

  9. Morphological Processing as We Know It: An Analytical Review of Morphological Effects in Visual Word Identification (United States)

    Amenta, Simona; Crepaldi, Davide


    The last 40 years have witnessed a growing interest in the mechanisms underlying the visual identification of complex words. A large amount of experimental data has been amassed, but although a growing number of studies are proposing explicit theoretical models for their data, no comprehensive theory has gained substantial agreement among scholars in the field. We believe that this is due, at least in part, to the presence of several controversial pieces of evidence in the literature and, consequently, to the lack of a well-defined set of experimental facts that any theory should be able to explain. With this review, we aim to delineate the state of the art in the research on the visual identification of complex words. By reviewing major empirical evidences in a number of different paradigms such as lexical decision, word naming, and masked and unmasked priming, we were able to identify a series of effects that we judge as reliable or that were consistently replicated in different experiments, along with some more controversial data, which we have tried to resolve and explain. We concentrated on behavioral and electrophysiological studies on inflected, derived, and compound words, so as to span over all types of complex words. The outcome of this work is an analytical summary of well-established facts on the most relevant morphological issues, such as regularity, morpheme position coding, family size, semantic transparency, morpheme frequency, suffix allomorphy, and productivity, morphological entropy, and morpho-orthographic parsing. In discussing this set of benchmark effects, we have drawn some methodological considerations on why contrasting evidence might have emerged, and have tried to delineate a target list for the construction of a new all-inclusive model of the visual identification of morphologically complex words. PMID:22807919

  10. Open data and digital morphology (United States)

    Davies, Thomas G.; Cunningham, John A.; Asher, Robert J.; Bates, Karl T.; Bengtson, Stefan; Benson, Roger B. J.; Boyer, Doug M.; Braga, José; Dong, Xi-Ping; Evans, Alistair R.; Friedman, Matt; Garwood, Russell J.; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.; Jeffery, Nathan S.; Lebrun, Renaud; Martínez-Pérez, Carlos; O'Higgins, Paul M.; Orliac, Maëva; Rowe, Timothy B.; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Shubin, Neil H.; Starck, J. Matthias; Stringer, Chris; Summers, Adam P.; Sutton, Mark D.; Walsh, Stig A.; Weisbecker, Vera; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Wroe, Stephen; Yin, Zongjun


    Over the past two decades, the development of methods for visualizing and analysing specimens digitally, in three and even four dimensions, has transformed the study of living and fossil organisms. However, the initial promise that the widespread application of such methods would facilitate access to the underlying digital data has not been fully achieved. The underlying datasets for many published studies are not readily or freely available, introducing a barrier to verification and reproducibility, and the reuse of data. There is no current agreement or policy on the amount and type of data that should be made available alongside studies that use, and in some cases are wholly reliant on, digital morphology. Here, we propose a set of recommendations for minimum standards and additional best practice for three-dimensional digital data publication, and review the issues around data storage, management and accessibility. PMID:28404779

  11. Morphology of the membrana limitans. (United States)

    Hara, M; Kimura, R S


    The morphology of the membrana limitans (ML) was studied by light and electron microscopy to further understand its functional significance. The ML is a porous shield composed of a few to several layers of tightly packed fibrocytes that separate the perilymphatic space of the cochlea and saccule from that of the utricle and canal system. These fibrocytes are thinner on the side of the vestibule. They show many desmosomes and gap junctions and are interspersed with fibrils. The 3-dimensional reconstruction from celloidin sections shows that the ML, as it is viewed from the anterior side, is rectangular in shape, with various surface curvatures and an invagination toward the internal aperture of the vestibular aqueduct. Horseradish peroxidase, a tracer substance, placed on either side of the ML fails to pass to the opposite side. The ML and trabecular meshwork may be a factor contributing to differential sensitivity of cochlear and vestibular sensory cells in the presence of noxious substances.

  12. Y chromosome morphology of cattle. (United States)

    Potter, W L; Upton, P C


    Metaphase chromosomes from cultured lymphocytes were prepared from 246 bulls including Bos indicus, Bos taurus. Bos (Bibos) banteng, Sanga and interspecific and intra-specific breed crosses. Morphology and karyotype position of the Y chromosome for each bull were noted. Karyotype position of the Y chromosome varied between bulls from 25th to 29th pair and the Y chromosomes of Bos indicus and breeds derived from Bos indicus bulls were acrocentric while those of Bos taurus, Sanga and breeds derived from these bulls were metacentric/submetacentric. Two forms of Y chromosome were noted in the Droughtmaster breed. C-banding patterns of the acrocentric Y chromosome were characteristic and enabled easy identification.

  13. [Glottis morphology in rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Amernik, Katarzyna; Tarnowska, Czesława; Brzosko, Iwona; Grzelec, Halina; Burakl, Mirosław


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease of the connective tissue, which can affect larynx and cricoarytenoid (CA) joints, as well. The AIM of this study was assessment of 1) glottis morphology and frequency of laryngeal structures involvement in RA of peripheral joints and 2) evaluation of rheumatoid patients' complaints which can indicate the laryngeal involvement. 77 patients were examined (71 women and 16 men) in the age from 19 to 77 (mean 56,69). RA duration was from 1 month to 29 years (mean 9,38). RA was active in 61% of patients. Anamnesis, physical examination, videolaryngoscopy, computer tomography, electromyography. The most frequent complaints were: foreign body sensation in the throat (51%), hoarseness (47%) with accompanying weakness of voice and dysphagia. In videolaryngoscopic examination swelling and/or redness of mucosal tissue in CA area was observed in 45% of patients. In 3 women impairment of vocal folds was stated, in 1 it was limitation of right vocal fold mobility and in 2 bilateral vocal folds immobility and tracheotomy was necessary. In patients with active RA and with foreign body sensation in the throat significantly more often inflammatory changes in larynx were visible. 1. Rheumatoid inflammation in the larynx is demonstrated by swelling and/or redness of mucosal tissue in CA area and in some individuals by its immobilization. 2. In the periods of RA intensification complains of foreign body sensation in the throat and hoarseness may indicate on laryngeal involvement. Our study results justify a suggestion of continuation of the morphological and functional changes estimation in patients with peripheral RA.

  14. Providing Morphological Information for SMT Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passban Peyman


    Full Text Available Treating morphologically complex words (MCWs as atomic units in translation would not yield a desirable result. Such words are complicated constituents with meaningful subunits. A complex word in a morphologically rich language (MRL could be associated with a number of words or even a full sentence in a simpler language, which means the surface form of complex words should be accompanied with auxiliary morphological information in order to provide a precise translation and a better alignment. In this paper we follow this idea and propose two different methods to convey such information for statistical machine translation (SMT models. In the first model we enrich factored SMT engines by introducing a new morphological factor which relies on subword-aware word embeddings. In the second model we focus on the language-modeling component. We explore a subword-level neural language model (NLM to capture sequence-, word- and subword-level dependencies. Our NLM is able to approximate better scores for conditional word probabilities, so the decoder generates more fluent translations. We studied two languages Farsi and German in our experiments and observed significant improvements for both of them.

  15. Morphological arrangement of two-dimensional aggregated colloid (United States)

    Promkotra, Sarunya; Kangsadan, Tawiwan


    Two-dimensional aggregate morphologies can be controlled by adjusting the suspending alcohol and the composition of the substrate solution. Water-glycerol substrates were used in these experiments because their high viscosity minimizes vibration in floating 2D aggregates. The polystyrene microspheres, 4.0 µm in diameter, were suspended in alcohol-water solutions at 0.1 vol% solid fraction by adding appropriate amounts of the as-received dispersion to the alcohol. The resulting suspending phase contained 12 vol% water. Methanol and ethanol were used as the suspension medium for the particles. The substrate composition and the suspending medium alcohol were varied, leading to a better understanding of the effect of these variables on 2Daggregate morphology. Light alcohols, methanol and ethanol, formed the two-dimensional(2D) aggregated monolayers at the air-liquid interface. Also, high acidity in the liquid substrate (pH values below 6) was required for formation of 2D aggregates. Similarly, salt additions also induced particle aggregation. The 2D morphologies were classified by their fractal dimension, which increased with the concentration of glycerol and acid in the substrateliquid. In addition, both aggregates and isolated particles in the ethanol system showed anovel circular ring structure, which disappeared over time. Morphology diagrams for the 2D aggregates were developed; these diagrams showed the fractal dimension of the clusteras a function of the formation conditions.

  16. Universal and particular in morphological processing: Evidence from Hebrew. (United States)

    Farhy, Yael; Veríssimo, João; Clahsen, Harald


    Do properties of individual languages shape the mechanisms by which they are processed? By virtue of their non-concatenative morphological structure, the recognition of complex words in Semitic languages has been argued to rely strongly on morphological information and on decomposition into root and pattern constituents. Here, we report results from a masked priming experiment in Hebrew in which we contrasted verb forms belonging to two morphological classes, Paal and Piel, which display similar properties, but crucially differ on whether they are extended to novel verbs. Verbs from the open-class Piel elicited familiar root priming effects, but verbs from the closed-class Paal did not. Our findings indicate that, similarly to other (e.g., Indo-European) languages, down-to-the-root decomposition in Hebrew does not apply to stems of non-productive verbal classes. We conclude that the Semitic word processor is less unique than previously thought: Although it operates on morphological units that are combined in a non-linear way, it engages the same universal mechanisms of storage and computation as those seen in other languages.

  17. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G., E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenaao s Programas de Pos-graduacaoem Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos. Escola de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/ UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: [Secao de Defesa Nuclear do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Mauro C.L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  18. Soft Computing for Human Spermatozoa Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Lu


    Full Text Available A fuzzy data fusion approach was used for human sperm morphology recognition analysis using 3-CCD camera image data. Fuzzy operators were used to create the relationship between abnormal sperm morphology and normal sperm aberrations after digitizing the images. The approaches have focused on frequencies of sperm with either abnormal morphology in semen analysis samples. In order to establish whether various shapes of membership functions, the authors would classify the morphology according to their head, tail, and neck shapes into symmetrical, asymmetrical, irregular and amorphous categories based on the fuzzy region. The images results demonstrated how these findings facilitated approaches on the 100 semen samples. The average probability of morphology recognition analysis was equal to 95% and the average probability of unknown parameter was equal to 4.5%. The fuzzy fusion morphology provided a unified and consistent framework to express different shapes of human spermatozoa.

  19. Edge enhanced morphology for infrared image analysis (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi; Liu, Haonan


    Edge information is one of the critical information for infrared images. Morphological operators have been widely used for infrared image analysis. However, the edge information in infrared image is weak and the morphological operators could not well utilize the edge information of infrared images. To strengthen the edge information in morphological operators, the edge enhanced morphology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are given and analyzed. Secondly, the pseudo operators which are derived from the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are defined. Finally, the applications for infrared image analysis are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed edge enhanced morphological operators. The proposed edge enhanced morphological operators are useful for the applications related to edge features, which could be extended to wide area of applications.

  20. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  1. Early Morphological Decomposition of Suffixed Words: Masked Priming Evidence with Transposed-Letter Nonword Primes (United States)

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Coltheart, Max; Castles, Anne


    Many studies have previously reported that the recognition of a stem target (e.g., "teach") is facilitated by the prior masked presentation of a prime consisting of a derived form of it (e.g., "teacher"). We conducted two lexical decision experiments to investigate masked morphological priming in Spanish. Experiment 1 showed…

  2. Morphological characteristics of the young scoliotic dancer. (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Hershkovitz, Israel; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Siev-Ner, Itzhak


    The literature lacks important data about the relationship between scoliosis and growth process, scoliosis and intensive exercise, scoliosis and morphological characteristics, and scoliosis and injuries, among young dancers. The aims of the present study were to determine the extent to which dance experience, body structure, anatomical anomalies and injuries are associated with scoliosis, and to identify variables able to discriminate between scoliotic and non-scoliotic female dancers at time of screening. Cross-sectional cohort study. One thousand two hundred and eighty-eight non-professional female dancers, aged 8-16 years, were screened for the current study. We determined their morphometrical profile (height, weight, BMI), dance discipline (as hours of practice per week), manifestation of anatomical anomalies, and existing injuries. All dancers were clinically examined for presence of scoliosis. Three hundred and seven of the 1288 dancers (23.8%) were diagnosed as having scoliosis. Dance experience and body structure were similar for dancers with or without scoliosis. Scoliotic dancers presented a significantly higher prevalence of anatomical anomalies (such as genu varum, and hallux valgus). Back injuries were more common among scoliotic dancers compared to non-scoliotic dancers. Screening and identifying the young scoliotic dancers prior to their advancing to higher levels of exercise is recommended. The scoliotic dancers should realize that there might be a connection between the presence of scoliosis and increased incidence of anatomical anomalies and back pain, hence, it should be suggested they seek help with an adequate assessment and exercise rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contrasting ecosystem-effects of morphologically similar copepods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Matthews

    Full Text Available Organisms alter the biotic and abiotic conditions of ecosystems. They can modulate the availability of resources to other species (ecosystem engineering and shape selection pressures on other organisms (niche construction. Very little is known about how the engineering effects of organisms vary among and within species, and, as a result, the ecosystem consequences of species diversification and phenotypic evolution are poorly understood. Here, using a common gardening experiment, we test whether morphologically similar species and populations of Diaptomidae copepods (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Hesperodiaptomus franciscanus, Skistodiaptomus oregonensis have similar or different effects on the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. We found that copepod species had contrasting effects on algal biomass, ammonium concentrations, and sedimentation rates, and that copepod populations had contrasting effects on prokaryote abundance, sedimentation rates, and gross primary productivity. The average size of ecosystem-effect contrasts between species was similar to those between populations, and was comparable to those between fish species and populations measured in previous common gardening experiments. Our results suggest that subtle morphological variation among and within species can cause multifarious and divergent ecosystem-effects. We conclude that using morphological trait variation to assess the functional similarity of organisms may underestimate the importance of species and population diversity for ecosystem functioning.

  4. Secular trend: morphology and performance. (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François


    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s.

  5. Morphological and Physiological Effects in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, A.; Timmermans, K.R.; de Baar, H.J.W.


    The combined effects of different light and aqueous CO2 conditions were assessed for the Southern Ocean diatom Proboscia alata (Brightwell) Sundstrom in laboratory experiments. Selected culture conditions (light and CO2(aq)) were representative for the natural ranges in the modern Southern Ocean.

  6. Morphology and formation mechanism in precipitation of calcite induced by Curvibacter lanceolatus strain HJ-1 (United States)

    Zhang, Chonghong; Li, Fuchun; Lv, Jiejie


    Precipitation of calcium carbobate induced by microbial activities is common occurrence in controlled solution, but the formation mechanism and morphology in precipitation of calcite in solution systems is unclear, and the role of microbes is disputed. Here, culture experiment was performed for 50 days using the Curvibacter lanceolatus strain HJ-1 in a M2 culture medium, and the phase composition and morphology of the precipitates were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. We show that the precipitation processes in our experiment lead to unusual morphologies of crystals corresponding to different growth stages, and the morphologies of the precipitated crystal aggregates ranging from the main rod-, cross-, star-, cauliflower-like morphologies to spherulitic structure. The complex and unusual morphologies of the precipitated calcite by strain HJ-1 may provide a reference point for better understanding the biomineralization mechanism of calcite, moreover, morphological transition of minerals revealed that the multi-ply crystals-aggregation mechanism for calcite growth in crystallisation media.

  7. Crystal morphology optimization of thiamine hydrochloride in solvent system: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation studies (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Han, Dandan; Du, Shichao; Wu, Songgu; Gong, Junbo


    Thiamine hydrochloride (THCL) was produced in methanol accompanied with agglomeration in industry, the plate like morphology of THCL in methanol was not deserve to have a good quality. Selecting a suitable solvent should be considered because solvent could be one of the essential factors to impact morphology. Methanol and methanol/ethyl acetate solvent (0.2 vol fraction of methanol) was selected as the solvent system in reactive crystallization of THCL. The experiment results show the THCL crystal morphology in methanol/ethyl acetate solvent system was granular and more regular than that in methanol. In order to explicate the different crystal morphology in different solvents, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was introduced to simulate crystal morphology in different solvents. The attachment energy (AE) model was employed to investigate the morphology of THCL under vacuum conditions, methanol and methanol/ethyl acetate solvent conditions, respectively. The simulation crystal morphology was in a good agreement with that of experimented. The particle of THCL in methanol/ethyl acetate solvent has less tendency to agglomeration, and then it is favorable to the downstream process, such as filtration, storage and transportation.

  8. Genetic diversity in tuberose (Polianthes tuberose L.) using morphological and ISSR markers


    P.Lalitha Kameswari1, A. Girwani2 and K.RadhaRani2


    Tuberose is the most important bulbous plant grown both for cut flowers as well as for loose flowers. The flowers are more valued for their sweet and lingering pleasant fragrance. During the year 2012, both field and lab experiment was conducted to characterize the single category genotypes of tuberose collected from different states of India. Seven genotypes were subjected to morphological and molecular characterization. Results on morphological parameters clearly indicate significant differ...

  9. Preventive effect of Desferal on sperm motility and morphology. (United States)

    Nenkova, Galina; Stefanov, Rossen; Chervenkov, Mihail; Alexandrova, Albena


    Transition metal ions, mainly iron, are involved in the generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which are the most powerful inducers of oxidative damage to all biomolecules. The lipids in sperm membranes are highly susceptible to oxidation. Sperm lipid peroxidation (LPO) leads to decrease of motility and reduction of likelihood for sperm-oocyte fusion. The excess radical production may affect also the spermatozoa morphology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Desferal on the LPO, motility, and morphology of boar sperm subjected to oxidative stress. After collection, the ejaculates were equally separated and diluted in a commercial semen extender (experiment 1) or in physiological saline (experiment 2). The ejaculates of the 2 experiments were divided into aliquots, which were incubated with one of the following agents: FeSO4 (0.1mM), H2 O2 (0.5mM), or FeSO4  + H2 O2 (Fenton system), in the presence or absence of Desferal. The application of Desferal in the incubation medium had a protective effect against FeSO4  + H2 O2 -induced sperm damage, namely, decrease of LPO; decrease the quantity of immotile spermatozoa and decrease the number of morphological abnormalities, regardless of the used medium. In experiment 2, the presence of FeSO4 in the incubation medium induced LPO in the same range as the combination FeSO4  + H2 O2 , in which the effect was reduced by Desferal. Thus, the supplement of Desferal to media used for sperm storage and processing could be a useful tool for diminishing oxidative injury and improving the quality of the semen. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: A study on Italian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eAngelelli


    Full Text Available In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs non-derived words. Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs low of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  11. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children. (United States)

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina


    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  12. Non-Equilibrium Magnetohydrodynamic Behavior of Plasmas having Complex, Evolving Morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellan, Paul M. [Caltech


    Our main activity has been doing lab experiments where plasmas having morphology and behavior similar to solar and astrophysical plasmas are produced and studied. The solar experiment is mounted on one end of a large vacuum chamber while the astrophysical jet experiment is mounted on the other end. Diagnostics are shared between the two experiments. The solar experiment produces arched plasma loops that behave very much like solar corona loops. The astrophysical jet experiment produces plasma jets that are very much like astrophysical jets. We have also done work on plasma waves, including general wave dispersions, and specific properties of kinetic Alfven waves and of whistler waves.

  13. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia grisea isolates causing blast disease on finger millet in Ethiopia. ... The morphological and physiological variability studies of the six isolates were carried out on Host Seed Extract + 2% Sucrose Agar, Oat Meal Agar, Potato Dextrose Agar and Richard's ...

  14. gross morphological study of placenta in preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 12, 2017 ... 5. Kishwara S, Ara S, Rayhan KA, Begum M. 2009. Morphological changes of placenta in preeclampsia. Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy, 7: 49-54. 6. Navbir P. 2012. Placental morphology and its co-relation with foetal outcome in pregnancy- induced hypertension. International Journal of Basic and Applied ...

  15. Relationship among Fitness, Morphological Characteristics, Skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Men's fast-pitch softball does not have a specific battery of tests and relies on the tests and norms of baseball. The specific morphological and fitness demands of the sport are, therefore, not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to establish whether morphological and fitness characteristics are related to skill and ...

  16. Improving word coverage using unsupervised morphological analyser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Second motivation is to develop a morphological segmentation which is language-independent as it is shown that study of morphology would benefit to a range of NLP tasks such as speech recognition, speech synthesis, machine translation and information retrieval. Though Hindi is an important and a national language in ...

  17. Low genetic differentiation among morphologically distinct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Labeobarbus altianalis and L. bynni bynni are hexaploid cyprinid fishes in the genus Labeobarbus. In the Great Lakes region of Africa, these two large-bodied barbs exhibit considerable morphological variations. Their intraspecific classification, currently based on geographical distribution and morphological variation, is of ...

  18. Frequencies of Some Morphological Features in Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological features of chicken genetic resources must be carefully identified and considered in developing breeding strategies. The study was carried out to determine the frequencies of morphological features in indigenous chickens of South-Western Nigeria, using Lagos, Ogun, Osun and Oyo States as case study.

  19. Containing overgeneration in Zulu computational morphology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a large-coverage, computational morphological analyser for Zulu requires the modelling not only of the regular phenomena often associated with word formation, but also the idiosyncratic behaviour that may occur in Zulu morphology. This paper discusses the application of an existing rule-based, ...

  20. Flightlessness affects cranial morphology in birds. (United States)

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Cubo, Jorge


    Flightless birds belonging to phylogenetically distant clades share several morphological features in the pectoral and pelvic apparatus. There are indications that skull morphology is also influenced by flightlessness. In this study we used a large number of flightless species to test whether flightlessness in modern birds does indeed affect cranial morphology. Discriminant analyses and variation partitioning show evidence for a relationship between skull morphology and the flightless condition in birds. A possible explanation for the change in cranial morphology can be linked to the reduced selective force for light-weight skulls in flightless birds. This makes an increase in muscle mass, and therefore an enlargement of muscle insertion areas on the skull, possible. We also compared the ontogenetic trajectory of Gallus with the adult morphology of a sample of flightless species to see whether the apomorphic features characterizing the skull of flightless birds share the same developmental basis, which would indicate convergent evolution by parallelism. Skull morphology (expressed as principal component scores) of palaeognathous flightless birds (ratites) is dissimilar (higher scores) to juvenile stages of the chicken and therefore seem peramorphic (overdeveloped). Principal component scores of adult neognathous flightless birds fall within the range of chicken development, so no clear conclusions about the ontogenetic trajectories leading to their sturdier skull morphology could be drawn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology and EODs of M. anguilloides of both sexes and a sexually mature size from the Comoé and Bandama rivers, Côte d'Ivoire, and the Lower and Middle Zambezi, Mozambique, displayed initially positive EODs. The morphologically similar M. breviceps Steindachner 1895 of both sexes and a sexually mature ...

  2. Lexical Morphology: Structure, Process, and Development (United States)

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.


    Recent work has demonstrated the importance of derivational morphology to later language development and has led to a consensus that derivation is a lexical process. In this review, derivational morphology is discussed in terms of lexical representation models from both linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Input characteristics, including…

  3. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William


    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  4. Towards a natural morphology of compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang U. Dressler


    Full Text Available Although compounding is the part of morphology which is closest to syntax, stu­dies in Natural Morphology and Natural Syntax ,as pioneered by Mayerthaler(1981 and Orešnik(2004 have rather avoided the field of composition.This contribution represents a modest tentative towards remedying this lacuna.

  5. Assessment of biodiversity based on morphological characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five wild rose (Rosa L.) genotypes were collected from different locations in northern hilly areas of Pakistan for this study. Different morphological characteristics and PCR based random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to find out the diversity and relationship among the genotypes. On morphological ...

  6. Relationship between morphological and amplified fragment length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker based genetic diversity, to estimate mid parent heterosis and to correlate the estimated parental genetic diversity with heterosis chilli. Five CMS B - lines and 30 testers were used for morphological and AFLP marker genetic divergence analysis.

  7. Correlation between morphological and biological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatocyte dysfunction with the possibility of eventual organ failure is created from most liver diseases. Images of cell morphology can be obtained nondestructively using a conventional inverted microscope. Therefore, this study attempted to investigate several morphological parameters of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ...

  8. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval


    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and

  9. Some morphological and biological features of Megacephala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of both male and female, and the lowest and highest total eggs of female were also investigated. Some morphological features, like adult description and body size of the species, collected from Izmir, Mersin and Adana provinces, in 2001 and 2010, was given. Key words: Tiger beetle, life table, morphology, adult, Turkey.

  10. Loanwords in Yilumbu: A morphological, semantic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A considerable fraction of the vocabulary of Yilumbu is made up of words, which can be regarded as loanwords. This article focuses on morphologic, semantic and lexicographic aspects of borrowing in Yilumbu. As far as morphology is concerned, it is argued that despite the arrival of new words the Yilumbu noun class ...

  11. The Contribution of Morphological Awareness to the Spelling of Morphemes and Morphologically Complex Words in French (United States)

    Fejzo, Anila


    The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between morphological awareness and the spelling of morphemes and morphologically complex words among 75 third- and fourth-grade Francophone students of low socio-economic status. To reach this objective, we administered a dictation comprised of morphologically complex words with prefixes,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Zhandarova


    Full Text Available 80 case histories of patients with breast cancer were analyzed. During the preoperative examination with objective and instrumental examination methods used the malignant process was suspected but no morphological verification was received. Physical examination revealed 75% cases of cancer. Roentgenologic evidence of malignant tumor was found in 43.5% women. Ultrasound examination of mammary glands showed that 57.7% of patients had cancer symptoms. Despite the repeated puncture aspiration biopsy, preoperative morphological examination proved to be negative. The reasons of morphological verification failure are connected with technical difficulties and morphological features of tumor structure. Negative malignant process verification necessitated the diagnostic partial mastectomy. To achieve ablasticity ofexcisional biopsyit is necessary to keep 2 cm from the tumor. Staged morphological diagnosis verifies the diagnosis in all patients, allowing to choose the adequate extentof surgical procedures.

  13. The morphology of cometary nuclei (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Jorda, L.

    the Rosetta comet rendezvous mission) to about 50 km (comet Hale- Bopp, comet P/Schwassman-Wachmann 1). Their albedos are very low, about 0.04. Their shapes are irregular, axes ratios of 2:1 are often derived. Even though comets are characterized by their activity, in most cases only a small fraction of the nuclear surface (in some cases less than 1%) is active. An exception seems to be comet P/Wirtanen where all its surface is required to be active in order to explain its production rates (Rickman and Jorda 1998). The detection of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) in the Kuiper belt (Jewitt and Luu 1993) reveals a new population of cometary bodies with dimensions an order of magnitude bigger (100 km and larger) than the typical comet observed in the inner planetary system. Little is known about the extent, density, size distribution and physical characteristics of these objects. This region is supposedly the reservoir for short-period comets, manly those controlled by Jupiter (Jupiter family comets). Our present concept of a cometary nucleus has been strongly influenced by the first pictures of the nucleus of comet Halley achieved during the Giotto flyby in 1986. While this revelation seems to be confirmed as typical by modern observations it carries the danger of prototyping new observational results and inferences. Missions and spacecraft are already on their way (Deep Space, Contour, Stardust, Deep Impact) or in preparation (Rosetta) to diversify our knowledge. The morphology of cometary nuclei is determined by their formation process in the early solar nebula, their dynamics and evolution. The physics of the processes leading to their apparent activity while approaching the Sun are still obscure in many details but determine the small- and intermediate-scale morphology. The large-scale morphology, the shape, of a cometary nucleus is determined by its fragility and inner structure and by its generally complex rotational state. These topics will be reviewed in the

  14. Observed gas hydrate morphologies in marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Roberts, J.; Druce, M. [Geotek Ltd., Daventry, Northamptonshire (United Kingdom)


    The morphology of gas hydrate in marine sediments determines the basic physical properties of the sediment-hydrate matrix and provides information regarding the formation of gas hydrate deposits, and the nature of the disruption that will occur on dissociation. Small-scale morphology is useful in estimating the concentrations of gas hydrate from geophysical data. It is also important for predicting their response to climate change or commercial production. Many remote techniques for gas hydrate detection and quantification depend on hydrate morphology. In this study, morphology of gas hydrate was examined in HYACINTH pressure cores from recent seagoing expeditions. Visual and infrared observations from non-pressurized cores were also used. The expeditions and pressure core analysis were described in detail. This paper described the difference between two types of gas hydrate morphologies, notably pore-filling and grain-displacing. Last, the paper addressed the impact of hydrate morphology. It was concluded that a detailed morphology of gas hydrate is an essential component for a full understanding of the past, present, and future of any gas hydrate environment. 14 refs., 4 figs.



    Qazim Elshani; Hazir Salihu


    The experiment deals with young people aged 13-14 years, male. Basketball team active and inactive, active group in addition to regular classes; they also practice basketball in clubs within the city. The experiment contains a total of eight morphological variables; five variables are the basic motor tests, while three tests of motor skills, situational. In this research, it applied test method T-group basketball between active and inactive, and morphological variables of specific movement sk...

  16. Burrowing behaviour of robotic bivalves with synthetic morphologies. (United States)

    Germann, D P; Carbajal, J P


    Several bivalve species burrow into sandy sediments to reach their living position. There are many hypotheses concerning the functional morphology of the bivalve shell for burrowing. Observational studies are limited and often qualitative and should be complemented by a synthetic approach mimicking the burrowing process using a robotic emulation. In this paper we present a simple mechatronic set-up to mimic the burrowing behaviour of bivalves. As environment we used water and quartz sand contained in a glass tank. Bivalve shells were mathematically modelled on the computer and then materialized using a 3D printer. The burrowing motion of the shells was induced by two external linear motors. Preliminary experiments did not expose any artefacts introduced to the burrowing process by the set-up. We tested effects of shell size, shape and surface sculpturing on the burrowing performance. Neither the typical bivalve shape nor surface sculpture did have a clear positive effect on burrowing depth in the performed experiments. We argue that the presented method is a valid and promising approach to investigate the functional morphology of bivalve shells and should be improved and extended in future studies. In contrast to the observation of living bivalves, our approach offers complete control over the parameters defining shell morphology and motion pattern. The technical set-up allows the systematic variation of all parameters to quantify their effects. The major drawback of the built set-up was that the reliability and significance of the results was limited by the lack of an optimal technique to standardize the sediment state before experiments.

  17. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies (United States)

    Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik


    Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction) with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling. PMID:25249944

  18. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen


    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  19. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals. (United States)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E; Wirth, Brian D; Kurtz, Richard J


    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, b, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy (N(F) ~ E(MD)(b)). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, μ, between the high- and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of μ as a function of displacement threshold energy, E(d), is presented for bcc metals.

  20. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals


    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P.; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E; Wirth, Brian D.; Kurtz, Richard J.


    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, $b$, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy ($N_F \\sim E_{MD}^b$). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, $\\mu$, between the high- and the l...

  1. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum


    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  2. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik


    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para...... at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Failure morphology of extracted posts was analyzed and quantified stereomicroscopically. RESULTS: Type of luting cement, post material, and shape of post influenced the retention and failure morphology of the posts. Because...

  3. Morphology with a Null-Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Trost, H J; Trost, Harald; Matiasek, Johannes


    We present an integrated architecture for word-level and sentence-level processing in a unification-based paradigm. The core of the system is a CLP implementation of a unification engine for feature structures supporting relational values. In this framework an HPSG-style grammar is implemented. Word-level processing uses X2MorF, a morphological component based on an extended version of two-level morphology. This component is tightly integrated with the grammar as a relation. The advantage of this approach is that morphology and syntax are kept logically autonomous while at the same time minimizing interface problems.

  4. Morphological and Biological Study of Sanguisorba Officinalis Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova


    Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Sanguisorba officinalis seed material quality, put into various containers (paper, plastic, fabric, glass, in the different temperature conditions, light and dark grown. The morphology, biology of Sanguisorba officinalis seeds was described and experiments on cryopreservation were made. Basing on the study, we recommend to store Sanguisorba officinalis seed material within 3 months at a temperature of +4˚С in glass container, use plastic container for cryopreservation and to defreeze seeds by double boiling.

  5. Morphology of nanocermet thin films: X-ray scattering study (United States)

    Hazra, S.; Gibaud, A.; Désert, A.; Sella, C.; Naudon, A.


    The morphology of ceramic-metal (cermet) thin films is studied by surface-sensitive X-ray scattering techniques. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) experiments carried out at LURE with a 2D detector show that metal clusters of nanometer size, known as nanoparticles, are dispersed in the thin film. Analyses of the X-ray reflectivity along with the diffuse scattering allow to predict the formation of layers of nanoparticles along the growth direction of the films. The formation of such cumulative-disordered layers in one direction is likely to be related to the boundary condition in the reduced dimension.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Evaluation of root morphology and kinetic parameters assist in the characterization of genotypes in nutrient uptake efficiency. This study characterized Australian cedar clones concerning their nutrient uptake capacity at the seedling stage through root morphology and the kinetics of P, K, Ca, and Mg uptake. The experiment was conducted using a nutrient solution in a greenhouse and growth chamber. Four Australian cedar clones (HE, XF, XD, and XE, provided by Bela Forest View ( Empresa Florestal Bela Vista , were tested using a completely randomized design with five repetitions, totaling 20 experimental plots. The length, volume, surface area, average diameter, and root length per diameter class, as well as the uptake parameters V max , K m , C min , and the estimated inflow of P, K, Ca, and Mg, were determined. The root morphological characteristics varied between Australian cedar clones; clone XD exhibited the largest root system development. The uptake efficiency of P, K, Ca, and Mg varied between cedar Australian clones. When availability differed, clones XE and XF exhibited greater plasticity in the uptake of P and K respectively, and similar results were found for clone HE in the uptake of Ca and Mg.

  7. Microarray image analysis: background estimation using quantile and morphological filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Henrik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a microarray experiment the difference in expression between genes on the same slide is up to 103 fold or more. At low expression, even a small error in the estimate will have great influence on the final test and reference ratios. In addition to the true spot intensity the scanned signal consists of different kinds of noise referred to as background. In order to assess the true spot intensity background must be subtracted. The standard approach to estimate background intensities is to assume they are equal to the intensity levels between spots. In the literature, morphological opening is suggested to be one of the best methods for estimating background this way. Results This paper examines fundamental properties of rank and quantile filters, which include morphological filters at the extremes, with focus on their ability to estimate between-spot intensity levels. The bias and variance of these filter estimates are driven by the number of background pixels used and their distributions. A new rank-filter algorithm is implemented and compared to methods available in Spot by CSIRO and GenePix Pro by Axon Instruments. Spot's morphological opening has a mean bias between -47 and -248 compared to a bias between 2 and -2 for the rank filter and the variability of the morphological opening estimate is 3 times higher than for the rank filter. The mean bias of Spot's second method,, is between -5 and -16 and the variability is approximately the same as for morphological opening. The variability of GenePix Pro's region-based estimate is more than ten times higher than the variability of the rank-filter estimate and with slightly more bias. The large variability is because the size of the background window changes with spot size. To overcome this, a non-adaptive region-based method is implemented. Its bias and variability are comparable to that of the rank filter. Conclusion The performance of more advanced rank

  8. determination of morphological features and molecular interactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. This research focused on identifying the morphological features and molecular interactions of the. Nigerian Bentonitic clays using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) characterisation technique. The SEM microstructure images indicated that the bentonite samples are generally moderately dispersive to ...

  9. Automatic photointerpretation via texture and morphology analysis (United States)

    Tou, J. T.


    Computer-based techniques for automatic photointerpretation based upon information derived from texture and morphology analysis of images are discussed. By automatic photointerpretation, is meant the determination of semantic descriptions of the content of the images by computer. To perform semantic analysis of morphology, a heirarchical structure of knowledge representation was developed. The simplest elements in a morphology are strokes, which are used to form alphabets. The alphabets are the elements for generating words, which are used to describe the function or property of an object or a region. The words are the elements for constructing sentences, which are used for semantic description of the content of the image. Photointerpretation based upon morphology is then augmented by textural information. Textural analysis is performed using a pixel-vector approach.

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of Oyster mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    56) were from. Canada and two Pleurotus warm-stram (P-9) and Pleurotus eryngii (P-16) from Philpines. Seven different morphological traits that is, mycelial growth (mm), cap diameter (cm), total yield (kg), moisture contents (%) ...

  11. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.


    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... 1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae...

  12. Auroral Morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn


    Grodent, Denis


    We review the principal differences and similarities of the morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's auroral emissions. We then show some examples of UV images that are expected to be acquired with Cassini UVIS at Saturn and Juno UVS at Jupiter.

  13. Correlation between Morphological, Optical and Electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZnO Double Layers and the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell Efficiencies. ... The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were employed for the surface morphological measurements. The charge carrier concentrations, ...

  14. Ecological distribution, morphological characteristics and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological distribution, morphological characteristics and acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Durand & Schinz, Leptadenia hastata (Pers.) Decne and Cassia sieberiana (DC) used by veterinary healers in Burkina Faso.

  15. Unwrapping of phase maps using mathematical morphology (United States)

    Soille, Pierre


    This paper describes a new phase unwrapping algorithm based on morphological image processing. A region of interest corresponding to the areas where interferences occur is first extracted. This is achieved by processing the input interferograms with a combination of morphological closing and opening operators. The boundaries of the wrapped fringes are then enhanced by two gradient operators: morphological gradient by erosion for the fringe boundaries with high values and morphological gradient by dilation for the fringe boundaries with low values. Gaps along the boundaries which would lead to errors in the unwrapped phase map are filled in by the watershed transformation. Finally, the wrapped phase map is unwrapped by means of a region growing procedure based on priority queue data structures.

  16. Morphological and anatomical studies of Cyani herba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chiru


    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical investigation were carried out on stem, leaves, flowers and bracts of the species Centaurea cyanusL. The diagnostic parameters of vegetal product Cyani herbawere defined.

  17. Morphological characterization and evaluation of heat tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological characterization and evaluation of heat tolerance traits in Nigerian goat breeds. M Wheto, BM Ilori, AJ Sanda, MA Adeleke, SO Durosaro, AS Adenaike, AO Adebambo, CON Ikeobi, OM Onagbesan, MO Ozoje, OA Adebambo ...

  18. Exposing Problems Teaching Students Morphological Species Identification


    Stamper, Trevor; Weidner, Lauren; Nigoghosian, Gregory; Nunes, Ludmila D


    When dealing with physical remains, morphological assessment for species is a traditional approach to entomological specimen identification. A dichotomous key guides the user through taxa determination for a specimen by providing a series of dual-choice nodes that center around morphological differences. Each nodal choice leads to either a new set of dichotomous choices or a taxa decision. We evaluated student’s ability to utilize a dichotomous key down to species for a limited set of taxa, b...

  19. A framework for bootstrapping morphological decomposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, LJ


    Full Text Available ?). Morphological analysis is the task of extract- ing and interpreting these morphemes from words. Much as syntactic analysis attempts to decompose a sentence into its constituents, and assign categories to those con- stituents, morphological analysis (MA) aims... the phonological alternations in the language using regular expressions. 3. Tables, which capture the morphosyntactics, defin- ing how different word elements are combined to form words. The syntax for the above elements are defined as a formal grammar, which...

  20. Morphological Variations of Hippocampal Formation in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Researchers at Hospital Sao Paulo and other centers in Brazil compared the hippocampal formation (HF morphology of healthy asymptomatic individuals (n=30 with that of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS(n=68, of patients with malformations of cortical development (MCD(n=34, and of patients with morphological HF variations without other structural signs (pure MVHF(n=12.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zobnin


    Full Text Available The large part of the Russian National Corpus has automatic morphological markup. It is based on the morphological analyzer Mystem developed in Yandex with some postprocessing of the results (for example, all indeclinable nouns acquire the tag '0', verbs are divided into separate paradigms by aspect, etc.. Recently a new (third version of Mystem has been released (see  In this article we give an overview of its capabilities.

  2. Morphology of photoreceptor systems in microalgae. (United States)

    Gualtieri, P


    The polyphyletic artificial assemblage of O(2)-evolving, photosynthetic organisms, collectively referred to as algae, include a highly diverse array of organisms from large seaweeds (macroalgae) to unicellular microalgae. Phycology, the study of algae, focuses on morphological, ecological, physiological and molecular biological aspects of these organisms. Most microalgae show a photo-behaviour, i.e. they sense light and move towards it; in this review we will describe morphological similarities and differences in the photoreceptive system of microalgae.

  3. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption (United States)


    Departamento de Geofísica Universidad de Concepción, Concepción CHILE ABSTRACT A morphology of riometer auroral absorption is...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Departamento de Geofísica Universidad de...UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED MORPHOLOGY OF SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE RIOMETER AURORAL ABSORPTION Alberto J. Foppiano Departamento de

  4. A Morphological Theory of Human Hearing (United States)

    Pamieri, Paolo


    The interdisciplinary project motivating the work discussed in this paper aims at developing an integrated framework of ideas for human hearing research. The novelty of the project consists in combining the history and philosophy of sound perception in humans with psychoacoustics and mechanics of hearing. In this paper, I present a morphological theory of human hearing, which replaces the concept of tonopic representation in the cochlea which the concept of morphological representation.

  5. The effect of morphology upon electrophysiological responses of retinal ganglion cells: simulation results. (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Kameneva, Tatiana; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Grayden, David B


    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) display differences in their morphology and intrinsic electrophysiology. The goal of this study is to characterize the ionic currents that explain the behavior of ON and OFF RGCs and to explore if all morphological types of RGCs exhibit the phenomena described in electrophysiological data. We extend our previous single compartment cell models of ON and OFF RGCs to more biophysically realistic multicompartment cell models and investigate the effect of cell morphology on intrinsic electrophysiological properties. The membrane dynamics are described using the Hodgkin - Huxley type formalism. A subset of published patch-clamp data from isolated intact mouse retina is used to constrain the model and another subset is used to validate the model. Two hundred morphologically distinct ON and OFF RGCs are simulated with various densities of ionic currents in different morphological neuron compartments. Our model predicts that the differences between ON and OFF cells are explained by the presence of the low voltage activated calcium current in OFF cells and absence of such in ON cells. Our study shows through simulation that particular morphological types of RGCs are capable of exhibiting the full range of phenomena described in recent experiments. Comparisons of outputs from different cells indicate that the RGC morphologies that best describe recent experimental results are ones that have a larger ratio of soma to total surface area.

  6. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong


    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  7. Construction of Individual Morphological Brain Networks with Multiple Morphometric Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Yang


    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have increased attentions to the morphological brain network, which is generally constructed by measuring the mathematical correlation across regions using a certain morphometric feature, such as regional cortical thickness and voxel intensity. However, cerebral structure can be characterized by various factors, such as regional volume, surface area, and curvature. Moreover, most of the morphological brain networks are population-based, which has limitations in the investigations of individual difference and clinical applications. Hence, we have extended previous studies by proposing a novel method for realizing the construction of an individual-based morphological brain network through a combination of multiple morphometric features. In particular, interregional connections are estimated using our newly introduced feature vectors, namely, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the concatenation of seven morphometric features. Experiments were performed on a healthy cohort of 55 subjects (24 males aged from 20 to 29 and 31 females aged from 20 to 28 each scanned twice, and reproducibility was evaluated through test–retest reliability. The robustness of morphometric features was measured firstly to select the more reproducible features to form the connectomes. Then the topological properties were analyzed and compared with previous reports of different modalities. Small-worldness was observed in all the subjects at the range of the entire network sparsity (20–40%, and configurations were comparable with previous findings at the sparsity of 23%. The spatial distributions of the hub were found to be significantly influenced by the individual variances, and the hubs obtained by averaging across subjects and sparsities showed correspondence with previous reports. The intraclass coefficient of graphic properties (clustering coefficient = 0.83, characteristic path length = 0.81, betweenness centrality = 0.78 indicates

  8. A combinatorial approach to angiosperm pollen morphology. (United States)

    Mander, Luke


    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Influence of plasma shock wave on the morphology of laser drilling in different environments (United States)

    Zhai, Zhaoyang; Wang, Wenjun; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Kedian; Yang, Huizhu


    Nanosecond pulse laser was used to study nickel-based alloy drilling and compare processing results of microholes in air environment and water environment. Through analysis and comparison, it's found that environmental medium had obvious influence on morphology of laser drilling. High-speed camera was used to shoot plasma morphology during laser drilling process, theoretical formula was used to calculate boundary dimension of plasma and shock wave velocity, and finally parameters were substituted into computational fluid dynamics simulation software to obtain solutions. Obtained analysis results could intuitively explain different morphological features and forming reasons between laser drilling in air environment and water environment in the experiment from angle of plasma shock waves. By comparing simulation results and experimental results, it could help to get an understanding of formation mechanism of microhole morphology, thus providing basis for further improving process optimization of laser drilling quality.

  10. Controlling the nanoscale morphology of organic films deposited by polyatomic ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hanley, L; Fuoco, E R; Ahu-Akin, F; Wijesundara, M B J; Li, Maozhen; Tikhonov, A; Schlossman, M


    Hyperthermal polyatomic ion beams can be used to fabricate thin film nanostructures with controlled morphology. Several experiments are described in which mass-selected and non-mass-selected polyatomic ion beams are used to create nanometer thick films with controlled surface and buried interface morphologies. Fluorocarbon and thiophenic films are grown on silicon wafers and/or polystyrene from 5 to 200 eV C sub 3 F sub 5 sup + or C sub 4 H sub 4 S sup + ions, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and scanning electron microscopy are utilized to analyze the morphology and chemistry of these films. Polyatomic ions are found to control film morphology on the nanoscale through variation of the incident ion energy, ion structure and/or substrate.

  11. Semantic transparency and masked morphological priming: the case of prefixed words. (United States)

    Diependaele, Kevin; Sandra, Dominiek; Grainger, Jonathan


    In four lexical decision experiments, we investigated masked morphological priming with Dutch prefixed words. Reliable effects of morphological relatedness were obtained with visual primes and visual targets in the absence of effects due to pure form overlap. In certain conditions, priming effects were significantly greater with semantically transparent prefixed primes (e.g., rename-name) relative to the priming effects obtained with semantically opaque prefixed words (e.g., relate-late), even with very brief (40-msec) prime durations. With visual primes and auditory targets (cross-modal priming), significant facilitation was found in all related prime conditions, independent of whether or not primes were morphologically related to targets. The results are interpreted within a bimodal hierarchical model of word recognition in which morphological effects arise through the interplay of sublexical (morpho-orthographic) and supralexical (morpho-semantic) representations. The word stimuli from this study may be downloaded as supplemental materials from

  12. Morphology Analysis and Process Research on Novel Metal Fused-coating Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Zheng ying; Du, Jun; Ren, Chuan qi; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Zhitong; Bai, Hao


    Existing metal additive manufacturing equipment has high capital costs and slow throughput printing. In this paper, a new metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM) was proposed. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility. The low melting alloy was selected as the forming material. Then, the effect of process parameters such as the flow rate, deposition velocity and initial distance on the forming morphology. There is a strong coupling effect between the single track forming morphology. Through the analysis of influencing factors to improve the forming quality of specimens. The experimental results show that the twice as forming efficiency as the metal droplet deposition. Additionally, the forming morphology and quality were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope and X-ray. The results show that the metal fused-coating process can achieve good surface morphology and without internal tissue defect.

  13. Mechanisms of Morphology Development and Control in Polymer- Polymer Blends (United States)

    Macosko, Christopher W.


    Compatibilizers?" accepted for publication by Journal of Polymer Science, Polymer Physics Edition, 1997. Levitt, L. and C. W. Macosko, "Extensional Rheometry of Polymer Multilayers: A Sensitive Probe of Interfaces," J. Rheol, 41, 3, 671-685, (1997). Levitt, L., C.W. Macosko and S.D. Pearson, "Influence of Normal Stress Difference on Polymer Drop Deformation," Polym. Eng. Sci., 36, Part 12, 1647-1655 (1996). Nakayama, A., T. Inoue, A. Hirao, P. Guegan, A. Khandpur, and C. W. Macosko, "Compatibilization of Blends: Effect of Reaction Rate," PPS Proceedings, Sorrento, May 1996. Levitt, L., "Microlayer Morphology Via Polymer Melt Processing, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 1997. Orr, C. A., A. Adedeji, A. Hirao, F. S. Bates, and C. W. Macosko, "Flow-Induced Reactive Self-Assembly", Macromolecules, 30, 4, 1243-1246, (1997). Orr, C. A., "Reactive Compatibilization of Polymer Blends," Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 1997. Scott, C. E., and C. W. Macosko, "Morphology Development During the Initial Stages of Polymer-Polymer Blending," Polymer, 36, 461-470 (1995). Scott, C. E. and C. W. Macosko, "Model Experiments Concerning Morphology Development During the Initial Stages of Polymer Blending," Polymer Bulletin 26, 341- 348 (1991). Sundararaj, U., C. K. Shih, and C. W. Macosko, "Evidence For Inversion of Phase Continuity During Morphology Development in Polymer Blending," Polymer Eng. and Sci., 36, 1769-1781 (1996). Sundararaj, U., and C. W. Macosko, "Drop Breakup and Coalescence in Polymer Blends: The Effects of Concentration and Compatibilization, Macromolecules, 28, 2647-2657 (1995). Sundararaj, U., Y. Dori and C. W. Macosko, "Sheet Formation in Immiscible Polymer Blends: Model Experiments on Initial Blend Morphology," Polymer, 36, 1957-1968 (1995). Sundararaj, U., C. W. Macosko, A. Nakayama, and T. Inoue, "Milligrams to Kilograms: An Evaluation of Mixers for

  14. Effect of pH on the morphology of kidney stones (United States)

    Agarwal, Neelesh; Sova, Stacey; Singh, N. B.; Arnold, Brad; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian; Su, Ching-Hua


    The process for the formation of kidney stone is very complex phenomena and has some similarity to the crystal growth from a solution. It is very much dependent on the acidity pH of the fluids. This pH variation affects the content and amount of filtering residue and its morphology. In this study we have performed experiments using carbonate, oxides and urea to simulate and understand the morphologies of the residue filtered and coarsened in different conditions. We observed that different of morphologies of kidney stones can be explained on the basis of acidity and hydration conditions. At lower pH fat prism crystals are observed and as pH increases, long fat needle crystals with large aspect ratio are observed. The coarsening experiments showed further growth of crystals. The remelting experiments showed that during dissolution of kidney stones the joining material breaks first leaving the large faceted crystals undissolved when attempts are made to dissolve into small crystallites. However, the morphology did not change. It was also observed that impurities such as magnesium oxide (MgO) affect the morphology significantly.

  15. Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune morphology (United States)

    Barchyn, T.; Hugenholtz, C.


    The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare. One notable exception is the Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), where massive grass-covered barchan and transverse dunes bear proof of former desert-like conditions. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model to explain the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes. The model incorporates a growth curve that preferentially grows vegetation in regions of sediment deposition with a sharp drop in growth at the peak depositional tolerance of vegetation, qualitatively matching biological response to erosion and deposition. Simulations on a range of pre-stabilization dune morphologies, from large closely-spaced transverse dunes to small dispersed barchans, indicate that the stabilized morphology is largely determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to peak depositional tolerance of vegetation. Conceptually, slipface deposition rate is related to dune height and celerity. By keeping depositional tolerance constant (representing a constant vegetation type and climate) the model shows that large slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and essentially 'freeze' in place once vegetation is introduced, retaining their pre-vegetation morphology. Small fast-moving dunes have higher slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes. We hypothesize that, when barchan and transverse dunes are subjected to a stabilizing climate shift that increases vegetation growth rate, they retain their pre-stabilization morphology if deposition rates are below the depositional tolerance of stabilizing vegetation, otherwise they become parabolic dunes. This could explain why NSH dunes are stabilized in barchan and transverse morphologies while elsewhere on the Great Plains dune fields are dominated by smaller parabolic dunes.

  16. Functional implications of dicynodont cranial suture morphology. (United States)

    Jasinoski, Sandra C; Rayfield, Emily J; Chinsamy, Anusuya


    Cranial suture morphology of Lystrosaurus and the generalized dicynodont Oudenodon was investigated to determine the strain environment during mastication, which in turn may indicate a difference in cranial function between the two taxa. Finite element (FE) analysis indicated that less strain accumulated in the cranium of Lystrosaurus during orthal bite simulations than in Oudenodon. Despite the overall difference in strain magnitude, moderate to high FE-predicted strain accumulated in similar areas of the cranium of both taxa. The suture morphology in these cranial regions of Lystrosaurus and Oudenodon was investigated further by examination of histological sections and supplemented by observations of serial sections and computed tomography (CT) scans. The predominant type of strain from selected blocks of finite elements that contain sutures was determined, enabling comparison of suture morphology to strain type. Drawing from strain-suture correlations established in extant taxa, the observed patterns of sutural morphology for both dicynodonts were used to deduce cranial function. The moderate to high compressive and tensile strain experienced by the infraorbital bar, zygomatic arch, and postorbital bar of Oudenodon and Lystrosaurus may have been decreased by small adjustive movements at the scarf sutures in those regions. Disparities in cranial suture morphology between the two taxa may reflect differences in cranial function. For instance, the tongue and groove morphology of the postorbital-parietal suture in Oudenodon could have withstood the higher FE-predicted tensile strain in the posterior skull roof. The scarf premaxilla-nasal suture of Lystrosaurus provided an additional region of sutural mobility in the anterior surface of the snout, suggesting that Lystrosaurus may have employed a different biting regime than Oudenodon. The morphology of several sutures sampled in this study correlated with the FE-predicted strain, although other cranial functional

  17. Morphological integration in the carnivoran skull. (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali


    The correlated evolution of traits may be a principal factor in morphological evolution, but it is typically studied in genetic or developmental systems. Most studies examining phenotypic trait correlations, through analysis of morphological integration, consider only few taxa, with limited ability to test hypotheses of the influence of trait integration on morphological variation and diversity. The few comparative studies in less inclusive groups have yielded varying relationships of integration to the key factors of phylogeny and diet. In this paper, I present analyses of cranial morphological integration in 30 species from the mammalian order Carnivora, spanning eight extant families and a wide range of ecological and morphological diversity. Fifty-five cranial landmarks were captured through three-dimensional digitization of 15-22 specimens for each species. Using a node-based phylogenetic distance matrix, a significant correlation was found between similarity in patterns of integration and phylogenetic relatedness within Felidae (cats) and Canidae (dogs), but not within more inclusive clades, when size-related variation was removed. When size was included, significant correlations were found across all Caniformia, Musteloidea, Mustelidae, and Felidae. There was a significant correlation between phylogeny and morphological integration only within the higher-level clade Feliformia (cats, civets, mongooses, and hyaenas) when a branch-length-based phylogenetic distance matrix was analyzed, with and without size. In contrast, diet was significantly correlated with similarity in morphological integration in arctoid carnivorans (bears, raccoons, and weasels), but had no significant relationship with integration in feliforms or canids. These results support the proposition that evolutionary history is correlated with cranial integration across large clades, although in some smaller clades diet also exerts significant influence on the correlated evolution of traits.

  18. The double identity of doubling: Evidence for the phonology-morphology split. (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered


    Duality of patterning, is, by hypothesis, a universal design feature of language. Every language constructs words from meaningful units (morphemes), which, in turn, are comprised of meaningless phonological elements (e.g., segments, syllables). But whether the language faculty does, in fact, include a separate morphological level, distinct from the phonology, is a matter of controversy. To elucidate the role of morphology, here we ask whether morphological forms are constrained by putatively universal combinatorial principles, distinct from those applying to phonological patterns. Our research exploits the structural ambiguity of doubling. Doubling (e.g., trafraf) is open to two competing interpretations-as either a purely phonological form, or as a complex morphological structure that is systematically linked to meaning (e.g., trafraf is the diminutive of traf). Our experiments show that responses to doubling (trafraf) shift radically, depending on its level of analysis. Viewed as a meaningless phonological form, doubling is dispreferred irrespective of its kind (i.e., trafraf is as bad as traftaf, even though the latter violates a morphological constraint on contiguity). But once doubling is systematically linked to meaning (i.e., as a morphological structure), the doubling dislike shifts into a reliable preference, and an additional constraint on its contiguity arises (i.e., trafraf>traftaf). Remarkably, the dissociation between morphological and phonological doubling emerges regardless of whether morphological reduplication is abundant in participants' language (in Hebrew) or relatively rare (in English). These results suggest the existence of distinct linguistic constraints that preferentially target the morphological vs. phonological levels. We discuss various explanations for the origins of these restrictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity (United States)


    Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might provide an auspicious and

  20. Morphology engineering--osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity. (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, Thomas; Hestler, Timo; Krull, Rainer


    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg(-1) h(-1) around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg(-1) depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might provide an auspicious and reliable approach to increase

  1. Morphological characteristics of Street Workout practitioners. (United States)

    Sanchez-Martinez, Javier; Plaza, Paula; Araneda, Alberto; Sánchez, Patricio; Almagiâ, Atilio


    The determination of the morphological characteristics of the most popular sports has allowed the evaluation and comparison between athletes, which has helped to improve their performance. The Street Workout is an emerging sport based on calisthenics, which recently has become popular. Despite its popularization, neither the morphologic profile nor the morphologic characteristics of Street Workout athletes has been determined. Determine the profile and morphological characteristics of Street-Workout athletes, through anthropometry. Fourteen athletes (22.7 ± 3.26 years) were recruited from the National Calisthenics Tournament 2015 in Chile. The athletes were evaluated following the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry to determine the somatotype, body composition, as well as indices of body composition such as body mass index, waist to hip ratio, waist to height ratio, fat/muscle mass and muscle/bone mass indexes. Street Workout practitioners presented a balanced-mesomorphic somatotype, a low fat mass and a high muscular development, with upper arms and trunk predominance. Regarding body composition indices, the values obtained allow us to classify them as a low-risk population of chronic non-communicable diseases. The present study sets a first antecedent of the morphological characteristics of Street Workout, determining that the Street Workout athletes presented balanced-mesomorphic somatotype and were classified as a healthy and athletic sample by their body composition indexes.

  2. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations. (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R


    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experience in public goods experiments


    Conte, Anna; Levati, M. Vittoria; Montinari, Natalia


    We use information on students' past participation in economic experiments, as stored in our database, to analyze whether behavior in public goods games is affected by experience (i.e., previous participation in social dilemma-type experiments) and history (i.e., participation in experiments of a different class than the social dilemma). We have three main results. First, at the aggregate level, the amount subjects contribute and expect others to contribute decrease with experience. Second, a...

  4. Morphological Awareness and Children's Writing: Accuracy, Error, and Invention. (United States)

    McCutchen, Deborah; Stull, Sara


    This study examined the relationship between children's morphological awareness and their ability to produce accurate morphological derivations in writing. Fifth-grade U.S. students ( n = 175) completed two writing tasks that invited or required morphological manipulation of words. We examined both accuracy and error, specifically errors in spelling and errors of the sort we termed morphological inventions , which entailed inappropriate, novel pairings of stems and suffixes. Regressions were used to determine the relationship between morphological awareness, morphological accuracy, and spelling accuracy, as well as between morphological awareness and morphological inventions. Linear regressions revealed that morphological awareness uniquely predicted children's generation of accurate morphological derivations, regardless of whether or not accurate spelling was required. A logistic regression indicated that morphological awareness was also uniquely predictive of morphological invention, with higher morphological awareness increasing the probability of morphological invention. These findings suggest that morphological knowledge may not only assist children with spelling during writing, but may also assist with word production via generative experimentation with morphological rules during sentence generation. Implications are discussed for the development of children's morphological knowledge and relationships with writing.

  5. The Relationship of Morphological Analysis and Morphological Decoding to Reading Comprehension (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Tong, Xiuli; Francis, Kathryn


    The ultimate goal of children's reading development is the full and fluid understanding of texts. Morphological structure awareness, or children's awareness of the minimal units of meaning in language, has been identified as a key skill influencing reading comprehension. Here, we evaluate the roles of morphological structure awareness and two…

  6. Building Vocabulary of English Learners with Reading Disabilities through Computer-Assisted Morphology Instruction (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Anderson, Adrienne L.; Bunch-Crump, Kimberly


    Many educators in public schools in the United States experience challenges in meeting the unique needs of the growing population of English learners who must simultaneously attain academic skills while acquiring English language proficiency. Such unique needs intensify for English learners with reading disabilities. Morphological awareness is key…

  7. Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Bakker, G.C.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.


    An experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and on small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets. In total, 108 piglets were used, without access to creep feed during the suckling period. Piglets were weaned at 27 days of age. They were fed ad

  8. Sensitivity to Morphological Composition in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Grammatical and Lexical Identification Tasks (United States)

    Gwilliams, Laura E.; Monahan, Philip J.; Samuel, Arthur G.


    Access to morphological structure during lexical processing has been established across a number of languages; however, it remains unclear which constituents are held as mental representations in the lexicon. The present study examined the auditory recognition of different noun types across 2 experiments. The critical manipulations were…

  9. Early, Equivalent ERP Masked Priming Effects for Regular and Irregular Morphology (United States)

    Morris, Joanna; Stockall, Linnaea


    Converging evidence from behavioral masked priming (Rastle & Davis, 2008), EEG masked priming (Morris, Frank, Grainger, & Holcomb, 2007) and single word MEG (Zweig & Pylkkanen, 2008) experiments has provided robust support for a model of lexical processing which includes an early, automatic, visual word form based stage of morphological parsing…

  10. Morphological Analysis and Solubility of Lead Particles: Effect of Phosphates and Implications to Drinking Water Distribution (United States)

    Objective • Describe lead synthesis experiments conduced to model the impact of water quality on lead particles and solubility • Develop a model system that can be used for lead solubility studies • Understand the how phosphates impact the morphology and solubility transfo...

  11. Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frangi, A. F.; Niessen, W. J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Bakker, J.; Mali, W. P.; Viergever, M. A.


    A 3D model-based approach for quantification of vascular morphology from several MRA acquisition protocols was evaluated. Accuracy, reproducibility, and influence of the image acquisition techniques were studied via in vitro experiments with ground truth diameters and the measurements of two expert

  12. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, A.; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E.; Wirth, Brian D.; Kurtz, Richard J.


    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, $b$, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy ($N_F$$ \\sim$$E_{MD}^b$). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, $\\mu$, between the high- and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of $\\mu$ as a function of displacement threshold energy, $E_d$, is presented for bcc metals.

  13. Morphologic descriptions of Taenia asiatica sp. n. (United States)

    Eom, K S; Rim, H J


    Among taeniid tapeworms infecting humans through pork or beef, Taenia solium Linnaeus 1758 and Taenia saginata Goeze 1782 have already been known. Based on the morphologic characteristics of adult and metacestodes of Asian Taenia saginata, the third kind of human taeniid tapeworm known to distribute in Asian countries, a new species name of Taenia asiatica is proposed. In addition to the known biology in their intermediate hosts, T. asiatica was different morphologically from Taenia saginata Goeze 1782 in having the unarmed rostellum on the scolex of adult, the large number of 'uterine twigs' and the existence of 'posterior protuberance'. These structures in the gravid proglottids were used as taxonomic keys in taeniid tapeworms for the first time. T. asiatica metacestode (Cysticercus viscerotropica) was different morphologically from T. saginata metacestode (Cysticercus bovis) in having wartlike formations on the external surface of the bladder wall.

  14. Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael


    Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

  15. Bioinformatic and Biometric Methods in Plant Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surangi W. Punyasena


    Full Text Available Recent advances in microscopy, imaging, and data analyses have permitted both the greater application of quantitative methods and the collection of large data sets that can be used to investigate plant morphology. This special issue, the first for Applications in Plant Sciences, presents a collection of papers highlighting recent methods in the quantitative study of plant form. These emerging biometric and bioinformatic approaches to plant sciences are critical for better understanding how morphology relates to ecology, physiology, genotype, and evolutionary and phylogenetic history. From microscopic pollen grains and charcoal particles, to macroscopic leaves and whole root systems, the methods presented include automated classification and identification, geometric morphometrics, and skeleton networks, as well as tests of the limits of human assessment. All demonstrate a clear need for these computational and morphometric approaches in order to increase the consistency, objectivity, and throughput of plant morphological studies.

  16. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Saleh


    Full Text Available This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from Al–Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a the students’ competence in English morphology is poor and (b The errors are caused by some factors such as the inconsistency in English as well as misapplication of rules. Interference and overgeneralization are also other causes. Since the course of morphology is selective in the university plan, it is also considered as an important cause. In order to reduce their errors, the researcher has suggested some remedies.

  17. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny. (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan


    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  18. UAV application in coastal morphological study (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu


    Intensive studies were conducted to observe long term coastal morphological change using satellite imagery. However, long satellite revisit time makes it difficult to capture the daily event. In this study, continuous images were used to analyze the daily coastal morphological variation. Unmanned Flight Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a high resolution camera ( 4000 * 3000 pixel) was used to capture image every one hour. After comparing with different imaginary post-processing method, Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) superpixels was used due to its (1) high efficiency in computing time (2) high accurate of segment in different feature of the images. Results show that analyzing image with high time resolution using high accuracy processing tool enable us to capture the detail coastal morphological change which facilitate the interpretation of physical phenomenon.

  19. Menstruum induces changes in mesothelial cell morphology. (United States)

    Koks, C A; Demir Weusten, A Y; Groothuis, P G; Dunselman, G A; de Goeij, A F; Evers, J L


    In previous studies, we have shown that menstrual endometrium preferentially adheres to the subepithelial lining of the peritoneum. It remains to be elucidated, however, whether this damage is preexisting or inflicted by the menstrual tissue itself. We hypothesized that the menstrual tissue itself damages the peritoneum. To investigate this, the viability of menstrual endometrial tissue in peritoneal fluid (PF) was evaluated and the morphologic changes in the mesothelial cells were studied by in vitro cocultures of menstruum with mesothelial cell monolayers. Menstruum was collected with a menstrual cup. Endometrial tissue was isolated from the menstruum, resuspended in culture medium or in the cell-free fraction of PF and cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h. A 3(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to obtain a relative measure of viable adhered endometrial cells. Mesothelial cells isolated from human omental tissue were cultured on Matrigel or uncoated plastic. At confluence, overnight cocultures were performed and scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphologic changes. The viability of endometrial fragments was 84% (n = 36, p Menstrual endometrial fragments or menstrual serum added to and cocultured with mesothelial cells induced severe morphologic alterations of the latter, including retraction, shrinking and gap formation. Similar morphologic changes were observed when mesothelial cells were cocultured with menstrual endometrial fragments in PF or in culture inserts. Incubation with conditioned medium from cultured menstrual endometrium induced similar but less pronounced changes in morphology. In conclusion, menstrual endometrial fragments remain viable in PF in vitro for at least 72 h. Antegradely shed menstruum induces changes in mesothelial cell morphology, including retraction and shrinking with exposure of the underlying surface. These findings suggest that menstruum is harmful to the peritoneal

  20. Customer experience


    Koperdáková, Zuzana


    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  1. Geometric phase morphology of Jones matrices. (United States)

    Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Canales-Benavides, Arturo; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C


    We demonstrate an innovative technique based on the Pancharatnam-Berry phase that can be used to determine whether an optical system characterized by a Jones matrix is homogeneous or inhomogeneous, containing orthogonal or nonorthogonal eigenpolarizations, respectively. Homogeneous systems have a symmetric geometric phase morphology showing line dislocations and sets of polarization states with an equal geometric phase. In contrast, the morphology of inhomogeneous systems exhibits phase singularities, where the Pancharatnam-Berry phase is undetermined. The results show an alternative to extract polarization properties such as diattenuation and retardance, and can be used to study the transformation of space-variant polarized beams.

  2. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu


    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  3. Bacterial Morphologies Supporting Cometary Panspermia: a Reappraisal (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    It is nearly 30 years since the first decisive evidence of microbial morphologies in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug. In addition to morphology other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, served to confirm the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Recent examinations of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and further studies of carbonaceous meteorites reaffirm the presence of putative microbial fossils. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  4. Morphological modeling of terrains and volume data

    CERN Document Server

    Comic, Lidija; Magillo, Paola; Iuricich, Federico


    This book describes the mathematical background behind discrete approaches to morphological analysis of scalar fields, with a focus on Morse theory and on the discrete theories due to Banchoff and Forman. The algorithms and data structures presented are used for terrain modeling and analysis, molecular shape analysis, and for analysis or visualization of sensor and simulation 3D data sets. It covers a variety of application domains including geography, geology, environmental sciences, medicine and biology. The authors classify the different approaches to morphological analysis which are all ba


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shkalova


    Full Text Available The literature data in modern transplantology concerning morphology of ischemic injury of liver allograft are analyzed in the article. Questions of pathogenesis of liver allograft ischemic injury, histological features that indicate the possibility of donor liver transplantation are discussed in detail, as well as the role of steatosis and its reverse is highlighted. We tried to systematize the morphological changes depending on severity of ischemic injury; also we focused on the questions of persistency of the ischemic injury in the liver allograft. 

  6. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Knowledge for Adolescent Readers (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Petscher, Yaacov; Carlisle, Joanne F.; Mitchell, Alison M.


    This study examined the dimensionality of morphological knowledge. The performance of 371 seventh- and eighth-graders on seven morphological knowledge tasks was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggested that morphological knowledge was best fit by a bifactor model with a general factor of morphological knowledge and seven…

  7. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal


    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  8. Morphological learning in a novel language: A cross-language comparison. (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Waris, Otto; Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti


    Being able to extract and interpret the internal structure of complex word forms such as the English word dance+r+s is crucial for successful language learning. We examined whether the ability to extract morphological information during word learning is affected by the morphological features of one's native tongue. Spanish and Finnish adult participants performed a word-picture associative learning task in an artificial language where the target words included a suffix marking the gender of the corresponding animate object. The short exposure phase was followed by a word recognition task and a generalization task for the suffix. The participants' native tongues vary greatly in terms of morphological structure, leading to two opposing hypotheses. On the one hand, Spanish speakers may be more effective in identifying gender in a novel language because this feature is present in Spanish but not in Finnish. On the other hand, Finnish speakers may have an advantage as the abundance of bound morphemes in their language calls for continuous morphological decomposition. The results support the latter alternative, suggesting that lifelong experience on morphological decomposition provides an advantage in novel morphological learning.

  9. Morphological analysis and DNA methylation in Conyza bonariensis L. cronquist (Asteraceae phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria de Paula


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The species Conyza bonariensis (L. cause losses in agriculture due to their invasive capacity and resistance to herbicides like glyphosate. The species of this genus exhibit phenotypic plasticity, which complicates their identification and characterization. Thus, experiments were performed with 2 extreme C. bonariensis phenotypes (called broad leaf and narrow leaf in greenhouse conditions and in the laboratory, in order to verify if the morphological differences among these phenotypes are a genetic character or result from environmental effects. In addition to the comparative morphological analysis, assessment of DNA methylation profile was performed to detect the occurrence, or not, of differences in the epigenetic level. The morphological characteristics evaluated were length, width, shape, margin and leaves indument; plant height and stem indument; the number of capitula, flowers and seeds. The Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism technique was used to investigate the methylation levels. The morphological differences of phenotypes supposed to be C. bonariensis are probably genetic in origin and not the result of environmental effects, since, after 6 crop cycles in a greenhouse under the same environmental conditions, these phenotypes remained with the same morphological characteristics and seed production in relation to the original phenotypes found in the collection site. The different phenotypes did not show differences corresponding to DNA methylation patterns that could indicate an epigenetic effect as the cause of the differences between the 2 phenotypes. The results of morphological analysis and methylation probably indicate that maybe they are individuals of populations from different taxa not registered yet in the literature.

  10. Morphologies of ABC triblock terpolymer melts containing poly(Cyclohexadiene): Effects of conformational asymmetry

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rajeev Senthil


    We have synthesized linear ABC triblock terpolymers containing poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene), PCHD, as an end block and characterized their morphologies in the melt. Specifically, we have studied terpolymers containing polystyrene (PS), polybutadiene (PB), and polyisoprene (PI) as the other blocks. Systematically varying the ratio of 1,2- /1,4-microstructures of poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene), we have studied the effects of conformational asymmetry among the three blocks on the morphologies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and self-consistent field theory (SCFT) performed with PolySwift++. Our work reveals that the triblock terpolymer melts containing a high percentage of 1,2-microstructures in the PCHD block are disordered at 110 C for all the samples, independent of sequence and volume fraction of the blocks. In contrast, the triblock terpolymer melts containing a high percentage of 1,4-microstructure form regular morphologies known from the literature. The accuracy of the SCFT calculations depends on calculating the χ parameters that quantify the repulsive interactions between different monomers. Simulations using χ values obtained from solubility parameters and group contribution methods are unable to reproduce the morphologies as seen in the experiments. However, SCFT calculations accounting for the enhancement of the χ parameter with an increase in the conformational asymmetry lead to an excellent agreement between theory and experiments. These results highlight the importance of conformational asymmetry in tuning the χ parameter and, in turn, morphologies in block copolymers. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    resistance, this effect is not likely to be seen in healthy subjects (Xu et al., 2012). Studies by Liu et al. (2003) observed that long-term oral nicotine administration reduces insulin resistance in obese rats. The current study examined the effect of prenatal nicotine on the morphology and the histology of the cerebral cortex of ...

  12. Pollen morphology of some European Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Tj.


    In this preliminary investigation attention was paid to pollen morphology of West-European species of the Rosaceae. Some new terms were used like fastigium, endocingulus etc. The terminology of Iversen and Troels-Smith has been followed in addition to improvements by Erdtman. A key is given to the

  13. Morphological characterization and phylogenetic distance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 10, 2011 ... Four genera and 75 species belonging to Cactaceae family were investigated regarding their morphology and their molecular polymorphism. The botanical classification that described the phenotypic aspects of different characters, such as number of spines/areoles, length of spines and flower diameter ...

  14. Baseline Haematology and Erythrocyte Morphological Changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. Nigeria Ibadan, Nigeria. Summary: This study evaluates the haematological parameters and the observed erythrocytes morphological changes in dogs raised in Ibadan, Oyo State in the south western part of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from sixty-four.

  15. Baseline Haematology and Erythrocyte Morphological Changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study evaluates the haematological parameters and the observed erythrocytes morphological changes in dogs raised in Ibadan, Oyo State in the south western part of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from sixty-four apparently healthy dogs. The haematological parameters of the blood samples ...

  16. Morphological differentiation of vectors of onchocerciasis, Simulium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reliable identification of biting adult females of the sibling species of the Simulium damnosum complex transmitting the different species and strains of Onchocerca volvulus is very essential in studies of transmission and epidemiology of human onchocerciasis. A novel technique for morphological differentiation has ...

  17. Sexing California Clapper Rails using morphological measurements (United States)

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Rohmer, Tobias M.


    California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) have monomorphic plumage, a trait that makes identification of sex difficult without extensive behavioral observation or genetic testing. Using 31 Clapper Rails (22 females, 9 males), caught in south San Francisco Bay, CA, and using easily measurable morphological characteristics, we developed a discriminant function to distinguish sex. We then validated this function on 33 additional rails. Seven morphological measurements were considered, resulting in three which were selected in the discriminate function: culmen length, tarsometatarsus length, and flat wing length. We had no classification errors for the development or testing datasets either with resubstitution or cross-validation procedures. Male California Clapper Rails were 6-22% larger than females for individual morphological traits, and the largest difference was in body mass.  Variables in our discriminant function closely match variables developed for sexing Clapper Rails of Gulf Coast populations. However, a universal discriminant function to sex all Clapper Rail subspecies is not likely because of large and inconsistent differences in morphological traits among subspecies. 

  18. Galaxy Zoo: Infrared and Optical Morphology (United States)

    Carla Shanahan, Jesse; Lintott, Chris; Zoo, Galaxy


    We present the detailed, visual morphologies of approximately 60,000 galaxies observed by the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and then classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. Our sample is composed entirely of nearby objects with redshifts of z ≤ 0.3, which enables us to robustly analyze their morphological characteristics including smoothness, bulge properties, spiral structure, and evidence of bars or rings. The determination of these features is made via a consensus-based analysis of the Galaxy Zoo project data in which inconsistent and outlying classifications are statistically down-weighted. We then compare these classifications of infrared morphology to the objects’ optical classifications in the Galaxy Zoo 2 release (Willett et al. 2013). It is already known that morphology is an effective tool for uncovering a galaxy’s dynamical past, and previous studies have shown significant correlations with physical characteristics such as stellar mass distribution and star formation history. We show that majority of the sample has agreement or expected differences between the optical and infrared classifications, but also present a preliminary analysis of a subsample of objects with striking discrepancies.

  19. Morphology of polyethylene ski base materials. (United States)

    Fischer, Jörg; Wallner, Gernot M; Pieber, Alois


    We used high-resolution Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry for a comprehensive analysis of carbon black-filled polyethylene ski base grades at processing stages from the raw material to the structured ski base. Based on Raman mapping, we assessed the applicability of an advanced evaluation procedure for amorphous, disordered, and crystalline phase fractions of polyethylene for polyethylene extrusion and sinter grades. For sinter grades, a sufficient segregation between carbon black and polyethylene was confirmed, allowing for a comprehensive Raman spectroscopic morphological analysis. Significant morphological changes in polyethylene due to processing from the raw material to the semi-finished film and to the structured ski base were identified. Throughout the processing chain, we observed a decrease in crystallinity and an increase in the amorphous phase fraction. Although the raw material and the sintered semi-finished film exhibited a different but uniform polyethylene morphology, the morphological changes due to structuring of the ski base are limited to the top surface layer. The highest amorphous phase fractions were detected in the surface of the structured ski bases.

  20. Mathematical Morphology for Structures without Translation Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Heijmans, H.J.A.M.


    Euclidean mathematical morphology is based on the use of translation-invariant transformations of the Boolean lattice of all subsets of the Euclidean space. We discuss how the theory can be generalized to arbitrary complete atomic Boolean lattices with a commutative group structure on the set of

  1. 3D analysis of facial morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, Peter; Hutton, Tim J.; Allanson, Judith E.; Campbell, Linda E.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Holden, Sean; Patton, Michael A.; Shaw, Adam; Temple, I. Karen; Trotter, Matthew; Murphy, Kieran C.; Winter, Robin M.


    Dense surface models can be used to analyze 3D facial morphology by establishing a correspondence of thousands of points across each 3D face image. The models provide dramatic visualizations of 3D face-shape variation with potential for training physicians to recognize the key components of

  2. Morphological and functional outcome of dismembered pyeloplasty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dismembered pyeloplasty (Andersen-Hynes) was performed via an open or laparoscopic approach. All cases were followed up clinically and radiologically at regular intervals for the assessment of both morphological and functional outcome. Success was defined as both symptomatic relief and radiographic resolution of ...

  3. Host range evaluation and morphological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 2, 2010 ... pathogens” with high evolutionary potential (Sarris et al.,. 2008). Pathogenic and morphological variation of this oomycete appear to be correlated with host and environ- mental conditions (Lebeda and Widrlechner, 2003), and significant variation has been found at both the individual and population levels.

  4. Simulating Morphological Evolution in Large Robot Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemo, F.; Markovic, M; Schoormans, J.; De Jonge, P; Couwenberg, M; Haasdijk, E.W.


    Computational capacity and memory are limiting factors when simulating large numbers of robots with complex bodies: available physics engines struggle to handle more than a couple of dozens of complex robot bodies. This limits the possibilities of investigating the evolution of robot morphology to

  5. Morphological diversity in oleaginous watermelon (Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    analyze variations in plant, fruit and seed morphology in. C. lanatus oleaginous type collection from Côte d'Ivoire. This represents the first study on collection and characterization of C. lanatus oleaginous type germplasm in Nangui Abrogoua University. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant and collection sites. In this study ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Morphology and chromosome numbers than one nucleus per cell (Partanen, 1963). Polyploidy in some instances is advantageous as it affects plant part sizes like larger leaf areas, flowers and fruits (Walker et al. 2005; El-. Ferchichi et al. 2006; Samiha et al. 2009). The higher number of viable seeds per follicle and matured ...

  7. Blood cell morphology : controversies and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Wim van der


    In this thesis we describe controversial morphologic features in both microscopic and automated differentiation of blood cells. In addition, we have investigated alternative methods to overcome these shortcomings. Furthermore we describe the variance of microscopic counting of band cells and variant

  8. Morphological Analysis and Vocabulary Development: Critical Criteria (United States)

    Bellomo, Tom S.


    Morphological Analysis as a vocabulary acquisition strategy has both its advocates and antagonists. Criticism from opponents is often warranted when programs omit one or more of the three critical criteria that establish the framework behind a successful curriculum. The intent behind this paper is to disseminate and explicate these three criteria,…

  9. Numerical Taxonomy and Morphological Variation of Cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A numerical taxonomic study was conducted to investigate the patterns of morphological and phenological variations in 45 okra accessions from different agroecological zones of Ghana dur-ing the rainy season of 2005. The results of the study showed that there were two main phenetic groupings of okra accessions in ...

  10. Morphology and structure of polytene chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhimulev, I.F. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    The morphology and structure of polytene chromosomes is the subject of this detailed volume of Advances in Genetics. Polytene chromosomes are the only interphase chromosomes that appear throughout as individual structures, and therefore offer the kind of detail of the molecular biology that geneticists need. 2869 refs., 123 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Synthesis, structural and surface morphological characterizations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulfated zirconia (SZ) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized and deposited via chemical route called sol-gel technique. The structural, morphological, and optical properties the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy ...

  12. Biochemical, haematological and morphological variations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical, haematological and morphological variations in juvenile Clarias gariepinus exposed to Carbendazim® (methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate; CBZ), a fungicide effective for the control of fungal pathogens in plants, were determined. The 96 h LC50 value of CBZ determined by probit analysis was 4.33 mg ...

  13. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 6. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and chemical distinction – A case study from India and its implications. Ambalika Niyogi Jayanta K Pati Suresh C Patel Dipak Panda Shiv K Patil. Volume 120 Issue 6 December 2011 pp ...

  14. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Woltering, E.J.


    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the

  15. Morphological, cultural, pathogenic and molecular variability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) causes severe foliar damage to Indian mustard in Uttarakhand. Ten (10) isolates of A. brassicae were collected from different hosts and characterized for cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular variations. A. brassicae colonies varied in their cultural behaviour ranging from ...

  16. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution. (United States)

    Sims, Hallie J


    The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal


    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  18. Probing polymer nanocomposite morphology by small angle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... Polyamide nanocomposite films were prepared from nanometer-sized silica particles having particle radius of gyration (g) of about 66 Å and trimesoyl chloride--phenylene diamine-based polyamides having macromolecular units of about 100-140 Å. The nanoscale morphology of the samples was ...

  19. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans


    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY. OF FISHES. PART I. INTRODUCTION. N. A. H. MILLARD. Zoology Department, University of Cape Town. During recent years the functional anatomy of the head region of fishes has been the subject of a number of projects by Honours students in the University of ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MINDING ONE'S METATHEORY IN OOING MORPHOLOGY. 1. INTRODUCTION. Rudolf P. Botha. Department of General Linguistics. University of SteUenbosch. In this paper, I would like to address the question of (1) from a metatheoretica1 point of view: (1). Are syntax and word formation governed by similar rules or ...

  2. Morphological characterization and phylogenetic distance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four genera and 75 species belonging to Cactaceae family were investigated regarding their morphology and their molecular polymorphism. The botanical classification that described the phenotypic aspects of different characters, such as number of spines/areoles, length of spines and flower diameter, was used to ...

  3. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The current classification of renal-cell adenomas (RCAs) and carcinomas (RCCs) is based on eight basic cell and tumor types (entities) with characteristic morphologic features: (1) RCCs of clear-cell type, (2) RCAs/RCCs of chromophilic-cell type, (3) RCAs/RCCs of chromophobic-cell type, (4) RCCs of

  5. Tidal controls on river delta morphology (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.


    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  6. Morphology and productivity of filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Grimm, L H; Kelly, S; Krull, R; Hempel, D C


    Cultivation processes involving filamentous fungi have been optimised for decades to obtain high product yields. Several bulk chemicals like citric acid and penicillin are produced this way. A simple adaptation of cultivation parameters for new production processes is not possible though. Models explaining the correlation between process-dependent growth behaviour and productivity are therefore necessary to prevent long-lasting empiric test series. Yet, filamentous growth consists of a complex microscopic differentiation process from conidia to hyphae resulting in various macroscopically visible appearances. Early approaches to model this morphologic development are recapitulated in this review to explain current trends in this area of research. Tailoring morphology by adjusting process parameters is one side of the coin, but an ideal morphology has not even been found. This article reviews several reasons for this fact starting with nutrient supply in a fungal culture and presents recent advances in the investigation of fungal metabolism. It illustrates the challenge to unfold the relationship between morphology and productivity.

  7. Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Schubert, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.


    The genus Cladosporium is restricted to dematiaceous hyphomycetes with a coronate scar type, and Davidiella teleomorphs. In the present study numerous cladosporium-like taxa are treated, and allocated to different genera based on their morphology and DNA phylogeny derived from the LSU nrRNA gene.

  8. Morphological diagnosis of sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Villanueva, E


    The study reveals preliminary results of a bilateral project involving the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Granada (Spain). Morphological findings were compared to the results of thanatochemical analyses of peri...

  9. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both species responded morphologically as well as anatomically to water stress. Water stress caused significant (P=0.05) decrease in relative water content, leaf number and area and leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, and stem height and diameter. Seedlings of both species responded to water stress by the ...

  10. Determination of morphological features and molecular interactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on identifying the morphological features and molecular interactions of the Nigerian Bentonitic clays using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) characterisation technique. The SEM microstructure images indicated that the bentonite samples are generally moderately dispersive to dispersive with ...

  11. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.; Grone, A.; Saey, V.; Bruijn, de C.M.; Back, W.; Weeren, van P.R.; Scheideman, W.; Picavet, T.; Ducro, B.J.; Wijnberg, I.; Delesalle, C.


    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses

  12. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 3, 2004 ... MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE UNCOMMON RECTUS STERNI MUSCLE IN GERMAN CADAVERS. M. A. Motabagani, PhD., A. ... infrequent mass of striated musculature in front of the human chest(1). The muscle ... abdominis muscle, and finally gaining insertion into the costal cartilages, the lower ...

  14. Mapping spatial patterns with morphological image processing (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Kurt H. Riitters; Christine Estreguil; Jacek Kozak; Timothy G. Wade; James D. Wickham


    We use morphological image processing for classifying spatial patterns at the pixel level on binary land-cover maps. Land-cover pattern is classified as 'perforated,' 'edge,' 'patch,' and 'core' with higher spatial precision and thematic accuracy compared to a previous approach based on image convolution, while retaining the...

  15. Morphological coupling in a double sandbar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, T.D.


    Nearshore sandbars are ubiquitous morphological features along many sandy, wave-dominated, coasts. They are approximately shore-parallel ridges of sand, located in water depths of less than 10 m. Depending on the wave conditions, sandbars regularly develop remarkable alongshore periodic undulations

  16. Detection and differentiation of two morphologically identical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infection with Entamoeba histolytica is a worldwide public health problem. Diagnosis of this parasite by conventional microscopy is almost impossible, because it is morphologically indistinguishable from E. dispar, which is non pathogenic. Objective: To detect and differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar by ...

  17. Fabrication, Morphological and Optoelectronic Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of MSM photodetector. We investigated the surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous silicon by optical microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction. The metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector were fabricated by using Sb as ...

  18. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    the NW-SE trending long profiles spaced at 30 nautical miles aided to improve the bathymetry chart of the Bay of Bengal. The echograms show some important geo-morphological features of the seafloor. One such feature is the "Swatch of no ground" which...

  19. Genome size, morphological and palynological variations, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot of long-styled and short-styled plant populations based on all morphological characters also separated these two kinds of ... Positive significant correlation was observed between 2C-value and northern distribution of the Linum species studied, while a negative significant correlation ...

  20. genotypes using SSR markers and morphological characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 18, 2009 ... software, Setauket, NY). The morpho-physiological characters were standardized prior to cluster analysis. The matrix of average taxo- nomic distance for individuals and morphological traits was then computed using SIMINIT function and EUCLIDIAN distance coefficient. This dissimilarity coefficient is based ...

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of Oyster mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mushrooms have medicinal as well as nutritive value and extensively used as human food from the time immortal. In order to determine the genetic diversity among Pleurotus species of mushroom using morphological and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, about seven different species were collected.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    AB TRACT. The morphological, cultural and physiological characteristics of an antifungal antibiotic producing strain S ... characteristics of neomycin producing and non-producing strains of S. fradiae and showed that the ..... has been used to genetically improve a second fermentation Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain ...

  3. Morphological, molecular and biochemical evaluation of Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 16, 2009 ... The current investigation was carried out at Sirw, northern part of Egypt, during 2007 and 2008 seasons. The present study mainly aimed to evaluate the morphological and molecular variation among. Egyptian Jasmine and its 10 M5 derived mutants under saline soil conditions. Some mutant lines have.

  4. Morphological, molecular and biochemical evaluation of Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current investigation was carried out at Sirw, northern part of Egypt, during 2007 and 2008 seasons. The present study mainly aimed to evaluate the morphological and molecular variation among Egyptian Jasmine and its 10 M5 derived mutants under saline soil conditions. Some mutant lines have the advantage of ...

  5. Adaptivity and group invariance in mathematical morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.


    The standard morphological operators are (i) defined on Euclidean space, (ii) based on structuring elements, and (iii) invariant with respect to translation. There are several ways to generalise this. One way is to make the operators adaptive by letting the size or shape of structuring elements

  6. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The objective of contrast operators consists in normalizing the gray levels of the input image for the purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among different regions. In this paper morphological transformations are used to detect the background in color images characterized by poor lighting. The disadvan-.

  7. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of contrast operators consists in normalizing the gray levels of the input image for the purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among different regions. In this paper morphological transformations are used to detect the background in color images characterized by poor lighting. The disadvantage of ...

  8. Morphological control and polarization switching in polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    let morphology; dichroic liquid crystal; contrast ratio; spontaneous polarization. 1. Introduction. In recent years, polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) composite materials have emerged as novel futuristic optical display materials because of their focus on exten- sive research, both fundamental and applied (Drzaic 1995;.

  9. Cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dendrogram analysis, based on cultural, morphological and pathogenic studies, revealed variation within A. mali population. At 67% similarity matrix, all the isolates formed 2 clusters with 12 and nine isolates in cluster I and II, respectively. However, dendrogram on molecular (random amplification of polymorphic DNA, ...

  10. Book review: Insect morphology and phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Randolf


    Full Text Available Beutel RG, Friedrich F, Ge S-Q, Yang X-K (2014 Insect Morphology and Phylogeny: A textbook for students of entomology. De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, 516 pp., softcover. ISBN 978-3-11-026263-6.

  11. Lattice calculus of the morphological slope transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk); P. Maragos


    textabstractThis paper presents a study of the morphological slope transform in the complete lattice framework. It discusses in detail the interrelationships between the slope transform at one hand and the (Young-Fenchel) conjugate and Legendre transform, two well-known concepts from convex

  12. Morphological studies of some cultivated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, S.


    A study was made of those morphological and physical soil properties considered to govern root development.

    A deep and wide-branched root system was shown only to develop in a soil containing a permanent heterogeneous pore system, formed by biological activity in the profile. Therefore a

  13. Additional morphological information on Oculotrema hippopotami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study also reveals striking similarities with Concinnocotyla, the polystome of the Australian lungfish, and chelonian polystomes. Morphological parameters of the species are redefined. A maximum of 24 parasites was found on a single eye and a maximum of 37 on an individual host specimen. Prevalence was found to ...

  14. Obaraedo: Conformity to Proppian Morphology | Okodo | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various folktales of the Igbo people contain all the thirty-one functions of Propp's Morphology. Although, no one tale is expected to have all the functions, a lot has a pretty number of the functions. One of such tales is Obaraedo. Obaraedo has some motifs which are believably in line with the sequential occurrences of the ...

  15. Descriptive Morphology Terms For MAMA software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Reid B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The table on the following pages lists a set of morphology terms for describing materials. We have organized these terms by categories. Software uses are welcome to suggest other terms that are needed to accurately describe materials. This list is intended as a initial starting point to generating a consensus terminology list.




  17. Combining morphological analysis and Bayesian networks for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological analysis (MA) and Bayesian networks (BN) are two closely related modelling methods, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages for strategic decision support modelling. MA is a method for defining, linking and evaluating problem spaces. BNs are graphical models which consist of a qualitative ...

  18. Morphological Identification of Malaria Vectors within Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out between May and October, 2011 to morphologically identify Anopheles species in parts of Jigawa State. Using Anopheles characteristics as described by Gilles and Coetzee (1987) using Zeiss light microscope at x 20. A total of 3027 Anopheles were collected and identified. 3027 (78.40%) were ...

  19. morphological features of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    2Department of Cell Biology and Functional Morphology, Iwate Medical University, School of. Medicine,. Uchimaru 19-1, Morioka 020-8505, Japan. ABSTRACT. The current immunohistochemical study used the antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to observe the immunoreactive elements in the mouse pancreas.

  20. Mechanical and morphological investigation of virgin polyethylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Chennai 600 032, India. MS received 14 February 2016; accepted 27 June 2016. Abstract. This research was accomplished to examine the mechanical, morphological and crystallization kinetics study of polyethylene/silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) nanocomposite ...

  1. Morphological peculiarities of bryophytes asexual organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Lobachevska


    Full Text Available The main types of brood organs of dominant bryophyte species on dumps of the mining factories were determined. The special features of morphology, localization and genesis of specialized asexual propagula and gemmae were detected. The analysis of their role in reproductive strategy of colonist species was conducted.

  2. Crystal morphology change by magnetic susceptibility force


    Katsuki, Aiko; Aibara, Shigeo; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi


    We found a change in morphology when lysozyme crystals were grown in a magnetic field. The phenomenon was caused by the magnetic force derived from the magnetic susceptibility gradient. We propose that this force should be called the “magnetic susceptibility force".

  3. Phosphoproteome analysis reveals a critical role for hedgehog signalling in osteoblast morphological transitions. (United States)

    Marumoto, Ariane; Milani, Renato; da Silva, Rodrigo A; da Costa Fernandes, Célio Junior; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Ferreira, Carmen V; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Zambuzzi, Willian F


    The reciprocal and adaptive interactions between cells and substrates governing morphological transitions in the osteoblast compartment remain largely obscure. Here we show that osteoblast cultured in basement membrane matrix (Matrigel™) exhibits significant morphological changes after ten days of culture, and we decided to exploit this situation to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for guiding osteoblast morphological transitions. As almost all aspects of cellular physiology are under control of kinases, we generated more or less comprehensive cellular kinome profiles employing PepChip peptide arrays that contain over 1000 consensus substrates of kinase peptide. The results obtained were used to construct interactomes, and these revealed an important role for FoxO in mediating morphological changes of osteoblast, which was validated by Western blot technology when FoxO was significantly up-expressed in response to Matrigel™. As FoxO is a critical protein in canonical hedgehog signalling, we decided to explore the possible involvement of hedgehog signalling during osteoblast morphological changes. It appeared that osteoblast culture in Matrigel™ stimulates release of a substantial amounts Shh while concomitantly inducing upregulation of the expression of the bona fide hedgehog target genes Gli-1 and Patched. Functional confirmation of the relevance of these results for osteoblast morphological transitions came from experiments in which Shh hedgehog signalling was inhibited using the well-established pathway inhibitor cyclopamine (Cyc). In the presence of Cyc, culture of osteoblasts in Matrigel™ is not capable of inducing morphological changes but appears to provoke a proliferative response as evident from the upregulation of Cyclin D3 and cdk4. The most straightforward interpretation of our results is that hedgehog signalling is both necessary and sufficient for membrane matrix-based morphological transitions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  4. Deja vu: the evolution of feeding morphologies in the Carnivora. (United States)

    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire


    The fossil record of the order Carnivora extends back at least 60 million years and documents a remarkable history of adaptive radiation characterized by the repeated, independent evolution of similar feeding morphologies in distinct clades. Within the order, convergence is apparent in the iterative appearance of a variety of ecomorphs, including cat-like, hyena-like, and wolf-like hypercarnivores, as well as a variety of less carnivorous forms, such as foxes, raccoons, and ursids. The iteration of similar forms has multiple causes. First, there are a limited number of ways to ecologically partition the carnivore niche, and second, the material properties of animal tissues (muscle, skin, bone) have not changed over the Cenozoic. Consequently, similar craniodental adaptations for feeding on different proportions of animal versus plant tissues evolve repeatedly. The extent of convergence in craniodental form can be striking, affecting skull proportions and overall shape, as well as dental morphology. The tendency to evolve highly convergent ecomorphs is most apparent among feeding extremes, such as sabertooths and bone-crackers where performance requirements tend to be more acute. A survey of the fossil record indicates that large hypercarnivores evolve frequently, often in response to ecological opportunity afforded by the decline or extinction of previously dominant hypercarnivorous taxa. While the evolution of large size and carnivory may be favored at the individual level, it can lead to a macroevolutionary ratchet, wherein dietary specialization and reduced population densities result in a greater vulnerability to extinction. As a result of these opposing forces, the fossil record of Carnivora is dominated by successive clades of hypercarnivores that diversify and decline, only to be replaced by new hypercarnivorous clades. This has produced a marvelous set of natural experiments in the evolution of similar ecomorphs, each of which start from phylogenetically

  5. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette


    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  6. Experiment K-6-03. Gravity and skeletal growth, part 1. Part 2: Morphology and histochemistry of bone cells and vasculature of the tibia; Part 3: Nuclear volume analysis of osteoblast histogenesis in periodontal ligament cells; Part 4: Intervertebral disc swelling pressure associated with microgravity (United States)

    Holton, E.; Hargens, A.; Gonsalves, M.; Berretta, D.; Doty, S.; Roberts, W.; Garetto, L.; Kaplansky, A.; Durnova, G.; Gott, S.


    Bone area, bone electrophysiology, bone vascularity, osteoblast morphology, and osteoblast histogenesis were studied in rats associated with Cosmos 1887. The results suggest that the synchronous animals were the only group with a significantly larger bone area than the basal group, that the bone electrical potential was more negative in flight than in the synchronous rats, that the endosteal osteoblasts from flight rats had greater numbers of transitional Golgi vesicles but no difference in the large Golgi saccules or the alkaline phosphatase activity, that the perioteal vasculature in the shaft of flight rats often showed very dense intraluminal deposits with adjacent degenerating osteocytes as well as lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vessels and sometimes degeneration of the vascular wall (this change was not present in the metaphyseal region of flight animals), and that the progenitor cells decreased in flight rats while the preosteoblasts increased compared to controls. Many of the results suggest that the animals were beginning to recover from the effects of spaceflight during the two day interval between landing and euthanasia; flight effects, such as the vascular changes, did not appear to recover.

  7. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Morphologies of Copper Nanoparticles Based Films by a Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu


    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of heat treatment on the morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides by a spin coating method. The experiments show that heat treatment can modify the sizes and morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides. We suggest that through changing the parameters of heat treatment process may be helpful to vary the scattering and absorbing intensity of copper nanoparticles when used in energy harvesting/conversion and optical devices.

  8. The EMeRGE modular robot, an open platform for quick testing of evolved robot morphologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno Garcia, Rodrigo; Liu, Ceyue; Faina, Andres


    This work presents the hardware design and implementation of the EMeRGE open modular robot platform. EMeRGE (Easy Modular Embodied Robot Generation) modules are designed to be cheap and easy to build and their hardware is open for anyone to use and modify. Four magnetic connectors enable the quic...... assembly of different complex robot morphologies like the ones generated by evolutionary robotics experiments. Non-human agents, like robotic manipulators, can also take advantage of the magnetic connectors to assemble and disassemble morphologies....

  9. Colonial morphology of Escherichia coli: impact of detection in clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Barcella


    Full Text Available As part of bacteriological identification, the macroscopic observation of the colonies on a culture medium is a critical step as it allows the clinical microbiologist to conduct a primary screening of microorganisms and in some cases even to identify them. This study shows how the macroscopic observation of the colonies, in particular of the colonies of Escherichia coli isolated on MacConkey agar from various clinical specimens, allowed to identify 5 classes of morphological variants of the colonies or colonial morphology, thanks to the knowledge and the experience gained by the clinical microbiologist.

  10. Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Stoy, Kasper


    This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm...... offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots....

  11. Effect of dietary laminarin and fucoidan on selected microbiota, intestinal morphology and immune status of the newly weaned pig. (United States)

    Walsh, A M; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V


    A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the interactions between laminarin (LAM; 0 and 300 parts per million (ppm)) and fucoidan (FUC; 0 and 240 ppm) levels on intestinal morphology, selected microbiota and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the weaned pig. There was an interaction between LAM and FUC supplementation on the Enterobacteriaceae population (Pintestinal morphology. Pigs offered the LAM-supplemented diets had a lower IL-6 (Pintestinal morphology and selected intestinal microbiota, but these effects were lost when offered in combination.

  12. Genetic diversity of seagrass seeds influences seedling morphology and biomass. (United States)

    Randall Hughes, A; Hanley, Torrance C; Schenck, Forest R; Hays, Cynthia G


    Genetic diversity can influence ecological processes throughout ontogeny, yet whether diversity at early life history stages is important in long-lived taxa with overlapping generations is unclear. Seagrass systems provide some of the best evidence for the ecological effects of genetic diversity among adult shoots, but we do not know if the genetic diversity of seeds and seedlings also influences seagrass ecology. We tested the effects of seagrass (Zostera marina) seed diversity and relatedness on germination success, seedling morphology, and seedling production by comparing experimental assemblages of seeds collected from single reproductive shoots ("monocultures") to assemblages of seeds collected from multiple reproductive shoots ("polycultures"). There was no difference in seedling emergence, yet seedlings from polycultures had larger shoots above and below ground than seedlings from monocultures at the end of the 1-yr experiment. Genetic relatedness of the seedlings predicted some aspects of shoot morphology, with more leaves and longer roots and shoots at intermediate levels of relatedness, regardless of seed diversity. Our results suggest that studies of only adult stages may underestimate the importance of genetic diversity if the benefits at early life history stages continue to accrue throughout the life cycle. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L


    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cultivars of the genus Nopalea are known in Brazil for being tolerant to cochineal carmine attacks, thus making the cultivation of this genus a promising alternative for mitigating the negative effects of this insect on the production of biomass. With the objectives of characterizing morphologically spineless forage cactus varieties and identify morphological characteristics that may be the focus in spineless forage cactus breeding programs, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 11 treatments and four replications. The variety Alagoas showed the highest values of weight, area and volume of cladodes. The varieties Negro Michoacan F7 and V7, Tamazunchale V12 showed the highest values of the cladode area index, the total volume of cladodes and total fresh mass production. The varieties Negro Michoacan V7 and F7 presented the highest water use efficiency and dry mass yield. Cladode volume showed the highest correlation coefficients with the fresh weight of cladodes. Aiming the release of varieties for biomass production, varieties Negro Michoacan F7, V7 and Tamazunchale V12 may substitute the Miúda variety. The number and cladode area index may be used as criteria for selection of superior varieties in breeding programs.

  15. Epicuticular wax crystals of Wollemia nobilis: morphology and chemical composition. (United States)

    Dragota, Simona; Riederer, Markus


    The morphology of the epicuticular leaf waxes of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) was studied with special emphasis on the relationship between the microstructure of epicuticular wax crystals and their chemical composition. Wollemia nobilis is a unique coniferous tree of the family Araucariaceae and is of very high scientific value as it is the sole living representative of an ancient genus, which until 1994 was known only from fossils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for characterizing the morphology and the chemical structure of the epicuticular wax layer of W. nobilis needles. The main component of the leaf epicuticular wax of W. nobilis is nonacosan-10-ol. This secondary alcohol together with nonacosane diols is responsible for the tubular habit of the epicuticular wax crystals. Scanning electron micrographs revealed differences in the fine structure of adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces that could be explained by gas chromatographic studies after selective mechanical removal of the waxes. SEM investigations established the tubular crystalline microstructure of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. GC-MS and NMR experiments showed that nonacosan-10-ol is the major constituent of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves.

  16. X-Ray Morphological Analysis of the Planck ESZ Clusters (United States)

    Lovisari, Lorenzo; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Ettori, Stefano; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Arnaud, Monique; Démoclès, Jessica; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Randall, Scott; Kraft, Ralph


    X-ray observations show that galaxy clusters have a very large range of morphologies. The most disturbed systems, which are good to study how clusters form and grow and to test physical models, may potentially complicate cosmological studies because the cluster mass determination becomes more challenging. Thus, we need to understand the cluster properties of our samples to reduce possible biases. This is complicated by the fact that different experiments may detect different cluster populations. For example, Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) selected cluster samples have been found to include a greater fraction of disturbed systems than X-ray selected samples. In this paper we determine eight morphological parameters for the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zeldovich (ESZ) objects observed with XMM-Newton. We found that two parameters, concentration and centroid shift, are the best to distinguish between relaxed and disturbed systems. For each parameter we provide the values that allow selecting the most relaxed or most disturbed objects from a sample. We found that there is no mass dependence on the cluster dynamical state. By comparing our results with what was obtained with REXCESS clusters, we also confirm that the ESZ clusters indeed tend to be more disturbed, as found by previous studies.

  17. Characterization of Morphological Diversity of Jute Mallow (Corchorus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguatosha Ngomuo


    Full Text Available Jute mallow is a traditional leaf vegetable that is an important part of daily diet for the majority of people in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we employed quantitative and qualitative phenotypic traits to assess the morphological diversity of 90 accessions using univariate and multivariate analyses. Field experiments were conducted for two seasons to identify accessions suitable for leaf yield. The accessions were significantly variable in all traits. Highest variability among accessions was found in harvest index, biomass yield, and weight of 1000 seeds. The traits that significantly correlated with biomass yield include plant height (r=0.448, petiole length (r=0.237, primary branches (r=0.319, and number of leaves per plant (r=0.333. Principal component analysis showed that the first five PCs with eigenvalues ≥1 explained 72.9% of the total variability in the accessions. Pods per plant, primary branches, secondary branches, and number of leaves per plant accounted for highest variability in PC1. Cluster analysis grouped the accessions into five major clusters mainly based on their origin. Thus, the collection displayed high variation in morphological traits, particularly those related to leaf yield. These accessions are therefore useful in breeding for the improvement of the crop and germplasm management.

  18. Fundamental features of modern inflorescence morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Weberling


    florescence’. The lower lateral branches repeat the structure of the main stem by producing (indefinite florescences themselves and therefore may be termedparacladia (of the polytelic system. As in monotelic inflorescences the area of paracladia — the ‘enriching field’ — can be preceded by a ‘field of inhibition’ and, in perennial plants, by a ‘field of innovation’.Though generally we may confirm that the inflorescences of all species investigated (about 20 000 from nearly all angiosperm families proved to be variations of one of the two fundamental types, it sometimes needs morphological experience to apply Troll’s system to woody plants of tropical regions. Difficulties may derive from prolepsis and syllepsis of the innovation shoots, prolification of the inflorescence axis and, abundantly, by the deficiency of clearly marked limits between sprouts growing in different seasons. In each of such cases, however, the homologous flower-bearing-elements can be identified by comparing their positions within the whole system of ramification.

  19. Morphological processing in reading disabled and skilled Spanish children. (United States)

    Lázaro, Miguel; Camacho, Lourdes; Burani, Cristina


    This article presents the results of a lexical decision experiment in which the base frequency (BF) effect is explored in reading disabled children and skilled readers. Three groups of participants were created. The first group was composed of children with reading disorders, the second group of skilled readers matched with the first group for chronological age and the third group of skilled readers matched for vocabulary size. The results of the experiment showed strong effects for Group, BF and also for the Group by BF interaction. Children matched for chronological age with children with reading disorders were significantly faster and more accurate than children of the other groups, who did not show any difference from each other. The effect of BF showed that children responded faster to stimuli composed of frequent bases than to stimuli with less frequent bases. However, the analysis of the interaction between Group and BF showed that only the skilled readers matched to children with reading disorders for chronological age benefited from the BF effect. The results of the experiment are discussed in the framework of theoretical accounts of morphological processing in children as well as considering the role played by the experimental task. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Choice experiments (United States)

    Thomas P Holmes; Wiktor L Adamawicz; Fredrik Carlsson


    There has been an explosion of interest during the past two decades in a class of nonmarket stated-preference valuation methods known as choice experiments. The overall objective of a choice experiment is to estimate economic values for characteristics (or attributes) of an environmental good that is the subject of policy analysis, where...

  1. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    , that the largest effects from collaborative experience is from recent collaborative experience, since knowledge depreciates when it is not used. Methodologically contribution: The research project studies the dyad and aims at introducing, to this field of research, an established way of collecting data, a new...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Erdélyová


    Full Text Available Aim of the experiment was to determine morphological and sensory differences between selected Ziziphus jujube Mill. genotypes. For experimental study were used 19 seed  grown  genotypes planted in experimental garden of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. In our laboratories were analysed quantitative and qualitative traits of matured fruits. In the collection of genotypes were identified by morphological analysis the average weight in range from 4.68 to 0.66 grams,  length of 21.67 to 0.77 mm, and width of 16.97 to 0.67 mm. Mass weight ratio of fresh pulp to total fruit were determined in the range 57-79%. In the group of selected genotypes were identified significant differences in the pulp and pericarp pigmentation. With stones was determined the average weight in the range 0.90-0.24 g, length from 14.35-0.58 mm and width 8.32-0.34 mm. Significant differences has ben found in stones shape and color of analyzed genotypes as well. For the evaluation of sensory analysis was applied the 9 point scale. By sensory analysis were evaluated the dried fruit pulp samples of five genotypes (A, B, C, D, E and 8 genotypes (AV, BV, CV,DV, EV, PV , GV, HV samples of dried flesh for  60 minutes boiled in water and then extracted. Among the samples were identified significant differences in taste too. Gained experience and results can be used for expansion of jujube specific genotypes  in Slovakia with primary orientation on organic agriculture and/or for other applications in practice as well.doi: 10.5219/165

  3. Diaphragm morphology of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). (United States)

    Lessa, Thais Borges; da Fonseca, Erika T; de Abreu, Dilayla Kelly; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; Bertassoli, Bruno Machado; de Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo


    The diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle. Along with other respiratory muscles, the diaphragm is responsible for the muscular contraction that generates the respiratory cycle and, as a consequence, the gaseous interchanges in the lungs. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus 1758) are largely used as experimental animals in many biology applications due to their easy management, low cost, and docile behavior. As the diaphragm exerts important effects on lung physiology and function, this study aimed at investigating the morphological characteristics of the muscle, through macroscopic, microscopic, and scanning electron microscopy to add reference data for future studies. We observed a "U"-shaped tendineous center and its morphology was similar to other mammals. These results cooperate with the descriptive and comparative anatomy of mammals, besides can be used as control data for areas of surgery and stem cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Morphological patterns of urban sprawl territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica I. Stan


    Full Text Available In the context of global criticism on urban sprawl, the questions which arises are: what can we do with the expansion forms already occurred in most part of our cities; can they be fully or partially integrated into the city? But first, which exactly are the common morphological features of urban expansion areas in large European cities, and (by comparison in Romania? The urban form correlated to these „sparwl patterns” and „sprawl mechanisms” shows more then the lack of planning, but a social input in occuping the territory, related with a specific meaning of the landscape. The paper explores the relationship between the five distinct morphological patterns ways of forming in relation to spatial and landscape shapes which they generate, in the territories of sprawl, all illustrated through case studies of Bucharest.

  5. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need...... Microscopy and as solar cells in a blend with PCBM. It was concluded that these particles did not show a potential large enough for continuous work due to a high material loss and low efficiency when applied in solar cells. The second method to achieve was preparation of pre-arranged morphology organic...... nanoparticles consisting of a blend of donor and acceptor in an aqueous dispersion, thereby addressing two of the issues remaining in the field of organic solar cells. This approach was used on six different polymers, which all had the ability to prepare aqueous nanoparticle inks. The morphology...

  6. 3D Morphology Design for Forward Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Meixia


    We propose a multi-scale simulation approach to model forward osmosis (FO) processes using substrates with layered homogeneous morphology. This approach accounts not only for FO setup but also for detailed microstructure of the substrate using the digitally reconstructed morphology. We fabricate a highly porous block copolymer membrane, which has not been explored for FO heretofore, and use it as the substrate for interfacial polymerization. The substrate has three sub-layers, namely a top layer, a sponge-like middle layer, and a nonwoven fabric layer. We generate a digital microstructure for each layer, and verify them with experimental measurements. The permeability and effective diffusivity of each layer are computed based on their virtual microstructures and used for FO operation in cross-flow setups at the macro scale. The proposed simulation approach predicts accurately the FO experimental data.

  7. Morphology of melanocytic lesions in situ (United States)

    Balois, Thibaut; Amar, Martine Ben


    Melanoma is a solid tumour with its own specificity from the biological and morphological viewpoint. On one hand, numerous mutations are already known affecting different pathways. They usually concern proliferation rate, apoptosis, cell senescence and cell behaviour. On the other hand, several visual criteria at the tissue level are used by physicians in order to diagnose skin lesions. Nevertheless, the mechanisms between the changes from the mutations at the cell level to the morphology exhibited at the tissue level are still not fully understood. Using physical tools, we develop a simple model. We demonstrate analytically that it contains the necessary ingredients to understand several specificities of melanoma such as the presence of microstructures inside a skin lesion or the absence of a necrotic core. We also explain the importance of senescence for growth arrest in benign skin lesions. Thanks to numerical simulations, we successfully compare this model to biological data.

  8. Third molar agenesis and craniofacial morphology. (United States)

    Sánchez, María José; Vicente, Ascensión; Bravo, Luis Alberto


    To test the null hypothesis that agenesis of wisdom teeth is not related with any particular craniofacial morphology. Ninety-seven patients (aged 13-19 years) were selected and divided into three groups: (1) bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars, (2) bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars, and (3) control group without agenesis. Presence or absence of third molars was determined using ortopantomographs. Cephalometric analysis was carried out from lateral teleradiographs, which included linear, angular, and proportional measurements. When data obtained were distributed normally it was analyzed by means of single-factor variance analysis and the Scheffé test (P classification in 58.8% of cases. The hypothesis is rejected. Agenesis of the maxillary third molars was related to a reduced mandibular plane angle. Patients with agenesis of the mandibular third molars showed a diminished lower third and a mandibular morphology characteristic of the brachyfacial pattern.

  9. Semantic growth of morphological families in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Regina


    Full Text Available This paper explores the question of when and how morphological families are formed in one’s mental lexicon, by analyzing age-of-acquisition norms to morphological families (e.g., booking, bookshelf, check book and their shared morphemes (book. We demonstrate that the speed of growth and the size of the family depend on how early the shared morpheme is acquired and how many connections the family has at the time a new concept is incorporated in the family. These findings dovetail perfectly with the Semantic Growth model of connectivity in semantic networks by Steyvers and Tenenbaum (2005. We discuss implications of our findings for theories of vocabulary acquisition.

  10. Morphological Computation: Synergy of Body and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Ghazi-Zahedi


    Full Text Available There are numerous examples that show how the exploitation of the body’s physical properties can lift the burden of the brain. Examples include grasping, swimming, locomotion, and motion detection. The term Morphological Computation was originally coined to describe processes in the body that would otherwise have to be conducted by the brain. In this paper, we argue for a synergistic perspective, and by that we mean that Morphological Computation is a process which requires a close interaction of body and brain. Based on a model of the sensorimotor loop, we study a new measure of synergistic information and show that it is more reliable in cases in which there is no synergistic information, compared to previous results. Furthermore, we discuss an algorithm that allows the calculation of the measure in non-trivial (non-binary systems.

  11. Dissociation of inflectional and derivational morphology. (United States)

    Miceli, G; Caramazza, A


    A patient is described who makes morphological errors in spontaneous sentence production and in repetition of single words. The great majority of these errors were substitutions of inflectional affixes. The patient did make some derivational errors in repeating derived words but almost never made such errors for nonderived words. The inflectional errors for adjectives and nouns occurred mostly on the plural forms for nouns and adjectives and on the feminine form for adjectives. For verbs, inflectional errors were produced for all tense, aspect, and mood forms. There were no indications that these latter verb features constrained the form of inflectional errors produced. The results are interpreted as support for the thesis that morphological processes are located in the lexicon but that inflectional and derivational processes constitute autonomous subcomponents of the lexicon.

  12. A distributed and morphology-independent strategy for adaptive locomotion in self-reconfigurable modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stoy, Kasper


    In this paper, we present a distributed reinforcement learning strategy for morphology-independent lifelong gait learning for modular robots. All modules run identical controllers that locally and independently optimize their action selection based on the robot’s velocity as a global, shared reward...... to physical robots with a comparable performance, (iii) can be applied to learn simple gait control tables for both M-TRAN and ATRON robots, (iv) enables an 8-module robot to adapt to faults and changes in its morphology, and (v) can learn gaits for up to 60 module robots but a divergence effect becomes...... substantial from 20–30 modules. These experiments demonstrate the advantages of a distributed learning strategy for modular robots, such as simplicity in implementation, low resource requirements, morphology independence, reconfigurability, and fault tolerance....

  13. [Baseline drift of electrocardiograph dealt with mathematical morphology filter in real-time]. (United States)

    Zhu, Xianglin; Yang, Jianning; Tang, Ping; Ling, Xin


    We have done a research on mathematical morphology filter in order to eliminate baseline drift in the wave of electrocardiograph (ECG). Marago morphology filter type was chosen and flat structuring element filtering was found to be the best morphology filter modality for eliminating baseline drift, and the ratio of "signal numerical frequency to length of structuring element" determined the attenuation magnitude of the signal eliminated. We have come to the conclusion that the length of flat structuring element ought to be greater than or equal to the width of the signal component to be eliminated. The arithmetical algorithm was simulated with Matlab software, and was transplanted to DSP hardware platform. The result of experiment has shown that the arithmetic operation is simple and the method spends a short time (less than 1 ms) in eliminating the baseline drift of ECG effectively and instantly.

  14. LocoKit - A Construction Kit for Exploration of Morphology of Legged Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper


    Producing steady stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain is a big challenge in robotics. In addressing this challenge, it is often desirable to experiment with different morphologies and see how they influence on the way the robot walks....... This is however not always easy, since robots are often built as a fixed system with a limited possibility of changing the morphology without redesign a significant part of the robot. This work is focusing on the creation of a robotic construction kit specifically aimed at easing the process of constructing...... legged robots. This is accomplished by giving the creator the possibility to easily do morphological changes to the robot even after it have been build, to see how it effects the robot?s ability to walk in unknown terrain....

  15. LocoKit - A Construction Kit for Exploration of Morphology of Legged Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper


    Producing steady stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain is a big challenge in robotics. In addressing this challenge, it is often desirable to experiment with different morphologies and see how they influence on the way the robot walks....... This is however not always easy, since robots are often built as a fixed system with a limited possibility of changing the morphology without redesign a significant part of the robot. This work is focusing on the creation of a robotic construction kit specifically aimed at easing the process of constructing...... legged robots. This is accomplished by giving the creator the possibility to easily do morphological changes to the robot even after it have been build, to see how it effects the robot’s ability to walk in unknown terrain....

  16. SEED, SEEDLINGS AND GERMINATION MORPHOLOGY OF Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elane de Carvalho Guerra


    Full Text Available The knowledge of seed and seedling morphology are extremely important to the identification and preservation of plant species. In order to studying seed and seedling morphology and seed germination of copaiba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf seeds, experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Laboratory of Botany of the Federal University of Ceará. In copaíba seeds the characteristics studied were shape, size (length, width, thickness and morphology. The kind of germination, the root systems, hypocotyls, epicotyls and first leaves were the characteristics evaluated in copaiba seedlings. Ruler and pachimeter were used to make the measurements, as well as optical microscope and magnifying glass. The seeds are exalbumin kind, have neuter photoblastism and epigeous germination. Seed coat shows a palisade cell layer with a conspicuous light line. The seedlings have compound first leaves and axial root system.

  17. [Numerical analysis of morphological variation of germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium for medicine]. (United States)

    Shao, Qingsong; Guo, Qiaosheng; Li, Yuchuan; Mao, Pengfei


    Botanical characters of germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium for medicine were observed and compared, which could offer reference for its genetic improvement and germplasm resources protection. Based on the random blocks field experiments design, twenty-six morphological traits were observed. The morphological differences among germplasm resources were compared by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The coefficient of variation values for 17 of 26 traits indicated a high level of variation (above 20%). Six principal components which accounted for 77.14% of total variance were extracted from the principal component analysis. The 29 germplasm resources could be divided into two clusters. There were large morphological variation among germplasm resources on Ch. morifolium for medicine.

  18. Morphological segmentation for sagittal plane image analysis. (United States)

    Bezerra, F N; Paula, I C; Medeiros, F S; Ushizima, D M; Cintra, L S


    This paper introduces a morphological image segmentation method by applying watershed transform with markers to scale-space smoothed images and furthermore provides images for clinical monitoring and analysis of patients. The database comprises sagittal plane images taken from a digital camera of patients submitted to Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) physiotherapy treatment. Orthopaedic specialists can use these segmented images to diagnose posture problems, assess physiotherapy treatment evolution and thus reduce diagnostic errors due to subjective analysis.

  19. Thymus’ gland. Clinical, morphological and functional aspects.


    Dunia Reyes Hernández; Mayra Gil León; Galia Ivis Pérez Rumbaut; Carmen Niurka Piña Loyola


    This article contains an updated review about the thymus making references to aspects related to its embriologic development, functions, morphology, and hormones the thymus produces and its principal effects, as well as the thymus; involution and its structural alterations, with the aim of offering enough information that allows the comprehension of the functional importance of this organ which has been considered as a non-functional organ for a long time.

  20. Architecture of a Morphological Malware Detector


    Bonfante, Guillaume; Kaczmarek, Matthieu; Marion, Jean-Yves


    International audience; Most of malware detectors are based on syntactic signatures that identify known malicious programs. Up to now this architecture has been sufficiently efficient to overcome most of malware attacks. Nevertheless, the complexity of malicious codes still increase. As a result the time required to reverse engineer malicious programs and to forge new signatures is increasingly longer. This study proposes an efficient construction of a morphological malware detector, that is ...

  1. Road Anomalies Detection Using Basic Morphological Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Danilescu


    Full Text Available Abstract—In this paper some approaches for pothole detection of roads, using morphological algorithms, are recalled and tested. For road anomalies detection, one of the key elements is the pavement pothole information. Any algorithm for pothole detection has certain advantages and limitations as well, due to the real world environment, which is highly unstructured and dynamic. For road segmentation, the road anomalies detection algorithm based on skeletonization is used.

  2. Road Anomalies Detection Using Basic Morphological Algorithms


    Dalia Danilescu; Alexandru Lodin; Lăcrimioara Grama; Corneliu Rusu


    Abstract—In this paper some approaches for pothole detection of roads, using morphological algorithms, are recalled and tested. For road anomalies detection, one of the key elements is the pavement pothole information. Any algorithm for pothole detection has certain advantages and limitations as well, due to the real world environment, which is highly unstructured and dynamic. For road segmentation, the road anomalies detection algorithm based on skeletonization is used.

  3. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology. (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Kau, Chung How; Talbert, Leslie; Pan, Feng


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate sexual dimorphism for facial features within Chinese and African American populations and to compare the facial morphology by sex between these 2 populations. Three-dimensional facial images were acquired by using the portable 3dMDface System, which captured 189 subjects from 2 population groups of Chinese (n = 72) and African American (n = 117). Each population was categorized into male and female groups for evaluation. All subjects in the groups were aged between 18 and 30 years and had no apparent facial anomalies. A total of 23 anthropometric landmarks were identified on the three-dimensional faces of each subject. Twenty-one measurements in 4 regions, including 19 distances and 2 angles, were not only calculated but also compared within and between the Chinese and African American populations. The Student's t-test was used to analyze each data set obtained within each subgroup. Distinct facial differences were presented between the examined subgroups. When comparing the sex differences of facial morphology in the Chinese population, significant differences were noted in 71.43% of the parameters calculated, and the same proportion was found in the African American group. The facial morphologic differences between the Chinese and African American populations were evaluated by sex. The proportion of significant differences in the parameters calculated was 90.48% for females and 95.24% for males between the 2 populations. The African American population had a more convex profile and greater face width than those of the Chinese population. Sexual dimorphism for facial features was presented in both the Chinese and African American populations. In addition, there were significant differences in facial morphology between these 2 populations.

  4. Equine Hoof Canker: Cell Proliferation and Morphology. (United States)

    Apprich, V; Licka, T; Zipfl, N; Tichy, A; Gabriel, C


    Hoof canker is described as progressive pododermatitis of the equine hoof with absent epidermal cornification and extensive proliferation of the dermal papillary body; however, in-depth research on the type of proliferative activity has not yet been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine cell-specific proliferation patterns together with morphological analysis of hoof canker tissue. Tissues removed during surgery from 19 horses presented for treatment of canker were compared with similar postmortem tissues of healthy hooves of 10 horses. Morphological alterations visible in light microscopy were assessed semiquantitatively and graded for severity. Proliferative activity was evaluated by means of anti-PCNA (proliferative cell nuclear antigen) and anti-Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Histologically, canker tissue showed 5 major morphological alterations-the presence of lacunae, vacuoles, giant cells, hemorrhage, and inflammation-not seen in control tissue. Also, there was a notable koilocytotic appearance of keratinocytes in canker tissue. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of PCNA protein expression in keratinocytes and fibroblasts of canker tissue compared with control tissue. In control tissue, keratinocytes showed higher levels of Ki67 compared with canker tissue, while the dermal fibroblasts of both groups showed similar levels of Ki67, indicating similar proliferative activity of less than 3% of total dermal fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to previous reports, there is no evidence for increased proliferative activity of the dermal papillary body associated with hoof canker. Increased levels of PCNA protein expression and morphological alterations indicate that dysregulation of keratinocyte differentiation constitutes a key event in equine hoof canker development.

  5. Specific Nucleoprotein Residues Affect Influenza Virus Morphology (United States)

    Bialas, Kristy M.; Bussey, Kendra A.; Stone, Raychel L.


    Influenza virus strains are often pleiomorphic, a characteristic that is largely attributed to specific residues in matrix protein 1 (M1). Although the mechanism by which M1 controls virion morphology has not yet been defined, it is suggested that the M1 interaction with other viral proteins plays an important role. In this study, we rescued recombinant virus WSN-AichiM1 containing the spherical A/WSN/33 (WSN) backbone and the M1 protein from A/Aichi/2/68 (Aichi). Aichi M1 differs from WSN M1 by 7 amino acids but includes those identified to be responsible for filamentous virion formation. Interestingly, Aichi virus produced spherical virions, while WSN-AichiM1 exhibited a long filamentous morphology, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Additional incorporation of Aichi nucleoprotein (NP) but not the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), or M2 gene to WSN-AichiM1 abrogated filamentous virion formation, suggesting that specific M1-NP interactions affect virion morphology. Further characterization of viruses containing WSN/Aichi chimeric NPs identified residues 214, 217, and 253 of Aichi NP as necessary and sufficient for the formation of spherical virions. NP residues 214 and 217 localize at the minor groove between the two opposite-polarity NP helical strands of viral ribonucleocapsids, and residue 253 also localizes near the surface of the groove. These findings indicate that NP plays a critical role in influenza virus morphology, possibly through its interaction with the M1 layer during virus budding. PMID:24335312

  6. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kraatz


    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  7. Antennal morphology in the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg P. Negrobov


    Full Text Available Nine hundred eighty species belonging to 182 genera of 15 subfamilies of the family Dolichopodidae were investigated to study antennal morphology. Length measurements of scape, pedicel, postpedicel and arista and height measurements of postpedicel bases were performed, and 4 ratios were selected. Use of morphometric characteristics of Dolichopodidae antennae allows meaningful distinctions between subfamilies to be made. Using these criteria, a cladistic tree of Dolichopodidae subfamilies was built.

  8. Morphology and photoluminescence study of titania nanoparticles


    Memesa, Mine; Lenz, Sebastian; Emmerling, Sebastian G. J.; Nett, Sebastian; Perlich, Jan; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Gutmann, Jochen S.


    Titania nanoparticles are prepared by sol–gel chemistry with a poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate triblock copolymer acting as the templating agent. The sol–gel components—hydrochloric acid, titanium tetraisopropoxide, and triblock copolymer—are varied to investigate their effect on the resulting titania morphology. An increased titania precursor or polymer content yields smaller primary titania stru...

  9. Gold-standard for computer-assisted morphological sperm analysis. (United States)

    Chang, Violeta; Garcia, Alejandra; Hitschfeld, Nancy; Härtel, Steffen


    Published algorithms for classification of human sperm heads are based on relatively small image databases that are not open to the public, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. We describe a gold-standard for morphological sperm analysis (SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS), a dataset of sperm head images with expert-classification labels in one of the following classes: normal, tapered, pyriform, small or amorphous. This gold-standard is for evaluating and comparing known techniques and future improvements to present approaches for classification of human sperm heads for semen analysis. Although this paper does not provide a computational tool for morphological sperm analysis, we present a set of experiments for comparing sperm head description and classification common techniques. This classification base-line is aimed to be used as a reference for future improvements to present approaches for human sperm head classification. The gold-standard provides a label for each sperm head, which is achieved by majority voting among experts. The classification base-line compares four supervised learning methods (1- Nearest Neighbor, naive Bayes, decision trees and Support Vector Machine (SVM)) and three shape-based descriptors (Hu moments, Zernike moments and Fourier descriptors), reporting the accuracy and the true positive rate for each experiment. We used Fleiss' Kappa Coefficient to evaluate the inter-expert agreement and Fisher's exact test for inter-expert variability and statistical significant differences between descriptors and learning techniques. Our results confirm the high degree of inter-expert variability in the morphological sperm analysis. Regarding the classification base line, we show that none of the standard descriptors or classification approaches is best suitable for tackling the problem of sperm head classification. We discovered that the correct classification rate was highly variable when trying to discriminate among non-normal sperm

  10. Preserved morphological processing in semantic dementia. (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Heinik, Jeremia; Biran, Iftah


    Individuals with semantic dementia (SD) show progressive worsening of lexical-conceptual single word knowledge alongside preservation of nonsemantic aspects of language. The current study examines morphological processing in SD. S.H.S., a Hebrew-speaking person with SD, completed eight tasks that tested inflection, linear derivation, and nonlinear derivation at three time points over six and a half years. S.H.S. correctly produced plural nouns and judged the grammaticality of noun-verb and noun-adjective inflectional agreement. A steeper decline was seen in the ability to judge irregularly versus regularly inflected forms. S.H.S. judged nationality suffixes accurately and produced diminutive and agentive suffixes successfully. He also relied on morphological decomposition when performing lexical decision. Judgement of sentences consisting of derived verbal participles was intact with regard to morphological considerations alone, but impaired when semantic considerations determined grammaticality. S.H.S.'s performance suggests that structural aspects of word knowledge might be functional in the face of a severe semantic impairment.

  11. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha


    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  12. Diversity Of Mandibular Morphology In Some Carnivorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat S. J.


    Full Text Available Comparison of mandibular morphology of some aquatic (seals, walruses, and sea otters and terrestrial (hyenas and pandas carnivorans demonstrates a rather general pattern correlating size of condyloid angle, size of gape, and diet. Structural differences of carnivoran jaws reveal morphological and ecological adaptations that are directly correlated with availability of prey, diving depth, feeding competition and specialized feeding methods. Specifically, the inclination of the condyloid process relative to the axis of the alveolar row (= condyloid angle can be used to determine dietary preferences, including size of prey. Generally, carnivorans with a large condyloid angle feed on larger prey, while a low condyloid angle suggests feeding on small prey or can be an advantageous feeding mechanism. Mirounga angustirostris (Northern elephant seal displays sex-specific characters in cranial and postcranial elements. Likewise, significant sexually dimorphic differences in the size of condyloid angle imply that deeper-diving male Northern elephant seals have a feeding niche dissimilar to that of females. Morphological assessment of male M. angustirostris suggests they are bottom-feeding seals that utilize a suction-feeding mechanism to capture small prey and crush shells with their teeth, which become weaker as they age.

  13. Morphological aspects of the euphonic voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kasperuk


    Full Text Available The high quality of a euphonic voice is the result of complex interactions between many organs and systems. Vibrating vocal folds play a crucial role in this process. Their physiological motion is conditioned by the presence of the layered structure of laryngeal mucosa. In this study, we assessed the degree of dysphonia according to the Union of European Phoniatrics (UEP scale. Videoendoscopy (VLS and videostroboscopic (VLSS examination of the larynx was used to visualize the vibration of the vocal folds. Morphological assessment of the inter-membranous part of the vocal fold mucosa was carried out using material collected after surgical treatment (60% or obtained from autopsy (40%. The samples were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In euphonic voices, 1° of dysphonia (UEP and the physiological endoscopic (VLS and stroboscopic (VLSS findings of vocal folds were registered. No morphological or ultramorphological changes were observed in the cells of the multilayered flat epithelium, basal membrane or in the stroma. Unchanged epithelial cells were situated on the basal membrane with folds. Moreover, numerous pericytes, vessels with multiplication of basal membranes, scanty collagenous fibers, plasmatic cells and lymphocytes were seen. Morphological changes with signs of atrophy and polypoid degeneration of the vocal fold mucosa were found in only 3 (15% patients. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 72–79

  14. Morphological aspects of the euphonic voice. (United States)

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena; Andrzejewska, Anna; Moskal, Diana; Rogowski, Marek; Falkowski, Dawid; Kasperuk, Joanna


    The high quality of a euphonic voice is the result of complex interactions between many organs and systems. Vibrating vocal folds play a crucial role in this process. Their physiological motion is conditioned by the presence of the layered structure of laryngeal mucosa. In this study, we assessed the degree of dysphonia according to the Union of European Phoniatrics (UEP) scale. Videoendoscopy (VLS) and videostroboscopic (VLSS) examination of the larynx was used to visualize the vibration of the vocal folds. Morphological assessment of the inter-membranous part of the vocal fold mucosa was carried out using material collected after surgical treatment (60%) or obtained from autopsy (40%). The samples were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In euphonic voices, 1° of dysphonia (UEP) and the physiological endoscopic (VLS) and stroboscopic (VLSS) findings of vocal folds were registered. No morphological or ultramorphological changes were observed in the cells of the multilayered flat epithelium, basal membrane or in the stroma. Unchanged epithelial cells were situated on the basal membrane with folds. Moreover, numerous pericytes, vessels with multiplication of basal membranes, scanty collagenous fibers, plasmatic cells and lymphocytes were seen. Morphological changes with signs of atrophy and polypoid degeneration of the vocal fold mucosa were found in only 3 (15%) patients.

  15. Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers:Stereoblock Polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pople, John A


    The morphologies of low-density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3}), elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from bis(2-arylindenyl) hafnium dichloride were investigated using a combination of polarized optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM). These low-crystallinity polypropylenes, when crystallized isothermally from the melt, exhibit morphologies reminiscent of classical semi-crystalline polymers. The presence of lamellae, cross-hatching, hedrites, and spherulites was revealed by high resolution TM-AFM. These elastomeric polypropylenes can be fractionated into components of different average tacticities and crystallinities, but similar molecular mass. The analysis of the morphologies of all of the fractions revealed both large hierarchical structures and cross-hatching typical of the {alpha}-modification of crystalline isotactic polypropylene for all but the lowest crystalline ether soluble fraction. Evidence for high-melting crystals in all of the fractions are most consistent with a stereoblock microstructure of atactic and isotactic sequences.

  16. Graphene single crystals: size and morphology engineering. (United States)

    Geng, Dechao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Gui


    Recently developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered as an effective way to large-area and high-quality graphene preparation due to its ultra-low cost, high controllability, and high scalability. However, CVD-grown graphene film is polycrystalline, and composed of numerous grains separated by grain boundaries, which are detrimental to graphene-based electronics. Intensive investigations have been inspired on the controlled growth of graphene single crystals with the absence of intrinsic defects. As the two most concerned parameters, the size and morphology serve critical roles in affecting properties and understanding the growth mechanism of graphene crystals. Therefore, a precise tuning of the size and morphology will be of great significance in scale-up graphene production and wide applications. Here, recent advances in the synthesis of graphene single crystals on both metals and dielectric substrates by the CVD method are discussed. The review mainly covers the size and morphology engineering of graphene single crystals. Furthermore, recent progress in the growth mechanism and device applications of graphene single crystals are presented. Finally, the opportunities and challenges are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Morphological convergence in 'river dolphin' skulls. (United States)

    Page, Charlotte E; Cooper, Natalie


    Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the 'river dolphins'. The four dolphin genera that make up the 'river dolphins' ( Inia geoffrensis, Pontoporia blainvillei, Platanista gangetica and Lipotes vexillifer ) do not represent a single monophyletic group, despite being very similar in morphology. This has led many to using the 'river dolphins' as an example of convergent evolution. We investigate whether the skulls of the four 'river dolphin' genera are convergent when compared to other toothed dolphin taxa in addition to identifying convergent cranial and mandibular features. We use geometric morphometrics to uncover shape variation in the skulls of the 'river dolphins' and then apply a number of phylogenetic techniques to test for convergence. We find significant convergence in the skull morphology of the 'river dolphins'. The four genera seem to have evolved similar skull shapes, leading to a convergent morphotype characterised by elongation of skull features. The cause of this morphological convergence remains unclear. However, the features we uncover as convergent, in particular elongation of the rostrum, support hypotheses of shared feeding mode or diet and thus provide the foundation for future work into convergence within the Odontoceti.

  18. The morphological identity of insect dendrites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Cuntz


    Full Text Available Dendrite morphology, a neuron's anatomical fingerprint, is a neuroscientist's asset in unveiling organizational principles in the brain. However, the genetic program encoding the morphological identity of a single dendrite remains a mystery. In order to obtain a formal understanding of dendritic branching, we studied distributions of morphological parameters in a group of four individually identifiable neurons of the fly visual system. We found that parameters relating to the branching topology were similar throughout all cells. Only parameters relating to the area covered by the dendrite were cell type specific. With these areas, artificial dendrites were grown based on optimization principles minimizing the amount of wiring and maximizing synaptic democracy. Although the same branching rule was used for all cells, this yielded dendritic structures virtually indistinguishable from their real counterparts. From these principles we derived a fully-automated model-based neuron reconstruction procedure validating the artificial branching rule. In conclusion, we suggest that the genetic program implementing neuronal branching could be constant in all cells whereas the one responsible for the dendrite spanning field should be cell specific.

  19. Investigation of char morphology using image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wu; M. Cloke; R. Barranco; E. Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre


    The aim of this work is to identify methods for describing char morphology, using image analysis, which could be included in a burnout model. Char samples from four coals, Bijao, El Cerrejon, Caypa and Ashland, were used in this study. Chars were prepared from the coals using a drop-tube furnace and the chars mounted in resin for investigation and image-analysis using reflected light microscopy. A number of image-analysis techniques were developed in order to separate touching char particles, reconstruct fragmented char particles and measure char wall thickness, char and particle areas and char particle size. These methods were then tested on chars from the above coals. It was found that the algorithm developed for rebuilding char walls works well in selecting all possible fragments to rebuild a whole char particle using the 'Close' function. It was shown that close with the structural element shape 6 was the optimum when using the image analysis software in this study, the KS 400 image-analysis system. This algorithm was combined with others to give a new image analysis technique in the investigation of char morphology. It was shown that the technique is capable of characterizing char automatically and produces char morphological data, which could be included in char burnout models. 11 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Gross morphology of rhea oropharyngeal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The rhea (Rhea americana americana is an american bird belonging to Ratite's family. Studies related to its morphology are still scarce. This study aims to describe the macroscopic structures of the oropharyngeal cavity. Five heads (2 to 6 months old formalin preserved were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The oropharynx of the rhea was "bell-shaped" composed by the maxillary and mandibular rhamphotheca. The roof and floor presented two distinct regions different in colour of the mucosa. The rostral region was pale pink contrasting to grey coloured caudal region. The median longitudinal ridge extended rostrally from the apex of the choana to the tip of the beak in the roof and it is clearly more prominent and rigid than the homolog in the floor that appeared thin and stretched merely along the rostral portion of the regio interramalis. The floor was formed by the interramal region, (regio interramalis tongue and laryngeal mound containing glove-shaped glottis. This study confirmed the basic morphology of the oropharinx of the rhea. However, important morphological information not previously described is highlighted and contradictory information present in the literature is clarified.

  1. Morphological Analysis of the Transverse Carpal Ligament (United States)

    Pacek, Corey A.; Chakan, Matthew; Goitz, Robert J.; Kaufmann, Robert A.


    Transection of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) for carpal tunnel syndrome is commonly performed, yet actual knowledge of TCL morphology is rudimentary and the anatomical terminology is inconsistently used. The purpose of this study was to perform a morphological analysis of the TCL, to redefine the anatomical terminology concerning the TCL and surrounding structures, and to evaluate any correlation between external, measurable hand dimensions, and TCL dimensions. A silicone casting technique and digitization were employed to measure the morphology of the TCL in cadaveric specimens and to construct a three-dimensional TCL model. The TCL was the thickest distally at the midline and ulnar segments and the thickest proximally at the radial segment. External hand dimensions did not significantly correlate with TCL dimensions. The TCL thickness distribution is variable along the radioulnar axis. The thickness of the TCL was 2.1 ± 0.8 mm, ranging from 1.3 to 3.0 mm. PMID:19701670

  2. Morphological and developmental macroevolution: a paleontological perspective. (United States)

    Valentine, James W; Jablonski, David


    Evidence of the morphological evolution of metazoans has been preserved, in varying degrees of completeness, in the fossil record of the last 600 million years. Although extinction has been incessant at lower taxonomic levels, genomic comparisons among surviving members of higher taxa suggest that much of the developmental systems that pattern their bodyplans has been conserved from early in their history. Comparisons between the origin of morphological disparity in the record and patterns of genomic disparity among living taxa promise to be interesting. For example, Hox cluster composition varies among major taxa, and the fossil record suggests that many of the changes in Hox clusters may have been associated with late Neoproterozoic evolution among minute benthic vermiform clades, from which crown bilaterian phyla arose just before or during the Cambrian explosion. Study of genomic differences among crown classes and orders whosetiming and mode of origin can be inferred from morphological data inthefossil record should throw further light on the timing and mode of origin of genomic disparities.

  3. Numerical modeling of salt marsh morphological change induced by Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Hu, Kelin; Chen, Qin; Wang, Hongqing; Hartig, Ellen K.; Orton, Philip M.


    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate wave impacts during coastal storms, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. In this study, the Delft3D modeling suite was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy (2012) on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from rod Surface Elevation Tables and feldspar Marker Horizons (SET-MH) and hydrodynamic measurements during Hurricane Sandy were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model. The model results agreed well with in situ field measurements. The validated model was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Sandy across Jamaica Bay. Model results indicate that the island-wide morphological changes in the bay's salt marshes due to Sandy were in the range of −30 mm (erosion) to +15 mm (deposition), and spatially complex and heterogeneous. The storm generated paired deposition and erosion patches at local scales. Salt marshes inside the west section of the bay showed erosion overall while marshes inside the east section showed deposition from Sandy. The net sediment amount that Sandy brought into the bay is only about 1% of the total amount of reworked sediment within the bay during the storm. Numerical experiments show that waves and vegetation played a critical role in sediment transport and associated wetland morphological change in Jamaica Bay. Furthermore, without the protection of vegetation, the marsh islands of Jamaica Bay would experience both more erosion and less accretion in coastal storms.

  4. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M


    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  5. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....

  6. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    , dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  7. The experience of an experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Alexandra Marie


    This paper examines a popular phenomenon that allows us to see ourselves from various perspectives, and allows us to perpetuate moments enabling us to relive experiences in a different state of mind or at a different time. To examine the phenomenon of experiencing an experience hermeneutic phenom...

  8. Experimenting with a design experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Judith; Denters, Sebastianus A.H.


    The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy) instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good

  9. Computer-Assisted Adjuncts for Aneurysmal Morphologic Assessment: Toward More Precise and Accurate Approaches (United States)

    Rajabzadeh-Oghaz, Hamidreza; Varble, Nicole; Davies, Jason M.; Mowla, Ashkan; Shakir, Hakeem J.; Sonig, Ashish; Shallwani, Hussain; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Levy, Elad I.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Meng, Hui


    Neurosurgeons currently base most of their treatment decisions for intracranial aneurysms (IAs) on morphological measurements made manually from 2D angiographic images. These measurements tend to be inaccurate because 2D measurements cannot capture the complex geometry of IAs and because manual measurements are variable depending on the clinician's experience and opinion. Incorrect morphological measurements may lead to inappropriate treatment strategies. In order to improve the accuracy and consistency of morphological analysis of IAs, we have developed an image-based computational tool, AView. In this study, we quantified the accuracy of computer-assisted adjuncts of AView for aneurysmal morphologic assessment by performing measurement on spheres of known size and anatomical IA models. AView has an average morphological error of 0.56% in size and 2.1% in volume measurement. We also investigate the clinical utility of this tool on a retrospective clinical dataset and compare size and neck diameter measurement between 2D manual and 3D computer-assisted measurement. The average error was 22% and 30% in the manual measurement of size and aneurysm neck diameter, respectively. Inaccuracies due to manual measurements could therefore lead to wrong treatment decisions in 44% and inappropriate treatment strategies in 33% of the IAs. Furthermore, computer-assisted analysis of IAs improves the consistency in measurement among clinicians by 62% in size and 82% in neck diameter measurement. We conclude that AView dramatically improves accuracy for morphological analysis. These results illustrate the necessity of a computer-assisted approach for the morphological analysis of IAs. PMID:28867867

  10. Tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology in pre-orthodontic children with and without morphological deviations in the upper cervical spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemi, Ashkan; Sonnesen, Liselotte


    AIM: To analyze differences in prevalence and pattern of tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology between non syndromic children with tooth agenesis with and without upper cervical spine morphological deviations and to analyze associations between craniofacial morphology and tooth agenesis...... in the two groups together. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six pre-orthodontic children with tooth agenesis were divided into two groups with (19 children, mean age 11.9) and without (107 children, mean age 11.4) upper spine morphological deviations. Visual assessment of upper spine morphology...... morphological deviations was discussed. The results may be valuable for the early diagnosis and treatment planning of non syndromic children with tooth agenesis....

  11. Flower morphology and pollinator dynamics in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae): implications for the evolution of andromonoecy. (United States)

    Quesada-Aguilar, Andrea; Kalisz, Susan; Ashman, Tia-Lynn


    Flower morphology and pollinator dynamics play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of many breeding systems, including andromonoecy. We used a series of field experiments to test the functional relationship between flower morphology and pollination dynamics (e.g., pollen receipt and export) in Solanum carolinense. We find that long-styled flowers serve primarily as pollen recipients and short-styled flowers as pollen donors, making this the first study to support the male-female interference hypothesis for the evolution of andromonoecy. However, this difference in the primary male or female function of the flowers depends on the pollinator identity. In flowers visited by Bombus impatiens, style length has a positive relationship with pollen deposition and a negative relationship with pollen removal. In contrast, neither morphological nor behavioral traits determine pollen deposition or removal by small halictid bees. We demonstrate that different pollinators could select for different floral morphologies, and thus, our research suggests that pollinator-specific interactions with flower morphology play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of anrdromonoecy.

  12. Effects of Thermal Annealing Upon the Morphology of Polymer-Fullerene Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Verploegen, Eric


    Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) is used to characterize the morphology of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) thin film bulk heterojunction (BHJ) blends as a function of thermal annealing temperature, from room temperature to 220 °C. A custom-built heating chamber for in situ GIXS studies allows for the morphological characterization of thin films at elevated temperatures. Films annealed with a thermal gradient allow for the rapid investigation of the morphology over a range of temperatures that corroborate the results of the in situ experiments. Using these techniques the following are observed: the melting points of each component; an increase in the P3HT coherence length with annealing below the P3HT melting temperature; the formation of well-oriented P3HT crystallites with the (100) plane parallel to the substrate, when cooled from the melt; and the cold crystallization of PCBM associated with the PCBM glass transition temperature. The incorporation of these materials into BHJ blends affects the nature of these transitions as a function of blend ratio. These results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of how thermal annealing affects the morphology of polymer-fullerene BHJ blends and provides tools to manipulate the blend morphology in order to develop high-performance organic solar cell devices. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The trade-off between morphology and control in the co-optimized design of robots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Rosendo

    Full Text Available Conventionally, robot morphologies are developed through simulations and calculations, and different control methods are applied afterwards. Assuming that simulations and predictions are simplified representations of our reality, how sure can roboticists be that the chosen morphology is the most adequate for the possible control choices in the real-world? Here we study the influence of the design parameters in the creation of a robot with a Bayesian morphology-control (MC co-optimization process. A robot autonomously creates child robots from a set of possible design parameters and uses Bayesian Optimization (BO to infer the best locomotion behavior from real world experiments. Then, we systematically change from an MC co-optimization to a control-only (C optimization, which better represents the traditional way that robots are developed, to explore the trade-off between these two methods. We show that although C processes can greatly improve the behavior of poor morphologies, such agents are still outperformed by MC co-optimization results with as few as 25 iterations. Our findings, on one hand, suggest that BO should be used in the design process of robots for both morphological and control parameters to reach optimal performance, and on the other hand, point to the downfall of current design methods in face of new search techniques.

  14. The trade-off between morphology and control in the co-optimized design of robots. (United States)

    Rosendo, Andre; von Atzigen, Marco; Iida, Fumiya


    Conventionally, robot morphologies are developed through simulations and calculations, and different control methods are applied afterwards. Assuming that simulations and predictions are simplified representations of our reality, how sure can roboticists be that the chosen morphology is the most adequate for the possible control choices in the real-world? Here we study the influence of the design parameters in the creation of a robot with a Bayesian morphology-control (MC) co-optimization process. A robot autonomously creates child robots from a set of possible design parameters and uses Bayesian Optimization (BO) to infer the best locomotion behavior from real world experiments. Then, we systematically change from an MC co-optimization to a control-only (C) optimization, which better represents the traditional way that robots are developed, to explore the trade-off between these two methods. We show that although C processes can greatly improve the behavior of poor morphologies, such agents are still outperformed by MC co-optimization results with as few as 25 iterations. Our findings, on one hand, suggest that BO should be used in the design process of robots for both morphological and control parameters to reach optimal performance, and on the other hand, point to the downfall of current design methods in face of new search techniques.

  15. A mechanical model of the cornea considering the crimping morphology of collagen fibrils. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lizhen; Ji, Jing; Yao, Wei; Wei, Wei; Fan, Jie; Joshi, Shailesh; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo


    To develop a mechanical model with which to investigate the relationship between the crimping morphology of collagen fibrils and the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the cornea. Uniaxial tensile experiments were performed with corneal strips to test their mechanical behavior. A constitutive model was constructed based on the Gaussian-distributed morphology of crimped collagen fibrils. The parameters that represent the micro characteristics of collagen fibrils were determined by fitting the experimental data to the constitutive model. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to visualize the crimping morphology of collagen fibrils in the stroma. A quantitative analysis of fibril crimping degrees in the TEM images was conducted to test the parameters predicted by the constitutive model. The parameters were derived using a fitting method that included the expectation for the distribution of fibril crimping degrees, μ = 1.063; the standard deviation, σ = 0.0781; the elastic modulus of collagen fibrils, E = 52.74 MPa; and the fibril ultimate strain, εb = 0.1957. TEM images showed a variation of the fibril crimping morphology when the cornea was subjected to different tensile loads. A good agreement was found between the parameters derived by the constitutive model and the data quantified from the TEM images. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of the cornea is closely correlated with the crimping morphology of collagen fibrils. The findings are expected to guide further research of corneal pathologies related to the abnormal microstructure of collagen fibrils.

  16. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Augustesen, Christina


    elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research......Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...

  17. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina


    elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...... design it became relevant to investigate the use of LEDs as the physical equivalent of a pixel as a design approach. In this book our interest has been in identifying how the qualities of LEDs can be used in lighting applications. With experiences in the planning and implementation of architectural...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...

  18. Interpretive Experiments (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.


    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  19. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia


    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  20. Use of morphological characters to identify cassava mosaic disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of morphological characters to identify cassava mosaic disease and cassava bacterial blight resistance. ... Both the improved cassava breeds and local germplasms in the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan expressed wide genetic variability in morphological characters and diseases resistance.

  1. Childhood hydrocephalus – is radiological morphology associated with etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Jon; Andresen, Morten; Juhler, Marianne


    Clinicians use a non-standardized, intuitive approach when correlating radiological morphology and etiology of hydrocephalus.......Clinicians use a non-standardized, intuitive approach when correlating radiological morphology and etiology of hydrocephalus....

  2. Craniofacial morphology and obstructive sleep apnoea : a cephalometric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A; Hovinga, B; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    The craniofacial morphology of 31 male patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and 37 healthy male subjects were compared using cephalometric evaluation of lateral skull radiographs. The aim was to evaluate which cephalometric variables related to craniofacial morphology

  3. Modelling the cybersecurity environment using morphological ontology design engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Vuuren, JC


    Full Text Available ). This methodology is based on the combination of three different research methods, i.e. design science, general morphological analysis, and ontology based representation. General morphological analysis offers a solution for extracting meaningful information from...

  4. Prediction and Theoretical Investigation of the Morphology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    band interaction plays a critical role in the plate-like morphology of erythromycin dihydrate, which is in accordance with the theory of Periodic Bond Chain (PBC). Keywords: Erythromycin dihydrate, Morphology prediction, Theoretical investigation, ...

  5. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods for ...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body......In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods...

  6. Researching Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods for ...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the ReflexivityLab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body......In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods...

  7. Researching Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods for ...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design.......In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods...... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the ReflexivityLab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  8. Seasonal-scale nearshore morphological evolution: Field observations and numerical modeling (United States)

    Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.-J.R.; Gelfenbaum, G.; van, Ormondt M.


    A coupled waves-currents-bathymetric evolution model (DELFT-3D) is compared with field measurements to test hypotheses regarding the processes responsible for alongshore varying nearshore morphological changes at seasonal time scales. A 2001 field experiment, along the beaches adjacent to Grays Harbor, Washington, USA, captured the transition between the high-energy erosive conditions of winter and the low-energy beach-building conditions typical of summer. The experiment documented shoreline progradation on the order of 10-20 m and on average approximately 70 m of onshore sandbar migration during a four-month period. Significant alongshore variability was observed in the morphological response of the sandbar over a 4 km reach of coast with sandbar movement ranging from 20 m of offshore migration to over 175 m of onshore bar migration, the largest seasonal-scale onshore migration event observed in a natural setting. Both observations and model results suggest that, in the case investigated here, alongshore variations in initial bathymetry are primarily responsible for the observed alongshore variable morphological changes. Alongshore varying incident hydrodynamic forcing, occasionally significant in this region due to a tidal inlet and associated ebb-tidal delta, was relatively minor during the study period and appears to play an insignificant role in the observed alongshore variability in sandbar behavior at kilometer-scale. The role of fully three-dimensional cell circulation patterns in explaining the observed morphological variability also appears to be minor, at least in the case investigated here. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Morphological and molecular genetic variations of oat genotypes grown in Kermanshah, Iran. (United States)

    Sheikhehpour, Saeid; Bahraminejad, Sohbat; Cheghamirza, Kianoosh


    Morphological traits and molecular markers are two common methods for genetic variation studies. Molecular markers, morphological traits methods and relationship between the two were used to study genetic variation among 43 oat genotypes and varieties. For this purpose, an augmented design was conducted in three replicates at 2008-2009 cropping season in the experimental field of Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Four wild oat accessions (Avena sterilis) were added to evaluated genotypes in molecular experiment. Results showed a significant variation among genotypes for all morphological traits and they were classified based on this variation in four groups by WARD cluster analysis. In molecular experiment, 28 inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers amplified 206 polymorph bands. Based on Jaccard similarity matrix, similarity among genotypes was varied from 0.23 to 0.66 and cluster analysis classified genotypes in seven groups by complete linkage method. The correlation between ISSR marker and morphological traits classifications was not significant. ISSR showed to be a helpful marker for genotype identity and separation as it put wild accessions in a group.

  10. The morphological analysis of Setswana nouns | Pretorius | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes and demonstrates a method for the morphological analysis of Setswana nouns that could be used in the teaching of Setswana morphology. It provides a brief overview of the morphological structure of the Setswana noun in which the different morphemes of the Setswana noun as well as their ...

  11. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer in 90 couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% were analysed. Based on the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa the patients were divided into three groups: group A - normal morphological features 0 - 5%; group B - 6 ...

  12. Assessing Two-Year-Olds' Knowledge of Number Agreement Morphology (United States)

    Blossom, Megan


    Previous research in the area of children's knowledge of number agreement morphology has yielded mixed results. Some researchers have found evidence for sensitivity to agreement morphology at as early as 16 months, while others report that children do not comprehend number agreement morphology until as late as five or six years old. Studies of…

  13. Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and impacted teeth. Isaac Kipyator Bokindo, Fawzia Butt, Francis Macigo. Abstract. The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its extraction. The root morphology ...

  14. Morphological awareness and reading comprehension: Examining mediating factors. (United States)

    Levesque, Kyle C; Kieffer, Michael J; Deacon, S Hélène


    The relation between morphological awareness-defined as the awareness of and ability to manipulate the smallest units of meaning in language-and reading comprehension remains in need of specification. In this study, we evaluated four potential intervening variables through which morphological awareness may contribute indirectly to reading comprehension. We assessed word reading and vocabulary as well as children's ability to read and analyze the meaning of morphologically complex words (morphological decoding and morphological analysis, respectively). Controls of phonological awareness and nonverbal ability were included in the model. Participants were 221 English-speaking children in Grade 3. Multivariate path analyses revealed evidence of two indirect relations and one direct relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. In the first indirect path, morphological awareness contributed to morphological decoding, which then influenced word reading and finally reading comprehension. In a second indirect path, morphological awareness contributed to morphological analysis, which contributed to reading comprehension. Finally, in a direct path, morphological awareness contributed to reading comprehension beyond all other variables. These findings inform as to the potential mechanisms underlying the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the Acquisition of German Verb Morphology by Instructed Learners (United States)

    Boss, Bettina


    Research into the acquisition of L2 German word order has provided strong evidence for a sequence of incremental stages of development. Studies of the acquisition of German verb morphology so far have focused on establishing a correlation between the acquisition of word order and of verb morphology, neglecting the question how verb morphology per…

  16. Effects of Morphological Awareness on Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge (United States)

    Akbulut, Fatma Demiray


    This research has analysed the impact of morphological treatment in English morphological awareness task. The main aim of this study is to understand the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge of university preparatory class students. In second language learning environment, fifty-two preparatory class students have…

  17. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise


    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  18. Effects of Polymeric Dielectric Morphology on Pentacene Morphology and Organic TFT Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Rongbin


    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the effects of the polymeric dielectric morphology on pentacene morphology and organic thin film transistor (TFT characteristics. The morphology and thickness of cyclo-olefin polymer (COP dielectric could be controlled by selecting a solvent. Higher the solvent’s boiling point is, thinner and smother COP films could be obtained. Using the solvent of trimethylcyclohexane, the spin-coated COP films of ca. 330 nm with the peak-to-valley of 7.35 nm and the roughness of root mean square of 0.58 nm were obtained, and pentacene TFT showed high mobility of 2.0 cm2V-1s-1, which originated from highly ordering of pentacene thin films deposited on the smoother and thinner COP films.

  19. Thesis Abstract Morphological and phylogeographic analysis of Brazilian tortoises (Testudinidae). (United States)

    Silva, T L; Venancio, L P R; Bonini-Domingos, C R


    distribution of C. carbonarius can partially be explained by the fact that all the morphotypes are considered as a single taxonomic unit. Behavioral aspects such as intraspecific communication may be as reliable as morphological or molecular data for inferring evolutionary relationships. Analysis of the physical characteristics of vocalization [fundamental frequency (Hz), interval between notes (s), duration of each note (s), and number of notes from each vocalization] between C. carbonarius and morphotype 1 revealed statistically significant differences in the interval between notes (s) (P = 0.0000); duration of each note (s) (P = 0.0000); frequency of notes (Hz) (P = 0.0009); and number of notes (P = 0.0002). The results of preference experiments using sound stimulus were inconclusive with respect to species-specific vocalization preference; only females of C. carbonarius showed intraspecific vocalization preference, indicating possible reproductive isolation mechanisms. To explore the presence of sexual dimorphism and morphological differences between C. denticulatus, C. carbonarius, and morphotype 1, descriptive statistics to analyze the data obtained for the investigated measures were used. Two sets of analysis were conducted - the first for each group, to compare the sexes; and the second for each sex, to compare the groups. To examine the interspecific variation in size and shape, a correlation matrix inprincipal component analysis was used. Next, I used factor analysis to rank the features showing >0.75 correlation in the differentiation between the sexes. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that morphotype 1 corresponds to a new species, because it differs from the species pattern in terms of morphology, coloring, and sexual dimorphism. The results of classical cytogenetic analysis - to differentiate C. denticulatus, C. carbonarius, and morphotype 1 - revealed no consistent data that would enable its use as a taxonomic parameter. Conventional Giemsa

  20. Controlling morphology in swelling-induced wrinkled surfaces (United States)

    Breid, Derek Ronald

    Wrinkles represent a pathway towards the spontaneous generation of ordered surface microstructure for applications in numerous fields. Examples of highly complex ordered wrinkle structures abound in Nature, but the ability to harness this potential for advanced material applications remains limited. This work focuses on understanding the relationship between the patterns on a wrinkled surface and the experimental conditions under which they form. Because wrinkles form in response to applied stresses, particular attention is given to the nature of the stresses in a wrinkling surface. The fundamental insight gained was then utilized to account for observed wrinkle formation phenomena within more complex geometric and kinetic settings. In order to carefully control and measure the applied stresses on a wrinkling film, a swelling-based system was developed using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), surface-oxidized with a UV-ozone treatment. The swelling of the oxidized surface upon exposure to an ethanol vapor atmosphere was characterized using beam-bending experiments, allowing quantitative measurements of the applied stress. The wrinkle morphologies were characterized as a function of the overstress, defined as the ratio of the applied swelling stress to the critical buckling stress of the material. A transition in the dominant morphology of the wrinkled surfaces from dimple patterns to ridge patterns was observed at an overstress value of ˜2. The pattern dependence of wrinkles on the ratio of the principal stresses was examined by fabricating samples with a gradient prestress. When swollen, these samples exhibited a smooth morphological transition from non-equibiaxial to equibiaxial patterns, with prestrains as low as 2.5% exhibiting non-equibiaxial characteristics. This transition was seen both in samples with low and high overstresses. To explore the impact of these stress states in more complex geometries, wrinkling hemispherical surfaces with radii of curvature

  1. Generative Mechanisms of Romanian Derivational Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Petic


    Full Text Available The article studies the problem of a Romanian morphologic derivative generator development. The starting point is a lexicon that provides storage of derivatives in a lexicon, which contains not only the graphical representation of derivatives but also their constituent morphemes. This allows studying and formulating rules that would generate derivatives taking into account certain restrictions. The article deals with different cases of derivation, such as: semi-analyzable derivation, regular derivation, the projection process of the derivation with prefixation on the following suffixation, and derivatives with prefixes im-/in.

  2. Clinical and Morphological Aspects of Warthin's Tumor. (United States)

    Dăguci, Luminiţa; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, C; Bătăiosu, Marilena; Dragomir, L P


    The study includes 16 cases of Warthin's tumor in a period of 4 years (2004-2008). The tumors were diagnosed at patients of VII decade, most of them smoker. The studies of Warthin's tumor macroscopic morphological parameters allow us to establish the localization exclusive at parotid glands like solitary tumor and the tumoral volume oscillate mostly between 2-4 cm in diameter. Histopathologically we notice the prevalence of typical tumor forms, with balanced raport epithelium / stroma. In this study we have found in 10 cases typical forms, in 4 cases the prevalence of epithelium component and in 2 cases the prevalence of stroma component.

  3. Plant vacuole morphology and vacuolar trafficking (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.


    Plant vacuoles are essential organelles for plant growth and development, and have multiple functions. Vacuoles are highly dynamic and pleiomorphic, and their size varies depending on the cell type and growth conditions. Vacuoles compartmentalize different cellular components such as proteins, sugars, ions and other secondary metabolites and play critical roles in plants response to different biotic/abiotic signaling pathways. In this review, we will summarize the patterns of changes in vacuole morphology in certain cell types, our understanding of the mechanisms of plant vacuole biogenesis, and the role of SNAREs and Rab GTPases in vacuolar trafficking. PMID:25309565

  4. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev


    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  5. Dan Brown: Morphology of a Bestsellersaurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Calabrese


    Full Text Available Dan Brown’s success finds reasons in multiple factors, social, morphological, cognitive and commercial: the cross-medial restructuring of aesthetic communication on a global scale; the use of zero-sum homeostatic mechanisms in shaping themes, characters and meanings; the mixing of history and fiction; the disappearance of naturalistic elements; the time structuring of plots in «packs», cognitively easy to comprehend; the presence of urban settings, recognizable and meaningful for the global tourist; the elimination of ambiguous elements, favouring an aesthetic orientation to problem solving.

  6. LGMCA: Local-Generalized Morphological Component Analysis (United States)

    Bobin, Jerome


    LGMCA (Local-Generalized Morphological Component Analysis) is an extension to GMCA (ascl:1710.015). Similarly to GMCA, it is a Blind Source Separation method which enforces sparsity. The novel aspect of LGMCA, however, is that the mixing matrix changes across pixels allowing LGMCA to deal with emissions sources which vary spatially. These IDL scripts compute the CMB map from WMAP and Planck data; running LGMCA on the WMAP9 temperature products requires the main script and a selection of mandatory files, algorithm parameters and map parameters.

  7. Modeling Decisional Situations Using Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on models of financial decisions in small and medium enterprises. The presented models are a part of a decision support system presented in the PhD dissertation. One of the modeling techniques used for model creation and development is morphological analysis. This technique is used for model scale reduction not by reducing the number of variables involved but by reducing the number of possible combinations between variables. In this paper we prove how this approach can be used in modeling financial decision problems.

  8. Morphological characterization of fullerene–androsterone conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ruiz


    Full Text Available Here we report on the self-organization characteristics in water of two diastereomer pairs of fullerene–androsterone hybrids that have the hydrophobic C60 appendage in the A and D ring of the androsterone moiety, respectively. The morphology and particle size in aqueous solution were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS, with satisfactory agreement between both techniques. In general, these fullerene derivatives are shown to organize into spherical nano-scale structures with diameters in the ranges of 10–20 and 30–50 nm, respectively.

  9. Morphological properties of vestibulospinal neurons in primates (United States)

    Boyle, Richard; Johanson, Curt


    The lateral and medial vestibulospinal tracts constitute the major descending pathways controlling extensor musculature of the body. We examined the axon morphology and synaptic input patterns and targets in the cervical spinal segments from these tract cells using intracellular recording and biocytin labeling in the squirrel monkey. Lumbosacral projecting cells represent a private, and mostly rapid, communication pathway between the dorsal Deiters' nucleus and the motor circuits controlling the lower limbs and tail. The cervical projecting cells provide both redundant and variable synaptic input to spinal cell groups, suggesting both general and specific control of the head and neck reflexes.

  10. X-ray morphology after vagotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeger, R.; Vogel, H.


    Vagotomy is often followed by changes in the shape and motoric function of the stomach which usually return to normal in the course of a few months. The morphological changes which are typical for the different surgical techniques are described on the basis of references and the authors' own findings. X-ray examination contributes towards distinguishing regular postoperative changes from complications. The necessary long-term follow-ups to discover any possible recurrence of ulcers should be supplemented by gastroscopy.

  11. Modelling and simulation of surface morphology driven by ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yewande, E.O.


    Non-equilibrium surfaces, at nanometer length scales, externally driven via bombardment with energetic particles are known to exhibit well ordered patterns with a variety of applications in nano-technology. These patterns emerge at time scales on the order of minutes. Continuum theory has been quite successful in giving a general picture of the processes that interplay to give the observed patterns, as well as how such competition might determine the properties of the nanostructures. However, continuum theoretical descriptions are ideal only in the asymptotic limit. The only other theoretical alternative, which happens to be more suitable for the characteristic length-and time-scales of pattern formation, is Monte Carlo simulation. In this thesis, surface morphology is studied using discrete solid-on-solid Monte Carlo models of sputtering and surface diffusion. The simulations are performed in the context of the continuum theories and experiments. In agreement with the experiments, the ripples coarsen with time and the ripple velocity exhibits a power-law behaviour with the ripple wavelength, in addition, the exponent was found to depend on the simulation temperature, which suggests future experimental studies of flux dependence. Moreover, a detailed exploration of possible topographies, for different sputtering conditions, corresponding to different materials, was performed. And different surface topographies e.g. holes, ripples, and dots, were found at oblique incidence, without sample rotation. With sample rotation no new topography was found, its only role being to destroy any inherent anisotropy in the system. (orig.)

  12. Researching Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    , dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas.      Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the ReflexivityLab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  13. IR and UV laser-induced morphological changes in silicon surface under oxygen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jarquin, J.; Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Hernandez-Pozos, J.L. [Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    We irradiated silicon (100) wafers with IR (1064 nm) and UV (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses with energy densities within the ablation regime and used scanning electron microscopy to analyze the morphological changes induced on the Si surface. The changes in the wafer morphology depend both on the incident radiation wavelength and the environmental atmosphere. We have patterned Si surfaces with a single focused laser spot and, in doing the experiments with IR or UV this reveals significant differences in the initial surface cracking and pattern formation, however if the experiment is carried out in O{sub 2} the final result is an array of microcones. We also employed a random scanning technique to irradiate the silicon wafer over large areas, in this case the microstructure patterns consist of a ''semi-ordered'' array of micron-sized cones. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Naumova


    Full Text Available Low-intensify electro-magnetic waves (EMW influence were studied at experiment. Certain EMI frequency regimes (they are transparent for the water and water-binding substances, and they are known as trans-resonance can intensify the metabolic rate. In turn, certain EMW frequency regimes (they are not transparent for the water and the water-containing tissues, and they are called as non-resonance can disturb the native electro-magnetic status of the cells and can lead to morphological changes in organs. Morphological changes in adrenal glands and cortizol level of 60 White Vistar rats (males in serum under transparent EMW frequency regimes and non-transparent ones were examined. Transparent and non-transparent frequency regimes impact the various changes in adrenals. Cortizol level corresponds to morphologic conclusion. Stress modified EMW-effects in both variants - under resonance and non-resonance EMW frequency regimes in adrenal morphology and cortizol level.

  15. Differential recall of derived and inflected word forms in working memory: examining the role of morphological information in simple and complex working memory tasks (United States)

    Service, Elisabet; Maury, Sini


    Working memory (WM) has been described as an interface between cognition and action, or a system for access to a limited amount of information needed in complex cognition. Access to morphological information is needed for comprehending and producing sentences. The present study probed WM for morphologically complex word forms in Finnish, a morphologically rich language. We studied monomorphemic (boy), inflected (boy+’s), and derived (boy+hood) words in three tasks. Simple span, immediate serial recall of words, in Experiment 1, is assumed to mainly rely on information in the focus of attention. Sentence span, a dual task combining sentence reading with recall of the last word (Experiment 2) or of a word not included in the sentence (Experiment 3) is assumed to involve establishment of a search set in long-term memory for fast activation into the focus of attention. Recall was best for monomorphemic and worst for inflected word forms with performance on derived words in between. However, there was an interaction between word type and experiment, suggesting that complex span is more sensitive to morphological complexity in derivations than simple span. This was explored in a within-subjects Experiment 4 combining all three tasks. An interaction between morphological complexity and task was replicated. Both inflected and derived forms increased load in WM. In simple span, recall of inflectional forms resulted in form errors. Complex span tasks were more sensitive to morphological load in derived words, possibly resulting from interference from morphological neighbors in the mental lexicon. The results are best understood as involving competition among inflectional forms when binding words from input into an output structure, and competition from morphological neighbors in secondary memory during cumulative retrieval-encoding cycles. Models of verbal recall need to be able to represent morphological as well as phonological and semantic information. PMID:25642181

  16. Poetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Yar Khan


    Full Text Available Nature of poetic experience is hereby redefined. The present article initially deals with the perennial nature of true poetic experience and its essential relevance to the world. It attempts to elaborate the process through which a poet is uplifted in a creative moment beyond terrestrial boundaries and is aligned with the ‘state of Perfection'. The role of successive generations of audiences in rediscovering the meaning of a poetic image is defined as life principle of all great poetry. Shakespeare is discussed as the ultimate example of this principle since his popularity remains an irreversible phenomenon

  17. Morphology and development of leaf papillae in the Pilotrichaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Duarte-Silva


    Full Text Available Sporophyte morphology has been traditionally used in taxonomic studies of pleurocarpous mosses. However, the gametophyte morphology of the Pilotrichaceae still holds interesting and under-investigated characters. Here, we conducted an in-depth investigation of the morphology and development of Pilotrichaceae leaf papillae and assessed their usefulness in inferring the evolutionary history of the family. Specimens were observed under scanning electron microscopy, and we identified seven morphological types of papillae, as well as two different pathways of development. Our results suggest that papilla morphology and development are phylogenetically informative in the Pilotrichaceae.

  18. Electrochemical surface reshaping of polycrystalline platinum: Morphology and crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X.; Reiner, A. [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mueller, E. [Electron Microscopy ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wokaun, A. [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Scherer, G.G. [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail:; Zhang, L.; Shou, K.-Y.; Nelson, B.J. [Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    A novel process of morphological evolution was observed on a polycrystalline platinum electrode surface during intensive potential perturbation in sulfuric acid electrolyte. The process was started from a smooth polycrystalline platinum surface, and ended up with a roughened overlayer which is composed of numerous morphological units. According to its appearance, the unit is named 'feather-like morphology (FLM)' which contains finer structures at nanometer scale. The active surface area of platinum at different stages during the morphological evolution was estimated by cyclic voltammetry. Electron microscopic measurements provided both morphological details and crystallographic information.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrall, Geoffrey Alden [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  20. Morphologies of aerosol particles consisting of two liquid phases (United States)

    Song, Mijung; Marcolli, Claudia; Krieger, Ulrich; Peter, Thomas


    Recent studies have shown that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) might be a common feature in mixed organic/ammonium sulfate (AS)/H2O particles. Song et al. (2012) observed that in atmospheric relevant organic/AS/H2O mixtures LLPS always occurred for organic aerosol compositions with O:C appeared for O:C > 0.80. The composition of the organic fraction and the mixing state of aerosol particles may influence deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of inorganic salts during RH cycles and also aerosol morphology. In order to determine how the deliquescence and efflorescence of AS in mixed organic/AS/H2O particles is influenced by LLPS and to identify the corresponding morphologies of the particles, we subjected organic/AS/H2O particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate to RH cycles and observed the phase transitions using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In this study, we report results from 21 organic/AS/H2O systems with O:C ranging from 0.55 - 0.85 covering aliphatic and aromatic oxidized compounds. Eight systems did not show LLPS for all investigated organic-to-inorganic ratios, nine showed core-shell morphology when present in a two-liquid-phases state and four showed both, core-shell or partially engulfed configurations depending on the organic-to-inorganic ratio. While AS in aerosol particles with complete LLPS showed almost constant values of ERH = 44 ± 4 % and DRH = 77 ± 2 %, a strong reduction or complete inhibition of efflorescence occurred for mixtures that did not exhibit LLPS. To confirm these findings, we performed supplementary experiments on levitated particles in an electrodynamic balance and compared surface and interfacial tensions of the investigated mixtures. Reference Song, M., C. Marcolli, U. K. Krieger, A. Zuend, and T. Peter (2012), Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Dependence on O:C, organic functionalities, and compositional complexity, Geophys. Res. Lett

  1. Surface Morphology of Fe(III)-Porphyrin Thin Layers as Characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy


    Utari Utari; Kusumandari Kusumandari; Budi Purnama; Mudasir Mudasir; Kamsul Abraha


    Surface morphology of Fe(III)–porphyrin thin layers was studied using atomic force microscopy. The thin layer samples used in these experiments were deposited by spin coating methods on indium–tin-oxide substrates at room temperature under atmospheric conditions. Variations of thin layer of Fe(III)-porphyrin were done by modifying the rotational speed and the concentration of the solution. The experimental results demonstrated that the Fe(III)–porphyrin layers were observed as discrete nanomo...

  2. Effect of pressure of supercritical carbon dioxide on morphology of wool fibers during dyeing process


    Zheng Lai-Jiu; Yin Peng-Peng; Ye Fang; Ju Wei; Yan Jun


    In this paper, the effect of pressure release rate on dyeing of wool fibers was studied in the supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing. Surface morphology, chemical composition and color difference at different pressure release rates were investigated by employing scanning electron microscope, color matching, and measuring instrument. Experiment data reveal that wool fibers are easy to be damaged with increasing pressure release rate. Fiber’s surface brightness ...

  3. Vocal fold nodules: morphological and immunohistochemical investigations. (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Defaveri, Julio; Custódio Domingues, Maria Aparecida; de Albuquerque E Silva, Rafael; Fabro, Alexandre


    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of vocal fold nodules. The study design was prospective and retrospective. For the histological study, we reviewed 15 slides from the surgical cases of vocal fold nodules, in which we analyzed epithelium, basal membrane (bm), and lamina propria. For the transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies, five new cases on vocal fold nodules were included. Immunohistochemistry study was carried out in the 15 specimens, using antifibronectin, antilaminin, and anticollagen IV antibodies. The main histological alterations were epithelial hyperplasia (73.33%), basement membrane thickening (86.66%), edema, and fibrosis (93.33%). SEM--reduction in mucous lacing and increase in the desquamating cells, without epithelial erosion. TEM--hyperplasia of the epithelium, enlargement of the intercellular junctions, which was filled by fluid, subepithelial thickening of the lamina reticularis, and break points in the basal membrane. Immunohistochemistry--we identified greater immunoexpression of fibronectin on the basal membrane, on the lamina propria, and around the vessels. Antilaminin and anticollagen IV antibodies showed higher pigmentation on the endothelium of the vessels than that on the basal membrane. In vocal fold nodules, combined assessment using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry can reveal important morphological details useful in characterizing these lesions. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Renal morphological changes in experimental oxalate nephrolithiasis]. (United States)

    Motin, Yu G; Lepilov, A V; Larionov, P M


    Тo evaluate renal morphological changes in the early stages of lithogenic processes and during urinary correction of urine with oxalate-chelating compounds (sodium citrate). An experimental model of oxalate nephrolithiasis was performed on 80 male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 250 g. Rat kidneys were morphologically and ultrastructurally studied. Immunohistochemical techniques were applied to study the features of development of endoplasmic reticulum stress. There were histotopographic changes in the renal tissue elements in the early stages of development of lithogenic processes accompanied by characteristic ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of the renal tubules and collecting ducts: by expansion of elements in the granular endoplasmic network, by mitochondrial damage with formation of large, ampullary extended cristae, and by emergence of autolysosomes. Signs of development of endoplasmic reticulum stress with activation of protein GADD153 were found, which deteriorated the cell lining of the nephron tubules and collecting ducts. In the early stages of development of lithogenic processes, there are stereotypic ultrastructural and histotopographic changes in the epithelium of the nephron tubules and collecting ducts, which contribute to the progression of stone formation processes and to the disruption of cellular homeostasis with activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, synthesis impairment, or post-translational modifications in modulator proteins of lithogenesis.

  5. PHENOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY OF Diatenopteryx sorbifolia Radlk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciele Felippi


    Full Text Available study aimed to elucidate the time of occurrence of flowers and fruits and the external and internal morphology of the flower, fruit and seed, and seedling and external changes of Diatenopteryx sorbifolia Radlk (Sapindaceae. The collection of botanical material and phenological observations were made on trees headquarters, located in the municipality of Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul state, between March 2007 and March 2010. The study was conducted at the Seed Laboratory of the Department of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Santa Maria, RS state. The species flowered from September to October. The annual fruiting occurs from November to January, having anemochorous dispersion. There were irregularities in the production of fruits as the years and there is no synchronization between headquarters during the phenophases. The species has inflorescence thyrsus, pleiotirso, with small white flowers in color, hermaphrodites with ovarian super sincarpico, and bicarpelar uniovular, as well as male unisexual flowers. The fruit of siples, dry, indehiscent, brown color, is the type esquisocarpaceo, consisting of samarideos containing one to two seeds, ovoid, brown color, exalbuminate with axial embryo and fleshy cotyledons. The germination process started from the second day after sowing, germination is epigeal type. After 18 days, the seedling phanerocotyledonal is formed. The changes in conditions to be studied, are formed three months after sowing. The phenological characterization is morphological information that is relevant for the field identification of species, seed collection and analysis, as well as the production of seedlings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ashkan


    Full Text Available Persian master builders had introduced an architectural innovation which had an imperishable effect on dome architecture in the Middle East and Central Asia: surmounting a dome on squinches. This paper aims to provide a broader perspective of Persian domes as the most significant feature of Eastern domes in the Middle East. As opposed to previous general historic studies, this paper introduces a new analytical approach directed towards analysis of architectural concepts and stylistic attributes of Persian domes based on an epistemological premise of their space syntax. By analytic reviewing of examples, the paper addresses the origin of Persian domes, their formal morphological constitutions, and their typological forms based on the diversity of the external shell over the specific timeline, from the pre-Islamic era through the Qajar period in Iran. The study of the Persian dome’s characteristics can illustrate undiscovered information about the essences of developing dome constructions in the Middle East. It can also establish new design standards regarding the frameworks of domical building configurations to be used for creating typological diversity in dome design and to renew the morphological principles of the traditional dome compositions in contemporary architectural designs. Finally, the insights gained can inform conservation efforts on domical structures in the region and elsewhere.

  7. Morphological Heterogeneity and Attachment of Phaeobacter inhibens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Segev

    Full Text Available The Roseobacter clade is a key group of bacteria in the ocean exhibiting diverse metabolic repertoires and a wide range of symbiotic life-styles. Many Roseobacters possess remarkable capabilities of attachment to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. When attached to each other, these bacteria form multi-cellular structures called rosettes. Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied Roseobacter, exhibits various cell sizes and morphologies that are either associated with rosettes or occur as single cells. Here we describe the distribution of P. inhibens morphologies and rosettes within a population. We detect an N-acetylglucosamine-containing polysaccharide on the poles of some cells and at the center of all rosettes. We demonstrate that rosettes are formed by the attachment of individual cells at the polysaccharide-containing pole rather than by cell division. Finally, we show that P. inhibens attachment to abiotic surfaces is hindered by the presence of DNA from itself, but not from other bacteria. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that cell adhesiveness is likely to play a significant role in the life cycle of P. inhibens as well as other Roseobacters.

  8. Morphological Heterogeneity and Attachment of Phaeobacter inhibens. (United States)

    Segev, Einat; Tellez, Adèle; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto


    The Roseobacter clade is a key group of bacteria in the ocean exhibiting diverse metabolic repertoires and a wide range of symbiotic life-styles. Many Roseobacters possess remarkable capabilities of attachment to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. When attached to each other, these bacteria form multi-cellular structures called rosettes. Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied Roseobacter, exhibits various cell sizes and morphologies that are either associated with rosettes or occur as single cells. Here we describe the distribution of P. inhibens morphologies and rosettes within a population. We detect an N-acetylglucosamine-containing polysaccharide on the poles of some cells and at the center of all rosettes. We demonstrate that rosettes are formed by the attachment of individual cells at the polysaccharide-containing pole rather than by cell division. Finally, we show that P. inhibens attachment to abiotic surfaces is hindered by the presence of DNA from itself, but not from other bacteria. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that cell adhesiveness is likely to play a significant role in the life cycle of P. inhibens as well as other Roseobacters.

  9. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.


    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  10. Radio Source Morphology: 'nature or nuture'? (United States)

    Banfield, Julie; Emonts, Bjorn; O'Sullivan, Shane


    Radio sources, emanating from supermassive black-holes in the centres of active galaxies, display a large variety of morphological properties. It is a long-standing debate to what extent the differences between various types of radio sources are due to intrinsic properties of the central engine (`nature') or due to the properties of the interstellar medium that surrounds the central engine and host galaxy (`nurture'). Settling this `nature vs. nurture' debate for nearby radio galaxies, which can be studied in great detail, is vital for understanding the properties and evolution of radio galaxies throughout the Universe. We propose to observe the radio galaxy NGC 612 where previous observations have detected the presence of a large-scale HI bridge between the host galaxy and a nearby galaxy NGC 619. We request a total of 13 hrs in the 750m array-configuration to determine whether or not the 100 kpc-scale radio source morphology is directly related to the intergalactic distribution of neutral hydrogen gas.

  11. Craniofacial morphology in unilateral hemifacial microsomia. (United States)

    Ongkosuwito, E M; van Neck, J W; Wattel, E; van Adrichem, L N; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M


    Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a complex three-dimensional congenital condition that is characterized by mandibular hypoplasia and unilateral or bilateral microtia; although, other facial structures may be affected. Little is known about craniofacial growth and morphology in patients with HFM; therefore, we examined 75 HFM patients by means of a cephalometric analysis in a longitudinal study on serial lateral cephalograms. We hypothesized that the growth of several facial structures on both sides of HFM patients would be different compared to Dutch controls. We determined patients with HFM had more retruded mandibles and maxillae and a more vertical morphology compared to the reference population. In addition, there was a more retruded and vertical pattern on the affected side compared to the unaffected side and in patients with a severe condition compared to those with a mild condition. 'Mild' HFM patients were more similar to the Dutch reference population than the 'severe' HFM patients. Individual HFM growth curves showed very high inter-variability, further strengthening the need for individualized treatment plans that consider all three dimensions and the severity of the condition. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of the Dental Morphology of Orangutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nambiar


    Full Text Available Orangutans are believed to have close biological affinities to humans. Teeth being the hardest tissue provide useful information on primate evolution. Furthermore, knowledge of the pulp chamber and root canal morphology is important for dental treatment. A female Bornean orangutan and a Sumatran male orangutan skull were available for this study. Both of their dentitions, comprising 50 teeth, were scanned employing the cone-beam computed tomography for both metrical and nonmetrical analyses. Measurements included tooth and crown length, root length, enamel covered crown height, root canal length (posterior teeth, length of pulpal space (anterior teeth, and root canal width. Nonmetrical parameters included number of canals per root, number of foramina in each root, and root canal morphology according to Vertucci’s classification. It was found that the enamel covered crown height was the longest in the upper central incisors although the canine was the longest amongst the anterior teeth. Both the upper premolars were three-rooted while the lower second premolar of the Sumatran orangutan was two-rooted, with two foramina. The mandibular lateral incisors of the Bornean orangutan were longer than the central incisors, a feature similar to humans. In addition, secondary dentine deposition was noticed, a feature consistent with aged humans.

  13. Morphological evolution in the San Francisco Bight (United States)

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.


    San Francisco Bight, located near the coast of San Francisco, USA, is an extremely dynamic tidal inlet environmental subject to large waves and strong currents. Wave heights coming from the Pacific Ocean commonly exceed 5 m during winter storms. During peak flow tidal currents approach 3 m/s at the Golden Gate, a 1 km wide entrance that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. Flow structure in this region varies markedly spatially and temporally due to the complex interaction by wind, waves and tidal currents. A multibeam sonar survey was recently completed that mapped in high resolution, for the first time, the bottom morphology in the region of the ebb tidal delta. This data set includes a giant sand wave field covering an area of approximately 4 square kilometers. The new survey enables the calculation of seabed change that has occurred in the past 50 years, since the last comprehensive survey of the area was completed. This comparison indicates an average erosion of 60 centimeters which equates to a total volume change of approximately 9.3 x 107 m3. Morphologic change also indicates that flood channels have filled and that the entire ebb delta is contracting radially.

  14. Morphological caracteristics of malocclusion class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović J.


    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion are complex anomalies of the skeletal and dental systems. The aim of this study is that the rengenkefalometrics analysis closer determine the morphological characteristics of this malocclusion. For this study were used 30 patients aged 18-30, previously clinically diagnosed class II, before the planned orthodontic treatment. The results analisis lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with the 30 patients with class I malocclusion. Analyzed three linear and two angular cranial base dimensions and nine angular and four linear measures from the facial skeleton. The Results show: No statistically significant differensis in cranial base angle (SNBa and anterior cranial base length (S-N between class II and control Class I. Angle maxillar prognathism ( SNA is no signifikant different between class I and Class II but SNB angle were signifikant smaller. The length of maxillary base (A'-SnP is longer and the length of mandibule (Pg'-MT1/MT is signifficantly smaller. The gonial angle (ArGo-Me was smaller with open articular angle (GoArSN. Morphological characteristics of class II malocclusion are , retrognathic and smaller mandibular ligth, normognathic and longer maxilla, open articular angle with vertical tendency of the craniofacial growth pattern.

  15. Morphological variation of the maxillary lateral incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Kondo


    Full Text Available The maxillary lateral incisor is a variable tooth morphologically. This tooth frequently shows reduction in size, and also various alterations in shape, for example, peg-shaped, cone-shaped, barrel-shaped and canine-shaped. The lateral incisor variant can be analyzed by family studies and using twin models, and these approaches have shown that genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors can all contribute to variation in the trait. Discordance of the phenotype in monozygotic twin pairs could be explained by the following two hypotheses: (1 the embryological environment of monochorionic twin pairs who share the same placenta and chorionic membrane during the prenatal period may differ, (2 phenotypic variation may be caused by epigenetic influences. Possible developmental factors are discussed in this review. Recent studies suggest that Msx1, Pax9 and Axin2 genes predispose to lateral incisor agenesis. Tooth reduction and agenesis seem to represent inter-related complex multifactorial traits, influenced by a combination of gene expression and function, environmental interaction and developing timing. Thus, accumulation of large data banks of morphological data is needed to support and clarify ongoing molecular genetic studies of dental development.

  16. Morphological Development in Italian: Connotation and Denotation. (United States)

    Bates, Elizabeth; Rankin, Jane


    Reports on research on the acquisition of adjectives vs inflectional endings in Italian children. Patterns resulting from a longitudinal study involving two children and an experiment involving 84 children are compared to patterns of adults participating in the latter experiment. (Author/AM)

  17. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise


    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary assessments. Study 2 extended these results by giving 90 eighth-grade students expanded measures of vocabulary and morphology that assessed (a) definitional knowledge, (b) usage, (c) relational knowledge, and (d) knowledge of morphological variants, with each potential aspect of knowledge assessed using an identical set of 23 words to control for differential knowledge of specific vocabulary items. Results indicated that a single-factor model that encompassed morphological and vocabulary knowledge provided the best fit to the data. Finally, explanatory item response modeling was used to investigate sources of variance in the vocabulary and morphological awareness tasks we administered. Implications for assessment and instruction are discussed. PMID:26273128

  18. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S


    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  19. Contributions of Morphological Skill to Children's Essay Writing. (United States)

    Northey, Mary; McCutchen, Deborah; Sanders, Elizabeth A


    Morphological skills have previously been found to reliably predict reading skill, including word reading, vocabulary, and comprehension. However, less is known about how morphological skills might contribute to writing skill, aside from its well-documented role in the development of spelling. This correlational study examines whether morphological skill, as measured by a sentence generation task tapping both derivational morphology and meta-syntactic skills, predicts performance on a standardized essay writing task for fifth- and eighth-grade U.S. students (N = 233), after controlling for grade level, comprehension, and writing fluency. Multilevel analyses indicated that morphological skill and writing fluency were each uniquely predictive of essay quality, and this finding was consistent regardless of whether accurate spelling was required in the morphological task. Our results suggest that morphological skills play an important role in writing, as has been previously documented in reading and spelling.

  20. Media experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie


    The paper discusses mediated experiences from the perspective of the visual modality in combination with the multimodal interaction. ICT-studies has a rapid influx of new words and concepts. Digital technology led to a need to describe the convergence of images, text and sound has taken various w...

  1. Experiences matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Social work has long neglected the experiences of people as an important source of knowledge. This creates gaps between social workers and people in need of social work support. The gaps are evident and hinder people to get the help they need for recovery. This exhibition intends to show how the

  2. Mathematical morphology-based approach to the enhancement of morphological features in medical images. (United States)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka


    Medical image processing is essential in many fields of medical research and clinical practice because it greatly facilitates early and accurate detection and diagnosis of diseases. In particular, contrast enhancement is important for optimal image quality and visibility. This paper proposes a new image processing method for enhancing morphological features of masses and other abnormalities in medical images. The proposed method involves two steps: (1) selective extraction of target features by mathematical morphology and (2) enhancement of the extracted features by two contrast modification techniques. The goal of the proposed method is to enable enhancement of fine morphological features of a lesion region with high suppression of surrounding tissues. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated in quantitative terms of the contrast improvement ratio. The results clearly show that the method outperforms five conventional contrast enhancement methods. The effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed method were further demonstrated by application to three types of medical images: a mammographic image, a chest radiographic image, and a retinal image. The proposed method enables specific extraction and enhancement of mass lesions, which is essential for clinical diagnosis based on medical image analysis. Thus, the method can be expected to achieve automatic recognition of lesion location and quantitative analysis of legion morphology.

  3. The effect of morphology upon mobility : Implications for bulk heterojunction solar cells with nonuniform blend morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.; Koster, L. J. A.; Greenham, N. C.


    We use a Monte Carlo model to predict the effect of composition, domain size, and energetic disorder upon the mobility of carriers in an organic donor-acceptor blend. These simulations show that, for the changes in local morphology expected within the thickness of a typical bulk heterojunction

  4. Preschool Phonological and Morphological Awareness As Longitudinal Predictors of Early Reading and Spelling Development in Greek. (United States)

    Diamanti, Vassiliki; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Ralli, Asimina; Antoniou, Faye; Papaioannou, Sofia; Protopapas, Athanassios


    Different language skills are considered fundamental for successful reading and spelling acquisition. Extensive evidence has highlighted the central role of phonological awareness in early literacy experiences. However, many orthographic systems also require the contribution of morphological awareness. The goal of this study was to examine the morphological and phonological awareness skills of preschool children as longitudinal predictors of reading and spelling ability by the end of first grade, controlling for the effects of receptive and expressive vocabulary skills. At Time 1 preschool children from kindergartens in the Greek regions of Attika, Crete, Macedonia, and Thessaly were assessed on tasks tapping receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness (syllable and phoneme), and morphological awareness (inflectional and derivational). Tasks were administered through an Android application for mobile devices (tablets) featuring automatic application of ceiling rules. At Time 2 one year later the same children attending first grade were assessed on measures of word and pseudoword reading, text reading fluency, text reading comprehension, and spelling. Complete data from 104 children are available. Hierarchical linear regression and commonality analyses were conducted for each outcome variable. Reading accuracy for both words and pseudowords was predicted not only by phonological awareness, as expected, but also by morphological awareness, suggesting that understanding the functional role of word parts supports the developing phonology-orthography mappings. However, only phonological awareness predicted text reading fluency at this age. Longitudinal prediction of reading comprehension by both receptive vocabulary and morphological awareness was already evident at this age, as expected. Finally, spelling was predicted by preschool phonological awareness, as expected, as well as by morphological awareness, the contribution of which is expected to

  5. Morphological convergence in a Mexican garter snake associated with the ingestion of a novel prey. (United States)

    Manjarrez, Javier; Macías Garcia, Constantino; Drummond, Hugh


    Morphological convergence is expected when organisms which differ in phenotype experience similar functional demands, which lead to similar associations between resource utilization and performance. To consume prey with hard exoskeletons, snakes require either specialized head morphology, or to deal with them when they are vulnerable, for example, during molting. Such attributes may in turn reduce the efficiency with which they prey on soft-bodied, slippery animals such as fish. Snakes which consume a range of prey may present intermediate morphology, such as that of Thamnophiine (Natricinae), which may be classified morphometrically across the soft-hard prey dietary boundary. In this study, we compared the dentition and head structure of populations of Thamnophis melanogaster that have entered the arthropod-crustacean (crayfish)-eating niche and those that have not, and tested for convergence between the former and two distantly related crayfish specialists of the genus Regina (R. septemvittata and R. grahamii). As a control, we included the congener T. eques. Multivariate analysis of jaw length, head length, head width, and number of maxillary teeth yielded three significant canonical variables that together explained 98.8% of the variance in the size-corrected morphological data. The first canonical variable significantly discriminated between the three species. The results show that head dimensions and number of teeth of the two Regina species are more similar to those of crayfish-eating T. melanogaster than to non-crayfish-eating snakes or of T. eques. It is unclear how particular head proportions or teeth number facilitates capture of crayfish, but our results and the rarity of soft crayfish ingestion by T. melanogaster may reflect the novelty of this niche expansion, and are consistent with the hypothesis that some populations of T. melanogaster have converged in their head morphology with the two soft crayfish-eating Regina species, although we cannot

  6. Genetic and morphological differentiation in Populus nigra L.: isolation by colonization or isolation by adaptation? (United States)

    DeWoody, Jennifer; Trewin, Harriet; Taylor, Gail


    Identifying processes underlying the genetic and morphological differences among populations is a central question of evolutionary biology. Forest trees typically contain high levels of neutral genetic variation, and genetic differences are often correlated with geographic distance between populations [isolation by distance (IBD)] or are due to historic vicariance events [isolation by colonization (IBC)]. In contrast, morphological differences are largely due to local adaptation. Here, we examined genetic (microsatellite) and morphological (from a common garden experiment) variation in Populus nigra L., European black poplar, collected from 13 sites across western Europe and grown in a common garden in Belgium. Significant genetic differentiation was observed, with populations from France displaying greater admixture than the distinct Spanish and central European gene pools, consistent with previously described glacial refugia (IBC). Many quantitative traits displayed a bimodal distribution, approximately corresponding to small-leaf and large-leaf ecotypes. Examination of nine climatic variables revealed the sampling locations to have diverse climates, and although the correlation between morphological and climatic differences was significant, the pattern was not consistent with strict local adaptation. Partial Mantel tests based on multivariate summary statistics identified significant residual correlation in comparisons of small-leaf to large-leaf ecotypes, and within the small-leaf samples, but not within large-leaf ecotypes, indicating that variation within the small-leaf morphotype in particular may be adaptive. Some small-leaf populations experience climates very similar to those in large-leaf sites. We conclude that adaptive differentiation and persistent IBC acted in combination to produce the genetic and morphological patterns observed in P. nigra. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Morphological development of petals in Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren


    Full Text Available The petals, or the honey-leaves, are of great divergence in morphology in Ranunculaceae, i. e., tubular, bilabial, cup-shaped, flat, concaved or scaled at the base, with or without spur or succate. The previous observations showed that although the petals differ in mature morphology, they showed great similarity in the early development stage. The petal primordia are all hemispherical, rounded and much smaller than the sepal primordia, a relatively long plastochron exists between the last sepal and the first petal and differentiate into a blade and a short stalk. Thus, we assumed that the different morphology of the mature petals might be due to the morphological repatterning of petals in the development. To prove the hypothesis, the morphological development of the petals from 22 species from 20 genera, recovering all ten petalous clades and the major morphological types, in Ranunculaceae was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The young petal undergoes the following developmental stages to the mature petal after it differentiates into blade and stalk. In the first stage, a depression appears at the base of the blade and the nectary tissue will appear in the depression in the later development. In the second stage, two bulges appear at the base of the depression that makes the petal bilabial and the bulges will be the upper lip of the petal and thus the blade will be the lower lip. In the third stage, two bulges become larger and fuse with one another at first and then fuse with the margins of the blade in each side, or each of the bulges fuses with the margin of the blade at first and then fuses with one another, or the bulges stop further growth and the depression deepened to form the succate or the spur. In the fourth stage, the lips, the two fused sides and the stalk growth in different speed. The divergence of development of different petals happens mainly in the third and the fourth stages and less divergence in the second and

  8. Goethe's bone and the beginnings of morphology. (United States)

    Opitz, John M


    Biology as a discipline per se and its agenda, seems not to have been burdened from its beginnings as heavily with neo-Platonism as its subspecialty morphology, conceptualized at the same time by Goethe and Burdach. One of the reasons may have been that biologists were then regarded as "mere" naturalists, "doing" anatomy and embryology, breeding, and field work (as did Darwin, Wallace, Bateson and a legion of others during the 19th century), whereas the, perhaps more elitist, morphologists, ab initio devoted themselves to the origin, even to the Kantian analysis of causes of development and its variability within and between species. Since Goethe included abnormal plant development in his studies, his definition of morphology as the science of the form, formation and transformation of living organisms may be modified to include the concept of malformation, although the embryological and comparative analysis of vertebrate/mammalian malformation had its real inception somewhat later with the younger Meckel. In view of the meaning attached by his French contemporaries to the term transformisme (eventually defined as evolution) one would err considering Goethe as a prophet of "descent;" he was not, referring primarily to the continuous state of flux of living beings. Nonetheless, Goethe and Burdach independently coined the concept of morphology and set its agenda, increasingly freed of Naturphilosophie, an agenda that dominated 19th century biology but which did not come to fruition in its causal analysis of form and its formation until the 20th century, after Mendel, Darwin and the pioneers of experimental embryology (a.o., Roux, Driesch, Spemann, Vogt). In his discovery of the intermaxillary bone in humans (Goethe's bone), he had a startling insight, against conventional wisdom, into the anatomical, hence developmental, similarity of primate/mammals. During his lifetime, this was still called analogie by his great French contemporary Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire who

  9. Automatic classification of human sperm head morphology. (United States)

    Chang, Violeta; Heutte, Laurent; Petitjean, Caroline; Härtel, Steffen; Hitschfeld, Nancy


    Infertility is a problem that affects up to 15% of couples worldwide with emotional and physiological implications and semen analysis is the first step in the evaluation of an infertile couple. Indeed the morphology of human sperm cells is considered to be a clinical tool dedicated to the fertility prognosis and serves, mainly, for making decisions regarding the options of assisted reproduction technologies. Therefore, a complete analysis of not only normal sperm but also abnormal sperm turns out to be critical in this context. This paper sets out to develop, implement and calibrate a novel methodology to characterize and classify sperm heads towards morphological sperm analysis. Our work is aimed at focusing on a depth analysis of abnormal sperm heads for fertility diagnosis, prognosis, reproductive toxicology, basic research or public health studies. We introduce a morphological characterization for human sperm heads based on shape measures. We also present a pipeline for sperm head classification, according to the last Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen of the World Health Organization (WHO). In this sense, we propose a two-stage classification scheme that permits to classify sperm heads among five different classes (one class for normal sperm heads and four classes for abnormal sperm heads) combining an ensemble strategy for feature selection and a cascade approach with several support vector machines dedicated to the verification of each class. We use Fisher's exact test to demonstrate that there is no statistically significant differences between our results and those achieved by domain experts. Experimental evaluation shows that our two-stage classification scheme outperforms some state-of-the-art monolithic classifiers, exhibiting 58% of average accuracy. More interestingly, on the subset of data for which there is a total agreement between experts for the label of the samples, our system is able to provide 73% of average

  10. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...... and the impacts of setting up, crossing and breaking the boundaries of game and non-game. Part three, Interfaces of Play, looks at games as technological and historical artefacts and commodities. The fourth part, Beyond Design, introduces new models for the practical and theoretical dimensions of game design....

  11. Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) (United States)

    Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Steinbach, I.; deGroh, H. C., III


    The objective of the research is to quantitatively determine and understand the fundamental mechanisms that control the microstructural evolution during equiaxed dendritic solidification. A microgravity experiment will be conducted to obtain benchmark data on the transient growth and interaction of up to four equiaxed crystals of a pure and transparent metal analog (succinonitrile, SCN) under strictly diffusion-dominated conditions. Of interest in the experiment are the transient evolution of the primary and secondary dendrite tip speeds, the dendrite morphology and solid fraction, the tip selection criterion, and the temperature field in the melt for a range of interaction "strengths" between the crystals. The experiment extends the microgravity measurements of Glicksman and co-workers isothermal dendritic growth experiment (IDGE) for steady growth of a single dendrite to a case where growth transients are introduced due to thermal interactions between neighboring dendrites - a situation closer to actual casting conditions. Corresponding Earth-based experiments will be conducted to ascertain the influence of melt convection. The experiments are supported by a variety of analytical models and numerical simulations. The data will be used to develop and test theories of transient dendritic growth and the solidification of multiple interacting equiaxed crystals in a supercooled melt.

  12. Experiment 7

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Over-all view of the arrangement of counters around the polarized target in the kaon-polarized proton experiment. The beam enters through the quadrupole magnet on the left, and strikes the target placed in a 18.5 kG field (one pole of the magnet is just visible above the ring of counters). The scatterred kaon and recoil proton are detected by the counters on the ring and recorded onto magnetic tape.

  13. XMASS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Ko, E-mail: [Kamioka observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, the University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan); Kavl Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan)


    XMASS is a single phase liquid xenon scintillator detector. The project is designed for multi purposes, dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and {sup 7}Be/pp solar neutrino. As the first step of project, XMASS-I detector with 832 kg sensitive volume started operation from Dec. 2010. In this paper, recent obtained physics results from commissioning data, refurbishment of detector and future step of experiment are presented.

  14. Investigation of mechanisms leading to laser damage morphology (United States)

    Lamaignère, L.; Chambonneau, M.; Diaz, R.; Grua, P.; Courchinoux, R.; Natoli, J.-Y.; Rullier, J. L.


    The original damage ring pattern at the exit surface of fused silica induced by highly modulated nanosecond infrared laser pulses demonstrates the time dependence of damage morphology. Such a damage structure is used to study the dynamics of the plasma issued from open cracks. This pattern originates from electron avalanche in this plasma, which simultaneously leads to an ionization front displacement in air and a silica ablation process. Experiments have shown that the propagation speed of the detonation wave reaches about 20 km/s and scales as the cube root of the laser intensity, in good agreement with theoretical hydrodynamics modeling. During this presentation, we present the different phases and the associated mechanisms leading to this peculiar morphology: • During an incubation phase, a precursor defect provides energy deposit that drives the near surface material into a plasma state. • Next the silica plasma provides free electrons in the surrounding air, under laser irradiation an electron avalanche is initiated and generates a breakdown wave. • Then this breakdown wave leads to an expansion of the air plasma. This latter is able to heat strongly the silica surface as well as generate free electrons in its conduction band. Hence, the silica becomes activated along the breakdown wave. • When the silica has become absorbent, an ablation mechanism of silica occurs, simultaneously with the air plasma expansion, resulting in the formation of the ring patterns in the case of these modulated laser pulses. These mechanisms are supported by experiments realized in vacuum environment. A model describing the expansion of the heated area by thermal conduction due to plasma free electrons is then presented. Next, the paper deals with the two damage formation phases that are distinguished. The first phase corresponds to the incubation of the laser flux by a subsurface defect until the damage occurrence: an incubation fluence corresponds to this phase. The

  15. Semantic processing during morphological priming: an ERP study. (United States)

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Iakimova, Galina; Ziegler, Johannes C; Colé, Pascale


    Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the onset of semantic processing during morphological priming. The present study was designed to further explore the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). We conducted a primed lexical decision study comparing a morphological (LAVAGE - laver [washing - wash]), a semantic (LINGE - laver [laundry - wash]), an orthographic (LAVANDE - laver [lavender - wash]), and an unrelated control condition (HOSPICE - laver [nursing home - wash]), using the same targets across the four priming conditions. The behavioral data showed significant effects of morphological and semantic priming, with the magnitude of morphological priming being significantly larger than the magnitude of semantic priming. The ERP data revealed significant morphological but no semantic priming at 100-250 ms. Furthermore, a reduction of the N400 amplitude in the morphological condition compared to the semantic and orthographic condition demonstrates that the morphological priming effect was not entirely due to the semantic or orthographic overlap between the prime and the target. The present data reflect an early process of semantically blind morphological decomposition, and a later process of morpho-semantic decomposition, which we discuss in the context of recent morphological processing theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nornahraun lava morphology and mode of emplacement (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Höskuldsson, Armann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Drouin, Vincent; Gallagher, Catherine; Askew, Rob; Moreland, William M.; Dürig, Tobias; Dumont, Stephanie; Þórdarson, Þór


    The ongoing Nornahraun eruption is the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, with an estimated lava volume of ~1.15 km3 covering an area of ~83.4 km2 (as of 5 JAN 2015). The eruption provides an unprecedented opportunity to study i) lava morphologies and their emplacement styles, ii) the transition from from open to closed lava pathways and iii) lava pond formation. Tracking of the lava advancement and morphology has been performed by GPS and GoPro cameras installed in 4×4 vehicles as well as video footage. Complimentary observations have been provided from aircraft platforms and by satellite data. Of particular importance for lava morphology observations are 1-12 m/pixel airborne SAR images (x-band). The Nornahraun flow field comprises a continuum of morphologies from pāhoehoe to 'a'ā, which have varied tem-porally and spatially. At the onset of the eruption 31 AUG, lava flows advanced rapidly (400-800 m/hr) from the 1.5 km long fissure as large slabby pāhoehoe [1-3] sheet lobes, 100-500 m wide and 0.3-1 m thick at the flow fronts. By 1 SEPT, the flows began channeling towards the NE constrained by the older Holuhraun I lava field and the to-pography of flood plain itself. A central open channel developed, feeding a 1-2 km wide active 'a'ā frontal lobe that advanced 1-2 km/day. In addition to its own caterpillar motion, the frontal lobe advanced in a series of 30-50 m long breakouts, predominantly slabby and rubbly pāhoehoe [4,5]. These breakouts had initial velocities of 10-30 m/hr and reached their full length within tens of minutes and subsequently inflated over hours. With the continuous advancement of the 'a'ā flow front, the breakouts were incorporated into the 'a'ā flow fronts and seldom preserved. At the margins of the frontal lava lobe, the breakouts were more sporadic, but predominantly rubbly pāhoehoe and slabby pāhoehoe, as at the flow front. The lava flow advanced ENE into Jökulsá á Fjöllum on 7 SEPT

  17. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel (United States)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin


    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  18. Clinical Insights Into Foveal Morphology in Albinism. (United States)

    McCafferty, Brandon K; Wilk, Melissa A; McAllister, John T; Stepien, Kimberly E; Dubis, Adam M; Brilliant, Murray H; Anderson, Jennifer L; Carroll, Joseph; Summers, C Gail


    A hallmark of albinism is foveal hypoplasia. However, literature suggests variable foveal development. This study evaluates the association between ocular phenotype and foveal morphology to demonstrate the broad structural and functional spectrum. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), nystagmus, angle kappa, stereoacuity, iris transillumination, macular melanin presence, foveal avascular zone, and annular reflex were recorded in 14 patients with albinism. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography provided macular images. The clinical phenotype was broad, with BCVA varying from 20/20 to 20/100. Better BCVA was associated with a preserved foveal avascular zone, annular macular reflex, stereoacuity, and macular melanin. Imaging demonstrated a continuum of foveal development correlating with BCVA. Individuals with a rudimentary pit had normal inner and outer segment lengthening and better BCVA. The spectrum of ocular structure and visual function in albinism is broad, suggesting a possible diagnosis of albinism in a patient with an even more normal clinical presentation. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne


    . SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This multicenter imaging study shows morphological thalamic abnormalities in a large cohort of patients with episodic migraine compared with healthy subjects using state-of-the-art MRI and advanced, fully automated multiatlas segmentation techniques. The results stress that migraine...... is a disorder of the CNS in which not only is brain function abnormal, but also brain structure is undergoing significant remodeling....... techniques in substantial patient populations are lacking. In the present study, we investigated changes of thalamic volume and shape in a large multicenter cohort of patients with migraine. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI data acquired at 3 tesla in 131 patients with migraine (38 with aura; 30.8 ± 9 years...

  20. Ultrastructural morphology of a middle ear ceruminoma. (United States)

    Schenk, Peter; Handisurya, Alessandra; Steurer, Martin


    The ultrastructural morphology of a ceruminous gland adenoma in the middle ear was examined electron microscopically. The epithelial tumor cells displayed apocrine caps, microvilli, cell junctions, secretory granules, vacuoles, lipid droplets and siderosomes, which are the characteristic ultrastructural features of apocrine glands. Concentric membranous bodies of the endoplasmic reticulum, phagocytic activity of the tumor cells, intracytoplasmic lumina, ciliated cells and also spiny collagen in the tumor stroma could be seen. The myoepithelial cells are an important tumor marker in the differential diagnosis between ceruminomas and adenomas of the middle ear. The ectopic origin in the modified apocrine ceruminous glands, the specific localization, the clinical features and the extremely rare occurrence of the ceruminoma makes this tumor a unique neoplastic entity. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel