WorldWideScience

Sample records for experienced poor lighting

  1. Experienced Poor Lighting Contributes to the Seasonal Fluctuations in Weight and Appetite That Relate to the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Grimaldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested which environmental, social, lifestyle, and health related factors of the individual contribute to the seasonal variations in mood and behavior and whether these influence the risks of the metabolic syndrome and major depressive disorder, both conditions having a high prevalence in industrialized populations. 5480 individuals, representative of the general population aged 30 and over in Finland, were assessed for metabolic syndrome using the ATP-III criteria, gave a self-report of seasonal variations in mood and behavior, and were interviewed for mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders using the DSM-IV criteria. The seasonal variations in mood and behavior have a metabolic factor composed of weight and appetite, and greater loadings on this factor increased the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio of 1.18, 95% confidence interval of 1.10 to 1.26. Self-reports of lighting experienced as poor at home contributed to scores on the metabolic factor (t=4.20,P<.0001. Lighting conditions and their dynamics may serve as a measure for intervention in order to influence the seasonal metabolic signals and in the end to prevent the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Which Poor Neighborhoods Experienced Income Growth in Recent Decades?

    OpenAIRE

    Aliprantis, Dionissi; Fee, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Why has average income grown in some poor neighborhoods over the past 30 years and not in others? We explore that question and find that low-income neighborhoods that experienced large improvements in income over the past three decades tended to be located in large, densely populated metro areas that grew in income and population. Residential sorting—changes in population and demographics within neighborhoods—could help to explain this relationship

  3. Experiencing Light's Properties within Your Own Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…

  4. The Impact of Perceived Worker Age on Treatment of Experienced and Inexperienced Poor Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Ross, Cheryl L.

    Although there have been numerous studies of age discrimination in the workplace, little research has addressed the issue of corrective actions taken against poorly performing older workers. This study was conducted to examine the effects of both age and tenure on corrective actions recommended for poor performers. Subjects (N=84) were working age…

  5. Experiencing LED: Lighting: New Form and Experiential Qualities Emerging in Lighting Systems using LED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kristensen, Ole; Søndergaard, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The project investigates what new forms and qualities of light emerge from technologies such as LED, with a particular focus on basic form qualities and parameters. Existing linear functional understandings of the relation between light source, light flow, reflection and visibility is challenged...... by relational understandings, where the materiality and visibility of the light emerge through mutual influences between several adaptive and transformative elements....

  6. Light limitation of nutrient-poor lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jan; Byström, Pär; Ask, Jenny; Ask, Per; Persson, Lennart; Jansson, Mats

    2009-07-23

    Productivity denotes the rate of biomass synthesis in ecosystems and is a fundamental characteristic that frames ecosystem function and management. Limitation of productivity by nutrient availability is an established paradigm for lake ecosystems. Here, we assess the relevance of this paradigm for a majority of the world's small, nutrient-poor lakes, with different concentrations of coloured organic matter. By comparing small unproductive lakes along a water colour gradient, we show that coloured terrestrial organic matter controls the key process for new biomass synthesis (the benthic primary production) through its effects on light attenuation. We also show that this translates into effects on production and biomass of higher trophic levels (benthic invertebrates and fish). These results are inconsistent with the idea that nutrient supply primarily controls lake productivity, and we propose that a large share of the world's unproductive lakes, within natural variations of organic carbon and nutrient input, are limited by light and not by nutrients. We anticipate that our result will have implications for understanding lake ecosystem function and responses to environmental change. Catchment export of coloured organic matter is sensitive to short-term natural variability and long-term, large-scale changes, driven by climate and different anthropogenic influences. Consequently, changes in terrestrial carbon cycling will have pronounced effects on most lake ecosystems by mediating changes in light climate and productivity of lakes.

  7. Colour and Light in Design : - Levels of experiencing colour and light

    OpenAIRE

    Klarén, Ulf; Arnkil, Harald; Fridell Anter, Karin

    2013-01-01

    : In our designed culture, every environment, object and picture is analyzed from the viewpoint of colour and light. Colour and light play an important role in social life and culture. This paper springs from an epistemological project about concept formation in the field of colour and light. Based on own observations and scientific and scholarly references it presents a graphic model describing possible constituent relations between colour and light experiences. Design is the art of using kn...

  8. Example of "Character Education" Course Design in the Light of "Experienced Centred" Design for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Nida

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design the course "Character Education" in the light of the "experienced centred" design and to assert an example of "Character Education" course design for higher education students. The research was conducted during the 2015-2016 spring semester as an action research. The participants…

  9. Pathways and trajectories linking housing instability and poor health among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV): Toward a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora I; Pedersen, Cheryl; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Minh, Anita; Zhang, Janice; O'Campo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    We used grounded theory to understand pathways and trajectories to housing instability (HI) and poor health among low-income women with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted in-depth interviews during 2010-11 with forty-one women (ages 18-45 years) living in Ontario, Canada. All women reported depressive symptoms in combination with other health problems. In addition to the direct pathway of IPV to poor health, thematic analysis revealed an indirect multi-tiered pathway with complex trajectories among IPV, HI, and poor health. These trajectories included material HI (homelessness, high mobility, evictions, problems paying rent, hiding, and landlord discrimination), psychological HI (feeling unsafe, low self-esteem, and poor control), and social trajectories (financial problems, loss of employment, income, or social networks, and leaving school). These trajectories elevated stress and decreased self-care (unhealthy behaviors, substance abuse, and reduced medical compliance) and exacerbated poor health already compromised by IPV. Depending on her specific context, each woman experienced these pathways and trajectories differently. Moreover, the women's experiences differed across three time periods: before, immediately after, and long after leaving an abusive relationship. Finally, we found that for these women, achieving stable housing was crucial for stabilizing their health.

  10. No association of cryptococcal antigenemia with poor outcomes among antiretroviral therapy-experienced HIV-infected patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Smitson

    Full Text Available There are limited data on clinical outcomes of ART-experienced patients with cryptococcal antigenemia. We assessed clinical outcomes of a predominantly asymptomatic, ART-experienced cohort of HIV+ patients previously found to have a high (8.4% prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia.The study took place at All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitative Training Centre and Black Lion Hospital HIV Clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A retrospective study design was used to perform 12-month follow-up of 367 mostly asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (CD4<200 cells/µl with high levels of antiretroviral therapy use (74% who were previously screened for cryptococcal antigenemia. Medical chart abstraction was performed approximately one year after initial screening to obtain data on clinic visit history, ART use, CD4 count, opportunistic infections, and patient outcome. We evaluated the association of cryptococcal antigenemia and a composite poor outcome of death and loss to follow-up using logistic regression.Overall, 323 (88% patients were alive, 8 (2% dead, and 36 (10% lost to follow-up. Among the 31 patients with a positive cryptococcal antigen test (titers ≥1∶8 at baseline, 28 were alive (all titers ≤1∶512, 1 dead and 2 lost to follow-up (titers ≥1∶1024. In multivariate analysis, cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.3-4.8. A baseline CD4 count <100 cells/µl was associated with an increased risk of a poor outcome (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.7 while an increasing CD4 count (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.3 and receiving antiretroviral therapy at last follow-up visit (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.2 were associated with a reduced risk of a poor outcome.Unlike prior ART-naïve cohorts, we found that among persons receiving ART and with CD4 counts <200 cells/µl, asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome.

  11. Poor electronic screening in lightly doped Mott insulators observed with scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, I.; Fedoseev, V.; Bastiaans, K. M.; de la Torre, A.; Perry, R. S.; Baumberger, F.; Allan, M. P.

    2017-06-01

    The effective Mott gap measured by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the lightly doped Mott insulator (Sr1-xLax) 2IrO4 differs greatly from values reported by photoemission and optical experiments. Here we show that this is a consequence of the poor electronic screening of the tip-induced electric field in this material. Such effects are well known from STM experiments on semiconductors and go under the name of tip-induced band bending (TIBB). We show that this phenomenon also exists in the lightly doped Mott insulator (Sr1-xLax) 2IrO4 and that, at doping concentrations of x ≤4 % , it causes the measured energy gap in the sample density of states to be bigger than the one measured with other techniques. We develop a model able to retrieve the intrinsic energy gap leading to a value which is in rough agreement with other experiments, bridging the apparent contradiction. At doping x ≈5 % we further observe circular features in the conductance layers that point to the emergence of a significant density of free carriers in this doping range and to the presence of a small concentration of donor atoms. We illustrate the importance of considering the presence of TIBB when doing STM experiments on correlated-electron systems and discuss the similarities and differences between STM measurements on semiconductors and lightly doped Mott insulators.

  12. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses.

  13. Developmental and reproductive performance of a specialist herbivore depend on seasonality of, and light conditions experienced by, the host plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osariyekemwen O Uyi

    Full Text Available Host plant phenology (as influenced by seasonality and light-mediated changes in the phenotypic and phytochemical properties of leaves have been hypothesised to equivocally influence insect herbivore performance. Here, we examined the effects of seasonality, through host plant phenology (late growth-season = autumn vs flowering-season = winter and light environment (shade vs full-sun habitat on the leaf characteristics of the invasive alien plant, Chromolaena odorata. In addition, the performance of a specialist folivore, Pareuchaetes insulata, feeding on leaves obtained from both shaded and full-sun habitats during autumn and winter, was evaluated over two generations. Foliar nitrogen and magnesium contents were generally higher in shaded plants with much higher levels during winter. Leaf water content was higher in shaded and in autumn plants. Total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC and phosphorus contents did not differ as a function of season, but were higher in shaded foliage compared to full-sun leaves. Leaf toughness was noticeably higher on plants growing in full-sun during winter. With the exception of shaded leaves in autumn that supported the best performance [fastest development, heaviest pupal mass, and highest growth rate and Host Suitability Index (HSI score], full-sun foliage in autumn surprisingly also supported an improved performance of the moth compared to shaded or full-sun leaves in winter. Our findings suggest that shaded and autumn foliage are nutritionally more suitable for the growth and reproduction of P. insulata. However, the heavier pupal mass, increased number of eggs and higher HSI score in individuals that fed on full-sun foliage in autumn compared to their counterparts that fed on shaded or full-sun foliage in winter suggest that full-sun foliage during autumn is also a suitable food source for larvae of the moth. In sum, our study demonstrates that seasonal and light-modulated changes in leaf characteristics can

  14. Experienced Junior-High-School Teachers' PCK in Light of a Curriculum Change: ``The Cell is to be Studied Longitudinally''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Yarden, Anat

    2009-01-01

    In the new science and technology junior-high-school curriculum in Israel, it is recommended that the cell topic be taught “longitudinally in conjunction with other study contents”. This recommendation confers a change in teaching the cell topic and provides an opportunity to form meaningful relationships between biological phenomena at the macro-level and their cellular explanations. Here, we examine junior-high-school science and technology teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) with regard to the cell topic and the formation of macro-micro relations, ten years following the publication of the change in the curriculum. Teachers in this study participated in three focus groups ( n = 59) and one workshop ( n = 12). In addition, six experienced teachers were interviewed in the course of this study. Specific tools were developed to capture the teachers’ PCK. We found that the teachers had changed their way of teaching the cell topic only superficially: they did not undergo any deep change. Despite the importance the teachers placed on teaching and learning the cell topic, their concerns about their students’ comprehension difficulties reduced the time they devoted to teaching the topic in class. The teachers were also found to have no PCK capacity to integrate biological phenomena at the macro-level with their cellular explanations. In addition, a duality was identified among the teachers with regards to relating macro- and micro-levels in biology and in chemistry.

  15. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  16. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have bas...... were discussed, created more complex patterns of variation. Both PhD students and supervisors can learn from this. Understanding of this mechanism that creates learning opportunities can help supervisors develop their competences in supervisory pedagogy....

  17. WASP-36b: A NEW TRANSITING PLANET AROUND A METAL-POOR G-DWARF, AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO ANALYSES BASED ON A SINGLE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Collier Cameron, A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Gillon, M.; Jehin, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17 Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Street, R. A., E-mail: amss@astro.keele.ac.uk [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (T{sub eff} = 5959 {+-} 134 K), with [Fe/H] =-0.26 {+-} 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 {+-} 0.07 and 1.28 {+-} 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  18. Psalms 69:33-34 in the light of the poor in the Psalter as a whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Groenewald

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psalter has very often been regarded as the prayer book of the poor. In the Psalms God is portrayed as the saviour of the poor, their hope, their stronghold and liberator � whether these are prayers of an individual or prayers of the community. The high concentration of the term(s for the �poor� in the Psalter, in relation to the rest of the books of the Old� Testament (OT, indeed indicates a profound affinity for the �poor� in the Psalter , which is an indication that the Psalter underwent a redaction of the �theology of the poor�. In this article the focus will be on Psalm 69, as it seems to have undergone a �redaction of the poor�. The main focus will be on the verses 33 and 34, as they, specifically, contain terminology of the �poor�. Special attention will also be given to the different terms used for the poor in this text.

  19. The Origins of Light and Heavy R-process Elements Identified by Chemical Tagging of Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] gsim +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  20. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  1. A poor deal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2010-01-01

    The proposed upward revision of the poverty line has failed to capture the Janus-faced deprivation experienced by the poor. The methodological foundation of the proposed poverty line fails to overcome the discrepancy between the macro-statistics and the micro-reality. The proposed report on the

  2. Poor Sleep Habits = Poor Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166509.html Poor Sleep Habits = Poor Grades Study of college students finds ... socialize, college life seems geared toward an erratic sleep schedule. But new research suggests that an unpredictable ...

  3. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  4. Team Building for Nurses Experiencing Burnout and Poor Morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Kurpius, Sharon E.; Keim, Jeanmarie

    1994-01-01

    One group of professionals among whom stress and burnout are particularly prevalent is nurses. A study of inpatient nurses (n=20) and outpatient nurses (n=10) revealed that group team building was effective in improving both morale and job satisfaction while decreasing burnout among the higher-stress group of outpatient nurses. (JPS)

  5. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  6. Poor title--poor manuscript?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersvik, Petter; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Aasheim, Erlend T; Nylenna, Magne

    2013-12-10

    The title of a scientific article is important for several reasons. Does the title of a manuscript submitted for publication in a medical journal reflect the quality of the manuscript itself? We prepared criteria for poor, fair and good titles and tested them in pilot studies. All manuscripts submitted to the Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association during the period 1 September 2009-31 August 2011 as original articles (n = 211) or review articles (n = 110) were recorded. The quality of the titles was scored by two former editors. Primary outcome measures were rejection rates and odds ratio for rejection of manuscripts with a poor title compared to those with a good title. For original articles, the rejection rate for manuscripts with a poor, fair or good title amounted to 88%, 73% and 61% (p = 0.002) respectively, and for review articles 83%, 56% and 38% (p title compared to those with a good title was 4.6 (95% CI: 1.7-12.3) for original articles and 8.2 (95% CI: 2.6-26.4) for review articles. In a logistic regression model, the quality of the title explained 14% and 27% of the variance in outcome for original articles and review articles respectively. In this study, a poor manuscript title was significantly associated with manuscript rejection. This indicates that the quality of the title often reflects the quality of the manuscript itself.

  7. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  8. Experiencing Performative Urban Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the article is performative urban spaces. The case study the Frederiksberg New City Centre. Here the atmosphere is produced via intentional designs and via different arrangements with sound, light and water. The designer has worked with different moods and experiences of moods. Some...

  9. Are you experienced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael Slavensky; Reichstein, Toke

    . We also find that spin-offs from parent companies that exit are less likely to survive than either spin-offs from surviving parents or other start-ups. These findings support the theoretical arguments that organizational heritage is important for the survival of new organizations. We found no similar...... ranked members of start-ups prior to their founding, and follow the fate of these firms. More specifically, we compare the survival of spin-offs from surviving parents, spin-offs from exiting parents, and other start-ups. Moreover, we investigate whether firms managed and founded by more experienced...... teams with higher levels of industry-specific experience are more likely to survive. Distinguishing between survivors and firms that have been acquired, we find that spin-offs from a surviving parent company combined with and industry-specific experience, positively affects the likelihood of survival...

  10. Polish essays on painting and photography from the 2nd half of the 20th century in the light of reflections on the essay as a form (of writing, cognition, and experiencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrawa Lisak-Gębala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Polish essays on paintings and photographs (by, e.g. Z. Herbert, G. Herling-Grudziński, W. Karpiński, J. Pollakówna, E. Bieńkowska, A. Olędzka-Frybesowa, and W. Nowicki are juxtaposed with the personal essay which was invented by Montaigne. A wide range of commentaries, including ideas about this genre which were expressed by Th. W. Adorno, G. Lukács, and G. Douglas Atkins, provide a theoretical background for the analysis. Selected Polish texts are presented as artistic constructions that recreate the process of experiencing pictures and the movement of thoughts of the essayistic “self” which uses many disguises (e.g. a traveler, amateur, scholar and critic. A particular painting or photo, which is often artfully described by means of ekphrasis, is treated by essayists as a starting point for analyzing many broader issues as well as for indirect self-presentation.

  11. Time estimation in good and poor sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichten, Catherine S; Creti, Laura; Amsel, Rhonda; Bailes, Sally; Libman, Eva

    2005-12-01

    Time estimation was examined in 148 older good and poor sleepers in analogue and naturalistic sleep settings. On analogue tasks, both "empty" time and time listening to an audiobook were overestimated by both good and poor sleepers. There were no differences between groups. "Empty" time was experienced as "dragging." In the sleep setting, most poor sleepers underestimated nocturnal sleep and overestimated awake times related to their own sleep problem: sleep onset vs. sleep maintenance insomnia. Good sleepers did the opposite. Severity of sleep problem and size of time estimation errors were unrelated. Greater night-to-night wake time variability was experienced by poor than by good sleepers. Psychological adjustment was unrelated to time estimations and to magnification or minimization of sleep problems. The results suggest that for poor sleepers who magnify their sleep problem, self-monitoring can be of benefit by demonstrating that the sleep problem is not as severe as believed.

  12. Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease › Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease It is estimated that up to 30% of ... continuing to ingest gluten. Causes of Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Continuing Gluten Ingestion The most common reason for ...

  13. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  14. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  15. LightPollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    Light pollution is a relatively new topic, both for scientists and for the general public. Light pollution is usually defined as any of the many adverse effects of poor night-time lighting. These include artificial sky glow, light trespass (obtrusive light), glare, energy waste and impacts on human health and the ecosystem. Almost everyone is affected in some way by these problems....

  16. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...... experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process...... and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people...

  17. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  18. Exploiting the Poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens Kamp; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While extant research has focused on the causes and consequences of corruption at the macro-level, less effort has been devoted to understanding the micro-foundation of corruption. We argue that poor people are more likely to be victims of corrupt behavior by street-level bureaucrats as the poor...

  19. Experiencing death: an insider's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Fenwick, Peter; Neal, Mary; Nelson, Kevin; Parnia, Sam

    2014-11-01

    For millennia, human beings have wondered what happens after death. What is the first-person experience of dying and being brought back to life? Technological advances in resuscitation science have now added an intriguing new chapter to the literature of out-of-body or near-death experiences by eliciting detailed and vivid accounts of those who have approached the threshold of death. Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion that included neurologist Kevin Nelson, neuropsychiatrist Peter Fenwick, emergency medicine expert Sam Parnia, and orthopedic surgeon and drowning survivor Mary Neal; they share some remarkable stories and discuss how they analyze such experiences in light of their own backgrounds and training. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion from December 11, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  1. 9. Poor medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    to patient non adherence using self report and modified Hill-Bone compliance ... they had attained a primary level of education, had missed appointments due to lack of transport, or had experienced the side effect of dizziness. Patients with heart failure were ... minutes of counseling about how to take medications were both ...

  2. Poor school performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2005-01-01

    Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Poor school performance not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents...

  3. Mammalian ranges are experiencing erosion of natural darkness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James P.; Bennie, Jonathan; Durán, América P.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2015-07-01

    The continuous increase in the intensity and extent of anthropogenic artificial light has significantly shaped Earth’s nighttime environment. This environmental change has effects across the natural world, with consequences for organismal physiology and behaviour and the abundances and distributions of species. Here, we evaluate for the first time the relations between the spatio-temporal patterns of anthropogenic nighttime light and the distribution of terrestrial mammals, one of the most endangered species groups and one that expresses varying time partitioning strategies. Using descriptive statistics, trend tests and spatial prioritization analysis we show that in most places on earth there is a terrestrial mammal species whose range is experiencing detectable artificial light. For most species this tends only to be for small parts of their range, and those affected across large parts are typically rare. Over time (1992-2012), an increase in mean light intensity was found for the ranges of the majority of species, with very few experiencing a decrease. Moreover, nocturnal species are more likely to experience an increase in light within their ranges. This is of conservation concern as many terrestrial mammals are nocturnal and therefore often particularly vulnerable to a pressure such as artificial light at night.

  4. Poor Demonstration and Knowledge of AED Electrode Placement by Certified and Experienced BLS/AED Instructors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Mathilde; Vammen, Lauge; Hansen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) improves survival. Incorrect AED electrode placement may affect defibrillation success and survival. During courses in basic life support (BLS), instructors teach laypeople how to use an AED. However, BLS instructors’ ability...... to demonstrate correct use of an AED remains to be investigated.Aim: To determine BLS instructors’ competence in using an AED.Methods: Certified BLS instructors were asked to operate a training AED (Lifepak ® CR-T Plus, PhysioControl, default audiotape duration of 67 sec from start to time of shock......) on a resuscitation manikin with arms (AMBU ® Man, AMBU) as they would do in a teaching situation but without any explanations. The demonstration by the instructor was video recorded. After shock delivery the AED electrode position was assessed i.e. the distance from the center of the electrode to the recommended...

  5. Poor school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2005-11-01

    Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Poor school performance not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents. There are many reasons for children to under perform at school, such as, medical problems, below average intelligence, specific learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, poor socio-cultural home environment, psychiatric disorders and even environmental causes. The information provided by the parents, classroom teacher and school counselor about the child's academic difficulties guides the pediatrician to form an initial diagnosis. However, a multidisciplinary evaluation by an ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, counselor, clinical psychologist, special educator, and child psychiatrist is usually necessary before making the final diagnosis. It is important to find the reason(s) for a child's poor school performance and come up with a treatment plan early so that the child can perform up to full potential.

  6. 9. Poor medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    previous diagnosis of essential hypertension receiving out patient care in the University Teaching. Hospital (UTH) were ... self report and 70% using modified Hill-Bone scale. The mean age was ... Factors Associated With Poor Medication Adherence .... DM. Yes. No. 51. 183. 42(83). 151(83). 9(17). 32(17). 1. 1 (0. 5 -2. 4).

  7. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2015-01-01

    Children described as "poor comprehenders" (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this…

  8. to the poor?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-03-01

    Mar 1, 2006 ... than better-off ones, the differences are relatively modest and arc generally high enough to confer immunity through the herd immunity effect. As elsewhere in ... with herd immunity in force, protecting all children, howev- er rich or poor ... by a medical professional (doctor, nurse, or trained midwife) at delivery ...

  9. Burnout and experienced limitations as a therapist : a qualitative study of Norwegian psychotherapists

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little research has been done on how burned out psychotherapists are experiencing limitations as therapists. The aim of the present study was to do an explorative qualitative analysis of the main limitations experienced as therapist in a strategic sample of burned out Norwegian psychotherapists. A second focus in this study was to investigate how these experienced limitations could shed new light on burnout as a phenomenon. The data used in the present study was collected as pa...

  10. A comparison of osteoclast-rich and osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis in adult mice sheds light on the role of the osteoclast in coupling bone resorption and bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thudium, Christian S; Moscatelli, Ilana; Flores, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    that osteoclasts are important for regulating osteoblast activity. To illuminate the role of the osteoclast in controlling bone remodeling, we transplanted irradiated skeletally mature 3-month old wild-type mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate either an osteoclast-rich or osteoclast-poor adult...... osteopetrosis model. We used fetal liver HSCs from (1) oc/oc mice, (2) RANK KO mice, and (3) compared these to wt control cells. TRAP5b activity, a marker of osteoclast number and size, was increased in the oc/oc recipients, while a significant reduction was seen in the RANK KO recipients. In contrast, the bone...

  11. Experienced General Music Teachers' Instructional Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel C.; Matthews, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore experienced general music teachers' decision-making processes. Participants included seven experienced, American general music teachers who contributed their views during two phases of data collection: (1) responses to three classroom scenarios; and (2) in-depth, semi-structured, follow-up…

  12. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  13. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allert S. Knapper

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secondary, i.e. mobile phone and navigation system tasks. The results show that mean speed was lower in all experimental conditions, compared to baseline driving, while subjective effort increased. Lateral performance deteriorated only during visual–manual tasks, i.e. texting and destination entry, in which the participants glanced off the forward road for a substantial amount of time. Being experienced in manipulating in-car devices does not solve the problem of dual tasking when the primary task is a complex task like driving a moving vehicle. The results and discussion may shed some light on the current debate regarding phone use hazards.

  14. Does poor sleep quality affect skin ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetakin-White, P; Suggs, A; Koo, B; Matsui, M S; Yarosh, D; Cooper, K D; Baron, E D

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is important for growth and renewal of multiple physiological systems. The effects of chronic poor sleep quality on human skin function and visible signs of ageing have not been elucidated. To evaluate the effect of chronic poor sleep quality on measures of skin health and ageing. Self-perceived satisfaction with appearance was also assessed. 60 healthy caucasian women, who were categorized as poor quality sleepers [Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) > 5, sleep duration ≤ 5 h] or good quality sleepers (PSQI ≤ 5, sleep duration 7-9 h). A validated clinical tool, SCINEXA(TM) , was used to assess intrinsic and extrinsic skin ageing. Dark under-eye circles were evaluated using standardized photos. Measurement of in vivo transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess recovery of the skin barrier after tape stripping. Subjects were exposed to simulated solar ultraviolet light, and recovery from erythema was monitored. Subjects also completed a questionnaire evaluating self-perception of attractiveness. Good sleepers had significantly lower intrinsic skin ageing scores by SCINEXA(TM) . At baseline, poor sleepers had significantly higher levels of TEWL. At 72 h after tape stripping, good sleepers had 30% greater barrier recovery compared with poor sleepers. At 24 h after exposure to ultraviolet light, good sleepers had significantly better recovery from erythema. Good sleepers also reported a significantly better perception of their appearance and physical attractiveness compared with poor sleepers. This study indicates that chronic poor sleep quality is associated with increased signs of intrinsic ageing, diminished skin barrier function and lower satisfaction with appearance. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Urban poor program launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  16. Soccer kick kinematic differences between experienced and non-experienced soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz López, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine kinematic differences of instep soccer kick between experienced and non-experienced soccer players. Subjects: 17 men between 17 and 21 years old. Methodology: a 3D film system with 4 cameras was used. Maximum power instep kicks were executed. It was analyzed feet velocity in the impact, maximum hip extension, maximum knee flexion and kick phases duration. Results: were found significant differences in feet velocity with non-dominant leg in the impact moment (m/s (Experienced: 14.5±.52, Non-experienced: 12.5±.5; p<.001 and maximum hip extension (degrees (Experienced: 39.2 ± 1.3, Non-experienced: 34.28±3.2; p<.001. Also were significant differences in the second phase duration in both legs (p<.05. Conclusions: Maximum instep soccer kick show significant differences between groups of different level only in non-dominant leg.

  17. Calculating light & lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lighting in a greenhouse is surrounded by questions. How much light to supply and when?. What intensity and light sum to aim for? Is it radiation, light growlight, PAR, photons or quanta? How much is joule, watt, lux?. What does wavelength, nanometer, spectrum, UV, IR and NIR mean?

  18. Experiencing Variation: Learning Opportunities in Doctoral Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian W. W.; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based the study on four video-recorded sessions, with…

  19. Types of Stresses Experienced by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the types of stresses experienced by professionals. Subjects were 56 persons enrolled in graduate classes who completed the Tennessee Stress Scale-L, Work Related Stress Inventory for Professionals. Besides the Total stress score, the instrument produced three subscale scores: Stress Producers, Coping…

  20. Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...

  1. Activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Urimubenshi G. Activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by people with stroke in Musanze district in Rwanda. Afri Health ..... analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education To- day 2004, 24(2), 105–112. 20. Lincoln YS, Guba EA.

  2. Perceived and experienced restrictions in participation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived and experienced restrictions in participation and autonomy among adult survivors of stroke in Ghana. ... There were significant differences in two domains between survivors who received physiotherapy and those who received traditional rehabilitation. Over half of the survivors also perceived they would ...

  3. Children's Actions when Experiencing Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…

  4. Experienced and physiological fatigue in neuromuscular disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillings, M.L.; Kalkman, J.S.; Janssen, H.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Bleijenberg, G.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fatigue has been described as a typical symptom of neurological diseases. It might be caused both by changes at the peripheral and at the central level. This study measured the level of experienced fatigue and physiological correlates of fatigue in three genetically defined neuromuscular

  5. Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okas, Anne; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Krull, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses teachers’ practical knowledge and beliefs of their profession based on reflective writings of twenty Estonian teachers.Ten novice and ten experienced teachers participated in the study. They put together their professional portfolios, which among other documents included

  6. Some Causes of Poor Performance and Chick Mortality in Farmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial ostrich farming is rapidly becoming a desirable alternative source of profitable meat production among smallholder farmers. However, ostrich ranching ... Losses are experienced right from the embryonic stages whereby embryos may develop poorly causing death before hatching. In USA, hatchability was 72 ...

  7. Implications of Urban Development-Induced Resettlement on Poor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential quality of housing and increasing costs of rent, income loss, changing schools for children, health problems and loss of savings were experienced. The study concludes that urban redevelopment and resettlement plans need to include the implications of relocation on the lives and livelihood opportunities of poor ...

  8. Pilot Study on Clinical Effectiveness of Autofluorescence Imaging for Early Gastric Cancer Diagnosis by Less Experienced Endoscopists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Tada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and compare effectiveness of Autofluorescence imaging (AFI in diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC between experienced and less experienced endoscopists. Fifty selected images (20 neoplastic lesions and 30 benign lesions/areas of both white light endoscopy (WLE and AFI were blindly reviewed by two groups; first consisted of five experienced endoscopists and second included five less experienced endoscopists. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 70%, 78%, and 75%, respectively, for AFI and 81%, 76%, and 78%, respectively, for WLE in the experienced group. In the less experienced group, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 80%, 81% and 80%, respectively, for AFI and 65%, 77%, and 72%, respectively, for WLE. Interobserver variability for the less experienced group was better with AFI than WLE. AFI improved sensitivity of endoscopic diagnosis of neoplastic lesions by less experienced endoscopists, and its use could beneficially enhance the clinical effectiveness of EGC screening.

  9. Experiencing the enchantment of place and mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of place and mobility play central roles not only in what was traditionally understood as tourism, but also in the broader practices of travelling and visiting sites and sights. On the one hand, such experiences are performed to an extent where it is difficult to isolate the sites...... and movements experienced per se, since visitors and travellers take part in ‘doing’ places and mobility. On the other, experience sites and routes stand out with specific traces and characteristics affording some – and not other – experiences. This paper discusses conceptual understandings that may help...... to better analyse what it takes to perform tourist sites. Following a discussion of Walter Benjamin’s way of understanding experiences as Erlebnisse, I suggest that ideas about multiplicity and absence-presence in Actor-Network Theory can develop new insights into how place and mobility are experienced...

  10. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  11. The Occupational Wellbeing of People Experiencing Homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, M.; McGinty, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a study that utilised an occupational perspective to explore how wellbeing was achieved and sustained by the occupations of people experiencing homelessness in Australia. Thirty three in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with homeless individuals in a regional city in Australia. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed to understand the relationship between wellbeing, as defined by the individual, and the occupations engaged in by people exp...

  12. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão,Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes,Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz,Normélia Maria Freire; Lira,Margaret Ollinda de Souza Carvalho e; Carvalho,Milca Ramaiane da Silva; Silva,Rudval Souza da

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed vio...

  13. Security Selection Factors: Novice Versus Experienced Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Freund; Dev Prasad; Frank Andrews

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine the differences in the factors perceived to be significant in the security selection process between novice and experienced investors. We apply the direct inquiry approach to two distinct groups: One group is composed of students enrolled in traditional face-to-face introductory investments classes, while the other group consists of students enrolled in the online sections of the same course. The online students tend to be generally older part-time students with grea...

  14. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.

  15. Stigma experienced by persons under psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struch, Naomi; Levav, Itzhak; Shereshevsky, Yechiel; Baidani-Auerbach, Alona; Lachman, Max; Daniel, Noga; Zehavi, Tali

    2008-01-01

    Mental health-related stigma causes suffering and interferes with care and social inclusion. This study explored stigma as experienced by mental health service users. Particular attention is given to their use of coping mechanisms. Interviews were held with 167 adults undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment; two-thirds of them had previously been hospitalized. Examples of frequency of stigma-related situations included the following: Over half of service users expect people to refuse to have a person with a mental disorder as a co-worker or neighbor, or to engage in other types of social contact. A sizeable group acknowledged that they feared or had experienced rejection. A third of respondents reported they feared or had experienced inappropriate treatment by their doctor. Service users utilize several coping mechanisms to deal with stigma, among them: education, withdrawal, secrecy, and positive distinctiveness. Although we studied a convenience sample of service users, our findings provide sufficient basis to suggest different types of intervention, i.e., to address stigma in the course of treatment in the specialist settings, to promote the establishment of mutual support groups, and to raise family physicians' awareness with regard to the stigma that may be present when caring for persons with mental disorders.

  16. Ethical Conflicts Experienced by Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mendes Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of ethical conflicts experienced by medical students. This study is a cross-sectional and analytical research that was conducted in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The instrument used for the data collection was a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected were presented in absolute and percentage values. For the analytical statistical treatment of the data, the level of significance was considered p <0.05. The outcome variables were: Experiences of ethical conflicts in interpersonal relations within the medical course and Ethical conduct in health care. The identification of the prevalence of ethical conflicts in the undergraduate program adopted the perspective of different interpersonal relations (academic-teaching, academic-academic, academic-employee, academic-patient, teacher-teacher, teacher-patient, teacher-employee and employee-patient. (Importance of identifying themselves to the health services user and requesting consent to perform the physical examination, assistance without the supervision of the teacher, issuance of health documents without the signature of the professional responsible and use of social networks to share data Of patient. It was verified the association of the outcome variables with sex, year of graduation and course evaluation. A total of 281 undergraduate students enrolled in all undergraduate courses in Medicine of both sexes, with a predominance of female (52.7%. The students reported having experienced conflicting situations in interpersonal relations with teachers (59.6%, provided assistance without proper supervision of a teacher (62.6%, reported having issued health documents without the accompaniment of teachers (18, 5%. The highest frequency was observed among those enrolled in the most advanced years of the undergraduate program (p <0.05. The use of social networks for the purpose of sharing patient

  17. Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elena

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

  18. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    To know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. For the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  19. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Regina da Luz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  20. The experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Dekker, Kim; Te Lindert, Bart H. W.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Moens, Sarah; Migliorati, Filippo; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Individuals differ in thermosensitivity, thermoregulation, and zones of thermoneutrality and thermal comfort. Whereas temperature sensing and -effectuating processes occur in part unconsciously and autonomic, awareness of temperature and thermal preferences can affect thermoregulatory behavior as well. Quantification of trait-like individual differences of thermal preferences and experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation is therefore relevant to obtain a complete understanding of human thermophysiology. Whereas several scales have been developed to assess instantaneous appreciation of heat and cold exposure, a comprehensive scale dedicated to assess subjectively experienced autonomic or behavioral thermoregulatory activity has been lacking so far. We constructed a survey that specifically approaches these domains from a trait-like perspective, sampled 240 volunteers across a wide age range, and analyzed the emergent component structure. Participants were asked to report their thermal experiences, captured in 102 questions, on a 7-point bi-directional Likert scale. In a second set of 32 questions, participants were asked to indicate the relative strength of experiences across different body locations. Principal component analyses extracted 21 meaningful dimensions, which were sensitive to sex-differences and age-related changes. The questions were also assessed in a matched sample of 240 people with probable insomnia to evaluate the sensitivity of these dimensions to detect group differences in a case-control design. The dimensions showed marked mean differences between cases and controls. The survey thus has discriminatory value. It can freely be used by anyone interested in studying individual or group differences in thermosensitivity and thermoregulation. PMID:27227080

  1. Experienced poker players are emotionally stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    Online poker and poker subcultures have become exceedingly popular. Previous studies assessing experience and skill in poker have revealed that proficiency in emotion regulation is a consequential factor in explaining financial success in the game. We assessed (N=478) the associations between poker players' (recruited from online poker forums) level of poker experience and HEXACO-PI-R personality traits. The results indicate that a predisposition for emotional stability-that is, lower scores on emotionality-is linked to high levels of poker experience. Thus, in order to become a successful and experienced poker player, it helps to be able to "keep cool" under pressure. Further exploratory analyses suggest that players who prefer live play to online play are more likely to be extroverted and open to experiences. The results contribute to the extant literature on individual differences in personality in poker players, and in particular help to fill the interdisciplinary gap between personality and gambling research.

  2. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    the applicant’s nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived......This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience......) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear when...

  3. Challenges experienced by debt counsellors in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgomotso Masilo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauteng, Province of South Africa is experiencing a decreasing number of registered and practising debt counsellors. This paper investigates and assesses the challenges that debt counsellors in Gauteng experiences. Fifteen debt counsellors from three municipalities of Gauteng were interviewed. Data was analysed using ATLAS ti. The paper concluded that though debt counsellors are complying with the regulations in rendering debt counselling service, they still had challenges regarding backlogs in debt review. The paper recommends that debt counsellors should be adequately trained and should restructure their rehabilitation methods on the one hand and the National Credit Regulator should monitor debt counsellors’ practices and assist them with their queries on the other hand.

  4. Current stress and poor oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliou, A; Shankardass, K; Nisenbaum, R; Quiñonez, C

    2016-09-02

    Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25-64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and access to dental insurance were examined as effect modifiers. A positive relationship between current stress and poor oral health was observed for both outcomes (oral pain coefficient 0.32, 95 % CI 0.26-0.38; general oral health coefficient 0.28, 95 % CI 0.19-0.36). Effects on oral pain were stronger for the uninsured, while effects on general oral health were stronger with decreasing socioeconomic position. Our findings suggest that individuals with greater perceived stress also report poorer oral health, and that this relationship is modified by dental insurance and socioeconomic position. These findings warrant a greater focus on the role of psychological stress in the development of oral disease, including how perceived stress contributes to health inequities in self-reported oral health status. Patients experiencing stressful lives may differentially require closer monitoring and more vigilant maintenance of their oral health, above and beyond that which is needed to achieve a state of health in the oral environment of less stressed individuals. There may be health promoting effects of addressing psychosocial concerns related to dental care - particularly for the poor and uninsured.

  5. The Connection between Low Income, Weak Labour Force Attachment and Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortin, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractUsing 1994-2004 data from the National Population Health Survey, this papersheds light on the health situation of working-age Canadians and tests theconnection between low income, weak labour force attachment and poor healthusing logistic regressions. Results indicate that persistently poor or weaklyemployed Canadians are in much poorer health than other Canadians, and thatbeing persistently poor increases the probability of experiencing deteriorationin health as much as being in poor health increases the probability of becomingpoor, but that being persistently unemployed has an even stronger impact onhealth status.Résumépériode allant de 1994 à 2004, cet article documente l’état de santé descanadiens en âge de travailler et estime, grâce à la régression logistique, laforce des liens entre faible revenu, faible effort de travail et mauvaise santé. Lesrésultats obtenus indiquent que les Canadiens qui sont, de façon persistante,pauvres ou faiblement actifs sur le marché du travail sont en très mauvaisesanté comparé aux autres canadiens, que la pauvreté persistante accroît laprobabilité d’une détérioration de l’état de santé dans la même mesure qued’être en mauvaise santé accroît la probabilité de devenir pauvre, mais que detravailler peu ou proue, de façon persistante, a un effet encore plus fort sur lasanté.

  6. Emergency room visits for dental problems among working poor Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramraj, Chantel C; Quiñonez, Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    To explore the risk of visiting hospital emergency rooms (ERs) for dental problems not associated with trauma among a sample of working poor Canadians. Data stem from a telephone survey administered between March and August 2007 of working poor Canadians aged 18-64 years. Logistic regressions were employed to determine the predictors of reporting a visit to an ER for dental problems not associated with trauma. Approximately 6.1 percent of the sample reported visiting an ER in the past for a dental problem not associated with trauma. Those who were publicly insured, reported poor oral health, experienced a bed day due to dental pain, had dependent children, were lone parents, had competing needs, a history of receiving welfare, a history of an inability to afford dental care, and a perceived need for dental treatment were all more likely to have reported an ER visit. When adjusting for all variables, having experienced a bed day due to dental pain and a history of an inability to afford dental care were the dominant predictors of this outcome. A higher but not significantly different prevalence of ER visits for dental problems was found among the working poor sample when compared with the general Canadian population (6.1 percent versus 5.4 percent, P > 0.05). Further research is needed in order to provide insight into the reasons why the working poor population is seeking dental care in hospital settings. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  8. Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Thoughts About Sexual Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliares, Ellen; Wilkerson, J Michael; Sieving, Renee E; Brady, Sonya S

    Little research on adolescents has examined developmentally normative facets of sexuality that are not obviously linked to physical health. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to qualitatively analyze adolescents' thoughts about and experiences with sexual pleasure. The study sample consisted of 56 sexually experienced, ethnically diverse, predominantly female adolescents who were participating in a Web-based intervention to promote healthy sexual decision making. Comments on one message board, "Sexual Pleasure: Does It Matter to You?," provided an opportunity to examine adolescents' thoughts about and experiences with sexual pleasure, as well as their communication with partners about that topic. Adolescents' comments demonstrated that they experience difficulties with pleasure in their sexual relationships. Adolescents generally believed that men are more likely than women to feel pleasure due to differences that include biology, understanding of one's body, and control over partnered sexual behavior. Adolescents defined inequality of received pleasure differently and discussed contexts in which inequality may be acceptable. Adolescents expressed motivation to communicate with partners about sexual pleasure. However, their statements suggested they often lack the skills to do so. Future prevention and intervention programs should equip adolescents with skills to communicate with partners about sexual pleasure.

  9. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  10. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Carvalho e Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  11. Research Organizations Interview the Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.

    1974-01-01

    Researchers who conducted 194 interviews surveys of low income populations returned mail questionnaires about their experiences; the results are interpreted as bearing upon both the ease or difficulty of interviewing poor people and how advisable it may be to employ interviewers matched to respondents by class and race/ethnicity in surveys of the…

  12. Jesus: Born Poor or Rich?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    Abstract. Over the centuries in Christendom, the clergy has consistently drummed it into the ears and consciousness of the laity that Jesus was born poor; this has been phenomenal and the adherents of Christian religion have accepted and imbibed it without question. Drawing from anecdotes and accounts that.

  13. Unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Vallath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of pain medicine that once began as a supportive and compassionate care, adding value to the management of acute and chronic ailments, has now transformed into a vital and essential specialty with structured training programs and service units with professionals dedicating their careers to it. The expansion of understanding of the direct relationship of pain relief to the quality of life, uncovering of neuronal pathways, and technological advances in imaging as well as in interventional techniques have all contributed to this phenomenal growth. However, there is a growing concern whether the training programs and the specialized practitioners are gradually limiting their skilled inputs primarily within the sensory realm of the pain experience with sophisticated interventional techniques and relegating its subjective and emotional dimensions to perfunctory realms within the schema of service provision. While the specialty is still young, if we can understand the inherent aspect of these dimensions within the pain experience and acknowledge the gaps in service provision, it may be possible to champion development of truly comprehensive pain relief programs that responds effectively and ethically to a patient′s felt needs. This article attempts to position the subjectivity of pain experience in context and surface the need to design complete systems of pain relief services inclusive of this dimension. It presents authors′ review of literature on perspectives of ′unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of the pain" to elucidate possible clinical implications based on the evidences presented on neuro-biology and neuro-psychology of the pain experience; the aim being to inspire systems of care where this dimension is sufficiently evaluated and managed.

  14. Experiencing organ donation: feelings of relatives after consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Elisa Nascimento Fernandes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify experiences and feelings on the organ donation process, from the perspective of a relative of an organ donor in a transplant unit.Method: this was exploratory research using a qualitative approach, performed with seven family members of different organ donors, selected by a lottery. Sociodemographic data and the experiences regarding the donation process were collected through semi-structured interviews. The language material was transcribed and submitted to content analysis.Results: poor sensitivity of the medical staff communicating the relative's brain death - the potential donor - and the lack of socio-emotional support prior to the situation experienced by the family was highlighted by participants.Conclusions: the study identified the need to provide social-emotional support for families facing the experience of the organ donation process. From these findings, other care and management practices in health must be discussed to impact the strengthening of the family ties, post-donation, as well as the organ procurement indexes.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Unboosted Atazanavir in Treatment-experienced HIV-infected Children, Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Tim R; Hazra, Rohan; Wiznia, Andrew; Foca, Marc; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Graham, Bobbie; King, Jennifer R; Britto, Paula; Carey, Vincent J; Acosta, Edward P; Yogev, Ram

    2016-12-01

    HIV protease inhibitor use in pediatrics is challenging due to the poor palatability and/or toxicity of concomitant low-dose ritonavir. Atazanavir without ritonavir (unboosted) is not recommended for patients with prior virologic failure, a common problem for perinatally-infected adolescents. Atazanavir 400 mg once-daily provided suboptimal exposure. Higher unboosted doses or splitting the daily dose to twice-daily warrants investigation in this treatment-experienced population.

  16. Stress Management Training for Employees Experiencing Corporate Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Timothy R.; Maples, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes a stress management seminar for employees experiencing corporate acquisition which was attended by 40 men and 16 women. Presents information regarding specific types of stressors experienced by these employees. Notes that participant reactions support the design and utility of this type of program for employees experiencing corporate…

  17. Poor Theatre: goal or path?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Olinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical review of the book Towards a Poor Theatre by Jerzy Grotowski, recently published in Brazil with a new Portuguese version by Ivan Chagas. This book is considered one of the most important works ever written in the field of the Performing Arts, having contributed to setting new standards for theatre as a practice in the late twentieth century. In this review a brief background of the book is presented and its main ideas are briefly described, such as the notions of: ‘poor theater’, ‘holy actor’ and ‘via negativa’. Ivan Chagas’s translation is critically discussed, especially his change of title.

  18. Health solutions for the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J L; Fujiwara, P I; Bhambal, P; Emaille-Léotard, N; Harries, A D

    2014-03-21

    The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) is the oldest international non-governmental organisation involved in the fight against tuberculosis. In 2008, the Institute of The Union was challenged to think boldly about the future and to develop a diverse work portfolio covering a wide spectrum of lung health and other disease-related problems. The vision adopted by The Union at that time was 'Health solutions for the poor'. More recently, there has been lengthy debate about the need for the Union to concentrate just on its core mandate of tuberculosis and lung health and for the Union's vision to reflect this narrower spectrum of activity as 'Lung health solutions for the poor'. In this viewpoint article we outline our reasons for believing that this narrower vision is incompatible with The Union's mission statement, and we argue that making such a change would be a mistake.

  19. Factors Affecting Poor Strategy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Darmin Ahmad Pella

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on strategy implementation has been developed for three decades, yet only a few studies focus on factors affecting poor strategy implementation. This research evaluates the influence of strategy implementation problems on strategy implementation success and firm performance. This survey was conducted in 60 Indonesian companies and the data were statistically analysed using Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Square (SEM PLS. The results show significant influence of strategy implementation problems on the degree of successful strategy implementation and perceived firm performance. The seven major obstacles that have impact on poor strategy implementation are: problems related to corporate scorecard, key performance indicators, information technology, competence, performance appraisal, strategy management office, and financial support.

  20. [Sense of agency: experiencing is not judging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulot, V; Thomas, P; Delevoye-Turrell, Y

    2007-09-01

    Experiencing oneself as the author of an action defines the sense of agency, which is a component of the self. A deficit affecting this process is thought to cause the principle symptoms characterizing schizophrenia - e.g. delusions of control and auditive hallucinations would exist because patients do not experience themselves as the author of their own actions. To explore this specific problem of the sense of agency in schizophrenia, Frith et al. collected a serie of experimental data that lead them to propose that the sense of agency relied on the automatic motor system, processes that enable the predictive adjustment of action. An impairment in these processes (called in the literature) would lead to the problem of dissociation between our own actions and those performed by others. More specifically, the problem would lay in the comparison between the predicted state and the desired state (figure 1). Jeannerod et al. from Lyon used attribution judgements that suggested that the sense of agency would not depend uniquely on the motor mechanisms but would also involve conscious processes. Recently, Frith et al. have published new data that integrates both preceding models. According to this theory, the sense of agency would depend on the processes involved in the predictive control of action but at a conscious level: the attenuation of the sensory feedback, specific of our own actions. This attenuation would depend on the accuracy of comparison between the predicted state and the actual state. Moreover, the sense of agency would also imply the management of social frame, which normally gives the means to cope with human interaction. The conception of the sense of agency has greatly evolved over the years, mainly because of the various experimental methods employed. The consequences of this are the various theoretical interpretations given to the characteristics of the sense of agency. They can be explained in two main points: a non-unified definition of the sense

  1. Obese and Overweight Youth: Risk for Experiencing Bullying Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2018-01-22

    Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  3. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...

  4. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... on reproductive outcome. The rationale for asking this question lies in the existing scientific evidence derived from basic research and animal studies regarding the action of androgens during folliculogenesis, showing that their main effect in follicular development is defined during the earlier developmental...

  5. GATEWAY Demonstrations: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    At the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  6. Older people experiencing homelessness show marked impairment on tests of frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoz, Astrid; Burke, David

    2016-03-01

    Reported rates of mild and moderate cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness range from 5-80%. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. Men and women experiencing homelessness aged 45 years and over in the inner city were screened for cognitive impairment. Participants who scored 26 or below on the mini-mental state examination and/or were impaired on any one of the clock-drawing test, the verbal fluency test and the trail-making test, part B were then assessed with a semi-structured interview, including the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Screening of 144 men and 27 women aged between 45 years and 93 years identified cognitive impairment in 78%. Subsequently, high rates of mental and physical illness were identified, and 75% of subjects who were cognitively impaired performed poorly on frontal lobe tests. The trail-making test, part B was the most sensitive measure of frontal function. This study demonstrated that a large majority of older people experiencing homelessness, in the inner city of a high-income country, showed impairment on tests of frontal lobe function, a finding that could have significant implications for any medical or psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

  8. Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The Overlooked Medium of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlembach, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…

  9. Emotions Experienced by Students Taking Online and Classroom Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Allan, Wesley D.; Teoro, Samantha M.

    2012-01-01

    Emotions experienced during online academic examinations may differ from emotions experienced in the traditional classroom testing situation. Students in a "Psychology of Learning" course (n = 61) completed assessments of emotions before and after a quiz in each of the following settings: online at their own choice of time and location; online in…

  10. Self-motion perception compresses time experienced in return travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Sunaga

    2011-01-01

    It is often anecdotally reported that time experienced in return travel (back to the start point) seems shorter than time spent in outward travel (travel to a new destination). Here, we report the first experimental results showing that return travel time is experienced as shorter than the actual time. This discrepancy is induced by the existence of self-motion perception.

  11. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession in South Africa were focused on. A review of the literature revealed that problems are experienced at five different levels: within the women themselves, in their work situation, at management level, within their career, and within society.

  12. Five Years on: Leadership Challenges of an Experienced CEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Experienced leaders face challenges that demand different leadership approaches to those of inexperienced leaders. The purposes of this article are to: (1) explore the leadership initiatives prominent for experienced leaders compared with inexperienced leaders; (2) examine the relationship between transformational leadership and these initiatives;…

  13. Experiencing Change, Encountering the Unknown: An Education in "Negative Capability" in Light of Buddhism and Levinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reading of the philosophies of Emmanuel Levinas and Theravada Buddhism across and through their differences in order to rethink an education that is committed to "negative capability" and the sensibility to uncertainty that this entails. In fleshing this out, I first explore Buddhist ideas of impermanence, suffering…

  14. Light at the end of the tunnel: the way megalithic art was viewed and experienced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nash

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how megalithic art may have been viewed during a period when Neolithic monuments were in use as repositories for the dead. The group of monuments discussed are primarily passage graves which were being constructed within many of the core areas of Neolithic Atlantic Europe. Although dates for the construction of this tradition are sometimes early, the majority of monuments with megalithic art fall essentially within the Middle to Late Neolithic. The art, usually in the form of pecked abstract designs appears to be strategically placed within the inner part of the passage and the chamber. Given its position was this art restricted to an elite and was there a conscious decision to hide some art and make it exclusively for the dead? In order to discuss these points further, this chapter will study in depth the location and subjectivity of art that has been carved and pecked on three passage graves in Anglesey and NW England. I suggest that an encoded grammar was in operation when these and other passage grave monuments with megalithic art were in use.

  15. BREASTFEEDING EXPERIENCED BY COLLEGE STUDENTS: CONTRIBUTIONS OF NURSING IN LIGHT OF THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF ALFRED SCHUTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Viana Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objeto o aleitamento materno na prática cotidiana da estudante de nível superior. Objetivo: captar as experiências vivenciadas pela estudante com o aleitamento materno durante a realização do curso de graduação. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo com enfoque na Fenomenologia Sociológica de Alfred Schutz, utilizando-se a entrevista fenomenológica. Os sujeitos foram estudantes de graduação que vivenciaram ou vivenciavam a gestação e/ou amamentação durante o curso de graduação numa universidade pública no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Resultados: Surgiram as seguintes categorias: 1. Amamentar implica dificuldades para estudar; 2. Amamentar requer lançar mão de estratégias para continuar estudando e amamentando; 3. Amamentar precisa de apoio. Conclusões: Assim, o estudo é relevante por possibilitar a compreensão acerca do fenômeno amamentar no cotidiano da estudante e, a partir dele, discutir leis de proteção a essa população. Descritores: aleitamento materno, pesquisa qualitativa, enfermagem.

  16. Subjective sleep quality in women experiencing intimate partner violence: contributions of situational, psychological, and physiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie J; Kozachik, Sharon L; Hall, Rosalie J

    2010-02-01

    This study, guided by an adaptation of the theory of unpleasant symptoms, examined the complex relationships of childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and physical health symptoms with global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. A convenience sample of 157 women currently experiencing IPV was recruited from crisis shelters and community agencies. Findings provide empirical support that women concurrently experiencing PTSD, depression, and stress-related physical health symptoms demonstrated poor global sleep quality and frequent disruptive nighttime behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder and stress health symptoms functioned as mediators of childhood maltreatment and IPV effects on both global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors, but depression did not.

  17. Identification of poorly crystalline scorodite in uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, R.; Rowson, J.; Hughes, K.; Rinas, C., E-mail: ryan.frey@areva.ca [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Warner, J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The McClean Lake mill, located in northern Saskatchewan, processes a variety of uranium ore bodies to produce yellowcake. A by-product of this process is an acidic waste solution enriched in arsenic, referred to as raffinate. The raffinate waste stream is treated in the tailings preparation circuit, where arsenic is precipitated as a poorly crystalline scorodite phase. Raffinate neutralization studies have successfully identified poorly crystalline scorodite using XRD, SEM, EM, XANES and EXAFS methods, but to date, scorodite has not been successfully identified within the whole tailing solids. During the summer of 2008, a drilling program sampled the in situ tailings within the McClean Lake tailings management facility. Samples from this drilling campaign were sent to the Canadian Light Source Inc. for EXAFS analysis. The sample spectra positively identify a poorly crystalline scorodite phase within the McClean tailings management facility. (author)

  18. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  19. Surgical lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago, the last decades only minor developments have been made. This lack of significant development suggests that the current state of surgical lighting is perfectly developed and functions without any fla...

  20. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  1. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  2. Peran Experienced Stigma terhadap Self Esteem pada Suku Nias

    OpenAIRE

    Hutauruk, Lucy Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias ethnic. The study involved 151 people of Nias ethnic who lived in Medan. Sampling was done by incidental sampling and processed by simple linear regression test with an SPSS 17.0 Software Program. The instrument in this research are the scale of experienced stigma and self-esteem scale developed by the researchers.These results indicate there is the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias et...

  3. Impact of experienced professionalism on professional culture in probation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, R.; Hermanns, J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of work engagement is an important aspect of organizational culture. In this empirical study the relation between engagement and experienced professionalism of probation officers is investigated. Starting from ideal-typical theories on professionalism, a psychometric instrument for

  4. Active Experiencing Training Improves Episodic Memory Recall in Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah E. Banducci; Ana M. Daugherty; John R. Biggan; Gillian E. Cooke; Michelle Voss; Tony Noice; Helga Noice; Arthur F. Kramer

    2017-01-01

    Active experiencing (AE) is an intervention aimed at attenuating cognitive declines with mindfulness training via an immersive acting program, and has produced promising results in older adults with limited formal education...

  5. Advance Selling in the Presence of Experienced Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Hnery Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present theoretical study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in a...

  6. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Experienced and potential medical tourists' service quality expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, Michael; Scott, Jeannie J; Vequist, David G

    2013-01-01

    The paper's aim is to compare experienced and potential US medical tourists' foreign health service-quality expectations. Data were collected via an online survey involving 1,588 US consumers engaging or expressing an interest in medical tourism. The sample included 219 experienced and 1,369 potential medical tourists. Respondents completed a SERVQUAL questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine significant differences between experienced and potential US medical tourists' service-quality expectations. For all five service-quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) experienced medical tourists had significantly lower expectations than potential medical tourists. Experienced medical tourists also had significantly lower service-quality expectations than potential medical tourists for 11 individual SERVQUAL items. Results suggest using experience level to segment medical tourists. The study also has implications for managing medical tourist service-quality expectations at service delivery point and via external marketing communications. Managing medical tourists' service quality expectations is important since expectations can significantly influence choice processes, their experience and post-consumption behavior. This study is the first to compare experienced and potential US medical tourist service-quality expectations. The study establishes a foundation for future service-quality expectations research in the rapidly growing medical tourism industry.

  8. Poor School Bonding and Delinquency over Time: Bidirectional Effects and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, Jenny Freidenfelt; Eklund, Jenny M.; Fritz, Marie Vafors; Klinteberg, Britt af

    2011-01-01

    The association between poor school bonding and delinquency has only been partly addressed in earlier research. Using a longitudinal design, the objective of our study was to investigate possible bidirectional effects and sex differences between adolescents' experienced school bonding and self-rated delinquency over time. A total of 788…

  9. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  10. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...

  11. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  12. Breaking up Romantic Relationships: Costs Experienced and Coping Strategies Deployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Perilloux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences between men and women, and between individuals experiencing rejection (Rejectees and individuals doing the rejecting (Rejectors in romantic relationship break-ups. We tested fourteen evolution-based predictions about romantic breakups using data from 193 participants; ten received support. Women more than men, for example, experienced costly sequelae such as the loss of a mate's physical protection and harmful post-breakup stalking by the ex-partner. Both men and women who were rejected, compared with those who did the rejecting, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination. Rejectors, on the other hand, experienced the reputational cost of being perceived by others as cruel. Exploratory data analyses revealed that women more than men reported experiencing negative emotions after a breakup, particularly feeling sad, confused, and scared. Both sexes used an array of strategies to cope with the breakup, ranging from high base-rate strategies such as discussing the breakup with friends to low base-rate strategies such as threatening suicide. The largest sex difference in coping strategies centered on the act of shopping, used by women Rejectors as well as women Rejectees, likely a strategy of appearance enhancement prior to reentering the mating market. Discussion focuses on the adaptive significance of sex differences and individual differences based on rejection status.

  13. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  14. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  15. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace...... industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems....... Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes....

  16. Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassmann, Hilke; O'Doherty, John; Shiv, Baba; Rangel, Antonio

    2008-01-22

    Despite the importance and pervasiveness of marketing, almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which it affects decisions made by individuals. We propose that marketing actions, such as changes in the price of a product, can affect neural representations of experienced pleasantness. We tested this hypothesis by scanning human subjects using functional MRI while they tasted wines that, contrary to reality, they believed to be different and sold at different prices. Our results show that increasing the price of a wine increases subjective reports of flavor pleasantness as well as blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in medial orbitofrontal cortex, an area that is widely thought to encode for experienced pleasantness during experiential tasks. The paper provides evidence for the ability of marketing actions to modulate neural correlates of experienced pleasantness and for the mechanisms through which the effect operates.

  17. Experienced biology teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Ari

    2017-05-01

    Teacher certification program raises a question of whether certified teachers really more competence than non-certified teachers. However, since the notion of teachers' competence is measure in terms of content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge instead of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Teacher' PCK as the essence of teachers' competence is somehow ignored. The study presented here analyses experienced biology teachers' PCK. Subjects are experienced biology teachers who teach at the formerly called Pioneered Standardized Schools (RSBI). They are purposively chosen since they are certified teachers who have received very intensive training organized by the education authorities (national, province and district) as well as by the schools. Therefore, this group of teachers can be considered as experienced and well-prepared for teaching science.

  18. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna

    2017-01-01

    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.

  19. Baking Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    2005-01-01

    decisions. Display quality, comfortable navigation and realistic illumination are crucial ingredients here. Light is one of the principal elements in architectural design, so design reviews must enable the architect to judge the quality of his design in this respect. Realistic light simulations, e.g. via...... radiosity algorithms, are no longer the domain of high-end graphic workstations. Today’s off-the-shelf hardware and 3D-software provide the architect with high-quality tools to simulate physically correct light distributions. But the quality and impression of light is hard to judge by looking at still...... practical experiences with global-light-simulations. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary....

  20. Lightness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking...... in the direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions...... is introduced that includes L(K;.) and R(K;.) as special cases. Much of the theory of the brightness function like uniqueness, stability, and the existence and properties of convex bodies of maximal and minimal volume with finitely many function values equal to those of a given convex body, is extended...

  1. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Perkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.

  2. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

  3. Music and light during indoor cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaulov, Naama; Lufi, Dubi

    2009-04-01

    The present research is a field study assessing effects of music and light on physical performance and subjective feelings of 28 participants (14 men, 14 women) in fitness classes using indoor cycling. Participants performed four sessions under different conditions of music and light. Analysis showed a sense of pleasure was significantly higher when music was introduced during the exercise. A significant interaction of music and light indicated that participants experienced less sense of tiredness when they trained with music and lights were dimmed. Light alone had no effect on any of the subjective measures. Physiological measurements showed that light and music did not influence amount of energy exerted (heart rate) or energy expended (calories). Apparently, participants do not work harder when music is present; however, they report more pleasure and less tiredness while exercising with music and dimmed light. It is recommended that music and dimmed light might be used during such activities to heighten pleasure and reduce tiredness while emphasizing fitness achieved.

  4. Procedure for ash-poor cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler

    1945-04-01

    This article was composed of four sections which dealt with de-ashing processes or uses of ash-poor coke. The general procedure for de-ashing started with 1 mm coal grains mixed with dilute HCl and then decanted from a concentrator. The thick paste was crushed finely and pasted with tar from the Low Temperature Carbonization (LTC). The paste was kneaded, washed, and then formed. The resulting briquettes were dried, crushed, and reformed. The LTC then took place at 550/sup 0/C followed by coking at 900/sup 0/C. The oven dimensions were given as 3.25 m tall, 0.65 wide, and 4 m deep for the LTC sections, and 3.25 m x 0.60 m x 4 m for the coking section. These dimensions were designed for 100 kg coke per hour. Methods were discussed for decreasing costs of coke production by substitution of a cheaper binding tar than that of the LTC recycle. CS/sub 2/ production was proposed using coke processed by the above de-ashing procedure. This process which substituted coke for the usual charcoal was shown to work, but was very sensitive to ash and solids content in the coke. Coke substitution for reducing charcoal in the production of light metals was tested. It was found that the iron content of the coke product has to be less than 0.05%, so that the coal used must have only slight traces of iron. Experiments were carried out to use de-ashed cokes as fuel to power automibiles, where a major difficulty was found in the tendency of the coke briquettes to flake and crumble. Different methods and binders were tried for briquetting, thus eliminating many difficulties. For the production of electrode cokes, flotation, separation, and lye treatment preceeded the de-ashing procedure outlined above. It was concluded that the properties of the cokes were greatly influenced by the quality of the briquette binder. It was intended to research and classify the types of binders.

  5. Poor Rural Children Attract Close Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Growing up poor in isolated rural areas and small towns is qualitatively different from growing up poor in the city. Yet most of what experts know about the effects of poverty on children's development comes from studies conducted in big cities. Now, an ambitious project run by universities in Pennsylvania and North Carolina is putting what some…

  6. Poor Slaughterhouse Waste Management: Empirical Evidences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results reveal that the majority of the respondents had poor attitudes (75.6%) and practices (97.4%) of proper waste management, though 51.5% demonstrated good knowledge. While 51.3% knew that slaughterhouse wastes are related to diseases, 75.4% were unconcerned that poor management could be major ...

  7. Poor mental health in Ghana: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Canavan, Maureen; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Udry, Christopher; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-04-01

    Poor mental health is a leading cause of disability worldwide with considerable negative impacts, particularly in low-income countries. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on its national prevalence in low-income countries, particularly in Africa, is limited. Additionally, researchers and policy makers are now calling for empirical investigations of the association between empowerment and poor mental health among women. We therefore sought to estimate the national prevalence of poor mental health in Ghana, explore its correlates on a national level, and examine associations between empowerment and poor mental health among women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Ghana in 2009-2010. Interviews were conducted face-to-face with participants (N = 9,524 for overall sample; n = 3,007 for women in relationships). We used the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) to measure psychological distress and assessed women's attitudes about their roles in decision-making, attitudes towards intimate partner violence, partner control, and partner abuse. We used weighted multivariable multinomial regression models to determine the factors independently associated with experiencing psychological distress for our overall sample and for women in relationships. Overall, 18.7% of the sample reported either moderate (11.7%) or severe (7.0%) psychological distress. The prevalence of psychological distress was higher among women than men. Overall, the prevalence of psychological distress differed by gender, marital status, education, wealth, region, health and religion, but not by age or urban/rural location. Women who reported having experienced physical abuse, increased partner control, and who were more accepting of women's disempowerment had greater likelihoods of psychological distress (P-values < 0.05). Psychological distress is substantial among both men and women in Ghana, with nearly 20% having moderate or

  8. Poor Sleep Is Related to Lower Emotional Competence Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kirov, Roumen; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Schmidt, Norman B; Lemola, Sakari; Correll, Christoph U; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the association between subjective insomnia and self-reported emotional competence in areas such as regulating and perceiving one's own emotions and empathy, in a sample of adolescents. Gender differences were also explored. 366 adolescents in 10th to 12th grade (mean age: M = 16.9 years) took part in this cross-sectional study. They completed questionnaires related to emotional competencies, empathy, and sleep. Higher scores for insomnia were associated with lower scores for some aspects of emotional competence and empathy. Compared to males, females generally had higher scores for emotional competence. Poor sleep as subjectively experienced among adolescents is associated with specific impairments in emotional competence and empathy. Gender-related patterns were also observed.

  9. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental......Background: The aim of the study was to identify and characterize groups with poor mental health defined by the SF-12 Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) scale. Methods: The study is based on the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2005 and includes 10,082 participants (16 years or older). Data were...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...

  10. Seeing and Experiencing Relativity--A New Tool for Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Fish, Jordan; Hacker, Jesse; Kienle, Justin; Kobylarek, Alexander; Sigler, Michael; Wierenga, Bert; Cheu, Ryan; Kim, Ebae; Sherin, Zach; Sidhu, Sonny; Tan, Philip

    2013-01-01

    "What would you see if you were riding a beam of light?" This thought experiment, which Einstein reports to have "conducted" at the age of 16, of course has no sensible answer: as Einstein published a decade later, you could never reach the speed of light. But it does make sense to ask what you would see if you were traveling…

  11. Correlates of condom use among sexually experienced secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses are based on 214 sexually experienced males aged 14 - 20 years who completed web-based questionnaires about their sexual attitudes and behaviour. Results indicate that students did not see themselves as susceptible to HIV/AIDS and believed condom effectiveness in preventing HIV to be low. Consequently ...

  12. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing

  13. Experiencing Beach in Australia: Study Abroad Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshifumi; Payne, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    The current "Australian-"ness"" of outdoor environmental education is an evolving "set" of socio-cultural constructions. These constructions can be interpreted within the circumstances of an empirical study of tertiary study abroad students' participation in an undergraduate semester long unit "Experiencing the…

  14. Environmental barriers experienced by stroke patients in Musanze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with stroke experience a number of environmental barriers, limiting their re-integration. Information regarding the barriers experienced by patients with stroke in a specific setting such as the Musanze district in Rwanda would assist with the development of rehabilitation programmes that would take into ...

  15. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  16. Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to identify children with Sickle cell disease (SCD) who are experiencing psychosocial problems concurrently with their mothers; and comparing the dyads to determine correlation, pattern of correlation and to identify correlating or modifying factors. Method: The psychosocial impact ...

  17. On Mathematical Understanding: Perspectives of Experienced Chinese Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa; Ding, Meixia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have long debated the meaning of mathematical understanding and ways to achieve mathematical understanding. This study investigated experienced Chinese mathematics teachers' views about mathematical understanding. It was found that these mathematics teachers embrace the view that understanding is a web of connections, which is a result…

  18. Common difficulties experienced by grade 12 students in learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the nature and causes of common difficulties experienced by grade twelve students in learning chemistry in Ebinat preparatory school. A qualitative method was employed to investigate the questions, which used interviews and questionnaires with students and teachers. The key ...

  19. Expected usability is not a valid indicator of experienced usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinald T. Thielsch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Usability is a core construct of website evaluation and inherently defined as interactive. Yet, when analysing first impressions of websites, expected usability, i.e., before use, is of interest. Here we investigate to what extend ratings of expected usability are related to (a experienced usability, i.e., ratings after use, and (b objective usability measures, i.e., task performance. Furthermore, we try to elucidate how ratings of expected usability are correlated to aesthetic judgments. In an experiment, 57 participants submitted expected usability ratings after the presentation of website screenshots in three viewing-time conditions (50, 500, and 10,000 ms and after an interactive task (experienced usability. Additionally, objective usability measures (task completion and duration and subjective aesthetics evaluations were recorded for each website. The results at both the group and individual level show that expected usability ratings are not significantly related either to experienced usability or objective usability measures. Instead, they are highly correlated with aesthetics ratings. Taken together, our results highlight the need for interaction in empirical website usability testing, even when exploring very early usability impressions. In our study, user ratings of expected usability were no valid proxy neither for objective usability nor for experienced website usability.

  20. The nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers in South African schools and the biopsychosocial health effects that may arise from such victimisation. Voluntary victimised teachers who wanted to share their experiences were sampled using a lifestyle magazine and online articles.

  1. Counseling Adult Women Who Experienced Incest in Childhood or Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Christine A.; Watts, Deborah L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the definition and incidence of incest, counseling needs of incest victims, and strategies for working with women who experienced incest in childhood or adolescence. Identifies techniques and resources for individual and group counseling. Suggests counselors expand their knowledge about incest in order to offer appropriate services.…

  2. Persistent Classroom Management Training Needs of Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Laura M.; Montague, Marcia L.; Landmark, Leena Jo; Williams-Diehm, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    Experienced special education teachers (n = 62) were surveyed on their professional preparation to become effective classroom managers. Despite having received extensive preservice training, over 83% of the sample reported being underprepared in classroom management and behavioral interventions. No statistically significant difference was found…

  3. The Changes in Experienced Teachers' Understanding towards Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersozlu, Alpay; Cayci, Dilara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the views of experienced teachers related to the changes in their understanding of classroom management in general terms until today. In this study according to the information given by teachers, it is expected to contribute to the discussions about the development of classroom management, which is a key to…

  4. Students' Ways of Experiencing Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which…

  5. Adolescent reports of experiencing gender based violence: findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a quarter of perpetrators were strangers, more were known to the victim. Findings suggest that adolescents are experiencing high levels of GBV from those known to them. Hence, there is a need for more accessible options for reporting and supporting adolescents to deal with these experiences, such as social ...

  6. Sources of marital stress experienced by married people as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sources of marital stress experienced by married people as perceived by lecturers of College of Education. Respondents were stratified into different strata of gender, age group, educational qualification and number of children, after which simple random sampling technique was used for selecting 20 ...

  7. Simulated Citizen: How Students Experienced a Semester Length Legislative Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzler, Louis M.

    2010-01-01

    This collective case study contains the results of year-long inquiry into how students experienced a semester length legislative simulation that was rife with political conflict. Specifically the study sought to determine: what teaching strategies were employed, what role conflict played in affecting students' political engagement, and what the…

  8. A look at language problems experienced by children with hearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that children with hearing impairments experienced communication and language problems at home and at school. They had to learn either Chishona or isiNdebele at home, as well as Zimbabwe Sign Language at school. There is need for the parents and siblings to be taught Zimbabwe Sign ...

  9. TESOL Degree Programs for Experienced English Teachers from Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoof, Maurice

    1970-01-01

    Stated positively, the experienced foreign teacher of English comes to the United States to improve his English teaching abilities. Stated negatively, he comes, more often than not, to retrain rather than expand, to correct faulty language skills and improper or non-productive teaching practices. Identified here are some of the major problem areas…

  10. Experiencing and Verifying what is Felt as Real in Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the criteria by which films and scenes in films are experienced as real and argues that the feeling of realism is not congruent with what is actually real. It discusses how visual salience is one parameter, categorical match another. It argues that formal criteria are unable...

  11. Problems experienced by professional nurses providing care for HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the problems experienced by professional nurses providing health care to patients living with HIV and AIDS in the public hospitals of Polokwane municipality, Limpopo province. A qualitative descriptive, contextual and phenomenology design was used to described the problems ...

  12. Perpetrators of sexual harassment experienced by athletes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence in literature and reports showed that both male and female athletes are sexually harassed in their course of participating in sports. The purpose of the study was to find out the perpetrators of sexual harassment experienced by athletes in southern Nigerian universities. A cross-sectional survey design was ...

  13. Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry • November 2011. 392. Introduction. Sickle cell ... disease and their social environment including the family, is dynamic and fraught with ... Objective: The objective of the study was to identify children with Sickle cell disease (SCD) who are experiencing psychosocial problems concurrently with ...

  14. The nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-08-21

    Aug 21, 2015 ... This article reports on the nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers in South African schools and the bio- psychosocial health effects .... disciplinary thinking and collaboration when study- ing the interaction between the ..... those participants who felt that their family did not support them (De Vos, ...

  15. Experienced Teachers' Voices: What Motivates Them to Mentor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Ruben; Ramirez, Alfredo, Jr.; Ovando, Martha

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined 88 experienced teachers' responses related to mentoring. Our findings suggest mentors possess the willingness and expertise to enhance the professional development and growth of a beginning teacher. Mentors were motivated by the opportunity to express an altruistic value, to provide affective support, to grow…

  16. Experiencing the Meaning of Breathing | Edwards | Indo-Pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning of breathing is discussed in relation to consciousness, bodiliness, spirituality, illness prevention and health promotion. Experiencing the meaning of breathing is to experience more meaning in life itself. Experiential vignettes confirm that breathing skills may be regarded as an original method of survival, ...

  17. Factors influencing the occupational well-being of experienced nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangping Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: By identifying the factors that contribute to a nurse's occupational well-being, the nursing management is better able to address the nurse's needs to maintain a positive well-being. This in turn will decrease the burnout and increase retention of experienced nurses, which will raise the quality of patient care.

  18. The phenomenon of xenophobia as experienced by immigrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to describe how xenophobia is experienced by a small selection of immigrant participants in five inner city schools in Johannesburg. The May 2008 xenophobic violence prompted the investigation. Theoretically, the article is also concerned with ways to combat xenophobia in schools with a view to bringing ...

  19. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obare, Francis; van der Kwaak, Anke; Birungi, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    ... among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya...

  20. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnendijk, Erika; Koren, Ruth; Dror, David M

    2012-01-27

    This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare costs. Using survey data of 5,383 low-income households in Orissa, one of the poorest states of India, we investigate factors influencing the risk of hardship financing with the use of a logistic regression. Overall, about 25% of the households (that had any healthcare cost) reported hardship financing during the year preceding the survey. Among households that experienced a hospitalization, this percentage was nearly 40%, but even among households with outpatient or maternity-related care around 25% experienced hardship financing.Hardship financing is explained not merely by the wealth of the household (measured by assets) or how much is spent out-of-pocket on healthcare costs, but also by when the payment occurs, its frequency and its duration (e.g. more severe in cases of chronic illnesses). The location where a household resides remains a major predictor of the likelihood to have hardship financing despite all other household features included in the model. Rural poor households are subjected to considerable and protracted financial hardship due to the indirect and longer-term deleterious effects of how they cope with out-of-pocket healthcare costs. The social network that households can access influences exposure to hardship financing. Our findings point to the need to develop a policy solution that would limit that exposure both in quantum and in time. We therefore conclude that policy interventions aiming to ensure health-related financial protection would have to demonstrate that they have reduced the frequency and the volume of hardship financing.

  1. "Theater of light". IEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca Ra

    1998-01-01

    Many families on the sugar cane plantations of La Carlota, a third class city in Negros Occidental, a province in central Philippines, live as the indentured servants of plantation owners who take care of them from birth until death. Most such families earn only 1001-3000 pesos (US$25-75) per month. Believing that the more children a family has, the more workers the family will have and the more family wages earned, plantation couples choose to have many children and consider family planning to be taboo. However, contrary to their expectations, poor parents end up having more children than they can care for. Farmers children usually drop out of school once they begin working in the haciendas and remain farmers throughout their lives. They marry early and remain poor, perpetuating the cycle over generations. Poor labor conditions also result in poor health status. The Kabalaka Development Foundation, Inc. (KDFI) developed an artistic IEC project to help destroy misconceptions about family planning and improve the reproductive health of target families. The project involves saturating target communities with family planning and reproductive health messages through drama productions performed by youth volunteers. Spectators have reacted positively to the Theater of Light performances. The development and implementation of the project are described.

  2. Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about

  3. [Professional Development Processes of Trainee and Experienced Psychotherapists in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilican, F Işıl; Soygüt, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored professional characteristics of psychotherapists in Turkey, examined the changes in their professional developmental processes, and compared the professional characteristics of the trainees and experienced therapists. The participants were 88 psychotherapists, including trainee (N=37) and experienced (N=51) psychotherapists in Turkey. They completed the Development of Psychotherapists International Study-Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ), developed by the Collaborative Research Network. The participants identified with the cognitive theoretical orientation most often. 30% of the participants had more than two salient orientations. The most prevalent therapy modality was individual, followed by couples, family, and group psychotherapy. Ongoing supervision rate was 44%. Trainees scored lower on effectiveness in engaging patients in a working alliance, feeling natural while working with patients, effectiveness in communicating their understanding and concern to their patients, and feeling confident in their role as a therapist. Experienced therapists made changes in the therapeutic contract and invited collaboration from families more compared to the trainees. 63% of the variance in Healing Involvement was explained by Overall Career Development, Currently Experienced Growth, being influenced by the humanistic approach, and the impact of the main therapeutic environment; 26% of the variance in Stressful Involvement was explained by the length of official supervision received and having control over the length of therapy sessions. Therapists were more cognitively oriented, less eclectic, and had less supervision compared to their international counterparts. Experienced therapists were more flexible, natural, and confident than the trainees. Supervision, a supportive work environment, the humanistic approach, and investing in career development were essential to providing a healing experience.

  4. Occupational Violence and Aggression Experienced by Nursing and Caring Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Tracey; Sheehan, Cathy; Donohue, Ross; Cooper, Brian; De Cieri, Helen

    2017-03-01

    To examine the extent and source of occupational violence and aggression (OVA) experienced by nursing and caring professionals. This study also examines the relative contributions of demographic characteristics and workplace and individual safety factors in predicting OVA. A cross-sectional study design with data collected using an online survey of employees in the nursing and caring professions in Victoria, Australia. Survey data collected from 4,891 members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (Victorian branch) were analyzed using logistic regression. Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing OVA in the preceding 12 months, with nearly 20% experiencing OVA on a weekly or daily basis. The dominant sources of OVA were patients (79%) or relatives of patients (48%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that respondents working in public hospitals and aged care facilities were more likely to experience OVA, compared to those working in other workplaces. While higher levels of safety compliance reduced the likelihood of experiencing OVA, role overload and workplace safety factors such as prioritization of employee safety and leading indicators of occupational health and safety were stronger predictors. The likelihood of healthcare workers experiencing OVA varies across demographic and workplace characteristics. While some demographic characteristics and individual safety factors were significant predictors, our results suggest that a greater reduction in OVA could be achieved by improving workplace safety. The study's outcomes identify workforce segments that are most vulnerable to OVA. The study also highlights workplace safety factors such as the prioritization of employee safety that might assist in the reduction of OVA. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N = 986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3 %) and sexual aggression (12.6 %) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high-risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs.

  6. Predictors of experiencing aggression in clubs: Beyond alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N=986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3%) and sexual aggression (12.6%) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression, increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk, increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs. PMID:24838821

  7. The role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jocelyn; Hassell, Samuel; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mobbs, Dean

    2017-08-01

    With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets. Study 3 extended these findings by demonstrating that trait empathic concern-the tendency to feel concern and compassion for others-was associated with experiencing vicarious anxiety, whereas trait personal distress-the tendency to experience distress in stressful situations-was not. Study 4 manipulated state empathy to establish a causal relationship between empathy and experience of vicarious anxiety. Participants who took an empathic perspective when observing target victims, as compared to those who took an objective perspective using reappraisal-based strategies, reported experiencing greater anxiety, risk-aversion, and sleep disruption the following night. These results highlight the impact of one's social environment on experiencing anxiety, particularly for those who are highly empathic. In addition, these findings have implications for extending basic models of anxiety to incorporate interpersonal processes, understanding the role of empathy in social learning, and potential applications for therapeutic contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, S. M.; Parshall, L.

    2009-12-01

    distribution of temperature changes experienced by the world population between 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Lower 3 panels: Temperatures experienced 2011-2030 (dashed, circle = mean) and 2080-2099 (solid, cross = mean) by income tercile. The poor do not experience larger changes than the wealthy. However, the poor begin the 21st century at higher temperatures.

  9. Circadian light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierman Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper reflects a work in progress toward a definition of circadian light, one that should be informed by the thoughtful, century-old evolution of our present definition of light as a stimulus for the human visual system. This work in progress is based upon the functional relationship between optical radiation and its effects on nocturnal melatonin suppression, in large part because the basic data are available in the literature. Discussed here are the fundamental differences between responses by the visual and circadian systems to optical radiation. Brief reviews of photometry, colorimetry, and brightness perception are presented as a foundation for the discussion of circadian light. Finally, circadian light (CLA and circadian stimulus (CS calculation procedures based on a published mathematical model of human circadian phototransduction are presented with an example.

  10. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics....... Nanoscale resolutions enable optical scientists to assess ever more accurate information. However, scientific hypothesis testing demands tools, not only for observing nanoscopic phenomena, but also for reaching into and manipulating nanoscale constituents. Taking an applications focus, this book explores...

  11. GATEWAY Report Brief: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-31

    Summary of a GATEWAY report evaluation at the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, where the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  12. "Light and the aesthetics of the perception"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    what can be called the dichotomy between the aesthetics of the objects and the aesthetics of the perception - as stated by Boehme. To improve practice this article conducts a study of our perception, focusing more on the effects of light and less on the physical light (Lux). By doing so the article...... tries to give a better understanding of the differences of the regional lighting cultures and the influences creating the differences. The article tries to establish a link between the regional daylight and the use of artificial lighting, showing that daylight, as a background, along with our perception...... of the perception, architecture, wellbeing, human-ecology, experienced brightness, atmosphere, design....

  13. Remembered, read and experienced time in virtual text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Koskimaa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n1p250 In this article I will scrutinize Screen (2002, by WARDRIP-FRUIN & al., a literary work set and experienced in a CAVE Virtual Reality environment, especially from the perspective of its temporal aspects. There are obvious themes of remembering, forgetting and textually constructing the past in this work, but most notably, Screen emphasizes the temporality of the reading act itself. I will analyze this highly special work in relation to the remembered, read, and bodily experienced time, and thus, attempt to better understand both the notion of fictive time and the temporality of fiction.

  14. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  15. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, Van Frank; Grunsven, Van Roy H.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  16. Lighting Systems For High Speed Photography Applying Special Metal Halide Discharge Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Keith M.; Steuernagel, K. H.

    1983-03-01

    High speed photography requires, in addition to a good color quality of the light source, a very high level of illumination. Conventional lighting systems utilizing incandescent lamps or other metal halide lamp types has inherent problems of inefficient light output or poor color quality. Heat generated by incandescent lamps and the power these sources require drive up operating and installation costs. A most economical and practical solution was devised by using the metal halide discharge lamp developed by OSRAM, GmbH of Munich, West Germany. This lamp trade marked the HMITM Metallogen was primarily developed for the needs of the television and motion picture film industry. Due to their high efficiency and other consistent operating qualities these lamps also fulfill the needs of high speed photography, e.g. in crash test facilities, when special engineering activities are carried out. The OSRAM HMITM lamp is an AC discharge metal halide lamp with rare earth additives to increase both the efficiency and light output qualities. Since the lamp is an AC source, a special method had to be developed to overcome the strobing effect, which is normal for AC lamps given their modulated light output, when used with high speed cameras, (e.g. with >1000 fps). This method is based on an increased frequency for the lamp supply voltage coupled with a mix of the light output achieved using a multiphase mains power supply. First developed in 1977, this system using the OSRAM HMITM lamps was installed in a crash test facility of a major automotive manufacturer in West Germany. The design resulted in the best lighting and performance ever experienced. Since that time several other motor companies have made use of this breakthrough. Industrial and scientific users are now considering additional applications use of this advanced high speed lighting system.

  17. Light pollution, reproductive function and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.

  18. Expected usability is not a valid indicator of experienced usability

    OpenAIRE

    Meinald T. Thielsch; Ronja Engel; Gerrit Hirschfeld

    2015-01-01

    Usability is a core construct of website evaluation and inherently defined as interactive. Yet, when analysing first impressions of websites, expected usability, i.e., before use, is of interest. Here we investigate to what extend ratings of expected usability are related to (a) experienced usability, i.e., ratings after use, and (b) objective usability measures, i.e., task performance. Furthermore, we try to elucidate how ratings of expected usability are correlated to aesthetic judgments. I...

  19. Experiencing authenticity - the core of student learning in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Katri

    2016-10-01

    Learning in clinical practice is challenging regarding organizational and pedagogical issues. Clinical education wards are one way to meet these challenges by focusing on both patient care and student learning. However, more knowledge is needed about how students' learning can be enhanced and about patients' and supervisors' roles in these settings. The aim was to explore nursing students' learning on a clinical education ward with an explicit pedagogical framework. Semi-structured interviews of students were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and an ethnographic study including observations and follow-up interviews of students, patients and supervisors was conducted. The core of student meaningful learning experiences both external and internal authenticity. Students in early stages immediately created mutual relationships, experienced both external and internal authenticity, and patients became active participants in student learning. Without a mutual relationship, patients passively let students practice on their bodies. Students nearing graduation experienced only external authenticity, creating uncertainty as a threshold for learning. Caring for patients with complex needs helped students overcome the threshold and experience internal authenticity. Supervisors' challenges were to balance patient care and student learning by working as a team. They supported students coping with the complex challenges on the ward. Students need to experience external and internal authenticity to make learning meaningful. Experiencing authenticity, involving meaning-making processes and knowledge construction, is linked to transformative learning and overcoming thresholds. Therefore, an explicit pedagogical framework, based on patient-centredness, peer learning and the supervisory team, creates the prerequisites for experiencing external and internal authenticity.

  20. A STUDY OF EXPERIENCED REALITY OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHERENICS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 Schizophrenics having verbal auditory hallucinations and satisfying the criteria of Feighner et al. (1972) were examined for the experienced reality of auditory hallucinations and the influence of certain variables on such reality. Number of hallucinating days per month, fast movement of time during hallucination, presence of running commentary voices, interference in self-care and social activities due to the Voices and degree of success in manipulation and avoidance (coping theme...

  1. Seeing and Experiencing Relativity -- A New Tool for Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Fish, Jordan; Hacker, Jesse; Kienle, Justin; Kobylarek, Alexander; Sigler, Michael; Wierenga, Bert; Cheu, Ryan; Kim, Ebae; Sherin, Zach; Sidhu, Sonny; Tan, Philip

    2013-11-01

    "What would you see if you were riding a beam of light?" This thought experiment, which Einstein reports to have "conducted" at the age of 16, of course has no sensible answer: as Einstein published a decade later, you could never reach the speed of light.2 But it does make sense to ask what you would see if you were traveling close to the speed of light, and one of the first physicists to embark on this effort was George Gamow in his Mr. Tompkins in Wonderland.3 His protagonist is speeding on a bicycle through a city where the speed of light is lower, thus ingeniously taking advantage of the fact that special relativity scales with v/c: for it to kick in, you either have to move very fast (in rather unfamiliar territory), or light has to be slow (in which case special relativity kicks in at everyday velocities in everyday situations). Gamow provides drawings of what Mr. Tompkins and people at the curb would see in this slow-light city, at least, what they would see if one only took into account two of the effects: length contraction and time dilation.4

  2. Iranian EFL Experienced vs. Novice Teachers’ Beliefs Regarding Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bashiri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy has been described as the ultimate objective in many language teaching programs since the third quarter of the twentieth century and educators have highlighted the significant role of promoting learner autonomy in the process of language learning and teaching. However, only limited number of studies has been awarded to what leaner autonomy mean to teachers. This study addressed the gap and investigated novice and experienced teachers’ beliefs regarding learner autonomy. Forty teachers participated in two groups who were grouped based on their teaching experiences as novice and experienced teachers. A questionnaire which was adapted from British Council was administered to elicit the teachers’ beliefs regarding learner autonomy. The independent samples t-test analysis of the data revealed a significant difference between novice and experienced teachers beliefs. The findings of the present study may have some implications for teachers in promoting learner autonomy in their classes, in general, and involving learners in the process of teaching and learning, in particular.

  3. Experienced Barriers to Lean in Swedish Manufacturing and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Halling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare similarities and divergences in how the concepts of Lean and barriers to Lean are described by key informants at a production unit in a large manufacturing company and two emergency health care units in Sweden. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed with the constant comparative method (CCM and Porras and Robertson’s (1992 change model. : In both organizations, the view of Lean changed from a toolbox to a human behavior view. Eight barriers were experienced in both organizations. Three barriers were unique to manufacturing or to health care, respectively. Nine barriers were elements of social factors; five were elements of organizing arrangements. Only people practically involved and responsible for the implementation at the two organizations participated in the study. Persons responsible for implementing Lean should consider organizational arrangements and social factors in order to limit barriers to successful implementation. Most research on Lean has been about successful Lean implementations. This study focuses on how Lean is viewed and what barriers personnel in manufacturing and health care have experienced. In comparing the barriers to Lean experienced in the two groups, common, archetypical, and unique barriers for manufacturing and health care can be identified, thus contributing to knowledge about barriers to Lean implementation.

  4. Training Impact on Novice and Experienced Research Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Prikhidko, Alena; Swords, Stephanie; Sonstein, Stephen; Kolb, H Robert

    2017-12-01

    Competency-based training and professional development is critical to the clinical research enterprise. Understanding research coordinators' perspectives is important for establishing a common core curriculum. The purpose of this study was to describe participants' perspectives regarding the impact of online and classroom training sessions. 27 participants among three institutions, completed a two-day classroom training session. 10 novice and seven experienced research coordinators participated in focus group interviews. Grounded theory revealed similarities in novice and experienced coordinator themes including Identifying Preferences for Instruction and Changing Self Perceptions. Differences, seen in experienced participants, focused on personal change, in the theme of Re-Assessing Skills. Infrastructure and cultural issues were evident in their theme, Promoting Leadership and Advocacy. Novice participants recommended ways to improve training via their theme of Making Programmatic Improvements. Participants reported a clear preference for classroom learning. Training played an influential role in changing participants' self-perceptions by validating their experiences. The findings provided guidance for developing a standardized curriculum. Training must be carefully tailored to the needs of participants while considering audience needs based on work experience, how technology can be used and offering content that is most urgently needed.

  5. Meaning in life in psychotherapy: The perspective of experienced psychotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Kanazawa, Yoshi; Knox, Sarah; Schauerman, Iris; Loureiro, Darren; James, Danielle; Carter, Imani; King, Shakeena; Razzak, Suad; Scarff, Melanie; Moore, Jasmine

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to explore the meaning experienced psychotherapists derive from providing psychotherapy, their beliefs about the role of meaning in life (MIL) in psychotherapy, how they worked with MIL with a client who explicitly presented concerns about MIL, and how they worked with a different client for whom MIL was a secondary and more implicit concern. Thirteen experienced psychotherapists were interviewed and data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Therapists derived self-oriented meaning (e.g., feeling gratified, fulfilled, connected) and other-oriented meaning (helping others, making the world a better place) from providing psychotherapy. They believed that MIL is fundamental and underlies all human concerns, including those brought to therapy. In contrast to the clients who had implicit MIL concerns, clients who explicitly presented MIL concerns were reported to have more interpersonal problems and physical problems, but about the same amount of psychological distress and loss/grief. Therapists used insight-oriented interventions, support, action-oriented interventions, and exploratory interventions to work with MIL with both types of clients, but used more exploratory interventions with implicit than explicit MIL clients. MIL is a salient topic for experienced, existentially oriented psychotherapists; they work with MIL extensively with some clients in psychotherapy. We recommend that therapists receive training to work with MIL in therapy, and that they pay attention to MIL concerns when they conduct psychotherapy. We also recommend additional research on MIL in psychotherapy.

  6. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  7. Artificial night lighting disrupts sex pheromone in a noctuid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, K.G.; Groot, A.T.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Donners, M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    1. One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is the increase in nocturnal light pollution. Although this strongly alters the habitat of nocturnal species, the ecological consequences are poorly known. Moths are well known to be attracted to artificial light sources, but artificial

  8. Effectivity of Dysport in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm who experienced failure with Botox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarny, Samih; Susel, Zvi; Honigman, Silvia

    2008-07-01

    Long-term therapy with botulinum toxin is sometimes associated with therapy failure following repeated injections of the neurotoxin, presumably due to specific antibody production. Primary therapy failure with botulinum toxin is less common and poorly understood. To examine the effectiveness of the botulinum neurotoxin Dysport in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm after primary or secondary failure with Botox treatments. In this case series study, eight patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm who experienced primary or secondary therapy failure with Botox were treated with Dysport. In order to render an equivalent Dysport dose, a conversion ratio of 1:3 to 1:4 Botox/Dysport was used. Two patients, one with blepharospasm and the other with hemifacial spasm, who showed primary therapeutic failure with Botox showed good response to Dysport treatments. One patient with tardive blepharospasm did not respond to either drug. Two patients with blepharospasm and three patients with hemifacial spasm who experienced Botox secondary therapy failure responded well to Dysport treatments. Botox and Dysport are both serotype A botulinum toxins but carry different characteristics of biological activity. These differences possibly account for the favorable therapeutic response to Dysport in patients with hemifacial spasm or blepharospasm following failure with Botox treatments.

  9. Calculus light

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Menahem

    2011-01-01

    Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor

  10. Shaping light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available describes the probability of a particular data point occuring in a specific population. In lasers, the intensity of light across a beam will form a bell curve. A schematic of a laser, showing the three core components: the resonator bound by the two end... place. This ?box?, or resonator, is usually made of two mirrors, one of which is partially transmitting so that on each pass a little of the light is let out of the box. While the gain medium determines the wavelength (and therefore the colour...

  11. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  12. Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Bedrosian, T A; Nelson, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light?dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian c...

  13. Poor sleep in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Marie Bøe Lunde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is a frequent symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Sleep may be influenced by MS-related symptoms and adverse effects from immunotherapy and symptomatic medications. We aimed to study the prevalence of poor sleep and the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on sleep quality in MS- patients. METHODS: A total of 90 MS patients and 108 sex-and age- matched controls were included in a questionnaire survey. Sleep complaints were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a global PSQI score was used to separate good sleepers (≤ 5 from poor sleepers (>5. Excessive daytime sleepiness, the use of immunotherapy and antidepressant drugs, symptoms of pain, depression, fatigue and MS-specific health related quality of life were registered. Results were compared between patients and controls and between good and poor sleepers among MS patients. RESULTS: MS patients reported a higher mean global PSQI score than controls (8.6 vs. 6.3, p = 0.001, and 67.1% of the MS patients compared to 43.9% of the controls (p = 0.002 were poor sleepers. Pain (p = 0.02, fatigue (p = 0.001, depression (p = 0.01 and female gender (p = 0.04 were associated with sleep disturbance. Multivariate analyses showed that female gender (p = 0.02, use of immunotherapy (p = 005 and a high psychological burden of MS (p = 0.001 were associated with poor sleep among MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep is common in patients with MS. Early identification and treatment of modifiable risk factors may improve sleep and quality of life in MS.

  14. The long-term concerns post cochlear implantation as experienced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'He throws a lot of tantrums, he is always frustrated with the long journey, the communication and also with learning in therapy.' - P2. All participants commented that poor communication has negatively affected their children's social wellbeing. 'He doesn't have a friend, especially one who is deaf or uses Sign. Language.

  15. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Adverse...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers....... Children with uncontrolled asthma also have a higher frequency of obesity than children with controlled asthma. Stress can affect asthma control, and children with poorly controlled asthma are more likely to have learning disabilities compared with those with good control. In adults, focused attention...

  16. Physicians Experiencing Intense Emotions While Seeing Their Patients: What Happens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vilela Da; Carvalho, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Physicians often deal with emotions arising from both patients and themselves; however, management of intense emotions when they arise in the presence of patients is overlooked in research. The aim of this study is to inspect physicians' intense emotions in this context, how these emotions are displayed, coping strategies used, adjustment behaviors, and the impact of the emotional reactions on the physician-patient relationship. A total of 127 physicians completed a self-report survey, built from a literature review. Participants were recruited in 3 different ways: through a snowball sampling procedure, via institutional e-mails, and in person during service meetings. Fifty-two physicians (43.0%) reported experiencing intense emotions frequently. Although most physicians (88.6%) tried to control their reactions, several reported not controlling themselves. Coping strategies to deal with the emotion at the moment included behavioral and cognitive approaches. Only the type of reaction (but not the emotion's valence, duration, relative control, or coping strategies used) seemed to affect the physician-patient relationship. Choking-up/crying, touching, smiling, and providing support were significantly associated with an immediate positive impact. Withdrawing from the situation, imposing, and defending oneself were associated with a negative impact. Some reactions also had an extended impact into future interactions. Experiencing intense emotions in the presence of patients was frequent among physicians, and the type of reaction affected the clinical relationship. Because many physicians reported experiencing long-lasting emotions, these may have important clinical implications for patients visiting physicians while these emotions last. Further studies are needed to clarify these results.

  17. Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Puente

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012, but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001 without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037 during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041 after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players.

  18. Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Carlos; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Areces, Francisco; Del Coso, Juan

    2017-09-19

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001) without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037) during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041) after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players.

  19. Financial Hardships Experienced by Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altice, Cheryl K; Banegas, Matthew P; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Yabroff, K Robin

    2017-02-01

    With rising cancer care costs, including high-priced cancer drugs, financial hardship is increasingly documented among cancer survivors in the United States; research findings have not been synthesized. We conducted a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2015 describing the financial hardship experienced by cancer survivors using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. We categorized measures of financial hardship into: material conditions (eg, out-of-pocket costs, productivity loss, medical debt, or bankruptcy), psychological responses (eg, distress or worry), and coping behaviors (eg, skipped medications). We abstracted findings and conducted a qualitative synthesis. Among 676 studies identified, 45 met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated in the review. The majority of the studies (82%, n = 37) reported financial hardship as a material condition measure; others reported psychological (7%, n = 3) and behavioral measures (16%, n = 7). Financial hardship measures were heterogeneous within each broad category, and the prevalence of financial hardship varied by the measure used and population studied. Mean annual productivity loss ranged from $380 to $8236, 12% to 62% of survivors reported being in debt because of their treatment, 47% to 49% of survivors reported experiencing some form of financial distress, and 4% to 45% of survivors did not adhere to recommended prescription medication because of cost. Financial hardship is common among cancer survivors, although we found substantial heterogeneity in its prevalence. Our findings highlight the need for consistent use of definitions, terms, and measures to determine the best intervention targets and inform intervention development in order to prevent and minimize the impact of financial hardship experienced by cancer survivors. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Workplace aggression experienced by frontline staff in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Anne-Marie; Squires, Janet E; Mitchell, Agnes; Sales, Anne E; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2012-05-01

    To describe the frequency of aggressive acts experienced by frontline staff working in two models of dementia care: Residential Alzheimer's Care Centers and Secured Dementia Units and to explore the associations between aggressive acts experienced by frontline staff and factors related to the work context and care providers. Aggression towards healthcare providers in residential long-term care settings is well documented. However, few studies have examined associations between aggressive behaviours towards care providers and organisational factors. A cross-sectional survey. The survey included demographic items and questions about aggressive acts experienced by staff and contextual factors. Analyses included: (1) descriptive statistics, (2) tests of difference (i.e. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-squared test and anova), (3) bivariate associations (i.e. Pearson and Spearman rank order correlations) and (4) multivariate linear regression. Ninety-one health care aides and licensed practical nurses working in four nursing units using two models of dementia care participated (response rate 81%). The most frequently reported types of aggression were physical assault (50% of staff, n = 45) and emotional abuse (48% of staff, n = 44). Aggressive acts were significantly associated with working in Secured Dementia Units rather than Residential Alzheimer's Care Centers. Frontline staff working in Secured Dementia Units were exposed to higher frequencies of various types of aggressive acts mainly initiated by residents. Future research needs to explore modifiable workplace factors associated with aggressive acts in a larger sample across a variety of long-term care settings. To prevent staff perceived aggressive acts, leaders and managers in dementia care need to acknowledge the complex topic of workplace aggression and encourage an open discussion among frontline staff without assigning blame. Care provider strategies for dealing with aggressive behaviour have to

  1. Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eWittmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practise as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e. by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments.

  2. Non-technical skills of surgical trainees and experienced surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostlow, H; Marlow, N; Thomas, M J W; Hewett, P J; Kiermeier, A; Babidge, W; Altree, M; Pena, G; Maddern, G

    2017-05-01

    In addition to technical expertise, surgical competence requires effective non-technical skills to ensure patient safety and maintenance of standards. Recently the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons implemented a new Surgical Education and Training (SET) curriculum that incorporated non-technical skills considered essential for a competent surgeon. This study sought to compare the non-technical skills of experienced surgeons who completed their training before the introduction of SET with the non-technical skills of more recent trainees. Surgical trainees and experienced surgeons undertook a simulated scenario designed to challenge their non-technical skills. Scenarios were video recorded and participants were assessed using the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) scoring system. Participants were divided into subgroups according to years of experience and their NOTSS scores were compared. For most NOTSS elements, mean scores increased initially, peaking around the time of Fellowship, before decreasing roughly linearly over time. There was a significant downward trend in score with increasing years since being awarded Fellowship for six of the 12 NOTSS elements: considering options (score -0·015 units per year), implementing and reviewing decisions (-0·020 per year), establishing a shared understanding (-0·014 per year), setting and maintaining standards (-0·024 per year), supporting others (-0·031 per year) and coping with pressure (-0·015 per year). The drop in NOTSS score was unexpected and highlights that even experienced surgeons are not immune to deficiencies in non-technical skills. Consideration should be given to continuing professional development programmes focusing on non-technical skills, regardless of the level of professional experience. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Stigma Perceived and Experienced by Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulla Møller; Willaing, Ingrid; Ventura, Adriana D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (a) culturally and linguistically adapt the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1) from English (for Australia) into Danish and (b) examine psychometric properties of the measure among Danish adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a forward......-backward translation, face validity interviews with experts and cognitive debriefing of the Danish version (DSAS-1 DK) with ten adults from the target group. The DSAS-1 DK was then completed by 1594 adults with type 1 diabetes. Electronic clinical records provided age, diabetes duration, diabetes-related complications...... to advance research into the stigma perceived and experienced by adults with type 1 diabetes in a Danish context....

  4. Students' ways of experiencing human-centered design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which will allow educational programs to determine their impact, and what aspects are most effective. Because the object of study was the variation of students' experiences human-centered design, a phenomenographic framework was used to guide the methodology of the study. The literature and research on service-learning and human-centered design informed the construction of the phenomenographic study and also provided ways to interpret the data and situate the results. Thirty-three student designers from a variety of academic contexts were interviewed using a semi-structured, open-ended approach in which they discussed concrete experiences "designing for others", and reflections and meanings associated with those experiences. Analysis of the data yielded seven qualitatively different ways in which the students experienced human-centered design, or categories of description. Logically related, the seven categories of description formed an outcome space that was two-dimensional with distinct, but not independent, axes. The critical differences among the categories provided the basis for developing their hierarchical relationship. Five of the categories were nested hierarchically. From less comprehensive to more comprehensive, those categories included: Human-centered design as "User as Information Source Input to Linear Process", "Keep Users' Needs in Mind", "Design in Context", "Commitment" and "Empathic Design". Two categories represented ways of experiencing human-centered design that were distinct: design was not human-centered, but "Technology-Centered" and human-centered design was not design, but "Service". In addition, this

  5. Experiencing mathematics what do we do, when we do mathematics?

    CERN Document Server

    Hersh, Reuben

    2014-01-01

    The question "What am I doing?" haunts many creative people, researchers, and teachers. Mathematics, poetry, and philosophy can look from the outside sometimes as ballet en pointe, and at other times as the flight of the bumblebee. Reuben Hersh looks at mathematics from the inside; he collects his papers written over several decades, their edited versions, and new chapters in his book Experiencing Mathematics, which is practical, philosophical, and in some places as intensely personal as Swann's madeleine. -Yuri Manin, Max Planck Institute, Bonn, Germany What happens when mid-career a mathemat

  6. Poor sleep quality and resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Virdis, Agostino; Di Giulio, Alessia; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Riemann, Dieter; Taddei, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between sleep quality and treatment-resistant hypertension (RH). In our cross-sectional cohort study, 270 consecutive essential hypertensive patients were recruited at the Outpatient Hypertension Unit, University of Pisa, Italy. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y2) were administered to all subjects. RH was defined as office blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg with three or more antihypertensive drugs or controlled BP with four or more drugs. Poor sleep quality was defined as PSQI >5, depressive symptoms as BDI >10, and trait anxiety as STAI-Y2 >40. Patients with other sleep disorders were excluded. Complete data were available for 222 patients (50.9% men; mean age, 56.6±12.5 y; RH, 14.9%). Poor sleep quality had a prevalence of 38.2% in the overall population. RH was associated with poor sleep quality, increased sleep latency and reduced sleep efficiency. No significant relationship was found between RH and short sleep duration or depressive symptoms and trait anxiety. Poor sleep quality was more prevalent in resistant vs nonresistant hypertensive women (70.6% vs 40.2%; P=.02) but not in resistant vs nonresistant men (43.8% vs 29.2%; P=.24). In women poor sleep quality was an independent predictor of RH, even after adjustment for cardiovascular and psychiatric comorbidities (odds ratio [OR], 5.3 [confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-27.6), explaining 4.7% of its variance. In men age, diabetes mellitus (DM), and obesity were the only variables associated with RH. Poor sleep quality is significantly associated with resistance to treatment in hypertensive women, independent of cardiovascular and psychiatric confounders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quark-Novae in massive binaries: a model for double-humped, hydrogen-poor, superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico

    2015-12-01

    LSQ14bdq and SN 2006oz are superluminous, hydrogen-poor, SNe with double-humped light curves. We show that a Quark-Nova (QN; explosive transition of the Neutron Star - NS - to a quark star -QS) occurring in a massive binary, experiencing two Common Envelope (CE) phases, can quantitatively explain the light curves of LSQ14bdq and SN 2006oz. The more massive component (A) explodes first as a normal SN, yielding a NS which ejects the hydrogen envelope of the companion when the system enters its first CE phase. During the second CE phase, the NS spirals into and inflates the second He-rich CE. In the process it gains mass and triggers a QN, outside of the CO core, leaving behind a QS. The first hump in our model is the QN shock re-energizing the expanded He-rich CE. The QN occurs when the He-rich envelope is near maximum size (˜1000 R⊙) and imparts enough energy to unbind and eject the envelope. Subsequent merging of the QS with the CO core of component B, driven by gravitational radiation, turns the QS to a black hole. The ensuing black hole accretion provides sufficient power for the second brighter and long lasting hump. Our model suggests a possible connection between SLSNe-I and type Ic-BL SNe which occur when the QN is triggered inside the CO core. We estimate the rate of QNe in massive binaries during the second CE phase to be ˜5 × 10-5 of that of core-collapse SNe.

  8. fMRI of retina-originated phosphenes experienced by patients with Leber congenital amaurosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzar Ashtari

    Full Text Available A phenomenon characterized by the experience of seeing light without any light actually entering the eye is called phosphenes or photopsias. Phosphenes can occur spontaneously or via induction by external stimuli. Previous reports regarding phosphenes have primarily focused on externally induced phosphenes such as by applying alternating or direct current to the cortex. A few of these reports used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI to study activations induced by cortical phosphenes. However, there are no fMRI reports on spontaneous phosphenes originating from the retina and the resulting pattern of cortical activations. We performed fMRI during a reversing checkerboard paradigm in three LCA patients who underwent unilateral gene therapy and reported experiencing frequent phosphene on a daily basis. We observed bilateral cortical activation covering the entire visual cortices when patients reported experiencing phosphenes. In contrast, in the absence of phosphenes, activation was regulated by patient's visual ability and demonstrated improved cortical activation due to gene therapy. These fMRI results illustrate the potential impact of phosphene perception on visual function and they may explain some of the variability that clinicians find in visual function testing in retinal degeneration. Although we did not perform correlations between visual function and phosphenes, we hope data presented here raises awareness of this phenomenon and its potential effect on visual function and the implications for clinical testing. We recommend a thorough history for phosphene experiences be taken in patients with retinal disease who are candidates for gene or molecular therapy. Lastly, these data illustrate the potential power of fMRI as an outcome measure of gene therapy and the negative impact phosphenes may have on vision testing. fMRI has proven to be a sensitive, non-invasive, and reproducible test paradigm for these purposes and can complement

  9. Contributions of artificial lighting sources on light pollution in Hong Kong measured through a night sky brightness monitoring network

    OpenAIRE

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing; Leung, Wai Yan; Wong, Chung Fai

    2014-01-01

    Light pollution is a form of environmental degradation in which excessive artificial outdoor lighting, such as street lamps, neon signs, and illuminated signboards, affects the natural environment and the ecosystem. Poorly designed outdoor lighting not only wastes energy, money, and valuable Earth resources, but also robs us of our beautiful night sky. Effects of light pollution on the night sky can be evaluated by the skyglow caused by these artificial lighting sources, through measurements ...

  10. Suicide risk and protective factors among youth experiencing school difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Elaine; Eggert, Leona L

    2007-10-01

    Youth who experience difficulty in school are at risk for suicide, yet there is little published information specific to risk and protective factors among this group. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour among youth who were experiencing problems in school and to compare these factors between suicide risk and non-suicide risk subgroups. Participants were 730 high school students in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the United States, aged 14-21 years. All participants were known to be experiencing difficulty with grades and/or attendance. Students completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a one-on-one interview, which assessed suicidal behaviours as well as risk factors (e.g. drug involvement, emotional distress, stress), and protective factors (e.g. self-esteem, coping, support). Analysis of covariance tests, controlling for age and sex, were conducted to examine differences between the suicide risk and non-suicide risk groups on each risk and protective factor. The suicide risk subgroup reported higher levels of all risk factors, except alcohol and marijuana use, and lower levels of protective factors. While the groups did not differ on frequency of alcohol or marijuana use, they did differ on other illicit drug use and consequences of alcohol and other illicit drug use. Recommendations for nurses practising in school settings are discussed.

  11. Stress and health in novice and experienced nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Cristobal; Navia-Osorio, Pilar Martínez; Diaz, Carmen Vacas

    2010-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to identify the differences in novice and experienced nursing students' reports of stress and health. Stress from clinical practice and its impact are international yet culturally mediated phenomena. Nursing students are under considerable stress during clinical practice periods, putting their education and health at risk. However, there is little or no empirical evidence about the stress suffered by nursing students and its impact on their health throughout clinical practice. We performed cross-sectional research using standard information gathering tools. This study was carried out with 357 students from all 3 years of a nursing diploma programme at a Spanish nursing college (71% response rate). The data were collected over an 8-month period in 2004-2005. We identified three types of stressors (clinical, academic and external) and two categories of symptoms (physiological and psychological) linked to clinical practice. Factor analysis identified six major sources of stress and six important symptoms. Students perceived clinical stressors more intensely than academic and external stressors, and showed psychological symptoms more frequently than physiological symptoms. Nursing students from all 3 years perceived moderate stress at similar levels. Experienced students perceived more academic stressors than novices. Although the students were healthy, second year students were the most vulnerable to somatic and psychic anxiety, and common symptoms. We suggest informing students about possible stressors associated with their profession, and introducing interventions to support development of professionalism, social skills and coping capacity for clinical practice.

  12. Ambiguous Loss Experienced by Transnational Mexican Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Catherine; Zaid, Samantha; Ballard, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an ambiguous loss framework as described by Boss (1999, Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief, First Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA) was used to examine and understand the family experiences of Mexican immigrant agricultural workers in Minnesota. Transcripts from interviews with 17 workers in Minnesota and 17 family members in Mexico were analyzed using qualitative methodology to identify experiences of ambiguous loss in the participants' narratives. Key dimensions of ambiguous loss identified in the transcripts include: psychological family, feelings of chronic/recurring loss, finding support, and meaning making. In the category of psychological family, participants in both Mexico and the United States mourned the physical absence of their family members and experienced ambiguity regarding family responsibilities, but worked to maintain their psychological roles within the family. In the category of chronic/recurring loss, participants in both countries experienced chronic worry from not knowing if family members were safe, ambiguity regarding when the immigrant would return, and chronic stressors that compounded these feelings of loss. Participants in both countries coped with both real and ambiguous losses by accessing family support and by using ambiguous communication to minimize worry. Participants in Mexico also accessed work and community-based support. Participants in both countries made meaning of the ambiguous loss by identifying ways their lives were improved and goals were met as a result of the immigration for agricultural work in Minnesota. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  13. Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p basketball players. PMID:28925969

  14. Experiencing a natural disaster alters children's altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyuan; Li, Hong; Decety, Jean; Lee, Kang

    2013-09-01

    Altruism is thought to be a major contributor to the development of large-scale human societies. However, much of the evidence supporting this belief comes from individuals living in pacific and often affluent environments. It is entirely unknown whether humans act altruistically when facing adversity. Adversity is arguably a common human experience (as manifested in, e.g., personal tragedies, political upheavals, and natural disasters). In the research reported here, we found that experiencing a natural disaster affected children's altruistic giving. Immediately after witnessing devastations caused by a major earthquake, 9-year-olds became more altruistic. In addition, the more empathic they were, the more they gave. In contrast, experiencing a major earthquake caused 6-year-olds to be more selfish. Three years after the earthquake, children's altruistic tendencies returned to pre-earthquake levels, which suggests that changes in children's altruistic giving are an acute response to the immediate aftermath of a major natural disaster. These findings suggest that environmental insults and empathy play crucial roles in human altruism.

  15. Quantification of experienced hearing problems with item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenault, Michelene; Berger, Martijn; Kremer, Bernd; Anteunis, Lucien

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the effectiveness of adult hearing screens and demonstrate that interventions assessment methods are needed that address the individual's experienced hearing. Item response theory, which provides a methodology for assessing patient-reported outcomes, is examined here to demonstrate its usefulness in hearing screens and interventions. The graded response model is applied to a scale of 11 items assessing perceived hearing functioning and 10 items assessing experienced social limitations completed by a sample of 212 persons age 55+ years. Fixed and variable slope models are compared. Discrimination and threshold parameters are estimated and information functions evaluated. Variable slope models for both scales provided the best fit. The estimated discrimination parameters for all items except for one in each scale were good if not excellent (1.5-3.4). Threshold values varied, demonstrating the complementary and supplementary value of items within a scale. The information provided by each item varies relative to trait values so that each scale of items provides information over a wider range of trait values. Item response theory methodology facilitates the comparison of items relative to their discriminative ability and information provided and thus provides a basis for the selection of items for application in a screening setting.

  16. Transmission of vocational skills between experienced and new hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Jeanne; Gaudart, Corinne; Cloutier, Esther; Volkoff, Serge

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study currently underway looking at the transmission of vocational skills between health care workers in a French hospital. The aim was to show that health care workers, in addition to their work with patients, also have to incorporate the transmission of vocational skills into their daily activities. Thirteen transmission situations were observed and analyzed by means of an activity-focused ergonomic work analysis, with the aim of reporting on this "invisible work". The population studied was composed of nurses and the nursing assistants from three different units in one hospital. The results show that the work required to integrate and supervise new staff members is left to the discretion of health care workers. This means they are constantly required to arbitrate on both an individual and collective basis between providing health care for patients and supporting new members of staff. The content of the transmission goes beyond the prescribed tasks and technical knowledge, as staff members also pass on their professional strategies (individual and collective), rules of practice and ethical considerations. Supervising students also offers experienced workers the opportunity to share their professional practices. This study highlights the issues arising from this transmission activity for the experienced workers, new workers, patients and the hospital.

  17. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  18. Poor-data and data-poor species stock assessment using a Bayesian hierarchical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Y.; Cortes, E; Andrews, K.; Guo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate inference for stocks or species with low-quality data (poor data) or limited data (data poor) is extremely important. Hierarchical Bayesian methods are especially applicable to small-area, small-sample-size estimation problems because they allow poor-data species to borrow strength from species with good-quality data. We used a hammerhead shark complex as an example to investigate the advantages of using hierarchical Bayesian models in assessing the status of poor-data and data-po...

  19. EDITORIAL: Controlling light with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Feinberg, Jack; Roosen, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    The field of photorefractive physics and optics is mature and, although there is no significant commercial activity using photorefractive media, researchers in the field have had an extraordinary impact on many related areas of research and development. For example, in the late 1990s many of the telecom innovations and products were based on the interaction between light and matter. Examples include optical switches, filters, gratings, routers and light sources. The theory of multiple interacting beams of light inside a photosensitive medium, many of which were developed or further explored in photorefractive media, has found application in medicine, engineering, communication systems, displays and other photonics devices. On the occasions of the 30th anniversary of the theory of coupled wave analysis and the 10th anniversary of the meetings on Photorefractive Effects and Devices, it seemed appropriate to the meeting organizers of PR'07 to broaden the scope to include other related fields. The name of the meeting was changed to Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More to attract a larger audience than traditionally would attend the more narrowly focused photorefractive meeting. To further disseminate the results of the 2007 meeting, Gerald Roosen proposed a special publication of original full research articles arising from key presentations at the meeting. The selection of papers in this Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is the result of that initiative. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the committee members for their valuable insight and efforts in helping to organize the meeting, and the Optical Society of America for their professional assistance throughout the preparation period of the meeting as well as during the three beautiful days in Lake Tahoe, CA.

  20. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  1. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  2. Dealing with living in poor neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, R.; Van der Land, M.; Doff, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this prologue to the special issue, the guest editors place the contributions in the context of current debates on living in concentrated poverty neighbourhoods. These debates concern two broad categories of residents: poor households that are assisted to move from concentrations of poverty to

  3. Getting to Know L2 Poor Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Masoud; Mustapha, Ramlee; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan BT Tengku Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    Among the plethora of studies conducted thus far to explore the factors affecting EFL reading effectiveness, scant attention seems to be paid to the why of poor reading comprehension of most EFL learners. In this regard, the present article capitalized on qualitative research on a small scale, for the purpose of addressing the not-so-often debated…

  4. Enterprise Characteristics Affecting Resource Poor Women Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines socio-economic characteristics affecting resource poor women food vendors and their income generation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 109 respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire and interview schedule. The study found that low income earners dominate food vending ...

  5. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  6. Resilient Learners in Schools Serving Poor Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frempong, G.; Visser, M.; Feza, Nosisi; Winnaar, L.; Nuamah, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Through the education for all initiative, a number of education systems have been able to provide access to their students at the basic education level. The major challenge is that most of these learners, especially, those from poor families who attend schools with limited resources are often not successful. However, in South Africa,…

  7. Prevention of Developmental Retardation in Poor Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Emilio

    The paper analyzes developmental retardation in relation to social factors, such as malnutrition, unemployment, illiteracy, and health services in poor countries. It is reported that present institutional strategies seem unable to cope with prevention of retardation. An alternative approach based on changing community patterns is proposed.…

  8. Direct multiangle solution for poorly stratified atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    The direct multiangle solution is considered, which allows improving the scanning lidar-data-inversion accuracy when the requirement of the horizontally stratified atmosphere is poorly met. The signal measured at zenith or close to zenith is used as a core source for extracting optical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol loading. The multiangle signals are used...

  9. Expansion for Who, Markets or The Poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk KENDIRLI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the impacts of expansionary monetary policies executed by the Federal Reserve on poverty in the United States of America. It has been discussed in various studies that the Fed’s expansionary monetary policies create a less positive impact on economy as a whole than financial sector. In this study, the expansionary effects of expansionary policies on the poor living in America will be discussed. The main thesis of the study is that the poor living in the United States benefited less from expansionary monetary policies than either financial sector or the US economy as a whole. When discussing the thesis of the study both employed and unemployed poor will be discussed. Therefore, it will be questioned that the decrease in the unemployment rate is the indicator of the fight against poverty.Indicators such as indices and interest rates in the financial markets, and indicators such as growth rates and unemployment rates in the overall economy are regarded as essential indicators but as for poverty it’s hard to find such regarded indicators. Unfortunately, there are not too many statistics about the poor living in the United States in the reports of the international organizations. Thus the main trouble of the study is that international comparisons are almost impossible. Therefore, various indicators produced by the U.S. government agencies of various indicators will be used in this study.

  10. Induced prismatic effects due to poorly fitting spectacle frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Moodley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide patients with the best vision possible practitioners undertake comprehensive visual examinations and optical dispensing procedures.  Ensuring proper frame alignment is an important part of the spectacle dispensing process.  Ideally,for maximum optical benefit, patients should look through the optical centers of their lenses.  Rays entering a lens at any point other than the optical center will be deviated as long as the lens has power, thus inducing prismatic effects.  These prismatic effects may lead to visual complaints such as asthenopia,blurry vision and headaches.  The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of induced prismatic effects due to poorly fitting spectacle frames.  A sample of 100 spectacle wearing subjects was selected as participants.  Questionnaires were completed and any symptoms experienced recorded.  The habitual spectacle position in the primary position of gaze was noted, pupil and optical centers marked and where relevant, induced prism was calculated.  Data was analysed using the ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.  On initial observation of frame position, about45% of subjects were wearing their spectacles incorrectly.  A comparison of the marked pupil centers in primary gaze and optical centers revealed that 100% of participants were found to not be looking through the optical centers of their lenses.  Fifty one percent were within horizontal and 3.12% within vertical ANSI tolerances.  Symp-toms were reported by 50% of subjects experiencing base-out, 0% base-in and 47% vertical induced prismatic effects.  However, no correlation existed between those subjects experiencing induced prism and symptoms reported.  Prism adaptation may account for some participants being asymptomatic.  Sixty three percent of subjects were not aware of the importance of properly fitted spectacle frames.  Proper optical dispensing with associated patient education is necessary to achieve

  11. Experiencing the Implementation of New Inquiry Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ower, Peter S.

    Using a phenomenological methodology, a cohort of four experienced science teachers was interviewed about their experience transitioning from traditional, teacher and fact-centered science curricula to inquiry-based curricula. Each teacher participated in two interviews that focused on their teaching backgrounds, their experience teaching the prior traditional curriculum, and their experience teaching the new inquiry-based curriculum. The findings are presented as a narrative of each teachers' experience with the new curriculum implementation. Analyzing the data revealed four key themes. 1) The teachers felt trapped by the old curriculum as it did not align with their positive views of teaching science through inquiry. 2) The teachers found a way to fit their beliefs and values into the old and new curriculum. This required changes to the curriculum. 3) The teachers attempted to make the science curriculum as meaningful as possible for their students. 4) The teachers experienced a balancing act between their beliefs and values and the various aspects of the curriculum. The revealed essence of the curriculum transition is one of freedom and reconciliation of their beliefs. The teachers experienced the implementation of the new curriculum as a way to ensure their values and beliefs of science education were embedded therein. They treated the new curriculum as a malleable structure to impart their grander ideas of science education (e.g. providing important skills for future careers, creating a sense of wonder, future problem solving) to the students. Their changes were aligned with the philosophy of the curriculum kits they were implementing. Thus, the fidelity of the curriculum's philosophy was not at risk even though the curriculum kits were not taught as written. This study showed that phenomenological methods are able to reveal the relationship between a teacher's prior experiences, values and beliefs and their current instructional philosophy in science

  12. Hyperbolic Metamaterial Nano-Resonators Make Poor Single Photon Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Axelrod, Simon; Wong, Herman M K; Helmy, Amr S; Hughes, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We study the optical properties of quantum dipole emitters coupled to hyperbolic metamaterial nano-resonators using a semi-analytical quasinormal mode approach. We show that coupling to metamaterial nano-resonators can lead to significant Purcell enhancements that are nearly an order of magnitude larger than those of plasmonic resonators with comparable geometry. However, the associated single photon output $\\beta$-factors are extremely low (around 10%), far smaller than those of comparable sized metallic resonators (70%). Using a quasinormal mode expansion of the photon Green function, we describe how the low $\\beta$-factors are due to increased Ohmic quenching arising from redshifted resonances, larger quality factors and stronger confinement of light within the metal. In contrast to current wisdom, these results suggest that hyperbolic metamaterial nano-structures make poor choices for single photon sources.

  13. Handbook of industrial lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Industrial Lighting is a practical guide on the specification, design, installation, operation, and maintenance of lighting in industrial premises. Coverage of the book includes the importance of good localized lighting; the different lighting schemes; lighting for difficult visual tasks; lighting in consideration to safety; and emergency lighting. The book also includes the practical, thermal, ventilation, and energy considerations; lighting in different environments; maintenance of lighting installations; and the cost benefits of efficient lighting. Appendices include useful info

  14. University Students With Poor Reading Comprehension: The Hidden Cognitive Processing Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Das, J P

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-matched controls with no comprehension difficulties participated in the study. The participants were assessed on three verbal working memory tasks that varied in terms of their processing demands and on the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, which was used to operationalize intelligence. The results indicated first that the differences between poor and skilled comprehenders on working memory were amplified as the processing demands of the tasks increased. In addition, although poor comprehenders as a group had average intelligence, they experienced significant difficulties in simultaneous and successive processing. Considering that working memory and general cognitive ability are highly correlated processes, these findings suggest that the observed differences between poor and skilled comprehenders are likely a result of a deficient information processing system. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  15. Parenting Efficacy and the Early School Adjustment of Poor and Near-Poor Black Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigates whether maternal educational attainment, maternal employment status, and family income affect African American children's behavioral and cognitive functioning over time through their impacts on mothers' psychological functioning and parenting efficacy in a sample of 100 poor and near-poor single…

  16. Postpartum depression among women who have experienced intimate partner violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogathi, Jane J.; Manongi, Rachael; Mushi, Declare

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression (PPD) in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, is not well recognized, and the underlying predictors and causes of PPD remain unclear. Results from previous studies suggest that PPD is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced during...... gestation attending antenatal clinics in two primary level health facilities. Women were interviewed at four time points: 1) Socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics were assessed at recruitment; 2) At 34 weeks gestational age we screened for depression using the Edinburgh Postpartum...... Depression Scale (EPDS) and self-reported IPV experiences were assessed using structured questions adopted from the WHO's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence; 3) Assessment for postpartum depression using EPDS was repeated at 40 days post-partum. Data were analyzed using bivariate...

  17. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Public service: Experienced nurses' views on social and civic responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Joan M; Beal, Judy A

    2010-01-01

    Socially engaged nurses participate in public service because of their strong sense of civic and social responsibility. Public service within the profession of nursing has a historical mandate but is not well described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe how experienced nurses contribute nursing knowledge in public service, rationale for their service, and types of service activities. This article reports on a subset of data from a larger qualitative study exploring the meaning of scholarly nursing practice within the practice setting. Thirty-six nurses were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The major finding of this study is that all participants fully embraced the concept of public service as an integral component of their professional identity. Data were organized around the themes of what participants did in their public service and why they did it. Participants viewed public service as their responsibility as a professional nurse. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Violence Experienced By Nursing Students in Clinical Practice Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KÜRTÜNCÜ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was made to determine violence experienced by nurse students in clinical settings. It was applied to the School of Health Nursing Student of a university during a week in June, 2010. There were 360 students, 53 of whom were senior, 60 of whom were thirdyear, 114 of whom were sophomore, 79 of whom were first-year and 102 of whom were prep-school students, at the school. Students in preparatory classes were not included in the scope of the study since they didn't take applied courses. 70,58% of the students were reached. It was determined that the students were often exposed to verbal abuse and sexism in clinical setting and the abuse was performed by their colleagues.

  20. Andragogy of everyday – Learning by experiencing death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ličen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The death is rite de passage which crosses life of everyone when the close ones die. Yet, we still do not know what effect it has on the individual person. The article presents a reflection on the learning in the time of bereavement and tries to add a component to the comprehension of learning as a lifelong process. We looked into how one changes when experiencing death by means of life story analysis. Evidence shows that learning takes place on physical, mental and spiritual level. One changes his/her attitudes and values. Therefore the narration of a life story is not merely a research method. Namely, it also unveils one self, which enables self-change and self-education.

  1. Counting is easier while experiencing a congruent motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lugli

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that numerical and spatial representations are intrinsically linked. Recent findings demonstrate that also motor actions interact with number magnitude processing, showing a motor-to-semantic effect. The current study assesses whether calculation processes can be modulated by motions performed with the whole body. Participants were required to make additions or subtractions while performing (on-line condition or after having experienced (off-line condition an ascending or descending motion through a passive (i.e., taking the elevator or an active (i.e., taking the stairs mode. Results show a congruency effect between the type of calculation and the direction of the motion depending on: a the off-line or on-line condition, b the passive or active mode and c the real or imagined task. Implications of the results for an embodied and grounded perspective view will be discussed.

  2. The nature of stress experienced by lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Ristock, Janice L

    2007-09-01

    This study examined both the meanings and sources/causes of stress from the perspectives of lesbians and gay men (n=30), using a series of focus groups. The findings suggest that stress is considered a part of life itself, and is perceived to contain both negative (e.g. detrimental effects on health and overall functioning, unfairness, out-of-control), and positive (e.g. a motivator, growth-facilitator) elements. The sources/causes of stress (i.e. stressors) identified include stress experienced from the "coming out" process, stress in family relations and intimate relationships, conflict over one's sexuality given society's homophobic and heterosexist attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, as well as stress from financial and work-related issues. More importantly, this study suggests that culture/ethnicity, gender, and aging, which are interconnected with one's sexual identity, play an important role in shaping the experiences of stress among lesbians and gay men.

  3. Poor working conditions and work stress among Canadian sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, P; Sou, J; Chapman, J; Dobrer, S; Braschel, M; Goldenberg, S; Shannon, K

    2017-10-01

    While sex work is often considered the world's oldest profession, there remains a dearth of research on work stress among sex workers (SWs) in occupational health epidemiological literature. A better understanding of the drivers of work stress among SWs is needed to inform sex work policy, workplace models and standards. To examine the factors that influence work stress among SWs in Metro Vancouver. Analyses drew from a longitudinal cohort of SWs, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA) (2010-14). A modified standardized 'work stress' scale, multivariable linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to longitudinally examine the factors associated with work stress. In multivariable analysis, poor working conditions were associated with increased work stress and included workplace physical/sexual violence (β = 0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06, 0.29), displacement due to police (β = 0.26; 95% CI 0.14, 0.38), working in public spaces (β = 0.73; 95% CI 0.61, 0.84). Older (β = -0.02; 95% CI -0.03, -0.01) and Indigenous SWs experienced lower work stress (β = -0.25; 95% CI -0.43, -0.08), whereas non-injection (β = 0.32; 95% CI 0.14, 0.49) and injection drug users (β = 0.17; 95% CI 0.03, 0.31) had higher work stress. Vancouver-based SWs' work stress was largely shaped by poor work conditions, such as violence, policing, lack of safe workspaces. There is a need to move away from criminalized approaches which shape unsafe work conditions and increase work stress for SWs. Policies that promote SWs' access to the same occupational health, safety and human rights standards as workers in other labour sectors are also needed.

  4. The gingival biotype assessed by experienced and inexperienced clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, Aryan; De Rouck, Tim; De Bruyn, Hugo; Cosyn, Jan

    2009-11-01

    A recent cluster analysis has identified three gingival biotypes among 100 periodontally healthy subjects based on different combinations of morphometric data related to maxillary front teeth and surrounding soft tissues. Patients with a thin-scalloped biotype are considered at risk because they have been associated with a compromised soft tissue response following surgical and/or restorative therapy. Hence, an accurate identification of these high-risk patients is warranted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the precision of simple visual inspection as a method to identify the gingival biotype by experienced and inexperienced clinicians. Fifteen clinicians (five Restorative Dentists, five Periodontists and five Students) were invited to assess the gingival biotype (thin-scalloped, thick-flat, thick-scalloped) of 100 periodontally healthy subjects based on clinical slides. Cluster analysis on these subjects was used as the gold standard and the accuracy in identifying the gingival biotype was determined using percentile agreement and kappa statistics. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability were also calculated. The gingival biotype was accurately identified only in about half of the cases irrespective of the clinician's experience. The thick-flat biotype was mostly recognized especially by experienced clinicians (> or =70% of the cases). Nearly half of the thin-scalloped cases were misclassified. The intra-examiner repeatability was fair to substantial (kappa: 0.328-0.670) and the inter-examiner reproducibility was slight to moderate (kappa: 0.127-0.547). Simple visual inspection may not be considered a valuable method to identify the gingival biotype as nearly half of the high-risk patients are overlooked.

  5. Sex differences in depressive effects of experiencing spousal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    Spousal death is a significant event that becomes a turning point in an individual's life. Widowed persons experience new circumstances, which might induce depression. However, the effects of spousal death on depression can differ by sex and culture. Thus, the present study examined the association between depressive levels and experience of spousal death in Korean adults aged older than 45 years. The data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2010 to 2012. The analysis used frequency analysis to compare the distribution of demographic variables between men and women, and anova to compare 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores as the dependent variable among comparison groups. We also carried out linear mixed model analysis on the association between the 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and experience of spousal death. Among 5481 respondents, 2735 were men and 2741 were women. The number of men and women who experienced spousal death were 43 (1.6%) and 181 (6.6%), respectively. Men had lower depressive levels than women when they had been married (men 2.99, women 3.64). Both men and women experiencing spousal death had significantly higher 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores than married men and women (men β = 0.911, P = 0.003; women β = 0.512, P = 0.001; ref: no experience of spousal death). There was a significant association between experience of spousal death and depressive level for both men and women. We suggest that policy practitioners promote community programs that provide bereaved adults with easy access to meaningful social participation and support the minimum cost of living of the widowed. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 322-329. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Experiencing and the realization of motherhood by teenage mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rzechowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Early motherhood constitutes a difficult challenge for girls, and the level of their performance in that role is varied. In this article, teenage motherhood as a process is considered. The objective of the research was to determine the paths by which teenage girls enter the mother role. Particular attention was paid to the nature of individual differences in the ways of experiencing and the realization of the successive steps of teenage motherhood: how the girls reacted to the fact of being a mother, what they experienced and how they behaved during pregnancy and performed child care. Participants and procedure In the research, 166 mothers who had given birth to their children between the 15th and 19th year of life were included (at the moment of giving birth to the child, the age of the mother was M = 17.22. A follower interview was used. It was directed towards recreating the course of their lives from the period preceding becoming pregnant to the period of pregnancy and looking after the child, taking into consideration the complex situations connected with life and development of the female teenagers. Results In the research, we applied the Reconstruction Strategy of the Process Transformation, setting the direction of qualitative analyses: (1 the level of single cases (case study, and (2 the level of the collection of cases (extracting groups of girls with common characteristics using the artificial intelligence algorithm C4.5. The analysis revealed the diversity and the internal structure of paths of the experience and realization of early motherhood: from negating oneself as a responsible mother to accepting the role of mother. Conclusions The final result is constituted by the model revealing the transformation of teenage motherhood and mechanisms underlying it.

  7. Poor safety climate, long work hours, and musculoskeletal discomfort among Latino horse farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer; Clouser, Jessica Miller; Gan, Wenqi; Flunker, John C; Westneat, Susan; Browning, Steven R

    2017-09-03

    This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and work-related factors associated with elevated MSD among Latino thoroughbred farm workers. Participants (N = 225) were recruited using a community-based purposive sampling approach to participate in in-person interviews. Of these workers, 85% experienced MSD. MSD was divided into tertiles; the upper tertile was defined as elevated. Multivariable Poisson regression revealed associations between any elevated MSD and longer tenure on horse farms, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated neck/back MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated upper extremity MSD was associated with age and poor safety climate. Elevated lower extremity MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and being female. Musculoskeletal discomfort is common among these workers. Improving safety climate and minimizing long work hours is recommended.

  8. Poor Semen Quality Predicts Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Bostofte, Erik; Jacobsen, Rune

    Objective: Over recent decades a possible decrease in semen quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported. In addition, men with poor semen quality have been reported to be at increased risk of developing testicular cancer whereas the risk of other cancers...... is not increased. The long-term survival of men with poor semen quality is, however, unknown. We therefore studied the associations between semen characteristics and subsequent mortality. Back to Top Material and Methods: The Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory is one of several public semen analysis laboratories...... in Denmark and examines semen samples mostly from men in the area of Copenhagen. Men are referred to the clinic by general practitioners and urologists, and the investigations are paid for through the public health system. A total of 34.442 men had a semen analysis done at the laboratory during 1963 to 1995...

  9. CERN - FATE MAPS - ENTANGLEMENTS - I Poor Orphan

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    I Poor Orphan, forms part of a photographic series, film essay and experimental writing made in response to visits to the site of the Large Hadron Collider, at CERN in Meyrin, Geneva in 2017 (The European Laboratory for Particle Physics). The folio offers poetic, conceptual and philosophical approaches to subatomic/high energy physics research within the Atlas experiment collision detector on the ground visitor site. This highly poetic folio integrates on-going thematic interests aligned with...

  10. Looking at women's poverty in poor households

    OpenAIRE

    Baysu, Gülseli

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the internal dynamics of women’s poverty, and how women experience and cope with poverty in poor households. It mainly deals with two points, one regarding the conceptualization of women’s poverty as content and context, and the other regarding the method of investigation. As for the former, women’s poverty is defined as unequal access to resources (social as well as material), responsibilities (particularly the one...

  11. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Poor Performance Status Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, Gregory J., E-mail: kubicek-gregory@cooperhealth.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Turtz, Alan [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Xue, Jinyu; Patel, Ashish; Richards, Gregory; LaCouture, Tamara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Cappelli, Louis; Diestelkamp, Tim [Rowan Graduate School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Saraiya, Piya [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Bexon, Anne [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Lerman, Nati [Department of Medical Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Goldman, Howard Warren [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Patients with poor performance status (PS), usually defined as a Karnofsky Performance Status of 60 or less, were not eligible for randomized stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) studies, and many guidelines suggest that whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the most appropriate treatment for poor PS patients. Methods and Materials: In this retrospective review of our SRS database, we identified 36 patients with PS of 60 or less treated with SRS for central nervous system (CNS) metastatic disease. PS, as defined by the Karnofsky Performance Status, was 60 (27 patients), 50 (8 patients), or 40 (1 patient). The median number of CNS lesions treated was 3. Results: Median overall survival (OS) was 7.2 months (range, 0.73-25.6 months). Fifteen patients (41%) were alive at 6 months, and 6 patients (16.6%) were alive at 1 year. There was no difference in OS in patients who underwent previous WBRT. There were no local failures or cases of radiation toxicity. Distant CNS failures were seen in 9 patients (25%). Conclusions: Our patients with poor PS had reasonable median OS and relatively low distant CNS failure rates. Patients in this patient population may be ideal candidates for SRS compared with WBRT given the low incidence of distant failure over their remaining lives and the favorable logistics of single-fraction treatment for these patients with debility and their caregivers.

  12. Energy efficient lighting and communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Kavehrad, M.; Deng, P.

    2012-01-01

    As Light-Emitting Diode (LED)'s increasingly displace incandescent lighting over the next few years, general applications of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology are expected to include wireless internet access, vehicle-to-vehicle communications, broadcast from LED signage, and machine-to-machine communications. An objective in this paper is to reveal the influence of system parameters on the power distribution and communication quality, in a general plural sources VLC system. It is demonstrated that sources' Half-Power Angles (HPA), receivers' Field-Of Views (FOV), sources layout and the power distribution among sources are significant impact factors. Based on our findings, we developed a method to adaptively change working status of each LED respectively according to users' locations. The program minimizes total power emitted while simultaneously ensuring sufficient light intensity and communication quality for each user. The paper also compares Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and On-Off Keying (OOK) signals performance in indoor optical wireless communications. The simulation is carried out for different locations where different impulse response distortions are experienced. OFDM seems a better choice than prevalent OOK for indoor VLC due to its high resistance to multi-path effect and delay spread. However, the peak-to-average power limitations of the method must be investigated for lighting LEDs.

  13. Subtypes of Patients Experiencing Exacerbations of COPD and Associations with Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arostegui, Inmaculada; Esteban, Cristobal; García-Gutierrez, Susana; Bare, Marisa; Fernández-de-Larrea, Nerea; Briones, Eduardo; Quintana, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous condition characterized by occasional exacerbations. Identifying clinical subtypes among patients experiencing COPD exacerbations (ECOPD) could help better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in exacerbations, establish different strategies of treatment, and improve the process of care and patient prognosis. The objective of this study was to identify subtypes of ECOPD patients attending emergency departments using clinical variables and to validate the results using several outcomes. We evaluated data collected as part of the IRYSS-COPD prospective cohort study conducted in 16 hospitals in Spain. Variables collected from ECOPD patients attending one of the emergency departments included arterial blood gases, presence of comorbidities, previous COPD treatment, baseline severity of COPD, and previous hospitalizations for ECOPD. Patient subtypes were identified by combining results from multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. Results were validated using key outcomes of ECOPD evolution. Four ECOPD subtypes were identified based on the severity of the current exacerbation and general health status (largely a function of comorbidities): subtype A (n = 934), neither high comorbidity nor severe exacerbation; subtype B (n = 682), moderate comorbidities; subtype C (n = 562), severe comorbidities related to mortality; and subtype D (n = 309), very severe process of exacerbation, significantly related to mortality and admission to an intensive care unit. Subtype D experienced the highest rate of mortality, admission to an intensive care unit and need for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, followed by subtype C. Subtypes A and B were primarily related to other serious complications. Hospitalization rate was more than 50% for all the subtypes, although significantly higher for subtypes C and D than for subtypes A and B. These results could help identify

  14. A summary of LED lighting impacts on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Ticleanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lighting can affect the health of people in buildings. This goes beyond the safety aspects of providing enough illumination to see by; lighting affects mood and human circadian rhythms, while poor lighting can cause glare, headaches, eyestrain, aches and pains associated with poor body posture or, in extreme cases, skin conditions and various types of sight loss. These aspects ought to be considered by designers and building owners and occupiers in order to improve the lit environment and use adequate lighting and lighting controls that meet the recommendations of codes and standards. Various types of lighting can have different impacts depending on their spectral, optical and electrical characteristics. This paper discusses potential impacts of LED lighting on human health, and is based on a recent BRE review of research investigating the most typical effects of lighting on human health.

  15. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  16. Hospitalized patients experienced suffering in life with incurable cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2005-09-01

    The concept 'suffering' has been central within nursing since Florence Nightingale. But few researchers have made empirical studies about the lived phenomenon. Several researchers within nursing agree that more research concerning individual groups of patients has to be initiated. Within research about patients with incurable cancer focus has been on death, the terminal period and patients experience of being dying. This qualitative study was initiated to describe the characteristics of a group of Danish hospitalized patients' experienced suffering in life with incurable cancer. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were arranged with 12 patients ones a week within a period of 4 weeks. In week 2 and 4, the interviews were supplemented by questions developed on the basis of the potential signs of suffering which appeared during the participant observations that took place the day before each interview. C. S. Peirce's semiotic and phenomenological grounded theory of signs was used in order to identify the potential signs. A phenomenological methodology developed by A. Giorgi was used to develop and describe the general structure of the phenomenon. The phenomenon is described as: 'The experience of living in an increasingly unpredictable existents at the mercy of the body, the consciousness, the illness, the death, the treatment, the professionals, one's articulateness, the past, the present and the future, influenced by increasing powerlessness, loneliness and isolation, and the experience of existing in an persistent, and with time, unconquerable struggle to maintain and regain control'.

  17. The Likelihood of Experiencing Relative Poverty over the Life Course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Rank

    Full Text Available Research on poverty in the United States has largely consisted of examining cross-sectional levels of absolute poverty. In this analysis, we focus on understanding relative poverty within a life course context. Specifically, we analyze the likelihood of individuals falling below the 20th percentile and the 10th percentile of the income distribution between the ages of 25 and 60. A series of life tables are constructed using the nationally representative Panel Study of Income Dynamics data set. This includes panel data from 1968 through 2011. Results indicate that the prevalence of relative poverty is quite high. Consequently, between the ages of 25 to 60, 61.8 percent of the population will experience a year below the 20th percentile, and 42.1 percent will experience a year below the 10th percentile. Characteristics associated with experiencing these levels of poverty include those who are younger, nonwhite, female, not married, with 12 years or less of education, or who have a work disability.

  18. Experienced Gray Wolf Optimization Through Reinforcement Learning and Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, E; Zawbaa, Hossam M; Grosan, Crina

    2017-01-10

    In this paper, a variant of gray wolf optimization (GWO) that uses reinforcement learning principles combined with neural networks to enhance the performance is proposed. The aim is to overcome, by reinforced learning, the common challenge of setting the right parameters for the algorithm. In GWO, a single parameter is used to control the exploration/exploitation rate, which influences the performance of the algorithm. Rather than using a global way to change this parameter for all the agents, we use reinforcement learning to set it on an individual basis. The adaptation of the exploration rate for each agent depends on the agent's own experience and the current terrain of the search space. In order to achieve this, experience repository is built based on the neural network to map a set of agents' states to a set of corresponding actions that specifically influence the exploration rate. The experience repository is updated by all the search agents to reflect experience and to enhance the future actions continuously. The resulted algorithm is called experienced GWO (EGWO) and its performance is assessed on solving feature selection problems and on finding optimal weights for neural networks algorithm. We use a set of performance indicators to evaluate the efficiency of the method. Results over various data sets demonstrate an advance of the EGWO over the original GWO and over other metaheuristics, such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization.

  19. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  20. Body composition and somatotype of experienced mountain climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Davide; Zaccagni, Luciana; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2012-03-01

    In order to evaluate body composition and somatotype, 10 Italian experienced mountain climbers were assessed from an anthropometric point of view, before a high altitude ascent. Body mass, height, girths, skinfolds, and bone breadths were gathered and used to calculate body composition and somatotype of each subject. Means and standard deviations of the subjects' anthropometric characteristics were calculated. Mesomorphism (5.28±1.10) is the dominant somatotype component in all but one the participants, endomorphism (1.55±0.49) is low, and body fat percentage (11.76%±2.93) is low. Comparisons with athletes involved in other climbing subdisciplines highlight the specificity of elite mountain climbers anthropometry. The elite mountain climbers in our sample were predominantly mesomorphic with somatotype attitudinal mean values lower than reported for male athletes participating in free-climbing, volleyball, gymnastics, and soccer. Anthropometric characteristics may therefore play a role in mountain climbing, even though the trainable components may be more relevant than the nontrainable ones.

  1. Assessing the professional development needs of experienced nurse executive leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Linda Searle; McFarland, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the professional development topics that senior nurse leaders believe are important to their advancement and success. Senior/experienced nurse leaders at the executive level are able to influence the work environment of nurses and institutional and health policy. Their development needs are likely to reflect this and other contemporary healthcare issues and may be different from middle and frontline managers. A systematic way of assessing professional development needs for these nurse leaders is needed. A descriptive study using an online survey was distributed to a convenience sample of nurse leaders who were members of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) or have participated in an ACNL program. Visionary leadership, leading complexity, and effective teams were the highest ranked leadership topics. Leading change, advancing health: The future of nursing, healthy work environments, and healthcare reform were also highly ranked topics. Executive-level nurse leaders are important to nurse retention, effective work environments, and leading change. Regular assessment and attention to the distinct professional development needs of executive-level nurse leaders are a valuable human capital investment.

  2. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza Carvalho e; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon. PMID:26487137

  3. The Likelihood of Experiencing Relative Poverty over the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R.; Hirschl, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on poverty in the United States has largely consisted of examining cross-sectional levels of absolute poverty. In this analysis, we focus on understanding relative poverty within a life course context. Specifically, we analyze the likelihood of individuals falling below the 20th percentile and the 10th percentile of the income distribution between the ages of 25 and 60. A series of life tables are constructed using the nationally representative Panel Study of Income Dynamics data set. This includes panel data from 1968 through 2011. Results indicate that the prevalence of relative poverty is quite high. Consequently, between the ages of 25 to 60, 61.8 percent of the population will experience a year below the 20th percentile, and 42.1 percent will experience a year below the 10th percentile. Characteristics associated with experiencing these levels of poverty include those who are younger, nonwhite, female, not married, with 12 years or less of education, or who have a work disability. PMID:26200781

  4. How experienced tutors facilitate tutorial dynamics in PBL groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gin-Hong; Lin, Chaou-Shune; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial are conducted in small groups, and successful learning in such groups requires good group facilitating skills. There is a lack of research on actual skills employed by tutors in facilitating the group dynamics. To explore the process of PBL tutorial small groups, focusing on the tutors' actual behavior in facilitating group dynamics. Eight experienced tutors from various departments in medical colleges participated in this research. Forty tutorial group sessions were videotaped. Among the 636 tutorial intervention episodes, 142 of them were associated with facilitating group dynamics. Tutors interventions as well as their recalls were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative research methods were utilized to analyze the data. There were 10 tutorial group dynamic situations and 48 tutorial skills. Analysis of the tutors' intentions employing these skills in the 10 situations showed that tutors were trying to achieve the following aims: (1) iteration of PBL principles, (2) delegation of responsibility to the students, (3) creation of a good discussion forum, and (4) the generation of a good learning atmosphere. Results from this study provide PBL tutors with a practical frame of reference on group dynamic facilitating skills and stimulate further research on this topic.

  5. Energy cost of the Trondheim firefighter test for experienced firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heimburg, Erna; Medbø, Jon Ingulf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure aerobic demands of fire fighting activities including exercise in the heat. Twenty-two experienced firefighters performed the Trondheim test simulating fire fighting tasks including work in the heat. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), heart rate (HR) and ventilation were recorded continuously. Data were compared with results obtained during a treadmill test during which the participants were dressed as smoke divers. The participants completed physical parts of the Trondheim test in ˜12 min (range: 7.5-17.4). Time to complete the test was closely related to the participant's VO2 max. HR of ˜170 beats/min and pulmonary ventilation of ˜100 L/min were higher than at lactate threshold (LT) during laboratory tests. VO2 averaged over the test's physical part was 35 ± 7 ml/min/kg, which was at the same or below the level corresponding to the participants' LT. Physically fit participants completed the test faster than less fit participants. Slower and physically less fit participants consumed more air and used more oxygen than faster and physically more fit participants. The Trondheim test is physically demanding; it distinguishes physically fit and less fit participants.

  6. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  7. Making agriculture work for the poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Chimhowu, Admos

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarises recent work on poverty, agriculture and land. First, we report on panel data analysis in five countries – Vietnam, Uganda, India, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. We focus on rural exits from poverty, their relation with agricultural growth trends, and the contingent factors...... that supported these exits. We suggest that three ‘pillars’ can help to make agriculture work for the rural poor – infrastructure, education and information. Second, we summarise recent CPRC work on land tenure, focusing on the relationship between tenure and agricultural productivity....

  8. Analysis of PubMed User Sessions Using a Full-Day PubMed Query Log: A Comparison of Experienced and Nonexperienced PubMed Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Illhoi; Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad

    2015-07-02

    PubMed is the largest biomedical bibliographic information source on the Internet. PubMed has been considered one of the most important and reliable sources of up-to-date health care evidence. Previous studies examined the effects of domain expertise/knowledge on search performance using PubMed. However, very little is known about PubMed users' knowledge of information retrieval (IR) functions and their usage in query formulation. The purpose of this study was to shed light on how experienced/nonexperienced PubMed users perform their search queries by analyzing a full-day query log. Our hypotheses were that (1) experienced PubMed users who use system functions quickly retrieve relevant documents and (2) nonexperienced PubMed users who do not use them have longer search sessions than experienced users. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed PubMed query log data containing nearly 3 million queries. User sessions were divided into two categories: experienced and nonexperienced. We compared experienced and nonexperienced users per number of sessions, and experienced and nonexperienced user sessions per session length, with a focus on how fast they completed their sessions. To test our hypotheses, we measured how successful information retrieval was (at retrieving relevant documents), represented as the decrease rates of experienced and nonexperienced users from a session length of 1 to 2, 3, 4, and 5. The decrease rate (from a session length of 1 to 2) of the experienced users was significantly larger than that of the nonexperienced groups. Experienced PubMed users retrieve relevant documents more quickly than nonexperienced PubMed users in terms of session length.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life for Women Ever Experiencing Infertility or Difficulty Staying Pregnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; Smith, Ruben A; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M; Warner, Lee

    2017-07-18

    Information on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for women with infertility is limited and does not account for the co-occurrence of chronic conditions or emotional distress. We used data from state-added questions on reproductive health included in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in seven states. HRQOL indicators included: self-reported health status; number of days in the past 30 days when physical and mental health was not good; number of days in the past 30 days that poor physical or mental health limited activities. We computed rate ratios for HRQOL for women ever experiencing infertility or difficulty staying pregnant compared with women never reporting these conditions; interactions with chronic conditions and depressive disorders were assessed. Of 7,526 respondents aged 18-50 years, 387 (4.9%) reported infertility only and 339 (4.3%) reported difficulty staying pregnant only. Infertility was associated with an increase in average number of days with poor physical health for women with chronic conditions [rate ratio (RR) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.29] but was protective for women without chronic conditions (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.75). Difficulty staying pregnant was associated with an increase in average number of days of limited activity among both women with chronic conditions (RR 2.14, 95% CI 1.32-3.45) and women with depressive disorders (RR 1.72 95% CI 1.14-2.62). Many HRQOL measures were poorer for women who had infertility or difficulty staying pregnant compared to their counterparts; the association was modified by presence of chronic conditions and depressive disorders.

  10. How do experienced GP trainers decide which of their trainees need to be referred to a more senior educator in the East Midlands Healthcare Workforce Deanery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Bevis

    2015-09-01

    To identify experienced trainers' reasons for considering and/or discussing concerns about GP trainees with their local Training Programme Director (TPD). Interviews were carried out with fourteen trainers across Leicestershire and Northamptonshire who volunteered to assist in response to an email request sent out to trainers in these areas; twelve of these had more than five years' training experience. Grounded Theory Method (GTM), with a semi-structured interview process as suggested by Corbin and Strauss, was used to analyse the transcripts. Experienced trainers find it difficult to explain their decision-making in keeping with the Dreyfus Expertise Model; they use their willingness to choose the doctor as their personal doctor, predating the UK Government's 'Friends and Family Test', as well as their experience in consulting and referring patients as concepts which help the decision. For less-experienced trainers, the Milton Keynes Traffic Light System was identified as a tool that might help decision-making. Experienced trainers recognised underperformance and possible underlying causes. The triggers for discussion with TPDs were viewing the trainee either as someone 'they would not like to be their family doctor' or as 'a patient whose problem needed referral to a specialist'. This was done at an 'expert' level. It was sometimes difficult for the trainers to define the processes they used. Less-experienced trainers found that a tool such as the Milton Keynes Traffic Light System was a useful aid.

  11. The physiological responses to Bikram yoga in novice and experienced practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jessica L; Buono, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Bikram yoga has gained a large following, possibly because of widespread claims boasting energy expenditure of up to 1000 calories per session. However, these claims are unfounded because no scientific study has investigated the metabolic response to a complete, standardized Bikram yoga class. This study intends to determine energy expenditure, heart rate, and sweat rate in novice and experienced practitioners from a standardized Bikram yoga class. Data were collected in the environmental chamber of the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at San Diego State University in California, USA. Male (n = 5) and female (n = 19) participants between the ages of 18 and 57 y were recruited through flyers in yoga studios throughout San Diego. Participants were classified as experienced or novice practitioners, having completed ≥20 or yoga class performed in a hot environment using Bikram's Standard Beginning Dialogue, while expired gas was collected and heart rate was recorded. Energy expenditure, calculated via oxygen uptake, and heart rate were determined for each posture and transition period. In addition, sweat rate and core temperature were recorded for each participant. Mean (±SD) relative VO2 for the entire 90-min session was 9.5 ± 1.9 mL × kg-1 × min-1, ranging from 6.0 to 12.9 mL × kg-1 × min-1. Mean absolute energy expenditure was 286 ± 72 kcals, ranging from 179 to 478 kcals. Independent sample t tests revealed significant differences (P Bikram yoga meets requirements for exercise of light-to-moderate intensity and, theoretically, could be used for weight maintenance or weight loss if practiced several times per week.

  12. Melt extrusion with poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Maddineni, Sindhuri; Lu, Jiannan; Repka, Michael A

    2013-08-30

    Melt extrusion (ME) over recent years has found widespread application as a viable drug delivery option in the drug development process. ME applications include taste masking, solid-state stability enhancement, sustained drug release and solubility enhancement. While ME can result in amorphous or crystalline solid dispersions depending upon several factors, solubility enhancement applications are centered around generating amorphous dispersions, primarily because of the free energy benefits they offer. In line with the purview of the current issue, this review assesses the utility of ME as a means of enhancing solubility of poorly soluble drugs/chemicals. The review describes major processing aspects of ME technology, definition and understanding of the amorphous state, manufacturability, analytical characterization and biopharmaceutical performance testing to better understand the strength and weakness of this formulation strategy for poorly soluble drugs. In addition, this paper highlights the potential advantages of employing a fusion of techniques, including pharmaceutical co-crystals and spray drying/solvent evaporation, facilitating the design of formulations of API exhibiting specific physico-chemical characteristics. Finally, the review presents some successful case studies of commercialized ME based products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langevelde, Frank; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Veenendaal, Elmar M; Fijen, Thijs P M

    2017-03-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand these declines, the question remains whether artificial light causes only increased mortality or also sublethal effects. We show that moths subjected to artificial night lighting spend less time feeding than moths in darkness, with the shortest time under light conditions rich in short wavelength radiation. These findings provide evidence for sublethal effects contributing to moth population declines. Because effects are strong under various types of light compared with dark conditions, the potential of spectral alterations as a conservation tool may be overestimated. Therefore, restoration and maintenance of darkness in illuminated areas is essential for reversing declines of moth populations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost......, but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces...... of infrastructure’. Ultimately, this work seeks to shed light on a number of ideas for future light rail research and practice....

  15. Aurorasaurus: Citizen Scientists Experiencing Extremes of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E.; Hall, M.; Tapia, A.

    2013-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is a new citizen science mapping platform to nowcast the visibility of the Northern Lights for the public in the current solar maximum, the first with social media. As a recently funded NSF INSPIRE program, we have joint goals among three research disciplines: space weather forecasting, the study of human-computer interactions, and informal science education. We will highlight results from the prototype www.aurorasaurus.org and outline future efforts to motivate online participants and crowdsource viable data. Our citizen science effort is unique among space programs as it includes both reporting observations and data analysis activities to engage the broadest participant network possible. In addition, our efforts to improve space weather nowcasting by including real-time mapping of ground truth observers for rare, sporadic events are a first in the field.

  16. Darunavir-based dual therapy in HIV experienced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrantino, Gaetana; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Di Biagio, Antonio; Rosi, Andrea; Bruzzone, Bianca; Cicconi, Paola; Carli, Tiziana; Biondi, Maria Luisa; Antinori, Andrea; Bartolozzi, Dario; Penco, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the virological response of DRV/r-based dual therapy in drug-experienced patients included in the Italian antiretroviral resistance database (ARCA). Patients included in the study were treated with DRV/r in association with raltegravir (RAL), etravirine (ETV) or maraviroc (MAR) following treatment failure(s) and with a resistance test and at least one follow-up visit available. Observation was censored at last visit under dual therapy and survival analysis and proportional hazard models were used, taking virological failure (confirmed >50 c/mL HIV-RNA) as the end-point. Of the total 221 patients included, 149 (67.4%) started DRV/r with RAL, 45 (20.4%) with ETV, 27 (12.2%) with MAR. Patients characteristics at the start of dual regimen were as follows: mean number of previous regimens, nine (IQR: 5-13); non-B subtype, 17 (7.7%); median CD4 count, 347 (IQR: 246-544); undetectable viral load, 74 (33.5%). Full DRV/r resistance was detected in one (0.5%, HIV-DB interpretation system), 13 (5.9%, ANRS) and 17 patients (7.7%, Rega). 69 virological failures (31.2%) were observed during follow-up. At survival analysis, the overall proportion of failure was 29.2% at one year and 33.8% at two years. The proportion of failure was lower in patients starting with undetectable versus detectable viral load (13.3% and 25.2% versus 37.4% and 38.8% at one and two years, respectively, p=0.001 for both analyses) and in patients treated with DRV 600 BID versus 800 QD (HR: 0, 56; 95% CI 0.31-0.99; pfailure (27.7% at one year, 32.0% at two years) if compared with DRV/r-MAR (35.9%, 47.1%) and DRV/r-ETV (34.1%, 34.1% at one and two years). In the adjusted proportional model, no significant difference among the three regimens was detected. A significant lower risk of failure was associated with higher overall GSS (HIV-DB HR: 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.88, p=0.014; Rega 0.60, 0.40-0.88, pfailure was associated with detectable HIV-RNA (3.02, 1.70-5.72, p<0.001). Among experienced patients

  17. Darunavir-based dual therapy in HIV experienced patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Sterrantino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We assessed the virological response of DRV/r-based dual therapy in drug-experienced patients included in the Italian antiretroviral resistance database (ARCA. Materials and Methods: Patients included in the study were treated with DRV/r in association with raltegravir (RAL, etravirine (ETV or maraviroc (MAR following treatment failure(s and with a resistance test and at least one follow-up visit available. Observation was censored at last visit under dual therapy and survival analysis and proportional hazard models were used, taking virological failure (confirmed >50 c/mL HIV-RNA as the end-point. Results: Of the total 221 patients included, 149 (67.4% started DRV/r with RAL, 45 (20.4% with ETV, 27 (12.2% with MAR. Patients characteristics at the start of dual regimen were as follows: mean number of previous regimens, nine (IQR: 5–13; non-B subtype, 17 (7.7%; median CD4 count, 347 (IQR: 246–544; undetectable viral load, 74 (33.5%. Full DRV/r resistance was detected in one (0.5%, HIV-DB interpretation system, 13 (5.9%, ANRS and 17 patients (7.7%, Rega. 69 virological failures (31.2% were observed during follow-up. At survival analysis, the overall proportion of failure was 29.2% at one year and 33.8% at two years. The proportion of failure was lower in patients starting with undetectable versus detectable viral load (13.3% and 25.2% versus 37.4% and 38.8% at one and two years, respectively, p=0.001 for both analyses and in patients treated with DRV 600 BID versus 800 QD (HR: 0, 56; 95% CI 0.31–0.99; p<0.05. By regimen, patients treated with DRV/r-RAL showed a non-significant lower proportion of failure (27.7% at one year, 32.0% at two years if compared with DRV/r-MAR (35.9%, 47.1% and DRV/r-ETV (34.1%, 34.1% at one and two years. In the adjusted proportional model, no significant difference among the three regimens was detected. A significant lower risk of failure was associated with higher overall GSS (HIV-DB HR: 0.53, 95% CI

  18. Impact strength of small icy bodies that experienced multiple collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Minami; Hayama, Ryo; Arakawa, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    Frequent collisions are common for small bodies in the Solar System, and the cumulative damage to these bodies is thought to significantly affect their evolution. It is important to study the effects of multiple impacts such as the number of impacts on the impact strength and the ejection velocity of impact fragments. Here we conducted multiple-impact experiments using a polycrystalline water ice target, varying the number of impacts from 1 to 10 times. An ice cylindrical projectile was impacted at 84-502 m s-1 by using a single-stage gas gun in a cold room between -10 and -15 °C. The impact strength of the ice target that experienced a single impact and multiple impacts is expressed by the total energy density applied to the same target, ΣQ, and this value was observed to be 77.6 J kg-1. The number of fine impact fragments at a fragment mass normalized by an initial target mass, m/Mt0 ∼ 10-6, nm, had a good correlation with the single energy density at each shot, Qj, and the relationship was shown to be nm=10·Qj1.31±0.12. We also estimated the cumulative damage of icy bodies as a total energy density accumulated by past impacts, according to the crater scaling laws proposed by Housen et al. (Housen, K.R., Schmidt, R.M., Holsapple, K.A. [1983]. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2485-2499) of ice and the crater size distributions observed on Phoebe, a saturnian icy satellite. We found that the cumulative damage of Phoebe depended significantly on the impact speed of the impactor that formed the craters on Phoebe; and the cumulative damage was about one-third of the impact strength ΣQ* at 500 m s-1 whereas it was almost zero at 3.2 km s-1.

  19. Experiencing stigma as a nurse with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A L

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cultural modes of expressing emotions influence how emotions are experienced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    The brain's mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, that is, the magnitude of individuals' bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration- and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. Although expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more-expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals' overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more-expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions "feel like." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Imported malaria in pregnant women experienced in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mikio; Koga, Michiko; Hasegawa, Chihiro; Mutoh, Yoshikazu; Kato, Yasuyuki; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2017-08-01

    With ever-growing global exchanges, the number of travelers, including pregnant women, to the tropics is increasing, which poses a risk of contracting malaria. Although there are several reports on imported malaria in pregnancy from Western countries, those focusing on cases experienced in Japan are very limited. We searched for cases of malaria in pregnancy in the treatment records submitted to the Research Group on Chemotherapy of Tropical Diseases, Japan, during the period 1993-2016. Literature searches were also conducted using an American and a Japanese search system. Ten cases of malaria in pregnant women were identified, including four cases with Plasmodium falciparum. Of eight evaluable cases, only one practiced malaria chemoprophylaxis. Among the nine evaluable cases, eight resulted in uneventful delivery and one P. falciparum case developed severe hepatic disturbance, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and intrauterine fetal death. After the initial attack, none of the Plasmodium vivax/Plasmodium ovale cases practiced chloroquine prophylaxis until delivery. One P. ovale case received a lower dose regimen of chloroquine as acute-stage therapy. This study demonstrated additional cases of imported malaria in pregnant women to the literature and highlighted various epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics. Some of the clinical issues raised need to be investigated. Due to the paucity of the cases worldwide, sharing information among various countries is indispensable, and international guidelines which are now increasingly recommending the use of artemisinins in pregnant women should be referred. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiencing menopause in the context of cancer: Women's constructions of gendered subjectivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Chloe; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2017-09-01

    Many women experience premature menopause following cancer treatment, accompanied by psychological distress, and poor health-related quality of life. In this qualitative study, we examined how women construct their gendered subjectivities - their sense of self as a woman - in the context of premature menopause after cancer. We analysed data from open-ended survey items and semi-structured interviews with women who had experienced cancer. Six hundred and ninety-five women completed the online survey and 61 took part in a semi-structured interview. A thematic decomposition was conducted to identify the subject positions associated with menopause taken up by the women. Three overall themes were identified: 'The Incomplete Woman,' 'The Abject, Asexual Woman' and 'Out of Time and Social Isolation.' Menopause was predominantly constructed as a negative experience, similar to older post-menopausal women and dissimilar to peers, contributing to experiences of social isolation. Menopause also signified the presence of a medically diagnosed cancer condition, and uncertainty around cancer prognosis. It is important for cancer support group leaders and other service providers to be sensitive to women's negotiation of menopause following cancer, in the context of broader cultural constructions, in order to provide appropriate information and support.

  3. How poor are women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  4. Linking Family Characteristics with Poor Peer Relations: The Mediating Role of Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Smoot, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Parent, teacher, and peer ratings were collected for 75 grade school boys to test the hypothesis that certain family interaction patterns would be associated with poor peer relations. Path analyses provided support for a mediational model, in which punitive and ineffective discipline was related to child conduct problems in home and school settings which, in turn, predicted poor peer relations. Further analyses suggested that distinct subgroups of boys could be identified who exhibited conduct problems at home only, at school only, in both settings, or in neither setting. Boys who exhibited cross-situational conduct problems were more likely to experience multiple concurrent problems (e.g., in both home and school settings) and were more likely than any other group to experience poor peer relations. However, only about one-third of the boys with poor peer relations in this sample exhibited problem profiles consistent with the proposed model (e.g., experienced high rates of punitive/ineffective home discipline and exhibited conduct problems in home and school settings), suggesting that the proposed model reflects one common (but not exclusive) pathway to poor peer relations. PMID:1865049

  5. Discovery of a Metal-Poor Little Cub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of an extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxy in our local universe, dubbed Little Cub, is providing astronomers with front-row seats to the quenching of a near-pristine galaxy.SDSS image of NGC 3359 (left) and Little Cub (right), with overlying contours displaying the location of hydrogen gas. Little Cubs (also shown in the inset) stellar mass lies in the blue contour of the right-hand side. The outer white contours show the extended gas of the galaxy, likely dragged out as a tidal tail by Little Cubs interaction with NGC 3359. [Hsyu et al. 2017]The Hunt for Metal-Poor GalaxiesLow-metallicity, star-forming galaxies can show us the conditions under which the first stars formed. The galaxies with the lowest metallicities, however, also tend to be those with the lowest luminosities making them difficult to detect. Though we know that there should be many low-mass, low-luminosity, low-metallicity galaxies in the universe, weve detected very few of them nearby.In an effort to track down more of these metal-poor galaxies, a team of scientists led by Tiffany Hsyu (University of California Santa Cruz) searched through Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, looking for small galaxies with the correct photometric color to qualify a candidate blue compact dwarfs, a type of small, low-luminosity, star-forming galaxy that is often low-metallicity.Hsyu and collaborators identified more than 2,500 candidate blue compact dwarfs, and next set about obtaining follow-up spectroscopy for many of the candidates from the Keck and Lick Observatories. Though this project is still underway, around 100 new blue compact dwarfs have already been identified via the spectroscopy, including one of particular interest: the Little Cub.Little CubThis tiny star-forming galaxy gained its nickname from its location in the constellation Ursa Major. Little Cub is perhaps 50 or 60 million light-years away, and Hsyu and collaborators find it to be one of the lowest-metallicity star

  6. Innovation in income-poor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, F C

    2015-01-01

    At the core of surgical development in any economic environment lies innovation. Innovation in high-income countries (HICs) often derives from research, whereas innovation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) may be spontaneous owing to a desperate drive to meet a local need. The local needs are substantial because of the unequal access to healthcare in LMICs. The experience of the author in working in LMICs through Operation Hernia, a medical charity, provides a backdrop for this review. Other published innovative devices and models are discussed. Innovation in income-poor countries has provided cost-effective but efficient solutions to local health needs. Some innovations have been enhanced and adopted worldwide. HICs can learn more from innovative strategies adopted in LMICs. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Nordic version of working poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    ) and 2014 (after the financial crisis). We examine the changes in worker profiles (age, sex, ethnicity, education) to identify new groups of workers and the changes in working conditions (pay, working hours, contract, tenure) to locate trends of erosion. Focus is on workers in retail and hotels......The development of service economies in the Western world has led to a debate on the quality of new service jobs as many are low-wage jobs with poor working conditions and career opportunities (Westergaard-Nielsen 2008; Gautié & Schmitt 2009; Kalleberg 2011). Empirical and theoretical work has...... identified new segments of workers in private services at the bottom of the labour market like the ‘emergent service workers’ or the ‘precariat’ in the UK or the ‘working poor’ in the US and Germany (Klein & Rones 1989; Palier & Thelen 2010; Savage et al. 2013; Standing 2011). Although the incidence of low...

  8. Coping patterns of mothers of poor boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P L; Horovitz, J H

    1980-01-01

    Using the same 201 impoverished, urban dwelling black and Cuban refugee mothers from their previous study "Psychopathology & Fatherlessness in Poor Boys,'' Adams and Horovitz examine the coping sytles of these women. The differing groups of mothers were classified according to their firstborn son's ages, their ethnicity and the presence or absence of a father in their household. Scored according to scales L, F, K, 1--4, and 6--9 of the MMPI, the women were profiled and a descriptive comparison employed. In most instances the null hypothesis was confirmed: mothers of fathered boys did not differ in their coping strategies from mothers of fatherless boys regardless of the family's ethnicity and the boy's psychopathology or age. Of note was the high scores in the "paranoia'' scale of MMPI, indicating that it may be functional and adaptive to use projection in an urban slum.

  9. Breastfeeding Practices among Poor Women in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey; Desai, Sima S; Haakenstad, Annie; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-08-01

    Breastfeeding is an effective intervention to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of practices and predictors of breastfeeding among the poor in Mesoamerica has not been well described. We estimated the prevalence of ever breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding between 6 mo and 2 y of age using household survey data for the poorest quintile of families living in 6 Mesoamerican countries. We also assessed the predictors of breastfeeding behaviors to identify factors amenable to policy interventions. We analyzed data from 12,529 children in Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador using baseline survey data from the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 Initiative. We created multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% CIs for breastfeeding outcomes and to control for sociodemographic and healthcare-related factors. Approximately 97% of women in all countries breastfed their child at least once, and 65.1% (Nicaragua) to 79.0% (Panama) continued to do so between 6 mo and 2 y of age. Breastfeeding in the first hour of life varied by country (P < 0.001), with the highest proportion reported in Panama (89.8%) and the lowest in El Salvador (65.6%). Exclusive breastfeeding also varied by country (P = 0.037), ranging from 44.5% in Panama to 76.8% in Guatemala. For every 20% increase in the proportion of peers who exclusively breastfed, there was an 11% (aRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) increase in the likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. Our study revealed significant variation in the prevalence of breastfeeding practices by poor women across countries surveyed by the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 initiative. Future interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding should consider ways to leverage the role of the community in supporting individual women. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protection of Hawaii's Observatories from Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Maunakea Observatory, located on the island of Hawaii, is among the world darkest sites for astronomy. Strong efforts to preserve the dark night sky over the last forty years have proven successful. Artificial light presently adds only approximately 2% to the natural night sky brightness. The techniques being used to protect Maunakea from light pollution will be described, along with the challenges that are now being faced.Haleakala Observatory, located on the island of Maui, is also an excellent observing site, and is among the best sites in the United States. Lighting restrictions in Maui County are much weaker, and consequently, the night sky above Haleakala is less well protected. Haleakala is closer to Honolulu and the island of Oahu (population approximately 1 million), and the glow from Oahu makes the northwestern sky brighter.Much of the lighting across most of the United States, including Hawaii, is presently being converted to LED lighting. This provides an opportunity to replace existing poorly shielded lights with properly shielded LED fixtures, but careful spectral management is essential. It is critically important to only use LED lighting that is deficient in blue and green light. LED lighting also is easy to dim. Dimming of lights later at night, when there is no need for brighter lighting, is an important tool for reducing light pollution.Techniques used to protect astronomical observatories from light pollution are similar to the techniques that must be used to protect animals that are affected by light at night, such as endangered birds and turtles. These same techniques are compatible with recent human health related lighting recommendations from the American Medical Association.

  12. Workplace violence experienced by nursing students: A UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Stephen; Üzar Özçetin, Yeter Sinem; Russell-Westhead, Michele

    2016-06-01

    To appreciate the nature and scope of workplace violence amongst a sample of the UK nursing student population during clinical placement and to recommend strategies universities can implement to successfully manage the impact. Workplace violence is defined as a violent act(s) directed toward workers and can include physical, psychological or verbal behaviour. It is prevalent in nursing and causes victims work-based stress that can affect not only the individual but also the quality of care. Similar negative experiences amongst students can have a direct impact on the development of future professional skills. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Questions were uploaded in the format of a commercial internet survey provider (SurveyMonkey.com) and distributed across a sample of nursing schools in the UK. The survey was voluntary and employed a validated tool to assess workplace violence and was based on a similar study in Australia. The number of respondents was 657. This paper reports on the quantitative results. Nearly half of the students (42.18%) indicated they had experienced bullying/harassment in the past year while on clinical placement. One-third (30.4%) had witnessed bullying/harassment of other students and 19.6% of incidents involved a qualified nurse. The unwanted behaviours made some students consider leaving nursing (19.8%). Some respondents said the standard of patient care (12.3%) and their work with others (25.9%) were negatively affected. Workplace violence can influence nursing students' attitude toward the profession and their level of satisfaction with the work. Whilst it was reassuring to note that the majority of the participants knew where/how to report, only one fifth had actively reported an episode of bullying/harassment. Current students are the nurses and leaders of the future and have a key role in shaping the culture of generations to come. Universities and clinical providers need to work together to reduce the

  13. Disability and schizophrenia: a systematic review of experienced psychosocial difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świtaj, Piotr; Anczewska, Marta; Chrostek, Anna; Sabariego, Carla; Cieza, Alarcos; Bickenbach, Jerome; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-11-09

    Schizophrenia is a significantly disabling disease that affects all major areas of life. There is a lack of comprehensive synthesis of research findings on the full extent of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) experienced by people living with schizophrenia. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature concerning PSDs and their associated factors in schizophrenia. PSDs were conceptualized in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as disabilities, in particular impairments of mental functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. An electronic search using MEDLINE and PsychINFO plus a manual search of the literature was performed for qualitative and longitudinal studies published in English between 2005 and 2010 that examined PSDs in persons with schizophrenia. The ICF was used as a conceptual framework. A total of 104 papers were included. The most frequent PSDs addressed in the literature were not specific ones, directly linkable to the ICF categories of mental functions, activity limitations or participation restrictions, but broad areas of psychosocial functioning, such as psychopathological symptoms (53% of papers) or global disability and functioning (37%). Among mental functions, the most extensively studied were cognitive functions (27%) and emotional functions (27%). Within the domain of activities and participation, the most widely investigated were difficulties in relationships with others (31%) and employment (20%). Of the factors associated with the intensity or course of PSDs, the most commonly identified were treatment modalities (56%), psychopathological symptoms (26%), and socio-demographic variables (24%). Medication tended to improve the most relevant PSD, but at the same time was the only consistently reported determinant of onset of PSDs (emerging as unwanted side-effects). The present review illustrates the remarkably broad scope and diversity of psychosocial areas

  14. Disability and schizophrenia: a systematic review of experienced psychosocial difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtaj Piotr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a significantly disabling disease that affects all major areas of life. There is a lack of comprehensive synthesis of research findings on the full extent of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs experienced by people living with schizophrenia. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature concerning PSDs and their associated factors in schizophrenia. PSDs were conceptualized in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF as disabilities, in particular impairments of mental functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Methods An electronic search using MEDLINE and PsychINFO plus a manual search of the literature was performed for qualitative and longitudinal studies published in English between 2005 and 2010 that examined PSDs in persons with schizophrenia. The ICF was used as a conceptual framework. Results A total of 104 papers were included. The most frequent PSDs addressed in the literature were not specific ones, directly linkable to the ICF categories of mental functions, activity limitations or participation restrictions, but broad areas of psychosocial functioning, such as psychopathological symptoms (53% of papers or global disability and functioning (37%. Among mental functions, the most extensively studied were cognitive functions (27% and emotional functions (27%. Within the domain of activities and participation, the most widely investigated were difficulties in relationships with others (31% and employment (20%. Of the factors associated with the intensity or course of PSDs, the most commonly identified were treatment modalities (56%, psychopathological symptoms (26%, and socio-demographic variables (24%. Medication tended to improve the most relevant PSD, but at the same time was the only consistently reported determinant of onset of PSDs (emerging as unwanted side-effects. Conclusions The present review illustrates the

  15. Poor-data and data-poor species stock assessment using a Bayesian hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; Cortés, Enric; Andrews, Kate; Guo, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Appropriate inference for stocks or species with low-quality data (poor data) or limited data (data poor) is extremely important. Hierarchical Bayesian methods are especially applicable to small-area, small-sample-size estimation problems because they allow poor-data species to borrow strength from species with good-quality data. We used a hammerhead shark complex as an example to investigate the advantages of using hierarchical Bayesian models in assessing the status of poor-data and data-poor exploited species. The hammerhead shark complex (Sphyrna spp.) along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States is composed of three species: the scalloped hammerhead (S. lewini), the great hammerhead (S. mokarran), and the smooth hammerhead (S. zygaena) sharks. The scalloped hammerhead comprises 70-80% of the catch and has catch and relative abundance data of good quality, whereas great and smooth hammerheads have relative abundance indices that are both limited and of low quality presumably because of low stock density and limited sampling. Four hierarchical Bayesian state-space surplus production models were developed to simulate variability in population growth rates, carrying capacity, and catchability of the species. The results from the hierarchical Bayesian models were considerably more robust than those of the nonhierarchical models. The hierarchical Bayesian approach represents an intermediate strategy between traditional models that assume different population parameters for each species and those that assume all species share identical parameters. Use of the hierarchical Bayesian approach is suggested for future hammerhead shark stock assessments and for modeling fish complexes with species-specific data, because the poor-data species can borrow strength from the species with good data, making the estimation more stable and robust.

  16. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  17. Developmental instability and fitness in Periploca laevigata experiencing grazing disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alados, C.L.; Giner, M.L.; Dehesa, L.; Escos, J.; Barroso, F.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of developmental instability measurements (leaf fluctuating asymmetry, floral radial asymmetry, and shoot translational asymmetry) to a long‐standing natural stress (grazing) in a palatable tannin‐producing shrub (Periploca laevigata Aiton). We also assessed the relationship between these measures of developmental instability and fitness components (growth and floral production). Developmental instability, measured by translational asymmetry, was the most accurate estimator of a plant’s condition and, consequently, environmental stress. Plants with less translational asymmetry grew more and produced more flowers. Plants from the medium‐grazed population were developmentally more stable, as estimated by translational and floral asymmetry, than either more heavily or more lightly grazed populations. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry was positively correlated with tannin concentration. The pattern of internode growth also responded to grazing impact. Plants under medium to heavy grazing pressure accelerated early growth and consequently escaped herbivory later in the season, i.e., at the beginning of the spring, when grazing activity was concentrated in herbaceous plants. Periploca laevigata accelerated growth and finished growing sooner than in the other grazing treatment. Thus, its annual growth was more mature and less palatable later in the season when grazers typically concentrate on shrubs. The reduction of developmental instability under medium grazing is interpreted as a direct effect of grazing and not as the release from competition.

  18. Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities Experiencing Homelessness: Federal, Community, and Educator Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Walker, Melissa E.; Rock, Marcia L.; Popp, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a complex and multifaceted condition that affects 2.5 million, or one in every 30, children annually. Based on these numbers, it is likely that at least one student has experienced or is experiencing homelessness in most public school classrooms. Sixteen percent of students experiencing homelessness also received services under…

  19. Shedding a Light on Phototherapy Studies with People having Dementia: A Critical Review of the Methodology from a Light Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Mariëlle P J; Aries, Myriam B C; Diakoumis, Adonia; van Hoof, Joost

    2016-11-01

    Light therapy is applied to older people with dementia as a treatment to reset the biological clock, to improve the cognitive functioning, and to reduce behavioral symptoms. Although the methodological quality of light therapy studies is essential, many aspects concerning the description of the lighting applied are missing. This study reviewed light therapy studies concerning the effects on people with dementia as a way to check the methodological quality of the description of light from a light engineering perspective. Twelve studies meeting the inclusion criteria were chosen for further analysis. Each study was scored on a list of aspects relevant to a proper description of lighting aspects. The overview demonstrates that the overall quality of the methodologies is poor. The studies describe the lighting insufficiently and not in the correct metrics. The robustness of light therapy studies can be improved by involving a light engineer or specialist. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Factors responsible for poor sleep quality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Chuang, Li-Pang; Lin, Shih-Wei; Lee, Chung-Shu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Wei, Yu-Feng; Cheng, Shih-Lung; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Yu, Chong-Jen; Chen, Ning-Hung

    2016-08-08

    Sleep disturbance is a common complaint in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). However, the factors resulting in sleep disturbance remain unclear. This retrospective, observational, multicenter study aimed to identify the factors associated with sleep disturbance in patients with COPD. The study was a retrospective, observational, and multicenter research. Data including age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, COPD inhaler prescribed, clinical symptoms, pulmonary function tests, medical history of comorbidities, and questionnaires were collected. Parameters including demographics, symptoms, medication, severity, functional classification, and comorbidities were correlated with sleep quality scores. Among 377 patients with COPD, 200 (53 %) patients experienced poor sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index scores > 5). A significant difference in sleep quality, as measured by PSQI scores, was noted between groups based on the 2011 Global Initiatives for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification system. The most common sleep disturbances included "getting up to use the bathroom" (70.3 %), "wake up at night or early morning" (40.3 %), and "cough and snore loudly at night" (15.9 %). The use of inhaled corticosteroids, the presence of wheezing, COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores, and Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale scores positively correlated with poor sleep quality (odds ratio: 1.51, 1.66, 1.09, and 1.30, respectively). Upon multivariate analysis, the CAT score was an independent factor for poor sleep quality in these patients. With the exception of sleep problem items, based on the CAT questionnaire, phlegm was significantly higher in COPD patients with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality is common among patients with COPD and symptoms including wheeze, phlegm, and inhaled corticosteroid use may contribute to poor sleep quality. The CAT score is a good indicator of poor sleep quality in patients

  1. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-06-21

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events.

  2. Principles of the light-limited chemostat : Theory and ecological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Matthijs, HCP; Visser, PM; Balke, H; Sigon, CAM; Passarge, J; Weissing, FJ; Mur, LR

    2002-01-01

    Light is the energy source that drives nearly all ecosystems on planet Earth. Yet, light limitation is still poorly understood. In this paper, we present an overview of the principles of the light-limited chemostat. The theory for light-limited chemostats differs considerably from the standard

  3. Experienced nurses learning with medical students: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, L; Jones, H M

    1999-05-01

    Although there are successful examples of interdisciplinary education this generally relates to pre-registration health-care professionals. Post-registration projects are usually confined to skills workshops or social science subjects, which rarely include medical staff. This project was unusual in its attempt to combine the needs of experienced practitioners with those of medical students. There are practical issues for this form of learning such as, the organization of modules into 'systems' when health-care professionals (as part of a parallel project) indicated their interests lay in courses that related to clinical practice organized around disease processes/conditions. This case study demonstrates that concerns related to the potential mismatch of clinical expertise, maturity and scientific background are not insurmountable problems, and that clear benefits can be gained. It could be argued that until pre- and post-graduate medical staff are integrated with other disciplines, the real benefits of shared understanding, enhanced team work and mutual respect will remain illusive. It is not anticipated that this form of learning would be suitable for the majority of practitioners, whose core needs are generally met by existing opportunities. However, there is a need for a greater depth of academic understanding particularly for those in senior positions or in specific specialized areas (also identified in the parallel study) and for those whose roles are expanding. These practitioners are more likely to have the ability to apply their new knowledge to clinical practice, using reflective techniques with minimal facilitation to enhance their established clinical expertise. For them this model of learning offers the opportunity to tailor education to the individual needs of the practitioner without the costly establishment of complete new programmes of learning. This case study proved particularly successful for the participants as they enhanced understanding and

  4. Stress echocardiography in patients who experienced mechanical ventilation weaning failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Cobo-Molinos, Jesús; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Pola-Gallego-de-Guzmán, María Dolores; Cárdenas-Cruz, Antonio; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Sevilla-Martínez, María; Hernández-Caballero, Clara

    2017-06-01

    Critically ill patients may suffer varying degrees of temporary myocardial dysfunction during respiratory weaning that could play an important role in weaning failure. In this study, we tried to assess the existence of temporary diastolic dysfunction during respiratory weaning. Inclusion period is from 2006 to 2015. In this study, we included 181 ventilated patients with cardiogenic shock that were being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Twenty of those patients were successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation, and the rest (161) experienced complications in their weaning process. All patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction >0.45 and E/E' ratio≤8, did not require vasoactive drugs at that time, and did not have remaining significant ischemic disease. We divided our patients into 3 groups, as follows: A, patients who could not tolerate a T-tube and required pressure-support ventilation (82); B, patients who successfully tolerated a T-tube period (20); and C, patients who could not tolerate spontaneous breathing modes of mechanical ventilation and remained on assisted mechanical ventilation. We performed stress echocardiography for the last two groups; using dobutamine to assess diastolic function and using ephedrine to evaluate functional mitral regurgitation (MR). We estimated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure through the E/E' ratio and the flow in the pulmonary veins. In group A (ie, those patients who could not tolerate a T-tube trial), we observed an increase in the E/E' ratio (6.32±0.77 vs 15.2±6.65; P=.0001) and a worsening of strain (S) and strain rate (SR) (-13.6±1.80 vs -11.88±5.6, P=.0001; and -1.3±1.28 vs -0.95±0.38, P=.0001; respectively). We did not observe a change in the E/E' ratio during stress echocardiogram on those patients with successful weaning from mechanical ventilation (7.41±0.43 vs 8.38±4.57, P=.001). However, we did see in this group an increased peak velocity of the S wave and of SR (-16.11±08.72 vs -19.89±5

  5. Facilitating Participant Success: Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Bruccoli, A.; Porter, M.; Meese, D.

    2003-12-01

    Through the NSF-funded Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) Program K-12 science teachers participate as members of polar field projects. Objectives of the program include: immersing the science teacher in the experience of research; 2) leveraging the research experience of the teacher to better inform teaching practices; and 3) sharing the experience with the broader educational and general community. The polar field experience is an exciting opportunity accompanied by a daunting number of responsibilities. In addition to preparing for field research, TEA teachers bring their experience to colleagues, classrooms, and communities. Before going into the field, they give presentations, help plan how students can connect to the polar regions, and share the expedition with the public. In the field, the TEA teacher is a team member and educational liaison, responding to questions by e-mail, and posting e-journals describing the research experience. Upon return, the TEA again shares the experience broadly with the community. In addition, they work closely with 3 colleagues for 140 hours to bring the experience of research into classrooms. Formative evaluation of the TEA Program underscores the need to support teachers in accomplishing their responsibilities; this support is necessary to achieve program objectives. TEA teachers are responsible for sharing the science content of their research. While many broadcast the excitement of the experience, they may not have the scientific background to convey the content. This is due, in part, to many teachers having to be generalists in their classrooms. Shifting into the role of specialist can be challenging. In the year of preparation before the field experience, TEA teachers attend orientation, meet with their research teams for several days, and are encouraged to learn more about their science topic. Understanding builds through the field experience. It may take two or more years after the field work for the

  6. The Affordable Housing Crisis: Residential Mobility of Poor Families and School Mobility of Poor Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    Helping poor families increase their residential stability can have direct bearing on school stability and student academic achievement. Discusses the role of housing in child and family wellbeing; residential mobility and school performance; residential mobility and housing problems; housing affordability; (federal housing policy); homeownership;…

  7. Poor people and poor fields? : integrating legumes for smallholder soil fertility management in Chisepo, central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.

    2011-01-01

    Soil infertility undermines the agriculture-based livelihoods in Malawi, where it is blamed for poor crop yields and the creation of cycles of poverty. Although technologies and management strategies have been developed to reverse the decline in soil fertility, they are under-used by smallholder

  8. General practice clinicians' perspectives on involving and supporting children and adult perpetrators in families experiencing domestic violence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Cath; Drinkwater, Jessica; Hester, Marianne; Stanley, Nicky; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene

    2015-12-01

    Government and professional guidance encourages general practice clinicians to identify and refer children who experience domestic violence and abuse (DVA) but there is scant understanding of how general practice clinicians currently work with DVA in families. The study explored general practice clinicians' practice with children and their parents experiencing DVA and reflected on the findings in the light of current research and policy guidelines. Semi-structured interviews with 54 clinicians (42 GPs and 12 practice nurses/nurse practitioners) were conducted across six sites in England. Data were analysed using current literature and emerging themes. Data presented here concern clinicians' perspectives on engaging with family members when a parent discloses that she is experiencing DVA. When a parent disclosed DVA, clinicians were more likely to consider talking to abusive fathers than talking to children about the abuse. Perspectives varied according to whether consultation opportunities arose, risks, consent and confidentiality. Perceptions of 'patienthood', relationships and competence shaped clinicians' engagement. Perpetrators were seen as competent informers and active service users, with potential for accepting advice and support. Clinicians were more hesitant in talking with children. Where this was considered, children tended to be seen as passive informants, only two GPs described direct and ongoing consultations with children and providing them with access to support. Clinicians appear more inclined to engage directly with abusive fathers than children experiencing DVA. Clinician skills and confidence to talk directly with children experiencing DVA, in child sensitive ways, should be developed through appropriate training. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Poor, Old “Physical Education”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earle F. Zeigler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of physical activity (and related health education (“poor, old ‘PE’” needs to assert its "will to win" more vigorously then ever before. Scholarly and scientific investigation of the past 60 years since Sputnik was launched in 1957 has identified a wide variety of findings proving that a quality program can provide highly important benefits to the growing child and youth. Societal developments, including other curricular demands, have undoubtedly created uneasiness within the overall field of education. In North America the time and attention devoted to the relatively few involved in external highly competitive sport for the few has been a negative factor. At the same time intramural athletics for the large majority of children and youth has not been available to the extent it should be. There is now doubt as to the field’s ability to achieve high status within education. Therefore, we must pledge ourselves to make still greater efforts to become vibrant and stirring through absolute dedication and commitment in our professional endeavors. Ours is a high calling since we seek to improve the quality of life for all people on earth through the finest type of human motor performance in exercise, sport, and related expressive movement.

  10. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Månsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.

  11. Nursing Under the Old Poor Law in Midland and Eastern England 1780-1834.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steven

    2015-10-01

    This article uses data drawn from the overseers' accounts and supporting documentation in thirty-six parishes spread over four English counties, to answer three basic questions. First, what was the character, extent, structure, range of activities, and remuneration of the nursing labor force under the Old Poor Law between the late eighteenth century and the implementation of the New Poor Law in the 1830s? Second, were there regional and intra-regional differences in the scale and nature of spending on nursing care for the sick poor? Third, how might one explain such differences? The article suggests that nursing became an increasingly important category of spending for the poor law from the later eighteenth century, but that there were significant variations within and (particularly) between English counties in parochial attitudes toward the provision of nursing for the sick poor. These variations can be explained by applying a matrix of explanatory variables ranging from the minor (differences in how parishes defined "nursing") through to the major (long-standing cultural attitudes toward the responsibility of parishioners to their sick compatriots and the ingrained expectations of the sick poor). The article also throws new light on the hidden aspects of female labor force participation, pointing to the development of professional nursing networks long before the later nineteenth century. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Lamotrigine use in patients with binge eating and purging, significant affect dysregulation, and poor impulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunko, Mary Ellen; Schwartz, Terry A; Marzola, Enrica; Klein, Angela S; Kaye, Walter H

    2014-04-01

    Some patients with symptoms of binge eating and purging are successfully treated with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but others experience only partial or no benefit. Significant affect dysregulation and poor impulse control may be characteristics that limit responsiveness. We report on the treatment of five patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia nervosa-binge/purge type (AN-B/P) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), using the anticonvulsant lamotrigine after inadequate response to SSRIs. Following addition of lamotrigine to an antidepressant in four cases, and switch from an antidepressant to lamotrigine in one case, patients experienced substantial improvement in mood reactivity and instability, impulsive drives and behaviors, and eating-disordered symptoms. These findings raise the possibility that lamotrigine, either as monotherapy or as an augmenting agent to antidepressants, may be useful in patients who binge eat and purge, and have significant affect dysregulation with poor impulse control. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Users as designers: how people cope with poor HCI design in computer-based medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovich, J H; Woods, D D

    1996-12-01

    In this paper we examine how users interact with a computer-based infusion device adapted for terbutaline infusion to treat preterm labor in women experiencing high-risk pregnancies. This study examines (a) the human-computer interaction (HCI) deficiencies in the device as related to this context of use, (b) how the device characteristics increase the potential for error, and (c) the tailoring strategies developed by users to insulate themselves from failure. Interviews with nurses and tests of the behavior of the infusion device in different conditions identified several classic HCI deficiencies: complex and arbitrary sequences of operation, mode errors caused by poor differentiation of multiple operating modes intended for different contexts, ambiguous alarms, getting lost in multiple displays, and poor feedback on device state and behavior.

  14. Continuity of care as experienced by mental health service users - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Biringer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who struggle with mental health problems can provide valuable insight into understanding and improving the coordination of mental health and welfare services. The aims of the study were to explore service users’ experiences and perceptions of continuity of care within and across services relevant to personal recovery, to elicit which dimensions of continuity of care are most essential to service users, and to generate ideas for improving service users’ experiences of continuity of care. Methods In the context of a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach, ten service users at a community mental health centre were interviewed about their experiences of continuity of care in and across services. Eight of these were re-interviewed two years later. A collaborative research approach was adopted. Data were analysed by means of a data-driven stepwise approach in line with thematic analysis. Results Following the analysis five themes representing experiences of continuity of care were developed. Each theme ranged from poor to good experiences of continuity of care: Relationship – from experiencing frequent setbacks and anxiety due to breaks in relationships, to feeling safe in an ongoing personal relationship; Timeliness – from experiencing frustrating waiting times with worsening of problems, to getting help when needed; Mutuality – from having a one-sided struggle, to a situation in which both professionals and service users take initiatives; Choice – from not having the opportunity to make practical arrangements within the context of one’s everyday life, to having an array of support options to choose from; Knowledge – from feeling confused and insecure because one does not know what is happening, to feeling safe because one is informed about what is going to happen. Participants provided a range of suggestions for improving experiences of continuity of care. Conclusions A discrepancy between aspects of

  15. Dark matter CMB constraints and likelihoods for poor particle physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, James M.; Scott, Pat, E-mail: jcline@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: patscott@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    The cosmic microwave background provides constraints on the annihilation and decay of light dark matter at redshifts between 100 and 1000, the strength of which depends upon the fraction of energy ending up in the form of electrons and photons. The resulting constraints are usually presented for a limited selection of annihilation and decay channels. Here we provide constraints on the annihilation cross section and decay rate, at discrete values of the dark matter mass m{sub χ}, for all the annihilation and decay channels whose secondary spectra have been computed using PYTHIA in arXiv:1012.4515 (''PPPC 4 DM ID: a poor particle physicist cookbook for dark matter indirect detection''), namely e, μ, τ, V → e, V → μ, V → τ, u, d s, c, b, t, γ, g, W, Z and h. By interpolating in mass, these can be used to find the CMB constraints and likelihood functions from WMAP7 and Planck for a wide range of dark matter models, including those with annihilation or decay into a linear combination of different channels.

  16. Poor agreement between operators on grading of the placenta.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal placental grading is associated with poor pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to measure intra- and interobserver variability in placental grading. Five expert sonographers independently graded 90 images on two occasions, each viewing separated by 1 week. A number of measures were employed to standardise assessment and minimise potential for variation: prior agreement was established between observers on the classifications for placental grading; a controlled viewing laboratory was used for all viewings; ambient lighting was optimal and monitors were calibrated to the GSDF standard. Kappa (κ) analysis was used to measure observer agreement. Substantial variations between individuals\\' scores were observed. A mean κ-value of 0.34 (range from 0.19 to 0.50) indicated fair interobserver agreement over the two occasions and only nine of the 90 images were graded the same by all five observers. Intraobserver agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.52, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.45 to 0.66. This study demonstrates that, despite standardised viewing conditions, Grannum grading of the placenta is not a reliable technique even among expert observers. The need for new methods to assess placental health is required and work is ongoing to develop 2D and 3D software-based methods.

  17. Towards ab initio extremely metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-12-01

    Extremely metal-poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal-enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 M⊙ Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 1051 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 M⊙, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blast wave deposited metals only superficially, in a thin, unresolved layer. The first metal-enriched stars can form at a very low metallicity, of only 2-5 × 10-4 Z⊙, and can inherit the parent cloud's highly elliptical, radially extended orbit in the dark matter gravitational potential.

  18. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  19. Light up My Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, light is nature's way of transferring energy through space. Discussions of light usually refer to visible light, which is perceived by the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. We see however, only a small part of the light spectrum. Light connects us as we sit and tell yarns around camp fires. Yet, one in every four…

  20. Forced neuronal interactions cause poor communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzisch, Marine; Toni, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Post-natal hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in hippocampal function, and neurons born post-natally participate to spatial memory and mood control. However, a great proportion of granule neurons generated in the post-natal hippocampus are eliminated during the first 3 weeks of their maturation, a mechanism that depends on their synaptic integration. In a recent study, we examined the possibility of enhancing the synaptic integration of neurons born post-natally, by specifically overexpressing synaptic cell adhesion molecules in these cells. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules are transmembrane proteins mediating the physical connection between pre- and post-synaptic neurons at the synapse, and their overexpression enhances synapse formation. Accordingly, we found that overexpressing synaptic adhesion molecules increased the synaptic integration and survival of newborn neurons. Surprisingly, the synaptic adhesion molecule with the strongest effect on new neurons' survival, Neuroligin-2A, decreased memory performances in a water maze task. We present here hypotheses explaining these surprising results, in the light of the current knowledge of the mechanisms of synaptic integration of new neurons in the post-natal hippocampus.

  1. Making law work for the poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2005-11-15

    To many, law – the systems of binding rules governing human relations – seems remote from the reality of daily struggle in poor and marginalised communities around the world. Yet, directly or indirectly, legal rules shape the way we behave in our everyday life, and contribute to organise social and economic relations (from commercial codes to EC 'freedom-of-movement' treaty provisions to welfare state legislation). Since the 1960s, development agencies have supported law reform processes in developing countries. Interest in law reform was recently revived by the recognition of the importance of institutional frameworks for social change ('New Institutional Economics'), and by the attention paid by several development agencies to concepts like good governance and the rule of law. Earlier emphasis on 'legal transplants' and naive assumptions about the way the law operates have given way to a better understanding of the complex nature of processes of legal and socio-economic change. Drawing on three examples, this paper explores the extent to which legal tools can contribute to improve the lives of poorer groups in both developing and developed countries; the conditions under which this is possible; and the constraints that such tools face in the pursuit of this aim. The paper aims to spark reflection and debate on these issues – not to come up with definitive answers. It is likely to be of interest for development lawyers, development practitioners working at a macro-planning level, and researchers. As for development practitioners, the paper sets out the case for taking law seriously as a tool for positive change. As for development lawyers, it argues that designing and implementing legal interventions that deliver that positive change is function not only of sound legal thinking, but also of a solid understanding of power relations and other social, cultural, political and economic factors that affect the way the law operates in

  2. Energy Poverty in Rural and Urban India : Are the Energy Poor Also Income Poor?

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F; Samad, Hussain A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy poverty is a frequently used term among energy specialists, but unfortunately the concept is rather loosely defined. Several existing approaches measure energy poverty by defining an energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper proposes an alternative measure that is based on energy demand. The ...

  3. Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiro, Mariana G.; Barbara Plitnick; Rea, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic sleep restrictions cause a reduction in leptin and an increase in ghrelin, both of which are associated with hunger. Given that light/dark patterns are closely tied to sleep/wake patterns, we compared, in a within-subjects study, the impact of morning light exposures (60 lux of 633-nm [red], 532-nm [green], or 475-nm [blue] lights) to dim light exposures on leptin and ghrelin concentrations after subjects experienced 5 consecutive days of both an 8-hour (baseline) and a 5-ho...

  4. Withdrawal in adolescent light smokers following 24-hour abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Auerback, Glenna M.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Withdrawal is one of the most important symptoms of nicotine addiction. We examined the extent to which adolescent light smokers experienced withdrawal symptoms when deprived of nicotine for a 24-hr period. Methods: A total of 20 adolescents aged 13–17 years who smoked 1–5 cigarettes/day (CPD) refrained from smoking for a 24-hr period. Withdrawal scales were administered, and heart rate was measured at baseline, 12, and 24 hr. Neuropsychological testing was performed at baseline and 24 hr. Participants were divided into two groups: very light smokers (1–3 CPD) and light smokers (4–5 CPD). Results: At 12 hr, very light smokers experienced a decrease in withdrawal symptoms versus light smokers, who reported an increase in symptoms (−2.9 vs. 2.8, p = .02). Similarly, at 24 hr, very light smokers experienced a mean decrease in withdrawal score compared with a mean increase for the light smoker group (–2.2 vs. 5.8, p = .04). We did not find a significant change in heart rate or any differences in participants’ scores on the memory or concentration tasks. Discussion: Based on our findings in this controlled laboratory experiment, adolescent very light smokers did not appear to have significant withdrawal symptoms following abstinence from nicotine. Adolescent light smokers who smoke 4–5 CPD experienced subjective withdrawal symptoms but did not have objective signs of nicotine withdrawal. The stage of smoking in which adolescents are smoking 5 CPD or fewer appears to be a crucial time for studying development of nicotine addiction in teens as they may be transitioning from social smoking to early addiction. PMID:19246428

  5. Intratubular amyloid in light chain cast nephropathy is a risk factor for systemic light chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibier, Jean-Baptiste; Gnemmi, Viviane; Glowacki, François; Boyle, Eileen M; Lopez, Benjamin; MacNamara, Evelyne; Hoffmann, Maxime; Azar, Raymond; Guincestre, Thomas; Bourdon, Franck; Copin, Marie-Christine; Buob, David

    2017-10-20

    Light chain cast nephropathy is the most common form of kidney disease in patients with multiple myeloma. Light chain casts may occasionally show amyloid staining properties, that is, green birefringence after Congo red staining. The frequency and clinical significance of this intratubular amyloid are poorly understood. Here, we retrospectively assessed the clinicopathological features of 60 patients with histologically proven light chain cast nephropathy with a specific emphasis on intratubular amyloid, especially, its association with extrarenal systemic light chain amyloidosis. We found intratubular amyloid in 17 cases (17/60, 28%) and it was more frequent in patients with λ light chain gammopathy (13/17 in the 'intratubular amyloid' group vs 19/43 in the 'no intratubular amyloid' group, P=0.02). Pathological examination of extrarenal specimens showed that intratubular amyloid was significantly associated with the occurrence of systemic light chain amyloidosis (5/13 in the 'intratubular amyloid' group vs 0/30 in the 'no intratubular amyloid' group, P=0.001). Our results indicate that first, intratubular amyloid is not a rare finding in kidney biopsies of patients with light chain cast nephropathy, and, second, it reflects an amyloidogenic capacity of light chains that can manifest as systemic light chain amyloidosis. Thus, intratubular amyloid should be systematically screened for in kidney biopsies from patients with light chain cast nephropathy and, if detected, should prompt a work-up for associated systemic light chain amyloidosis.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 October 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.124.

  6. Carbon as the dominant light element in the lunar core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, E.S.; Lin, Y.; Rai, N.; Jansen, M.; van Westrenen, W.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical and geochemical observations point to the presence of a light element in the lunar core, but the exact abundance and type of light element are poorly constrained. Accurate constraints on lunar core composition are vital for models of lunar core dynamo onset and demise, core formation

  7. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  8. Data from: Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Fijen, T.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  9. Impact of light intensity and quality on chromatophore and nuclear gene expression in Paulinella chromatophora, an amoeba with nascent photosynthetic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Nowack, Eva C M; Price, Dana C; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Grossman, Arthur R

    2017-04-01

    Plastid evolution has been attributed to a single primary endosymbiotic event that occurred about 1.6 billion years ago (BYA) in which a cyanobacterium was engulfed and retained by a eukaryotic cell, although early steps in plastid integration are poorly understood. The photosynthetic amoeba Paulinella chromatophora represents a unique model for the study of plastid evolution because it contains cyanobacterium-derived photosynthetic organelles termed 'chromatophores' that originated relatively recently (0.09-0.14 BYA). The chromatophore genome is about a third the size of the genome of closely related cyanobacteria, but 10-fold larger than most plastid genomes. Several genes have been transferred from the chromatophore genome to the host nuclear genome through endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). Some EGT-derived proteins could be imported into chromatophores for function. Two photosynthesis-related genes (psaI and csos4A) are encoded by both the nuclear and chromatophore genomes, suggesting that EGT in Paulinella chromatophora is ongoing. Many EGT-derived genes encode proteins that function in photosynthesis and photoprotection, including an expanded family of high-light-inducible (ncHLI) proteins. Cyanobacterial hli genes are high-light induced and required for cell viability under excess light. We examined the impact of light on Paulinella chromatophora and found that this organism is light sensitive and lacks light-induced transcriptional regulation of chromatophore genes and most EGT-derived nuclear genes. However, several ncHLI genes have reestablished light-dependent regulation, which appears analogous to what is observed in cyanobacteria. We postulate that expansion of the ncHLI gene family and its regulation may reflect the light/oxidative stress experienced by Paulinella chromatophora as a consequence of the as yet incomplete integration of host and chromatophore metabolisms. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Blue-enriched office light competes with natural light as a zeitgeber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Céline; Juda, Myriam; Lang, Dieter; Wojtysiak, Andreas; Roenneberg, Till

    2011-09-01

    Circadian regulation of human physiology and behavior (eg, body temperature or sleep-timing), depends on the "zeitgeber" light that synchronizes them to the 24-hour day. This study investigated the effect of changing light temperature at the workplace from 4000 Kelvin (K) to 8000 K on sleep-wake and activity-rest behavior. An experimental group (N=27) that experienced the light change was compared with a non-intervention group (N=27) that remained in the 4000 K environment throughout the 5-week study period (14 January to 17 February). Sleep logs and actimetry continuously assessed sleep-wake behavior and activity patterns. Over the study period, the timing of sleep and activity on free days steadily advanced parallel to the seasonal progression of sunrise in the non-intervention group. In contrast, the temporal pattern of sleep and activity in the experimental group remained associated with the constant onset of work. The results suggest that artificial blue-enriched light competes with natural light as a zeitgeber. While subjects working under the warmer light (4000 K) appear to entrain (or synchronize) to natural dawn, the subjects who were exposed to blue-enriched (8000 K) light appear to entrain to office hours. The results confirm that light is the dominant zeitgeber for the human clock and that its efficacy depends on spectral composition. The results also indicate that blue-enriched artificial light is a potent zeitgeber that has to be used with diligence.

  11. Standard & Poor's kulupäid ei kummarda / Raivo Raigna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raigna, Raivo

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline reitinguagentuur Standard & Poor's hoiatas, et ilma rahanduslike reformideta hakkab Eesti rahvastiku vananemine avaldama tugevat survet avaliku sektori rahandusele ja ühtlasi riigi reitingule. Standard & Poor'si nn. mustast stsenaariumist, pakutud lahendusest

  12. Very Early Language Skills of Fifth-Grade Poor Comprehenders

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, Laura; Mashburn, Andrew; Petscher, Yaacov

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the theory that future poor comprehenders would show modest but pervasive deficits in both language comprehension and production during early childhood as compared with future poor decoders and typical readers. Using an existing database (NICHD ECCRN), fifth-grade students were identified as having poor comprehension skills (n = 516), poor decoding skills (n = 511) or typical reading skills (n = 535) based on standardized assessments of word recognition and reading comprehen...

  13. Comparative study of emotional experiencing in psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, S; Goldfried, M R

    1993-10-01

    Despite increased interest in the role of emotion in the process of psychotherapy, we currently lack a valid gauge of its importance in the change process. Significant sessions obtained from 13 experienced psychodynamic-interpersonal and 17 experienced cognitive-behavior therapists were examined to determine the extent of affective exploration and therapists' views of these client states. Results indicate that affective experiencing is present in equivalent amounts in the change sessions of these two orientations. However, therapists' clinical views were dissimilar. Psychodynamic-interpersonal therapists viewed portions containing higher affective experiencing as more critical to the change process, whereas cognitive-behavior therapists viewed lower levels of experiencing as being therapeutically more significant. These findings suggest that, with regard to emotional experiencing, psychodynamic-interpersonal therapists may share common ground with experiential therapists, whereas cognitive-behavior therapists appear to have a unique perspective.

  14. Artificial night lighting disrupts sex pheromone production in a Noctuid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Groot, A.T.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Donners, M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1. One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is the increase in nocturnal light pollution. Although this strongly alters the habitat of nocturnal species, the ecological consequences are poorly known. Moths are well known to be attracted to artificial light sources, but artificial

  15. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    the light source as far from the bottom edge as possible. The main results of the project show opportunities for energy savings in an office environment by reducing the installed power for the general lighting by applying a task light with a wide light distribution across the desk area , providing high...... illuminance uniformity . There is still work to be done on the prototype to optimize the energy consumption of the task light and measures need to be taken to minimize glare from the task light as well as reflected glare . The lamp head adjustment possibilities regarding tilting and turning result in problems...... to all objects on the desk than the two traditional reference task lights with LED retrofit light bulbs . By utilising this new type of task light, the energy consumption by general lighting can be reduced by approximately 40 % by fully exploiting the lower illuminance levels required by lighting...

  16. Perceptions of stakeholders on causes of poor performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a great deal of debate surrounds poor performance in Grade 12 National Examinations, very little research has addressed the factors influencing student performance. This paper gives an overview of causes of poor student performance in Grade 12. Stakeholders' perceptions on causes of poor student ...

  17. Ghana : Sector Reform and the Pattern of the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Edjekumhene, Ishmael; Amaka-Otchere, Akosua B.K.; Amissah-Arthur, Harriette

    2006-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study, which forms part of the broader project 'Energy Use, Energy Supply, Sector Reform and the Poor', is to establish patterns in the ways poor people in Ghana are accessing and using energy and to identify how changes in the patterns, attributable to energy sector reform and accompanying technological innovations, affect the Ghanaian poor. The study will see...

  18. Where Have All the Poor Gone? : Cambodia Poverty Assessment 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Over the seven years from 2004 through 2011, Cambodian economic growth was tremendous, ranking amid the best in the world. Moreover, household consumption increased by nearly 40 percent. And this growth was pro-poor, not only reducing inequality, but also proportionally boosting poor people's consumption further and faster than that of the non-poor. As a result, the poverty rate dropped fr...

  19. Very Early Language Skills of Fifth-Grade Poor Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura; Mashburn, Andrew; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the theory that future poor comprehenders would show modest but pervasive deficits in both language comprehension and production during early childhood as compared with future poor decoders and typical readers. Using an existing database (NICHD ECCRN), fifth-grade students were identified as having poor comprehension skills…

  20. Orthographic Processing and Visual Sequential Memory in Unexpectedly Poor Spellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Malone, Aisling M.; Redenbach, Holly

    2008-01-01

    Does unexpectedly poor spelling in adults result from inferior visual sequential memory? In one experiment, unexpectedly poor spellers performed significantly worse than better spellers in the immediate reproduction of sequences of visual symbols, but in a second experiment, the effect was not replicated. Poor spellers were also no worse at the…

  1. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%), women who had experienced domestic...

  2. Further evidence of poor comprehenders' difficulty with expressive writing: Exploring the role of inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Anna Maria; Carretti, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that children with poor reading comprehension abilities have weak expressive writing skills too. The aim of the present research was to establish whether poor comprehenders' low performance in expressive writing is mediated by the need to produce relevant inferences to construct the narrative. To do so, we compared two conditions: in one, the children's comprehension of the story relied partly on their ability to draw crucial causal inferences; in the other, all the information needed to follow the sequence of events was provided in pictures. Irrespective of the condition, poor comprehenders (aged 8-10 years) produced less effective written texts. Analyzing the use of connectives shed some light on the characteristics of the poor comprehenders' written narratives, which seemed to be less cohesive. The poor comprehenders tended to use more additive connectives than causal connectives, which is why their texts resembled a list of events with a description of each picture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Infrequency of Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening among Sexually Experienced U.S. Female Adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynne C. Fiscus; Carol A. Ford; William C. Miller

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Since 1993, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and professional medical organizations have recommended that all sexually experienced female adolescents receive annual screening for Chlamydia trachomatis...

  4. Uninsured Spells of the Poor: Prevalence and Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D.

    1997-01-01

    The number of persons without health insurance is increasing. Although research has focused on the uninsured poor and the duration of spells without health insurance, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of spells without health insurance among those in poverty. Here it is shown that the typical uninsured spell is longer for the uninsured poor (roughly 8.3 months) than for the uninsured non-poor (roughly 6 months) and that the duration of spells has increased over time. In addition, more than 40 percent of the uninsured at a point in time are chronically uninsured and poor or near-poor. PMID:10179996

  5. Lighting in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    The application of good lighting principles to school design is discussed. Part 1 of the study is concerned with the general principles of light and vision as they affect lighting in schools. Parts 2 and 3 deal with the application of these principles to daylighting and artificial lighting. Part 4 discusses the circumstances in which the…

  6. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education...

  7. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education.......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education....

  8. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  9. Next Generation Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    Light Robotics is a new field of research where ingredients from photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology are put together in new ways to realize light-driven robotics at the smallest scales to solve major challenges primarily within the nanobio-domain but not limited hereto. Exploring the full...... potential of this new ‘drone-like’ light-printed, light-driven, light-actuated micro- and nano-robotics in challenging geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light addressing that can dynamically track a plurality of tiny tools in 3D to ensure real-time continuous light...

  10. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  11. On the Early-Time Excess Emission in Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Perley, Daniel A.; Quimby, Robert M.; Waldman, Roni; Sullivan, Mark; Yan, Lin; Ofek, Eran O.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (approximately 10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (23 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration (greater than 30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.

  12. On the Early-time Excess Emission in Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Perley, Daniel A.; Quimby, Robert M.; Waldman, Roni; Sullivan, Mark; Yan, Lin; Ofek, Eran O.; Fremling, Christoffer; Taddia, Francesco; Sollerman, Jesper; Valenti, Stefano; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Yaron, Ofer; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cao, Yi; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Horesh, Assaf; Rubin, Adam; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Nugent, Peter E.; Laher, Russ; Rebbapragada, Umaa D.; Woźniak, Przemysław; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (˜10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2-3 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration (>30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.

  13. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  14. Concept of white light in stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Mauricio R.

    2002-06-01

    In perceiving objects, generally we see them in a white light situation. But, actually, there is not an absolute white, in such a manner that the different light sources have a determined kind of white, what it is known as color temperature. Even the white light may be of different kinds (different color temperature), the individual mind tends to perceive it as the same kind of white, that is to say, there is in our mind a psychological function by which we operate an integration in the perception in order to do the object perceptually invariable. On the other hand, it is a common practice in stage lighting to use color light sources. It is a well known phenomenon that a color of light produces a change in the object color perception. However, when we go to theater, we see the objects as having their real color, even if the lighting is not white. In this paper the concept of white light in stage lighting is presented, showing its possibilities of aesthetical expression.

  15. Light-stress avoidance mechanisms in a Sphagnum-dominated wet coastal Arctic tundra ecosystem in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, D; Oechel, Walter C; Richards, James H; Hastings, Steven; Kopetz, Irene; Ikawa, Hiroki; Oberbauer, Steven

    2011-03-01

    The Arctic experiences a high-radiation environment in the summer with 24-hour daylight for more than two months. Damage to plants and ecosystem metabolism can be muted by overcast conditions common in much of the Arctic. However, with climate change, extreme dry years and clearer skies could lead to the risk of increased photoxidation and photoinhibition in Arctic primary producers. Mosses, which often exceed the NPP of vascular plants in Arctic areas, are often understudied. As a result, the effect of specific environmental factors, including light, on these growth forms is poorly understood. Here, we investigated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the ecosystem scale, net Sphagnum CO2 exchange (NSE), and photoinhibition to better understand the impact of light on carbon exchange from a moss-dominated coastal tundra ecosystem during the summer season 2006. Sphagnum photosynthesis showed photoinhibition early in the season coupled with low ecosystem NEE. However, later in the season, Sphagnum maintained a significant CO2 uptake, probably for the development of subsurface moss layers protected from strong radiation. We suggest that the compact canopy structure of Sphagnum reduces light penetration to the subsurface layers of the moss mat and thereby protects the active photosynthetic tissues from damage. This stress avoidance mechanism allowed Sphagnum to constitute a significant percentage (up to 60%) of the ecosystem net daytime CO2 uptake at the end of the growing season despite the high levels of radiation experienced.

  16. Light and colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Often a dichotomy between daylight and artificial light is observed, often artificial lighting replaces daylight. In Denmark daylight is characterized partly by being "borrowed" half of the year, partly by having long transitions periods between the light and the dark (nautical and civil twilight......). For these reasons artificial lighting does not complement daylight but provides, coupled with the daylight, the total lighting in the indoor environment. Electric lighting is therefore ‐ in a complex interaction with the daylight ‐ of great importance for both our lighting and our wellbeing. Studying artificial...... lighting without studying daylight seem to be a common procedure of the practice of today in Denmark and other parts of the industrialized world. As a consequence of this artificial lighting suffers from a quantifying tyranny, a tyranny where the quality of light is measured in quantities. This procedure...

  17. The comparison of socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2018-01-01

    Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck's Depression, Spielberger's Anxiety, Cohen's Perceived Stress, Sarason's Perceived Social Support and WHO's Domestic Violence Inventory. The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families.

  18. Lights illuminate surfaces superluminally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Zhong, Qi; Lilleskov, Elias

    2016-07-01

    When a light bulb is turned on, light moves away from it at speed c, by definition. When light from this bulb illuminates a surface, however, this illumination front is not constrained to move at speed c. A simple proof is given that this illumination front always moves faster than c. Generalized, when any compact light source itself varies, this information spreads across all of the surfaces it illuminates at speeds faster than light.

  19. Geolocation by light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.

    2012-01-01

    1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (... factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we...

  20. Regional disparities in the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Elizabeth J; Liang, Song; McDowell, Julia Z; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Remais, Justin V

    2012-08-01

    To estimate the disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China, to identify high-burden groups and to inform improvement measures. The disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated for diseases resulting from exposure to biologically contaminated soil and water (diarrhoeal disease, helminthiases and schistosomiasis) and vector transmission resulting from inadequate management of water resources (malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis). The data were obtained from China's national infectious disease reporting system, national helminthiasis surveys and national water and sanitation surveys. The fraction of each health condition attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated from data in the Chinese and international literature. In 2008, 327 million people in China lacked access to piped drinking water and 535 million lacked access to improved sanitation. The same year, unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene accounted for 2.81 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 62,800 deaths in the country, and 83% of the attributable burden was found in children less than 5 years old. Per capita DALYs increased along an east-west gradient, with the highest burden in inland provinces having the lowest income per capita. Despite remarkable progress, China still needs to conduct infrastructural improvement projects targeting provinces that have experienced slower economic development. Improved monitoring, increased regulatory oversight and more government transparency are needed to better estimate the effects of microbiologically and chemically contaminated water and poor sanitation and hygiene on human health.

  1. Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G. Figueiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic sleep restrictions cause a reduction in leptin and an increase in ghrelin, both of which are associated with hunger. Given that light/dark patterns are closely tied to sleep/wake patterns, we compared, in a within-subjects study, the impact of morning light exposures (60 lux of 633-nm [red], 532-nm [green], or 475-nm [blue] lights to dim light exposures on leptin and ghrelin concentrations after subjects experienced 5 consecutive days of both an 8-hour (baseline and a 5-hour sleep-restricted schedule. In morning dim light, 5-hour sleep restriction significantly reduced leptin concentrations compared to the baseline, 8-hour sleep/dim-light condition (1,32 = 2.9; =0.007. Compared to the 5-hour sleep/dim-light condition, the red, green, and blue morning light exposures significantly increased leptin concentrations (1,32 = 5.7; <0.0001, 1,32 = 3.6; =0.001, and 1,32 = 3.0; =0.005, resp.. Morning red light and green light exposures significantly decreased ghrelin concentrations (1,32 = 3.3; <0.003 and 1,32 = 2.2; =0.04, resp., but morning blue light exposures did not. This study is the first to demonstrate that morning light can modulate leptin and ghrelin concentrations, which could have an impact on reducing hunger that accompanies sleep deprivation.

  2. Transporting Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness. McKinney-Vento Law into Practice Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Changing schools may greatly impede the academic achievement and social development of students experiencing homelessness. Students who transfer to a new school often experience educational discontinuity and, as a result, lose academic credits. Moreover, the mobility experienced by these students separates them from their social network and from…

  3. Learning from Families Experiencing Homelessness--How School Leaders Can Make a Difference through Transformative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warke, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…

  4. Differences of Ballet Turns ("Pirouette") Performance between Experienced and Novice Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns ("pirouettes"). Method: Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination…

  5. Prevalence and prediction of re-experiencing and avoidance after elective surgical abortion: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated short-term re-experiencing and avoidance after elective surgical abortion. In addition, it was prospectively investigated whether peritraumatic dissociation and pre-abortion dissociative tendencies and alexithymia predict re-experiencing and avoidance. Method: In a

  6. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  7. Shaping Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Experienced Agriculture Teachers in the Plant Sciences: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The most emergent phenomenon to surface from the data was the influence of beliefs on participants' PCK. This central phenomenon became the cornerstone for the model of what was shaping experienced agriculture…

  8. Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

  9. The Online Life of Individuals Experiencing Socioeconomic Disadvantage: How Do They Experience Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Kathleen; Bruce, Christine S.; Hughes, Hilary; Davis, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the online information experiences of individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage in Australia. As access to online information becomes increasingly critical those without access are in danger of being left behind. This exploratory pilot study examines the way that digital exclusion may be experienced.…

  10. Photoprotection of photosystems in fluctuating light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Suorsa, Marjaana; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-05-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms experience strong fluctuations in light intensity in their natural terrestrial and aquatic growth environments. Recent studies with both plants and cyanobacteria have revealed that Photosystem (PS) I is the potential target of damage upon abrupt changes in light intensity. Photosynthetic organisms have, however, developed powerful mechanisms in order to protect their photosynthetic apparatus against such potentially hazardous light conditions. Although the electron transfer chain has remained relatively unchanged in both plant chloroplasts and their cyanobacterial ancestors, the photoprotective and regulatory mechanisms of photosynthetic light reactions have experienced conspicuous evolutionary changes. In cyanobacteria, the specific flavodiiron proteins (Flv1 and Flv3) are responsible for safeguarding PSI under rapidly fluctuating light intensities, whilst the thylakoid located terminal oxidases are involved in the protection of PSII during 12h diurnal cycles involving abrupt, square-wave, changes from dark to high light. Higher plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have evolved different protective mechanisms. In particular, the PGR5 protein controls electron flow during sudden changes in light intensity by allowing the regulation mostly via the Cytochrome b6f complex. Besides the function of PGR5, plants have also acquired other dynamic regulatory mechanisms, among them the STN7-related LHCII protein phosphorylation that is similarly responsible for protection against rapid changes in the light environment. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as an evolutionary intermediate between cyanobacteria and higher plants, probably possesses both protective mechanisms. In this review, evolutionarily different photoprotective mechanisms under fluctuating light conditions are described and their contributions to cyanobacterial and plant photosynthesis are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  11. Can Light Travel Faster than Light?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Can Light Travel Faster than Light? Supurna Sinha. Research News Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 90-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/11/0090-0093 ...

  12. Being closely connected to health care providers experiencing burnout: putting one's life on hold to help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Strandberg, Gunilla

    2010-02-01

    Being closely connected to a person experiencing illness may be a trying experience.This study aimed to illuminate meanings of being closely connected to health care providers experiencing burnout. Ten interviews were conducted with five people closely connected (i.e., family members or supportive friends) to health care providers recovering from burnout. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and the resulting text was interpreted using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method. One consequence of being closely connected to health care providers experiencing burnout is putting one's life on hold to help. In facing an almost unmanageable burden, those closely connected revealed their own suffering, emphasizing their need for support. Health care professionals need to be aware that those who are closely connected to a person experiencing burnout may lack knowledge about burnout and its related challenges. It is to be hoped such knowledge would allow significant others to better support the person experiencing burnout and promote their own health.

  13. FENOMENOLOGY STUDY: THE GOVERMENT POLICY TO GIVING PUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE IN A POOR SOCIETY WHO HAVE A MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achir Yani S. Hamid

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited of government’s budget for psychiatric patients has contributed to the expenses should be paid from out of pocket of the poor patients. The purpose of this research was to describe the Government policy on health social security insurance for the poor people experiencing psychiatric problems in DKI Jakarta. Method: Qualitative research method was used with phenomenology approach to identify and describe the themes relevant to government public policy in providing health insurance for poor people with mental health problems. An in-depth interview and focus group discussion were used to collect data from different informants: service user, healthcare provider, local government policy maker. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Result: The study revealed the following themes: from user perspective (understanding of psychiatric disorder, social security network/JPKM, right and obligation, the advantage and barrier for receiving services, expectation from care provider, social support and expected future direction; from the perspective of healthcare provider (understanding of social security network/JPKM, types of provided health services, recording and reporting, referral system, cost, and the criteria of poor people, from local government and health office perspective (understanding of JPKM for poor family, scope of work, working procedure, recording and reporting, cost, accountability, poor people criteria, the relationship between central Government policy with local government policy. Discussion: The finding of this study recommend the need for leveling socialization of JPKM, the budget transparences, improving the healthcare providers’ knowledge on the mental health psychiatric problems and its needs.

  14. Modelling the nucleosynthetic properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor RR Lyrae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancliffe, Richard J.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2013-10-01

    Certain carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars likely obtained their composition via pollution from some of the earliest generations of asymptotic giant branch stars and as such provide important clues to early Universe nucleosynthesis. Recently, Kinman et al. discovered that the highly carbon- and barium-enriched metal-poor star SDSS J1707+58 is in fact an RR Lyrae pulsator. This gives us an object in a definite evolutionary state where the effects of dilution of material during the main sequence are minimized owing to the object having passed through first dredge-up. We perform detailed stellar modelling of putative progenitor systems in which we accreted material from asymptotic giant branch stars in the mass range 1-2 M⊙. We investigate how the surface abundances are affected by the inclusion of mechanisms like thermohaline mixing and gravitational settling. While we are able to find a reasonable fit to the carbon and sodium abundances of SDSS J1707+58, suggesting accretion of around 0.1 M⊙ from a 2 M⊙ companion, the strontium and barium abundances remain problematic and this object may have experienced something other than a standard s-process. We have more success in fitting the abundances of the mildly carbon-enriched, metal-poor RR Lyrae pulsator TY Gru (CS 22881-071), which we suggest received 0.1 M⊙ of material from a companion of around 1 M⊙.

  15. Lighting in the urban context case study: Exterior decorative lighting of St. Marko's Church in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Lidija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years more attention has been devoted to exterior decorative lighting in Belgrade. Unfortunately, illuminance is very often the only quality factor for lighting design. Lighting quality is a broader concept than illuminance (quantity of light, determined by a number of factors out of which some can and others cannot be quantitatively determined. Buildings and spaces with urban, architectural and/or style values impose certain requests for lighting design, which can either emphasize or degrade these values. The lighting designer has the obligation to respond to the imposed requests and in this way support the building concept, as well as its role in the urban context. Various possibilities of artificial lighting enable better, more effective and more interesting impressions of buildings than experienced in daylight conditions. Some of the significant possibilities of artificial lighting, which can satisfy requests imposed by urban architectural or style elements, include: The possibility to emphasize elements of style, building details or ornaments, which resemble the most important values on a building or façade. This enables elements of exceptional value to be clearly noticeable (in a greater extent than in daylight conditions; Decorative lighting allows the possibility of presenting the hierarchy of architectural or style elements, which is a contribution to the emphasis of the main idea and building spirit; ® The possibility to emphasize proportions and/or balance of the façade, making solids and voids clearly distinctive; If emphasis of the building concept is the lighting aim, it is possible to realize different impressions from the ones experienced in daylighting (lighting the facade plane which is drawn in and remains in the shadow during the day; When lighting modern architecture, decorative lighting has the possibility to promote the main idea, emphasizing proportions, valuable building parts and/or the rhythm of the

  16. Whiteboards and discharge traffic lights: visual management in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lauri; Bassham, Jane; Lewis, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    Flinders Medical Centre was experiencing issues with timely discharge and knowing the potential discharges and in-patient bed capacity for the next day. This case study describes the application of 'visual management' theory to discharge processes. The solutions developed were 'patient journey boards' and 'discharge traffic lights'. The implementation of these visual management systems has enabled the hospital to improve its discharge processes.

  17. Experiencing Radians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that uses an inexpensive paper plate and a short length of adding machine tape to help students experience the concept of radian measure. Focuses on radian measurement and connects many geometric concepts regarding the circle. (ASK)

  18. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    , who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  19. Outcome of poor response Paediatric AML using early SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wareham, Neval E; Heilmann, Carsten; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with poor response acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) generally have a very poor outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is often recommended for these children but the benefit is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate survival for poor response AML patients...... treated with SCT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment was given according to the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol. All patients received AIET (Cytarabine, Idarubicin, Etoposide, Thioguanine) and AM (Cytarabine, Mitoxantrone) as induction. We included poor response defined as > 15% blasts on day 15 after AIET (n = 17......, matched sibling donors in 6, cord blood donor in 4, and haploidentical donor in two. The median follow-up for the 31 poor responding patients was 2.6 years (range 0.4 - 8.1 years) and 3-year probability of survival 70% (95% CI 59-77%). CONCLUSIONS: The poor responders in the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol had...

  20. The design of lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Tregenza, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This fully updated edition of the successful book The Design of Lighting, provides the lighting knowledge needed by the architect in practice, the interior designer and students of both disciplines. The new edition offers a clear structure, carefully selected material and linking of lighting with other subjects, in order to provide the reader with a comprehensive and specifically architectural approach to lighting. Features of this new edition include:technical knowledge of lighting in the context of architectural design;an emphasis on imagination in architectural light and presentation of the

  1. Lamps and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Cayless, MA; Marsden, A M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of lighting. Covering the physics of light production, light sources, circuits and a wide variety of lighting applications, it is both suitable as a detailed textbook and as thoroughly practical guide for practising lighting engineers. This fourth edition of Lamps and Lighting has been completely updated with new chapters on the latest lamp technology and applications. The editors ahve called upon a wide range of expertise and as a result many sections have been broadened to include both European and US practice.The book begins with

  2. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human......On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...

  3. Tactical lighting in special operations medicine: survey of current preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, Christopher J; Enzenauer, Robert W; Eisnor, Derek L; Laporta, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Success in Special Operations Forces medicine (SOFMED) is dependent on maximizing visual capability without compromising the provider or casualty position when under fire. There is no single ideal light source suitable for varied SOFMED environments. We present the results of an online survey of Special Operations Medical Operators in an attempt to determine strengths and weaknesses of current systems. There was no consensus ideal hue for tactical illumination. Most Operators own three or more lights, and most lights were not night vision compatible. Most importantly, nearly 25% of respondents reported that lighting issues contributed to a poor casualty outcome; conversely, a majority (50 of 74) stated their system helped prevent a poor outcome. Based on the results of this initial survey, we can affirm that the design and choice of lighting is critical to SOFMED success. We are conducting ongoing studies to further define ideal systems for tactical applications including field, aviation, and marine settings. 2013.

  4. The Burden of Poor Mental Well-being Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Examining Health Care Resource Use and Work Productivity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolge, Susan C; Flores, Natalia M; Phan, Jennifer H

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of mental well-being with outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Seven thousand eight hundred fifty-two adults with T2DM were identified from a national, Internet-based study. Mental well-being [SF-36v2 mental component summary (MCS)] was categorized as good (MCS ≥ 50), poor (40 ≤ MCS health care resource use and lost productivity (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire). Respondents with very poor/poor versus good mental well-being were more likely to visit the emergency room (27%/18% vs 11%, P labor force participants, those with very poor/poor versus good mental well-being experienced greater overall work impairment (43.7/26.0 vs 10.7, P productivity impairment associated with poorer mental well-being among patients with T2DM has cost implications.

  5. Prevalence and Nature of Late-Emerging Poor Readers

    OpenAIRE

    Catts, Hugh W.; Compton, Donald; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2012-01-01

    Some children demonstrate adequate or better reading achievement in early school grades, but fall significantly behind their peers in later grades. These children are often referred to as late-emerging poor readers. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and heterogeneity of these poor readers. We also examined the early language and nonverbal cognitive abilities of late-emerging poor readers. Participants were 493 children who were a subsample from an epidemiological study of language...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and ankle musculoskeletal disorders experienced by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lloyd F; Battistutta, Diana; Young, Jeanine; Newman, Beth

    2014-06-05

    Nurses are at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although the prevalence of MSDs of the lower back, upper limbs, neck and shoulders have been reported previously in nursing, few studies have evaluated MSDs of the foot and ankle. This study evaluated the prevalence of foot and ankle MSDs in nurses and their relation to individual and workplace risk factors. A self-administered survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was distributed, over a nine-week period, to all eligible nurses (n = 416) working in a paediatric hospital in Brisbane, Australia. The prevalence of MSDs for each of the NMQ body regions was determined. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between activity-limiting foot/ankle MSDs and risk factors related to the individual (age, body mass index, number of existing foot conditions, smoking history, general physical health [SF36 Physical Component Scale], footwear features) or the workplace (level of nursing position, work location, average hours worked, hours worked in previous week, time since last break from work). A 73% response rate was achieved with 304 nurses completing surveys, of whom 276 were females (91%). Mean age of the nurses was 37 years (±10), younger than the state average of 43 years. Foot/ankle MSDs were the most prevalent conditions experienced by nurses during the preceding seven days (43.8%, 95% CI 38.2-49.4%), the second most prevalent MSDs to impair physical activity (16.7%, 95% CI 13.0-21.3%), and the third most prevalent MSD, after lower-back and neck problems, during the preceding 12 months (55.3%, 95% CI 49.6-60.7%). Of the nurse and work characteristics investigated, obesity, poor general physical health, existing foot conditions and working in the intensive care unit emerged as statistically significant (p nurses and resulted in physical activity limitations in one out of every six nurses. We recommend targeted education

  7. Tensions in relation: How peer support is experienced and received in a hepatitis C treatment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnington, Oliver; Harris, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Peer support and involvement is recognised as a vital component of hepatitis C (HCV) treatment provision for marginalised populations, such as people who inject drugs (PWID). Developments in HCV treatments enable increased provision in community settings - expanding the possibilities for meaningful peer involvement in HCV treatment plans. To date, HCV peer support has generally been viewed as a positive intervention, with little critical reflection on the ways social structures, policies, health and drug services and social identity impact on how peer support is experienced and received. We report on the qualitative component of a UK-based intervention designed to increase HCV diagnosis and treatment in primary care and drug treatment settings. Data were collected between 2014 and 2016. Pre-intervention, a total of 35 PWID clients took part in nine in-depth interviews and four focus groups. In addition, 22 drug services and intervention providers took part in two focus groups and nine interviews. Post-intervention, one focus group and eight interviews were conducted with 13 PWID clients, and four focus groups and ten interviews were conducted with 26 drug services and intervention providers. Our data generation and thematic analysis focused on the peer education and buddy support component of the intervention. Participants had common expectations of the peer role (to 'just be there') and its occupants' attributes (empathy, trustworthy, etc.). However, in practice, peers faced constraints on realising these expectations. A 'recovery' dominated drug treatment ethos in the UK appeared to influence the selection of 'recovery champions' as peers for the intervention. This created tensions in relations with clients, particularly when risk-adverse discourses were internalised by the peers. Peers were poorly integrated and supported within the service, affecting opportunities to relate and build trust with clients. Thus, the scope for peer support to impact on the nature

  8. Engineering a Light-Attenuating Artificial Iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Farah J; Sun, Shan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Kassem, Iris; Azar, Dimitri; Cho, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Discomfort from light exposure leads to photophobia, glare, and poor vision in patients with congenital or trauma-induced iris damage. Commercial artificial iris lenses are static in nature to provide aesthetics without restoring the natural iris's dynamic response to light. A new photo-responsive artificial iris was therefore developed using a photochromic material with self-adaptive light transmission properties and encased in a transparent biocompatible polymer matrix. The implantable artificial iris was designed and engineered using Photopia, a class of photo-responsive materials (termed naphthopyrans) embedded in polyethylene. Photopia was reshaped into annular disks that were spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form our artificial iris lens of controlled thickness. Activated by UV and blue light in approximately 5 seconds with complete reversal in less than 1 minute, the artificial iris demonstrates graded attenuation of up to 40% of visible and 60% of UV light. There optical characteristics are suitable to reversibly regulate the incident light intensity. In vitro cell culture experiments showed up to 60% cell death within 10 days of exposure to Photopia, but no significant cell death observed when cultured with the artificial iris with protective encapsulation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed these results as there was no apparent leakage of potentially toxic photochromic material from the ophthalmic device. Our artificial iris lens mimics the functionality of the natural iris by attenuating light intensity entering the eye with its rapid reversible change in opacity and thus potentially providing an improved treatment option for patients with iris damage.

  9. Patient affect experiencing following therapist interventions in short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Joel M; Hardy, Gillian E; McCullough, Leigh; Stride, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between therapist interventions and patient affect responses in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP). The Affect Experiencing subscale from the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) was adapted to measure individual immediate affect experiencing (I-AES) responses in relation to therapist interventions coded within the preceding speaking turn, using the Psychotherapy Interaction Coding (PIC) system. A hierarchical linear modelling procedure was used to assess the change in affect experiencing and the relationship between affect experiencing and therapist interventions within and across segments of therapy. Process data was taken from six STDP cases; in total 24 hours of video-taped sessions were examined. Therapist interventions were found to account for a statistically significant amount of variance in immediate affect experiencing. Higher levels of immediate affect experiencing followed the therapist's use of Confrontation, Clarification and Support compared to Questions, Self-disclosure and Information interventions. Therapist Confrontation interventions that attempted to direct pressure towards either the visceral experience of affect or a patient's defences against feelings led to the highest levels of immediate affect experiencing. The type of therapist intervention accounts for a small but significant amount of the variation observed in a patient's immediate emotional arousal. Empirical findings support clinical theory in STDP that suggests strategic verbal responses promote the achievement of this specific therapeutic objective.

  10. The comparison of socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck’s Depression, Spielberger’s Anxiety, Cohen’s Perceived Stress, Sarason’s Perceived Social Support and WHO’s Domestic Violence Inventory. Results: The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families. PMID:29376514

  11. Lighting detectives forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Skindbjerg Kristensen, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    Belysning for boligområder var emnet for lighting detectives forum, der blev afholdt i Stockholm i august 2003.......Belysning for boligområder var emnet for lighting detectives forum, der blev afholdt i Stockholm i august 2003....

  12. Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a world leader in soft x-ray science, generates light in the wavelengths needed for examining the atomic and electronic structure of...

  13. Lights in the darkness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Harvey A.

    2015-06-01

    In reply to the feature article “Lighting up the world” (March pp31-33) about Study After Sunset, an initiative to bring safe, off-grid lighting to school-age children in areas without mains electricity.

  14. Introduction on Lighting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    green light in the region .... The relation between lighting and architecture is of interest from several viewpoints. During the design- ... cational form or structure through which the archi- tectural student can be led to understand the nature.

  15. GPC Light Shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Raaby, Peter; Glückstad, Jesper

    Generalized Phase Contrast is a disruptive light sculpting technology for studying brain functionalities via light-activated neuron control. GPC dynamically reshapes conventional or multiwavelength lasers for precise and efficient neuron targeting. GPC also makes existing laser systems much more...

  16. Spectrally tunable lighting facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Solid-state lighting (SSL) is increasingly being introduced into the market and it is expected that many of the light sources currently used for general illumination...

  17. Light Imaging Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  18. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education....

  19. THE ORIGIN OF LOW [α/Fe] RATIOS IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken' ichi, E-mail: c.kobayashi@herts.ac.uk [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-04-10

    We show that the low ratios of α elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., 13-25 M {sub ☉} supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [α/Fe] of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with 13-25 M {sub ☉} faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  20. The landscape lighting book

    CERN Document Server

    Moyer, Janet Lennox

    2013-01-01

    This richly illustrated, up-to-date guide offers practical coverage of all aspects of lighting design. Written by an award-winning, internationally known lighting designer, it covers lighting practices, materials, and their design applications and offers guidelines for preparing lighting drawings, control and transfer charts, symbol lists, and other technical specifications. This edition provides a new focus on the use of LEDs, as well as new and expanded coverage of renderings, Mesopic Vision, and the latest controls approaches and systems.

  1. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  2. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  3. LEDs for greenhouse lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED's) are a promising technology for greenhouse lighting with their efficiency to activate plant photosynthesis potentially higher in red LEDs than in HPS lamps. Due to their particular light colour, LEDs can initiate special effects in plants or steer plant processes and plant balance

  4. LEDs for greenhouse lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED's) are a promising technology for greenhouse lighting with their efficiency to activate plant photosynthesis potentially higher in red LEDs than in HPS lamps. Due to their particular light colour, LEDs can initiate special effects in plants or steer plant processes and

  5. CSM/LM Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a)Identify the types and uses of the various lighting components: Interior (CM, LM), Exterior (CSM, LM); b) Explain the purpose and locations of electroluminescent (EL) and radioluminescent (RL)lighting techniques; c) Understand the use of various D&C lighting components; and d) Understand in-flight anomalies.

  6. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  7. Seeing the Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportel, Samuel; Bruxvoort, Crystal; Jadrich, James

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, students are typically introduced to light as a type of wave. However, children struggle to understand this model because it is highly abstract. Light can be represented more concretely using the photon model. According to this scientific model, light emanates from sources as tiny "packets" of energy (called "photons") that move in…

  8. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process...

  9. Street light detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a method, a vehicle and a system for measuring light from one or more outdoor lamps on a road, the system comprising a number of light sensors configured to be arranged in a fixed position relative to a vehicle, where at least a first part of the light sensors is configured for measu...

  10. A comparison of the language skills of ELLs and monolinguals who are poor decoders, poor comprehenders, or normal readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Esther; Massey-Garrison, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this article is to examine how oral language abilities relate to reading profiles in English language learners (ELLs) and English as a first language (EL1) learners, and the extent of similarities and differences between ELLs and EL1s in three reading subgroups: normal readers, poor decoders, and poor comprehenders. The study included 100 ELLs and 50 EL1s in Grade 5. The effect of language group (ELL/EL1) and reading group on cognitive and linguistic skills was examined. Except for vocabulary, there was no language group effect on any measure. However, within ELL and EL1 alike, significant differences were found between reading groups: Normal readers outperformed the two other groups on all the oral language measures. Distinct cognitive and linguistic profiles were associated with poor decoders and poor comprehenders, regardless of language group. The ELL and EL1 poor decoders outperformed the poor comprehenders on listening comprehension and inferencing. The poor decoders displayed phonological-based weaknesses, whereas the poor comprehenders displayed a more generalized language processing weakness that is nonphonological in nature. Regardless of language status, students with poor decoding or comprehension problems display difficulties with various aspects of language.

  11. High-Dose Lanreotide in the Treatment of Poorly Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Van Fraeyenhove

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs, including poorly differentiated carcinomas (NECs, are rarely encountered. The majority of these tumors do not secrete excess hormones, but functioning NETs produce large amounts of vasoactive peptides and may cause carcinoid syndrome. Synthetic somatostatin analogs (SSAs have been widely used in NETs for control of hormonal syndromes. Here, we present a case of poorly differentiated, grade 3 pancreatic NEC associated with carcinoid syndrome, for which adequate symptom control was achieved for 2 years and 4 months using the long-acting SSA lanreotide Autogel®. In February 2009, a 55-year-old woman presented with episodes of flushing, diarrhea and epigastric pain. Imaging techniques revealed the presence of a metabolically active mass expressing somatostatin receptors in the hilar area of the liver. Histopathological examination confirmed the malignant nature of the mass, which was identified as a poorly differentiated grade 3 pancreatic NEC (TNM staging: T4NxM0. Therapeutic options were limited for the patient because of the extent of the primary mass involving the celiac axis, severe gastrointestinal toxicity experienced as a side effect of chemotherapy with cisplatin-etoposide and, later in the course of the disease, extensive liver metastases and carcinoid heart syndrome. Along with a palliative debulking surgery and right portal vein embolization, biotherapy with a high dose of lanreotide Autogel (120 mg/14 days contributed to alleviation of symptoms caused by hormone overproduction, even after the development of liver metastases. These results suggest that patients with poorly differentiated NECs who exhibit signs of carcinoid syndrome can benefit from treatment with somatostatin analogs.

  12. Scale-up aspects of photobioreactors : effects of mixing-induced light/dark cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bresser, de L.; Baijens, T.; Tramper, J.; Mur, L.R.; Snel, J.F.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    The green micro-algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were cultivated under medium-duration square-wave light/dark cycles with a cycle time of 15 s. These cycles were used to simulate the light regime experienced by micro-algae in externally-illuminated (sunlight) air-lift loop

  13. Objective ergonomic risk assessment of wrist and spine with motion analysis technique during simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy in experienced and novice surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Twinkle Yogesh; Yardi, Sujata Sudhir; Oak, Sanjay Narahari; Ramchandani, Sneha

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a rise in prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in surgeons performing laparoscopic surgeries due to lack of ergonomic considerations to the minimal access surgical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the physical ergonomics in experienced and novice surgeons during a simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-two surgeons participated in this study and were distributed in two groups (experienced and novices) based on the inclusion criteria. Both groups were screened for the spinal and wrist movements on the orientation sensor-based, motion analysis device while performing a simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Simultaneous video recording was used to estimate the other joint positions. The RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) ergonomic risk scores were estimated with the acquired data. RESULTS: We found that surgeons in both novice and experienced groups scored a high on the RULA. Limited awareness of the influence of monitor position on the postural risk caused surgeons to adopt non-neutral range cervical postures. The thoracolumbar spine is subjected to static postural demand. Awkward wrist postures were adopted during the surgery by both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the RULA scores between the novice and experienced, but some differences in maximum joint excursions between them as detected on the motion analysis system. CONCLUSION: Both experienced and novice surgeons adopted poor spinal and wrist ergonomics during simulated cholecystectomy. We concluded that the physical ergonomic risk is medium as estimated by the RULA scoring method, during this minimally invasive surgical procedure, demanding implementation of change in the ergonomic practices. PMID:28281476

  14. Productive Knowledge of Derivational Rules in Poor Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Che Kan

    1989-01-01

    Two experiments sought to determine the orthographic and phonological factors in derived morphology that affected the reading and spelling performance of 75 intermediate-grade poor readers. Subgroups of poor readers used different mechanisms in producing derived or base forms of words according to the complexity of the orthographic and/or…

  15. Analysis of Poor Performance of Senior Secondary Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the poor performance of students in Chemistry. The widespread poor performance and the negative attitudes towards chemistry of secondary school students have been largely ascribed to teaching problems. A random sample of 109 students from St Pius X College Bodo City was used. The research ...

  16. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  17. Mandated empowerment: handing antipoverty policy back to the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit V; Duflo, Esther

    2008-01-01

    The current trend in antipoverty policy emphasizes mandated empowerment: the poor are being handed the responsibility for making things better for themselves, largely without being asked whether this is what they want. Beneficiary control is now being built into public service delivery, while microcredit and small business promotion are seen as better ways to help the poor. The clear presumption is that the poor are both able and happy to exercise these new powers. This essay uses two examples to raise questions about these strategies. The first example is about entrepreneurship among the poor. Using data from a number of countries, we argue that there is no evidence that the median poor entrepreneur is trying his best to expand his existing businesses, even if we take into account the many constraints he faces. While many poor people own businesses, this seems to be more a survival strategy than something they want to do. The second example comes from an evaluation of a program in India that aims to involve poor rural parents in improving local public schools. The data suggest that despite being informed that they now have both the right to intervene in the school and access to funds for that purpose, and despite being made aware of how little the children were learning, parents opt to not get involved. Both examples raise concerns about committing ourselves entirely to antipoverty strategies that rely on the poor doing a lot of the work.

  18. Producing The Poor: The World Bank's new discourse of domination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretary of State for International Development in UK. and James D. Wolfensohn, President of the World ... anti-neo-liberal and anti-ANC movements of the poor to South African society and in the weaving of these ... deals with local white elites and international capital' (2002:10) with cata- strophic consequences for poor ...

  19. Influencing pro-poor telecommunication policies in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... A study on mobile phone use by the poor has resulted in the cancellation of a plan to tax mobile usage in Bangladesh. Surveys on mobile expenditures in several South Asian countries found that nearly half of the poor people in Bangladesh own a mobile phone. Ownership rates are even higher in ...

  20. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...

  1. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  2. Factors associated with high school learners' poor performance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established lear- ners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.

  3. American Attitudes Toward the Poor: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betten, Neil

    1973-01-01

    The concept of the moral failure of the poor which was rooted in pre-colonial European assumptions, and modern American racism had become intimately entwined. Attitudes toward the poor in the 1960's simply reflected the knowledge, concerns, problems, and prejudices of the day. (Author)

  4. Factors associated with high school learners' poor performance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established learners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.

  5. Prevalence and Nature of Late-Emerging Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Compton, Donald; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2012-01-01

    Some children demonstrate adequate or better reading achievement in early school grades but fall significantly behind their peers in later grades. These children are often referred to as late-emerging poor readers. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and heterogeneity of these poor readers. We also examined the early language and…

  6. Legal Empowerment of the Working Poor | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Legal Empowerment of the Working Poor. This grant will support in-depth studies of the legal situation, demands and struggles of the working poor (especially women) in the informal economies of in Ghana, Peru and Thailand. The project will build on an interactive process involving member-based organizations of informal ...

  7. Finance for the Poor: An Assessment of the Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of microfinance in the Nigerian financial system is an attempt to provide the poor with access to micro-financial services. Micro-banks that are supposed to provide these services are faced with many challenges. Among these are: inability to reach a greater number of the poor; funding of commercial sectors ...

  8. Poor Women Are Still Shut Out of Mainstream Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saris, Renee N.; Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid

    2000-01-01

    Followed up a 1993 study which concluded that poor and minority women were essentially shut out of mainstream psychological research and theory. Analysis of PsycLit abstracts from 1991-97 investigated whether significant change had occurred and noted the inclusion of poor women in research on sexuality and reproductive health. Results suggest that…

  9. Language Profiles of Poor Comprehenders in English and French

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    This study explored components of language comprehension (vocabulary, grammar, and higher-level language) skills for poor comprehenders in French immersion. We identified three groups of bilingual comprehenders (poor, average, and good) based on English reading performance and compared their language comprehension skills in English L1 and French…

  10. [Analysis of secular trends in proportion of students with poor visual acuity and the associated factors according to government statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Koji; Yokoyama, Tsuranu

    2014-02-01

    Statistics obtained by the Japanese government were analyzed with the aim of elucidating the recent secular trends in proportion of students with poor visual acuity and the associated factors. Data on the proportion of students with poor visual acuity were collected from the reports of the School Health Examination Surveys conducted from 1979 to 2012, and were graphically analyzed to detect a secular trend. We collected prefecture-level data regarding the visual acuity, body height, study time, sleeping duration, video-gaming duration, and duration of exposure to sunshine of sixth-grade students of elementary schools in all 47 prefectures in Japan. The relationship between poor visual acuity and other factors was explored by performing multiple regression analysis to identify the important predictors of poor visual acuity. A temporary retarding phase in the increasing tendency, as a halt in the growing tendency in terms of height, was observed in a proportion of students with poor visual acuity. Poor visual acuity was negatively correlated with duration of exposure to sunshine and was positively correlated with body height, but was only slightly correlated with study time and video-gaming duration. Because myopia is incriminated as the main cause of poor visual acuity, these results suggest that myopia progression would be influenced by the circumstances of exposure to light.

  11. Liquid formulation of pentoxifylline is a poorly tolerated treatment for duchenne dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Angela; Clemens, Paula R; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Connolly, Anne; Iannaccone, Susan T; Kuntz, Nancy; Arrieta, Adrienne; Hache, Lauren; Henricson, Erik; Hu, Fengming; Mayhew, Jill; Escolar, Diana M

    2011-08-01

    In this study we performed an open-label, pilot study of an orally administered liquid formulation of immediate-release pentoxifylline (PTX) on patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Treatment efficacy, safety, and tolerability were assessed. The tolerability and safety of PTX and measures of muscle strength and function were evaluated during 12 months of treatment. Seventeen boys with DMD, between 4 and 8 years of age, were enrolled at one of five Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) centers. Only 9 were able to complete the 12-month PTX treatment phase; the primary reason for discontinuation was adverse events. Intolerable gastrointestinal side effects were experienced by 65% of participants. Two participants had severe leukopenia that resolved with medication withdrawal. Open-label treatment with a liquid formulation of immediate-release PTX resulted in a high incidence of adverse events in boys with DMD. Poor tolerability of this PTX formulation precluded adequate assessment of efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The precision of experienced action video-game players: line bisection reveals reduced leftward response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-two experienced action video-game players (AVGPs) and 18 non-VGPs were tested on a pen-and-paper line bisection task that was untimed. Typically, right-handers bisect lines 2 % to the left of true centre, a bias thought to reflect the dominance of the right-hemisphere for visuospatial attention. Expertise may affect this bias, with expert musicians showing no bias in line bisection performance. Our results show that experienced-AVGPs also bisect lines with no bias with their right hand and a significantly reduced bias with their left hand compared to non-AVGPs. Bisections by experienced-AVGPs were also more precise than those of non-AVGPs. These findings show the cognitive proficiencies of experienced-AVGPs can generalize beyond computer based tasks, which resemble their training environment.

  13. Factors associated with food workers working while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sumner, Steven; Brown, Laura Green; Frick, Roberta; Stone, Carmily; Carpenter, L Rand; Bushnell, Lisa; Nicholas, Dave; Mack, James; Blade, Henry; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Everstine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine the frequency with which food workers said they had worked while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea, and to identify restaurant and worker characteristics associated with this behavior...

  14. The effect of experienced individuals on navigation by king penguin chick pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesterova, A.P.; Flack, A.; van Loon, E.E.; Bonadonna, F.; Biro, D.

    2015-01-01

    Group members' individual experience can have important influences when navigating collectively. However, how exactly they structure group travel performance is still not fully understood. This study investigated how navigation and leadership dynamics are affected by the presence of an experienced

  15. Improved emotional stability in experienced meditators with concentrative meditation based on electroencephalography and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hao; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Wang, Shih-Feng; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether emotional stability distinguishes how experienced and novice meditators react to visual stimuli. PARTICIPANTS practiced concentrative meditation and then responded to visual stimuli while continuing to meditate. Ten experienced and 10 novice meditators responded to sequences of visual stimuli after concentrative meditation. As predicted, both groups had increased parasympathetic activities during concentrative meditation. Experienced meditators had increased low-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms in response to visual stimulation, whereas novices had increased high-frequency EEG rhythms. Correlational analyses revealed that novice meditators changed from a meditative state to a nonrelaxed state when the visual stimuli were presented, whereas experienced meditators maintained the meditative state. The study provides evidence that regular concentrative meditation can improve emotional stability and that recording physiologic responses to visual stimuli can be a good method for identifying the effects of long-term concentrative meditation practice.

  16. Women's perceptions of their community's social norms towards assisting women who have experienced intimate partner violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonnell, Karen Ann; Burke, Jessica G; Gielen, Andrea C; O'Campo, Patricia; Weidl, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    .... This study will present our initial findings into the development of measures to assess women's perception of their community's social norms toward assisting women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV...

  17. Some like it bad: testing a model on perceiving and experiencing fictional characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, E.A.; Hoorn, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    We developed an encompassing theory that explains how readers of fiction and spectators of motion pictures establish affective relationships with fictional characters (FCs). The perceiving and experiencing fictional characters (PEFiC) theory is anchored in art perception, psychological aesthetics,

  18. Risks in Adventure Sport Activity: Which risks are perceived by experienced canyoneers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    António Brandão; Joel Pereira; Francisco Gonçalves; Susana Vale; Luís Quaresma

    2017-01-01

    The search for experiences in nature and adventure sports (NAS) is a growing reality, and canyoning is one of these sports to be experienced, thus contemporary society demands for new knowledge and sensations...

  19. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Stigma and Discrimination Among Californians Experiencing Mental Health Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C; Collins, Rebecca L; Cerully, Jennifer; Seelam, Rachana; Roth, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Reports racial and ethnic differences on the California Well-Being Survey, a surveillance tool that tracks mental illness stigma and discrimination among a sample of California adults experiencing psychological distress.

  20. Experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by individuals in treatment for substance use disorders within the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boekel, L.C.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Weeghel, J.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences and expectations of discrimination (anticipated discrimination) may delay treatment seeking among people with substance use disorders. In addition, experienced and anticipated discrimination can be a barrier to successful recovery and rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to study

  1. How Home Health Caregivers’ Perceive the Influence of Professionalism on Their Experienced Work Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how the perception of increasing professionalism of home health-care influences caregivers’ experienced work engagement. A qualitative study including 24 interviews, 85 hr of observations and the think-aloud technique was applied in three Danish caregiving organizations. Using...... a consensual qualitative research approach, analysis of the data suggests that increasing professionalism is experienced among caregivers and influences caregivers’ engagement in three distinct ways: through their identification with their work, psychological safety, and feelings of insecurity. This article...

  2. Signs of stigma and poor mental health among carriers of MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rump, B; De Boer, M; Reis, R; Wassenberg, M; Van Steenbergen, J

    2017-03-01

    Many countries have implemented guidelines to prevent transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Important contextual factors of stigma can be identified in the context of MRSA. Over the past decade, concerns have been raised over a possible stigmatizing effect of these actions. To identify and quantify the occurrence of MRSA-associated stigma, and to explore its association with mental health in a country with an MRSA 'search and destroy' policy. In 2014, a questionnaire study among 57 Dutch MRSA carriers (people that carry MRSA without signs of MRSA infection) was performed. Stigma was measured with an adjusted version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Mental health was measured with the five-item RAND Mental Health Inquiry. Thirty-two (56%) MRSA carriers reported stigma; of these, eight (14%) reported 'clear stigma' (Berger score >110) and 24 (42%) reported 'suggestive for stigma' (Berger score 76-110). Educational level, female sex and intensive MRSA eradication therapy were associated with higher stigma scores. Poor mental health (RAND score mental health scores were inversely correlated. Stigma was experienced most frequently in healthcare settings, and was seldom experienced in the religious community or at sport facilities. A substantial proportion of MRSA carriers reported stigma due to MRSA, and stigma was associated with poor mental health. Anticipation of MRSA-associated stigma is warranted, both in the way that care is delivered by hospital staff and in the way that care is organized within the hospital. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gravity slows light

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The speed of light is measured as a constant number of metres per second. However, a meter is a measure of how far light travels in a second. That is, light always travels as far as it does in a second every second. This is a circular definition. When measured against other things, light speed must change. Gravity is usually described as a consequence of a curve in spacetime. The word ``space'' has two distinct meanings. In geometry, space is a continuous area. In relativity, ``space'' refers exclusively to geometric spaces measured with light. ``Time'' in a relativistic sense also refers exclusively to the passage of time as measured against light. So a curve in spacetime (a relativistic concept) is a gradual deviation in the thing we use to measure geometric spaces and the passage of time, i.e. the speed of light. I show how Newtonian gravity can explain observable phenomena if the speed of light is inversely proportional to the strength of the gravitational field. For example, we would also expect light to refract as it changes speed passing near massive bodies. Boundary conditions are also discussed, for example, very high gravity will slow light to a stop, making it impossible to measure anything against light, giving a gravitational singularity.

  4. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  5. Compressive light field displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Gordon; Lanman, Douglas; Hirsch, Matthew; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Light fields are the multiview extension of stereo image pairs: a collection of images showing a 3D scene from slightly different perspectives. Depicting high-resolution light fields usually requires an excessively large display bandwidth; compressive light field displays are enabled by the codesign of optical elements and computational-processing algorithms. Rather than pursuing a direct "optical" solution (for example, adding one more pixel to support the emission of one additional light ray), compressive displays aim to create flexible optical systems that can synthesize a compressed target light field. In effect, each pixel emits a superposition of light rays. Through compression and tailored optical designs, fewer display pixels are necessary to emit a given light field than a direct optical solution would require.

  6. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  7. Physical characteristics of experienced and junior open-wheel car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter; Patterson, Carson

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of open-wheel car racing, scientific literature about the physical characteristics of competitive race car drivers is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare selected fitness parameters of experienced and junior open-wheel race car drivers. The experienced drivers consisted of five Formula One, two GP2 and two Formula 3 drivers, and the nine junior drivers drove in the Formula Master, Koenig, BMW and Renault series. The following fitness parameters were tested: multiple reactions, multiple anticipation, postural stability, isometric upper body strength, isometric leg extension strength, isometric grip strength, cyclic foot speed and jump height. The group differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Because of the multiple testing strategy used, the statistical significance was Bonferroni corrected and set at P < 0.004. Significant differences between the experienced and junior drivers were found only for the jump height parameter (P = 0.002). The experienced drivers tended to perform better in leg strength (P = 0.009), cyclic foot speed (P = 0.024) and grip strength (P = 0.058). None of the other variables differed between the groups. The results suggested that the experienced drivers were significantly more powerful than the junior drivers: they tended to be quicker and stronger (18% to 25%) but without statistical significance. The experienced drivers demonstrated excellent strength and power compared with other high-performance athletes.

  8. Emotions experienced in association with agricultural work performed in childhood--in opinions of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława

    2014-01-01

    Performance of work is related with experiencing various emotions, from positive - indicating full satisfaction with work, to negative - describing failures, and even harm caused by work. Such emotions are also experienced by children engaged in work on family farms. The objective of the study is the determination of emotions experienced in association with performing agricultural work in childhood, and indication of the factors conditioning the occurrence of positive and negative emotions. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire technique, and covered a group of 482 adults from agricultural families. In childhood, positive emotions related with the performance of work are more often experienced than negative emotions. The occurrence of positive emotions is positively related with willingness to perform work activities, working time, respondent's age, age at which a child started to perform work, and age at which a child discontinued helping on a farm. The occurrence of negative emotions is positively related with unwillingness to perform work, performing work activities beyond the physical capabilities of a child, neglecting school duties, missing classes at school due to work, and with working time. With work performed in childhood are associated positive and negative emotions experienced in childhood and adulthood. The performance of work in childhood shapes emotions experienced by an adult which may affect his/her quality of life and functioning in adulthood.

  9. [Driving with light during the day?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmayr, B

    1995-02-01

    In various Scandinavian countries the use of headlights during daytime (daytime running light DRL) is obligatory since many years. In Canada all new cars have to be equipped with a daytime running light since 1990. Whether or not in Germany or in the southern neighbouring countries a daytime running light should be used is matter of controversial discussion during the least years. Daytime running light increases the visibility of oncoming cars tremendously. Not only the drivers, but also pedestrians and cyclists profit from this gain of visibility. Especially drivers with poor vision, who will become more and more frequent during the coming years due to the increase of percentage of older drivers, have a specific profit from daytime running light. Potentially negative side-effects of daytime running light are: reduction of visibility of the brake-lights, glare, loss of visibility for pedestrians and cyclists, damage to the retina, increase of fuel consumption. All these arguments are either not crucial or cannot be documented by statistical data. On the other hand the data which are available up to now concerning frequency of accidents in those countries and areas in which daytime running light was used or is used, show a trend, sometimes even a statistical significant reduction of daytime accidents. This reduction is especially pronounced for accidents with pedestrians and cyclists. Overall, there are more and better arguments for using daytime running light, also in Germany. A technical alternative would be an automatic switching of the headlights if horizontal illuminance drops below a specific limit, e.g. 2000-3000 lx. Such an automatic procedure would increase the percentage of cars using headlights in critical situations during daytime.

  10. Early Disparities in Mathematics Gains among Poor and Non-Poor Children: Examining the Role of Behavioral Engagement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between poverty status, mathematics achievement gains, and behavioral engagement in learning over kindergarten. Data included information on 11,680 poor, low-income, and non-poor kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). Results…

  11. Is a governmental micro-credit program for the poor really pro-poor? Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that without collateral the poor often face binding borrowing constraints in the formal credit market. This justifies a micro-credit program, which is operated by the Vietnam Bank for Social Policies to provide the poor with preferential credit. The present paper examines poverty

  12. Odontological light-emitting diode light-curing unit beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães Filho, Thales Ribeiro; Weig, Karin de Mello; Werneck, Marcelo Martins; da Costa Neto, Célio Albano; da Costa, Marysilvia Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    The distribution of light intensity of three light-curing units (LCUs) to cure the resin-based composite for dental fillings was analyzed, and a homogeneity index [flat-top factor (FTF)] was calculated. The index is based on the M2 index, which is used for laser beams. An optical spectrum analyzer was used with an optical fiber to produce an x-y power profile of each LCU light guide. The FTF-calculated values were 0.51 for LCU1 and 0.55 for LCU2, which was the best FTF, although it still differed greatly from the perfect FTF = 1, and 0.27 for LCU3, which was the poorest value and even lower than the Gaussian FTF = 0.5. All LCUs presented notably heterogeneous light distribution, which can lead professionals and researchers to produce samples with irregular polymerization and poor mechanical properties.

  13. Studying Light Color using White LED Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Misako; Yamaba, Kazuo; Nagata, Manori; Kubo, Chiho; Nokura, Kunihiro

    Recently, white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are receiving attention worldwide as new lighting devices. This study examined effects of a lighting application on performance using white LEDs. The light color—the correlated color temperature (CCT) —was assessed. It affected to psychological states and physiological conditions. Three CCT conditions were respectively set for the experiment: 2500 K, 5000 K, and 8200 K. In all, 20 younger subjects (20-30 years old), 15 middle-aged to elderly subjects (45-60 years old) and 12 elderly subjects (over 65 years-old) participated. They were presented a Numerical Verification (NV) task for performance measurement. The psychological states on performance were evaluated using the lighting assessment questionnaire. The physiological conditions were recorded using an electrocardiograph. Results show that the effects of CCT differ among age groups. Especially, the performance of younger subjects might differ from CCT conditions; elderly subjects are affected by CCT condition because of their visual acuity or response to contrast of objects.

  14. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  15. Teenagers Poor Readers: Evaluation of Basic Cognitive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.

  16. Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Charles, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Tanzania has recently experienced a significant rise in the burden of diabetes, and it is estimated that more than 400,000 people are living with diabetes. A major concern in the management of diabetes is the occurrence of diabetic complications that occur as a result of poor glycemic control. Identification of the factors associated with poor glycemic control is important in order to institute appropriate interventions for the purpose of improving glycemic control and prevention of chronic complications. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the level of glycemic control and explore the factors associated with poor glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methodology A cross-sectional study was carried out at the diabetic clinics for T2DM patients at the national and municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A total of 469 patients were enrolled over a period of 8 weeks from March 2013 to May 2013. Patients’ information such as sociodemographic characteristics, self-care management behaviors, and medication adherence were obtained through interviews. Blood pressure, weight, and height were measured during the day of the interview. All available last readings for fasting blood glucose (FBG) measurements, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were obtained from patients’ records. Results The mean age of patients was 54.93 years. The majority (63.5%) of patients were females and only eight patients had records of lipid profile measurements. Out of 469 patients, 69.7% had FBG of ≥7.2 mmol/L, indicating poor glycemic control. Females aged between 40 years and 59 years had significantly higher poor glycemic control (76.1%) as compared with their male counterparts. Thirty-eight percent of patients had poor medication adherence, which was associated with poor glycemic control. The proportion of poor glycemic control increased with age. A significantly high proportion of poor glycemic control was observed in

  17. A Sorrow Halved? A Daily Diary Study on Talking About Experienced Workplace Incivility and Next-Morning Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Stephanie; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2017-08-31

    Incivility by coworkers and customers can have detrimental consequences for employees' affective well-being at work. However, little is known about whether incivility also impairs employees' affect at home and how long these negative effects may last. In this diary study, we examine whether incivility by coworkers and customers is related to next-morning negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday and at bedtime, and investigate different modes of social sharing (i.e., conversations about experienced mistreatment) as day-level moderators of this relationship. Daily diary data collected over 10 workdays (N = 113 employees) revealed that coworker incivility was indirectly related to bedtime negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday, and customer incivility was indirectly related to next-morning negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday and at bedtime. Although we found no moderating effect for conversations in an affective sharing mode (i.e., conversation partners provide comfort and consolation), the relationship between workplace incivility and employees' negative affect was buffered by conversations in a cognitive sharing mode (i.e., conversation partners suggest alternative explanations or reappraisal of uncivil behavior). In line with social sharing theory, our results suggest that talking about experienced mistreatment can, under specific circumstances, offset the negative relationship of uncivil coworker and customer behavior and employees' negative affect. This study advances current research on workplace incivility by studying negative affect 3 times a day and thus sheds light on the mechanism connecting workplace incivility and employees' affective well-being at home. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Optical bistability controlling light with light

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbs, Hyatt

    1985-01-01

    Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light focuses on optical bistability in nonlinear optical systems. Emphasis is on passive (non-laser) systems that exhibit reversible bistability with input intensity as the hysteresis variable, along with the physics and the potential applications of such systems for nonlinear optical signal processing. This book consists of seven chapters and begins with a historical overview of optical bistability in lasers and passive systems. The next chapter describes steady-state theories of optical bistability, including the Bonifacio-Lugiato model, as we

  19. Millisecond flashes of light phase delay the human circadian clock during sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitzer, Jamie M; Fisicaro, Ryan A.; Ruby, Norman F.; Heller, H. Craig

    2014-01-01

    The human circadian timing system is most sensitive to the phase shifting effects of light during the biological nighttime, a time at which humans are most typically asleep. The overlap of sleep with peak sensitivity to the phase shifting effects of light minimizes the effectiveness of using light as a countermeasure to circadian misalignment in humans. Most current light exposure treatments for such misalignment are mostly ineffective due to poor compliance and secondary changes that cause s...

  20. Dynamic lighting design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnebjerg, Sofie

    Introduction to the concept of dynamic lighting design The importance of dynamic light to support health and well-being has been more and more recognized [Hansen et al., 2017]. Humans has through many years of evolution adapted to the changing light of the sun, varying through the day, seasons...... and under various weather conditions, creating a multitude of light settings. Humans live in interaction with this dynamic light and consider it as a natural part of our world [Mathiasen, 2015]. Furthermore, it has by the recent discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in 2002...... [Berson et al., 2002] become apparent, that light, beside serving a purpose of enabling visual orientation, also are influencing the internal body clock, affecting sleep-wake cycle, immune responses, appetite, behaviour, mood, alertness and attention - depending on the duration, timing and quality...

  1. Factors associated with poor sleep quality in women with cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser; Maria Filomena Ceolim

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the factors associated with poor sleep quality, its characteristics and components in women with breast cancer prior to surgery for removing the tumor and throughout the follow-up. Method...

  2. Cost Analysis of Poor Quality Using a Software Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Fabianová

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The issues of quality, cost of poor quality and factors affecting quality are crucial to maintaining a competitiveness regarding to business activities. Use of software applications and computer simulation enables more effective quality management. Simulation tools offer incorporating the variability of more variables in experiments and evaluating their common impact on the final output. The article presents a case study focused on the possibility of using computer simulation Monte Carlo in the field of quality management. Two approaches for determining the cost of poor quality are introduced here. One from retrospective scope of view, where the cost of poor quality and production process are calculated based on historical data. The second approach uses the probabilistic characteristics of the input variables by means of simulation, and reflects as a perspective view of the costs of poor quality. Simulation output in the form of a tornado and sensitivity charts complement the risk analysis.

  3. Cohesive Ties and Chains in Good and Poor Freshman Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Jerome L.

    1987-01-01

    Compares cohesive ties and chains in the good and poor essays of college freshmen. Results indicate that longer chains, greater variety of words, and greater maturity or word choice characterize good writing. (SRT)

  4. Childhood obesity in relation to poor asthma control and exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Vijverberg, Susanne; Arets, Hubertus; De Boer, Anthonius; Lang, Jason; Kattan, Meyer; Palmer, Colin; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Turner, Steve; Van Der Zee, Anke-Hilse Maitland

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between obesity and asthma severity in children is inconsistent across studies. Objectives: To estimate the association between obesity and poor asthma control/ risk of exacerbations in asthmatic children and adolescents, and to assess whether these associations are

  5. Cost effective means to managing pavements in poor condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Tight budgets and dwindling state and federal revenue hinder efforts of transportation agencies to resurrect pavements in poor : condition. As a stop-gap measure, some agencies simply allow roads to deteriorate to gravel. However, this approach...

  6. Treatment non-adherence among patients with poorly controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    adherence among patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in am- bulatory .... diet and exercise (5; 3.0%). Patterns of medication non-adherence behavior among patients are shown in Table 2. African Health sciences Vol 14 No.

  7. Low plasma bicarbonate predicts poor outcome of cerebral malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    29%), elevated plasma creatinine (20%), metabolic acidiosis (22%) and hyponatraemia (16%). Metabolic acidosis and elevated plasma creatinine on admission were significantly associated with a poor outcome (p<0.05). Hyponatraemia and ...

  8. Emerging ecosystems change the spatial distribution of top carnivores even in poorly populated areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Barbar

    Full Text Available Humans affect biological diversity and species distribution patterns by modifying resource availability and generating novel environments where generalist species benefit and specialist species are rare. In particular, cities create local homogenization while roads fragment habitat, although both processes can increase food availability for some species that may be able to take advantage of this new source. We studied space use by birds of prey in relation to human construction, hypothesizing that these birds would be affected even in poorly populated areas. We worked in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which is experiencing a high population growth, but still having very large unpopulated areas. We related the presence of raptors with different sources of human disturbance and found that both the abundance and richness of these birds were positively associated with anthropogenic environments. These results are driven mostly by a strong association between the medium-sized generalist species and these novel environments (mainly roads and cities. This may create an imbalance in intra-guild competitive abilities, modifying the normal structures of top carnivore hierarchies. Indeed, the structure of raptor communities seems to be changing, even in poorly populated areas, with anthropogenic constructions seemingly producing changes in wild areas more promptly than thought, a cause for concern in ecosystems conservation issues.

  9. Thermal niche estimators and the capability of poor dispersal species to cope with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Rizzo, Valeria; Cieslak, Alexandra; Faille, Arnaud; Fresneda, Javier; Ribera, Ignacio

    2016-03-17

    For management strategies in the context of global warming, accurate predictions of species response are mandatory. However, to date most predictions are based on niche (bioclimatic) models that usually overlook biotic interactions, behavioral adjustments or adaptive evolution, and assume that species can disperse freely without constraints. The deep subterranean environment minimises these uncertainties, as it is simple, homogeneous and with constant environmental conditions. It is thus an ideal model system to study the effect of global change in species with poor dispersal capabilities. We assess the potential fate of a lineage of troglobitic beetles under global change predictions using different approaches to estimate their thermal niche: bioclimatic models, rates of thermal niche change estimated from a molecular phylogeny, and data from physiological studies. Using bioclimatic models, at most 60% of the species were predicted to have suitable conditions in 2080. Considering the rates of thermal niche change did not improve this prediction. However, physiological data suggest that subterranean species have a broad thermal tolerance, allowing them to stand temperatures never experienced through their evolutionary history. These results stress the need of experimental approaches to assess the capability of poor dispersal species to cope with temperatures outside those they currently experience.

  10. New Trends in Sports Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Jason

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines presented to help recreation professional choose effective, safe lighting systems involve determining how much light is needed, buying the best life cycle value, light sources, and other lighting design considerations. (CB)

  11. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  12. 3D light robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2016-01-01

    As celebrated by the Nobel Prize 2014 in Chemistry light-based technologies can now overcome the diffraction barrier for imaging with nanoscopic resolution by so-called super-resolution microscopy1. However, interactive investigations coupled with advanced imaging modalities at these small scale ...... research discipline that could potentially be able to offer the full packet needed for true "active nanoscopy" by use of so-called light-driven micro-robotics or Light Robotics in short....

  13. Light Controlled Piezoelectric Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozielski, Lucjan

    2011-04-01

    The author designed “smart material” device allow to control an output voltage level by change of incident light intensity. New functions of piezoelectric transformer (PT) was realized by superimposing piezoelectricity with photostriction. The effect of a light influence on the PT voltage gain was proved experimentally, consequently these “smart” transformers with its new functionality can be utilized as a promising devices relevant to consumers market for adopting illumination intensity of PT supplied light sources to the surrounding conditions.

  14. Explaining the role of proximate determinants on fertility decline among poor and non-poor in Asian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Majumder

    Full Text Available We examined the overall contributions of the poor and non-poor in fertility decline across the Asian countries. Further, we analyzed the direct and indirect factors that determine the reproductive behaviour of two distinct population sub-groups.Data from several new rounds of DHS surveys are available over the past few years. The DHS provides cross-nationally comparable and useful data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health along with the other information. Six selected Asian countries namely: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, and Vietnam are considered for the purpose of the study. Three rounds of DHS surveys for each country (except Vietnam are considered in the present study.Economic status is measured by computing a "wealth index", i.e. a composite indicator constructed by aggregating data on asset ownership and housing characteristics using principal components analysis (PCA. Computed household wealth index has been broken into three equal parts (33.3 percent each and the lowest and the highest 33.3 percent is considered as poor and non-poor respectively. The Bongaarts model was employed to quantify the contribution of each of the proximate determinants of fertility among poor and non-poor women.Fertility reduction across all population subgroups is now an established fact despite the diversity in the level of socio-economic development in Asian countries. It is clear from the analysis that fertility has declined irrespective of economic status at varying degrees within and across the countries which can be attributed to the increasing level of contraceptive use especially among poor women. Over the period of time changing marriage pattern and induced abortion are playing an important role in reducing fertility among poor women.Fertility decline among majority of the poor women across the Asian countries is accompanied by high prevalence of contraceptive use followed by changing marriage pattern and induced

  15. Inference in {open_quotes}poor{close_quotes} languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules ({open_quote}poor{close_quote} languages) are considered. The problem of existence of a finite, complete, and consistent inference rule system for a {open_quotes}poor{close_quotes} language is stated independently of the language or the rule syntax. Several properties of the problem are proved. An application of the results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  16. Imaging features of poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, M; Healy, N A; Doody, O; Govender, P; Torreggiani, W C

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic autosomal recessive condition most frequently as a result of a mutation in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme gene. Patients with poorly controlled CAH can manifest characteristic imaging findings as a result of adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation or the effects of cortisol precursor excess on various target organs. We present a spectrum of imaging findings encountered in adult patients with poorly treated CAH, with an emphasis on radiological features and their clinical relevance. PMID:26133223

  17. Polarization of the Poor: Multivariate Relative Poverty Measurement Sans Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Anderson

    2009-01-01

    A major impediment to poverty evaluation in multivariate environments are the difficulties associated with formulating poverty frontiers. This paper proposes a new multivariate polarization measure which, in appropriate circumstances, works as a multivariate poverty measure which does not require computation of a poverty frontier. As a poverty measure it has the intuitive appeal of reflecting the degree to which societies poor and non-poor are polarized. (The measure would also have considera...

  18. A Tiered Analytical Approach for Investigating Poor Quality Emergency Contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Monge; Prabha Dwivedi; Manshui Zhou; Michael Payne; Chris Harris; Blaine House; Yvonne Juggins; Peter Cizmarik; Newton, Paul N.; Fernández, Facundo M.; David Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multiplatform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate releas...

  19. Dairy heifers benefit from the presence of an experienced companion when learning how to graze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Costa, W G; Weary, D M; Machado Filho, L C P; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-01-01

    Pasture remains important on many dairy farms, but the age of first contact with pasture varies depending on the month of birth, weaning age, and farm management. Regardless of age, naïve dairy heifers must learn to graze when first introduced to pasture. This study investigated whether being grouped with experienced dairy cows would affect the development of grazing behaviors. Sixty-three Holstein heifers (mean ± SD 14.2 ± 1.3 mo; 546 ± 60.7 kg) and 21 dry Holstein cows (2.6 ± 0.8 lactations; 751 ± 53.9 kg) were assigned into 7 groups of 12 animals (3 dry cows and 9 naïve heifers), and each was divided and assigned to an experienced (3 cows and 3 heifers) and nonexperienced (6 heifers) sub-group. Sub-groups were introduced to pasture in different paddocks without visual contact with any other cattle. No difference was found in the time after introduction to the paddock for heifers to first attempt to nibble grass [experienced: 0:23 (0:17-0:43) vs. nonexperienced 0:40 (0:35-0:46); median (quartile 1 - quartile 3), h:mm]. However, heifers grouped with experienced cows showed a shorter latency to begin grazing [experienced: 0:47 (0:28-00:52) vs. nonexperienced 2:13 (1:25-2:30)]. During the first hour after introduction to pasture, heifers in the experienced treatment showed fewer stomping events [experienced: 2.5 (1.25-4) vs. nonexperienced: 6.5 (4-8)] and vocalized less often [experienced: 3.5 (1.25-5.75) vs. nonexperienced: 7 (5-8.75)]. After this initial period, animals in both subgroups began to graze normally; treatments did not differ in grazing behaviors over the 3-d observation period. These results indicate that grouping heifers with pasture-experienced cows improves grazing behavior of dairy heifers in the first hours following introduction to pasture. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...