Sample records for experience-dependent locomotory behaviors

  1. A comparison of experience-dependent locomotory behaviors and biogenic amine neurons in nematode relatives of Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Sternberg Paul W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival of an animal depends on its ability to match its responses to environmental conditions. To generate an optimal behavioral output, the nervous system must process sensory information and generate a directed motor output in response to stimuli. The nervous system should also store information about experiences to use in the future. The diverse group of free-living nematodes provides an excellent system to study macro- and microevolution of molecular, morphological and behavioral character states associated with such nervous system function. We asked whether an adaptive behavior would vary among bacterivorous nematodes and whether differences in the neurotransmitter systems known to regulate the behavior in one species would reflect differences seen in the adaptive behavior among those species. Caenorhabditis elegans worms slow in the presence of food; this 'basal' slowing is triggered by dopaminergic mechanosensory neurons that detect bacteria. Starved worms slow more dramatically; this 'enhanced' slowing is regulated by serotonin. Results We examined seven nematode species with known phylogenetic relationship to C. elegans for locomotory behaviors modulated by food (E. coli, and by the worm's recent history of feeding (being well-fed or starved. We found that locomotory behavior in some species was modulated by food and recent feeding experience in a manner similar to C. elegans, but not all the species tested exhibited these food-modulated behaviors. We also found that some worms had different responses to bacteria other than E. coli. Using histochemical and immunological staining, we found that dopaminergic neurons were very similar among all species. For instance, we saw likely homologs of four bilateral pairs of dopaminergic cephalic and deirid neurons known from C. elegans in all seven species examined. In contrast, there was greater variation in the patterns of serotonergic neurons. The presence of presumptive

  2. Computational Methods for Tracking, Quantitative Assessment, and Visualization of C. elegans Locomotory Behavior.

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    Kyle Moy

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a unique opportunity to interrogate the neural basis of behavior at single neuron resolution. In C. elegans, neural circuits that control behaviors can be formulated based on its complete neural connection map, and easily assessed by applying advanced genetic tools that allow for modulation in the activity of specific neurons. Importantly, C. elegans exhibits several elaborate behaviors that can be empirically quantified and analyzed, thus providing a means to assess the contribution of specific neural circuits to behavioral output. Particularly, locomotory behavior can be recorded and analyzed with computational and mathematical tools. Here, we describe a robust single worm-tracking system, which is based on the open-source Python programming language, and an analysis system, which implements path-related algorithms. Our tracking system was designed to accommodate worms that explore a large area with frequent turns and reversals at high speeds. As a proof of principle, we used our tracker to record the movements of wild-type animals that were freshly removed from abundant bacterial food, and determined how wild-type animals change locomotory behavior over a long period of time. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that wild-type animals show a transition from area-restricted local search to global search over time. Intriguingly, we found that wild-type animals initially exhibit short, random movements interrupted by infrequent long trajectories. This movement pattern often coincides with local/global search behavior, and visually resembles Lévy flight search, a search behavior conserved across species. Our mathematical analysis showed that while most of the animals exhibited Brownian walks, approximately 20% of the animals exhibited Lévy flights, indicating that C. elegans can use Lévy flights for efficient food search. In summary, our tracker and analysis software will help analyze the

  3. Impaired Dopamine-Dependent Locomotory Behavior of C. elegans Neuroligin Mutants Depends on the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase COMT-4. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Ángel; Gámez-Del-Estal, M Mar; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Cerón, Julián; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel


    Neurexins and neuroligins are neuronal membrane adhesion molecules that have been involved in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The nrx-1 and nlg-1 genes of Caenorhabditis elegans encode NRX-1 and NLG-1, orthologue proteins of human neurexins and neuroligins, respectively. Dopaminergic and serotoninergic signalling control the locomotory rate of the nematode. When well-fed animals are transferred to a plate with food (bacterial lawn), they reduce the locomotory rate. This behavior, which depends on dopamine, is known as basal slowing response (BSR). Alternatively, when food-deprived animals are moved to a plate with a bacterial lawn, further decrease their locomotory rate. This behavior, known as enhanced slowing response (ESR), is serotonin dependent. C. elegans nlg-1-deficient mutants are impaired in BSR and ESR. Here we report that nrx-1-deficient mutants were defective in ESR, but not in BSR. The nrx-1;nlg-1 double mutant was impaired in both behaviors. Interestingly, the nlg-1 mutants upregulate the expression of comt-4 which encodes an enzyme with putative catechol-O-methyltransferase activity involved in dopamine degradation. Our study also shows that comt-4(RNAi) in nlg-1-deficient mutants rescues the wild type phenotypes of BSR and ESR. On the other hand, comt-4(RNAi) in nlg-1-deficient mutants also recovers, at least partially, the gentle touch response and the pharyngeal pumping rate that were impaired in these mutants. These latter behaviors are dopamine and serotonin dependent, respectively. Based on these results we propose a model for the neuroligin function in modulating the dopamine-dependent locomotory behavior in the nematode.

  4. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. (United States)

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W


    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

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    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  6. Antagonistic Serotonergic and Octopaminergic Neural Circuits Mediate Food-Dependent Locomotory Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Churgin, Matthew A; McCloskey, Richard J; Peters, Emily; Fang-Yen, Christopher


    Biogenic amines are conserved signaling molecules that link food cues to behavior and metabolism in a wide variety of organisms. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the biogenic amines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine regulate a number of food-related behaviors. Using a novel method for long-term quantitative behavioral imaging, we show that 5-HT and octopamine jointly influence locomotor activity and quiescence in feeding and fasting hermaphrodites, and we define the neural circuits through which this modulation occurs. We show that 5-HT produced by the ADF neurons acts via the SER-5 receptor in muscles and neurons to suppress quiescent behavior and promote roaming in fasting worms, whereas 5-HT produced by the NSM neurons acts on the MOD-1 receptor in AIY neurons to promote low-amplitude locomotor behavior characteristic of well fed animals. Octopamine, produced by the RIC neurons, acts via SER-3 and SER-6 receptors in SIA neurons to promote roaming behaviors characteristic of fasting animals. We find that 5-HT signaling is required for animals to assume food-appropriate behavior, whereas octopamine signaling is required for animals to assume fasting-appropriate behavior. The requirement for both neurotransmitters in both the feeding and fasting states enables increased behavioral adaptability. Our results define the molecular and neural pathways through which parallel biogenic amine signaling tunes behavior appropriately to nutrient conditions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Animals adjust behavior in response to environmental changes, such as fluctuations in food abundance, to maximize survival and reproduction. Biogenic amines, such as like serotonin, are conserved neurotransmitters that regulate behavior and metabolism in relation to energy status. Disruptions of biogenic amine signaling contribute to human neurological diseases of mood, appetite, and movement. In this study, we investigated the roles of the biogenic amines serotonin and octopamine in regulating

  7. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice. (United States)

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F


    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally.

  8. The wings before the bird: an evaluation of flapping-based locomotory hypotheses in bird antecedents

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    T. Alexander Dececchi


    Full Text Available Background: Powered flight is implicated as a major driver for the success of birds. Here we examine the effectiveness of three hypothesized pathways for the evolution of the flight stroke, the forelimb motion that powers aerial locomotion, in a terrestrial setting across a range of stem and basal avians: flap running, Wing Assisted Incline Running (WAIR, and wing-assisted leaping. Methods: Using biomechanical mathematical models based on known aerodynamic principals and in vivo experiments and ground truthed using extant avians we seek to test if an incipient flight stroke may have contributed sufficient force to permit flap running, WAIR, or leaping takeoff along the phylogenetic lineage from Coelurosauria to birds. Results: None of these behaviours were found to meet the biomechanical threshold requirements before Paraves. Neither was there a continuous trend of refinement for any of these biomechanical performances across phylogeny nor a signal of universal applicability near the origin of birds. None of these flap-based locomotory models appear to have been a major influence on pre-flight character acquisition such as pennaceous feathers, suggesting non-locomotory behaviours, and less stringent locomotory behaviours such as balancing and braking, played a role in the evolution of the maniraptoran wing and nascent flight stroke. We find no support for widespread prevalence of WAIR in non-avian theropods, but can’t reject its presence in large winged, small-bodied taxa like Microraptor and Archaeopteryx. Discussion: Using our first principles approach we find that “near flight” locomotor behaviors are most sensitive to wing area, and that non-locomotory related selection regimes likely expanded wing area well before WAIR and other such behaviors were possible in derived avians. These results suggest that investigations of the drivers for wing expansion and feather elongation in theropods need not be intrinsically linked to locomotory

  9. A preliminary report on locomotory activity in wild and captive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... radio telemetry. In addition, locomotory activity of a captive juvenile male and adult female C. trevelyani was monitored in a special laboratory enclosure for 30 days. Preliminary results indicate that the giant golden mole has a primarily nocturnal regimen possibly associated with its feeding physiology or thermoregulation.

  10. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches. (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L


    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  11. Power and fatigue related characteristics of the equine locomotory muscle. Development, exercise and pathological conditions

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    Rietbroek, N.J.


    The locomotory muscles represent an important determinant of the athletic potential of the horse and hence the ability to compete at a high level. For efficient raising and training, it would be useful to predict the potential of a horse early in life based on the characteristics of the locomotory

  12. Distribution of fiber types in locomotory muscles of dogs. (United States)

    Armstrong, R B; Saubert, C W; Seeherman, H J; Taylor, C R


    The distribution of Type I and Type II fibers, as determined from histochemical estimation of myofibrillar ATPase activity, was studied within and among the locomotory muscles of the forelimb, trunk, and hindlimb of three mongrel dogs. All Type II fibers had high oxidative capacities as estimated from the histochemical assay for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase, so they were not further divided into subpopulations. Furthermore, Type I and Type II fibers had similar oxidative potentials as indicated by both histochemistry and biochemistry. Type I fiber populations ranged between 14% and 100% in the muscles sampled. The highest percentages of Type I fibers were found in deep muscles of physiological extensor groups in the arm and thigh that serve to resist gravity (antigravity muscles) when the dog is in the quadrupedal standing position. More superficial muscles in these same groups had fewer Type I fibers. The patterns of Type I fiber distribution among muscles in the antigravity groups of the forearm and leg were the opposite of those in the arm and thigh, with the more superficial muscles of the distal limb segments having more Type I fibers than the deeper muscles. In all limb segments, muscle groups that do not serve to resist gravity did not show as much intermuscular variation. Type I fiber populations in these muscles did not exceed 50%. A stratification of fiber types also existed within muscles, both in extensor and flexor groups, with the deeper portions of the muscles having more Type I fibers than the more superficial portions.

  13. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. (United States)

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G


    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling the Costs of Postpartum Dysgalactia Syndrome and Locomotory Disorders on Sow Productivity and Replacement

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    Jarkko K. Niemi


    Full Text Available Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PPDS and locomotory disorders are common health problems in sows. Previous research suggests that they can cause substantial losses, reduce sow welfare, and result in premature removal of the sow from the herd. However, economic consequences of PPDS and locomotory disorders have not been investigated thoroughly. The goal of this study was to examine economic losses caused by PPDS and locomotory disorders and their impacts on sow longevity. A stochastic dynamic programming model, which maximizes return on sow space unit and assesses sow replacement under several scenarios, was developed. The state variables were litter size, parity number, and sow’s health status. The model describes changes in the production parameters such as the number of piglets born and piglet mortality. Herd data originating from commercial sow herds and from a research farm were used to parameterize the model. Sow longevity, health, and economic results are related to each other. Eliminating the risk of PPDS from the model increased the value of sow space unit by €279 when compared to the baseline scenario. Eliminating the risk of locomotory disorders increased value by €110. Results suggest that these estimates correspond to about €29.1 and €11.5 in economic costs per housed sow during her lifetime. The estimated magnitude of losses was €300–€470 per affected sow for PPDS and €290–€330 per affected sow for locomotory disorders. However, realistically speaking, not all of these costs are avoidable. Due to premature replacement associated with these two disorders, the average number of litters that the sow would deliver during her lifetime is decreased by about 0.1–0.4 litters depending on the scenario. We also observed that the optimal lifetime of a sow is not a fixed number, but it depends on her productivity level as well as health status. In general, a healthy sow could stay in the herd until she has produced 6

  15. Gold implant therapy of locomotory disorders in dogs - Case studies

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    Emilia Abrudean


    Full Text Available The case study was conducted between October and January 2015, on 7 dogs of different breeds and ages, which at clinical examination showed varying degrees of lameness. The dogs behavior and state of consciousness, their attitude in standing, decubitus and at walk and the presence of involuntary movements was assessed through inspection. Palpation was used to feel muscular tonus, local temperature and sensibility. Postural reactions were highlighted by carrying out forced positions of each limb, thus highlighting the proprioceptive sensitivity. By testing the spinal reflexes the reactions of the forelimbs and hind limbs were evaluated, seeking the state of normality, or the absence, diminution or exacerbation of these reflexes. Also, diagnostic imaging was performed consisting of simple radiographs, were performed for the cases that entered the clinic. In the case of digital X-rays, X-rays are passing through the subject being examined are filtered, then touch a plate of sensors able to convert signals generated into digital information with an image appear on the computer screen. Interpretation of results was done by assessing the degree of dysplasia, and the Norberg-Olson angle and stage. This study used digital radiography as imaging technique; the device was Rx-M EVO Fujifilm. On the basis of diagnostic imaging and computerized image, diagnosis was established for each case. The treatment protocol with gold implant was the same for all seven cases; the adopted procedure was the "Wiener" procedure, described by Kasper and Zohmann. The procedure began with establishing a set of points associated with the treatment of hip dysplasia, spondylosis, arthritis, and osteochondritis. For the therapeutic protocol to be performed correctly took the dogs were sedated. This was done with medetomidine hydrochloride (Dorbene vet, Pfizer, concentration 1 mg⁄ml, administered in a 0,1mg⁄kg body weight dose. The results were visible after a month from the

  16. Neurobiological mechanisms supporting experience-dependent resistance to social stress. (United States)

    Cooper, M A; Clinard, C T; Morrison, K E


    Humans and other animals show a remarkable capacity for resilience following traumatic, stressful events. Resilience is thought to be an active process related to coping with stress, although the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support active coping and stress resistance remain poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the neurobiological mechanisms by which environmental and social experiences promote stress resistance. In male Syrian hamsters, exposure to a brief social defeat stressor leads to increased avoidance of novel opponents, which we call conditioned defeat. Also, hamsters that have achieved dominant social status show reduced conditioned defeat as well as cellular and molecular changes in the neural circuits controlling the conditioned defeat response. We propose that experience-dependent neural plasticity occurs in the prelimbic (PL) cortex, infralimbic (IL) cortex, and ventral medial amygdala (vMeA) during the maintenance of dominance relationships, and that adaptations in these neural circuits support stress resistance in dominant individuals. Overall, behavioral treatments that promote success in competitive interactions may represent valuable interventions for instilling resilience. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experience-Dependent Epigenomic Reorganization in the Hippocampus (United States)

    Duke, Corey G.; Kennedy, Andrew J.; Gavin, Cristin F.; Day, Jeremy J.; Sweatt, J. David


    Using a hippocampus-dependent contextual threat learning and memory task, we report widespread, coordinated DNA methylation changes in CA1 hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats specific to threat learning at genes involved in synaptic transmission. Experience-dependent alternations in gene expression and DNA methylation were observed as early as 1 h…

  18. Experience-Dependent Equilibration of AMPAR-Mediated Synaptic Transmission during the Critical Period

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    Kyung-Seok Han


    Full Text Available Experience-dependent synapse refinement is essential for functional optimization of neural circuits. However, how sensory experience sculpts excitatory synaptic transmission is poorly understood. Here, we show that despite substantial remodeling of synaptic connectivity, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission remains at equilibrium during the critical period in the mouse primary visual cortex. The maintenance of this equilibrium requires neurogranin (Ng, a postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein important for synaptic plasticity. With normal visual experience, loss of Ng decreased AMPAR-positive synapse numbers, prevented AMPAR-silent synapse maturation, and increased spine elimination. Importantly, visual deprivation halted synapse loss caused by loss of Ng, revealing that Ng coordinates experience-dependent AMPAR-silent synapse conversion to AMPAR-active synapses and synapse elimination. Loss of Ng also led to sensitized long-term synaptic depression (LTD and impaired visually guided behavior. Our synaptic interrogation reveals that experience-dependent coordination of AMPAR-silent synapse conversion and synapse elimination hinges upon Ng-dependent mechanisms for constructive synaptic refinement during the critical period.

  19. Three distinct amine receptors operating at different levels within the locomotory circuit are each essential for the serotonergic modulation of chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Harris, Gareth P; Hapiak, Vera M; Wragg, Rachel T; Miller, Sarah B; Hughes, Lindsay J; Hobson, Robert J; Steven, Robert; Bamber, Bruce; Komuniecki, Richard W


    Serotonin modulates behavioral plasticity in both vertebrates and invertebrates and in Caenorhabditis elegans regulates key behaviors, including locomotion, aversive learning and olfaction through at least four different 5-HT receptors. In the present study, we examined the serotonergic stimulation of aversive responses to dilute octanol in animals containing null alleles of these 5-HT receptors. Both ser-1 and mod-1 null animals failed to increase sensitivity to dilute octanol on food/5-HT, in contrast to wild-type, ser-4 or ser-7 null animals. 5-HT sensitivity was restored by the expression of MOD-1 and SER-1 in the AIB or potentially the AIY, and RIA interneurons of mod-1 and ser-1 null animals, respectively. Because none of these 5-HT receptors appear to be expressed in the ASH sensory neurons mediating octanol sensitivity, we identified a 5-HT(6)-like receptor, F16D3.7(SER-5), that was required for food/5-HT-dependent increases in octanol sensitivity. ser-5 null animals failed to increase octanol sensitivity in the presence of food/5-HT and sensitivity could be restored by expression of SER-5 in the ASHs. Similarly, the RNAi knockdown of ser-5 expression in the ASHs of wild-type animals also abolished 5-HT-dependent increases in octanol sensitivity, suggesting that SER-5 modulates the octanol responsiveness of the ASHs directly. Together, these results suggest that multiple amine receptors, functioning at different levels within the locomotory circuit, are each essential for the serotonergic modulation of ASH-mediated aversive responses.

  20. Locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae): a contribution to a comparative study of burrowing behaviour in athenarian sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.


    The locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of English populations of a small (<2 cm long), burrowing athenarian sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935 (= N. pellucida Crowell, 1946), which lives in soft mud in salt marshes and creeks, are described. Objectives were to ascertain

  1. Brain composition in Heliconius butterflies, posteclosion growth and experience-dependent neuropil plasticity. (United States)

    Montgomery, Stephen H; Merrill, Richard M; Ott, Swidbert R


    Behavioral and sensory adaptations are often reflected in the differential expansion of brain components. These volumetric differences represent changes in cell number, size, and/or connectivity, which may denote changes in the functional and evolutionary relationships between different brain regions, and between brain composition and behavioral ecology. Here we describe the brain composition of two species of Heliconius butterflies, a long-standing study system for investigating ecological adaptation and speciation. We confirm a previous report of a striking volumetric expansion of the mushroom body, and explore patterns of differential posteclosion and experience-dependent plasticity between different brain regions. This analysis uncovers age- and experience-dependent posteclosion mushroom body growth comparable to that in foraging Hymenoptera, but also identifies plasticity in several other neuropils. An interspecific analysis indicates that Heliconius display a remarkably large investment in mushroom bodies for a lepidopteran, and indeed rank highly compared to other insects. Our analyses lay the foundation for future comparative and experimental analyses that will establish Heliconius as a valuable case study in evolutionary neurobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of experience-dependent structural and functional plasticity in the brain. (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto


    Experiences and environments have a variety of effects on brain plasticity at levels ranging from the molecular and cellular to the behavioral. Brain plasticity is one of the most important characteristics of animal survival. In particular, environmental enrichment and exercise induce many structural and functional changes in the brain, and it is noteworthy that these changes result in further beneficial effects at behavioral levels, such as improved learning behavior and antidepressant effects. The effects of enrichment and exercise, and the mechanisms involved in both, provide crucial evidence for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders. However, the enriched environment- and exercise-induced mechanisms underlying the structural and behavioral effects in the brain remain poorly understood. In this review I discuss the molecular mechanisms of environment- and experience-dependent brain plasticity based on the results of studies carried out by our research group at the Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Osaka University. This review consists of three parts: first, a description of a role for the motor protein KIF1A in enhanced synaptogenesis and memory function induced by environmental enrichment; second, a discussion of the function of the 5-HT3 receptor in hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral changes induced by exercise; third, a discussion of the role of the 5-HT3 receptor in fear extinction.

  3. Experience-Dependent Neural Plasticity in the Adult Damaged Brain (United States)

    Kerr, Abigail L.; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Jones, Theresa A.


    Behavioral experience is at work modifying the structure and function of the brain throughout the lifespan, but it has a particularly dramatic influence after brain injury. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of experience in reorganizing the adult damaged brain, with a focus on findings from rodent stroke models of chronic upper…

  4. Locomotory fatigue during moderate and severe hypoxia and hypercapnia in the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. (United States)

    Stover, Kristin K; Burnett, Karen G; McElroy, Eric J; Burnett, Louis E


    The Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun), is a highly mobile crustacean that must locomote to find food, evade predators, find mates, and avoid adverse conditions such as hypoxia. In this study we tested the effects of two levels of hypoxia (10.4 kPa, 50% air saturation = moderate hypoxia; 4 kPa, 20% air saturation = severe hypoxia) and hypercapnic hypoxia (50% air saturation O(2) with Pco(2) = 2 kPa) on fatigue during sustained continuous exercise. Fatigue was induced by an exercise trial that entailed continuous sideways hexapedal walking on an underwater treadmill. Fatigue was quantified using two methods: (1) a pull force test that measures the holding strength of the legs, and (2) the number of fatigue-resisting behaviors (180° turns and stopping). Fatigue was defined as a pull force of 67% or less of the initial pre-exercise pull force and was reached after 6.12 h of walking for crabs in well-aerated normoxic seawater, 4 h in 50% air saturation, 2.07 h in 20% air saturation, and 4.58 h in 50% air saturation and hypercapnia. The number of fatigue-resisting behaviors increased with walking time in all treatments. Performance decreased in hypoxia, with fatigue being reached more quickly as the level of hypoxia intensified. Hypercapnia in moderate hypoxia did not have a deleterious influence on behavior and lengthened slightly the time it took crabs to fatigue. In addition, severe hypoxia exacerbated changes in gait kinematics as crabs became fatigued, by significantly increasing stride length and decreasing stride frequency.

  5. Role of Mecp2 in Experience-Dependent Epigenetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Zimmermann


    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2, the founding member of a family of proteins recognizing and binding to methylated DNA, are the genetic cause of a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder in humans, called Rett syndrome. Available evidence suggests that MECP2 protein has a critical role in activity-dependent neuronal plasticity and transcription during brain development. Moreover, recent studies in mice show that various posttranslational modifications, notably phosphorylation, regulate Mecp2’s functions in learning and memory, drug addiction, depression-like behavior, and the response to antidepressant treatment. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis drives the stress response and its deregulation increases the risk for a variety of mental disorders. Early-life stress (ELS typically results in sustained HPA-axis deregulation and is a major risk factor for stress related diseases, in particular major depression. Interestingly, Mecp2 protein has been shown to contribute to ELS-dependent epigenetic programming of Crh, Avp, and Pomc, all of these genes enhance HPA-axis activity. Hereby ELS regulates Mecp2 phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activities in a tissue-specific and temporospatial manner. Overall, these findings suggest MECP2 proteins are so far underestimated and have a more dynamic role in the mediation of the gene-environment dialog and epigenetic programming of the neuroendocrine stress system in health and disease.

  6. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion. (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M


    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner.

  7. Optical Dissection of Experience-Dependent Pre- and Postsynaptic Plasticity in the Drosophila Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Pech


    Full Text Available Drosophila represents a key model organism for dissecting neuronal circuits that underlie innate and adaptive behavior. However, this task is limited by a lack of tools to monitor physiological parameters of spatially distributed, central synapses in identified neurons. We generated transgenic fly strains that express functional fluorescent reporters targeted to either pre- or postsynaptic compartments. Presynaptic Ca2+ dynamics are monitored using synaptophysin-coupled GCaMP3, synaptic transmission is monitored using red fluorescent synaptophysin-pHTomato, and postsynaptic Ca2+ dynamics are visualized using GCaMP3 fused with the postsynaptic matrix protein, dHomer. Using two-photon in vivo imaging of olfactory projection neurons, odor-evoked activity across populations of synapses is visualized in the antennal lobe and the mushroom body calyx. Prolonged odor exposure causes odor-specific and differential experience-dependent changes in pre- and postsynaptic activity at both levels of olfactory processing. The approach advances the physiological analysis of synaptic connections across defined groups of neurons in intact Drosophila.

  8. Experience dependence of neural responses to different classes of male songs in the primary auditory forebrain of female songbirds. (United States)

    Hauber, Mark E; Woolley, Sarah M N; Cassey, Phillip; Theunissen, Frédéric E


    There is both extensive species-specificity and critical experience-dependence in the recognition of own species songs in many songbird species. For example, female zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata raised by their parents show behavioral preferences for the songs of the father over unfamiliar conspecific males and for unfamiliar songs of conspecifics over heterospecifics. Behavioral discrimination between different species' songs is also displayed by females raised without exposure to any male songs but it is diminished in females raised by heterospecific foster parents. We tested whether neural responses in the female auditory forebrain paralleled each of these known behavioral patterns in song-class discrimination. We analyzed spike rates, above background levels, recorded from single units in the L2a subregion of the field L complex of female zebra finches. In subjects raised by genetic parents, spike rates were similar to songs of fathers and unfamiliar male zebra finches, and higher to unfamiliar conspecific over unfamiliar heterospecific songs. In females raised in isolation from male songs, we also found higher spike rates to unfamiliar conspecific over heterospecific songs. In females raised by heterospecific foster parents, spike rates were similar in response to songs of the foster father and unfamiliar males of the foster species, similar between unfamiliar songs of conspecifics and the heterospecific foster species, and higher to unfamiliar songs of the foster species over a third finch species. Thus, in parallel to the experience-dependence of females' behaviors in response to different male song classes, differences in social experiences can also alter neural response patterns to male song classes in the auditory forebrain of female zebra finches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Principles of Experience-Dependent Neural Plasticity: Implications for Rehabilitation after Brain Damage (United States)

    Kleim, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Theresa A.


    Purpose: This paper reviews 10 principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity and considerations in applying them to the damaged brain. Method: Neuroscience research using a variety of models of learning, neurological disease, and trauma are reviewed from the perspective of basic neuroscientists but in a manner intended to be useful for the…

  10. Mecp2 Mediates Experience-Dependent Transcriptional Upregulation of Ryanodine Receptor Type-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Torres


    Full Text Available Mecp2 is a DNA methylation reader that plays a critical role in experience-dependent plasticity. Increasing evidence supports a role for epigenetic modifications in activity-induced gene expression. Hence, candidate genes related to such phenomena are of great interest. Ryanodine receptors are intracellular calcium channels that contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity, dendritic spine remodeling, and participate in learning and memory processes. Here we exposed mice to the enriched environment (EE paradigm, which through increased stimulation induces experience dependent-plasticity, to explore a role for methyl-cytosines, and Mecp2 in directing Ryanodine receptor 3 (Ryr3 transcriptional activity. EE induced a hippocampal-specific increase in the methylation of discrete cytosines located at a Ryr3 isoform promoter; chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that EE increased Mecp2 binding to this Ryr3 isoform promoter. Interestingly, the experimental paradigm induced robust Ryr3 upregulation, accompanied by miR132-dependent suppression of p250GAP, a pathway driving synaptogenesis. In contrast to WT mice, Mecp2-null mice showed diminished levels of Ryr3 and displayed impaired EE-induced Ryr3 upregulation, compromising miR132 dependent suppression of p250GAP and experience-dependent structural plasticity. Based on these results, we propose that Mecp2 acts as a transcriptional activator of Ryr3, contributing to experience-dependent plasticity.

  11. Inborn and experience-dependent models of categorical brain organization. A position paper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGainotti


    Full Text Available The present review aims to summarize the debate in contemporary neuroscience between inborn and experience-dependent models of conceptual representations that goes back to the description of category-specific semantic disorders for biological and artefact categories. Experience-dependent models suggest that categorical disorders are the by-product of the differential weighting of different sources of knowledge in the representation of biological and artefact categories. These models maintain that semantic disorders are not really category-specific, because they do not respect the boundaries between different categories. They also argue that the brain structures disrupted in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder should correspond to the areas of convergence of the sensory-motor information which play a major role in the construction of that category. Furthermore, they provide a simple interpretation of gender-related categorical effects and are supported by studies that have assessed the importance of prior experience in the cortical representation of objects On the other hand, inborn models maintain that category-specific semantic disorders reflect the disruption of innate brain networks, which are shaped by natural selection to allow rapid identification of objects that are very relevant for survival. From the empirical point of view, these models are mainly supported by observations made in blind subjects, which suggest that visual experience is not necessary for the emergence of category-specificity in the ventral stream of visual processing. The weight of data supporting experience-dependent and inborn models are thoroughly discussed, stressing the fact observations made in blind subjects are still the subject of intense debate, but concluding that at the present state of knowledge it is not possible to choose between experience-dependent and inborn models of conceptual representations.

  12. BACE1 Is Necessary for Experience-Dependent Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity in Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Petrus


    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of age-related dementia, which is thought to result from overproduction and/or reduced clearance of amyloid-beta (Aβ peptides. Studies over the past few decades suggest that Aβ is produced in an activity-dependent manner and has physiological relevance to normal brain functions. Similarly, physiological functions for β- and γ-secretases, the two key enzymes that produce Aβ by sequentially processing the amyloid precursor protein (APP, have been discovered over recent years. In particular, activity-dependent production of Aβ has been suggested to play a role in homeostatic regulation of excitatory synaptic function. There is accumulating evidence that activity-dependent immediate early gene Arc is an activity “sensor,” which acts upstream of Aβ production and triggers AMPA receptor endocytosis to homeostatically downregulate the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that Arc is critical for sensory experience-dependent homeostatic reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of visual cortex. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the major neuronal β-secretase, BACE1, exhibit a similar phenotype: stronger basal excitatory synaptic transmission and failure to adapt to changes in visual experience. Our results indicate that BACE1 plays an essential role in sensory experience-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the neocortex.

  13. Functional consequences of experience-dependent plasticity on tactile perception following perceptual learning (United States)

    Trzcinski, Natalie K; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Hsiao, Steven S.


    Continuous training enhances perceptual discrimination and promotes neural changes in areas encoding the experienced stimuli. This type of experience-dependent plasticity has been demonstrated in several sensory and motor systems. Particularly, non-human primates trained to detect consecutive tactile bar indentations across multiple digits showed expanded excitatory receptive fields (RFs) in somatosensory cortex. However, the perceptual implications of these anatomical changes remain undetermined. Here, we trained human participants for nine days on a tactile task that promoted expansion of multi-digit RFs. Participants were required to detect consecutive indentations of bar stimuli spanning multiple digits. Throughout the training regime we tracked participants’ discrimination thresholds on spatial (grating orientation) and temporal tasks on the trained and untrained hands in separate sessions. We hypothesized that training on the multi-digit task would decrease perceptual thresholds on tasks that require stimulus processing across multiple digits, while also increasing thresholds on tasks requiring discrimination on single digits. We observed an increase in orientation thresholds on a single-digit. Importantly, this effect was selective for the stimulus orientation and hand used during multi-digit training. We also found that temporal acuity between digits improved across trained digits, suggesting that discriminating the temporal order of multi-digit stimuli can transfer to temporal discrimination of other tactile stimuli. These results suggest that experience-dependent plasticity following perceptual learning improves and interferes with tactile abilities in manners predictive of the task and stimulus features used during training. PMID:27422224

  14. Experience-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in V1 Occurs without Microglial CX3CR1. (United States)

    Schecter, Rachel W; Maher, Erin E; Welsh, Christina A; Stevens, Beth; Erisir, Alev; Bear, Mark F


    Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance and reduces the density of thalamic synapses in layer 4 of the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). We found that microglial lysosome content is also increased as a result of MD. Previous studies have shown that the microglial fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 is involved in synaptic development and hippocampal plasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that neuron-to-microglial communication via CX3CR1 is an essential component of visual cortical development and plasticity in male mice. Our data show that CX3CR1 is not required for normal development of V1 responses to visual stimulation, multiple forms of experience-dependent plasticity, or the synapse loss that accompanies MD in layer 4. By ruling out an essential role for fractalkine signaling, our study narrows the search for understanding how microglia respond to active synapse modification in the visual cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Microglia in the visual cortex respond to monocular deprivation with increased lysosome content, but signaling through the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 is not an essential component in the mechanisms of visual cortical development or experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710541-13$15.00/0.

  15. Local Experience-Dependent Changes in the Wake EEG after Prolonged Wakefulness (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Sui; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio


    Study Objectives: Prolonged wakefulness leads to a progressive increase in sleep pressure, reflected in a global increase in slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A global increase in wake theta activity (5-9 Hz) also occurs. Recently, it was shown that prolonged wakefulness in rodents leads to signs of “local sleep” in an otherwise awake brain, accompanied by a slow/theta wave (2-6 Hz) in the local EEG that occurs at different times in different cortical areas. Compelling evidence in animals and humans also indicates that sleep is locally regulated by the amount of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we asked whether the extended practice of tasks that involve specific brain circuits results in increased occurrence of local intermittent theta waves in the human EEG, above and beyond the global EEG changes previously described. Design: Participants recorded with high-density EEG completed 2 experiments during which they stayed awake ≥ 24 h practicing a language task (audiobook listening [AB]) or a visuomotor task (driving simulator [DS]). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: 16 healthy participants (7 females). Interventions: Two extended wake periods. Measurements and Results: Both conditions resulted in global increases in resting wake EEG theta power at the end of 24 h of wake, accompanied by increased sleepiness. Moreover, wake theta power as well as the occurrence and amplitude of theta waves showed regional, task-dependent changes, increasing more over left frontal derivations in AB, and over posterior parietal regions in DS. These local changes in wake theta power correlated with similar local changes in sleep low frequencies including SWA. Conclusions: Extended experience-dependent plasticity of specific circuits results in a local increase of the wake theta EEG power in those regions, followed by more intense sleep, as reflected by SWA, over the same areas. Citation: Hung CS; Sarasso S

  16. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians. (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R


    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties.

  17. Local experience-dependent changes in the wake EEG after prolonged wakefulness. (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Sui; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady; Ghilardi, M Felice; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio


    Prolonged wakefulness leads to a progressive increase in sleep pressure, reflected in a global increase in slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A global increase in wake theta activity (5-9 Hz) also occurs. Recently, it was shown that prolonged wakefulness in rodents leads to signs of "local sleep" in an otherwise awake brain, accompanied by a slow/theta wave (2-6 Hz) in the local EEG that occurs at different times in different cortical areas. Compelling evidence in animals and humans also indicates that sleep is locally regulated by the amount of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we asked whether the extended practice of tasks that involve specific brain circuits results in increased occurrence of local intermittent theta waves in the human EEG, above and beyond the global EEG changes previously described. Participants recorded with high-density EEG completed 2 experiments during which they stayed awake ≥ 24 h practicing a language task (audiobook listening [AB]) or a visuomotor task (driving simulator [DS]). Sleep laboratory. 16 healthy participants (7 females). Two extended wake periods. Both conditions resulted in global increases in resting wake EEG theta power at the end of 24 h of wake, accompanied by increased sleepiness. Moreover, wake theta power as well as the occurrence and amplitude of theta waves showed regional, task-dependent changes, increasing more over left frontal derivations in AB, and over posterior parietal regions in DS. These local changes in wake theta power correlated with similar local changes in sleep low frequencies including SWA. Extended experience-dependent plasticity of specific circuits results in a local increase of the wake theta EEG power in those regions, followed by more intense sleep, as reflected by SWA, over the same areas.

  18. Experience-dependent modulation of alpha and beta during action observation and motor imagery. (United States)

    Di Nota, Paula M; Chartrand, Julie M; Levkov, Gabriella R; Montefusco-Siegmund, Rodrigo; DeSouza, Joseph F X


    EEG studies investigating the neural networks that facilitate action observation (AO) and kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) have shown reduced, or desynchronized, power in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequency bands relative to rest, reflecting efficient activation of task-relevant areas. Functional modulation of these networks through expertise in dance has been established using fMRI, with greater activation among experts during AO. While there is evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of alpha power during AO of dance, the influence of familiarity on beta power during AO, and alpha and beta activity during KMI, remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to measure the impact of familiarity on confidence ratings and EEG activity during (1) AO of a brief ballet sequence, (2) KMI of this same sequence, and (3) KMI of non-dance movements among ballet dancers, dancers from other genres, and non-dancers. Ballet dancers highly familiar with the genre of the experimental stimulus demonstrated higher individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF), greater alpha desynchronization, and greater task-related beta power during AO, as well as faster iAPF during KMI of non-dance movements. While no between-group differences in alpha or beta power were observed during KMI of dance or non-dance movements, all participants showed significant desynchronization relative to baseline, and further desynchronization during dance KMI relative to non-dance KMI indicative of greater cognitive load. These findings confirm and extend evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of alpha and beta activity during AO of dance and KMI. We also provide novel evidence for modulation of iAPF that is faster when tuned to the specific motor repertoire of the observer. By considering the multiple functional roles of these frequency bands during the same task (AO), we have disentangled the compounded contribution of familiarity and expertise to alpha desynchronization for mediating

  19. The snakehead Channa asiatica accumulates alanine during aerial exposure, but is incapable of sustaining locomotory activities on land through partial amino acid catabolism. (United States)

    Chew, Shit F; Wong, Mei Y; Tam, Wai L; Ip, Yuen K


    terrestrial conditions in total darkness, with no change in the total free amino acid content in the muscle. Exercise on land led to a decrease in glycogen content, and an increase in lactate levels, with no significant effect on ammonia and alanine contents in the muscle of C. asiatica. Hence, unlike the mudskipper Periophthalmodon schlosseri, C. asiatica was incapable of increasing the rate of partial amino acid catabolism to sustain locomotory activities on land. Alanine formation therefore appears to be a common strategy adopted by obligatory air-breathing fishes to avoid ammonia toxicity (not a strategy to detoxify ammonia) on land, but not all of them can utilize it to fuel muscular activities.

  20. Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: Reasoning training alters structural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson P Mackey


    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA, have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n=23 who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT, a test that places strong demands on reasoning skills, as well as age- and IQ-matched controls planning to take the LSAT in the future (n=22. DTI data were collected at two scan sessions scheduled three months apart. In trained participants but not controls, we observed decreases in radial diffusivity (RD in white matter connecting frontal cortices, and in mean diffusivity (MD within frontal and parietal lobe white matter. Further, participants exhibiting larger gains on the LSAT exhibited greater decreases in MD in the right internal capsule. In summary, reasoning training altered multiple measures of white matter structure in young adults. While the cellular underpinnings are unknown, these results provide evidence of experience-dependent white matter changes that may not be limited to myelination.

  1. Myelin Associated Inhibitors: A Link Between Injury-Induced and Experience-Dependent Plasticity (United States)

    Akbik, Feras; Cafferty, William B. J.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.


    SUMMARY In the adult, both neurologic recovery and anatomical growth after a CNS injury are limited. Two classes of growth inhibitors, myelin associated inhibitors (MAIs) and extracellular matrix associated inhibitors, limit both functional recovery and anatomical rearrangements in animal models of spinal cord injury. Here we focus on how MAIs limit a wide spectrum of growth that includes regeneration, sprouting, and plasticity in both the intact and lesioned CNS. Three classic myelin associated inhibitors, Nogo-A, MAG, and OMgp, signal through their common receptors, Nogo-66 Receptor-1 (NgR1) and Paired-Immunoglobulin-like-Receptor-1 (PirB), to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and inhibit growth. Initially described as inhibitors of axonal regeneration, subsequent work has demonstrated that MAIs also limit activity and experience-dependent plasticity in the intact, adult CNS. MAIs therefore represent a point of convergence for plasticity that limits anatomical rearrangements regardless of the inciting stimulus, blurring the distinction between injury studies and more “basic” plasticity studies. PMID:21699896

  2. Experience-dependent regulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator in the mouse barrel cortex. (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chien; Chu, Philip; Brumberg, Joshua C


    It has been suggested that tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, plays a key role in regulating the extracellular matrix core proteins, thereby impacting the structural plasticity in the cerebral cortex. Much is known about its role in regulating plasticity in the visual cortex. However, its permissive role has not been demonstrated to generalize to other cerebral cortical areas. By utilizing a combination of immunofluorescent histochemistry and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that endogenous tPA is indeed present in the somatosensory cortex, and its expression is experience-dependent. Chronic sensory deprivation induced by whisker trimming from birth for one month leads to increased tPA immunoreactivity in all layers of the barrel cortex. Furthermore, tPA immunoreactivity remains high even after sensation has been restored to the mystacial pad (by allowing whiskers to grow back to full length for one month). Our results suggest that tPA levels in the cerebral cortex are regulated by sensory experience, and play a key role in regulating structural remodeling in the cerebral cortex. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. The requirement of BDNF for hippocampal synaptic plasticity is experience-dependent. (United States)

    Aarse, Janna; Herlitze, Stefan; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise


    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neuronal survival, growth, and differentiation and has been implicated in forms of hippocampus-dependent learning. In vitro, a specific role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity has been described, although not all experience-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity critically depend on BDNF. Synaptic plasticity is likely to enable long-term synaptic information storage and memory, and the induction of persistent (>24 h) forms, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) is tightly associated with learning specific aspects of a spatial representation. Whether BDNF is required for persistent (>24 h) forms of LTP and LTD, and how it contributes to synaptic plasticity in the freely behaving rodent has never been explored. We examined LTP, LTD, and related forms of learning in the CA1 region of freely dependent mice that have a partial knockdown of BDNF (BDNF(+/-) ). We show that whereas early-LTD (synaptic plasticity may circumvent the need for BDNF, rather it may play a specific role in the optimization of weaker forms of plasticity. The finding that both learning-facilitated LTD and spatial reference memory are both impaired in BDNF(+/-) mice, suggests moreover, that it is critically required for the physiological encoding of hippocampus-dependent memory. © 2015 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Expression of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and can cause dendrite growth. (United States)

    David, Samuel; Stegenga, Susan L; Hu, Peter; Xiong, Guoxiang; Kerr, Elizabeth; Becker, Katherine B; Venkatapathy, Sumathi; Warrington, Janet A; Kalb, Robert G


    The interaction of an animal with its environment during a critical period in early postnatal life has lifelong effects on the structure and function of sensory and motor systems. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of experience-dependent development, we challenged young rats to adapt to a new environment that engenders novel motor behavior. Rats born in the gravitational field (1G) of the earth subsequently were reared for 2 weeks either in the absence of gravity (microgravity) or at 1G. A comparison of gene expression using microarrays led to the identification of a panel of differentially regulated transcripts. We report here that the abundance of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is increased in spinal cord tissue from animals reared in microgravity in comparison with 1G-reared controls. The induction of SGK expression also can be achieved by administration of glucocorticoids to animals at 1G or neurons in vitro. Expression of constitutively active SGK in neurons leads to the elaboration of neuronal dendrites and their branching. Glucocorticoids also lead to dendrite elaboration, and this effect can be abrogated by inhibiting SGK activity. Changes in the level of expression of SGK could be part of the mechanism for experience-dependent acquisition of mature neuronal properties.

  5. Lycaenid Caterpillar Secretions Manipulate Attendant Ant Behavior. (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Pierce, Naomi E; Tsuji, Kazuki


    Mutualistic interactions typically involve the exchange of different commodities between species. Nutritious secretions are produced by a number of insects and plants in exchange for services such as defense. These rewards are valuable metabolically and can be used to reinforce the behavior of symbiotic partners that can learn and remember them effectively. We show here novel effects of insect exocrine secretions produced by caterpillars in modulating the behavior of attendant ants in the food-for-defense interaction between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Reward secretions from the dorsal nectary organ (DNO) of Narathura japonica caterpillars function to reduce the locomotory activities of their attendant ants, Pristomyrmex punctatus workers. Moreover, workers that feed from caterpillar secretions are significantly more likely to show aggressive responses to eversion of the tentacle organs of the caterpillars. Analysis of the neurogenic amines in the brains of workers that consumed caterpillar secretions showed a significant decrease in levels of dopamine compared with controls. Experimental treatments in which reserpine, a known inhibitor of dopamine in Drosophila, was fed to workers similarly reduced their locomotory activity. We conclude that DNO secretions of lycaenid caterpillars can manipulate attendant ant behavior by altering dopaminergic regulation and increasing partner fidelity. Unless manipulated ants also receive a net nutritional benefit from DNO secretions, this suggests that similar reward-for-defense interactions that have been traditionally considered to be mutualisms may in fact be parasitic in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TNF-A Levels throughout the Critical Period for Experience-Dependent Plasticity in the Rat Primary Auditory Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, WH; Madeira, Caroline; Zhou, Xiaoming; Merzenich, Michael M; Panizzutti, Rogerio


    Tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) is likely to play a role in brain plasticity. To determine whether TNF-α levels change throughout a critical period of experience-dependent brain plasticity, we assessed these levels in the primary auditory cortex of rats before, during and after the critical

  7. The non-coding RNA BC1 regulates experience-dependent structural plasticity and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briz, Victor; Restivo, Leonardo; Pasciuto, Emanuela; Juczewski, Konrad; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lo, Adrian C; Baatsen, Pieter; Gounko, Natalia V; Borreca, Antonella; Girardi, Tiziana; Luca, Rossella; Nys, Julie; Poorthuis, Rogier B; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Fisone, Gilberto; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Arckens, Lutgarde; Krieger, Patrik; Meredith, Rhiannon; Bagni, Claudia


    The brain cytoplasmic (BC1) RNA is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) involved in neuronal translational control. Absence of BC1 is associated with altered glutamatergic transmission and maladaptive behavior. Here, we show that pyramidal neurons in the barrel cortex of BC1 knock out (KO) mice display larger

  8. Experience-Dependent Effects of Cocaine Self-Administration/Conditioning on Prefrontal and Accumbens Dopamine Responses (United States)

    Ikegami, Aiko; Olsen, Christopher M.; D’Souza, Manoranjan S.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.


    Experiments were performed to examine the effects of cocaine self-administration and conditioning experience on operant behavior, locomotor activity, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA) responses. Sensory cues were paired with alternating cocaine and nonreinforcement during 12 (limited training) or 40 (long-term training) daily operant sessions. After limited training, NAcc DA responses to cocaine were significantly enhanced in the presence of cocaine-associated cues compared with nonreward cues and significantly depressed after cocaine-paired cues accompanied a nonreinforced lever response. PFC DA levels were generally nonresponsive to cues after the same training duration. However, after long-term training, cocaine-associated cues increased the magnitude of cocaine-stimulated PFC DA levels significantly over levels observed with nonreinforcement cues. Conversely, conditioned cues no longer influenced NAcc DA levels after long-term training. In addition, cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity was enhanced by cocaine-paired cues after long-term, but not after limited, training. Findings demonstrate that cue-induced cocaine expectation exerts a significant impact on dopaminergic and behavioral systems, progressing from mesolimbic to mesocortical regions and from latent to patent behaviors as cocaine and associative experiences escalate. PMID:17469929

  9. Experience-dependent recruitment of Arc expression in multiple systems during rest. (United States)

    Gheidi, Ali; Satvat, Elham; Marrone, Diano F


    The patterns of ensemble activity in the hippocampal formation during wakeful, attentive behavior are recapitulated during subsequent resting states. This replay of activity has also been found in several brain regions across many species, indicating a very general biological phenomenon. Concomitantly, transcription of immediate-early genes (IEGs) such as Arc also reoccurs in the same hippocampal neurons, suggesting that IEGs contribute to "off-line" consolidation. If continued IEG expression during rest reflects a correlate of ensemble replay, then the same generality should be observed in IEG transcription patterns. This hypothesis was tested by examining Arc in F344 rats engaging in spatial exploration alongside a rest episode. The probability that an individual neuron participates in "constitutive" Arc expression during rest is increased by recent experience in multiple cortical regions as well as across the septal and temporal poles of the hippocampus, consistent with memory trace reactivation. That is, neurons that were recently active during spatial exploration are preferentially recruited into further Arc expression during subsequent rest. The continued Arc expression, however, occurs in only a small fraction of the cells that were engaged in transcription during previous behavior. This fraction is greatest in CA3 and progressively decreases in CA1, superficial, and deep cortical layers and is consistent with the idea that consolidation occurs rapidly in the hippocampus (centering on the CA3 recurrent network) while changes are much more gradual in neocortical synaptic networks. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Experience-Dependent Induction of Hippocampal ΔFosB Controls Learning. (United States)

    Eagle, Andrew L; Gajewski, Paula A; Yang, Miyoung; Kechner, Megan E; Al Masraf, Basma S; Kennedy, Pamela J; Wang, Hongbing; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S; Robison, Alfred J


    The hippocampus (HPC) is known to play an important role in learning, a process dependent on synaptic plasticity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood. ΔFosB is a transcription factor that is induced throughout the brain by chronic exposure to drugs, stress, and variety of other stimuli and regulates synaptic plasticity and behavior in other brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens. We show here that ΔFosB is also induced in HPC CA1 and DG subfields by spatial learning and novel environmental exposure. The goal of the current study was to examine the role of ΔFosB in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and the structural plasticity of HPC synapses. Using viral-mediated gene transfer to silence ΔFosB transcriptional activity by expressing ΔJunD (a negative modulator of ΔFosB transcriptional function) or to overexpress ΔFosB, we demonstrate that HPC ΔFosB regulates learning and memory. Specifically, ΔJunD expression in HPC impaired learning and memory on a battery of hippocampal-dependent tasks in mice. Similarly, general ΔFosB overexpression also impaired learning. ΔJunD expression in HPC did not affect anxiety or natural reward, but ΔFosB overexpression induced anxiogenic behaviors, suggesting that ΔFosB may mediate attentional gating in addition to learning. Finally, we found that overexpression of ΔFosB increases immature dendritic spines on CA1 pyramidal cells, whereas ΔJunD reduced the number of immature and mature spine types, indicating that ΔFosB may exert its behavioral effects through modulation of HPC synaptic function. Together, these results suggest collectively that ΔFosB plays a significant role in HPC cellular morphology and HPC-dependent learning and memory. Consolidation of our explicit memories occurs within the hippocampus, and it is in this brain region that the molecular and cellular processes of learning have been most closely studied. We know that connections between hippocampal

  11. Experience-dependent changes in the development of face preferences in infant rhesus monkeys. (United States)

    Parr, Lisa A; Murphy, Lauren; Feczko, Eric; Brooks, Jenna; Collantes, Marie; Heitz, Thomas R


    It is well known that early experience shapes the development of visual perception for faces in humans. However, the effect of experience on the development of social attention in non-human primates is unknown. In two studies, we examined the effect of cumulative social experience on developmental changes in attention to the faces of unfamiliar conspecifics or heterospecifics, and mom versus an unfamiliar female. From birth, infant rhesus monkeys preferred to look at conspecific compared to heterospecific faces, but this pattern reversed over time. In contrast, no consistent differences were found for attention to mom's face compared to an unfamiliar female. These results suggest differential roles of social experience in shaping the development of face preferences in infant monkeys. Results have important implications for establishing normative trajectories for the development of face preferences in an animal model of human social behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J


    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  13. Restoration of staggerer mouse maternal behavior following long-term breeding selection. (United States)

    Boufares, S; Guastavino, J M; Larsson, K


    Two lines of staggerers from the C57BL/6 strain were tested for disturbances in maternal behavior and locomotion. One line, called Pasteur, included staggerers available at L'Institut Pasteur. The second line, called Selected, included staggerers that had been bred in our laboratory for several generations for their ability to reproduce. While none of the Pasteur animals showed any evidence of maternal behavior, most of the Selected mutant mice became maternal, carrying about 90% of the pups until weaning. No group differences were seen in locomotory behavior. It was concluded that a) as a result of long-term breeding selection, homozygous (sg/sg) animals of the C57BL/6 strain may be able to exhibit maternal behavior from birth on, even under standard laboratory conditions; b) the restoration of the maternal behavior does not equally affect all components of this behavior pattern; and c) the impairment of the maternal behavior showed by the staggerer females is not a necessary consequence of impaired locomotory capacity characteristic of the staggerer.

  14. Behaviorism (United States)

    Moore, J.


    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  15. Three distinct amine receptors operating at different levels within the locomotory circuit are each essential for the serotonergic modulation of chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans


    Harris, Gareth P.; Hapiak, Vera M.; Wragg, Rachel T.; Miller, Sarah B.; Hughes, Lindsay J.; Hobson, Robert J.; Steven, Robert; Bamber, Bruce; Komuniecki, Richard W.


    Serotonin modulates behavioral plasticity in both vertebrates and invertebrates and in Caenorhabditis elegans regulates key behaviors, including locomotion, aversive learning and olfaction through at least four different 5-HT receptors. In the present study, we examined the serotonergic stimulation of aversive responses to dilute octanol in animals containing null alleles of these 5-HT receptors. Both ser-1 and mod-1 null animals failed to increase sensitivity to dilute octanol on food/5-HT, ...

  16. HDAC3 but not HDAC2 mediates visual experience-dependent radial glia proliferation in the developing Xenopus tectum

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    Juanmei Gao


    Full Text Available Radial glial cells (RGs are one of the important progenitor cells that can differentiate into neurons or glia to form functional neural circuits in the developing central nervous system (CNS. Histone deacetylases (HDACs has been associated with visual activity dependent changes in BrdU-positive progenitor cells in the developing brain. We previously have shown that HDAC1 is involved in the experience-dependent proliferation of RGs. However, it is less clear whether two other members of class I HDACs, HDAC2 and HDAC3, are involved in the regulation of radial glia proliferation. Here, we reported that HDAC2 and HDAC3 expression were developmentally regulated in tectal cells, especially in the ventricular layer of the BLBP-positive RGs. Pharmacological blockade using an inhibitor of class I HDACs, MS-275 decreased the number of BrdU-positive dividing progenitor cells. Specific knockdown of HDAC3 but not HDAC2 decreased the number of BrdU- and BLBP-labeled cells, suggesting that the proliferation of radial glia was selectively mediated by HDAC3. Visual deprivation induced selective augmentation of histone H4 acetylation at lysine 16 in BLBP-positive cells. Furthermore, the visual deprivation-induced increase in BrdU-positive cells was partially blocked by HDAC3 downregulation but not by HDAC2 knockdown at stage 49 tadpoles. These data revealed a specific role of HDAC3 in experience-dependent radial glia proliferation during the development of Xenopus tectum.

  17. Sertraline Induces Toxicity and Behavioral Alterations in Planarians

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    Isabela Salvador Thumé


    Full Text Available Toxicity attributed to sertraline has been demonstrated recently in different cell types and also in some organisms. We investigated the effect of sertraline on planarians, which are considered suitable for investigations in neurotoxicology and currently are widely used as an animal model in neuropharmacological studies. Planarians treated with 10 µM sertraline showed a rapid reduction in their spontaneous movement until they became completely motionless and then showed a series of asynchronous paroxysms (seizures followed by progressive tissue damage, beginning 48 h after the sertraline treatment, and died approximately 72 h later. Our data showed that sertraline does not cause planarian death within the range of therapeutic concentrations; however, behavioral alterations were observed with concentrations that can be considered compatible with therapeutic ones, such as a significant reduction in planarian locomotory activity at 0.4 µM. Treatment with 4 µM sertraline had a significant effect, reducing planarian locomotory activity and increasing the number of asynchronous paroxysms; both effects were significantly maintained even 24 h after the sertraline was withdrawn. These behavioral changes observed at low micromolar concentrations suggest that sertraline might have residual biological consequences for planarians, even after it is withdrawn.

  18. The effects of early institutionalization on emotional face processing: evidence for sparing via an experience-dependent mechanism. (United States)

    Young, Audrey; Luyster, Rhiannon J; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A


    Early psychosocial deprivation has profound adverse effects on children's brain and behavioural development, including abnormalities in physical growth, intellectual function, social cognition, and emotional development. Nevertheless, the domain of emotional face processing has appeared in previous research to be relatively spared; here, we test for possible sleeper effects emerging in early adolescence. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the neural correlates of facial emotion processing in 12-year-old children who took part in a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an intervention for early institutionalization. Results revealed no significant group differences in two face and emotion-sensitive ERP components (P1 and N170), nor any association with age at placement or per cent of lifetime spent in an institution. These results converged with previous evidence from this population supporting relative sparing of facial emotion processing. We hypothesize that this sparing is due to an experience-dependent mechanism in which the amount of exposure to faces and facial expressions of emotion children received was sufficient to meet the low threshold required for cortical specialization of structures critical to emotion processing. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Early psychosocial deprivation leads to profoundly detrimental effects on children's brain and behavioural development. With respect to children's emotional face processing abilities, few adverse effects of institutionalized rearing have previously been reported. Recent studies suggest that 'sleeper effects' may emerge many years later, especially in the domain of face processing. What does this study add? Examining a cumulative 12 years of data, we found only minimal group differences and no evidence of a sleeper effect in this particular domain. These findings identify emotional face processing as a unique ability in which relative sparing

  19. Severe maternal undernutrition and post-weaning behavior of rabbits. (United States)

    Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Symeon, George K; Kominakis, Antonios P; Bizelis, Iosif A; Chadio, Stella E; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G


    The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the implications of severe maternal undernutrition on the post-weaning behavior of rabbits. Thirty two does were randomly assigned to four groups: the control group (C) that was fed 100% of the recommended energy maintenance requirements throughout pregnancy and lactation and the U1, U2 and U3 groups that were fed 50% of the recommended energy maintenance requirements between the 6th and the 19th day of pregnancy, between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy and between the 3rd and the 10th day of lactation, respectively. At the age of 50 and 65 days, behavior of rabbits in cages was recorded and rabbits were further subjected to an open-field test; a paradigm used as an indicator of fear and emotional distress. Significant differences were found between the U2 and the other experimental groups for the duration of eating and drinking, and duration of locomotory and investigatory behaviors (Prabbits born from undernourished does between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy (Prabbits had greater values for locomotory and investigatory behaviors, and duration of eating and drinking compared to the females (Prabbits during the light period was observed (as expected), whereas an increase in duration of locomotory and investigatory behaviors was observed during the first four and the last 4h of the light and dark periods, respectively (PRabbits born from the U1 and U2 group of does displayed increased rates of latency to leave the start position compared to the other groups during the implementation of the open-field test (Prabbits. It is concluded that severe maternal undernutrition (50% of the recommended maintenance requirements) especially between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy has significant effects on the exhibition of rabbits' post-weaning behavior, since the offspring from the U2 undernourished does were significantly less active compared to the other experimental groups. Copyright © 2015

  20. Experience-dependent emergence of beta and gamma band oscillations in the primary visual cortex during the critical period. (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Rasch, Malte J; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Xiao-hui


    Neural oscillatory activities have been shown to play important roles in neural information processing and the shaping of circuit connections during development. However, it remains unknown whether and how specific neural oscillations emerge during a postnatal critical period (CP), in which neuronal connections are most substantially modified by neural activity and experience. By recording local field potentials (LFPs) and single unit activity in developing primary visual cortex (V1) of head-fixed awake mice, we here demonstrate an emergence of characteristic oscillatory activities during the CP. From the pre-CP to CP, the peak frequency of spontaneous fast oscillatory activities shifts from the beta band (15-35 Hz) to the gamma band (40-70 Hz), accompanied by a decrease of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and broadband spike-field coherence (SFC). Moreover, visual stimulation induced a large increase of beta-band activity but a reduction of gamma-band activity specifically from the CP onwards. Dark rearing of animals from the birth delayed this emergence of oscillatory activities during the CP, suggesting its dependence on early visual experience. These findings suggest that the characteristic neuronal oscillatory activities emerged specifically during the CP may represent as neural activity trait markers for the experience-dependent maturation of developing visual cortical circuits.

  1. Critical role of peripheral drug actions in experience-dependent changes in nucleus accumbens glutamate release induced by intravenous cocaine (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ken T.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.


    Recent studies reveal that cocaine experience results in persistent neuroadaptive changes within glutamate (Glu) synapses in brain areas associated with drug reward. However, it remains unclear whether cocaine affects Glu release in drug-naive animals and how it is altered by drug experience. By using high-speed amperometry with enzyme-based and enzyme-free biosensors in freely moving rats, we show that an initial intravenous cocaine injection at a low self-administering dose (1 mg/kg) induces rapid, small and transient Glu release in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc), which with subsequent injections rapidly becomes a much stronger, two-component increase. Using cocaine-methiodide, cocaine’s analogue that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, we confirm that the initial cocaine-induced Glu release in the NAc has a peripheral neural origin. Unlike cocaine, Glu responses induced by cocaine-methiodide rapidly habituate following repeated exposure. However, after cocaine experience this drug induces cocaine-like Glu responses. Hence, the interoceptive actions of cocaine, which essentially precede its direct actions in the brain, play a critical role in experience-dependent alterations in Glu release, cocaine-induced neural sensitization and may contribute to cocaine addiction. PMID:24111505

  2. [Dynamic reconstruction of the fish locomotory wave]. (United States)

    Smolianinov, V V


    The inverse hydrodynamic task of the synthesis of a wave driver for aquatic organisms, in particular of fishes, has been solved. A multilink model of bending oscillations and the optimum phasings of transverse-rotary vibrations of parts was considered, which provides a maximum driving force of each link for two cases of the hydrodynamic interaction of the parts with water: the force of viscous resistance for a longitudinal and a transverse component of the vector of movement of a segment is proportional to (1) the speed of movement (linear friction) and (2) the square of speed (square-law friction). It was shown that the optimum phasings of link vibrations for transverse and rotary modes are strictly orthogonal for the variant of linear friction or are close to orthogonal in the case of square-law friction. The theoretical forms of the bending waves satisfying the dynamic optimization are compared to experimental data obtained earlier on the basis of filmregistration.

  3. Epigenetics of the locomotory system in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der T.


    Movements are important. When animals move, they exert mechanical load on their bodies and their muscles and bones respond by the generation of more tissue. Vice versa, a lack of movement will result in a decrease in bone and muscle tissue. During my PhD studies I have looked into the normal

  4. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. (United States)

    Anomal, Renata; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael M; Panizzutti, Rogerio


    Sensory experience powerfully shapes cortical sensory representations during an early developmental "critical period" of plasticity. In the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), the experience-dependent plasticity is exemplified by significant, long-lasting distortions in frequency representation after mere exposure to repetitive frequencies during the second week of life. In the visual system, the normal unfolding of critical period plasticity is strongly dependent on the elaboration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the establishment of inhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF signaling plays a role in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. Elvax resin implants filled with either a blocking antibody against BDNF or the BDNF protein were placed on the A1 of rat pups throughout the critical period window. These pups were then exposed to 7 kHz pure tone for 7 consecutive days and their frequency representations were mapped. BDNF blockade completely prevented the shaping of cortical tuning by experience and resulted in poor overall frequency tuning in A1. By contrast, BDNF infusion on the developing A1 amplified the effect of 7 kHz tone exposure compared to control. These results indicate that BDNF signaling participates in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in A1.

  5. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Anomal

    Full Text Available Sensory experience powerfully shapes cortical sensory representations during an early developmental "critical period" of plasticity. In the rat primary auditory cortex (A1, the experience-dependent plasticity is exemplified by significant, long-lasting distortions in frequency representation after mere exposure to repetitive frequencies during the second week of life. In the visual system, the normal unfolding of critical period plasticity is strongly dependent on the elaboration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which promotes the establishment of inhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF signaling plays a role in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. Elvax resin implants filled with either a blocking antibody against BDNF or the BDNF protein were placed on the A1 of rat pups throughout the critical period window. These pups were then exposed to 7 kHz pure tone for 7 consecutive days and their frequency representations were mapped. BDNF blockade completely prevented the shaping of cortical tuning by experience and resulted in poor overall frequency tuning in A1. By contrast, BDNF infusion on the developing A1 amplified the effect of 7 kHz tone exposure compared to control. These results indicate that BDNF signaling participates in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in A1.

  6. Reproducibility and experience dependence of echocardiographic indices of left ventricular function: Side-by-side comparison of global longitudinal strain and ejection fraction. (United States)

    Medvedofsky, Diego; Kebed, Kalie; Laffin, Luke; Stone, Jeremy; Addetia, Karima; Lang, Roberto M; Mor-Avi, Victor


    Although left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) are recommended by the current echocardiographic chamber quantification guidelines, these measurements are not performed routinely. Because EF measurements rely on manual tracing of LV boundaries, and are subject to inter-reader variability and experience dependence, we hypothesized that semiautomated GLS measurements using speckle tracking would be more reproducible and less experience-dependent. Images from 30 patients were analyzed to obtain biplane EF using manual tracing. GLS was measured in three long-axis views using EchoInsight software (Epsilon Imaging) that automatically detects LV endocardial boundary, which is edited manually as necessary and is then automatically tracked throughout the cardiac cycle. All measurements were performed by an expert echocardiographer and three first-year cardiology fellows. Semiautomated GLS analysis showed excellent correlation (r=.98) and small bias (-1.0±13% of measured value) between the experienced and less experienced readers, superior to EF (r=.91, bias 7.3±16%). Also, in repeated measurements, GLS showed higher intra-class correlation (ICC=.98) than EF (ICC=.89). Additionally, GLS analysis required ~1 minute per patient, while biplane EF measurements took twice as long. Semiautomated GLS measurements are fast, less experience-dependent, and more reproducible than conventional EF measurements. This is probably because, irrespective of experience, the readers' choice of boundary position varies less when asked to refine the automated detection than to draw borders without initial clues. This technique may facilitate the workflow of a busy laboratory and make a step forward toward incorporating quantitative analysis into everyday echocardiography practice. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Shifts in developmental timing, and not increased levels of experience-dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth.

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    Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda

    Full Text Available Birth-enucleated rodents display enlarged representations of whiskers (i.e., barrels of the posteromedial subfield in the primary somatosensory cortex. Although the historical view maintains that barrel expansion is due to incremental increases in neuronal activity along the trigeminal pathway during postnatal development, recent evidence obtained in experimental models of intramodal plasticity challenges this view. Here, we re-evaluate the role of experience-dependent neuronal activity on barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats by combining various anatomical methods and sensory deprivation paradigms. We show that barrels in birth-enucleated rats were already enlarged by the end of the first week of life and had levels of metabolic activity comparable to those in control rats at different ages. Dewhiskering after the postnatal period of barrel formation did not prevent barrel expansion in adult, birth-enucleated rats. Further, dark rearing and enucleation after barrel formation did not lead to expanded barrels in adult brains. Because incremental increases of somatosensory experience did not promote barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats, we explored whether shifts of the developmental timing could better explain barrel expansion during the first week of life. Accordingly, birth-enucleated rats show earlier formation of barrels, accelerated growth of somatosensory thalamocortical afferents, and an earlier H4 deacetylation. Interestingly, when H4 deacetylation was prevented with a histone deacetylases inhibitor (valproic acid, barrel specification timing returned to normal and barrel expansion did not occur. Thus, we provide evidence supporting that shifts in developmental timing modulated through epigenetic mechanisms, and not increased levels of experience dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth.

  8. Past experience resets behavior: CaMK takes the heat. (United States)

    Yadlapalli, Swathi; Wani, Khursheed A; Xu, X Z Shawn


    How past experiences reshape behavior is not well understood. In this issue, two studies (Schild et al., 2014; Yu et al., 2014) dissected the molecular mechanisms underlying experience-dependent plasticity in thermosensory behavior. They show that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase I (CaMKI) regulates thermal preferences according to past experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. H3 and H4 Lysine Acetylation Correlates with Developmental and Experimentally Induced Adult Experience-Dependent Plasticity in the Mouse Visual Cortex

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    Gabriela Vierci


    Full Text Available Histone posttranslational modifications play a fundamental role in orchestrating gene expression. In this work, we analyzed the acetylation of H3 and H4 histones (AcH3-AcH4 and its modulation by visual experience in the mouse visual cortex (VC during normal development and in two experimental conditions that restore juvenile-like plasticity levels in adults (fluoxetine treatment and enriched environment. We found that AcH3-AcH4 declines with age and is upregulated by treatments restoring plasticity in the adult. We also found that visual experience modulates AcH3-AcH4 in young and adult plasticity-restored mice but not in untreated ones. Finally, we showed that the transporter vGAT is downregulated in adult plasticity-restored models. In summary, we identified a dynamic regulation of AcH3-AcH4, which is associated with high plasticity levels and enhanced by visual experience. These data, along with recent ones, indicate H3-H4 acetylation as a central hub in the control of experience-dependent plasticity in the VC.

  10. Language experience-dependent advantage in pitch representation in the auditory cortex is limited to favorable signal-to-noise ratios. (United States)

    Suresh, Chandan H; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T


    Long-term experience enhances neural representation of temporal attributes of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex in favorable listening conditions. Herein we examine whether cortical pitch mechanisms shaped by language experience are more resilient to degradation in background noise, and exhibit greater binaural release from masking (BRM). Cortical pitch responses (CPR) were recorded from Mandarin- and English-speaking natives using a Mandarin word exhibiting a high rising pitch (/yi2/). Stimuli were presented diotically in Quiet, and in noise at +5, and 0 dB SNR. CPRs were also recorded in binaural conditions, SONO (where signal and noise were in phase at both ears); or S0Nπ (where signal was in phase and noise 180° out of phase at each ear), using 0 dB SNR. At Fz, both groups showed increase in CPR peak latency and decrease in amplitude with increasing noise level. A language-dependent enhancement of Na-Pb amplitude (Chinese > English) was restricted to Quiet and +5 dB SNR conditions. At T7/T8 electrode sites, Chinese natives exhibited a rightward asymmetry for both CPR components. A language-dependent effect (Chinese > English) was restricted to T8. Regarding BRM, both CPR components showed greater response amplitude for the S0Nπ condition compared to S0N0 across groups. Rightward asymmetry for BRM in the Chinese group indicates experience-dependent recruitment of right auditory cortex. Restriction of the advantage in pitch representation to the quiet and +5 SNR conditions, and the absence of group differences in the binaural release from masking, suggest that language experience affords limited advantage in the neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the auditory cortex under adverse listening conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experience-dependent enhancement of pitch-specific responses in the auditory cortex is limited to acceleration rates in normal voice range. (United States)

    Krishnan, A; Gandour, J T; Suresh, C H


    The aim of this study is to determine how pitch acceleration rates within and outside the normal pitch range may influence latency and amplitude of cortical pitch-specific responses (CPR) as a function of language experience (Chinese, English). Responses were elicited from a set of four pitch stimuli chosen to represent a range of acceleration rates (two each inside and outside the normal voice range) imposed on the high rising Mandarin Tone 2. Pitch-relevant neural activity, as reflected in the latency and amplitude of scalp-recorded CPR components, varied depending on language-experience and pitch acceleration of dynamic, time-varying pitch contours. Peak latencies of CPR components were shorter in the Chinese than the English group across stimuli. Chinese participants showed greater amplitude than English for CPR components at both frontocentral and temporal electrode sites in response to pitch contours with acceleration rates inside the normal voice pitch range as compared to pitch contours with acceleration rates that exceed the normal range. As indexed by CPR amplitude at the temporal sites, a rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group only. Only over the right temporal site was amplitude greater in the Chinese group relative to the English. These findings may suggest that the neural mechanism(s) underlying processing of pitch in the right auditory cortex reflect experience-dependent modulation of sensitivity to acceleration in just those rising pitch contours that fall within the bounds of one's native language. More broadly, enhancement of native pitch stimuli and stronger rightward asymmetry of CPR components in the Chinese group is consistent with the notion that long-term experience shapes adaptive, distributed hierarchical pitch processing in the auditory cortex, and reflects an interaction with higher order, extrasensory processes beyond the sensory memory trace. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Auditory observation of infant-directed speech by mothers: Experience-dependent interaction between language and emotion in the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi-Taka eMatsuda


    Full Text Available Adults address infants with a special speech register known as infant-directed speech (IDS, which conveys both linguistic and emotional information through its characteristic lexicon and exaggerated prosody (e.g., higher pitched, slower, and hyperarticulated. Although caregivers are known to regulate the usage of IDS (linguistic and emotional components depending on their child’s development, the underlying neural substrates of this flexible modification are largely unknown. Here, using an auditory observation method and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of four different groups of females, we revealed the experience-dependent influence of the emotional component on linguistic processing in the right caudate nucleus when mothers process IDS: (1 non-mothers, who do not use IDS regularly, showed no significant difference between IDS and adult-directed speech (ADS; (2 mothers with preverbal infants, who primarily use the emotional component of IDS, showed the main effect of the emotional component of IDS; (3 mothers with toddlers at the two-word stage, who use both linguistic and emotional components of IDS, showed an interaction between the linguistic and emotional components of IDS; and (4 mothers with school-age children, who use ADS rather than IDS toward their children, showed a tendency toward the main effect of ADS. The task that was most comparable to the naturalistic categories of IDS (i.e., explicit-language and implicit-emotion processing recruited the right caudate nucleus, but it was not recruited in the control, less naturalistic condition (explicit-emotion and implicit-language processing. Our results indicate that the right caudate nucleus processes experience- and task-dependent interactions between language and emotion in mothers’ IDS.

  13. Environmental enrichment and brain repair: harnessing the therapeutic effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity to enhance experience-dependent plasticity. (United States)

    Hannan, A J


    Environmental enrichment (EE) increases levels of novelty and complexity, inducing enhanced sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation. In wild-type rodents, EE has been found to have a range of effects, such as enhancing experience-dependent cellular plasticity and cognitive performance, relative to standard-housed controls. Whilst environmental enrichment is of course a relative term, dependent on the nature of control environmental conditions, epidemiological studies suggest that EE has direct clinical relevance to a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. EE has been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects in animal models of a wide variety of brain disorders. The first evidence of beneficial effects of EE in a genetically targeted animal model was generated using Huntington's disease transgenic mice. Subsequent studies found that EE was also therapeutic in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, consistent with epidemiological studies of relevant environmental modifiers. EE has also been found to ameliorate behavioural, cellular and molecular deficits in animal models of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, depression, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the effects of EE observed in animal models of neurodegenerative brain diseases, at molecular, cellular and behavioural levels. The proposal that EE may act synergistically with other approaches, such as drug and cell therapies, to facilitate brain repair will be discussed. I will also discuss the therapeutic potential of 'enviromimetics', drugs which mimic or enhance the therapeutic effects of cognitive activity and physical exercise, for both neuroprotection and brain repair. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  14. Steady-state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer 4/5a pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex

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    Amaya Miquelajauregui


    Full Text Available The steady state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer (L 2/3 and L5B cortical pyramidal neurons have recently been assessed using in vivo two-photon microscopy (Trachtenberg et al., 2002; Zuo et al., 2005; Holtmaat et al., 2006. In contrast, not much is known about spine dynamics in L4/5a neurons, regarded as direct recipients of thalamocortical input (Constantinople and Bruno, 2013. In the adult mouse somatosensory cortex (SCx, the transcription factor Ebf2 is enriched in excitatory neurons of L4/5a, including pyramidal neurons. We assessed the molecular and electrophysiological properties of these neurons as well as the morphology of their apical tufts (Scholl analysis and cortical outputs (optogenetics within the SCx. To test the hypothesis that L4/5a pyramidal neurons play an important role in sensory processing (given their key laminar position; soma depth ~450-480 µm, we successfully labeled them in Ebf2-Cre mice with EGFP by expressing recombinant rAAV vectors in utero. Using longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy through a craniotomy (Mostany and Portera-Cailliau, 2008, we repeatedly imaged spines in apical dendritic tufts of L4/5a neurons under basal conditions and after sensory deprivation. Under steady-state conditions in adults, the morphology of the apical tufts and the mean spine density were stable at 0.39 ± 0.05 spines/μm (comparable to L5B, Mostany et al., 2011. Interestingly, spine elimination increases 4-8 days after sensory deprivation, probably due to input loss. This suggests that Ebf2+ L4/5a neurons could be involved in early steps of processing of thalamocortical information.

  15. NemaCount: quantification of nematode chemotaxis behavior in a browser. (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M


    Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans offer a very effective and tractable system to probe the underlying mechanisms of diverse sensory behaviors. Numerous platforms exist for quantifying nematode behavior and often require separate dependencies or software. Here I describe a novel and simple tool called NemaCount that provides a versatile solution for the quantification of nematode chemotaxis behavior. The ease of installation and user-friendly interface makes NemaCount a practical tool for measuring diverse behaviors and image features of nematodes such as C. elegans. The main advantage of NemaCount is that it operates from within a modern browser such as Google Chrome or Apple Safari. Any features that change in total number, size, shape, or angular distance between control and experimental preparations are suited to NemaCount for image analysis, while commonly used chemotaxis assays can be quantified, and statistically analyzed using a suite of functions from within NemaCount. NemaCount also offers image filtering options that allow the user to improve object detection and measurements. NemaCount was validated by examining nematode chemotaxis behavior; angular distances of locomotory tracks in C. elegans; and body lengths of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Apart from a modern browser, no additional software is required to operate NemaCount, making NemaCount a cheap, simple option for the analysis of nematode images and chemotaxis behavior.

  16. Maternal care and hippocampal plasticity: evidence for experience-dependent structural plasticity, altered synaptic functioning, and differential responsiveness to glucocorticoids and stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champagne, D.L.; Bagot, R.C.; van Hasselt, F.; Ramakers, G.; Meany, M.J.; de Kloet, E.R.; Joëls, M.; Krugers, H.


    Maternal licking and grooming (LG) in infancy influences stress responsiveness and cognitive performance in the offspring. We examined the effects of variation in the frequency of pup LG on morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral aspects of hippocampal synaptic plasticity under basal and

  17. Relationship between locomotory habits and enzyme concentration in sects. (United States)



    The activity of alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase has been measured in muscles from four insect species. In flying insects the enzyme activity is much greater per unit weight for flight muscles than for leg muscles. The results indicate a direct relationship between muscle levels of the enzyme and habitual mode of locomotion.

  18. Equine locomotory muscles : postnatal development and the influence of exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingboom, Elizabeth Gerardina


    The Dutch warmblood horse is widely used in different types of sport. The individual capacity to perform depends on factors as character and the quality of the cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal system. These factors are partly genetically determined; in the postnatal phase of growth and maturation

  19. Radiation biology of Caenorhabditis elegans: germ cell response, aging and behavior. (United States)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Takanami, Takako; Yanase, Sumino; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Michiyo; Kimura, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Naoaki; Higashitani, Atsushi


    The study of radiation effect in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans has been carried out over three decades and now allow for understanding at the molecular, cellular and individual levels. This review describes the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation with a scope of the germ line, aging and behavior. In germ cells, ionizing radiation induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Lots of molecules involved in these responses and functions have been identified in C. elegans, which are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. Radiosensitivity and the effect of heavy-ion microbeam irradiation on germ cells with relationship between initiation of meiotic recombination and DNA lesions are discussed. In addition to DNA damage, ionizing radiation produces free radicals, and the free radical theory is the most popular aging theory. A first signal transduction pathway of aging has been discovered in C. elegans, and radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress is recently noted for an inducible factor of hormetic response and genetic instability. The hormetic response in C. elegans exposed to oxidative stress is discussed with genetic pathways of aging. Moreover, C. elegans is well known as a model organism for behavior. The recent work reported the radiation effects via specific neurons on learning behavior, and radiation and hydrogen peroxide affect the locomotory rate similarly. These findings are discussed in relation to the evidence obtained with other organisms. Altogether, C. elegans may be a good "in vivo" model system in the field of radiation biology.

  20. Predatory behavior of three centipede species of the order Scolopendromorpha (Arthropoda: Myriapoda: Chilopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P.G. Guizze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies related to centipede feeding and predatory behavior are rare in the literature, and are limited to observations made during fieldwork. Furthermore, they lack descriptions of prey capture. We conducted a laboratory experiment using South American specimens of Scolopendra viridicornis Newport, 1844 (n = 5, Otostigmus tibialis Brölemann, 1902 (n = 5, and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902 (n = 5, as well as 13 different kinds of prey, to map and describe their predatory behavior. The analysis of video images (65 hours of recordings resulted in 15 behavioral categories that describe foraging, prey capture, feeding, and cleaning habits. Almost all observations (95% concluded with the centipede killing the prey. Although we witnessed that a stimulus triggered the movement of the centipede toward the prey in all observation events (suggesting a sit-and-wait strategy, our experiments also showed that these arthropods actively forage to seek food. Field observations during the experiment allowed us to document that scolopendromorphs feed on plants when animal prey items are not available. Moreover, we observed that the size and aggressiveness of the prey determined the centipede capture process. Our results revealed that two behavioral categories were performed only by S. viridicornis , and thus might be genus or species-specific. These are: raising the first third of the body while the rest of the body remains adjacent to the substrate; and restraining the prey along the ventral region of the first third of the body with the aid of locomotory legs. We also observed some peculiar behaviors performed only by O. tibialis . Our results confirm that S. viridicornis , O. tibialis and C. iheringi hold prey between their ultimate pair of legs.

  1. Attentional Resource Allocation and Cultural Modulation in a Computational Model of Ritualized Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper


    ritualized behaviors are perceptually similar across a range of behavioral domains, symbolically mediated experience-dependent information (so-called cultural priors) modulate perception such that communal ceremonies appear coherent and culturally meaningful, while compulsive behaviors remain incoherent and......, in some cases, pathological. In this study, we extend a qualitative model of human action perception and understanding to include ritualized behavior. Based on previous experimental and computational studies, the model was simulated using instrumental and ritualized representations of realistic motor...... behavioral experiments might fail to capture modulation effects of cultural priors and that cultural priors in general reduce the chaoticity of time dependent action processing....

  2. Comparative behavior of membrane protein-antibody complexes on motile fibroblasts: implications for a mechanism of capping. (United States)

    Holifield, B F; Ishihara, A; Jacobson, K


    A characteristic feature of fibroblast locomotory activity is the rearward transport across the leading lamella of various materials used to mark the cell surface. The two processes most frequently invoked as explanations for this transport phenomenon, called capping, are (a) retrograde membrane flow arising from directed membrane insertion and (b) rearward cortical cytoskeletal flow arising from cytoskeletal assembly and contraction. The retrograde lipid flow hypothesis, the most current form of the membrane flow scheme, makes explicit predictions about the movement of membrane proteins subjected to the postulated rearward lipid flow. Several of these predictions were tested by comparing the behavior of four membrane proteins, Pgp-1, Thy-1, H-2, and influenza HA0, identified by fluorescent antibodies. With the exception of Pgp-1, these proteins were uniformly distributed under nonaggregated conditions but were capped when aggregated into patches. In contrast, Pgp-1 was capped in similar time frames in both nonaggregated and aggregated states where the lateral diffusion coefficients were very different. Furthermore, the capping behavior of two tagged membrane proteins was markedly different yet both had similar diffusion coefficients. The results from these tests disprove the bulk membrane flow hypothesis and are at odds with explicit predictions of the retrograde lipid flow hypothesis for the mechanism of capping. This work, therefore, supports the alternative cytoskeletal-based mechanism for driving capping. Requirements for coupling cytoskeletal movement to membrane components are discussed.

  3. Fish and robots swimming together in a water tunnel: robot color and tail-beat frequency influence fish behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Polverino

    Full Text Available The possibility of integrating bioinspired robots in groups of live social animals may constitute a valuable tool to study the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions. In this study, we investigate the interactions between individual golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas and robotic fish swimming together in a water tunnel at constant flow velocity. The robotic fish is designed to mimic its live counterpart in the aspect ratio, body shape, dimension, and locomotory pattern. Fish positional preference with respect to the robot is experimentally analyzed as the robot's color pattern and tail-beat frequency are varied. Behavioral observations are corroborated by particle image velocimetry studies aimed at investigating the flow structure behind the robotic fish. Experimental results show that the time spent by golden shiners in the vicinity of the bioinspired robotic fish is the highest when the robot mimics their natural color pattern and beats its tail at the same frequency. In these conditions, fish tend to swim at the same depth of the robotic fish, where the wake from the robotic fish is stronger and hydrodynamic return is most likely to be effective.

  4. Neural basis of stimulus-angle-dependent motor control of wind-elicited walking behavior in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Oe

    Full Text Available Crickets exhibit oriented walking behavior in response to air-current stimuli. Because crickets move in the opposite direction from the stimulus source, this behavior is considered to represent 'escape behavior' from an approaching predator. However, details of the stimulus-angle-dependent control of locomotion during the immediate phase, and the neural basis underlying the directional motor control of this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we used a spherical-treadmill system to measure locomotory parameters including trajectory, turn angle and velocity during the immediate phase of responses to air-puff stimuli applied from various angles. Both walking direction and turn angle were correlated with stimulus angle, but their relationships followed different rules. A shorter stimulus also induced directionally-controlled walking, but reduced the yaw rotation in stimulus-angle-dependent turning. These results suggest that neural control of the turn angle requires different sensory information than that required for oriented walking. Hemi-severance of the ventral nerve cords containing descending axons from the cephalic to the prothoracic ganglion abolished stimulus-angle-dependent control, indicating that this control required descending signals from the brain. Furthermore, we selectively ablated identified ascending giant interneurons (GIs in vivo to examine their functional roles in wind-elicited walking. Ablation of GI8-1 diminished control of the turn angle and decreased walking distance in the initial response. Meanwhile, GI9-1b ablation had no discernible effect on stimulus-angle-dependent control or walking distance, but delayed the reaction time. These results suggest that the ascending signals conveyed by GI8-1 are required for turn-angle control and maintenance of walking behavior, and that GI9-1b is responsible for rapid initiation of walking. It is possible that individual types of GIs separately supply the sensory signals

  5. Combined Effect of Ocean Acidification and Seawater Freshening: Response of Pteropod Swimming Behavior (United States)

    Manno, C.; Morata, N.; Primicerio, R.


    Increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions induce ocean acidification. Pteropods, the main planktonic producers of aragonite in the worlds' oceans, may be particularly vulnerable to changes in sea water chemistry. The negative effects are expected to be most severe at high-latitudes, where natural carbonate ion concentrations are low. In this study we investigated the combined effects of ocean acidification and freshening on Limacina retroversa, the dominant pteropod in sub polar areas. Living Limacina retroversa, collected in Northern Norwegian Sea, were exposed to four different pH values ranging from the pre-industrial level to the forecasted end of century ocean acidification scenario. Since over the past half-century the Norwegian Sea has experienced a progressive freshening with time, each pH level was combined with a salinity gradient. Survival, shell degradation and swimming behavior were investigated. Mortality was strongly affected only when both pH and salinity reduced simultaneously. The combined effects of lower salinity and lower pH also affected negatively the ability of pteropods to swim where they decreasing the locomotory speed upwards and increasing the wing beats. Results suggest that, the extra energy cost due to maintaining of body fluids and to avoid sinking (in low salinity scenario) combined with the extra energy cost necessary to counteract the dissolution (in high pCO2 scenario), exceeds the available energy budget of this organism and then pteropods change in swimming behavior and begin to collapse. Since Limacina retroversa play an important role in the transport of carbonates to the deep oceans these findings have significant implications for the mechanisms influencing the inorganic carbon cycle in the sub-polar area.

  6. Behavioral Coaching


    Seniuk, Holly A.; Witts, Benjamin N.; Williams, W Larry; Ghezzi, Patrick M


    The term behavioral coaching has been used inconsistently in and outside the field of behavior analysis. In the sports literature, the term has been used to describe various intervention strategies, and in the organizational behavior management literature it has been used to describe an approach to training management personnel and staff. This inconsistency is problematic in terms of the replication of behavioral coaching across studies and aligning with Baer, Wolf, and Risley's (1968) techno...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva


    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the

  8. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.


    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  9. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology. (United States)

    Staats, A W


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  11. [The behavioral development of the mutant "staggerer" mouse]. (United States)

    Guastavino, J M


    The behavioural study, in particular rearing environmental conditions, of the mutant mouse staggerer has shown that such animals may live more than 90 days. (he behavioural diagnosis of this mutation has been possible from the second week of life, using specific tests. A typical "bat posture" permits one to recognize the mutant from the normal Mouse. Locomotory and feeding behaviours also present late and various qualitatige particularities.

  12. Behavior matters. (United States)

    Fisher, Edwin B; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Glasgow, Russell E; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Hayman, Laura L; Kaplan, Robert M; Nanney, Marilyn S; Ockene, Judith K


    Behavior has a broad and central role in health. Behavioral interventions can be effectively used to prevent disease, improve management of existing disease, increase quality of life, and reduce healthcare costs. A summary is presented of evidence for these conclusions in cardiovascular disease/diabetes, cancer, and HIV/AIDS as well as with key risk factors: tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol consumption. For each, documentation is made of (1) moderation of genetic and other fundamental biological influences by behaviors and social-environmental factors; (2) impacts of behaviors on health; (3) success of behavioral interventions in prevention; (4) disease management; (5) quality of life, and (6) improvements in the health of populations through behavioral health promotion programs. Evidence indicates the cost effectiveness and value of behavioral interventions, especially relative to other common health services as well as the value they add in terms of quality of life. Pertinent to clinicians and their patients as well as to health policy and population health, the benefits of behavioral interventions extend beyond impacts on a particular disease or risk factor. Rather, they include broad effects and benefits on prevention, disease management, and well-being across the life span. Among priorities for dissemination research, the application of behavioral approaches is challenged by diverse barriers, including socioeconomic barriers linked to health disparities. However, behavioral approaches including those emphasizing community and social influences appear to be useful in addressing such challenges. In sum, behavioral approaches should have a central place in prevention and health care of the 21st century. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R Busby

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  14. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.


    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  15. [Behavioral addictions]. (United States)

    Guillou-Landréat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Vénisse, Jean-Luc


    Each addictive disorder has specific characteristics. It is essential to consider them in order to improve the treatment. However, the combination of behavioral addictions and substance use disorders is valid, as showed by the next version of the DSM. During the treatment, it is important to evaluate cross, but also longitudinal, considering the current problematic behavior, but also the problematic behaviors that occurred in the past and that may occur in the future. There is indeed a significant risk of switching addiction. The relapse prevention must consider this risk and be inclusive. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Behavioral epigenetics (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Edward; Nestler, Eric; Abel, Ted; Kosofsky, Barry; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Maze, Ian; Meaney, Michael J.; Monteggia, Lisa M.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.; Skuse, David H.; Sweatt, J. David; Wood, Marcelo A.


    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, “Behavioral Epigenetics” was held on October 29–30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, developmental disorders, and psychopathology. This report provides an overview of the research presented by leading scientists and lively discussion about the future of investigation at the behavioral epigenetic level. PMID:21615751

  17. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... is to reject or at least minimize the requirement that environmental ethics must provide protection and assistance to the environment. Virtue theory is often favored by environmentalists precisely because it does matter what one's reasons are for acting, even if one's actions are ineffective at producing...

  18. Energy behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, P.C.; Kirkpatrick, E.M.


    The energy crisis is approached as a social and psychological problem with solutions based on an understanding of principles of attitude and behavior change. Propaganda calling for voluntary energy conservation has had little effect, and incentive systems present several serious drawbacks. The author believes that the ideal role of both incentives and persuasion is to influence the behavior of groups who in turn would maintain individual behavior and attitudes by social pressure. Thus a program of incentives and education directed at groups of people may effectively increase conservation and change related attitudes without increasing reactance. The author presents 2 strategies to cope with the energy problem: one relies strongly on government action, combining appeal to national feelings and a threat to future coercion to change attitudes and behavior; the other uses incentives to communities for conservation and development of renewable energy resources.

  19. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag


    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  20. Collective behavior. (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Gureckis, Todd M


    The resurgence of interest in collective behavior is in large part due to tools recently made available for conducting laboratory experiments on groups, statistical methods for analyzing large data sets reflecting social interactions, the rapid growth of a diverse variety of online self-organized collectives, and computational modeling methods for understanding both universal and scenario-specific social patterns. We consider case studies of collective behavior along four attributes: the primary motivation of individuals within the group, kinds of interactions among individuals, typical dynamics that result from these interactions, and characteristic outcomes at the group level. With this framework, we compare the collective patterns of noninteracting decision makers, bee swarms, groups forming paths in physical and abstract spaces, sports teams, cooperation and competition for resource usage, and the spread and extension of innovations in an online community. Some critical issues surrounding collective behavior are then reviewed, including the questions of "Does group behavior always reduce to individual behavior?"Is 'group cognition' possible?" and "What is the value of formal modeling for understanding group behavior?" Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. The pathophysiology of restricted repetitive behavior. (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Kim, Soo-Jeong


    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are heterogeneous ranging from stereotypic body movements to rituals to restricted interests. RRBs are most strongly associated with autism but occur in a number of other clinical disorders as well as in typical development. There does not seem to be a category of RRB that is unique or specific to autism and RRB does not seem to be robustly correlated with specific cognitive, sensory or motor abnormalities in autism. Despite its clinical significance, little is known about the pathophysiology of RRB. Both clinical and animal models studies link repetitive behaviors to genetic mutations and a number of specific genetic syndromes have RRBs as part of the clinical phenotype. Genetic risk factors may interact with experiential factors resulting in the extremes in repetitive behavior phenotypic expression that characterize autism. Few studies of individuals with autism have correlated MRI findings and RRBs and no attempt has been made to associate RRB and post-mortem tissue findings. Available clinical and animal models data indicate functional and structural alterations in cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the expression of RRB, however. Our own studies point to reduced activity of the indirect basal ganglia pathway being associated with high levels of repetitive behavior in an animal model. These findings, if generalizable, suggest specific therapeutic targets. These, and perhaps other, perturbations to cortical basal ganglia circuitry are mediated by specific molecular mechanisms (e.g., altered gene expression) that result in long-term, experience-dependent neuroadaptations that initiate and maintain repetitive behavior. A great deal more research is needed to uncover such mechanisms. Work in areas such as substance abuse, OCD, Tourette syndrome, Parkinson's disease, and dementias promise to provide findings critical for identifying neurobiological mechanisms relevant to RRB in autism. Moreover, basic research in areas such

  2. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  3. Aggressive Behavior (United States)

    ... to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure home life with firm, loving discipline and full-time supervision ... and your pediatrician will advise appropriate mental health intervention. ... both you and your child and may observe your child in different situations ( ...

  4. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.


    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  5. Behavior Modification (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.


    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  6. Behavioral factors. (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A


    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  7. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten


    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time......-dated utility flows and not flows of money. It also points to a menagerie of functional forms to characterize different types of non-constant discounting behavior. The implied experimental design calls for individuals to undertake several tasks to allow us to identify these models, and to several treatments...... such as multiple horizons and the effect of allowing for a front end delay on earlier payments. The implied econometrics calls for structural estimation of the theoretical models, allowing for joint estimation of utility functions and discounting functions. Using data collected from a representative sample of 413...

  8. Consumer behavior


    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA


    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  9. Striatal fast-spiking interneurons selectively modulate circuit output and are required for habitual behavior (United States)

    O'Hare, Justin K; Li, Haofang; Kim, Namsoo; Gaidis, Erin; Ade, Kristen; Beck, Jeff; Yin, Henry


    Habit formation is a behavioral adaptation that automates routine actions. Habitual behavior correlates with broad reconfigurations of dorsolateral striatal (DLS) circuit properties that increase gain and shift pathway timing. The mechanism(s) for these circuit adaptations are unknown and could be responsible for habitual behavior. Here we find that a single class of interneuron, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), modulates all of these habit-predictive properties. Consistent with a role in habits, FSIs are more excitable in habitual mice compared to goal-directed and acute chemogenetic inhibition of FSIs in DLS prevents the expression of habitual lever pressing. In vivo recordings further reveal a previously unappreciated selective modulation of SPNs based on their firing patterns; FSIs inhibit most SPNs but paradoxically promote the activity of a subset displaying high fractions of gamma-frequency spiking. These results establish a microcircuit mechanism for habits and provide a new example of how interneurons mediate experience-dependent behavior. PMID:28871960

  10. Multisensory control of multimodal behavior: do the legs know what the tongue is doing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Cushman

    Full Text Available Understanding of adaptive behavior requires the precisely controlled presentation of multisensory stimuli combined with simultaneous measurement of multiple behavioral modalities. Hence, we developed a virtual reality apparatus that allows for simultaneous measurement of reward checking, a commonly used measure in associative learning paradigms, and navigational behavior, along with precisely controlled presentation of visual, auditory and reward stimuli. Rats performed a virtual spatial navigation task analogous to the Morris maze where only distal visual or auditory cues provided spatial information. Spatial navigation and reward checking maps showed experience-dependent learning and were in register for distal visual cues. However, they showed a dissociation, whereby distal auditory cues failed to support spatial navigation but did support spatially localized reward checking. These findings indicate that rats can navigate in virtual space with only distal visual cues, without significant vestibular or other sensory inputs. Furthermore, they reveal the simultaneous dissociation between two reward-driven behaviors.

  11. Behavioral epigenetics. (United States)

    Moore, David S


    Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts. The discovery that what our genes do depends in part on our experiences has shed light on how Nature and Nurture interact at the molecular level inside of our bodies. Data emerging from the world's behavioral epigenetics laboratories support the idea that a person's genes alone cannot determine if, for example, he or she will end up shy, suffering from cardiovascular disease, or extremely smart. Among the environmental factors that can influence genetic activity are parenting styles, diets, and social statuses. In addition to influencing how doctors treat diseases, discoveries about behavioral epigenetics are likely to alter how biologists think about evolution, because some epigenetic effects of experience appear to be transmissible from generation to generation. This domain of research will likely change how we think about the origins of human nature. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1333. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1333 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neonatal conditioning for adult respiratory behavior. (United States)

    Strohl, K P; Thomas, A J


    Specific challenges and perturbations presented during certain 'sensitive periods' of neonatal life have been shown to modify the structure and function of several physiological systems in such as way as to produce long-term and often permanent changes in the behavioral expression of the system. These same phenomena have been reported in a few studies of respiratory control. We have shown that a conditioning paradigm of intermittent sleep interruption presented during the first 4 weeks of life in rats will increase the number of respiratory pauses (apneas > 1 sec in duration) observed in these animals some 10-12 weeks later. Furthermore, in adult conditioned animals, apneic pauses can be dramatically reduced by a counter-conditioning stimulus (white noise), and abolished completely by barbiturate anesthesia. These observations indicate that the respiratory control system in the brainstem of the neonate contains a degree of developmental plasticity which is experience-dependent and modifiable, and that the adult expression of acquired apneic breathing patterns can be effectively reduced by behavioral methods.

  13. Role of Behavior Theory in Behavioral Medicine. (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.


    Defines behavioral medicine as multidisciplinary field that combines research methods from behavioral and biomedical sciences. Examines the role of behavior theory in behavioral medicine. Uses new advances in basic research on learning to illustrate that findings from behavioral science have implications for the field of contemporary behavioral…

  14. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula


    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA


    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  16. Swimming of larval zebrafish: ontogeny of body waves and implications for locomotory development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.


    Fish larvae, like most adult fish, undulate their bodies to propel themselves. A detailed kinematic study of the larval body wave is a prerequisite to formulate a set of functional requirements that the locomotor system must fulfil to generate the observed swimming kinematics. Lateral displacement

  17. Possibilities of physiotherapy for chronic overtrain of ski jumpers locomotory system


    LATZKOVÁ, Darina


    This bachelor thesis deals with possibilities which physiotherapy offers to ease chronic overstrain of locomotor system of ski jumpers and it is especially focused on children of younger school age. Ski jumping is an individual sport of acyclic character whose main aim is to perform a technically correct ski jump as long as possible. Big demands are placed on locomotor system in the process of reaching this result. Big load and strain on locomotor system can lead to formation of muscular dysb...

  18. Dry Needle Acupuncture In Locomotory Paresis Post Column Trauma In Dog – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Hulea


    Full Text Available In this case study a dog from Timisoara, Romania, 4 years old, female, victim of an accident was taken in therapy. The dog was examined clinically and radiographically. Major clinical sign was that dog unable to lift the hindquarters and in terms of radiographic fracture was identified in the lumbar spine at L1 vertebra, which led to the displacement of spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord. Treatment was established through the dry needle acupuncture technique perpendicular insertion into (Bladder channel, BL acupoints, in our case BL: -18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30; 40; 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 and respectively 60, for 30 minutes a session / day, consecutively, for 60 days treatment period. Treatment outcomes showed a clear increase in skin and neural sensitivity of the area, finally animal being recovered.

  19. Changes in odor background affect the locomotory response to pheromone in moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Party

    Full Text Available Many animals rely on chemical cues to recognize and locate a resource, and they must extract the relevant information from a complex and changing odor environment. For example, in moths, finding a mate is mediated by a sex pheromone, which is detected in a rich environment of volatile plant compounds. Here, we investigated the effects of a volatile plant background on the walking response of male Spodoptera littoralis to the female pheromone. Males were stimulated by combining pheromone with one of three plant compounds, and their walking paths were recorded with a locomotion compensator and analyzed. We found that the addition of certain volatile plant compounds disturbed the orientation toward the sex pheromone. The effect on locomotion was correlated with the capacity of the plant compound to antagonize pheromone detection by olfactory receptor neurons, suggesting a masking effect of the background over the pheromone signal. Moths were more sensitive to changes in background compared to a constant background, suggesting that a background odor also acts as a distracting stimulus. Our experiments show that the effects of odorant background on insect responses to chemical signals are complex and cannot be explained by a single mechanism.

  20. Methods matter: considering locomotory mode and respirometry technique when estimating metabolic rates of fishes (United States)

    Rummer, Jodie L.; Binning, Sandra A.; Roche, Dominique G.; Johansen, Jacob L.


    Respirometry is frequently used to estimate metabolic rates and examine organismal responses to environmental change. Although a range of methodologies exists, it remains unclear whether differences in chamber design and exercise (type and duration) produce comparable results within individuals and whether the most appropriate method differs across taxa. We used a repeated-measures design to compare estimates of maximal and standard metabolic rates (MMR and SMR) in four coral reef fish species using the following three methods: (i) prolonged swimming in a traditional swimming respirometer; (ii) short-duration exhaustive chase with air exposure followed by resting respirometry; and (iii) short-duration exhaustive swimming in a circular chamber. We chose species that are steady/prolonged swimmers, using either a body–caudal fin or a median–paired fin swimming mode during routine swimming. Individual MMR estimates differed significantly depending on the method used. Swimming respirometry consistently provided the best (i.e. highest) estimate of MMR in all four species irrespective of swimming mode. Both short-duration protocols (exhaustive chase and swimming in a circular chamber) produced similar MMR estimates, which were up to 38% lower than those obtained during prolonged swimming. Furthermore, underestimates were not consistent across swimming modes or species, indicating that a general correction factor cannot be used. However, SMR estimates (upon recovery from both of the exhausting swimming methods) were consistent across both short-duration methods. Given the increasing use of metabolic data to assess organismal responses to environmental stressors, we recommend carefully considering respirometry protocols before experimentation. Specifically, results should not readily be compared across methods; discrepancies could result in misinterpretation of MMR and aerobic scope. PMID:27382471

  1. Infant carrying: the role of increased locomotory costs in early tool development. (United States)

    Wall-Scheffler, C M; Geiger, K; Steudel-Numbers, K L


    Among the costs of reproduction, carrying one's infant incurs one of the greatest drains on maternal energy, simply because of the added mass alone. Because of the dearth of archaeological evidence, however, how early bipeds dealt with the additional cost of having to carry infants who were less able to support their body weight against gravity is not particularly well understood. This article presents evidence on the caloric drain of carrying an infant in one's arms versus having a tool with which to sling the infant and carry her passively. The burden of carrying an infant in one's arms is on average 16% greater than having a tool to support the baby's mass and seems to have the potential to be a greater energetic burden even than lactation. In addition, carrying a baby in one's arms shortens and quickens the stride. An anthropometric trait that seems to offset some of the increased cost of carrying a baby in the arms is a wider bi-trochanteric width.

  2. Experience-dependent spatial expectations in mouse visual cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiser, Aris; Mahringer, David; Oyibo, Hassana K.


    In generative models of brain function, internal representations are used to generate predictions of sensory input, yet little is known about how internal models influence sensory processing. Here we show that, with experience in a virtual environment, the activity of neurons in layer 2/3 of mous...... scene based on spatial location and compares this representation with feed-forward visual input....

  3. Experience-Dependent Color Constancy in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Intskirveli


    Full Text Available We investigated the ability to recognize the color of surfaces in fish (Poecilia reticulata, bred from birth in conditions of artificial light with constant spectral content. The capacity for color constancy significantly deteriorated when compared that to the control group. Further alteration of lighting conditions and transfer into natural daylight conditions restored the suppressed function to its normal level. We suggest that the color constancy function belongs in the visual system-response functions, the full development of which requires the accumulation of individual visual experience.

  4. Experience-dependent plasticity of cerebellar vermis in basketball players. (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo


    The cerebellum is involved in the learning and retention of motor skills. Using animal and human models, a number of studies have shown that long-term motor skill training induces structural and functional plasticity in the cerebellum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether macroscopic alteration in the volume of cerebellum occurs in basketball players who had learned complex motor skills and practiced them intensively for a long time. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players (n = 19) and healthy controls (n = 20), and the volumes of cerebellum and vermian lobules were compared between two groups. Although there was no macroscopic plasticity detected in the cerebellum as a whole, detailed parcellation of cerebellum revealed morphological enlargement in the vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) of basketball players (P skills activate structural plasticity of vermian lobules in human cerebellum and suggests that vermian VI-VII plays an important role in motor learning.

  5. The Learning Hippocampus: Education and Experience-Dependent Plasticity (United States)

    Wenger, Elisabeth; Lövdén, Martin


    The hippocampal formation of the brain plays a crucial role in declarative learning and memory while at the same time being particularly susceptible to environmental influences. Education requires a well-functioning hippocampus, but may also influence the development of this brain structure. Understanding these bidirectional influences may have…

  6. Experience-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity in neocortex. (United States)

    Whitt, Jessica L; Petrus, Emily; Lee, Hey-Kyoung


    The organism's ability to adapt to the changing sensory environment is due in part to the ability of the nervous system to change with experience. Input and synapse specific Hebbian plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), are critical for sculpting the nervous system to wire its circuit in tune with the environment and for storing memories. However, these synaptic plasticity mechanisms are innately unstable and require another mode of plasticity that maintains homeostasis to allow neurons to function within a desired dynamic range. Several modes of homeostatic adaptation are known, some of which work at the synaptic level. This review will focus on the known mechanisms of experience-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the neocortex and their potential function in sensory cortex plasticity. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromyographic analysis of goal-directed grasping behavior in the American lobster. (United States)

    Tomina, Yusuke; Takahata, Masakazu


    Animals spontaneously initiate goal-directed behavior including foraging action based on their appetitive motivation. The American lobster Homarus americanus exhibits grasping behavior with its crusher claw as feeding behavior that can be initiated after appropriate operant conditioning. In order to quantitatively characterize the goal-directed grasping behavior with a time resolution fine enough for neurophysiological analysis of its initiation and control mechanisms, we made simultaneous electromyographic (EMG) recording from grasping- and reaching-related muscles of the crusher claw while animals initiated grasping behavior. We developed an in vivo extracellular recording chamber that allowed the animal under a semi-restrained condition to perform operant reward learning of claw grasping. Three muscles in the crusher claw (propodite-dactyl closer/opener and coxal protractor) were found to be closely associated with spontaneous grasping behavior. In spontaneous grasping, the activation of those muscles consistently preceded the grasping onset time and exhibited different activity patterns from the grasp induced by a mechanical stimulus. Furthermore, we found that the timing of coxal protractor activation was closer to the grasp onset and its activity was briefer for goal-directed grasping behavior in trained and hungry animals than for non-goal-directed spontaneous grasping behavior in naive or satiated animals. It is suggested that the goal-directed grasping behavior of lobster is characterized, at least partly, by experience-dependent briefer activity of specific muscles involved in reaching action. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Becoming a mother-circuit plasticity underlying maternal behavior. (United States)

    Elyada, Yishai M; Mizrahi, Adi


    The transition to motherhood is a dramatic event during the lifetime of many animals. In mammals, motherhood is accompanied by hormonal changes in the brain that start during pregnancy, followed by experience dependent plasticity after parturition. Together, these changes prime the nervous system of the mother for efficient nurturing of her offspring. Recent work has described how neural circuits are modified during the transition to motherhood. Here we discuss changes in the auditory cortex during motherhood as a model for maternal plasticity in sensory systems. We compare classical plasticity paradigms with changes that arise naturally in mothers, highlighting current efforts to establish a mechanistic understanding of plasticity and its different components in the context of maternal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental plasticity in neural circuits for a learned behavior. (United States)

    Bottjer, S W; Arnold, A P


    The neural substrate underlying learned vocal behavior in songbirds provides a textbook illustration of anatomical localization of function for a complex learned behavior in vertebrates. The song-control system has become an important model for studying neural systems related to learning, behavior, and development. The song system of zebra finches is characterized by a heightened capacity for both neural and behavioral change during development and has taught us valuable information regarding sensitive periods, rearrangement of synaptic connections, topographic specificity, cell death and neurogenesis, experience-dependent neural plasticity, and sexual differentiation. The song system differs in some interesting ways from some well-studied mammalian model systems and thus offers fresh perspectives on specific theoretical issues. In this highly selective review, we concentrate on two major questions: What are the developmental changes in the song system responsible for song learning and the restriction of learning to a sensitive period, and what factors explain the highly sexually dimorphic development of this system? We discuss the important role of sex steroid hormones and of neurotrophins in creating a male-typical neural song circuit (which can learn to produce complex vocalizations) instead of a reduced, female-typical song circuit that does not produce learned song.

  10. Behavioral economics. (United States)

    Chambers, David W


    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.

  11. Brief predator sound exposure elicits behavioral and neuronal long-term sensitization in the olfactory system of an insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, S.; Evengaard, K.; Barrozo, R. B.


    these processes have been described. However, the influence of sensory signals on the sensitivity of a different modality is largely unknown. In males of the noctuid moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the sensitivity to the female-produced sex pheromone increases 24 h after a brief preexposure with pheromone...... tested responses of preexposed male moths in a walking bioassay and recorded from neurons in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe. We show that brief exposure to a bat call, but not to a behaviorally irrelevant tone, increases the behavioral sensitivity of male moths to sex pheromone 24 h...... later in the same way as exposure to the sex pheromone itself. The observed behavioral modification is accompanied by an increase in the sensitivity of olfactory neurons in the antennal lobe. Our data provide thus evidence for cross-modal experience-dependent plasticity not only on the behavioral level...

  12. Applying Behavioral Conditioning to Identify Anticipatory Behaviors. (United States)

    Krebs, Bethany L; Torres, Erika; Chesney, Charlie; Kantoniemi Moon, Veronica; Watters, Jason V


    The ability to predict regular events can be adaptive for nonhuman animals living in an otherwise unpredictable environment. Animals may exhibit behavioral changes preceding a predictable event; such changes reflect anticipatory behavior. Anticipatory behavior is broadly defined as a goal-directed increase in activity preceding a predictable event and can be useful for assessing well being in animals in captivity. Anticipation may look different in different animals, however, necessitating methods to generate and study anticipatory behaviors across species. This article includes a proposed method for generating and describing anticipatory behavior in zoos using behavioral conditioning. The article also includes discussion of case studies of the proposed method with 2 animals at the San Francisco Zoo: a silverback gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens). The study evidence supports anticipation in both animals. As behavioral conditioning can be used with many animals, the proposed method provides a practical approach for using anticipatory behavior to assess animal well being in zoos.

  13. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.


    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  14. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  15. Habit learning and memory in mammals: behavioral and neural characteristics. (United States)

    Gasbarri, Antonella; Pompili, Assunta; Packard, Mark G; Tomaz, Carlos


    Goal-direct behavior and habit learning represent two forms of instrumental learning; whereas the former is rapidly acquired and regulated by its outcome, the latter is reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Habit learning can be generally defined as the acquisition of associations between stimuli and responses. Habits are acquired via experience-dependent plasticity, occurring repeatedly over the course of days or years and becoming remarkably fixed. The distinction between habit learning, as a product of a procedural learning brain system, and a declarative learning system for encoding facts and episodes is based on the hypothesis that memory is composed of multiple systems that have distinct neuroanatomy and operating principles. Here we review recent research analyzing the main behavioral and neural characteristics of habit learning. In particular, we focus on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behavior, and describe the brain areas and neurotransmitters systems involved in habit learning. The emotional modulation of habit learning in rodents and primates is reviewed, and the implications of habit learning in psychopathology are briefly described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward a behavioral ecology of rescue behavior. (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise


    Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy) be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa.

  17. Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Rescue Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Hollis


    Full Text Available Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa.

  18. Verbal Behavior and Politics. (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    This book illustrates how and why knowledge of verbal behavior is important to an understanding of politics by analyzing and describing verbal behavior studies pertaining to politics. Chapters in the first part of the book discuss the various characteristics of verbal behavior: the importance of verbal behavior in politics, construction of…

  19. Fire Behavior (FB) (United States)

    Robert E. Keane


    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  20. Behaviorism and Cognitivism in Behavior Therapy. (United States)

    Levis, Donald J.

    The movement within behavior therapy to introduce cognitive terms, constructs, and techniques reflects and involves an extension of the pervasive cognitive movement within the experimental field and the long-standing cognitive approach of many clinicians. Modern day attacks on behaviorism by cognitivists have been almost exclusively geared to the…

  1. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.


    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  2. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Tincani, Matt


    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  3. Approach behavior as information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uijen, Sophie L.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.


    Background and objectives Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. Methods 325 students rated the danger they perceived in

  4. Behavior Modification in Coaching. (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.


    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  5. Modifying Classroom Behavior (United States)

    Heifetz, Louis J.; Farber, Barry A.


    An introductory framework for analyzing and modifying classroom followed by presentation of illustrative case materials, discussion of philosophical and ethical issues, analysis of pitfalls to be avoided, and consideration of limitations inherent in behavioral approaches. (Author)

  6. Suicide and suicidal behavior (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/001554.htm Suicide and suicidal behavior To use the sharing features on this page, ... of taking one's own life on purpose. Suicidal behavior is any action that could cause a person ...

  7. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior (United States)

    ... Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

  8. Child Behavior Disorders (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  9. Consumer behavior research


    Hašková, Lucie


    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  10. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.


    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...... individuals' decisions about health, wealth, and happiness....

  11. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.


    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  12. Behavioral Objectives for English (United States)

    Zoellner, Robert


    A review-critique of On Writing Behavioral Objectives for English, by John Maxwell and Anthony Lovat, in which behavioral objectives theory is dominated by a stimulus-response rather than a stimulus-response-reinforcement psychology. The reviewer questions whether behavioral objectives can be applied accurately and without distortion of meanings,…

  13. Bad Behavior: Improving Reproducibility in Behavior Testing. (United States)

    Andrews, Anne M; Cheng, Xinyi; Altieri, Stefanie C; Yang, Hongyan


    Systems neuroscience research is increasingly possible through the use of integrated molecular and circuit-level analyses. These studies depend on the use of animal models and, in many cases, molecular and circuit-level analyses. Associated with genetic, pharmacologic, epigenetic, and other types of environmental manipulations. We illustrate typical pitfalls resulting from poor validation of behavior tests. We describe experimental designs and enumerate controls needed to improve reproducibility in investigating and reporting of behavioral phenotypes.

  14. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft


    . Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed.......Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  15. The Neurodevelopmental Basis of Early Childhood Disruptive Behavior: Irritable and Callous Phenotypes as Exemplars. (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Perlman, Susan B; Blair, R James; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Pine, Daniel S


    The arrival of the Journal's 175th anniversary occurs at a time of recent advances in research, providing an ideal opportunity to present a neurodevelopmental roadmap for understanding, preventing, and treating psychiatric disorders. Such a roadmap is particularly relevant for early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental conditions, which emerge when experience-dependent neuroplasticity is at its peak. Employing a novel developmental specification approach, this review places recent neurodevelopmental research on early childhood disruptive behavior within the historical context of the Journal. The authors highlight irritability and callous behavior as two core exemplars of early disruptive behavior. Both phenotypes can be reliably differentiated from normative variation as early as the first years of life. Both link to discrete pathophysiology: irritability with disruptions in prefrontal regulation of emotion, and callous behavior with abnormal fear processing. Each phenotype also possesses clinical and predictive utility. Based on a nomologic net of evidence, the authors conclude that early disruptive behavior is neurodevelopmental in nature and should be reclassified as an early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition in DSM-5. Rapid translation from neurodevelopmental discovery to clinical application has transformative potential for psychiatric approaches of the millennium.

  16. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre


    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  17. Analysis of Autopilot Behavior (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Feay, Mike; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot's expectations for behavior of autopilot avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. These "automation surprises" have been attributed to differences between the pilot's model of the behavior of the avionics and the actual behavior encoded in the avionics software. A formal technique is described for the analysis and measurement of the behavior of the cruise pitch modes of a modern Autopilot. The analysis characterizes the behavior of the Autopilot as situation-action rules. The behavior of the cruise pitch mode logic for a contemporary modern Autopilot was found to include 177 rules, including Level Change (23), Vertical Speed (16), Altitude Capture (50), and Altitude Hold (88). These rules are determined based on the values of 62 inputs. Analysis of the rule-based model also shed light on the factors cited in the literature as contributors to "automation surprises."

  18. Behaviorism and Society. (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E


    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  19. Approach behavior as information. (United States)

    van Uijen, Sophie L; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M


    Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. 325 students rated the danger they perceived in general and spider-relevant scenarios in which information about objective safety versus objective danger, and approach behavior versus no approach behavior, was varied. A high and low spider fearful group was created with a median split on spider fear. Participants with a high fear of spiders, compared to participants with low spider fear, rated spider scenarios with approach behavior as safer than spider scenarios without approach behavior. This effect was similar for objectively dangerous and safe spider scenarios. No behavior as information effects were found for general scenarios. The data were collected in a non-clinical student sample. Spider fearful individuals infer safety from approach behavior in spider-relevant scenarios. For spider fearful individuals, approach behavior may add to the beneficial effects of exposure therapy. Future research is needed to investigate whether patients with anxiety disorders also show a tendency to infer safety from approach behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduction to behavioral addictions. (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A


    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  1. Personality and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo


    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality-though supported...... entirely by hypothetical behavior as criterion, so far. Thus, in 2 studies and a reanalysis, we investigated "actual behavior" in the form of individually and socially consequential distribution decisions. As expected, HEXACO Honesty-Humility consistently predicted prosocial behavior, including a theory......-consistent pattern on the facet level. Importantly, this pattern might explain why five-factor Agreeableness has only sometimes been found to account for prosocial behavior. Indeed, further results indicate that five-factor Agreeableness comprises some aspects that are predictive of prosocial behavior-aspects well...

  2. Sociopathic behavior and dementia. (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Borin, Gemma; Vedovello, Marcella; Di Fiorino, Andrea; Nuti, Angelo


    The maintenance of appropriate social behavior is a very complex process with many contributing factors. Social and moral judgments rely on the proper functioning of neural circuits concerned with complex cognitive and emotional processes. Damage to these systems may lead to distinct social behavior abnormalities. When patients present with dysmoral behavior for the first time, as a change from a prior pervasive pattern of behavior, clinicians need to consider a possible, causative brain disorder. The aim is to explore sociopathy as a manifestation of dementia. We searched electronic databases and key journals for original research and review articles on sociopathy in demented patients using the search terms "sociopathy, acquired sociopathy, sociopathic behavior, dementia, and personality". In conclusion, dementia onset may be heralded by changes in personality including alteration in social interpersonal behavior, personal regulation, and empathy. The sociopathy of dementia differs from antisocial/psychopathic personality disorders.

  3. About Teleological Behaviorism. (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard


    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological behaviorism actually is.

  4. Oxytocin and Parental Behaviors. (United States)

    Yoshihara, Chihiro; Numan, Michael; Kuroda, Kumi O


    The oxytocin/vasopressin ancestor molecule has been regulating reproductive and social behaviors for more than 500 million years. In all mammals, oxytocin is the hormone indispensable for milk-ejection during nursing (maternal milk provision to offspring), a process that is crucial for successful mammalian parental care. In laboratory mice, a remarkable transcriptional activation occurs during parental behavior within the anterior commissural nucleus (AC), the largest magnocellular oxytocin cell population within the medial preoptic area (although the transcriptional activation was limited to non-oxytocinergic neurons in the AC). Furthermore, there are numerous recent reports on oxytocin's involvement in positive social behaviors in animals and humans. Given all those, the essential involvement of oxytocin in maternal/parental behaviors may seem obvious, but basic researchers are still struggling to pin down the exact role oxytocin plays in the regulation of parental behaviors. A major aim of this review is to more clearly define this role. The best conclusion at this moment is that OT can facilitate the onset of parental behavior, or parental behavior under stressful conditions.In this chapter, we will first review the basics of rodent parental behavior. Next, the neuroanatomy of oxytocin systems with respect to parental behavior in laboratory mice will be introduced. Then, the research history on the functional relationship between oxytocin and parental behavior, along with advancements in various techniques, will be reviewed. Finally, some technical considerations in conducting behavioral experiments on parental behavior in rodents will be addressed, with the aim of shedding light on certain pitfalls that should be avoided, so that the progress of research in this field will be facilitated. In this age of populism, researchers should strive to do even more scholarly works with further attention to methodological details.

  5. Behavioral Law and Economics


    Christine Jolls


    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  6. Predicting sustainable work behavior


    Sundtoft Hald, Kim


    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior. Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research ...

  7. Adam Smith, Behavioral Economist

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashraf, Nava; Camerer, Colin F; Loewenstein, George


    Adam Smith's psychological perspective in The Theory of Moral Sentiments is remarkably similar to "dual-process" frameworks advanced by psychologists, neuroscientists, and more recently by behavioral...

  8. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios


    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  9. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  10. Stress and eating behavior


    Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk


    How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.

  11. Symbiotic Optimization of Behavior (United States)



  12. Nascent Leadership Behaviors (United States)

    Payette, Dennis L.; Libertella, Anthony F.


    This paper is a compendium of leadership behaviors that emerging or aspirant leaders could choose to enhance their management and leadership skills. These behaviors were drawn directly from the experience of the authors, both of whom have held senior leadership and management positions in business, law, and higher education. This paper is an…

  13. Children's Suicidal Behavior. (United States)

    Patros, Philip G.; Shamoo, Tonia K.

    Children's suicidal behavior is surrounded by controversy with no single theory to explain or assess vulnerable children. Since accidents are the leading cause of death among children it is possible that some of these deaths are suicides. Beliefs by parents and professionals that children are not capable of suicidal behavior are being disproved as…

  14. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research (United States)

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.


    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  15. Guide to Behavior Change (United States)

    ... a Healthy Weight » Control Your Weight » Guide to Behavior Change Home Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Control Your ... that require a long, difficult effort. Balance Your Food ... some aspect of your behavior, such as calorie intake, servings of fruits and ...

  16. Compulsive Sexual Behavior (United States)

    ... impulse control, and you feel like your sexual behavior is slipping out of control You are suicidal — if you're thinking of attempting suicide, call ... treatment early for mental health disorders. Compulsive sexual behavior may be ... or anxiety. Identify and seek help for alcohol and drug abuse ...

  17. Developmental Behavioral Genetics. (United States)

    Plomin, Robert


    Provides an introduction to a special section on developmental behavioral genetics (the study of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavioral development), discussing the potentialities of the interdiscipline and presenting an overview of the following articles. (Author/RH)

  18. Youth Suicidal Behavior (United States)

    AAS 2011 Youth Suicidal Behavior Fact Sheet 4,822 youth age 15-24 died by suicide. i We want to change that. Su icid eRat ... death in 2011. The 2011 Youth Risk and Behavior Survey found that in the previous 12 months ...

  19. Safety Behaviors and Stuttering (United States)

    Lowe, Robyn; Helgadottir, Fjola; Menzies, Ross; Heard, Rob; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark


    Purpose: Those who are socially anxious may use safety behaviors during feared social interactions to prevent negative outcomes. Safety behaviors are associated with anxiety maintenance and poorer treatment outcomes because they prevent fear extinction. Social anxiety disorder is often comorbid with stuttering. Speech pathologists reported in a…

  20. Socialization of prosocial behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kok, Rianne; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.


    Evidence has been accumulating for the impact of normal variation in caregiving quality on brain morphology in children, but the question remains whether differences in brain volume related to early caregiving translate to behavioral implications. In this longitudinal population-based study (N...... = 162), moderated mediation was tested for the relation between parental sensitivity and child prosocial behavior via brain volume, in boys and girls. Both maternal and paternal sensitivity were repeatedly observed between 1 and 4 years of age. Brain volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging...... measurements at age 8, and self-reported prosocial behavior of children was assessed at 9 years of age. Parental sensitivity was positively related to child brain volume, and to child prosocial behavior at trend level. Child brain volume was negatively related to child prosocial behavior. A significant gender...

  1. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari


    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  2. Evolutionary behavioral genetics. (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; de Candia, Teresa R; Keller, Matthew C


    We describe the scientific enterprise at the intersection of evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics-a field that could be termed Evolutionary Behavioral Genetics-and how modern genetic data is revolutionizing our ability to test questions in this field. We first explain how genetically informative data and designs can be used to investigate questions about the evolution of human behavior, and describe some of the findings arising from these approaches. Second, we explain how evolutionary theory can be applied to the investigation of behavioral genetic variation. We give examples of how new data and methods provide insight into the genetic architecture of behavioral variation and what this tells us about the evolutionary processes that acted on the underlying causal genetic variants.

  3. What determines our behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan


    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  4. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A


    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Static antennae act as locomotory guides that compensate for visual motion blur in a diurnal, keen-eyed predator. (United States)

    Zurek, Daniel B; Gilbert, Cole


    High visual acuity allows parallel processing of distant environmental features, but only when photons are abundant enough. Diurnal tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) have acute vision for insects and visually pursue prey in open, flat habitats. Their fast running speed causes motion blur that degrades visual contrast, forces stop-and-go pursuit and potentially impairs obstacle detection. We demonstrate here that vision is insufficient for obstacle detection during running, and show instead that antennal touch is both necessary and sufficient for obstacle detection. While running, tiger beetle vision appears to be photon-limited in a way reminiscent of animals in low-light habitats. Such animals often acquire wide-field spatial information through mechanosensation mediated by longer, more mobile appendages. We show that a nocturnal tiger beetle species waves its antennae in elliptical patterns typical of poorly sighted insects. While antennae of diurnal species are also used for mechanosensation, they are rigidly held forward with the tips close to the substrate. This enables timely detection of path obstructions followed by an increase in body pitch to avoid collision. Our results demonstrate adaptive mechanosensory augmentation of blurred visual information during fast locomotion, and suggest that future studies may reveal non-visual sensory compensation in other fast-moving animals.

  6. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology


    Malott, Richard W.


    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly ...

  7. Introduction to Behavioral Addictions (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A.


    Background Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or “behavioral” addictions. Objectives Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. Methods: We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:20560821

  8. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.


    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  9. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros


    emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation......This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing


    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  11. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth


    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... on theories and methods from psychology and related fields and point to research in public administration that could benefit from further integration. An analysis of public administration topics through a psychological lens can be useful to confirm, add nuance to, or extend classical public administration...... the gap between public administration and psychology....

  12. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China. (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo


    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  13. Behavior analysis in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Todorov


    Full Text Available The history of behavior analysis in Brazil began with the visit of Fred S. Keller as a FulbrightScholar to the University of São Paulo in 1961. Keller introduced Skinner works to the Brazilianpsychologists. His first assistant was Carolina Martuscelli Bori, then a social psychologistinfluenced by the work of Kurt Lewin. Initially guided by Keller, Carolina Bori was the majorforce in the diffusion of Behavior Analysis in Brazil, beginning with the psychology course ofthe University of Brasília, where the first course on Experimental Analysis of Behavior beganin August of 1964. Most of behavior analysts in Brazil today were students, directly or indirectly,of Carolina Bori. Several graduate programs throughout the country offer courses in behavioranalysis.

  14. Experiments in Animal Behavior (United States)

    Polt, James M.


    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  15. Cultural Behavior Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reece, Douglas A; Taylor, Glenn


    .... Army personnel to accomplish military tasks in foreign environments. We surveyed existing cultural behavior models and systems, identifying promising concepts that can be incorporated into a cultural cognitive architecture...

  16. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth


    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... on theories and methods from psychology and related fields and point to research in public administration that could benefit from further integration. An analysis of public administration topics through a psychological lens can be useful to confirm, add nuance to, or extend classical public administration...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow...

  17. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 2, 2014 ... Nigeria for children aged 0-1 year include Tuberculosis,. Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria ... Key Words: Immunization; growth chart; health-seeking behavior; child health; Nigeria ..... Bitran J, Keeping Health in an Urban Environment:.

  18. Food Coloring and Behavior


    J Gordon Millichap


    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  19. Driver behavior in traffic. (United States)


    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  20. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A


    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  1. Consumer Buying Behavior


    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc


    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  2. Genes and Social Behavior


    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.


    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence beh...

  3. Driving Schools Buying Behavior


    Mbewe, Kelvin


    The purpose of this thesis is to understand driving schools’ buying behavior when buying auto-mobiles from car dealers and to understand the motives of the people responsible for making such decisions and how driving schools prefer to acquire automobiles from car dealers. These were the main research problems that required quantitative research to conclude. The theoretical chapter of the thesis discusses the principles that influence an organization’s buying behavior, the buying center, m...

  4. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology. (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S


    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Behavioral Law & Economics


    Tomasz Nieborak


    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  6. Incentives and Prosocial Behavior


    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean


    We develop a theory of prosocial behavior that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. Rewards or punishments (whether material or image-related) create doubt about the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ?overjustification effect? can induce a partial or even net crowding out of prosocial behavior by extrinsic incentives. We also identify the settings that are conducive to multiple social norms and, mor...

  7. Consumer behavior towards telemarketing


    Kharaishvili, Tinatin


    Telemarketing has become a big industry and convenient way of successfully managing business affairs with low costs. The aim of the thesis is to present telemarketing services from the customers point of view; analyzing what are consumer behavior towards telemarketing in Georgia and the Czech Republic, and also what are the perceptional and attitudinal causing factors of these behaviors. This is the comparative study and the research is mainly based on the primary data. For the research accom...

  8. Behavior Modification in the Classroom (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan


    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  9. HIV behavioral research online. (United States)

    Chiasson, Mary Ann; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Tesoriero, James M; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H


    Internet access has caused a global revolution in the way people of all ages and genders interact. Many have turned to the Internet to seek love, companionship, and sex, prompting researchers to move behavioral studies online. The sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) has been more closely studied than that of any other group online given the abundance of gay-oriented websites and concerns about increasing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Not only does the Internet provide a new medium for the conduct of behavioral research and for participant recruitment into an array of research studies, it has the as yet unrealized potential to reach huge numbers of MSM with innovative harm reduction and prevention messages tailored to individualized needs, interests, and risk behavior. Internet-based research on sexual behavior has many advantages in rapidity of recruitment of diverse samples which include individuals unreachable through conventional methods (i.e., non-gay identified and geographically and socially isolated MSM, etc.). Internet-based research also presents some new methodologic challenges in study design, participant recruitment, survey implementation, and interpretation of results. In addition, there are ethical issues unique to online research including difficulties in verifying informed consent, obstacles to surveying minors, and the ability to assure anonymity. This paper presents a review of Internet-based research on sexual behavior in MSM, a general discussion of the methodologic and ethical challenges of Internet-based research, and recommendations for future interdisciplinary research.

  10. Behavioral addictions: an overview. (United States)

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya


    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment.

  11. Jayapura Teenagers Smoking Behavior. (United States)

    Herawati, Lucky; Budiman, Johan Arief; Haryono, W; Mulyani, Wiwiek


    Smoking behavior is a threat for Indonesian teenagers, including in the city of Jayapura, Papua province. The purpose of this study was to access Jayapura teenagers smoking behavior and knowledge including parents and other family members. The study was conducted on 78 respondents (grade 7, aged 11-14 years old), using cluster random sampling for selecting the public and private junior high school in Jayapura. The data collected was smoking behavior of respondents, parents and other family members (using self-reported questionnaire), and respondents' knowledge about the dangers of smoking (using tests with Cronbach's alpha 0.701). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically using Chi-square, 95 % level of significant. The results showed 29.3 % of teenagers, 69.23 % of parents and 25.6 % of other family members were smokers, their knowledge was low (an average score of 60.81 out of 100), there was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and smoking behavior among respondents (p = 0.079), and there is no significant relationship between teenagers behavior with the behavior of the parents (p = 0.609) and other family members (p = 0.578), 87 % of teenagers became smokers because there were individuals who smoke at home.

  12. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics. (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando


    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  13. Behavior and Performance Project (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Shlyk, Galina; Vassilieva, Oxana; Richardson, W. Kirk


    Behavior is an overt manifestation of underlying biology. As such, alterations in biological systems that result from spaceflight would be expected to evidence themselves in subtle or even pronounced changes in the behavior of that organism. These alterations in visible behavior may then indicate or even be diagnostic of alterations in the physical well-being of humans and other animals as they adapt to space environments or readapt to Earth--alterations that might not otherwise be detected without relatively invasive and frequently expensive procedures. Moreover, behavior and performance constitute the central standard for evaluating the mission success of spaceflight ventures. The success or failure of any excursion into space is primarily indexed by the ability of astronauts and cosmonauts to perform the tasks and experiments of any particular mission, to land a re-entry vehicle after extended exposure to microgravity (as with the space shuttle), or to make time-critical and life-saving repairs or other decisions while in orbit (as with the recent Mir events). Thus, understanding the effects spaceflight on behavior and performance is inherently important, in addition to those insights that behavior can provide about the physiological consequences of space adaptation.

  14. Human Rights and Behavior Modification (United States)

    Roos, Philip


    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  15. Positive Behavioral Supports: Empirically Supported Use of Behavioral Logs (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Wilcox, Raven; Focaracci, Shannon D.


    Teachers commonly use behavioral logs as a primary method for controlling classroom behavior, but frequently they are using these logs incorrectly. For this reason, this article provides specific information on how to correctly use behavioral logs for techniques such as check-in/check-out, behavioral report cards, and token economies. Each of…

  16. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta


    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  17. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.


    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  18. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid


    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service.......In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e...

  19. Drugs and sexual behavior. (United States)

    Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A


    This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed.

  20. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet


    Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...

  1. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik


    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  2. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  3. Feedback and efficient behavior. (United States)

    Casal, Sandro; DellaValle, Nives; Mittone, Luigi; Soraperra, Ivan


    Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  4. Organizational citizenship behavior towards sustainability


    Chowdhury, Dhiman Deb


    This article extends literature of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the context of corporate sustainability. The author presents the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior towards Sustainability (OCBS) as a variant, contending it's appropriateness for today's much needed behavioral competence to implement sustainability measure at organizational level. The formulation of OCBS espouses Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) with a twist. The viewpoint defended that a for...

  5. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  6. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  7. Behavioral Tolerance to Anticholinergic Agents (United States)


    Medicine , 47, 137-141. 7. Kurtz, P.J. (1977) Behavioral and biochemical effects of the carbamate insecticide, mobam. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior...tolerance to marihuana in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1, 73-76. 43 40. Olson, J. and Carder, B. (1974) Behavioral tolerance to... marihuana as a function of amount of prior training. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2, 243-247. 41. Sidman, M. (1960) Tactics of Scientific

  8. An opinion-driven behavioral dynamics model for addictive behaviors (United States)

    Moore, Thomas W.; Finley, Patrick D.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Husten, Corinne; Glass, Robert J.


    We present a model of behavioral dynamics that combines a social network-based opinion dynamics model with behavioral mapping. The behavioral component is discrete and history-dependent to represent situations in which an individual's behavior is initially driven by opinion and later constrained by physiological or psychological conditions that serve to maintain the behavior. Individuals are modeled as nodes in a social network connected by directed edges. Parameter sweeps illustrate model behavior and the effects of individual parameters and parameter interactions on model results. Mapping a continuous opinion variable into a discrete behavioral space induces clustering on directed networks. Clusters provide targets of opportunity for influencing the network state; however, the smaller the network the greater the stochasticity and potential variability in outcomes. This has implications both for behaviors that are influenced by close relationships verses those influenced by societal norms and for the effectiveness of strategies for influencing those behaviors.

  9. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments. (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele


    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  10. Camp and Human Behavior. (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.


    Addresses the potential of camp to promote self-esteem and nurture a sense of community. Summarizes articles in this journal issue that focus on individual and group behavior including homesickness, how camps can promote positive attitudes toward disabled campers, and a camp program that provides respite care for families of children with AIDS.…

  11. Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy


    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  12. Analysis of Malware behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Hansen, Steven Strandlund; Larsen, Thor Mark Tampus


    and automatized manner. We have developed a distributed malware testing environment by extending Cuckoo Sandbox that was used to test an extensive number of malware samples and trace their behavioral data. The extracted data was used for the development of a novel type classification approach based on supervised...

  13. Shaping Adolescent Gambling Behavior. (United States)

    Arcuri, Alan F.; And Others


    Surveyed the incidence of casino gambling by adolescents. Results indicated that 64 percent of the students at one Atlantic City high school had gambled at the casinos. The dangers of shaping compulsive gambling behavior through societal acceptance of legalized gambling are discussed. (Author/BL)

  14. Behavioral approach to leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccolo, R.F.; Buengeler, C.; Griffin, R.W.


    After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.

  15. Compulsive Sexual Behavior (United States)

    ... problems and harmful acts. Seek treatment early for mental health disorders. Compulsive sexual behavior may be worsened by depression or anxiety. Identify and seek help for alcohol and drug abuse problems. Substance abuse can cause a loss of control and unhappiness that can ...

  16. Dealing with Oppositional Behaviors (United States)

    ... know I am not alone in this: finding ways to manage oppositional behaviors is a daily reality for many ... remembering the old, dirty ones. Oddly, he does change his underwear on his ... flow easily one day are met with resistance the next. I feel the need to be ...

  17. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. (United States)

    Icabone, Dona G.


    This article describes the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a general assessment of personal and social sufficiency of individuals from birth through adulthood to determine areas of strength and weakness. The instrument assesses communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills. Its administration, standardization, reliability,…

  18. Diabetes and Behavior. (United States)

    Surwit, Richard S.; And Others


    Suggests that the problem of effective care of diabetes mellitus presents an opportunity for the emerging field of health psychology. Discusses behavioral interventions that aid in treatment of this disease by reducing its energy mobilizing effects on the nervous system. (Author/AOS)

  19. Behavior analysis and neuroscience. (United States)

    Donahoe, John W.


    Darwin proposed a powerful functional principle-natural selection-to interpret phylogenetic diversity and complexity. Nevertheless, some 70 years elapsed before even biologists embraced his account. The triumph of natural selection required two additional factors: (a) biological mechanisms that implemented the functional principle (i.e. genetics); and (b) quantitative procedures that traced its cumulative effects (i.e. population genetics). Thorndike and, later, Skinner proposed a functional principle-selection by reinforcement-that interpreted ontogenetic diversity and complexity. This principle has been substantially refined by subsequent experimental and theoretical work and now provides an equally powerful functional account. However, a purely functional principle has once again not persuaded most scientists (apart from the behavior-analytic minority) that complex behavior can be understood by a selection principle. If the history of ontogeny recapitulates the history of phylogeny, the biological mechanisms that implement selection by reinforcement must be discovered and quantitative techniques that trace its effects must be devised. In short, the triumph of reinforcement may await the integration of behavior analysis with the neurosciences and the development of coordinated quantitative procedures. This article identifies specific interrelations with neuroscience that form the basis for a behavior-analytically faithful interpretation of reinforcement using neural-network techniques. Implications for the architecture of networks and for the learning algorithm are emphasized.

  20. Measuring Neurotic Behavior. (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    An exploratory study concerned with the measurement of perseveration, or persistence, as a personality variable was based on the work of G.V. Hamilton, an early investigator in the field. Persistently maladaptive behavior was hypothesized to be a chief characteristic of neurosis. An experimental problem-solving situation was designed to…

  1. Prosocial behavior and gender. (United States)

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír


    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in "neutral" baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.

  2. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu


    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  3. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel


    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  4. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar


    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  5. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We

  6. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications...

  7. Networks and Economic Behavior


    Jackson, Matthew O.


    Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

  8. [Clocks, Behavior, and Cognition]. (United States)

    Futamura, Akinori; Shiromaru, Azusa; Kuroda, Takeshi; Honma, Motoyasu; Kinno, Ryuta; Ono, Kenjiro; Kawamura, Mitsuru


    The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses. Factors that can contribute to this include reduced expression of the time gene associated with photo stimulation, a reduction in neurotransmitter levels, and reduced melatonin production. Biological clocks play an important role in our emotions, cognitive function, and behavior. Sleep disorders and metabolic disease related to the circadian rhythm affect metabolic and endocrine activities via the autonomic nervous system and the intestinal bacterial flora. Shift work disorder is associated with insomnia and excessive drowsiness as individuals often work during their sleeping hours. Now time management is placed at the center of our society, and it is important to evaluate the medical risk of engaging in shift work. In frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the stereotypical behaviors may be associated with time. In some patients, multiple timed behaviors occupy a considerable part of the patient's daily life. Stereotypical behaviors in FTD are often considered in contrast to obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD). Studies of OCD have found a close correlation between clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and brain function.

  9. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy. (United States)

    Jones, W. Paul


    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  10. Behavioral Decisions and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.


    We study the public policy implications of a model in which agents do not fully internalize all the conscequences of their actions. Such a model uni es seemingly disconected models with behavioral agents. We evaluate the scope of paternalistic and libertarian-parternalistic policies in the light of

  11. Behavioral decisions and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.


    We study the public policy implications of a model in which agents do not fully internalize all the conscequences of their actions. Such a model unifies seemingly disconected models with behavioral agents. We evaluate the scope of paternalistic and libertarian-parternalistic policies in light of our

  12. Mathematics as verbal behavior. (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson


    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus


    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self...

  14. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  15. Sexual Behavior in Adolescence (United States)

    Hopkins, J. Roy


    Surveys conducted between the 1930's and 1970's on the sexual behavior of adolescents indicate the following: (1) older adolescents are more sexually experienced now than in earlier generations; (2) there has been a greater increase in incidence of premarital sex for females than males; and (3) there is a trend toward earlier sexual experience for…

  16. Clinical science and human behavior. (United States)

    Plaud, J J


    The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior. (United States)

    Baum, William M


    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes (United States)

    Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin


    This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older) that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. PMID:27042148

  19. Effects on human behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazov, E.I.; Vartanian, M.E.


    The disturbances of behavior and mental activity to be expected in the survivors of a nuclear attack will mainly be associated with the emergence of acute anxiety reactions. The immediate effects may include acute brain syndromes, protracted anxiety states, and reactive psychoses. It is to be expected that one-third of the survivors or more will suffer more-or-less severe mental and behavioral disturbances, and the phychological reactions of the survivors will continue for months or years after the attack. No adequate treatment would be available for the vast majority of these casualties, and it follows that the only rational alternative is to prevent the occurrence of a nuclear war. The psychological disturbances arising from the continuing arms race are also discussed.

  20. Culture and sexual behavior. (United States)

    Gomez, C A


    The effectiveness of many HIV prevention efforts, particularly those targeted at women, are often hampered by ignorance of cultural realities of sexual behaviors. In a recent study of unmarried Latino adults living in the United States, researchers began to explore these different factors. Predictors of condom use in this population included: socialization of sexuality, interpersonal power within relationships, and gender norms. The study, a telephone survey, found a pervasive sexual silence, especially among women. More than half reported that their mothers had never spoken to them about sex when they were younger. The survey also attempted to measure the experiences that could be considered coercive within the context of sex. The researchers found that successful interventions depend on abilities to educate beyond knowledge, counsel clients beyond risk assessment, and study sexual behavior beyond mere prevalence.

  1. Corruption and firm behavior


    Sandra Sequeira; Simeon Djankov


    This paper investigates how corruption affects firrm behavior. Firms can engage in two types of corruption when seeking a public service: cost-reducing "collusive" corruption and cost increasing "coercive" corruption. Using an original and unusually rich dataset on bribe payments at ports matched to firrm-level data, we observe how firms respond to each type of corruption by adjusting their shipping and sourcing strategies. "Collusive" corruption is associated with higher usage of the corrupt...

  2. Behaviorism and Natural Selection (United States)


    consequences resistance to selectionist thinking for as long as the evidence Thomas J. Gamble permits. [Cf. Chomsk.. "Rules and Representations" BBS 3(1...years befbre the similarity to natural 7 " Probem Solving.") Input-output suggests a stimulus- selection suggested itself. Selection is not a metaphor... Gamble implies, that selected and what are the selecting consequences. With- experimental behavior analysts wsere the first to suggest a * ~it givenm

  3. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biolek


    Full Text Available Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  4. Abstracting out Byzantine Behavior


    Druschel, Peter; Haeberlen, Andreas; Kouznetsov, Petr


    Many distributed systems are designed to tolerate the presence of emph{Byzantine} failures: an individual process may arbitrarily deviate from the algorithm assigned to it. Depending on the application requirements, systems enjoy various levels of fault-tolerance. Systems based on state machine replication are able to emph{mask} failures so that their effect is not visible by the application. In contrast, cooperative peer-to-peer systems can tolerate bounded deviant behavior to some exten...

  5. Selling good behavior. (United States)

    Braus, P


    Social marketers use the tools of selling to promote good nutrition, regular checkups, and other positive behavior. Instead of preaching, they try to understand and change the complex motivations that lie behind risky activities like smoking and unsafe sex. AIDS prevention is the vanguard of social marketing in the U.S., but the practice is likely to spread for a simple reason: it works.

  6. Vocally disruptive behavior. (United States)

    White, M K; Kaas, M J; Richie, M F


    Vocally disruptive behavior (VDB) is intelligible or unintelligible noise making that may be goal-directed or purposeless. VDB can be conceptualized as a cyclic phenomenon. VDB has been linked to cognitive impairment, poor sleep, requiring assistance with ADLs, and being at high risk for falling. General nursing interventions for VDB include remaining calm, using gentle touch, creating a familiar, home-like environment, and using diversions during ADLs.

  7. Behavioral Operations in Logistics


    Vries, Jelle


    markdownabstractIn the world of logistics, a considerable share of all work is automated and performed by machines or robots. An examination of the existing logistics research reflects this image, since a substantial share of the studies focus on automated processes, and perfectly predictable systems. This is however not the whole picture. People play an essential role in almost every node in a supply chain as well, and when human behavior is involved things become less predictable. The roles...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrie Putra


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran dan bukti tentang pentingnya perilakupengelolaan keuangan. Pengelolaan keuangan yang baik pada dasarnya sangat dibutuhkan karena dengan pengelolaan keuangan yang baik akan meningkatkan kesejahteraan. Berdasarkan data dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS peningkatan kesejahteraan baik barang maupun konsumsi pangan meningkat dari 47,71% menjadi 50,66%, hal ini menjadi cermin pentingnya pengelolaan keuangan. Didasarkan pada Theory Planned of Behavior, bahwa perilaku merupakan fungsi dari informasi atau keyakinan yang menonjol mengenai perilaku tersebut. Orang dapat saja memiliki berbagai macam keyakinan terhadap suatu perilaku, namun ketika dihadapkan pada suatu kejadian tertentu, hanya sedikit dari keyakinan tersebut yang timbul untuk memengaruhi perilaku. Sedikit keyakinan inilah yang menonjol dalam memengaruhi perilaku individu. Berdasarkan pentingnya pengelolaan keuangan tersebut, penelitian ini bermaksud untuk memberikan bukti tentang perilaku pengelolaan keuangan,yang tercermin dari perilaku dan sikap yang digambarkan dengan variable ; power prestige, retention time, subjective norms, behavioral control, intentions, behaviors dan conscientiousness. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis jalur dimana objek pada penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa aktif yang ada pada Universitas di Jakarta.

  9. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Casal

    Full Text Available Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  10. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.


    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  11. Predictors of Health Behavior from a Behavior-Analytic Orientation. (United States)

    Birkimer, John C.; And Others


    Discovers a high correlation between positive emotional states, supportive self talk, and specific healthy behaviors in college students. The correlated health behaviors were vigorous exercise, mild exercise, seat belts, and avoidance of alcohol and junk food. Considers the impact of negative self talk on the avoidance of negative behavior. (MJP)

  12. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene


    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  13. Disparities in Weight and Weight Behaviors by Sexual Orientation in College Students. (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Lust, Katherine; Eisenberg, Marla E; Rosser, B R Simon


    Objectives. We assessed disparities in weight and weight-related behaviors among college students by sexual orientation and gender. Methods. We performed cross-sectional analyses of pooled annual data (2007-2011; n = 33 907) from students participating in a Minnesota state-based survey of 40 two- and four-year colleges and universities. Sexual orientation included heterosexual, gay or lesbian, bisexual, unsure, and discordant heterosexual (heterosexuals engaging in same-sex sexual experiences). Dependent variables included weight status (derived from self-reported weight and height), diet (fruits, vegetables, soda, fast food, restaurant meals, breakfast), physical activity, screen time, unhealthy weight control, and body satisfaction. Results. Bisexual and lesbian women were more likely to be obese than heterosexual and discordant heterosexual women. Bisexual women were at high risk for unhealthy weight, diet, physical activity, and weight control behaviors. Gay and bisexual men exhibited poor activity patterns, though gay men consumed significantly less regular soda (and significantly more diet soda) than heterosexual men. Conclusions. We observed disparities in weight-, diet-, and physical activity-related factors across sexual orientation among college youths. Additional research is needed to better understand these disparities and the most appropriate intervention strategies to address them.

  14. Behavior Analysis and Developmental Psychology. (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.; And Others


    Examines relationships between the fields of behavior analysis and developmental psychology, surveying the influence of behavior-analytic research within developmental psychology and investigating the integration of the two approaches with respect to metatheory and methodology. (Author/MP)

  15. Professional Identity and "Intrapreneurial" Behavior. (United States)

    Cottam, Keith M.


    Reports the results of a survey that asked library administrators who had demonstrated intrapreneurial behavior to describe themselves as entrepreneurs. The results are presented as profiles of behavioral characteristics and views shared by these individuals. (CLB)

  16. Attitude and behavior are correlates (United States)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

  17. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronika Svatosová


    .... The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping...

  18. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.


    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Behavioral Genetics and Child Temperament


    Saudino, Kimberly J.


    Most temperament theories presume a biological basis to those behavioral tendencies thought to be temperamental in origin. Behavioral genetic methods can be used to test this assumption. Twin and adoption studies suggest that individual differences in infant and child temperament are genetically influenced. However, behavioral genetics has much more to offer to the study of temperament than simple heritability estimates. The present paper describes some recent findings from behavioral genetic...

  20. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  1. Nurses' Spirituality Improves Caring Behavior (United States)

    Bakar, Abu; Nursalam; Adriani, Merryana; Kusnanto; Qomariah, Siti Nur; Hidayati, Laily; Pratiwi, Ika Nur; Ni'mah, Lailatun


    Caring is a behavior of giving holistic assistance to individuals. In fact, this important behavior still has not routinely performed in current nursing practice. Personality and sipirituality are important factors in forming one's caring behavior. Spirituality is a passion or impulse to perform noble action. The objective of this study was to…




  3. Counselors' Perceptions of Ethical Behaviors (United States)

    Neukrug, Edward S.; Milliken, Tammi


    A random sample of American Counseling Association members was asked to respond to a 77-item survey of counselor behaviors and identify whether each behavior was ethical or unethical. Results are categorized by behaviors in which 90% of counselors agreed, 75% to 90% agreed, and 25% to 50% disagreed. Also, changes in ethics education were reviewed…

  4. Factors Effecting Undergraduate Leadership Behaviors (United States)

    Gallagher, Margie Lee; Marshall, Jeffrey C.; Pories, Mary Lisa; Daughety, Morgan


    Leadership behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1,103) were examined using the Student Leadership Practice Inventory (SLPI). The practice of leadership behaviors increased significantly from freshman to juniors and from juniors to seniors. However, each class was significantly less likely to practice the Challenge the Process behavior and…

  5. Behavior Plan, Does It Work? (United States)

    Gonzalez, Blanca M.; Brown, D.


    As educators, we are responsible for teaching academic skills. However, some students not only need to learn academic skills but they need behavior support, due to problematic behaviors that are happening in the school setting. In this article, we will learn more of what are the implications, requirements and best strategies for a behavior plan.…

  6. Entrepreneurial Behavior and Innovative Behavior: A Conceptual Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taufiq Amir


    Full Text Available This paper represents one effort to systematize the use of terminology of entrepreneurial behavior and innovative behavior and to clarify how they relate each other. A clearly stated set of relationship and dynamics on these two concepts is necessary for scientific understanding, explanation and prediction. An agreed-upon relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and innovative behavior makes it easier for investigators to build on each other’s work, and for practitioners to decide whether research finding are applicable to them. Author first reviews some of the existing definitions on entrepreneurial behavior and innovative behavior and illustrates how they are mutually explaining and overlapping. Various terms used to describe the phenomena of interest are clarified. Endorsing, refining, and shepherding entrepreneurial opportunities are more related to idea generation phase of innovative behavior. While the other behaviors, identifying, acquiring and deploying resources needed to pursue entrepreneurial opportunities are more related to idea implementation phase of innovative behavior. Using the theory of socio-cognitive approach, pattern recognition and regulatory focus, the study details the discussion and concludes the overlap between entrepreneurial behavior and the innovative behavior.

  7. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence. (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K


    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne


    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  9. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick


    In this paper, we develop a method to estimate markups using plant-level production data. Our approach relies on cost minimizing producers and the existence of at least one variable input of production. The suggested empirical framework relies on the estimation of a production function and provides...... estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge...

  10. The immunomodulatory effects of behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ader


    Full Text Available Evidence is presented indicating that behavioral conditioning techniques can be used to suppress and enhance antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses. Application of conditioning techniques in the pharmacotherapy of autoimmune disease in New Zeland mice resulted in a delay in the onset of lupus using a cumulative dose of immunosuppressive drug that was not, by itself, sufficient to alter the course of the autoimmune disease. Convesely, behavioral studies in lupus-proneMrl lpr (lpr and Mrl +/+ mice suggest further that immune status can influence behavior and that such behavior may serve to correct and immunologic dysregulation. Theses data are interpreted to indicate behavior can serve an immunomodulatory function.

  11. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben


    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  12. Behavioral therapy across the spectrum. (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan


    Numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been introduced, including computerized cognitive-behavioral treatments, Web-based guided self-change, and mindfulness-based approaches. Although a wide variety of behavioral approaches have been shown to have good efficacy, choosing the treatment most appropriate for a given patient remains a challenge.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity in female mate choice behavior is mediated by an interaction of direct and indirect genetic effects inDrosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Filice, David C S; Long, Tristan A F


    Female mate choice is a complex decision-making process that involves many context-dependent factors. In Drosophila melanogaster , a model species for the study of sexual selection, indirect genetic effects (IGEs) of general social interactions can influence female mate choice behaviors, but the potential impacts of IGEs associated with mating experiences are poorly understood. Here, we examined whether the IGEs associated with a previous mating experience had an effect on subsequent female mate choice behaviors and quantified the degree of additive genetic variation associated with this effect. Females from 21 different genetic backgrounds were housed with males from one of two distinct genetic backgrounds for either a short (3 hr) or long (48 hr) exposure period and their subsequent mate choice behaviors were scored. We found that the genetic identity of a previous mate significantly influenced a female's subsequent interest in males and preference of males. Additionally, a hemiclonal analysis revealed significant additive genetic variation associated with experience-dependent mate choice behaviors, indicating a genotype-by-environment interaction for both of these parameters. We discuss the significance of these results with regard to the evolution of plasticity in female mate choice behaviors and the maintenance of variation in harmful male traits.

  14. Behavioral intervention reduces unhealthy eating behaviors in preschool children via a behavior card approach. (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Pan, Li-Ping; Han, Juan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; Jin, Run-Ming


    Many eating behaviors form in childhood, and some unhealthy behaviors may persist into adulthood and have potential impacts on people's health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral intervention in reducing consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, fried food in preschool children, and changing parents' rewarding behaviors that encourage the consumption of the unhealthy foods. The research was a cluster randomized trial of seven kindergartens, involving 1138 children aged 3-6 years and their parents in Beijing, China. Parents and children allocated to the intervention group received two lectures and printed resources, including behavior cards, educational sheets. Children's behavior cards, applied with behavior-changing techniques, were used to intervene, and monitor behavior changes over time. Children in the control group just followed their usual health education curriculum in kindergartens. Intervention effects on food consumption behaviors were assessed by examining pre- and post-questionnaires. Of the 1138 children screened at baseline, 880 (77.3%) were measured at the end of the intervention period. The intervention lasted from March to June in 2010. The results showed that consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, and fried food was decreased among the intervention group (Pbehavior in children tended to decrease over the intervention period (Pbehavior cards or materials for behavioral intervention. In conclusion, the behavioral intervention encourages the healthier eating behaviors of children and reduces the parents' practice of using unhealthy foods as reward.

  15. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.


    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  16. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  17. Academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior. (United States)

    Aaron, Laura; Simmons, Pamela; Graham-Webb, Diane


    To investigate differences in radiologic science student and faculty perceptions of academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior. Radiologic science faculty and students were questioned about their perceptions of academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior using ethical scenarios in an electronic survey format. Significant differences occurred between faculty and student values regarding the seriousness of cheating and unprofessional behaviors. Faculty viewed cheating and unprofessional behaviors as more serious than students. Faculty and student self-reports of cheating behavior demonstrated no significant differences; however, significant differences existed in self-reported incidences of unprofessional behavior. Faculty and students differed in their values and participation related to cheating and unprofessional behaviors. Efforts should be directed toward bridging the gap between faculty and student perceptions. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  18. Challenging behavior: Behavioral phenotypes of some genetic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša


    Full Text Available Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological. The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in

  19. [Terrorism and human behavior]. (United States)

    Leistedt, S J


    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Video Malware - Behavioral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeepsinh Dodia


    Full Text Available Abstract The counts of malware attacks exploiting the internet increasing day by day and has become a serious threat. The latest malware spreading out through the media players embedded using the video clip of funny in nature to lure the end users. Once it is executed and installed then the behavior of the malware is in the malware authors hand. The spread of the malware emulates through Internet USB drives sharing of the files and folders can be anything which makes presence concealed. The funny video named as it connected to the film celebrity where the malware variant was collected from the laptop of the terror outfit organization .It runs in the backend which it contains malicious code which steals the user sensitive information like banking credentials username amp password and send it to the remote host user called command amp control. The stealed data is directed to the email encapsulated in the malicious code. The potential malware will spread through the USB and other devices .In summary the analysis reveals the presence of malicious code in executable video file and its behavior.

  1. Increasing the on-task homework behavior of youth with behavior disorders using functional behavioral assessment. (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O; Axelrod, Michael I


    Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures may be helpful for intervention planning; however, there has been limited research on use of FBA with youth with EBD experiencing poor academic performance or task completion problems. In the current study, FBA methods were used to identify the contingencies maintaining the off-task behavior of four youth with behavior problems. Effects of interventions based on functional hypotheses were compared to the effects of interventions not linked to such hypotheses. Discussion focuses on utility of FBA procedures for developing and implementing effective interventions for youth with EBD.

  2. Does Early Childhood Callous-Unemotional Behavior Uniquely Predict Behavior Problems or Callous-Unemotional Behavior in Late Childhood? (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.


    Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L


    Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT

  4. Interaction between behavioral despair and addictive behaviors in rats. (United States)

    Tian, Meng; Mao, Rong-Rong; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Cao, Jun; Xu, Lin


    It has been suggested that depression can be either a cause or a consequence of drug abuse, providing a possible explanation for the fact that the prevalence of depression is almost 3-fold higher in drug abusers than in the general population. However, the interaction between depression and drug abuse has not been fully elucidated. To examine the interaction between behavioral despair and addictive behaviors, we used the Porsolt's forced swim test (FST) as a model of behavioral despair, and we used morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) and repeated morphine exposure as models of addictive behaviors. We found that rats exposed to a standard FST (15min on day 0 training) rather than a weak FST (10min on day 0 training) exhibited behavioral despair, which selectively potentiated morphine CPP (mCPP) but not food CPP (fCPP). The antidepressant imipramine (15mg/kg, i.p.), which blocked the behavioral despair, prevented the standard FST potentiated morphine CPP. Conversely, repeated exposure to morphine (10mg/kg, s.c.) for 6, 12 or 20days decreased, had no effect on, or increased the immobility time, respectively, in the subsequent standard FST. Furthermore, repeated morphine exposure for 20days exacerbated the pre-existing behavioral despair. Thus, our findings suggest that behavioral despair may increase the vulnerability of individuals to opiate abuse, which may in turn enhance behavioral despair. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, R.; de Vries, N.K.; van der Pligt, J.


    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes,

  6. Explaining Moral Behavior. (United States)

    Osman, Magda; Wiegmann, Alex


    In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors. Crucially, the argument we propose is that moral situations per se do not require anything specialized or different from other situations in which we have to make decisions, inferences, and judgments in order to figure out how to act.

  7. Married women's retirement behavior. (United States)

    Pozzebon, S; Mitchell, O S


    The Longitudinal Retirement Survey, a panel study conducted by the US Social Security Administration in 1969-79 of married women who were private sector workers in 1969 and had employed husbands, allows for the empirical analysis of the economic and family determinants of women's retirement behavior. This study tested a life cycle model of women's retirement behavior. This study tested a life cycle model of women's retirement decisions. In the sample of 139 women who were followed for 10 years, the average age at retirement was 62 years (compared with 64 years for males). 67% of the respondents retired prior to or at the same time as their husbands. The model incorporated 3 types of explanatory factors: measures of income opportunities, measures of retirement or years away from the labor force, and family responsibility measures. Evidence from the regression model suggests that a working wife's retirement decision is most strongly influenced by the husband's income, his health status, and the difference in age between the spouses. The increase in the wife's discounted income stream if she defers retirement to age 65 years has a stronger substitution than income effect, but the coefficient is not significant. Logit models, which can explicitly incorporate income and leisure information relevant to each retirement date, further confirm the greater impact of family responsibilities that economic opportunities on married women's retirement decisions. Married women seem to value nonwork years highly, especially if their spouse is older than they, but will defer retirement if their husband is in poor health. On the other hand, women's retirement choices are not affected by whether the husband is retired or the presence of dependent children. These findings contrast sharply with research indicating that economic opportunities are the predominant determinants of men's retirement decisions.

  8. Emerging behavioral treatments for migraine. (United States)

    Smitherman, Todd A; Wells, Rebecca E; Ford, Sutapa G


    Although the efficacy of behavioral interventions for migraine (e.g., relaxation training, stress management, cognitive-behavioral therapy, biofeedback) is well established, other behavioral interventions that have shown efficacy for other conditions are being adapted to treat migraine. This paper reviews the literature to date on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness-based interventions, and behavioral interventions for common migraine comorbidities. ACT and mindfulness interventions prioritize the outcome of improved functioning above headache reduction and have demonstrated efficacy for chronic pain broadly. These emerging behavioral therapies show considerable promise for improving outcomes of migraine patients, particularly in reducing headache-related disability and affective distress, but efficacy to date is limited by small trials, short follow-up periods, and a need for comparison or integration with established pharmacologic and behavioral migraine treatments.

  9. You'll never crawl alone: Neurophysiological evidence for experience-dependent motor resonance in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Hunnius, Sabine


    on motor resonance during action observation, 14- to 16-month-old infants' EEG was recorded during observation of action videos. Stronger mu- and betadesynchronizations were found for observation of crawling compared to walking videos and the size of the effect was strongly related to the infant's own...... crawling experience. This suggests that already early in life one's own action experience is closely related to how actions of others are perceived....

  10. Experience-dependent affective learning and risk for psychopathology in children. (United States)

    Pollak, Seth D


    The influence of childhood affective experiences across development may be understood in terms of preparedness to learn about emotion, combined with general immaturity and neuro-plasticity of perceptual systems. Early in development, processing resources are relatively immature and limited in capacity, thereby constraining how much information the young child can absorb. But it is clear that learning about emotions proceeds swiftly in nearly all children, suggesting biological preparedness to track associations between certain stimuli and outcomes. It is proposed here that limited processing capacity, in tandem with dispositions to filter or select key privileged stimuli in the environment, facilitates adaptive, rapid, affective learning. The developmental organization of affective systems is contingent upon those features of input that are most learnable, such as signals that are particularly salient, frequent, or predictable. Therefore, plasticity confers risk for maladaptation in that children's learning will be based upon these prominent features of the environment, however aberrant.

  11. Experience-Dependent Regulation of Presynaptic NMDARs Enhances Neurotransmitter Release at Neocortical Synapses (United States)

    Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Wen, Jing A.; Parekh, Puja K.; Barth, Alison L.


    Sensory experience can selectively alter excitatory synaptic strength at neocortical synapses. The rapid increase in synaptic strength induced by selective whisker stimulation (single-row experience/SRE, where all but one row of whiskers has been removed from the mouse face) is due, at least in part, to the trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs)…

  12. Experience-dependent rewiring of specific inhibitory connections in adult neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Kätzel


    Full Text Available Although neocortical connectivity is remarkably stereotyped, the abundance of some wiring motifs varies greatly between cortical areas. To examine if regional wiring differences represent functional adaptations, we have used optogenetic raster stimulation to map the laminar distribution of GABAergic interneurons providing inhibition to pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 (L2/3 of adult mouse barrel cortex during sensory deprivation and recovery. Whisker trimming caused large, motif-specific changes in inhibitory synaptic connectivity: ascending inhibition from deep layers 4 and 5 was attenuated to 20%-45% of baseline, whereas inhibition from superficial layers remained stable (L2/3 or increased moderately (L1. The principal mechanism of deprivation-induced plasticity was motif-specific changes in inhibitory-to-excitatory connection probabilities; the strengths of extant connections were left unaltered. Whisker regrowth restored the original balance of inhibition from deep and superficial layers. Targeted, reversible modifications of specific inhibitory wiring motifs thus contribute to the adaptive remodeling of cortical circuits.

  13. Experience-dependent neural plasticity, learning, and memory in the era of epitranscriptomics. (United States)

    Leighton, L J; Ke, K; Zajaczkowski, E L; Edmunds, J; Spitale, R C; Bredy, T W


    In this short review, we highlight recent findings in the emerging field of epitranscriptomic mechanisms and discuss their potential role in neural plasticity, learning and memory. These include the influence of RNA modifications on activity-induced RNA structure states, RNA editing and RNA localization, and how qualitative state changes in RNA increase the functional diversity and information-carrying capacity of RNA molecules. We predict that RNA modifications may be just as important for synaptic plasticity and memory as quantitative changes in transcript and protein abundance, but with the added advantage of not being required to signal back to the nucleus, and therefore better suited to be coordinated with the temporal dynamics of learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  14. You'll never crawl alone: Neurophysiological evidence for experience-dependent motor resonance in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, M. van; Schie, H.T. van; Hunnius, S.; Vesper, C.; Bekkering, H.


    Lately, neuroscience is showing a great interest in examining the functional and neural mechanisms which support action observation and understanding. Recent studies have suggested that our motor skills crucially affect the way in which we perceive the actions generated by others, by showing

  15. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro


    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  16. Olivocochlear Efferent Control in Sound Localization and Experience-Dependent Learning (United States)

    Irving, Samuel; Moore, David R.; Liberman, M. Charles; Sumner, Christian J.


    Efferent auditory pathways have been implicated in sound localization and its plasticity. We examined the role of the olivocochlear system (OC) in horizontal sound localization by the ferret and in localization learning following unilateral earplugging. Under anesthesia, adult ferrets underwent olivocochlear bundle section at the floor of the fourth ventricle, either at the midline or laterally (left). Lesioned and control animals were trained to localize 1 s and 40ms amplitude-roved broadband noise stimuli from one of 12 loudspeakers. Neither type of lesion affected normal localization accuracy. All ferrets then received a left earplug and were tested and trained over 10 d. The plug profoundly disrupted localization. Ferrets in the control and lateral lesion groups improved significantly during subsequent training on the 1 s stimulus. No improvement (learning) occurred in the midline lesion group. Markedly poorer performance and failure to learn was observed with the 40 ms stimulus in all groups. Plug removal resulted in a rapid resumption of normal localization in all animals. Insertion of a subsequent plug in the right ear produced similar results to left earplugging. Learning in the lateral lesion group was independent of the side of the lesion relative to the earplug. Lesions in all reported cases were verified histologically. The results suggest the OC system is not needed for accurate localization, but that it is involved in relearning localization during unilateral conductive hearing loss. PMID:21325517

  17. Adult born olfactory bulb dopaminergic interneurons: molecular determinants and experience-dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eBonzano


    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB is a highly plastic brain region involved in the early processing of olfactory information. A remarkably feature of the OB circuits in rodents is the constitutive integration of new neurons that takes place during adulthood. Newborn cells in the adult OB are mostly inhibitory interneurons belonging to chemically, morphologically and functionally heterogeneous types. Although there is general agreement that adult neurogenesis in the OB plays a key role in sensory information processing and olfaction-related plasticity, the contribution of each interneuron subtype to such functions is far to be elucidated. Here, we focus on the dopaminergic (DA interneurons: we highlight recent findings about their morphological features and then describe the molecular factors required for the specification/differentiation and maintenance of the DA phenotype in adult born neurons. We also discuss dynamic changes of the DA interneuron population related to age, environmental stimuli and lesions, and their possible functional implications.

  18. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior


    Svatošová Veronika


    Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the ...

  19. Consumer behavior in corporate banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan


    Full Text Available Deregulation and the emergence of new forms of technology have created highly competitive market conditions which have had a critical impact upon consumer behavior in corporate banking. Bank providers must, therefore, attempt to better understand their corporate clients in an attempt not only to anticipate but also to influence and determine consumer buying behavior. The paper accordingly presents and develops a model which attempts to articulate and classify corporate consumer behavior in the purchasing of financial products and services.

  20. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents


    Evrim Aktepe


    Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the fun...

  1. Economic Behavior of Restaurant Tipping


    Tin-Chun Lin


    This paper offers a thoughtful discussion of social norms and alternative economic viewpoints and analysis of restaurant tipping behavior. A survey of Louisiana residents was conducted to collect public opinions about tipping. The analysis suggests that social norms are indeed the primary reason for diner tipping. As long as consumer behavior is guided by social norms, social norms will costs for diners. The conclusion suggests that if customer's tipping behavior were completely guided by soc...

  2. Optimal Taxation with Behavioral Agents


    Emmanuel Farhi; Xavier Gabaix


    This paper develops a theory of optimal taxation with behavioral agents. We use a general behavioral framework that encompasses a wide range of behavioral biases such as misperceptions, internalities and mental accounting. We revisit the three pillars of optimal taxation: Ramsey (linear commodity taxation to raise revenues and redistribute), Pigou (linear commodity taxation to correct externalities) and Mirrlees (nonlinear income taxation). We show how the canonical optimal tax formulas are m...

  3. Economic rationality and ethical behavior


    Marc Le Menestrel


    This paper argues that economic rationality and ethical behavior cannot be reduced one to the other, casting doubts on the validity of formulas like 'profit is ethical' or 'ethics pays'. In order to express ethical dilemmas as opposing economic interest with ethical concerns, we propose a model of rational behavior that combines these two irreducible dimensions in an open but not arbitrary manner. Behaviors that are neither ethical nor profitable are considered irrational (non-arbitrariness)....

  4. Behavioral Therapy Across the Spectrum


    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, G. Alan


    Numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been ...

  5. Behavioral Political Economy: A Survey


    Schnellenbach, Jan; Schubert, Christian


    Explaining individual behavior in politics should rely on the same motivational assumptions as explaining behavior in the market: That’s what Political Economy, understood as the application of economics to the study of political processes, is all about. In its standard variant, those who played the game of politics should also be considered rational and self-interested, unlike the benevolent despot of earlier models. History repeats itself with the rise of behavioral economics: Assuming co...

  6. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus


    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  7. Disruptive behavior within the workplace. (United States)

    Small, Charlene R; Porterfield, Susan; Gordon, Glenna


    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of disruptive behavior among nurses in the healthcare workplace, the details that are associated with its occurrence, and the organizational procedures utilized when disruptive incidents occur. Healthcare workers have a higher risk of experiencing disruptive behavior among staff in the workplace compared to other industries, and nurses are more susceptible than other healthcare workers. A quantitative, descriptive, survey design asked nurses if they had experienced disruptive behavior within the past 12 months and how this was handled by their organization. Disruptive behavior included any type of verbal abuse, electronic or e-mail abuse, or physical abuse within the work environment. There were 2,821 participants that validated the occurrence of verbal, electronic, and physical disruptive behavior, and the majority rated their overall work environment to be at high risk of experiencing disruptive behavior at least once every 6 months. Twenty-four statistically significant relationships were found with strongest associations (disruptive behavior and position; and feeling comfortable reporting the abuse and position as well as education. It is evident that disruptive behavior exists verbally, electronically, and physically, and that the overall work environment is felt to be at high risk of experiencing repeated disruptive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.


    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  9. Adolescent Substance Use, Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Context Behavioral Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372729916; Stevens, G.W.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269103775; ter Bogt, T.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071628274; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.


    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There

  10. Adolescent substance use, aggressive behaviors, and peer context behavioral norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There

  11. A Behavior Game for the Reduction of Inappropriate Classroom Behaviors. (United States)

    Hegerle, Dana R.; And Others


    A group-contingency behavior game significantly decreased disruptive classroom behavior after five weeks. The classroom observers gradually phased themselves out of the program, while training the teacher to continue the game unaided. Further analysis of the relative influences of peer pressure and competition v social reinforcement is needed. (CP)

  12. Child Behavioral Assessment and Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Schools. (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; King, Neville J.


    Reviews basic principles and practices of child behavioral assessment. Examines the effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of school refusal. Concludes that these interventions can be enhanced by a prescriptive treatment approach in which assessment information is used to tailor treatment to the specified problem of a given…

  13. Use of a Behavioral Graphic Organizer to Reduce Disruptive Behavior (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea


    Students with challenging behavior spend substantial amounts of time away from instruction due to behavioral problems. Time away from instruction reduces their opportunities for learning, which are critical as these students typically demonstrate academic performance below their same-age peers. After removal from instruction due to behavioral…

  14. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades (United States)

    Friedkin, Noah E.


    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude…

  15. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy]. (United States)

    Kitagawa, Nobuki


    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  16. Behavioral treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táki Athanássios Cordas


    Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.

  17. Suicidal Behavior in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aslan


    Full Text Available The size of the elderly population is expected to increase dramatically in the next decades worldwide, also in Turkey. In accordance with these demographic changes, psychiatric disorders in late life, including suicide becomes much important. Elderly suicide is a very serious public health problem. Suicide rates in both males and females generally increase with age. However, the pattern is different in every nation. Suicidal behaviour in old age exists as a spectrum ranging from death wishes to completed suicide. Risk factors for suicide in old age are male sex, lower socioeconomic status, social isolation, having personality traits like hopelessness and dependency on others etc., the presence of psychiatric and physical disorders and previous suicidal behaviour. The most common cause for elderly suicide, as for all suicides, is untreated depression. Thus, elderly depression needs to be recognized and treated. The treatment of depressive disorder and other psychiatric diorders in late life, counselling in crisis situations and prevention of social isolation in elderly people are the major points for the prevention of suicide in old age. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between elderly and suicidal behavior. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 294-309

  18. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja


    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  19. Lead Exposure and Child Behavior. (United States)

    Sciarillo, William G.; And Others


    Provides evidence of detrimental effects of lead exposure on child behavior at levels typical of present-day exposure. Behavior and lead-blood level were examined for 201 African-American children aged 2 through 5 years. A standardized parent report measure and consideration of maternal morale are features of study methodology. (SLD)

  20. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W., Ed.; Piazza, Cathleen C., Ed.; Roane, Henry S., Ed.


    Describing the state of the science of ABA, this comprehensive handbook provides detailed information about theory, research, and intervention. The contributors are leading ABA authorities who present current best practices in behavioral assessment and demonstrate evidence-based strategies for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem…

  1. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents. (United States)

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  2. Teaching Behaviors in Reading Instruction. (United States)

    Emans, Robert; Fox, Sharon

    In this article the authors have summarized what appears to be the most important implications coming from the recent research on teaching behaviors in reading. This study indicated that: (1) trained teachers display method prescriptions while untrained teachers do not; (2) teacher personality influences teaching behavior; and (3) because teachers…

  3. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia (United States)

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.


    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  4. Behavior Subtraction applied to radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Caro Cuenca, M.


    An algorithm developed for optical images has been applied to radar data. The algorithm, Behavior Subtraction, is based on capturing the dynamics of a scene and detecting anomalous behavior. The radar application is the detection of small surface targets at sea. The sea surface yields the expected

  5. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior (United States)

    Ortu, Daniele


    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior…

  6. Building and Defining Behavioral Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukelom, F.


    George Loewenstein, a prominent behavioral economist, recalls thatIn 1994, when Thaler, Camerer, Rabin, Prelec and I spent the year at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, we had a meeting to make a kind of final decision about what to call what we were doing. Remarkably, at

  7. Empathy, Communication, and Prosocial Behavior. (United States)

    Stiff, James B.; And Others

    To explain the role of empathy in forms of prosocial behavior, two studies were conducted to examine the relationships among different dimensions of empathy, communication, and prosocial behavior. Study one tested three models hypothesized to explain this process, an altruistic model, an egoistic model, and a dual-process model combining aspects…

  8. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, R.; van der Pligt, J.; de Vries, N.K.


    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in

  9. Behavioral Consultation: Theory and Process (United States)

    Russell, Michael L.


    This model examines the theory, clinical process, and intervention techniques of behavioral consultation in educational and medical settings. Behavioral consultation requires empirical validation of intervention. It also holds the counselee accountable for consultations. The consultant has many techniques, but must be sensitive to interaction…

  10. Perceptions of Teacher Brinkmanship Behaviors. (United States)

    Melancon, Jan G.; Thompson, Bruce

    Brinkmanship behaviors are challenges to authority expressed in such a mannner that expected negative sanctions are typically avoided. They are usually extemporaneous, involve satire or sarcasm, and take place in front of an audience. This study investigated 43 principals' and 137 teachers' perceptions of teacher brinkmanship behaviors and sought…

  11. Behavior Problems in Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Feldhusen, John F.


    This article reviews and clarifies the problems of antisocial student behavior in schools, ranging from talking out of turn to violent attacks upon fellow students or teachers. It focuses on the high school and junior high school, and attempts to identify causes while examining programs and procedures for remediating or preventing such behavior.…

  12. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet


    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  13. Estimating wildfire behavior and effects (United States)

    Frank A. Albini


    This paper presents a brief survey of the research literature on wildfire behavior and effects and assembles formulae and graphical computation aids based on selected theoretical and empirical models. The uses of mathematical fire behavior models are discussed, and the general capabilities and limitations of currently available models are outlined.

  14. Genetics of Human Social Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebstein, Richard P; Israel, Salomon; Chew, Soo Hong; Zhong, Songfa; Knafo, Ariel


    ... such as securing a mate, parenting, aggression, altruism, and recognition of rank. Underlying most of these behaviors are a bevy of social cognitions and emotions, ranging from love, empathy, moral sense, and trust to political attitudes and instrumental goals. In order to attain social goals and bridge the gap between cognition, emotion, and behavior, human...

  15. Implementation of Behavioral Marital Therapy. (United States)

    Lester, Gregory W.; And Others


    Implementing behavioral marital therapy is discussed with emphasis on techniques of problem solving, communications training, behavioral contracting, and homework assignments. The therapist's intervention style and the aspects of treatment which aid in generalization and maintenance of therapeutic gains are also described, and a typical treatment…

  16. Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behavior. (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W


    This prospective longitudinal investigation examined the predictors of generation 2 (G2) parental substance use as related to their generation 3 (G3) offspring's externalizing behavior. The sample comprised 281 mother- or father- child (G2/G3) pairs. The results indicated that the G1/G2 (generations 1 and 2) parent-child relationship during G2's adolescence predicted externalizing behavior in the G2 young adults which correlated with G2 parental substance use. G2 parental substance use was related to subsequent G2 substance use disorders (SUDS), and to the G2/G3 parent-child relationship. The G2/G3 parent-child relationship and G2's SUDS each predicted G3 externalizing behavior. The results highlight the significance of breaking the chain of transmission of externalizing behavior across generations. Implications for policy and programs addressing the etiology of externalizing behavior in the offspring are discussed within a developmental framework.

  17. Behavioral obligation and information avoidance. (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Shepperd, James A


    Although knowledge can be powerful and bring a variety of important benefits, people often opt to remain ignorant. We propose that people are particularly inclined to remain ignorant when learning information could obligate undesirable behavior. In three studies, participants completed an online risk calculator and then learned that receiving high-risk feedback from the calculator would obligate them to engage in a behavior that was either highly undesirable (e.g., undergoing a cervical exam and taking medication for the rest of their life) or only slightly undesirable (e.g., having their cheek swabbed and taking medication for 2 weeks). We then offered participants the opportunity to receive risk feedback from the calculator. Across all studies, participants more often avoided feedback when it could obligate highly undesirable behavior compared with mildly undesirable behavior. People decline learning their risk information more often when doing so obligates undesirable behavior in response.

  18. Information: theory, brain, and behavior. (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D


    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Dynamics of human innovative behaviors (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong


    How to promote the innovative activities is an important problem for modern society. In this paper, combining the evolutionary games with information spreading, we propose a lattice model to investigate dynamics of human innovative behaviors based on benefit-driven assumption. Simulations show several properties in agreement with peoples’ daily cognition on innovative behaviors, such as slow diffusion of innovative behaviors, gathering of innovative strategy on “innovative centers”, and quasi-localized dynamics. Furthermore, our model also emerges rich non-Poisson properties in the temporal-spatial patterns of the innovative status, including the scaling law in the interval time of innovation releases and the bimodal distributions on the spreading range of innovations, which would be universal in human innovative behaviors. Our model provides a basic framework on the study of the issues relevant to the evolution of human innovative behaviors and the promotion measurement of innovative activities.

  20. Behavioral variability in an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics. (United States)

    Popa, Andrei; McDowell, J J


    McDowell's evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics (McDowell, 2004) instantiates populations of behaviors (abstractly represented by integers) that evolve under the selection pressure of the environment in the form of positive reinforcement. Each generation gives rise to the next via low-level Darwinian processes of selection, recombination, and mutation. The emergent patterns can be analyzed and compared to those produced by biological organisms. The purpose of this project was to explore the effects of high mutation rates on behavioral variability in environments that arranged different reinforcer rates and magnitudes. Behavioral variability increased with the rate of mutation. High reinforcer rates and magnitudes reduced these effects; low reinforcer rates and magnitudes augmented them. These results are in agreement with live-organism research on behavioral variability. Various combinations of mutation rates, reinforcer rates, and reinforcer magnitudes produced similar high-level outcomes (equifinality). These findings suggest that the independent variables that describe an experimental condition interact; that is, they do not influence behavior independently. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of high levels of variability, mathematical undermatching, and the matching theory. The last part of the discussion centers on a potential biological counterpart for the rate of mutation, namely spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's default mode network. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.


    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  2. The possibility of behavioral new institutional economics


    菊沢, 研宗


    Behavioral economics has recently been the subject of considerable research with the consequence that theories in behavioral economics and finance have complementarily developed to comprise a research field known as 'behavioral finance'. Subsequent studies seeking to integrate game theory and behavioral economics come under the 'behavioral game theory' umbrella, while those wanting to integrate contract theory and behavioral economics fall under 'behavioral contract theory'. Given such circum...

  3. Behavioral change and its neural correlates in visual agnosia after expertise training. (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Marotta, Jonathan; Gauthier, Isabel; Tarr, Michael J; McKeeff, Thomas J


    Agnosia, the impairment in object and face recognition despite intact vision and intelligence, is one of the most intriguing and debilitating neuropsychological deficits. The goal of this study was to determine whether S.M., an individual with longstanding visual agnosia and concomitant prosopagnosia, can be retrained to perform visual object recognition and, if so, what neural substrates mediate this reacquisition. Additionally, of interest is the extent to which training on one type of visual stimulus generalizes to other visual stimuli, as this informs our understanding of the organization of ventral visual cortex. Greebles were chosen as the stimuli for retraining given that, in neurologically normal individuals, these stimuli can engage the fusiform face area. Posttraining, S.M. showed significant improvement in recognizing Greebles, although he did not attain normal levels of performance. He was also able to recognize untrained Greebles and showed improvement in recognizing common objects. Surprisingly, his performance on face recognition, albeit poor initially, was even more impaired following training. A comparison of pre- and postintervention functional neuroimaging data mirrored the behavioral findings: Face-selective voxels in the fusiform gyrus prior to training were no longer so and were, in fact, more Greeble-selective. The findings indicate potential for experience-dependent dynamic reorganization in agnosia with the possibility that residual neural tissue, with limited capacity, will compete for representations.

  4. Toward a conceptual framework for early brain and behavior development in autism. (United States)

    Piven, J; Elison, J T; Zylka, M J


    Studies of infant siblings of older autistic probands, who are at elevated risk for autism, have demonstrated that the defining features of autism are not present in the first year of life but emerge late in the first and into the second year. A recent longitudinal neuroimaging study of high-risk siblings revealed a specific pattern of brain development in infants later diagnosed with autism, characterized by cortical surface area hyper-expansion in the first year followed by brain volume overgrowth in the second year that is associated with the emergence of autistic social deficits. Together with new observations from genetically defined autism risk alleles and rodent model, these findings suggest a conceptual framework for the early, post-natal development of autism. This framework postulates that an increase in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and hyper-expansion of cortical surface area in the first year, occurring during a pre-symptomatic period characterized by disrupted sensorimotor and attentional experience, leads to altered experience-dependent neuronal development and decreased elimination of neuronal processes. This process is linked to brain volume overgrowth and disruption of the refinement of neural circuit connections and is associated with the emergence of autistic social deficits in the second year of life. A better understanding of the timing of developmental brain and behavior mechanisms in autism during infancy, a period which precedes the emergence of the defining features of this disorder, will likely have important implications for designing rational approaches to early intervention.

  5. Predictors of health behavior from an behavior-analytic orientation. (United States)

    Birkimer, J C; Druen, P B; Holland, J W; Zingman, M


    The frequencies of American college students' positive self-talk, emotional reactions, and other positive thoughts for engaging in five health behaviors were assessed and found to be highly correlated; they then were combined into a composite measure. A similar composite resulted for negative self-talk, emotional reactions, and other negative thoughts for engaging in unhealthy alternative behaviors. Effortfulness and pleasantness of the health behaviors were also assessed. One or (in some cases) both composites, effortfulness, and pleasantness were substantially related to vigorous exercise, use of seat belts, and avoidance of alcoholic beverages. Mild exercise and avoidance of junk food were less well predicted.

  6. Behavioral dimensions of food security. (United States)

    Timmer, C Peter


    The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions.

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibition induces long-lasting changes in maternal behavior and gene expression in female mice. (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Stevens, Jacqueline S; Rissman, Emilie F


    In many species, including mice, maternal responsiveness is experience-dependent and permanent, lasting for long periods (months to years). We have shown that after brief exposures to pups, virgin female mice continue to respond maternally toward pups for at least one month. Administration of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) reduces the amount of maternal experience required to affect maternal behavior and gene expression. In this set of studies, we examined the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie these motivated behaviors. We assessed whether the effects of HDACi persisted 1 month after the initial experience (in the absence of continued pup experience or HDACi treatment) and whether the maintenance of maternal memory was associated with stable changes in gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we examined whether Esr2 and Oxt gene expression might be mediated by recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase cAMP response element binding protein (CBP) to their promoter regions after maternal memory consolidation. We report that HDACi treatment induced long-lasting changes in maternal responsiveness. Maternal learning was associated with increased recruitment of CBP to the Esr2 and Oxt gene promoters during the consolidation of maternal memory as well as a persistent increase in estrogen receptor-β (Esr2) mRNA and decreased expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a within the medial preoptic area. The consolidation of the maternal experience may involve the CBP recruitment and stable changes in gene expression, which maintain increased maternal responsiveness for long periods of time.

  8. Experience-based behavioral and chemosensory changes in the generalist insect herbivore Helicoverpa armigera exposed to two deterrent plant chemicals. (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; van Loon, Joop J A; Wang, Chen-Zhu


    Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of larvae of the polyphagous moth species Helicoverpa armigera to two plant-derived allelochemicals were studied, both in larvae that had been reared on a diet devoid of these compounds and in larvae previously exposed to these compounds. In dual-choice cotton leaf disk and pepper fruit disk arena assays, caterpillars reared on a normal artificial diet were strongly deterred by strychnine and strophanthin-K. However, caterpillars reared on an artificial diet containing strychnine were insensitive to strychnine and strophanthin-K. Similarly, caterpillars reared on an artificial diet containing strophanthin-K were also desensitized to both deterrent chemicals. Electrophysiological tests revealed that the deterrent-sensitive neurons in taste sensilla on the maxillae of caterpillars reared on each deterrent-containing diet displayed reduced sensitivity to the two chemicals compared with the caterpillars reared on normal diets. We conclude that the experience-dependent behavioral plasticity was partly based on the reduced sensitivity of taste receptor neurons and that the desensitization of taste receptor neurons contributed to the cross-habituation to the two chemicals.

  9. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana


    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  10. Financial incentives for healthy behavior: ethical safeguards for behavioral economics. (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K


    Economic incentives to promote healthy behavior are becoming increasingly common and have been suggested as an approach to decreasing healthcare costs. Ethical concerns about programs with such incentives are that they may contribute to inequities, be coercive, interfere with therapeutic relationships, undermine personal responsibility for health, and decrease social solidarity. Additionally, they may be a source of stigma or discrimination, promote dependence, and be unfair for those already engaged in targeted health behaviors or those who cannot fulfill the incentivized behaviors. Incentive programs need to incorporate appropriate safeguards to monitor these risks and support fairness in offering economic incentives to promote healthy behavior. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions. (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana


    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB.

  12. Offering Behavioral Assistance to Latino Students Demonstrating Challenging Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno


    Full Text Available Challenging behaviors can significantly alter the learning environment of any classroom. Traditionally, schools have implemented practices that remove the offending student from the classroom, deliver punitive disciplinary actions, or refer the student to special education evaluation. Unfortunately, such practices have demonstrated little longitudinal effectiveness, with detrimental outcomes for the referred student, particularly students from Latino backgrounds. With enrollment projections indicating Latinos will become the majority in U.S. schools, educators are presented with the opportunity to shift away from past practices and implement evidence-based practices that concurrently assist students while addressing challenging behaviors. In this paper, the authors discuss past disciplinary practices, the adverse effects on Latino students, and offer recommendations on implementing functional behavioral assessment as a means to better meet the needs of Latino students demonstrating challenging behaviors.

  13. Behavioral self-concept as predictor of teen drinking behaviors. (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J


    Adolescence is a critical developmental period for self-concept (role identity). Cross-sectional studies link self-concept's behavioral conduct domain (whether teens perceive themselves as delinquent) with adolescent substance use. If self-concept actually drives substance use, then it may be an important target for intervention. In this study, we used longitudinal data from 1 school year to examine whether behavioral self-concept predicts teen drinking behaviors or vice versa. A total of 291 students from a large, predominantly Latino public high school completed a confidential computerized survey in the fall and spring of their 9th grade year. Survey measures included the frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking and at-school alcohol use in the previous 30 days; and the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents behavioral conduct subscale. Multiple regressions were performed to test whether fall self-concept predicted the frequency and type of spring drinking behavior, and whether the frequency and type of fall drinking predicted spring self-concept. Fall behavioral self-concept predicted both the frequency and type of spring drinking. Students with low versus high fall self-concept had a predicted probability of 31% versus 20% for any drinking, 20% versus 8% for binge drinking and 14% versus 4% for at-school drinking in the spring. However, neither the frequency nor the type of fall drinking significantly predicted spring self-concept. Low behavioral self-concept may precede or perhaps even drive adolescent drinking. If these results are confirmed, then prevention efforts might be enhanced by targeting high-risk teens for interventions that help develop a healthy behavioral self-concept. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct Behavior Rating: Considerations for Rater Accuracy (United States)

    Harrison, Sayward E.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.


    Direct behavior rating (DBR) offers users a flexible, feasible method for the collection of behavioral data. Previous research has supported the validity of using DBR to rate three target behaviors: academic engagement, disruptive behavior, and compliance. However, the effect of the base rate of behavior on rater accuracy has not been established.…

  15. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences. (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald


    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  16. Does Religiosity Predict Suicidal Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lester


    Full Text Available Research was reviewed on whether self-report measures of religiosity were a protective factor against suicidal behaviors. It was found that scores on Francis’s measure of religiosity was negatively associated with non-lethal suicidal behavior (ideation and attempts, a protective effect. Similarly, it was found that intrinsic religiosity (but not extrinsic religiosity was negatively associated with non-lethal suicidal behaviors. However, these associations were weak. Research is needed on the issue whether counselors can use their patients’ religiosity to reduce the risk of dying by suicide.

  17. Selectivity in early prosocial behavior. (United States)

    Kuhlmeier, Valerie A; Dunfield, Kristen A; O'Neill, Amy C


    Prosocial behavior requires expenditure of personal resources for the benefit of others, a fact that creates a "problem" when considering the evolution of prosociality. Models that address this problem have been developed, with emphasis typically placed on reciprocity. One model considers the advantages of being selective in terms of one's allocation of prosocial behavior so as to improve the chance that one will be benefitted in return. In this review paper, we first summarize this "partner choice" model and then focus on prosocial development in the preschool years, where we make the case for selective partner choice in early instances of human prosocial behavior.

  18. Selectivity in Early Prosocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eKuhlmeier


    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior requires expenditure of personal resources for the benefit of others, a fact that creates a ‘problem’ when considering the evolution of prosociality. Models that address this problem have been developed, with emphasis typically placed on reciprocity. One model considers the advantages of being selective in terms of one’s allocation of prosocial behavior so as to improve the chance that one will be benefitted in return. In this review paper, we first summarize this partner choice model and then focus on prosocial development in the preschool years, where we make the case for selective partner choice in early instances of human prosocial behavior.

  19. Brain and Behavior: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Urbina, Guadalupe N.


    Full Text Available The contribution of many scientific disciplines allows us to know surprising aspects of the relationship between the brain and its functions. Current technology and the convergence of these disciplines are essential to understand the complex brain mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper will be described some scientific disciplines whose studies help to understand the biological substrates of normal and altered behavior. We will describe some pathologies or neuropsychological disorders and, in addition, we will review some of the known neurobiological mechanisms that control our brain functions. This allows us to conclude that the behavior and brain functions depend on complex biological mechanisms, many of which are still to be elucidated.

  20. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz


    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  1. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leflot, G.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Onghena, P.; Colpin, H.


    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school.

  2. Sexual behavior in later life. (United States)

    DeLamater, John; Moorman, Sara M


    This research tests the influences of age, biological, and psychosocial factors on sexual expression in later life. The American Association of Retired Persons Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey collected data on diagnosed illnesses, treated illnesses, sexual desire, sexual attitudes, partner circumstances, and sexual behavior from 1,384 persons ages 45 and older. Ordered logistic regression models estimate the associations of age, biological, and psychosocial factors with the frequency of five sexual behaviors. Diagnosed illnesses and treatments are generally unrelated to frequency of sexual activity. Sexual attitudes are related to frequency of partnered behavior and sexual desire is related to frequency of masturbation among both women and men. Satisfaction with the physical relationship with a partner is strongly related to behavior. Age remains significant after all other factors are controlled. The authors conclude that the nature of sexual expression in later life reflects the interplay of body, mind, and social context.

  3. Swarming behavior in plant roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Ciszak

    Full Text Available Interactions between individuals that are guided by simple rules can generate swarming behavior. Swarming behavior has been observed in many groups of organisms, including humans, and recent research has revealed that plants also demonstrate social behavior based on mutual interaction with other individuals. However, this behavior has not previously been analyzed in the context of swarming. Here, we show that roots can be influenced by their neighbors to induce a tendency to align the directions of their growth. In the apparently noisy patterns formed by growing roots, episodic alignments are observed as the roots grow close to each other. These events are incompatible with the statistics of purely random growth. We present experimental results and a theoretical model that describes the growth of maize roots in terms of swarming.

  4. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... at the Technical University of Denmark. The data set includes face-to-face interaction (Bluetooth), communication (calls and texts), mobility (GPS), social network (Facebook), and general background information including a psychological profile (questionnaire). This thesis presents my work on the Social Fabric...

  5. Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors. (United States)

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.


    Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

  6. Attachment Styles and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammadalipoor


    Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.

  7. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden


    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the s...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students.......This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...

  8. Obesity and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Oguz


    Full Text Available Today, obesity is a public health problem with significant negative effects on mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries, and impact on all levels of the society. In recent years cognitive behavioral therapy approach has been considered as an important part of the obesity treatment. Behavioral therapy for obesity includes sections like self-monitoring, stimulus control, food control, consolidation and reinforcement, cognitive restructuring, proper nutrition education, increase in physical activity, and behavior contracts. As part of the obesity treatment, combining cognitive-behavioral treatments with lifestyle changes such as increase in physical activity increases effectiveness of the treatment and ensures durability of the achieved weight loss. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 133-144

  9. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapses....

  10. Classification systems for stalking behavior. (United States)

    Racine, Christopher; Billick, Stephen


    Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology. Of these, the RECON classification system alone was developed in an attempt to separate stalkers into groups based on previously known risk factors for behaviorally based phenomenon such as propensity for violence. Understanding and simplifying these classification systems may enhance the potential that new research will lead to evidence-based management and treatment strategies in the stalking situation. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Addictive behaviors and Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Witjas, T; Eusebio, A; Fluchère, F; Azulay, J-P


    In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the dopaminergic system and the longstanding exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) may cause, in a group of vulnerable patients, dysregulation of the brain reward system. These patients develop DRT-related compulsions, which include addiction to levodopa or dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs or behavioral addiction reported in Parkinson's disease include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying and binge eating. Although the underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood, these behaviors are linked by their reward-based and repetitive nature. Such behaviors may result in devastating psychosocial impairment for the patients and are often hidden. The recognition of these behaviors is important and allows a better clinical management. Although the limited data do not permit particular therapeutic strategies, some approaches are worth considering: DRT reduction, trials of non-dopaminergic medications and subthalamic chronic stimulation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior


    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.


    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  13. Traffic behavior at freeway bottlenecks. (United States)


    This study examines traffic behavior in the vicinity of a freeway bottleneck, revisiting commonly held : assumptions and uncovering systematic biases that likely have distorted empirical studies of bottleneck : formation, capacity drop, and the funda...

  14. Water conservation behavior in Australia (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina


    Ensuring a nation's long term water supply requires the use of both supply-sided approaches such as water augmentation through water recycling, and demand-sided approaches such as water conservation. Conservation behavior can only be increased if the key drivers of such behavior are understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the main drivers from a comprehensive pool of hypothesized factors. An empirical study was conducted with 3094 Australians. Data was analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis and decision trees to determine which factors best predict self-reported water conservation behavior. Two key factors emerge: high level of pro-environmental behavior; and pro-actively seeking out information about water. A number of less influential factors are also revealed. Public communication strategy implications are derived. PMID:22522412

  15. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma


    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  16. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Cross-cultural comparisons between Turkey and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Cem-Ersoy (Nevra)


    textabstractThis research project explores cultural determinants that facilitate positive employee behavior. In the literature, this behavior is identified as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The dissertation also focuses on factors related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB). CWB is

  17. Does early childhood callous-unemotional behavior uniquely predict behavior problems or callous-unemotional behavior in late childhood? (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.


    Callous unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in early childhood predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in late childhood. This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2–4 predicted aggression, rule-breaking, and CU behavior across informants at age 9.5. To test the unique predictive and convergent validity of CU behavior in early childhood, we accounted for stability in behavior problems and method effects to rule out the possibility that rater biases inflated the magnitude of any associations found. Cross-informant data were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample (N = 731; female = 49%) at ages 2–4 and again at age 9.5. From age 3, CU behavior uniquely predicted aggression and rule-breaking across informants. There were also unique associations between CU behavior assessed at ages 3 and 4 and CU behavior assessed at age 9.5. Findings demonstrate that early-childhood indicators of CU behavior account for unique variance in later childhood behavior problems and CU behavior, taking into account stability in behavior problems over time and method effects. Convergence with a traditional measure of CU behavior in late childhood provides support for the construct validity of a brief early childhood measure of CU behavior. PMID:27598253

  18. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska


    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  19. A Survey of Behavioral Finance


    Nicholas Barberis; Richard Thaler


    Behavioral finance argues that some financial phenomena can plausibly be understood using models in which some agents are not fully rational. The field has two building blocks: limits to arbitrage, which argues that it can be difficult for rational traders to undo the dislocations caused by less rational traders; and psychology, which catalogues the kinds of deviations from full rationality we might expect to see. We discuss these two topics, and then present a number of behavioral finance ap...

  20. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.


    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.


    Stogdill, R M


    The subjects were 25 foremen, 5 general foremen, and the production manager of a manufacturing plant. Each supervisor described the leader behavior of his immediate superior, and each in turn was described by several subordinates. Both superiors and the subordinates of a supervisor rated or described the productivity, morale, and cohesiveness of the group that he supervised. Thirty variables were intercorrelated and factor analyzed. The resulting 14 factors describe dimensions of employee satisfaction, supervisory behavior and status, and group performance.

  2. A Behavioral Theory of Planning


    Chance, Donald R


    This dissertation introduces a new theory of practice for land planning in America based on behavioralism. It is called culture based incentive planning, or CBIP. The CBIP model and techniques are based on four pillars: cultural snesitivity, behavior analysis, engineered incentive regimes, and the tools of persuasion. CBIP is designed to provide an adaptable framework from which to approch regulatory reform in planning. The framework is applicable to the full range of planning implementation ...

  3. Identity-based consumer behavior


    Reed, Americus; Forehand, Mark; Puntoni, Stefano; Warlop, Luk


    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Although the influence of identity on consumer behavior has been documented in many streams of literature, the absence of a consistent definition of identity and of generally accepted principles regarding the drivers of identity-based behavior complicates comparisons across these literatures. To resolve that problem, we propose a simple but inclusive definition of identity. Identity can be defined as any category l...

  4. Identity-based consumer behavior


    Reed, Americus; Forehand, Mark; Puntoni, Stefano; Warlop, Luk


    Although the influence of identity on consumer behavior has been documented in many streams of literature, the absence of a consistent definition of identity and of generally accepted principles regarding the drivers of identity-based behavior complicates comparisons across these literatures. To resolve that problem, we propose a simple but inclusive definition of identity. Identity can be defined as any category label with which a consumer self-associates that is amenable to a clear picture ...

  5. The primatologist as a behavioral engineer. (United States)

    Martin, Allison L


    The field of primate behavior management has had only limited success in preventing and treating abnormal behaviors, such as stereotypy and self-injury, in captive non-human primates (NHP). In contrast, applied behavior analysts have had great success in treating similar topographies of behavior in human clinical settings. By adapting and adopting the behavioral principles and methodologies commonly used by applied behavior analysts, primatologists may be able to develop more effective ways to analyze, reduce, and prevent these aberrant behaviors in NHP. This article reviews studies that have used behavior analytic techniques to successfully address problem behaviors in NHP. Additionally, relevant literature from the field of applied behavior analysis is reviewed to illustrate how adopting a theoretical framework that emphasizes the determination of the underlying operant functions of behavior could lead to new behavioral technologies and advance the field of captive primate management. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22500, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain (United States)

    ... cognitive behavioral; Pain - back - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Chronic back pain - low - cognitive behavioral ... Ostelo RW, van Tulder MW, et al. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2010;(7):CD002014. PMID: ...

  7. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William H


    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  8. Elevation leads to altruistic behavior. (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Roper, Jean; Fessler, Daniel M T


    Feelings of elevation, elicited by witnessing another person perform a good deed, have been hypothesized to motivate a desire to help others. However, despite growing interest in the determinants of prosocial behavior, there is only limited evidence that elevation leads to increases in altruistic behavior. In two experiments, we tested the relationship between elevation and helping behavior. Prior to measuring helping behavior, we measured elevation among participants in an elevation-inducing condition and control conditions in order to determine whether witnessing altruistic behavior elicited elevation. In Experiment 1, participants experiencing elevation were more likely to volunteer for a subsequent unpaid study than were participants in a neutral state. In Experiment 2, participants experiencing elevation spent approximately twice as long helping the experimenter with a tedious task as participants experiencing mirth or a neutral emotional state. Further, feelings of elevation, but not feelings of amusement or happiness, predicted the amount of helping. Together, these results provide evidence that witnessing another person's altruistic behavior elicits elevation, a discrete emotion that, in turn, leads to tangible increases in altruism.

  9. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone


    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  10. Editorial behaviors in peer review. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen


    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis.

  11. Experimental methods in behavioral teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, G.


    Efforts are made to develop toxicological techniques with which new behavioral teratogens can be recognized. The review describes the most important experimental methods which are presently explored, and which are based on a rich body of knowledge accumulated by experimental psychologists. Most of the tests were developed with small animals, mostly with rats. They range from the rather straightforward determination of various reflexes to complex behavioral situations involving mechanical devices, operant conditioning techniques and procedures evaluating social behavior. In applying these methods in routine toxicology, it is important to remember, that many behavioral effects determined in newborn and adult animals are subtle. Moreover, they are influenced by a large variety of environmental factors affecting the health and the behavior of the mothers and of the offspring in the early and later phases of development. Therefore, the experiments must be conducted under highly standardized conditions and must be controlled rigorously. It is concluded that the best experimental strategy for the evaluation of potential behavioral teratogens is not yet established. Therefore, it would be premature to decide on a fixed protocol to be included in routine animal safety experiments for drugs and other chemical substances.

  12. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors. (United States)

    Hendershot, Christian S; Witkiewitz, Katie; George, William H; Marlatt, G Alan


    The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  13. Animal behavior and animal welfare. (United States)

    Houpt, K A


    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment.

  14. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.


    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  15. Religion as Schedule-Induced Behavior


    Strand, Paul S


    In this article, I argue that a class of religious behaviors exists that is induced, for prepared organisms, by specific stimuli that are experienced according to a response-independent schedule. Like other schedule-induced behaviors, the members of this class serve as minimal units out of which functional behavior may arise. In this way, there exist two classes of religious behavior: nonoperant schedule-induced behaviors and operant behaviors. This dichotomy is consistent with the distinctio...


    Stojadinović, Aleksandra; Batrnek Antonić, Daliborka; Perinović, Marija; Rončević, Nevenka


    Street children and youth are at risk of getting engaged in different behaviors including risky sexual behavior, which adversely affects their development and health. The aim of this study was to examine sexual behavior of street children and youth, and the risks and consequences associated with sexual behavior. A pilot study was conducted on a sample of 50 users of the Drop-in Centre for Street Children in Novi Sad, from 10 to 19 years of age. The study was conducted by a psychologist through structured interviews, with prior consent of the adolescent and parent. Among the respondents who were sexually active, 41.2% had had the first sexual intercourse by the age of 12, their median age at that time being 14 years, while the age at the time of the first sexual intercourse is 16 years in the general population of Serbia. The majority of sexually active adolescents had several partners, one male adolescent had sex with a person of the same sex, and one was paid for sex. Very few respondents used a condom. Among 15 male sexually active respondents, three (ages 11, 12 and 14) were forced to have unwanted sexual intercourse, and a quarter of adolescents (three boys and one girl) were forced to do something unwanted during sex. Despite a small and unrepresentative sample, the results of this study indicate serious problems and significant risks associated with sexual behavior of children and young people who live and work in streets. This pilot study suggests that it is necessary to conduct new research on sexual behavior of street children and youth on a representative sample and with appropriate methodology. The results of a new study should be used to plan and carry out appropriate preventive measures regarding sexual behavior of street children.

  17. [Dialectical behavior therapy approaches with disruptive behavior disorders]. (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Manetsch, Madleina; Vriends, Noortje


    Disruptive behaviour disorders comprise the diagnosis conduct disorder (CD) and in adults the diagnosis antisocial personality disorder (APD). CD is seen as a difficult-to-treat disorder with a high risk for persistent behavioral problems. In addition, CD is seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder (Kretschmer et al., 2014). Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed by Marsha Linehan (1991) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but because of the core deficits in emotion regulation in disruptive behavior disorders, DBT is also increasingly being recommended for the treatment of CD and APD. This review presents DBT adaptions for the forensic setting and for the treatment of CD/APD. Clinical implications are discussed.

  18. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde


    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  19. Behavioral Intention and Behavior toward the Obese on a College Campus: An Exploratory Analysis of Discriminatory Behavior (United States)

    Irwin, Carol; Symons, Cynthia W.; Kerr, Dianne L.


    Background: Discriminatory behavior toward the obese is ubiquitous, which can lead to psychological conditions that exacerbate physical repercussions. Purpose: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined the link between college students' behavioral intention and self-reported behavior toward the obese. Possible connections…

  20. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome? (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.


    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  1. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior. (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E


    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.

  2. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E.


    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

  3. Information recovery in behavioral networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Squartini

    Full Text Available In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering behavior-related choice information from origin-destination type data, a topic also known under the name of network tomography. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization, and self-organized behavior in an open dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of binary and weighted networks and suggest information theoretic entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown behavioral flow parameters. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral values across the ensemble analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals, enlarging the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we explicitly work out two cases of particular interest: Shannon functional and the likelihood functional. We then employ them for the analysis of both univariate and bivariate data sets, comparing their accuracy in reproducing the observed trends.

  4. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak


    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari


    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  6. Valuable, but not maximal: it's time behavior therapy attend to its behaviorism. (United States)

    Staats, A W


    The field of behavior therapy is not in touch with itself in terms of its overarching behaviorism. Many erroneously consider its basic behaviorism to have been radical behaviorism and continue to look to develop behavior therapy (including behavior analysis and behavioral assessment) within that framework. But that approach turns out to be much less than maximal because there is a more advanced, better developed behaviorism within which to conduct and project the field. There is much that behavior therapy is not doing in practice and research because it is not making full use of that behaviorism foundation.

  7. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children. (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A


    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  8. Quantitative studies of schizophrenic behavior. (United States)

    Reynolds, T D


    Behavioral data from eight psychiatric patients were collected and formed into 14 time series of 100 weekly rates (percentages of positive entries for frequent behaviors such as pacing, talking, hand-movement, etc.). A variety of methods of time-series analysis were applied to determine optimal predictive schemes in an effort to develop an inductive approach to input-output behavioral modelling. Some attempts at numerical prediction into new data were successful, and the results suggested that the best overall approach is likely to be nonlinear modification of auto-regressive schemes. Nonlinearity and nonstationarity of such time series are prominent features, but deterministic trends appear strong enough to justify extensive work. Application of artificial inputs to some of the models suggests that protracted oscillatory responses to stimulation may be characteristic for some schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 1976. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Smoking Behavior Study on Teenagers’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virdiana Ramadhani


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the role of peers' influence, attitude towards cigarette advertising, and attitude towards smoking behavior on teenagers’ smoking intention. The respondents in this study were 150 students of high schools in Yogyakarta city. Quantitative data analysis methods used to test three hypotheses in this study is a Multiple Re-gression Analysis. Findings found that there are only two variables that have positive relation towards teenagers’ smoking intention, i.e. peers' influences and attitude towards smoking be-havior. Attitude towards cigarette advertising do not positively contribute for teenagers to have an intention to smoke. Keywords:    Peers’ Influence, Attitude towards Cigarette Advertising, Attitude towards Smoking Behavior, Teenagers’ Smoking Intention

  10. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  11. Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction. (United States)

    Clark, Luke; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H


    Developments in psychiatry have ratified the existence of behavioral addictions, that certain activities such as gambling or video-game play may be considered addictive in the absence of exogenous (i.e. drug-induced) stimulation of brain reinforcement circuitry. This article describes recent advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of behavioral addiction, with a focus on pathological gambling as the prototypical disorder. We describe positron emission tomography (PET) studies characterizing dopaminergic transmission, and functional imaging studies of reward processing and gambling-related cognitive distortions. The current evidence not only indicates changes in pathological gamblers in core circuitry implicated in drug addiction, but also highlights some subtle differences. Behavioral addictions can also provide experimental traction on distinguishing vulnerability markers for addictions from the active detrimental effects of chronic drug use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Roth, Alicia; Vatthauer, Karlyn


    Chronic insomnia (symptoms for ≥6 months) is the most common sleep disorder, affecting 6% to 10% of adults in the general population, with even higher rates in patients with comorbid conditions (eg, hypertension, 44%; cardiac disease, 44.1%; breathing problems, 41.5%). Traditionally, chronic insomnia occurring with another condition has been considered secondary and rarely received direct treatment because treatment of the primary condition was expected to improve the insomnia. However, this approach often failed because chronic insomnia is maintained by behaviors, cognitions, and associations that patients adopt as they attempt to cope with poor sleep but that end up backfiring (eg, increasing caffeine, spending more time in bed, trying harder to sleep). Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia (CBTi) targets those behaviors, cognitions, and associations and is effective across a variety of populations, including those with medical and psychologic comorbidities. Thus, in 2005, a National Institutes of Health expert consensus panel on chronic insomnia recommended dropping the term ”secondary insomnia” in favor of the term ”comorbid insomnia.” Because CBTi does not carry the risks associated with some sleep medications (eg, dependency, polypharmacy, cognitive and psychomotor impairment), it is an attractive option for patients with other conditions. Through the Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine ( and the American Board of Sleep Medicine (, it is possible to find practitioners with expertise in CBTi (as well as other aspects of behavioral sleep medicine) and other behavioral sleep resources. Given the currently limited number of trained practitioners, exploration of alternative delivery methods (eg, briefer protocols, self-help, Internet) to improve access to this highly effective treatment and expanded training in these treatments are warranted. PMID:23381322

  13. Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia. (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Roth, Alicia; Vatthauer, Karlyn; McCrae, Christina S


    Chronic insomnia (symptoms for ≥ 6 months) is the most common sleep disorder, affecting 6% to 10% of adults in the general population, with even higher rates in patients with comorbid conditions (eg, hypertension, 44%; cardiac disease, 44.1%; breathing problems, 41.5%). Traditionally, chronic insomnia occurring with another condition has been considered secondary and rarely received direct treatment because treatment of the primary condition was expected to improve the insomnia. However, this approach often failed because chronic insomnia is maintained by behaviors, cognitions, and associations that patients adopt as they attempt to cope with poor sleep but that end up backfiring (eg, increasing caffeine, spending more time in bed, trying harder to sleep). Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia (CBTi) targets those behaviors, cognitions, and associations and is effective across a variety of populations, including those with medical and psychologic comorbidities. Thus, in 2005, a National Institutes of Health expert consensus panel on chronic insomnia recommended dropping the term "secondary insomnia" in favor of the term "comorbid insomnia." Because CBTi does not carry the risks associated with some sleep medications (eg, dependency, polypharmacy, cognitive and psychomotor impairment), it is an attractive option for patients with other conditions. Through the Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine ( and the American Board of Sleep Medicine (, it is possible to find practitioners with expertise in CBTi (as well as other aspects of behavioral sleep medicine) and other behavioral sleep resources. Given the currently limited number of trained practitioners, exploration of alternative delivery methods (eg, briefer protocols, self-help, Internet) to improve access to this highly effective treatment and expanded training in these treatments are warranted.

  14. Teaching Behavioral Ethics: Overcoming the Key Impediments to Ethical Behavior (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark S.


    To better understand the ethical decision-making process and why individuals fail to act ethically, the aim of this article is to explore what are seen as the key impediments to ethical behavior and their pedagogical implications. Using the ethical decision-making process proposed by Rest as an overarching framework, the article examines the…

  15. Theoretical behaviorism meets embodied cognition : Two theoretical analyses of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, F.A.


    This paper aims to do three things: First, to provide a review of John Staddon's book Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Second, to compare Staddon's behaviorist view with current ideas on embodied cognition. Third, to use this comparison to explicate some outlines for a

  16. Multivariate behavior genetic analyses of aggressive behavior subtypes. (United States)

    Yeh, Michelle T; Coccaro, Emil F; Jacobson, Kristen C


    This study examined the genetic and environmental architecture underlying aggressive behavior measured by the Life History of Aggression Questionnaire (LHA; Coccaro et al. 1997a). Following preliminary phenotypic factor analysis procedures, multivariate behavioral genetics models were fit to responses from 2,925 adult twins from the PennTwins cohort on five LHA items assessing lifetime frequency of temper tantrums, indirect aggression, verbal aggression, fighting, and physical assault. The best-fitting model was a 2-factor common pathway model, indicating that these five aggressive behaviors are underpinned by two distinct etiological factors with different genetic and nonshared environmental influences. Although there was evidence of significant sex differences, the structure of the two factors appeared to be quite similar in males and females, where General Aggression and Physical Aggression factors emerged. Heritability of these factors ranged from .37 to .57, and nonshared environmental effects ranged from .43 to .63. The results of this study highlight the heterogeneous nature of the aggression construct and the need to consider differences in genetic and environmental influences on individual aggressive behaviors in a multivariate context.

  17. Understanding Behaviors in Videos through Behavior-Specific Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor


    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...

  18. Understanding behaviors in videos through behavior-specific dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor


    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...

  19. Designing Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autistic-Like Behaviors (United States)

    Crawley, Jacqueline N.


    The importance of genetic factors in autism has prompted the development of mutant mouse models to advance our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors. Mouse models of human neuropsychiatric diseases are designed to optimize (1) face validity, i.e., resemblance to the human symptoms; (2) construct validity, i.e.,…

  20. Behavioral Evolution: Can You Dig It? (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael J; Miller, Caitlin H; Vogt, Caleb C; Ligon, Russell A


    Behaviors are among the most complex phenotypes, making the genetic dissection of behavioral differences extremely challenging. A careful dissection of ontogenetic differences in burrowing behavior between mouse species highlights the importance of integrative approaches to the study of behavioral evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism. (United States)

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others


    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

  2. Functional Thinking for Managing Challenging Behavior (United States)

    Allday, R. Allan


    Challenging student behavior remains one of the biggest trials for classroom teachers. Understanding why a student performs a specific behavior is important in determining how to develop an intervention that targets the function of the behavior. This column focuses on how thinking functionally about behavior can help teachers understand why…

  3. Behaviorism: Are reports of its death exaggerated? (United States)

    Wyatt, W. Joseph; Hawkins, Robert P.; Davis, Pamela


    Despite reports that behaviorism is dead or dying, examination of the data indicates otherwise. The opinions of psychology historians, the number of professional associations devoted to behaviorism, and the increasing number of behavioral publications all support the conclusion that behaviorism is vital and growing. PMID:22478651

  4. 10 CFR 26.33 - Behavioral observation. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Behavioral observation. 26.33 Section 26.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.33 Behavioral observation. Licensees... behavioral observation. Behavioral observation must be performed by individuals who are trained under § 26.29...

  5. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra


    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  6. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Challenging Behavior (United States)

    Butler, Anne; Monda-Amaya, Lisa


    Challenging behavior can have adverse effects on both students and teachers, and preservice teachers often report feeling ill prepared to manage this behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) preservice teacher perceptions of student and teacher behavior during scenarios of challenging behavior, (b) alternative solutions or strategies…

  7. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration intounsaturated soils, an important problem in geo-environmental engineering. The outcomes of the research have the potential to directly or indirectly...... reduce the risks and costsrelated to offshore geotechnics. The thesis examines: 1.Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations 2. Modeling of Water Flow through Porous Media The outcomes of each of the research contributions are summarized in four research articles, either directly or indirectly...

  8. Digital behavioral and psychological principles

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Angela


    The chapters in this e-book lie firmly within Web 2.0 and deal with human aspects of interactions between consumers and between consumers and brands in digital space. The first chapter, Consumer Behavior in the Online Context, by Cummings, Peltier, Schibrowsky and Nill, provides an excellent introduction to this ebook by reviewing literature related to the consumer behavior and social network theory as they apply to the Internet, literature covering the period from 1993-2012, spanning over 900 articles across more than 85 marketing journals. The second chapter, by Kabadayi and Price, investiga

  9. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  10. The ecology of collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M Gordon


    Full Text Available Similar patterns of interaction, such as network motifs and feedback loops, are used in many natural collective processes, probably because they have evolved independently under similar pressures. Here I consider how three environmental constraints may shape the evolution of collective behavior: the patchiness of resources, the operating costs of maintaining the interaction network that produces collective behavior, and the threat of rupture of the network. The ants are a large and successful taxon that have evolved in very diverse environments. Examples from ants provide a starting point for examining more generally the fit between the particular pattern of interaction that regulates activity, and the environment in which it functions.

  11. Stalking behavior in delusional jealousy. (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Ferrari, M M


    Stalking behavior has been associated with several mental disorders, both psychotic and non-psychotic. The most frequently associated condition appears to be an individual with primitive personality psychopathology regardless of co-occurring psychotic symptomatology. Among the psychotic symptoms, erotomanic, and jealousy delusions may be the most clinically and torensically relevant. However, delusional jealousy has not been well appreciated in the psychiatric literature as an important contributor to stalking behavior. In this article, we explore the psychiatric, psychosocial, and forensic aspects of stalking in the context of delusional jealousy. We use a case example to highlight important issues in this area.

  12. Genetics and behavior: a guide for practitioners. (United States)

    Overall, Karen L; Tiira, Katriina; Broach, Desiree; Bryant, Deborah


    Phenotyping behavior is difficult, partly because behavior is almost always influenced by environment. Using objective terms/criteria to evaluate behaviors is best; the more objective the assessment, the more likely underlying genetic patterns will be identified. Behavioral pathologies, and highly desirable behavioral characteristics/traits, are likely complex, meaning that multiple genes are probably involved, and therefore simple genetic tests are less possible. Breeds can be improved using traditional quantitative genetic methods; unfortunately, this also creates the possibility of inadvertently selecting for covarying undesirable behaviors. Patterns of behaviors within families and breed lines are still the best guidelines for genetic counseling in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of cVA and the Odorant binding protein Lush in social and sexual behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe eBilleter


    Full Text Available Social living is beneficial because it allows conspecifics to interact in ways that increase their chances of survival and reproduction. A key mechanism underlying these benefits is the ability to recognize conspecifics; thus, allowing the production of coordinated social interactions. Identification of such individuals is often through chemical communication: the individuals’ pheromonal profile indicates their sex, species and even past experiences. However we know little about how the chemosensory system of conspecifics detects and how the nervous system processes this information. One of the best documented pheromonal detection mechanism is that of cis-Vaccenyl Acetate (cVA made by male Drosophila melanogaster and transferred to females during mating. Sensing of cVA by males inhibits courtship behavior towards already mated females. Sensing of cVA on other males also inhibits courtship and increases aggression. In this hybrid review/research article, we discuss the pheromonal system of Drosophila putting an emphasis on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in cVA sensing by the olfactory system, perception by the nervous system and ultimately the regulation of social interactions. The behavioral effect of cVA is context- as well as experience-dependent leading us to conclude that cVA plays a modulatory role in regulating social interactions rather than being a recognition pheromone. We also provide new behavioral data on the function of the Odorant Binding Protein Lush, which binds cVA in olfactory sensilla and help sensing this chemical. Our data indicate that lush may be involved in the sensing of additional pheromones to cVA and suggest the existence of a lush-independent cVA detecting system. Interpretation of our data in the light of our current knowledge about pheromonal recognition in Drosophila indicates that this system is still incompletely understood.

  14. Behavioral Treatment for Common Childhood Problems


    Hodson, Gary; Mathews, Judith R.; MacDonald, G. Wayne; McNeill, Gillian; Grantmyre, Jane


    Parents often consult family physicians about child rearing, child development, and school-related problems. Behavioral treatment is one method of dealing with such concerns. It involves identifying problems with a child's behavior, working to resolve them by rewarding desirable behavior and withholding rewards for undesirable behavior, and evaluating the outcome. Before treatment begins, it is necessary to establish that the parents feel the child's behavior is a problem; that the child can ...

  15. Behavior analysis: the science of training. (United States)

    Farhoody, Parvene


    Behavior analysis is a data-driven science dedicated to understanding the mechanisms of behavior. Applied behavior analysis is a branch of this scientific field that systematically applies scientific principles to real-world problems in an effort to improve quality of life. The use of the behavioral technology provides a way to teach human and nonhuman animals more effectively and efficiently and offers those using this technology increased success in achieving behavioral goals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors


    Taiki Takahashi


    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  17. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal


    Sagvolden Terje


    Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF) is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how the...

  18. Problem behavior in Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koot (Hans)


    textabstractThe present study was an attempt to contribute to the standardized assessment and the study of prevalence of problem behavior in children 2- to 3-years old by means of empirically derived rating scales. The basic questions were: 1. What are the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch

  19. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng


    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that

  20. Anxiety, Restraint, and Eating Behavior (United States)

    Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet


    It was hypothesized that individual differences in eating behavior based on the distinction between obese and normal subjects could be demonstrated within a population of normal subjects classified as to the extent of restraint chronically exercised with respect to eating. (Editor)

  1. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  2. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    the design of offshore wind turbine foundations. The work was divided into two main research efforts: geotechnical engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration into unsaturated soils, an important...

  3. Unethical behavior in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Landini, Fabio; Piovesan, Marco


    What are the individual demographic characteristics that correlate with unethical behavior? To answer this question we randomly interviewed 541 passengers who used the bus in Reggio Emilia (Italy). Exploiting the high level of fare evasion (43% without a valid ticket) we find that young individuals...

  4. Behavior of dislocations in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumino, Koji [Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba Prefecture (Japan)


    A review is given of dynamic behavior of dislocations in silicon on the basis of works of the author`s group. Topics taken up are generation, motion and multiplication of dislocations as affected by oxygen impurities and immobilization of dislocations due to impurity reaction.

  5. Critical behavior of collapsing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Sourdis, C.


    We consider the mean curvature evolution of rotationally symmetric surfaces. Using numerical methods, we detect critical behavior at the threshold of singularity formation resembling that of gravitational collapse. In particular, the mean curvature simulation of a one-parameter family of initial...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this report an overview is given of the contribution of cognitive approaches to behavioral medicine. The (possible) contribution of cognitive therapy is reviewed in the area of coronary heart disease, obesity, bulimia nervosa, chronic pain, benign headache, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency

  7. Understanding Reckless Behavior in Adolescence. (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    Briefly described is a theory of reckless behavior in adolescence that includes cognitive and biological factors. Discussion focuses on several factors: the adolescent's egocentric personal fable--the adolescent conviction that his/her thoughts and feelings are unique, the personality trait of sensation seeking, the fact that by their late 20s or…


    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.


  9. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.


    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters

  10. Quantum Probabilities as Behavioral Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I. Yukalov


    Full Text Available We demonstrate that behavioral probabilities of human decision makers share many common features with quantum probabilities. This does not imply that humans are some quantum objects, but just shows that the mathematics of quantum theory is applicable to the description of human decision making. The applicability of quantum rules for describing decision making is connected with the nontrivial process of making decisions in the case of composite prospects under uncertainty. Such a process involves deliberations of a decision maker when making a choice. In addition to the evaluation of the utilities of considered prospects, real decision makers also appreciate their respective attractiveness. Therefore, human choice is not based solely on the utility of prospects, but includes the necessity of resolving the utility-attraction duality. In order to justify that human consciousness really functions similarly to the rules of quantum theory, we develop an approach defining human behavioral probabilities as the probabilities determined by quantum rules. We show that quantum behavioral probabilities of humans do not merely explain qualitatively how human decisions are made, but they predict quantitative values of the behavioral probabilities. Analyzing a large set of empirical data, we find good quantitative agreement between theoretical predictions and observed experimental data.

  11. A Taxonomy of Counselee Behavior. (United States)

    Seals, James M.

    Little research has been done in the area of counseling within the secondary school. This research was designed to analyze verbatim transcriptions of secondary school counseling interviews in order to establish a description of school counselee verbal behavior. A total of 50 transcripts involving 50 different counselees were used. The interviews…

  12. Influencing the online consumer's behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios


    Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying

  13. Biosocial Models of Deviant Behavior. (United States)

    Rowe, David C.


    Describes biological influences on criminality. Illustrative data suggest a biological sex difference in criminality and heritable differences in this trait among individuals. Methods of isolating environmental influences are described. Author notes that using environment-friendly behavior genetic research designs is not only proper but would…

  14. Behavioral Research in Industrial Relations. (United States)

    Lewin, David; Feuille, Peter


    This paper examines and assesses the behavioral content of industrial relations research in a variety of social science disciplines. The authors compare economic research on the wage and productivity consequences of unionism with psychological research on worker attitudes toward unions, sociological research on the negotiation process and conflict…

  15. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)


    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this

  16. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan


    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  17. Behavioral Economics and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.


    In recent years, there has been a great deal of discussion of uses of behavioral economics in policy circles, with a focus on empirical, conceptual and ethical questions. On the basis of data from many nations, our forthcoming book asks and answers a question pressing in democratic and nondemocra...

  18. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach (United States)

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli


    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  19. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior (United States)

    Lattal, Kennon A.


    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  20. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  1. Behaviorism, Constructivism, and Socratic Pedagogy (United States)

    Boghossian, Peter


    This paper examines the relationship among behaviorism, constructivism and Socratic pedagogy. Specifically, it asks if a Socratic educator can be a constructivist or a behaviorist. In the first part of the paper, each learning theory, as it relates to the Socratic project, is explained. In the last section, the question of whether or not a…

  2. Undesirable behavior in forest campgrounds (United States)

    Roger N. Clark


    A 3-year study indicates that nuisance behaviors, law violations, vandalism, and littering in forest campgrounds are more extensive than is generally believed. All campers share responsibility for the problems. Violations occur because of ignorance of, lack of understanding, or a willingness to disregard rules. Control measures are discussed, including an incentive...

  3. Observer Effects on Teacher Behavior. (United States)

    Samph, Thomas

    A study was designed to determine whether the presence or absence of a classroom observer and the prior knowledge or lack of knowledge that an observation was to occur would affect the verbal behavior of teachers as measured by the Flanders System of Interaction Analysis. The variables were dichotomized yielding a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design…

  4. The Teacher as Behavior Engineer (United States)

    Keir, Patricia A.


    Before behavioral engineering can be used as an approach to solving classroom problems, it is incumbent upon all teachers to challenge its use, to determine its appropriateness in a learning setting, and to assess its potential effects on human dignity and human freedom. (Author/RK)

  5. Behavior Models for Software Architecture (United States)


    the main stream of execution contains calls to methods M1 and M2 as join points, and the aspect behavior requires a call to Prolog before, and to...PreAdvice: (* Prolog *); ROOT PostAdvice: (* Epilog *); COORDINATE $jp: ( M1 | M2) FROM Main, $a1: Prolog FROM PreAdvice, $a2

  6. Health Behavior in Ecological Context (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce


    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  7. Verbal Behavior and Courtroom Success. (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael G.


    Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…

  8. Jordanian School Counselors' Leadership Behaviors (United States)

    Alsmadi, Rana; Mahasneh, Randa


    The purpose of this study was to identify the degree to which Jordanian school counselors were seen by teachers and principals to possess and display leadership behaviors related to Bolman and Deal's (1997) transformational "four framework approach" to leadership. This was based on the view that such leadership would relate to…

  9. An Affective Behaviors Project Report. (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Educational Lab. Corp., Denver, CO.

    The major point being made, then, is that we as educators can be far more effective if we can change our attitude toward emotional variables by removing these variables from the realm of ambiguity. The affective components of behavior in education must be seen as essential, rather than supplementary, to the learning process. Devices are being…

  10. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley


    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  11. Brain Functioning and Creative Behavior. (United States)

    Sinatra, Richard


    The paper explores five major facets of brain functioning in relation to gifted and creative behavior. Emphasis is placed on ways that the educational establishment can cultivate the stages of the creative process for the verbally gifted, the nonverbally gifted, and for young children. (Author/CL)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun


    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  13. Animal Behavior and Social Anthropology (United States)

    Washburn, S. L.


    There is no clearly defined, universally accepted evolutionary theory that social anthropologists must accept. There has been great progress in the understanding of genetic mechanisms, but there are still major controversies. The most fundamental problem comes from postulating genes to account for behaviors. (Author/AM)

  14. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika


    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  15. Political contributions and analyst behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, D.; Kumar, A.; Law, Kelvin

    We show that the personal traits of analysts, as revealed by their political donations, influence their forecasting behavior and stock prices. Analysts who contribute primarily to the Republican Party adopt a more conservative forecasting style. Their earnings forecast revisions are less likely to

  16. Assessing Teachers' Behavior Support Skills (United States)

    Myers, Diane; Sugai, George; Simonsen, Brandi; Freeman, Jennifer


    In this article, the authors provide an overview of empirically supported practices and techniques for monitoring and assessing teachers' use of effective behavior support practices. They focus on how teacher preparation programs, administrators, and supervising teachers provide pre-service teachers with helpful feedback on their teaching…

  17. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30482416X; Ohm, Robin A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837628; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P


    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior

  18. Extending the Direct Behavior Rating: An Examination of Schoolwide Behavior Ratings and Academic Engagement (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; Barron, Sheila; Fernando, Josephine; Balint-Langel, Kinga


    Direct behavior ratings have been identified as a practical and feasible alternative to direct observation of behavior for monitoring behavioral progress. Despite the evidence of usability, there have been calls for further examination of direct behavior ratings using different behaviors and scales. To this end, we examined the ratings of…


    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Smith, Tracy T.; Schassburger, Rachel L.; Buffalari, Deanne M.; Sved, Alan F.; Donny, Eric C.


    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and nicotine, the primary psychoactive constituent in tobacco, drives sustained use. The behavioral actions of nicotine are complex and extend well beyond the actions of the drug as a primary reinforcer. Stimuli that are consistently paired with nicotine can, through associative learning, take on reinforcing properties as conditioned stimuli. These conditioned stimuli can then impact the rate and probability of behavior and even function as conditioning reinforcers that maintain behavior in the absence of nicotine. Nicotine can also act as a conditioned stimulus, predicting the delivery of other reinforcers, which may allow nicotine to acquire value as a conditioned reinforcer. These associative effects, establishing non-nicotine stimuli as conditioned stimuli with discriminative stimulus and conditioned reinforcing properties as well as establishing nicotine as a conditioned stimulus, are predicted by basic conditioning principles. However, nicotine can also act non-associatively. Nicotine directly enhances the reinforcing efficacy of other reinforcing stimuli in the environment, an effect that does not require a temporal or predictive relationship between nicotine and either the stimulus or the behavior. Hence, the reinforcing actions of nicotine stem both from the primary reinforcing actions of the drug (and the subsequent associative learning effects) as well as the reinforcement enhancement action of nicotine which is non-associative in nature. Gaining a better understanding of how nicotine impacts behavior will allow for maximally effective tobacco control efforts aimed at reducing the harm associated with tobacco use by reducing and/or treating its addictiveness. PMID:25638333

  20. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris


    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all