WorldWideScience

Sample records for experience infection control

  1. Clinical experience, infection control practices and diagnostic algorithms for poxvirus infections - an Emerging Infections Network survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash R Ryan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to determine how best to tailor outreach messages about poxvirus diagnosis and infection control for health practitioners, we surveyed infectious disease physicians in the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network. Findings Surveys consisting of two unknown case scenarios designed to raise suspicion for monkeypox and orf were distributed to the 1,080 members of the EIN. The surveys contained questions pertaining to which diagnostic tests, points of contact, and transmission precautions they would likely utilize during patient evaluation. Basic response rates and frequencies of responses were calculated. Comparisons of the survey responses were made using the chi-square test. Of the 212 members who responded (20% response rate, significantly more respondents indicated that they would request diagnostic testing in the context of the monkeypox case scenario as compared to the orf case scenario. A significantly higher number of respondents indicated they would institute droplet or airborne precautions for the monkeypox case as opposed to the orf case scenario. Conclusions This survey provided an opportunity for public health practitioners to gain insight into physician approaches to evaluation, diagnosis and reporting of suspected poxvirus-associated infections. This survey identified key areas in which public health practitioners can better serve physicians by focusing on education. As a result we were able to identify potential knowledge gaps and deficits in the availability of useful resources to facilitate accurate case identification and management.

  2. Infection control in clinical placements: experiences of nursing and midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Deborah J

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the experiences of nursing and midwifery students in relation to infection control in their clinical placements and how these affect their learning. Compliance with infection control precautions has been found to be low in many areas. Reasons for non-compliance include factors relevant to nursing and midwifery students, such as lack of knowledge and lack of a positive role model. However, there is little in the literature about how students experience infection control in placements and how this affects their own practice. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken in 2009 with 40 nursing and midwifery students. Analysis of transcripts was by Framework analysis. Students identified practices that they had observed and benchmarked these against what they had been taught at university and what was demonstrated by staff perceived as positive role models. Observing inappropriate practice affected student practice both positively and negatively. Students were reluctant to report poor practice due to fear of failing placements and not wanting to be identified negatively by staff. Students believed that practice supported by theory was important to provide them with a rationale for their activities and to support any complaints that they had. Poor practice in clinical placements can have a negative impact on student learning and practice and may therefore have implications for the practice of future nurses and midwives. In order to maintain patient safety, there needs to be more support for students who wish to identify poor practice.

  3. TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses - a phenomenological study

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    Mehtar Shaheen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB epidemic in South Africa is characterised by one of the highest levels of TB/HIV co-infection and growing multidrug-resistant TB worldwide. Hospitals play a central role in the management of TB. We investigated nurses' experiences of factors influencing TB infection prevention and control (IPC practices to identify risks associated with potential nosocomial transmission. Methods The qualitative study employed a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews with a quota sample of 20 nurses in a large tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Nurses expressed concerns about the possible risk of TB transmission to both patients and staff. Factors influencing TB-IPC, and increasing the potential risk of nosocomial transmission, emerged in interconnected overarching themes. Influences related to the healthcare system included suboptimal IPC provision such as the lack of isolation facilities and personal protective equipment, and the lack of a TB-IPC policy. Further influences included inadequate TB training for staff and patients, communication barriers owing to cultural and linguistic differences between staff and patients, the excessive workload of nurses, and a sense of duty of care. Influences related to wider contextual conditions included TB concerns and stigma, and the role of traditional healers. Influences related to patient behaviour included late uptake of hospital care owing to poverty and the use of traditional medicine, and poor adherence to IPC measures by patients, family members and carers. Conclusions Several interconnected influences related to the healthcare system, wider contextual conditions and patient behavior could increase the potential risk of nosocomial TB transmission at hospital level. There is an urgent need for the implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive contextually appropriate TB IPC

  4. TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses--a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissolak, Dagmar; Marais, Frederick; Mehtar, Shaheen

    2011-04-25

    The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa is characterised by one of the highest levels of TB/HIV co-infection and growing multidrug-resistant TB worldwide. Hospitals play a central role in the management of TB. We investigated nurses' experiences of factors influencing TB infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to identify risks associated with potential nosocomial transmission. The qualitative study employed a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews with a quota sample of 20 nurses in a large tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. Nurses expressed concerns about the possible risk of TB transmission to both patients and staff. Factors influencing TB-IPC, and increasing the potential risk of nosocomial transmission, emerged in interconnected overarching themes. Influences related to the healthcare system included suboptimal IPC provision such as the lack of isolation facilities and personal protective equipment, and the lack of a TB-IPC policy. Further influences included inadequate TB training for staff and patients, communication barriers owing to cultural and linguistic differences between staff and patients, the excessive workload of nurses, and a sense of duty of care. Influences related to wider contextual conditions included TB concerns and stigma, and the role of traditional healers. Influences related to patient behaviour included late uptake of hospital care owing to poverty and the use of traditional medicine, and poor adherence to IPC measures by patients, family members and carers. Several interconnected influences related to the healthcare system, wider contextual conditions and patient behavior could increase the potential risk of nosocomial TB transmission at hospital level. There is an urgent need for the implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive contextually appropriate TB IPC policy with the setting and auditing of standards for IPC provision and

  5. TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses - a phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa is characterised by one of the highest levels of TB/HIV co-infection and growing multidrug-resistant TB worldwide. Hospitals play a central role in the management of TB. We investigated nurses' experiences of factors influencing TB infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to identify risks associated with potential nosocomial transmission. Methods The qualitative study employed a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews with a quota sample of 20 nurses in a large tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Nurses expressed concerns about the possible risk of TB transmission to both patients and staff. Factors influencing TB-IPC, and increasing the potential risk of nosocomial transmission, emerged in interconnected overarching themes. Influences related to the healthcare system included suboptimal IPC provision such as the lack of isolation facilities and personal protective equipment, and the lack of a TB-IPC policy. Further influences included inadequate TB training for staff and patients, communication barriers owing to cultural and linguistic differences between staff and patients, the excessive workload of nurses, and a sense of duty of care. Influences related to wider contextual conditions included TB concerns and stigma, and the role of traditional healers. Influences related to patient behaviour included late uptake of hospital care owing to poverty and the use of traditional medicine, and poor adherence to IPC measures by patients, family members and carers. Conclusions Several interconnected influences related to the healthcare system, wider contextual conditions and patient behavior could increase the potential risk of nosocomial TB transmission at hospital level. There is an urgent need for the implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive contextually appropriate TB IPC policy with the setting and

  6. Importance of Multifaceted Approaches in Infection Control: A Practical Experience from an Outbreak Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Katharina Stock

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a multidisciplinary, nosocomial MRSA outbreak investigation in an 8-bed medical intensive care unit (ICU. The identification of seven MRSA positive patients in the beginning of 2014 led to the closure of the ward for several weeks. A multidisciplinary, retrospective investigation was initiated in order to identify the reason and the source for the outbreak, describe MRSA transmission in the department and identify limitations in infection control.The investigation comprised an epidemiological description of MRSA cases from 2012 to 2014 and a characterization of MRSA isolates, including phage-, spa- and PFGE-typing. Additionally, MRSA screening was performed from the hospital staff and the environment. To identify the reason for the outbreak, work-related, psychological and behavioral factors were investigated by impartial audits and staff interviews.Thirty-one MRSA cases were registered during the study period, and 36 isolates were investigated. Molecular typing determined the outbreak strain (phage type 54/812, PFGE type A4, spa type t003 and identified the probable index case. Nasal carriage in one employee and a high environmental contamination with the outbreak strain was documented. Important gaps in nursing procedures and general management were identified. Elevated stress levels and communication problems preceded the outbreak. Compliance with hand hygiene and isolation procedures was evaluated as appropriate.This study demonstrates the complexity of controlling hospital-associated infections. The combined use of different typing methods is beneficial for outbreak investigations. Psychological, behavioral and other work-related factors have an important impact on the spread of nosocomial pathogens. These factors should be addressed and integrated in routine infection control practice.

  7. Infection control for norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, L.; Park, G. W.; Vega, E.; Hall, A.; Parashar, U.; Vinjé, J.; Lopman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are notoriously difficult to prevent and control, owing to their low infectious dose, high shedding titre, and environmental stability. The virus can spread through multiple transmission routes, of which person-to-person and foodborne are the most important. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. In this article, we review the epidemiology and virology of noroviruses, and prevention and control guidelines, with a focus on the principles of disinfection and decontamination. Outbreak management relies on sound infection control principles, including hand hygiene, limiting exposure to infectious individuals, and thorough environmental decontamination. Ideally, all infection control recommendations would rely on empirical evidence, but a number of challenges, including the inability to culture noroviruses in the laboratory and the challenges of outbreak management in complex environments, has made it difficult to garner clear evidence of efficacy in certain areas of infection control. New experimental data on cultivable surrogates for human norovirus and on environmental survivability and relative resistance to commonly used disinfectants are providing new insights for further refinining disinfection practices. Finally, clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, which may shift the current infection control principles to more targeted interventions. PMID:24813073

  8. Infection control in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S R

    1991-08-01

    The risk of transmission of infection within the dental workplace is low, but recent data have indicated that human immunodeficiency virus transmission between dentist and patient can occur, and that while nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus is now less likely, a small but significant number of staff may be at risk of hepatitis C virus and varicella zoster virus infection during dental treatment. Despite these continued risks, shortcomings remain in cross-infection control in the dental workplace. Dental clinicians still fail to take adequate steps to minimize nosocomial infection, inconsistently using appropriate methods of sterilization and not providing ancillary staff with suitable protective clothing. Similarly, although vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, a substantial number of clinicians are reluctant to treat hepatitis B virus- or human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Cross-infection control procedures continue to be modified. Of importance, it has been confirmed that protective rubber gloves cannot be reused, as micropunctures develop during rewashing. Sharps injuries are common in dental practice, but there are still no effective measures to prevent postinjury human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Instrument sterilization is generally safe and effective, but the contamination of dental unit water supplies remains to be overcome, and while impressions can be placed in disinfectants for up to 1 hour without significant dimensional change, it is not known if infectious agents within the impression material are inactivated by this procedure.

  9. [Infection control in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeyuki

    2010-01-01

    Infection control committee as the central decision-making and infection control team (ICT) for carrying out all aspects of infection control are important for hospital infection control. Standard precautions are used for all patients and apply to all body fluids except for sweat, whether or not they contain visible blood. Transmission-based precautions involve airborne, droplet, contact vector-borne and common vehicle precautions. Airborne precautions are for tuberculosis, varicella and measles. Small particles (precautions are for influenza, rubella, pertussis, and so on. Transmission via large droplet (transmissions are for blood-borne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C virus and HIV, bacterial infections via percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure, and so on. Vaccinations for measles, rubella, varicella, mumps, influenza and hepatitis B virus to health-care workers are important. Influenza virus is mainly transmitted via droplet and contact, but also via airborne transmission in the aerosol-generating procedures such as intubation and suctioning. WHO declared a public health emergency in April 2009. A novel influenza has spread rapidly across the globe, and it will be necessary to prepare for the outbreak in this autumn and winter.

  10. Infection prevention and control and the refugee population: Experiences from the University of Louisville Global Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth M; Goss, Linda; Wiemken, Timothy L; Bosson, Rahel S; Peyrani, Paula; Mattingly, William A; Pauly, Allison; Ford, Rebecca A; Kotey, Stanley; Ramirez, Julio A

    2017-06-01

    During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care. Using data from the University of Louisville Global Health Center's Newly Arriving Refugee Surveillance System, health issues affecting refugees from the perspective of a community member, an employee, and a patient were explored. Lack of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases is the most widespread issue impacting almost every adult, adolescent, and child refugee resettled in Kentucky. Health issues of concern from an infection prevention and control perspective include latent tuberculosis infection, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and parasites. Other health conditions that may also be important include anemia, obesity, oral health, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Refugee resettlement provides motivation for collaborative work among those responsible for infection prevention and control in all settings, their public health partners, and those responsible for and interested in community workforce concerns. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How do university education and clinical experience influence pre-registration nursing students' infection control practice? A descriptive, cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, Jonathan; Cutter, Jayne

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to explore nursing students' knowledge of infection control and investigate how university education and clinical experience influence their infection control practice. In order to prevent and control healthcare associated infections all healthcare staff must be knowledgeable about infection control. However, knowledge and practice of infection control are often sub-optimal. Education has had variable results in improving the infection control knowledge of healthcare professionals yet, there have been few studies examining this issue in relation to pre-registration nursing students in the United Kingdom. This descriptive cross-sectional survey employed a questionnaire composed of predominantly closed questions for data collection. A non-probability, purposive sample of 354/444 (79.7%) nursing students from one university participated in the study. Knowledge was generally adequate in questions related to pathogen transmission, hand hygiene principles, glove use, immediate action following sharps' injuries, and risk reduction in relation to sharps and waste management. Topics that received less positive results related to the chain of infection, the use of alcohol gel and Clostridium difficile and the definition of inoculation injury. University education was the main influence on knowledge and practice (340/353, 96.3%), but mentors (322/354, 91.2%), nurses (316/353, 89.3%), doctors (175/353, 49.4%) and other members of the multi-disciplinary team (213/352, 60.2%) were also deemed influential. Workload, time, and availability of facilities and equipment also contributed to the adoption of infection control precautions. The findings illustrated the importance of both theoretical and practical knowledge, supported by competent role models. The study identified the complexities of knowledge acquisition and application in a practice based discipline. The support of a competent role model to assist in applying theory to practice is vital. The study has

  12. Experience with the use of palivizumab together with infection control measures to prevent respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, H; Herbich, K; Janata, O; Sterniste, W; Bauer, K

    2008-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) frequently causes nosocomial outbreaks in general paediatric wards and occasionally in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Conventional infection control measures often fail to prevent the spread of RSV, and it can cause significant morbidity especially in preterm and young infants. We report our experience in preventing an outbreak on a NICU after RSV had been detected in a premature infant. The index case was a 34-day-old premature infant who presented with clinical infection and RSV was detected in a clinical specimen. There were 11 patients in the ward at the time including the index case. The RSV-positive patient was isolated, the ward closed to admissions and infection control measures were implemented. Two patients were transferred to another hospital. Palivizumab 15 mg/kg i.m. was given to all patients and no further cases occurred. All subsequent RSV tests on nasal secretions were negative. Palivizumab combined with conventional infection control measures appeared to prevent the spread of RSV in this NICU. Strategies for the prevention of RSV outbreaks on NICUs all recommend the reinforcement of routine infection control measures. Recommendations concerning the use of palivizumab range from monthly prophylaxis to all infants at risk, to prophylaxis of selected cases only. Currently there are no guidelines for the use of palivizumab in NICUs or for the control of RSV outbreaks.

  13. [Hygiene and Infection Prevention in Medical Institutions, Kindergartens and Schools - Statutory Basis, Infection Control Practice and Experiences of the Public Health Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, U

    2015-07-01

    Infection prevention is one of the main tasks of the public health services. The "Protection against infection act" places all medical institutions and facilities for children (kindergartens and schools) under the obligation to assume responsibility and to cooperate. Duties of the institutions are described, and public health services are obliged to perform hygiene control visits.Regarding medical institutions, the guidelines of the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Control have to be observed, and the counties were obliged to publish hygiene enactments. Subsequently, good improvements in hygiene management in medical institutions were achieved. In schools, however, severe hygienic problems (i.e. sanitary hygiene, indoor air hygiene) are detected, without any improvement - obviously due to a missing sense of responsibility in the school community. Causes for poor behaviour prevention (hand hygiene, ventilation) and missing situational prevention (i.e. cleaning) are discussed. Without reversion to the obviously needed but nearly forgotten subject school hygiene, obligatory guidelines and the assuming of responsibility, permanent improvements cannot be achieved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Infection Control in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Saiman, Lisa; Siegel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a greater interest in infection control in cystic fibrosis (CF) as patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens has been increasingly demonstrated in this unique patient population. The CF Foundation sponsored a consensus conference to craft recommendations for infection control practices for CF care providers. This review provides a summary of the literature addressing infection control in CF. Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sta...

  15. Field experience with two different vaccination strategies aiming to control infections with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a fattening pig herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjölund Marie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of pleurisies recorded at slaughter is increasing in Sweden, and acute outbreaks of actinobacillosis that require antimicrobial treatments have become more frequent. As an increased use of antimicrobials may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance it is essential to develop alternative measures to control the disease. Vaccinations present an appealing alternative to antimicrobial treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of two different vaccination strategies in a specialized fattening herd affected by actinobacillosis. Methods The study was conducted in a specialized fattening herd employing age segregated rearing in eight units. The herd suffered from infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, confirmed by necropsy and serology. The study included 54 batches of pigs grouped into five periods. Batches of pigs of the second period were vaccinated against actinobacillosis twice, and pigs in the fourth period were vaccinated three times. Batches of pigs of the first, third and fifth period were not vaccinated. Concentrations of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and serum amyloid A (SAA were analysed and production data were recorded. Results Despite vaccinating, medical treatments were required to reduce the impact of the disease. The mean incidence of individual treatments for respiratory diseases during the rearing period ranged from 0 to 4.7 ± 1.8%, and was greatest during the triple vaccination period (period IV; p A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a SAA-response. The prevalence of pleuritis decreased from 25.4 ± 6.5% in the first period to 5.0 ± 3.7% in the fifth period (p Conclusions The vaccine did not effectively prevent clinical expression of A. pleuropneumoniae infections, but seroconversion to A. pleuropneumoniae in the absence of a SAA-response in a large number pigs indicated that the vaccine had activated the immune

  16. Infection control in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, P; Pittet, D

    2001-12-01

    Nosocomial infections (NIs) now concern 5 to 15% of hospitalized patients and can lead to complications in 25 to 33% of those patients admitted to ICUs. The most common causes are pneumonia related to mechanical ventilation, intra-abdominal infections following trauma or surgery, and bacteremia derived from intravascular devices. This overview is targeted at ICU physicians to convince them that the principles of infection control in the ICU are based on simple concepts and that the application of preventive strategies should not be viewed as an administrative or constraining control of their activity but, rather, as basic measures that are easy to implement at the bedside. A detailed knowledge of the epidemiology, based on adequate surveillance methodologies, is necessary to understand the pathophysiology and the rationale of preventive strategies that have been demonstrated to be effective. The principles of general preventive measures such as the implementation of standard and isolation precautions, and the control of antibiotic use are reviewed. Specific practical measures, targeted at the practical prevention and control of ventilator-associated pneumonia, sinusitis, and bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections are detailed. Recent data strongly confirm that these strategies may only be effective over prolonged periods if they can be integrated into the behavior of all staff members who are involved in patient care. Accordingly, infection control measures are to be viewed as a priority and have to be integrated fully into the continuous process of improvement of the quality of care.

  17. Infection control in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiman, Lisa; Siegel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a greater interest in infection control in cystic fibrosis (CF) as patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens has been increasingly demonstrated in this unique patient population. The CF Foundation sponsored a consensus conference to craft recommendations for infection control practices for CF care providers. This review provides a summary of the literature addressing infection control in CF. Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus have all been shown to spread between patients with CF. Standard precautions, transmission-based precautions including contact and droplet precautions, appropriate hand hygiene for health care workers, patients, and their families, and care of respiratory tract equipment to prevent the transmission of infectious agents serve as the foundations of infection control and prevent the acquisition of potential pathogens by patients with CF. The respiratory secretions of all CF patients potentially harbor clinically and epidemiologically important microorganisms, even if they have not yet been detected in cultures from the respiratory tract. CF patients should be educated to contain their secretions and maintain a distance of >3 ft from other CF patients to avoid the transmission of potential pathogens, even if culture results are unavailable or negative. To prevent the acquisition of pathogens from respiratory therapy equipment used in health care settings as well as in the home, such equipment should be cleaned and disinfected. It will be critical to measure the dissemination, implementation, and potential impact of these guidelines to monitor changes in practice and reduction in infections.

  18. Standard principles for preventing and controlling infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, C; Straub, M

    Infection control is a priority for all nurses and healthcare staff. This article examines factors contributing to current healthcare-associated infection rates and outlines the main strategies for infection prevention, management and control.

  19. Infection control in Indonesian Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerink, Daphne Offra

    2009-01-01

    The studies in this thesis were performed as part of the AMRIN (Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia) study that addressed antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control in Indonesia. They are the first studies that give insight into the incidence of healthcare-associated

  20. Bayesian statistics for infection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.

    2004-01-01

    To intervene cycles of food-borne pathogens in poultry new intervention methods need to be tested for their effectiveness. In this paper a statistical method is described that was applied to quantify the observed differences between test groups and control groups. Treated chickens and their controls

  1. Predicting healthcare associated infections using patients' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael A.; Chu, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are a major threat to patient safety and are costly to health systems. Our goal is to predict the HAI performance of a hospital using the patients' experience responses as input. We use four classifiers, viz. random forest, naive Bayes, artificial feedforward neural networks, and the support vector machine, to perform the prediction of six types of HAI. The six types include blood stream, urinary tract, surgical site, and intestinal infections. Experiments show that the random forest and support vector machine perform well across the six types of HAI.

  2. Manual of infection prevention and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damani, N. N

    2012-01-01

    .... Unlike other books on infection control, the main strength of this book is to provide clear, up-to-date and practical guidance in infection control in an easy to read format which can act as a quick...

  3. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infection control. 483.65 Section 483.65 Public... Care Facilities § 483.65 Infection control. The facility must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to provide a safe, sanitary, and comfortable environment and to help prevent the...

  4. 42 CFR 460.74 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infection control. 460.74 Section 460.74 Public...) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.74 Infection control. (a) Standard procedures. The PACE organization must follow accepted policies and standard procedures with respect to infection control, including...

  5. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility management must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to provide a safe, sanitary, and...

  6. 38 CFR 52.190 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infection control. 52.190... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.190 Infection control. The program management must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to prevent the development and...

  7. Hospital design for better infection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Fatimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical design and infrastructure of a hospital or institution is an essential component of its infection control measure. Thus is must be a prerequisite to take these into consideration from the initial conception and planning stages of the building. The balance between designing a hospital to be an open, accessible and public place and the control to reduce the spread of infections diseases is a necessity. At Singapore General Hospital, many lessons were learnt during the SARS outbreak pertaining to this. During and subsequent to the SARS outbreak, many changes evolved in the hospital to enable us to handle and face any emerging infectious situation with calm, confidence and the knowledge that staff and patients will be in good stead. This paper will share some of our experiences as well as challenges

  8. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  9. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experience in landslide control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koz' min, L.S.

    1983-06-01

    The problems of slope stability in the Krasnoyarskugol' surface mines are discussed. Methods used for slide prevention and slide control from 1977 to 1982 are analyzed. Landslides were caused by weathering of the argillite layer in the coal seam roof. Sliding plane was parallel to the coal seam roof. At a later stage of landslide prevention sliding planes were in the coal seam floor (which consisted of weak rock layers). Range of landslides was evaluated. Losses caused by landslides were discussed: working time losses, losses of coal, damaged equipment. Landslide hazards were controlled by reducing slope angle and by changing cut geometry. Cross section of the cut with a spoil bank prone to landslides is shown in a scheme. Reducing angle of slope inclination, using strong rock layers as the spoil bank base and changing cut geometry eliminated landslides in 1982. Recommendations on landslide control in coal surface mines with layers of weak rocks influenced by weathering are made.

  11. Abstract: Implementing Infection Control Measures in Neonatology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background Neonatal infection is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Objective The project's objective is to facilitate quality improvement by reduction of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in hospitalized neonates. Methods Current infection control practices were surveyed and three main areas were ...

  12. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  13. Meeting the challenge of infection control

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Joan

    2001-01-01

    In today’s health care environment, many individuals are susceptible to infections. This impacts upon patient recovery and considerably increases costs to the NHS (National Audit Office 2000). \\ud \\ud Infections do not recognise institutional or societal boundaries. All health care workers (HCWs) must embrace the fact that the observance and compliance with the standard principles of infection control practice with all patients at all times will assist in minimising the transmission of infect...

  14. The training curriculum in hospital infection control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.; Allerberger, F.; Bouza, E.; Cookson, B.; Daschner, F.; Dettenkofer, M.; Gastmeier, P.; Gordts, B.; Heczko, P.B.; Jovanovic, B.; Koller, W.; Mittermeyer, H.; Nagy, E.; Richet, H.; Unal, S.; Widmer, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Standardised training curricula for infection control nurses (ICNs) and recognition of the specialty exist in many European countries, but infection control physician (ICP) is not a specialty recognised by the UEMS. To gather information on curricula for ICPs, members of the ESCMID Study Group on

  15. Journal of the Nigerian Infection Control Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of the Nigerian Infection Control Association publishes articles which deal with clinical medicine, basic medical science, dental sciences, pharmaceutical, veterinary sciences, nursing services and medical education and other related disciplines which are pertinent to infection control. Language of Publication: ...

  16. Infection control in severely burned patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood stream infections. Universal application of early excision of burned tissues has made a substantial improvement in the control of wound-related infections in burns. Additionally, the development of new technologies in wound care have helped to decrease morbidity and mortality in severe burn victims. Many examples can be given of the successful control of wound infection, such as the application of an appropriate antibiotic solution to invasive wound infection sites with simultaneous vacuum-assisted closure, optimal preservation of viable tissues with waterjet debridement systems, edema and exudate controlling dressings impregnated with Ag (Silvercel, Aquacell-Ag). The burned patient is at high risk for NI. Invasive interventions including intravenous and urinary chateterization, and entubation pose a further risk of NIs. The use of newly designed antimicrobial impregnated chateters or silicone devices may help the control of infection in these immunocomprimised patients. Strict infection control practices (physical isolation in a private room, use of gloves and gowns during patient contact) and appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy guided by laboratory surveillance culture as well as routine microbial burn wound culture are essential to help reduce the incidance of infections due to antibiotic resistant microorganisms. PMID:24701406

  17. Nosocomial infections and infection control in regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Stübner, S; Pottinger, J M; Coffin, S A; Herwaldt, L A

    2008-09-01

    Although rare, infectious complications from regional anesthesia and analgesia can be devastating. The literature on this topic consists primarily of surveys, case reports, case series, and studies in which used supplies were cultured. We derived infection control recommendations from the existing literature and compared these recommendations with existing guidelines. Structured literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, including old MEDLINE and EMBASE until 2005. Descriptive statistics were cited when applicable. Incidence rates for infectious complications vary substantially between studies and range from 3.7 to 7.2/100,000 for spinal anesthesia-associated meningitis and from 0.2 to 83/100,000 for epidural anesthesia-associated epidural abscesses. Few comprehensive prospective trials have been conducted and most case reports do not provide complete information about infection control practices. Studies using more robust methods are necessary to define the rates of infection after different regional anesthesia procedures and to identify risk factors for infections. Data on risk factors would allow anesthesiologists to develop evidence-based guidelines for placement and care of catheters used for regional anesthesia. A multicenter surveillance system may help anesthesiologists address some of the unanswered questions and to develop evidence-based infection control recommendations.

  18. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  19. Mixed Infections and their Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-29

    origin, and include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp., Escherichia cili, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridium so., and Candida...found in vounds shortly after admission may not be the same as those found several days later. Whole-body irradiation is associated with fatal septicemia ...and E. coli . The common anaerobes recovered include anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, 7 9acteroides sp., and Fusobacterium sp. INFECTIONS FO LOWING BLUNT

  20. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  1. Virus infection speeds: Theory versus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

    2010-12-01

    In order to explain the speed of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) infections, we develop a simple model that improves previous approaches to the propagation of virus infections. For VSV infections, we find that the delay time elapsed between the adsorption of a viral particle into a cell and the release of its progeny has a very important effect. Moreover, this delay time makes the adsorption rate essentially irrelevant in order to predict VSV infection speeds. Numerical simulations are in agreement with the analytical results. Our model satisfactorily explains the experimentally measured speeds of VSV infections.

  2. Infection control in equine critical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    There is a recognizable standard of practice for infection control in veterinary medicine. Effort must be given to control and prevention of infectious disease transmission within a facility and among animal populations. In the critical care setting, patients typically have a high degree of systemic illness and immune compromise, are commonly subjected to invasive procedures and placement of indwelling devices, and frequently receive antimicrobials and gastric protectants. Every equine critical care unit is distinctive in its physical and operational features and the types of patients that are managed. Infection control programs must therefore be tailored to each facility's needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment Experience of Severe Abdominal Infection after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y-g; Wu, J-S; Jiang, B.; Wang, J-H; Liu, C-P; Peng, C.; Tian, B-Z

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the causes and treatment experience of severe abdominal infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Clinical data were retrospectively analysed in perioperative severe abdominal infection of 186 orthotopic liver transplantation cases from March 2004 to November 2011. Among the 186 patients, 16 cases had severe abdominal infection: five cases had bile duct anastomotic leakage-inducing massive hydrops and infection under liver interstice, 10 cases had extens...

  4. Infection prevention and control practitioners: improving engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ann-Marie

    Every healthcare worker plays a vital part in minimising the risk of cross infection. Infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners have the skills and competencies to assist organisations in improving engagement among staff and play a vital part in achieving this. IPC practitioners have skills in clinical practice, education, research and leadership, and these skills ensure high-quality care for patients and support strategies for engaging staff. This article highlights how IPC practitioners' skills and competencies are required for preventing infection and improving staff engagement. Engaged staff generate positive outcomes for both patients and staff, which is a welcome result for all healthcare organisations.

  5. Staff Knowledge, Adherence to Infection Control Recommendations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: We evaluated hemodialysis (HD) staff knowledge, adherence to infection control recommendations and seroconversion rates for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 13 centers that continuously provided HD services in Khartoum State between June 2009 and November 2010. Methods: The ...

  6. [Infection control in the outpatient setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Diana; D'Angelo, Tonino; Passamonti, Mauro; Tarulli, Sabrina; Olori, Maria Patrizia; Viviani, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    Data regarding the observance of infection control practices in ambulatory healthcare settings is scarce. This type of data is important since the health care system has evolved in such a way that hospital stays are now briefer and there is an increased provision of healthcare in outpatient settings, such as day surgery, day hospital and ambulatory care services. Studies have shown that transmission of infectious diseases in outpatient health care settings is often associated with lack of, or insufficient adherence to, evidence-based preventive measures. Outpatients have less risk factors for nosocomial infections than inpatients, nevertheless, some high risk settings include physicians' waiting rooms (airborne and droplet transmission) and outpatient settings in which invasive procedures are performed. Preventive strategies consist in verifying the adherence to infection control guidelines (this should be done by specifically trained personnel), developing disinfection and sterilization protocols for medical devices (that are comparable to those used in hospitals), training of healthcare personnel, and development of efficacy-based infection control protocols for outpatient settings.

  7. Postoperative wound infections after a proctectomy--Patient experiences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassel, Karin; Andersson, Kristin; Koinberg, Inga-Lill; Wennström, Berith

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of perineal wound infections following proctectomy due to rectal cancer, and the importance of the communication with and the self-care...

  8. Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

    2013-02-01

    The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.

  9. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Infection Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Johnston

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past year, several situations have occurred in Canada in which patients who had recently undergone a surgical procedure were subsequently diagnosed with confirmed or suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. This raised concerns over contamination of surgical instruments: which instruments might have been contaminated from direct exposure to tissues; can instruments become cross-contaminated by exposure to other contaminated instruments; what assessment is necessary to determine cross-contamination; and what should be done with instruments that have been contaminated. Additionally, should there be a patient traceback in the face of potential but unproven exposure? Unfortunately, there are no easy answers to most of the above questions. Australia, the United Kingdom and the World Health Organization have developed guidelines for the infection control management of patients with CJD, as well as instruments and devices that come into contact with them and their tissues (1-3. Health Canada's draft CJD infection control guidelines, withdrawn from the Health Canada Web site until safety concerns regarding sodium hydroxide can be addressed, closely mirrored recommendations made in those documents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for CJD are under revision. However, a recent American publication made recommendations on what procedures should be used for reprocessing items that have been in contact with the prion protein (PrP (4. These recommendations differ substantially from the draft Canadian guidelines. This article reviews current knowledge about CJD, and highlights some of the infection control concerns and controversies.

  10. Control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, D; Segales, J; Meyns, T; Sibila, M; Pieters, M; Haesebrouck, F

    2008-01-25

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. The organism adheres to and damages the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Affected pigs show chronic coughing, are more susceptible to other respiratory infections and have a reduced performance. Control of the disease can be accomplished in a number of ways. First, management practices and housing conditions in the herd should be optimized. These include all-in/all-out production, limiting factors that may destabilize herd immunity, maintaining optimal stocking densities, prevention of other respiratory diseases, and optimal housing and climatic conditions. Strategic medication with antimicrobials active against M. hyopneumoniae and, preferably, also against major secondary bacteria may be useful during periods when the pigs are at risk for respiratory disease. Finally, commercial bacterins are widely used to control M. hyopneumoniae infections. The main effects of vaccination include less clinical symptoms, lung lesions and medication use, and improved performance. However, bacterins provide only partial protection and do not prevent colonization of the organism. Different vaccination strategies (timing of vaccination, vaccination of sows, vaccination combined with antimicrobial medication) can be used, depending on the type of herd, the production system and management practices, the infection pattern and the preferences of the pig producer. Research on new vaccines is actively occurring, including aerosol and feed-based vaccines as well as subunit and DNA vaccines. Eradication of the infection at herd level based on age-segregation and medication is possible, but there is a permanent risk for re-infections.

  11. Infection control in Dental Laboratories: A survey of Nigerian dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Transmission of infection may occur in laboratory oral healthcare setting with undermined infection control. Objective: To assess infection control knowledge and confidence in protecting self from occupational acquisition of HIV infection among Nigerian dental technology students. Methods: This ...

  12. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections when visiting (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic ... precautions Personal protective equipment Preventing infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS ...

  13. Childhood Candida Infections: Single-center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-06-01

    Results: Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with Candida infection. Of these patients 17 were male (59% and 12 were female (41%. Eleven patients were less than a year old (38%, 9 were between 1-5 years (31% and 9 were above the age of five (31%. The most important underlying disease malignancies were congenital heart disease and neurological diseases. Candida growth was determined in the blood cultures of 17 patients, the urine cultures of 10 patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid of one patient. While the most commonly used anti-fungal agent was fluconazole (51.7%, others used were caspofungin (41.3% and amfoterisin B (13.7%. No isolated Candida strain showed resistance to anti-fungal agents. Treatment was clinically and microbiologically 96.5% successful. Conclusions: Fluconazole still appears to be an effective treatment choice we believe there is a necessity to review the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values for anti-fungal agents. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 245-251

  14. Real time digital control and controlled structures experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michael J.; Knowles, Gareth J.; Rauch, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs covering the following topics are given: controlled structures technology at Grumman Corporate Research Center, active and passive control technology, experiment plans, and vacuum chamber test experiment objectives and setup.

  15. Influence of staff infection control training on infection-related quality measures in US nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasjit; Stone, Patricia W; Travers, Jasmine L; Cohen, Catherine C; Herzig, Carolyn T A

    2017-09-01

    Health care-associated infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in US nursing home residents. Ongoing training of nursing home staff is vital to the implementation of infection prevention and control processes. Our aim was to describe associations between methods, frequency, and timing of staff infection prevention and control training and infection-related quality measures. In this national survey of nursing homes, timing of staff infection prevention and control training was associated with reduced indwelling urinary catheter use. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Prevention of nosocomial infections in the pediatric ward - own experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowska, Teresa; Pawlik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Patients pediatric wards are particularly at risk of nosocomial infections. Therefore, the newest principles of prevention of infections should be implemented and monitored. 1) to determine the prevalence, etiology and clinical manifestations of nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients; 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of procedures that aim at preventing hospital rotavirus infections and catheter-related bloodstream infections; 3) to analyse the incidence of flu among staff in two consecutive seasons of the epidemic influenza H1N1 (2009/2010 and 2010/2011); 4) to promote vaccinations of the medical staff. The study involved 4432 children hospitalized from October 2007 to December 2009 and 57 medical staff (doctors, nurses, orderlies). The effectiveness was assessed of prevention procedures for nosocomial infections and morbidity, and of vaccination against influenza among the sta$, as deƒned by the Act on the prevention and suppression of infection and infectious diseases human and the criteria developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nosocomial infections were diagnosed in 2.2% of hospitalized children, where 96% were of acute gastroenteritis; 3% were bloodstream infections associated with peripheral vascular catheter. The 1% had respiratory infections (influenza). Hospital gastrointestinal infections were caused by the rotavirus (78%), norovirus (13%) and adenovirus (0.9%). In 1.1% of cases the etiology had not been determined. As a result of implementing prophylactic activities, a statistically signifiƒcant reduction of the incidence of nosocomial infections by the rotavirus was achieved (from 7.1 to 1.5%). The occurrence catheter-related bloodstream infections was entirely eliminated. Influenza and influenza-like infections were reported in 7% of the medical staff in the season of 2009/2010 and 5% in the season of 2010/2011. 42% of the medical staff was immunized against the influenza (92% of doctors, 7% nurses, 0% orderlies). The

  17. Photodynamic antimicrobial polymers for infection control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin P McCoy

    Full Text Available Hospital-acquired infections pose both a major risk to patient wellbeing and an economic burden on global healthcare systems, with the problem compounded by the emergence of multidrug resistant and biocide tolerant bacterial pathogens. Many inanimate surfaces can act as a reservoir for infection, and adequate disinfection is difficult to achieve and requires direct intervention. In this study we demonstrate the preparation and performance of materials with inherent photodynamic, surface-active, persistent antimicrobial properties through the incorporation of photosensitizers into high density poly(ethylene (HDPE using hot-melt extrusion, which require no external intervention except a source of visible light. Our aim is to prevent bacterial adherence to these surfaces and eliminate them as reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens, thus presenting a valuable advance in infection control. A two-layer system with one layer comprising photosensitizer-incorporated HDPE, and one layer comprising HDPE alone is also described to demonstrate the versatility of our approach. The photosensitizer-incorporated materials are capable of reducing the adherence of viable bacteria by up to 3.62 Log colony forming units (CFU per square centimeter of material surface for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and by up to 1.51 Log CFU/cm(2 for Escherichia coli. Potential applications for the technology are in antimicrobial coatings for, or materials comprising objects, such as tubing, collection bags, handrails, finger-plates on hospital doors, or medical equipment found in the healthcare setting.

  18. Photodynamic antimicrobial polymers for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Colin P; O'Neil, Edward J; Cowley, John F; Carson, Louise; De Baróid, Áine T; Gdowski, Greg T; Gorman, Sean P; Jones, David S

    2014-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections pose both a major risk to patient wellbeing and an economic burden on global healthcare systems, with the problem compounded by the emergence of multidrug resistant and biocide tolerant bacterial pathogens. Many inanimate surfaces can act as a reservoir for infection, and adequate disinfection is difficult to achieve and requires direct intervention. In this study we demonstrate the preparation and performance of materials with inherent photodynamic, surface-active, persistent antimicrobial properties through the incorporation of photosensitizers into high density poly(ethylene) (HDPE) using hot-melt extrusion, which require no external intervention except a source of visible light. Our aim is to prevent bacterial adherence to these surfaces and eliminate them as reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens, thus presenting a valuable advance in infection control. A two-layer system with one layer comprising photosensitizer-incorporated HDPE, and one layer comprising HDPE alone is also described to demonstrate the versatility of our approach. The photosensitizer-incorporated materials are capable of reducing the adherence of viable bacteria by up to 3.62 Log colony forming units (CFU) per square centimeter of material surface for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and by up to 1.51 Log CFU/cm(2) for Escherichia coli. Potential applications for the technology are in antimicrobial coatings for, or materials comprising objects, such as tubing, collection bags, handrails, finger-plates on hospital doors, or medical equipment found in the healthcare setting.

  19. Nanoparticles and the control of oral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaker, Robert P; Memarzadeh, Kaveh

    2014-02-01

    The potential of antimicrobial nanoparticles to control oral infections is reviewed. Such particles can be classified as having a size no greater than 100 nm and are produced using traditional or more novel techniques. Exploitation of the toxic properties of nanoparticles to bacteria, fungi and viruses, in particular metals and metal oxides, as well as their incorporation into polymeric materials have increased markedly over the past decade. The potential of nanoparticles to control the formation of biofilms within the oral cavity, as a function of their biocidal, anti-adhesive and delivery capabilities, is now receiving close attention. Latest insights into the application of nanoparticles within this field, including their use in photodynamic therapy, will be reviewed. Possible approaches to alter biocompatibility and desired function will also be covered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. The surgical approach to infective endocarditis: 10 year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrah, Rabin; Rudis, Ehud; Elami, Amir; Milgalter, Eli; Izhar, Uzi; Merin, Gideon

    2003-09-01

    About 40% of patients with infective endocarditis will require surgical treatment. The guidelines for such treatment were formulated by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association in 1998. To examine our experience with surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in light of these guidelines. Surgery was performed in 59 patients with infective endocarditis between 1990 and 1999. The patients' mean age was 48 years (range 13-80). The indications for surgery were hemodynamic instability, uncontrolled infection, and peripheral embolic events. The surgical treatment was based on elimination of infection foci and correction of the hemodynamic derangement. These objectives were met with valve replacement in the majority of patients. Whenever conservative surgery was possible, resection of vegetation and subsequent valve repair were performed and the native valve was preserved. Six patients (10%) died perioperatively from overwhelming sepsis (n = 3), low cardiac output (n = 2) and multiogran failure (n = 1). The mean hospital stay was 15.6 days. Of 59 patients, 47 (80%) underwent valve replacement and in 11 (19%) the surgical treatment was based on valve repair. After 1 year of follow-up there was no re-infection. The new guidelines for surgical treatment of infective endocarditis allow better selection of patients and timing of surgery for this aggressive disease, which consequently decreases the mortality rate. Valve repair is feasible and is preferred whenever possible. According to the new guidelines, patients with neurologic deficit in our series would not have been operated upon, potentially decreasing the operative mortality to 7%.

  1. Evolution of equine infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradford P

    2004-12-01

    The science of control of infectious diseases in hospitals was born in 1847 when Semmelweis, a physician, ordered his medical students to scrub their hands in chlorinated lime water between patients and demonstrated that this simple procedure resulted ina dramatic decline in patient morbidity and mortality. In the late nineteenth century came huge breakthroughs in the understanding that microorganisms cause many disorders, and methods to eliminate and control these microorganisms were attempted. By 1910, sterile instruments, gowns, masks, and gloves had become standard for surgical procedures in large university human hospitals, and isolation of human and veterinary patients with contagious diseases became standard. With the advent of vaccines, many epidemic viral diseases could be controlled, and antimicrobial drugs allowed many previously devastating bacterial diseases to be treated effectively. Before long, however, bacterial resistance became an important issue and remains so today, particularly for Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in horses. Vaccination has decreased the number of animals susceptible to equine influenza and equine herpesvirus 1, yet these contagious diseases still pose a serious issue in large equine veterinary hospitals. The development of equine isolation facilities and improved methods of barn cleaning; mandatory application of procedures, such as handwashing or use of disinfectant hand wipes, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases; and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and use of restricted antimicrobial drugs were driven by recognition and necessity and have given rise to current equine infection control programs.

  2. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Laus, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in hospital institutions regarding structure and process indicators. this is a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study conducted in 2013. The study population comprised 13 Nosocomial Infection Control Programs of health services in a Brazilian city of the state of São Paulo. Public domain instruments available in the Manual of Evaluation Indicators of Nosocomial Infection Control Practices were used. The indicators with the highest average compliance were "Evaluation of the Structure of the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs" (75%) and "Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Nosocomial Infection" (82%) and those with the lowest mean compliance scores were "Evaluation of Operational Guidelines" (58.97%) and "Evaluation of Activities of Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection" (60.29%). The use of indicators identified that, despite having produced knowledge about prevention and control of nosocomial infections, there is still a large gap between the practice and the recommendations.

  3. Induced rhinovirus infection under controlled exposure to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, I. (Aarhus, Univ., Denmark); Jensen, P.L.; Reed, S.E.; Craig, J.W.; Proctor, D.F.; Adams, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between short-term sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) exposure and experimentally induced rhinovirus infection was studied in thirty-two volunteers divided into two groups balanced with respect to age, antibody levels, and nasal mucous flow rates. One group was exposed to SO/sub 2/ at the threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 ppM during 4 hours; the other group served as controls exposed to pollution-free air under the same conditions. The SO/sub 2/ exposure caused a 50% decrease in nasal mucous flow rate in the anterior parts of the nose, but there was no difference in the number of colds which developed in the two groups. The group exposed to SO/sub 2/ had fewer symptoms and a possibly shorter incubation period (P = .06), and virus shedding was at a lower level but more persistent than in the control group. No differences were found in antibody response. The rhinovirus infection in the control group caused a gradual decrease in nasal mucus flow rate starting 2 days after the virus instillation, and after 5 days the rate was less than half its initial value. For future experiments on the interaction between airborne pollutants and rhinovirus infections, a virus challenge by aerosol inhalation is recommended. Our study supports an earlier observation that growth of influenza virus in the nasal cavity of mice was inhibited by exposure to SO/sub 2/ concentrations of 6 or 20 ppM.

  4. Pathology Laboratories and Infection Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory health care workers are vulnerable to infection with the Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs while receiving, handling and disposing biological samples. Ideally the infrastructure of the lab should be according to the best practices like good ventilation, room pressure differential, lighting, space adequacy, hand hygiene facilities, personal protective equipments, biological safety cabinets etc. Disinfection of the environment, and specific precautions with sharps and microbial cultures should follow the protocols and policies of the Infection Prevention and Control Practices (IPAC. If Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Legionella pneumophila are expected, diagnostic tests should be performed in a bio-safety level 3 facilities (for agents which may cause serious or potentially lethal disease in healthy adults after inhalation. Laboratory access should be limited only to people working in it.Along with the advent of new technologies and advanced treatment we are now facing problems with the dreadful HAIs with Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms (AROs which is taking a pandemic form. According to WHO, hundreds of millions of patients develop HAI every year worldwide and as many as 1.4 million occur each day in hospitals alone. The principal goals for hospital IPAC programs are to protect the patient, protect the health care worker (HCW, visitors, and other persons in the health environment, and to accomplish the previous goals in a cost-effective manner like hand hygiene, surveillance, training of the HCWs, initiating awareness programs and making Best Practices and Guidelines to be followed by everyone in the hospital.The initiation for the best practices in the Pathology Laboratories can be either Sporadic or Organizational. Sporadic initiation is when the laboratories make their own IPAC policies. It has been seen that in few centres these policies have been conceptualized but not materialized. Organizational initiation is much more

  5. Infection control in anaesthesia in regional, tertiary and central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-10

    Sep 10, 2012 ... potential vector for infection in the nosocomial transmission ... to observe current infection control practices among anaesthetic nurses regarding the ... Do you feel that you have enough time between each case to adequately ...

  6. Viscosity Control Experiment Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Heidi E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Turbulent mix has been invoked to explain many results in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density (HED) physics, such as reduced yield in capsule implosions. Many ICF capsule implosions exhibit interfacial instabilities seeded by the drive shock, but it is not clear that fully developed turbulence results from this. Many simulations use turbulent mix models to help match simulation results to data, but this is not appropriate if turbulence is not present. It would be useful to have an experiment where turbulent mixing could be turned on or off by design. The use of high-Z dopants to modify viscosity and the resulting influence on turbulence is considered here. A complicating factor is that the plasma in some implosions can become strongly coupled, which makes the Spitzer expression for viscosity invalid. We first consider equations that cover a broad parameter space in temperature and density to address regimes for various experimental applications. Next, a previous shock-tube and other ICF experiments that investigate viscosity or use doping to examine the effects on yield are reviewed. How viscosity and dopants play a role in capsule yield depends on the region and process under consideration. Experiments and simulations have been performed to study the effects of viscosity on both the hot spot and the fuel/ablator mix. Increases in yield have been seen for some designs, but not all. We then discuss the effect of adding krypton dopant to the gas region of a typical OMEGA and a 2-shock NIF implosion to determine approximately the effect of adding dopant on the computed Reynolds number. Recommendations for a path forward for possible experiments using high-Z dopants to affect viscosity and turbulence are made.

  7. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to infections: a tropical experience!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodan, P; Chakrapani, M; Shetty, M; Pavan, R; Bhat, P

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal hyper inflammatory condition, if not recognized and treated in time. A high index of suspicion can help identify the condition early. This condition can occur in the primary or secondary form. Secondary HLH or hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) secondary to infections is an important clinical entity especially in tropical world. In this article, we share our experience with this entity and make an attempt to explore literature about ravenous macrophages which occurs secondary to infections. It is a series of six cases of HLH secondary to infectious disease in our center in a coastal city in South India over last one year with follow up.

  8. Infiltrating regulatory B cells control neuroinflammation following viral brain infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutnal, Manohar B; Hu, Shuxian; Schachtele, Scott J; Lokensgard, James R

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of a subset of B lymphocytes, regulatory B cells (Bregs), which modulate immune function. In this study, in vivo and in vitro experiments were undertaken to elucidate the role of these Bregs in controlling neuroinflammation following viral brain infection. We used multicolor flow cytometry to phenotype lymphocyte subpopulations infiltrating the brain, along with in vitro cocultures to assess their anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory roles. This distinctive subset of CD19(+)CD1d(hi)CD5(+) B cells was found to infiltrate the brains of chronically infected animals, reaching highest levels at the latest time point tested (30 d postinfection). B cell-deficient Jh(-/-) mice were found to develop exacerbated neuroimmune responses as measured by enhanced accumulation and/or retention of CD8(+) T cells within the brain, as well as increased levels of microglial activation (MHC class II). Conversely, levels of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were found to be significantly lower in Jh(-/-) mice when compared with wild-type (Wt) animals. Further experiments showed that in vitro-generated IL-10-secreting Bregs (B10) were able to inhibit cytokine responses from microglia following stimulation with viral Ags. These in vitro-generated B10 cells were also found to promote proliferation of regulatory T cells in coculture studies. Finally, gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that reconstitution of Wt B cells into Jh(-/-) mice restored neuroimmune responses to levels exhibited by infected Wt mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Bregs modulate T lymphocyte as well as microglial cell responses within the infected brain and promote CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cell proliferation in vitro. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Prevention and Control of MRSA Infection

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 信一; 井上, 正樹; Shinichi, FUJITA; Masaki, INOUE; 金沢大学大学院医学系研究科; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University; Department of Reproductive Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University

    2003-01-01

    Many efficacious antimicrobial agents have beem developed in the latter half of the 20th century, and this has enabled us to overcome bacterial infections. However, various drug-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been emerging. MRSA strains used to be isolated not only from compromised patients with nosocomial infection but also from patients with community-acquired infection. MRSA infection is difficult to treat because of the strong pathogen...

  10. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  11. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to infections: A tropical experience!

    OpenAIRE

    P Kodan; Chakrapani, M.; Shetty, M.; Pavan, R; Bhat, P.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal hyper inflammatory condition, if not recognized and treated in time. A high index of suspicion can help identify the condition early. This condition can occur in the primary or secondary form. Secondary HLH or hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) secondary to infections is an important clinical entity especially in tropical world. In this article, we share our experience with this entity and make an attempt to explore literature about r...

  12. Serratia Infections: from Military Experiments to Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlen, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Serratia species, in particular Serratia marcescens, are significant human pathogens. S. marcescens has a long and interesting taxonomic, medical experimentation, military experimentation, and human clinical infection history. The organisms in this genus, particularly S. marcescens, were long thought to be nonpathogenic. Because S. marcescens was thought to be a nonpathogen and is usually red pigmented, the U.S. military conducted experiments that attempted to ascertain the spread of...

  13. Compliance to infection prevention and control guidelines among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections ,commonly known as hospital acquired infections (HAI) include several pathogens like Escherichia coli, Hepatitis viruses, HIV, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus etc. These agents are transmitted directly or indirectly. Prevention and control of Nosocomial infections is the most important approach in ...

  14. Iron-controlled infection with Neisseria meningitidis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, B E

    1980-01-01

    An iron-controlled infection was obtained after the intraperitoneal infection of Neisseria meningitidis strain M1011 into normal mice. The infection progressed rapidly but then disappeared in concert with the disappearance of plasma transferrin iron. Parenteral iron dextran enhanced and prolonged the infection in mice at dosages above 15 mg of Fe per kg. Studies on the distribution of iron dextran within the physiological iron pools and the importance of timing with the iron dextran addition indicated that high serum iron, available early during infection, was necessary to promote infection. High levels of iron in the reticuloendothelial system did not stimulate infection. A working hypothesis to explain the roles of iron in infection was developed: N. meningitidis obtains iron for growth from the transferrin pool, and iron dextran maintains transferrin iron levels during infection. PMID:6159328

  15. Iron-controlled infection with Neisseria meningitidis in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Holbein, B E

    1980-01-01

    An iron-controlled infection was obtained after the intraperitoneal infection of Neisseria meningitidis strain M1011 into normal mice. The infection progressed rapidly but then disappeared in concert with the disappearance of plasma transferrin iron. Parenteral iron dextran enhanced and prolonged the infection in mice at dosages above 15 mg of Fe per kg. Studies on the distribution of iron dextran within the physiological iron pools and the importance of timing with the iron dextran addition ...

  16. Hierarchical Control of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barriuso-Poy, Alex; Llobet-Valero, E

    2007-01-01

    Control systems at High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments are becoming increasingly complex mainly due to the size, complexity and data volume associated to the front-end instrumentation. In particular, this becomes visible for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN. ATLAS will be the largest particle detector ever built, result of an international collaboration of more than 150 institutes. The experiment is composed of 9 different specialized sub-detectors that perform different tasks and have different requirements for operation. The system in charge of the safe and coherent operation of the whole experiment is called Detector Control System (DCS). This thesis presents the integration of the ATLAS DCS into a global control tree following the natural segmentation of the experiment into sub-detectors and smaller sub-systems. The integration of the many different systems composing the DCS includes issues such as: back-end organization, process model identification, fault detection, synchronization ...

  17. [Infection control and hand hygiene in nursing homes in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Ingrid; Thorstad, Margrete; Andersen, Bjørg Marit

    2008-06-26

    Nosocomial infections and transmission can be substantially reduced by good infection control. The laws and regulations for infection control in heath care institutions emphasize establishment of infection control programs and improved hand hygiene. Our study reviews some factors that are important for practicing adequate hand hygiene (knowledge about infection control and hand-washing facilities). Health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes in Oslo participated in this study in 2006-2007. A questionnaire was made and SPSS was used to analyse the data . 70.7% of 324 HCW (in 42 nursing homes) answered the questionnaires. Nearly all of the respondents (95.6%) knew about the written procedures for hygiene and infection control; 88.5% knew that an infection control program was in place and about 50% had received information through internal education. Three of four had read the National guidelines for hand hygiene, 77.5% thought that hand disinfection was more effective than hand washing, and 97% reported hand hygiene after contact with a patient having an infection. Dispensers for hand disinfection were situated at central work places. At the same time, 17.9% informed that they worked in more than one place at the same time. This study confirms that most nursing homes in Oslo have an infection control program and training that improves the knowledge and awareness of hand hygiene among HCWs. However, the fact that nursing homes in Oslo have the resources, knowledge and education, is not the same as compliance.

  18. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Epidemiology, Infection Prevention, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Katherine; Bardossy, Ana Cecilia; Zervos, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections have acquired prominence as a leading cause of health care-associated infections. Understanding VRE epidemiology, transmission modes in health care settings, risk factors for colonization, and infection is essential to prevention and control of VRE infections. Infection control strategies are pivotal in management of VRE infections and should be based on patient characteristics, hospital needs, and available resources. Hand hygiene is basic to decrease acquisition of VRE. The effectiveness of surveillance and contact precautions is variable and controversial in endemic settings, but important during VRE outbreak investigations and control. Environmental cleaning, chlorhexidine bathing, and antimicrobial stewardship are vital in VRE prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlled human infection models for vaccine development: Zika virus debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2017-10-31

    An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment. They have also posited some mandatory ethical requirements which should be met before allowing the infection of healthy volunteers with the Zika virus. This commentary elaborates on the debate on the ethics of the human challenge model for the development of a Zika virus vaccine and the role of systematic ethical analysis in protecting the interests of research participants. It further analyses the importance of this debate to the development of a Zika vaccine in India.

  20. ASSISTments Dataset from Multiple Randomized Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selent, Douglas; Patikorn, Thanaporn; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dataset consisting of data generated from 22 previously and currently running randomized controlled experiments inside the ASSISTments online learning platform. This dataset provides data mining opportunities for researchers to analyze ASSISTments data in a convenient format across multiple experiments at the same time.…

  1. An assessment of cross infection control practice in Nigerian oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Infection control practice by dental personnel in Nigeria has improved compared to previous studies, particularly in the use of gloves. However in the areas of sterilization, vaccination, there are needs for improvement. Key words: Infection Control, Dental Health Care Workers, Sterilization, Immunization ...

  2. The status of tuberculosis infection control measures in health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... infection control measures available as well as the barriers if any in implementing the measures. This instrument was answered by the Infection Control Officer. In his/ her absence, TB/HIV focal person, the officer in charge of the TB clinic or the officer in charge of the HIV clinic answered the questionnaire.

  3. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to infections: A tropical experience!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a potentially fatal hyper inflammatory condition, if not recognized and treated in time. A high index of suspicion can help identify the condition early. This condition can occur in the primary or secondary form. Secondary HLH or hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS secondary to infections is an important clinical entity especially in tropical world. In this article, we share our experience with this entity and make an attempt to explore literature about ravenous macrophages which occurs secondary to infections. It is a series of six cases of HLH secondary to infectious disease in our center in a coastal city in South India over last one year with follow up.

  4. Postoperative wound infections after a proctectomy—Patient experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hassel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor perineal wound healing and infections after proctectomy surgery cause a significant proportion of physical and psychological morbidities, such as pain, leakage, and abscesses. In the long run, some of these symptoms will lead to extended periods of hospitalization. These kinds of postoperative complications are also associated with delays in possible chemotherapy treatment. The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of perineal wound infections following proctectomy due to rectal cancer, and the importance of the communication with and the self-care support from the nurse for these patients. Five women and five men (61–87 years, median age 71 years were included and interviewed. A qualitative content analysis of the interviews was carried out and the following main categories emerged: “Managing postoperative complications,” “Being independent,” “Feeling safe,” and “Accepting the situation.” A perineal wound infection after a proctectomy is devastating for the individual patient. The limitations and changes to the patients’ lives turn into new daily routines, which force them to find new ways to live and to accept the situation. For many of them, the infections remained for several months and, sometimes, for years. The ability to lead an independent life is drastically reduced, but through continuity in care it is possible to create a feeling of safety. Information, communication, and self-care support are all important and valuable factors for recovery. Specialized care containing an action plan is therefore needed in clinical practice to reduce the number of perineal wound infections postoperatively and should be initiated when the patient is discharged from the ward and continue until recovery.

  5. Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: Experience from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Montasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE, particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving re-gular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Sta-phylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphlococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

  6. What's Trending in Infection Control? Scoping and Narrative Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brett G; Petrie, Dayna; Morton, Lindsay; Dancer, Stephanie J

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the trends in infection control peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media, and blogs written by infection control professionals DESIGN Narrative and scoping reviews METHODS Narrative and scoping reviews were performed to identify trending infection prevention and control topics from international journals, national news websites, newspapers, and so-called grey literature throughout 2015. Data were analyzed using word frequencies, and results are displayed in word clouds. RESULTS For 2015, our search identified 6 news websites with a total of published 116 articles, 71 articles from selected newspapers, and 214 publications from infection control websites. In total, 1,059 journal articles were initially identified; 98 articles were anonymous and thus were excluded, leaving 961 articles in the reviews. The terms 'superbug' and 'antibiotics' were most commonly used in titles of news websites and newspapers, whereas the terms 'infection' and 'prevention' were most commonly used in infection control websites or blogs. The word frequency differences among the 4 selected journals reflected their respective specialties. CONCLUSION In infection prevention and control, the integration of a range of mediums is necessary to best serve public interests. Whether the aim is advocacy, general health information dissemination, or warnings of imminent risk, health researchers have access to multiple forums with different strengths through which to influence public risk perceptions and responses. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1098-1102.

  7. Controlling the spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negatives: therapeutic approach and infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Y; Akova, M; Cornaglia, G; Daikos, G L; Garau, J; Harbarth, S; Rossolini, G M; Souli, M; Giamarellou, H

    2010-02-01

    Although the rapid spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negatives (CPGNs) is providing the scientific community with a great deal of information about the molecular epidemiology of these enzymes and their genetic background, data on how to treat multidrug-resistant or extended drug-resistant carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and how to contain their spread are still surprisingly limited, in spite of the rapidly increasing prevalence of these organisms and of their isolation from patients suffering from life-threatening infections. Limited clinical experience and several in vitro synergy studies seem to support the view that antibiotic combinations should be preferred to monotherapies. But, in light of the data available to date, it is currently impossible to quantify the real advantage of drug combinations in the treatment of these infections. Comprehensive clinical studies of the main therapeutic options, broken down by pathogen, enzyme and clinical syndrome, are definitely lacking and, as carbapenemases keep spreading, are urgently needed. This spread is unveiling the substantial unpreparedness of European public health structures to face this worrisome emergency, although experiences from different countries-chiefly Greece and Israel-have shown that CPGN transmission and cross-infection can cause a substantial threat to the healthcare system. This unpreparedness also affects the treatment of individual patients and infection control policies, with dramatic scarcities of both therapeutic options and infection control measures. Although correct implementation of such measures is presumably cumbersome and expensive, the huge clinical and public health problems related to CPGN transmission, alongside the current scarcity of therapeutic options, seem to fully justify this choice.

  8. Mathematical modelling: a tool for hospital infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, H; Hellriegel, B

    2006-01-01

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has emerged that provides solid and testable hypotheses and opens the road to a quantitative assessment of the main obstructions that undermine current efforts to control the spread of health-care-associated infections in hospitals and communities. We aim to explain to a broader audience of professionals in health care, infection control, and health systems administration some of these models that can improve the understanding of the hidden dynamics of health-care-associated infections. We also appraise their usefulness and limitations as an innovative research and decision tool for control purposes.

  9. Plant virus infections control stomatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rose R.; Emblow, Mark S. M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-09-01

    Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV). Virus infected plants had significantly lower stomatal indices in systemic leaves of susceptible systems; N. tabacum 9.8% reduction and A. thaliana 12.3% reduction, but not in the resistant hosts. Stomatal density in systemic leaves was also significantly reduced in virus infected A. thaliana by 19.6% but not in N. tabacum or the resistant systems. In addition, transpiration rate was significantly reduced in TMV infected N. tabacum.

  10. Vital role for CD8+ cells in controlling retroviral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Melissa; Case, Laure K; Golovkina, Tatyana V

    2011-04-01

    Antiviral adaptive immune defenses consist of humoral and cell-mediated responses, which together eliminate extracellular and intracellular virus. As most retrovirus-infected individuals do not raise efficient protective antivirus immune responses, the relative importance of humoral and cell-mediated responses in restraining retroviral infection is not well understood. We utilized retrovirus-resistant I/LnJ mice, which control infection with mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) via an adaptive immune mechanism, to assess the contribution of cellular responses and virus-neutralizing antibodies (Abs) to the control of retroviral infection. We found that in retrovirus-infected CD8-deficient I/LnJ mice, viral titers exceed the neutralizing capability of antiviral Abs, resulting in augmented virus spread and disease induction. Thus, even in the presence of robust neutralizing Ab responses, CD8-mediated responses are essential for full protection against retroviral infection.

  11. Serratia Infections: from Military Experiments to Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlen, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Serratia species, in particular Serratia marcescens, are significant human pathogens. S. marcescens has a long and interesting taxonomic, medical experimentation, military experimentation, and human clinical infection history. The organisms in this genus, particularly S. marcescens, were long thought to be nonpathogenic. Because S. marcescens was thought to be a nonpathogen and is usually red pigmented, the U.S. military conducted experiments that attempted to ascertain the spread of this organism released over large areas. In the process, members of both the public and the military were exposed to S. marcescens, and this was uncovered by the press in the 1970s, leading to U.S. congressional hearings. S. marcescens was found to be a certain human pathogen by the mid-1960s. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens have been isolated as causative agents of numerous outbreaks and opportunistic infections, and the association of these organisms with point sources such as medical devices and various solutions given to hospitalized patients is striking. Serratia species appear to be common environmental organisms, and this helps to explain the large number of nosocomial infections due to these bacteria. Since many nosocomial infections are caused by multiply antibiotic-resistant strains of S. marcescens, this increases the danger to hospitalized patients, and hospital personnel should be vigilant in preventing nosocomial outbreaks due to this organism. S. marcescens, and probably other species in the genus, carries several antibiotic resistance determinants and is also capable of acquiring resistance genes. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens are usually identified well in the clinical laboratory, but the other species are rare enough that laboratory technologists may not recognize them. 16S rRNA gene sequencing may enable better identification of some of the less common Serratia species. PMID:21976608

  12. Risk of surgical site infection in paediatric herniotomies without any prophylactic antibiotics: A preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Vaze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different studies underline the use of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in clean surgeries like herniotomy and inguinal orchiopexy. But, the meta-analyses do not recommend nor discard the use of prophylactic pre-operative antibiotics. The scarcity of controlled clinical trials in paediatric population further vitiates the matter. This study assessed the difference in the rate of early post-operative wound infection cases in children who received single dose of pre-operative antibiotics and children who did not receive antibiotics after inguinal herniotomy and orchiopexy. Materials and Methods: This randomised prospective study was conducted in Paediatric Surgery department of PGIMER Chandigarh. Out of 251 patients, 112 patients were randomised to the case group and 139 were ascribed to the control group. The patients in control group were given a standard regimen of single dose of intravenous antibiotic at the time of induction followed by 3-4 days of oral antibiotic. Case group patients underwent the surgical procedure in similar manner with no antibiotic either at the time of induction or post-operatively. Results: The incidence of surgical site infection in case group was 3.73 % and that in control group was 2.22%. The observed difference in the incidence of surgical site infection was statistically insignificant (P value = 0.7027. The overall infection rate in case and control group was 2.89%. Conclusions: Our preliminary experience suggests that there is no statistically significant difference in the proportion of early post-operative wound infection between the patients who received single dose of pre-operative antibiotics and the patients who received no antibiotics after inguinal herniotomy and orchiopexy. The risk of surgical site infection in paediatric heriotomies does not increase even if the child′s weight is less than his/her expected weight for age.

  13. HIV infection and treatment: beyond viral control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Since 1996, Infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) can be successfully treated with a combination therapy of 3 antiviral drugs from 2 different classes. Life expectancy has increased dramatically by this treatment. Especially in the early years these combination therapies had many

  14. Exploring the context for effective clinical governance in infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Kate; Hall, Lisa; Gardner, Anne; MacBeth, Deborough; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-03-01

    Effective clinical governance is necessary to support improvements in infection control. Historically, the focus has been on ensuring that infection control practice and policy is based on evidence, and that there is use of surveillance and auditing for self-regulation and performance feedback. There has been less exploration of how contextual and organizational factors mediate an infection preventionists (IP's) ability to engage with evidence-based practice and enact good clinical governance. A cross sectional Web-based survey of IPs in Australia and New Zealand was undertaken. Questions focused on engagement in evidence-based practice and perceptions about the context, culture, and leadership within the infection control team and organization. Responses were mapped against dimensions of Scally and Donaldson's clinical governance framework. Three hundred surveys were returned. IPs appear well equipped at an individual level to undertake evidence-based practice. The most serious set of perceived challenges to good clinical governance related to a lack of leadership or active resistance to infection control within the organization. Additional challenges included lack of information technology solutions and poor access to specialist expertise and financial resources. Focusing on strengthening contextual factors at the organizational level that otherwise undermine capacity to implement evidence-based practice is key to sustaining current infection control successes and promoting further practice improvements. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GEECS (Generalized Equipment and Experiment Control System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-12

    GEECS (Generalized Equipment and Experiment Control System) monitors and controls equipment distributed across a network, performs experiments by scanning input variables, and collects and stores various types of data synchronously from devices. Examples of devices include cameras, motors and pressure gauges. GEEKS is based upon LabView graphical object oriented programming (GOOP), allowing for a modular and scalable framework. Data is published for subscription of an arbitrary number of variables over TCP. A secondary framework allows easy development of graphical user interfaces for a combined control of any available devices on the control system without the need of programming knowledge. This allows for rapid integration of GEECS into a wide variety of systems. A database interface provides for devise and process configuration while allowing the user to save large quantities of data to local or network drives.

  16. Impact of an online course on infection control and prevention competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, Lynda; Luke, Robert

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the impact of an online course on nurses' and allied healthcare professionals' competency in infection prevention and control and the influence of organizational climate on knowledge transfer. Nosocomial infection, globalization, international travel and bacterial resistance are among the factors contributing to heightened awareness of the importance of infection prevention and control in today's healthcare environment. An online course in infection control was developed to facilitate the delivery of standardized training to large numbers of health providers. A quasi-experimental, pre-and post-test study using questionnaires and open-ended questions was conducted in 2006 with a convenience sample of 76 healthcare professionals, the majority of whom were Registered Nurses. Participants made statistically significant increases in their perceptions of competency in infection control following the course. The majority were very satisfied with the course and reported that what they had learned was useful and relevant to their practice. Participants who worked in supportive organizations that were open to change reported a higher incidence of knowledge transfer activities. Two course design features in particular, video and interactive quizzes and games, motivated learners and enhanced the learning experience. Online learning can provide ongoing, convenient and effective access to up-to-date information on best practices in infection control and prevention. This standardized delivery approach minimizes demand on limited training resources which are under strain and gives learners the opportunity to refresh 'rusty' infection control and prevention skills.

  17. Education in infection control : A need for European certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingg, W.; Mutters, N. T.; Harbarth, S.; Friedrich, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are common adverse events in acute-care medicine, causing significant morbidity and mortality. There has been a significant increase in the commitment to infection prevention and control (IPC) among European countries in recent years. However, there is still

  18. 75 FR 50770 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance... September 6, 2010. Agenda items are subject to change as priorities dictate. Contact Person For More..., NE., Mailstop A-07, Atlanta, Georgia 30333; E-mail: HICPAC@cdc.gov . The Director, Management...

  19. 76 FR 29756 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance... subject to change as priorities dictate. Contact Person for More Information: Heidi Williams, HICPAC..., Georgia 30333, Telephone (404) 639-4227. Email: hicpac@cdc.gov . The Director, Management Analysis and...

  20. Mathematical modelling: a tool for hospital infection control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Hellriegel, B.

    2006-01-01

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  1. Mathematical modelling : a tool for hospital infection control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, H; Hellriegel, B

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  2. Mathematical modelling: a tool for hospital infection control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Hellriegel, B

    2006-01-01

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  3. Nosocomial infections in developing countries: Cost effective control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the efficient and cost-effective preventive, control and surveillance measures that could be employed against nosocomial infections in developing countries. Data sources: Literature search on compact disk-read only memory (CD-ROM), Medline and Internet, using the key words: nosocomial infection, ...

  4. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Conditions of Participation: Patient Care § 418.60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective... result in improvement and disease prevention. (c) Standard: Education. The hospice must provide infection...

  5. Infection Control Measures in Private Dental Clinics in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad Dagher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate infection control knowledge, attitude, and practice in Lebanese private dental clinics. Materials and Methods. A survey including 46 questions related to routine safety procedures was sent to 1150 Lebanese dentists between July 1st and 2nd, 2015. The study sample was selected from the database of registered dentists based on a proportional random sampling ensuring equitable representation of the 5 geographic regions of Lebanon. A subset of 29 questions was used to generate an overall score of compliance (excellent, good, fair, and poor. Comparisons according to gender, type, region, and years of practice were performed. Results. 417 dentists returned the completed questionnaires. 96% expressed concern about infection transmission, 90.6% were vaccinated against Hepatitis B, and 61.8% asked routinely about patients medical history. Only 43% used protective eyewear. Although most dentists (65% used autoclaves, dry heat was still used. Significant correlations were found between gender and use of personal protective equipment. Less compliance was shown by clinicians with fewer years of experience. In the overall compliance questionnaire, the mean percentage of correct answers was roughly 54% with <5% of the practitioners scoring “excellent.” Conclusions. The study found inadequacy of compliance in private Lebanese dental clinics necessitating improved educational training and sustained monitoring by regulatory bodies.

  6. Infection prevention and control – quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Broad, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Effective hand hygiene is one of the easiest ways to reduce healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) (WHO 2009a). This study is based on a previous study by Barrett and Randle (2008) which examined student nurses knowledge and the barriers that they faced to hand hygiene compliance. A thorough literature review revealed a lack of empirical studies that examined Health care workers hand hygiene practices within nursing homes. This study consequently examined HCWs’ perceptions of t...

  7. Enterovirus 71 infection: An experience in Korea, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hyo Kim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been recognized as a frequent cause of epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD associated with severe neurological symptoms. In the spring of 2009, HFMD was epidemic in Korea. Severe cases with complication, including death, have been reported and it has become a public health issue. Most symptomatic EV71 infections commonly result in HFMD or herpangina. These clinical manifestations can be associated with neurologic syndromes frequently. Neurologic syndromes observed in EV71 include meningitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, poliomyelitis-like paralytic disease, Guillain-Barr&eacute; syndrome, transverse myelitis, cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, benign intracranial hypertension, and brainstem encephalitis. Examinations for EV 71 were performed from the stools, respiratory secretion or CSF of the children by realtime PCR. Gene analysis showed that most of them were caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a which was prevalent in China, 2008. Public health measures including personal and environmental hygiene, must to target daycare centers, kindergartens, and schools where highly susceptible children congregate. To prevent the spread of infection, preschools where transmission persists for more than 2 incubation periods, have been recommended for closure, and trigger criteria for voluntary closure was instituted. During closure, operators are to thoroughly clean the centers before they are allowed to reopen. In addition, parents are advised to ensure that their children adopt a high standard of personal hygiene and to keep the infected child at home until full recovery. Because the outbreaks occur in a cyclical pattern, surveillance system to predict next outbreaks and adequate public health measures to control need to be planned for future. Control of EV71 epidemics through surveillance and public health intervention needs to be maintained in Korea. Future research should focus on understanding of EV71

  8. Distributed control network for optogenetic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, G.; Juszczyk, B.; Mankiewicz, L.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays optogenetic experiments are constructed to examine social behavioural relations in groups of animals. A novel concept of implantable device with distributed control network and advanced positioning capabilities is proposed. It is based on wireless energy transfer technology, micro-power radio interface and advanced signal processing.

  9. Bicycle Rider Control : Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby

  10. How to Treat Impetigo and Control This Common Skin Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How to Treat Impetigo and Control This Common Skin Infection Share Tweet ... Thomas D. Smith, MD, of FDA. What Causes Impetigo Two types of bacteria found on our skin ...

  11. The status of tuberculosis infection control measures in health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of tuberculosis infection control measures in health care facilities rendering joint TB/ HIV services in “German Leprosy and Tuberculosis Relief Association” supported states in Nigeria.

  12. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  13. Infection control practices related to Clostridium difficile infection in acute care hospitals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Denise; Gardam, Michael; Taylor, Geoffrey; Miller, Mark; Simor, Andrew; McGeer, Allison; Hutchinson, James; Moore, Dorothy; Kelly, Sharon; Mulvey, Michael

    2009-02-01

    We carried out a survey to identify the infection prevention and control practices in place in Canadian hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP). An infection prevention and control practices survey was sent to CNISP hospitals at the beginning of November 2004, the same time that CNISP started a 6-month prospective surveillance for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) to evaluate their infection prevention and control measures and laboratory methods for C difficile. A total of 33 hospitals completed and returned the survey. Infection control precautions were initiated in 18 hospitals (55%) due to the presence of a symptomatic patient before the C difficile laboratory tests were available. All of the hospitals used gloves and gowns as additional precautions. Twenty-three hospitals (70%) tested liquid stools based on a clinician's order, and 8 (24%) tested all liquid stools submitted whether of not C difficile testing was requested. The hospitals used 1 of 3 different products as a standard hospital-wide disinfectant; 24 (73%) used a quaternary ammonium compound, 8 (24%) used accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 1 (3%) used a hypochlorite solution (1:10 bleach solution). Although the hospitals used contact precautions quite uniformly, considerable variation was seen among hospitals in terms of testing strategies, cleaning and disinfection protocols and products, and isolation practices. The timing for the initiation of infection control precautions is important to prevent secondary transmission of CDI. Most of the hospitals implemented precautions while waiting for the toxin assay results.

  14. 77 FR 28392 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting of...., June 15, 2012. Place: CDC, Global Communications Center, Building 19, Auditorium B3, 1600 Clifton Road...

  15. 77 FR 4820 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announce the following meeting for...., February 17, 2012. Place: CDC, Global Communications Center, Building 19, Auditorium B3, 1600 Clifton Road...

  16. Developing and evaluating interventions to reduce inappropriate prescribing by general practitioners of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: A randomised controlled trial to compare paper-based and web-based modelling experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Frank

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much implementation research is focused on full-scale trials with little evidence of preceding modelling work. The Medical Research Council Framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions has argued for more and better theoretical and exploratory work prior to a trial as a means of improving intervention development. Intervention modelling experiments (IMEs are a way of exploring and refining an intervention before moving to a full-scale trial. They do this by delivering key elements of the intervention in a simulation that approximates clinical practice by, for example, presenting general practitioners (GPs with a clinical scenario about making a treatment decision. Methods The current proposal will run a full, web-based IME involving 250 GPs that will advance the methodology of IMEs by directly comparing results with an earlier paper-based IME. Moreover, the web-based IME will evaluate an intervention that can be put into a full-scale trial that aims to reduce antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in primary care. The study will also include a trial of email versus postal invitations to participate. Discussion More effective behaviour change interventions are needed and this study will develop one such intervention and a system to model and test future interventions. This system will be applicable to any situation in the National Health Service where behaviour needs to be modified, including interventions aimed directly at the public. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT01206738

  17. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  18. Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; McCarthy, James S; Good, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development, where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early-phase proof-of-concept clinical studies, thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in areas where malaria is endemic. Controlled infections have also been used to immunize against malaria infection. Historically, CHMI studies have been restricted by the need for access to insectaries housing infected mosquitoes or suitable malaria-infected individuals. Evaluation of vaccine and drug candidates has been constrained in these studies by the availability of a limited number of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Recent advances have included cryopreservation of sporozoites, the manufacture of well-characterized and genetically distinct cultured malaria cell banks for blood-stage infection, and the availability of Plasmodium vivax -specific reagents. These advances will help to accelerate malaria vaccine and drug development by making the reagents for CHMI more widely accessible and also enabling a more rigorous evaluation with multiple parasite strains and species. Here we discuss the different applications of CHMI, recent advances in the use of CHMI, and ongoing challenges for consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Computer controls for the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, M; Van Gorp, S; Friedag, P; De Leebeeck, V; Beck, D; Brand, H; Weinheimer, C; Breitenfeldt, M; Traykov, E; Mader, J; Roccia, S; Severijns, N; Herlert, A; Wauters, F; Zakoucky, D; Kozlov, V; Soti, G

    2011-01-01

    The WITCH experiment is a medium-scale experimental set-up located at ISOLDE/CERN. It combines a double Penning trap system with,a retardation spectrometer for energy measurements of recoil ions from beta decay. For a correct operation of such a set-up a whole range of different devices is required. Along with the installation and optimization of the set-up a computer control system was developed to control these devices. The CS-Framework that is developed and maintained at GSI, was chosen as a basis for this control system as it is perfectly suited to handle the distributed nature of a control system.We report here on the required hardware for WITCH, along with the basis of this CS-Framework and the add-ons that were implemented for WITCH. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  1. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby develop well handling bicycles for specific user groups in a much shorter time span. The recent benchmarking of the Whipple bicycle model for the balance and steer of a bicycle is an opening enabling t...

  2. CD8+ T cells control Ross River virus infection in musculoskeletal tissues of infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Kristina S.; Montgomery, Stephanie A.; Homann, Dirk; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and related alphaviruses cause debilitating polyarthralgia and myalgia. Mouse models of RRV and CHIKV have demonstrated a role for the adaptive immune response in the control of these infections. However, questions remain regarding the role for T cells in viral control, including the magnitude, location, and dynamics of CD8+ T cell responses. To address these questions, we generated a recombinant RRV expressing the H-2b-restricted gp33 determinant derived from the glycoprotein (gp) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) (“RRV-LCMV”). Utilizing tetramers, we tracked gp33-specific CD8+ T cells during RRV-LCMV infection. We found that acute RRV infection induces activation of CD8+ T cell responses in lymphoid and musculoskeletal tissues that peak from 10 to 14 days post-inoculation (dpi), suggesting that CD8+ T cells contribute to control of acute RRV infection. Mice genetically deficient for CD8+ T cells or wild-type mice depleted of CD8+ T cells had elevated RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue, but not joint-associated tissues, at 14 dpi, suggesting that the ability of CD8+ T cells to control RRV infection is tissue-dependent. Finally, adoptively transferred T cells were capable of reducing RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue of Rag1−/− mice, indicating that T cells can contribute to the control of RRV infection in the absence of B cells and antibody. Collectively, these data demonstrate a role for T cells in the control of RRV infection and suggest that the antiviral capacity of T cells is controlled in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:25488988

  3. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Abreu Moreira-Souza

    Full Text Available Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane--subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies--whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection.

  4. Situational Analysis on Infection Control Practices in DOTS Centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross sectional descriptive study, 46 primary health care facilities were selected as units of investigation by means of simple random sampling method. Instruments used for data collection were the infection control checklist (modified with the world Centre for Disease Control and Prevention),a selfadministered and an ...

  5. Can quality circles improve hospital-acquired infection control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, D H; Krause, G; Gastmeier, P; Ebner, W; Rath, A; Wischnewski, N; Lacour, M; Rüden, H; Daschner, F D

    2000-08-01

    It is a fundamental principle of continuous quality improvement (CQI) that processes should be the objects of quality improvement. The objective of this study was to improve process quality concerning the prevention of hospital-acquired infections in surgical departments and intensive care units by a continuous quality improvement (CQI) approach based mainly on quality circles. This approach was evaluated in a prospective controlled intervention study in medium-size acute care hospitals (four intervention and four control hospitals). During two intervention periods (each 10 months) four external physicians with training in hospital epidemiology and infection control introduced and supervised quality circles in the intervention hospitals. Process quality was assessed by interviewing senior staff members before the first and after the second intervention period using standardized questionnaires. The gold standard process quality was defined on the basis of the CDC/HICPAC-guidelines for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Most of the evaluated aspects of process quality belonged to the HICPAC-categories IA and IB respectively, the CDC category I. Fifty quality circle sessions were performed in the four intervention hospitals of which 28 were dealing directly with key subjects in infection control. In the intervention hospitals, 19.8% of evaluated aspects of process quality which concerned the prevention of hospital-acquired infections were improved compared to only 6.9% in the control hospitals (Pquality were initiated by the results of the quality circles. Our study demonstrates that a CQI approach based on infection control quality circles can lead to a substantial improvement of process quality regarding the prevention of hospital-acquired infections.

  6. Updated recommendations for control of surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J Wesley; Solomkin, Joseph S; Edwards, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study is to provide updated guidelines for the prevention of surgical wound infections based upon review and interpretation of the current and past literature. The development and treatment of surgical wound infections has always been a limiting factor to the success of surgical treatment. Although continuous improvements have been made, surgical site infections continue to occur at an unacceptable rate, annually costing billions of dollars in economic loss caused by associated morbidity and mortality. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) provided extensive recommendations for the control of surgical infections in 1999. Review of the current literature with interpretation of the findings has been done to update the recommendations. New and sometimes conflicting studies indicate that coordination and application of techniques and procedures to decrease wound infections will be highly successful, even in patients with very high risks. This review suggests that uniform adherence to the proposed guidelines for the prevention of surgical infections could reduce wound infections significantly; namely to a target of less than 0.5% in clean wounds, less than 1% in clean contaminated wounds and less than 2% in highly contaminated wounds and decrease related costs to less than one-half of the current amount.

  7. Controversies in isolation and general infection control practices in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jane D

    2002-01-01

    Current controversies in pediatric isolation and infection control include correct application of standard precautions, importance of providing adequate staffing levels in intensive care units to prevent transmission of infectious agents, use of rapid diagnostic testing and best precautions to prevent transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, best methods to prevent transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms in acute care settings, and preventing transmission of infections to pregnant healthcare workers. Recommendations are evidence-based.

  8. Efficacy of an infection control programme in reducing nosocomial bloodstream infections in a Senegalese neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landre-Peigne, C; Ka, A S; Peigne, V; Bougere, J; Seye, M N; Imbert, P

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal nosocomial infections are public health threats in the developing world, and successful interventions are rarely reported. A before-and-after study was conducted in the neonatal unit of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal to assess the efficacy of a multi-faceted hospital infection control programme implemented from March to May 2005. The interventions included clustering of nursing care, a simple algorithm for empirical therapy of suspected early-onset sepsis, minimal invasive care and promotion of early discharge of neonates. Data on nosocomial bloodstream infections, mortality, bacterial resistance and antibiotic use were collected before and after implementation of the infection control programme. One hundred and twenty-five infants were admitted immediately before the programme (Period 1, January-February 2005) and 148 infants were admitted immediately after the programme (Period 2, June-July 2005). The two groups of infants were comparable in terms of reason for admission and birth weight. After implementation of the infection control programme, the overall rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections decreased from 8.8% to 2.0% (P=0.01), and the rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections/patient-day decreased from 10.9 to 2.9/1000 patient-days (P=0.03). Overall mortality rates did not differ significantly. The proportion of neonates who received antimicrobial therapy for suspected early-onset sepsis decreased significantly from 100% to 51% of at-risk infants (Pnosocomial bloodstream infections, and the efficacy of these interventions was long-lasting. Such interventions could be extended to other low-income countries. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global Dynamics and Optimal Control of a Viral Infection Model with Generic Nonlinear Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenquan Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to exploring the combined impact of a generic nonlinear infection rate and infected removable storage media on viral spread. For that purpose, a novel dynamical model with an external compartment is proposed, and the explanations of the main model assumptions (especially the generic nonlinear infection rate are also examined. The existence and global stability of the unique equilibrium of the model are fully investigated, from which it can be seen that computer virus would persist. On this basis, a next-best approach to controlling the level of infected computers is suggested, and the theoretical analysis of optimal control of the model is also performed. Additionally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the main results.

  10. Glycerin-Based Hydrogel for Infection Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Edward I; McKessor, Angie

    2012-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in the health and wellbeing of patients in hospitals, nursing homes, and other medical facilities as well as the homecare patients and the general public. According to Scientia Advisors, wound care costs the healthcare system over $7 billion in 2009. After adding the cost associated with potential complications such as infections, extended physician care, and lengthy hospital stays, the annual wound care expenditures well exceeded over $20 billion. 1 There are 20 million reported cases of diabetes per year and more every day. Because of the fact that leg ulcers are the number one health problem of men coupled with the rise in drug resistance of infections, the importance of providing the professional and the public with relatively simple and affordable wound care is of extreme importance. Often the wounds can become chronic wounds, which then result in long-term nursing expense in time and supplies or, worse yet, can result in expensive amputations ranging from $5000 to $40,000 per patient. There are many dressing options now available for treating wounds with components such as glycerin, honey, salt, and many other natural products, with some dressings being more appropriate than others. In 1988, a patented glycerin-based dressing was introduced to the market, called Elasto-Gel™. 2. Elasto-Gel™ is a glycerin-based gel sheet (65%) combined with a hydrophilic polymer that causes the sheet to absorb the exudate from the wound and simultaneously release the glycerin from the gel, which adds many benefits to the wound for excellent healing outcomes. The gel sheet is 1/8th of an inch thick with a four-way stretch backing. It has the ability to absorb 3-4 times its own weight of fluids. The dressing will not dry out or allow the exudate to dry out, thus keeping the dressing from becoming bonded to the wound or the surrounding tissue. It does not have adhesive properties and, therefore, will not cause damage to the wound bed or periwound

  11. A brief history of infection control — past and present

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among these early pioneers was the physician Sir Iohn Pringle, who strongly believed that overcrowding and poor ventilation added greatly to the problem of hospital infection. However, it was only 100 years later in 1858 that Florence Nightingale, following her experiences in military hospitals during the. Crimean War ...

  12. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics.

  13. Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Mobeen H; Jackson, Mary Anne

    2017-11-01

    Since the American Academy of Pediatrics published its statement titled "Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings" in 2007, there have been significant changes that prompted this updated statement. Infection prevention and control is an integral part of pediatric practice in ambulatory medical settings as well as in hospitals. Infection prevention and control practices should begin at the time the ambulatory visit is scheduled. All health care personnel should be educated regarding the routes of transmission and techniques used to prevent the transmission of infectious agents. Policies for infection prevention and control should be written, readily available, updated every 2 years, and enforced. Many of the recommendations for infection control and prevention from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for hospitalized patients are also applicable in the ambulatory setting. These recommendations include requirements for pediatricians to take precautions to identify and protect employees likely to be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials while on the job. In addition to emphasizing the key principles of infection prevention and control in this policy, we update those that are relevant to the ambulatory care patient. These guidelines emphasize the role of hand hygiene and the implementation of diagnosis- and syndrome-specific isolation precautions, with the exemption of the use of gloves for routine diaper changes and wiping a well child's nose or tears for most patient encounters. Additional topics include respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette strategies for patients with a respiratory tract infection, including those relevant for special populations like patients with cystic fibrosis or those in short-term residential facilities; separation of infected, contagious children from uninfected children when feasible; safe handling and disposal of needles and other sharp medical devices; appropriate use of personal

  14. Looking inside the 2003 CDC dental infection control guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Jennifer A

    2004-11-01

    On Dec. 19, 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published updated infection control guidelines for dentistry. The guidelines provide comprehensive information on all aspects of dental infection control. The recommendations are designed to prevent or reduce the potential for disease transmission from patient to dental health care personnel, from dental health care personnel to patient, and from patient to patient. Most recommendations will be familiar and are already practiced routinely. This article highlights major updates and additions in the CDC guidelines and provides additional information to assist readers in applying the latest guidelines. Almost a year ago, the CDC and Prevention published updated dental infection control guidelines in a supplement to the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health Care Settings--2003 represent a collaborative effort between leading experts in infection control from other federal agencies, public health, and hospital epidemiology and infection control. Unlike regulatory agencies such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the CDC cannot mandate certain practices; it can only recommend. However, the CDC is recognized as the nation's disease prevention agency and develops a broad range of guidelines intended to improve health care and to inform clinicians and the public. As a result, many dental licensing boards adopt CDC's recommendations, or variations of them, as the infection control standard for dental practice in their states. In contrast to the 1986 and 1993 CDC dental infection control recommendations, the 2003 CDC publication includes more background information and the scientific rationale for the recommendations. Also, readers will notice that each recommendation has a rank assigned to it categorizing the recommendation on the basis of existing

  15. Fatigue in chronic hepatitis C infection: Understanding patients' experience from a cognitive-behavioural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, Dora; Carney, Colleen E; Sherman, Morris; Shapiro, Colin M; McShane, Kelly

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue is a leading concern of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Despite its clinical significance, fatigue in HCV is poorly understood and therefore invariably under-treated. A cognitive-behavioural approach offers a framework to understand and treat fatigue, but the characteristics of fatigue in chronic HCV infection have not been documented from a cognitive-behavioural perspective. This study captured the common and unique aspects of fatigue from a cognitive-behavioural perspective in individuals with HCV infection and clinically significant fatigue. Cross-sectional, qualitative using a critical realism approach. Fourteen individuals (64% women; age >18 years) participated in semi-structured interviews. The interviews documented the features, course, and perceived antecedents of fatigue; fatigue-specific cognitions; fatigue management behaviours; and the functional impact of fatigue. Participants' descriptions included the aspects of fatigue that have been targets of cognitive-behavioural therapy in other medical conditions, including attributing fatigue to the illness; expectation of chronicity; low control; and fatigue-driven coping. There were also components of fatigue experience that appear to be unique characteristics of fatigue related to HCV, including predominantly physical fatigue; high acceptance of fatigue; and liver-protective diet as a fatigue management behaviour. This was the first study to document the experience of fatigue in chronic HCV infection in a cognitive-behavioural framework. The findings suggest that the cognitive-behavioural approach can be applied to fatigue in chronic HCV infection. This would open an avenue to alleviate fatigue and thus improve the primary patient-reported outcome of the disease. What is already known on this subject? Fatigue is a key patient-reported outcome measure of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Fatigue management is not part of the standard care, because fatigue is poorly

  16. Overcoming the obstacles of implementing infection prevention and control guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, G; Johansson, A; Szilagyi, E; Lucet, J-C

    2015-12-01

    Reasons for a successful or unsuccessful implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines are often multiple and interconnected. This article reviews key elements from the national to the individual level that contribute to the success of the implementation of IPC measures and gives perspectives for improvement. Governance approaches, modes of communication and formats of guidelines are discussed with a view to improve collaboration and transparency among actors. The culture of IPC influences practices and varies according to countries, specialties and healthcare providers. We describe important contextual aspects, such as relationships between actors and resources and behavioural features including professional background or experience. Behaviour change techniques providing goal-setting, feedback and action planning have proved effective in mobilizing participants and may be key to trigger social movements of implementation. The leadership of international societies in coordinating actions at international, national and institutional levels using multidisciplinary approaches and fostering collaboration among clinical microbiology, infectious diseases and IPC will be essential for success. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infection prevention and control in pediatric ambulatory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Since the American Academy of Pediatrics published a statement titled "Infection Control in Physicians' Offices" (Pediatrics. 2000;105[6]:1361-1369), there have been significant changes that prompted this updated statement. Infection prevention and control is an integral part of pediatric practice in ambulatory medical settings as well as in hospitals. Infection prevention and control practices should begin at the time the ambulatory visit is scheduled. All health care personnel should be educated regarding the routes of transmission and techniques used to prevent transmission of infectious agents. Policies for infection prevention and control should be written, readily available, updated annually, and enforced. The standard precautions for hospitalized patients from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with a modification from the American Academy of Pediatrics exempting the use of gloves for routine diaper changes and wiping a well child's nose or tears, are appropriate for most patient encounters. As employers, pediatricians are required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to take precautions to identify and protect employees who are likely to be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials while on the job. Key principles of standard precautions include hand hygiene (ie, use of alcohol-based hand rub or hand-washing with soap [plain or antimicrobial] and water) before and after every patient contact; implementation of respiratory hygiene and cough-etiquette strategies for patients with suspected influenza or infection with another respiratory tract pathogen to the extent feasible; separation of infected, contagious children from uninfected children when feasible; safe handling and disposal of needles and other sharp medical devices and evaluation and implementation of needle-safety devices; appropriate use of personal protective equipment such as gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection; and appropriate sterilization

  18. Asurvey to the infection control in beauty salons in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Honarvar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsAIDS as a re-emergent disease and Viral hepatitis (B and C as one of the five Top Infective causes of premature death ,confront the world to many economic and  psychosocial consequences. Beauty salons and hairdressers if doný't practice properly to Infection control techniques may help to HIV,HBV and HCV transmission as revealed by many studies.MethodsThis study Aimed to assess the knowledge and performance of beauty salons regarding to HIV,HBV , HCV and infection control before and after training. By this cross sectional study that was conducted from August 2008 to May 2009 ,125 beauty salons of Shiraz -Iran selected by cluster randomized sampling Among 625 salons .One person of each salon interviewed by filling Valid and Reliable Questionnaire before and 2-3 months after training them about above Items.ResultsAll interviewed persons were female by mean age 38 ±11 years.89( 72% had education higher than intermediate school .Their mean of occupation period was13 ± 9 years . Mean score knowledge about HIV,HBVand HCVtransmission was 30.81± 4.6 and 38.7 ± 2.06 ( of total 41 before and after education respectively and knowledge toward Infection control changed from 9.77 ± 3.36 before to 12.73 ± 0.42 ( of total 13 after training. Practice to Infection control changed to 12.35 ± 0.78 (of total 13 after education in comparison with 9.82 ± 2.15 before that.Continuous education and training of all hairdressers and employers and employees of beauty salons regarding HIV,HBV,HCV and Infection control is necessary and should be monitored regularly Conclusion

  19. Construction: a model program for infection control compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Francine; Buttner, Clark; Kressel, Amy B

    2007-06-01

    In the 21st century, one of the most challenging tasks for the infection control practitioner (ICP) is establishing collegiality and trust with contractors, architects, maintenance and engineering personnel. We describe how an urban teaching hospital's infection control program cooperated with contractors during a large demolition, construction, and renovation project in order to protect its large population of immunosuppressed patients. Most contractors are not accustomed to taking special precautions during demolition. Because of a previous Aspergillus outbreak in our heart transplant population, we already had an established infection control (IC) training program for contractors. We expanded and codified it in response to a major hospital renovation. The IC, in-house Design and Construction, and outside contractors meet before the initiation of all major renovation projects to anticipate IC concerns and proactively plan for infection control interventions. Now, all contractors and maintenance staff are required to receive IC training at the time of their employment. A hospital identification badge with attached sticker that indicates the IC training date is required. Infection Control Risk Assessments (ICRA) are initiated by project managers and completed jointly with IC. The ICPs make rounds on all projects at least weekly and large projects are visited daily. We established a team comprised of ICP, project manager, construction manager, and area nurse manager to monitor and make recommendations for improvement continually during the project. Staff are educated about construction so they can help monitor airflow and cleanliness. Our contractors are more compliant with our IC specifications since they now understand why we insist on them. Through the years of major construction, the workers have jumped on the bandwagon. It is not unusual for construction or maintenance staff to contact IC for advice. There were four years of extensive construction without any

  20. Incorrectly diagnosing children as HIV-infected: Experiences from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urgency in ART initiation in HIV-infected children is life-saving, especially in infants. However, HIV tests may produce false-positive results leading to misdiagnosis of children as HIV-infected, which has serious consequences. Meticulous checking of HIVpositive status is of utmost importance before committing any child to ...

  1. Controlled Human Infection for Vaccination Against Streptococcus Pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-21

    Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis; Streptococcus Pharyngitis; Strep Throat; Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection; Group A Streptococcus: B Hemolytic Pharyngitis; Group A Streptococcal Infection; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Infections

  2. Measuring the quality of infection control in Dutch nursing homes using a standardized method; the Infection prevention RIsk Scan (IRIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, I.; Nelson-Melching, J.; Hendriks, Y.; Mulders, A.; Verhoeff, S.; Kluytmans-Vandenbergh, M.; Kluytmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We developed a standardised method to assess the quality of infection control in Dutch Nursing Home (NH), based on a cross-sectional survey that visualises the results. The method was called the Infection control RIsk Infection Scan (IRIS). We tested the applicability of this new tool in

  3. Poverty and infection in the developing world: healthcare-related infections and infection control in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, P

    2007-11-01

    In many hospitals serving the poorest communities of Africa and other parts of the developing world, infection control activities are limited by poor infrastructure, overcrowding, inadequate hygiene and water supply, poorly functioning laboratory services and a shortage of trained staff. Hospital transmission of communicable diseases, a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, lack of resources for isolation and disinfection, and widespread antimicrobial resistance create major risks for healthcare-related infections. Few data exist on the prevalence or impact of these infections in such environments. There is a need for interventions to reduce the burden of healthcare-related infections in the tropics and to set up effective surveillance programmes to determine their impact. Both the Global (G8) International Development Summit of 2005 and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have committed major resources to alleviating poverty and poor health in the developing world over the next decade. Targeting resources specifically to infection control in low-resource settings must be a part of this effort, if the wider aims of the MDGs to improve healthcare are to be achieved.

  4. Does undergraduate teaching of infection prevention and control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge, skills and desirable clinical practices in infection prevention and control (IPC) should be acquired during undergraduate medical training. Although knowledge and skills are learnt in the formal curriculum, attitudes and practices are assimilated by observation and modelling. We investigated ...

  5. Infection control: Knowledge and compliance among Saudi undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Tarakji, Bassel; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; AlMasri, Ousamah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control procedures among undergraduate dental students. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on students' vaccination status as well as knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control was sent to 600 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P<0.05. The response rate was 85% (512 out of 600). While the vast majority of students (90%) had been vaccinated against hepatitis, only 37.4% have been assessed for anti-HBs. A total of 98.8% and 90.8% reported always wearing gloves and masks, respectively, during dental procedures. The use of protective eyewear was reported by only 29.2%. A significantly higher proportion of sixth-year students showed a positive attitude toward the treatment of patients with infectious diseases than other students of lower academic years. Approximately one-third of students reported having one or more occupational injuries while treating their patients. Although the students had good knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control, the compliance and practice levels regarding the same were low. Such findings highlight the necessity of continued infection-control education of Saudi dental students.

  6. Infection control: Knowledge and compliance among Saudi undergraduate dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control procedures among undergraduate dental students. Methods: This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on students’ vaccination status as well as knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control was sent to 600 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at <0.05. Results: The response rate was 85% (512 out of 600. While the vast majority of students (90% had been vaccinated against hepatitis, only 37.4% have been assessed for anti-HBs. A total of 98.8% and 90.8% reported always wearing gloves and masks, respectively, during dental procedures. The use of protective eyewear was reported by only 29.2%. A significantly higher proportion of sixth-year students showed a positive attitude toward the treatment of patients with infectious diseases than other students of lower academic years. Approximately one-third of students reported having one or more occupational injuries while treating their patients. Conclusion: Although the students had good knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control, the compliance and practice levels regarding the same were low. Such findings highlight the necessity of continued infection-control education of Saudi dental students.

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: To assess students' knowledge and attitudes regarding infection prevention and control and their sources of information, a self-administered questionnaire was used to look at standard precautions especially hands hygiene. Results: One hundred sixty two students participated in this study of which 31 were ...

  8. Control of pestivirus infections in the management of wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of host-specificity allow pestiviruses to infect domestic livestock as well as captive and free-ranging wildlife, posing unique challenges to different stakeholders. While current control measures for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are focused only on cattle, increased attention on the ...

  9. Infection control in anaesthesia in regional, tertiary and central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaesthetic equipment is a potential vector for the transmission of disease. This study was undertaken to observe current infection control practices among anaesthetic nurses regarding the decontamination of anaesthetic equipment in regional, tertiary and central hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. Method: All ...

  10. Role of infection control in combating antibiotic resistance | Whitelaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening for certain MDROs may play a role in curbing transmission of these organisms. If implemented, screening must be part of a comprehensive infection control strategy. In resource-limited settings, the costs and potential benefits of screening programmes need to be carefully weighed up. Care bundles have been ...

  11. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Methods: To assess students' knowledge and attitudes regarding infection prevention and control and their sources of information, a self-administered questionnaire was used to look at standard precautions especially hands hygiene. Results: One hundred sixty two ... vehicles as food or water. Exposure to infectious.

  12. Awareness of infection control practices among visitors to Intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a prospective, questionnaire-based observational study. Printed questionnaires were distributed to the visitors of medical, surgical and neurosurgical ICU patients to determine awareness of basic infection control practices among visitors to an ICU. All the ICU staff, including nurses, doctors, consultant ...

  13. Role of antibodies in controlling dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    The incidence and disease burden of arthropod-borne flavivirus infections have dramatically increased during the last decades due to major societal and economic changes, including massive urbanization, lack of vector control, travel, and international trade. Specifically, in the case of dengue virus

  14. Evaluation of resources for an interactive infection control instructional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate educational resources used in developing and implementing an interactive infection control instructional program for first year (n=26) and second year (n=26) dental hygiene students in a baccalaureate program. An educator's toolkit was used to develop online and interactive learning modalities for teaching infection control content. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate responses on a post instruction opinion survey on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Following the instructional program, most students reported on an opinion survey that they understood infection control principles (92% first year, 100% second year), felt prepared to work safely in clinic (96% first year, 100% second year) and liked working at their own pace (88% first year, 100% second year). First year students valued the online learning components and were less favorable toward supplemental textbook readings and the limited time to complete all 10 modules. Most second year students valued the interactive workshop but did not take the time to complete the online videos and did not watch all of them. Seventy-nine percent of second year students (n=20) preferred the interactive workshop method over traditional lecture instruction completed during their first year. This paper describes 1 institution's process of developing and implementing an infection control instructional program utilizing an educator's toolkit.

  15. 102 nosocomial infections and the challenges of control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    especially Africa, have no effective infection control programme due to lack of awareness of the problem, lack of .... room. Endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy dry the lower respiratory tract mucous and provide entry for microbes. Other agents that cause nosocomial LRI .... techniques in the operating theatre, delivery.

  16. Uniform-related infection control practices of dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Yazan; Almutadares, Mohammed; Alfaifi, Khalid; El Madhoun, Mona; Albahiti, Maysoon H; Al-Hazmi, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Background Uniform-related infection control practices are sometimes overlooked and underemphasized. In Saudi Arabia, personal protective equipment must meet global standards for infection control, but the country’s Islamic legislature also needs to be taken into account. Aim To assess uniform-related infection control practices of a group of dental students in a dental school in Saudi Arabia and compare the results with existing literature related to cross-contamination through uniforms in the dental field. Method A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to dental students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which queried the students about their uniform-related infection control practices and their methods and frequency of laundering and sanitizing their uniforms, footwear, and name tags. Results There is a significant difference between genders with regard to daily uniform habits. The frequency of uniform washing was below the standard and almost 30% of students were not aware of how their uniforms are washed. Added to this, there is no consensus on a unified uniform for male and female students. Conclusion Information on preventing cross-contamination through wearing uniforms must be supplied, reinforced, and emphasized while taking into consideration the cultural needs of the Saudi society. PMID:28490894

  17. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  18. Detector control system for an LHC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mato, P

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the user requirements for a detector control system kernel for the LHC experiments following the ESA standard PSS-05 [1]. The first issue will be used to provide the basis for an evaluation of possible development philosophies for a kernel DCS. As such it will cover all the major functionality but only to a level of detail sufficient for such an evaluation to be performed. Many of the requirements are therefore intentionally high level and generic, and are meant to outline the functionality that would be required of the kernel DCS, but not yet to the level of the detail required for implementation. The document is also written in a generic fashion in order not to rule out any implementation technology.1

  19. Uniform-related infection control practices of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljohani Y

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Yazan Aljohani,1 Mohammed Almutadares,1 Khalid Alfaifi,1 Mona El Madhoun,1 Maysoon H Albahiti,2 Nadia Al-Hazmi3 1Internship Program, Faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, 2Department of Endodontics, King Abdulaziz University, 3Department of Oral Biology, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: Uniform-related infection control practices are sometimes overlooked and underemphasized. In Saudi Arabia, personal protective equipment must meet global standards for infection control, but the country’s Islamic legislature also needs to be taken into account. Aim: To assess uniform-related infection control practices of a group of dental students in a dental school in Saudi Arabia and compare the results with existing literature related to cross-contamination through uniforms in the dental field. Method: A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to dental students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which queried the students about their uniform-related infection control practices and their methods and frequency of laundering and sanitizing their uniforms, footwear, and name tags. Results: There is a significant difference between genders with regard to daily uniform habits. The frequency of uniform washing was below the standard and almost 30% of students were not aware of how their uniforms are washed. Added to this, there is no consensus on a unified uniform for male and female students. Conclusion: Information on preventing cross-contamination through wearing uniforms must be supplied, reinforced, and emphasized while taking into consideration the cultural needs of the Saudi society. Keywords: cross-contamination, infection control, dental students, uniforms

  20. Infection control hazards and near misses reported by nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Nicole F; Bakken, Suzanne; Currie, Leanne M; Schnall, Rebecca; Larson, Elaine L

    2010-12-01

    Hazard and near-miss reporting has been integrated into the curriculum for postbaccalaureate bachelor of science in nursing/master of science in nursing degree students at our institution through a Web-based reporting system since 2006. The system is used during their 25-week clinical rotations of 2 days per week in community, medical-surgical, obstetrics, pediatrics, and psychiatric settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the frequency and types of hazard and near-miss comments about infection control issues over 3 years of data collection. For each clinical rotation, students were required to complete 2 entries per week into a structured electronic hazard and near-miss reporting system. Three years worth of comments associated with these reports (2006-2009) were extracted and analyzed by 3 independent reviewers (κ statistic = 0.85). Seven categories of infection control problems were identified. Five hundred nursing students submitted 3492 comments related to hazards and near misses. Of these, 886 responses (25.4%) were related to infection control practices. The most common category was nonadherence to isolation precautions (27.6%), followed by contamination of the environment or equipment (18.5%), breaks in aseptic technique (17.2%), hand hygiene (15.9%) or gloving failures (11.5%), and occupational risks (8.2%). Infection control hazards and near misses were commonly reported across clinical settings by nursing students. Awareness of such problems among clinicians is necessary before work flow process changes can be made, but clinical change require systems-level change. To be effective and sustainable, reporting methods must be easy to use and available in real time. Copyright © 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Infection prevention and control self-audit: just a tick box exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Michelle

    2014-03-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) in England continues to experience ongoing change in order to complete the transition to the new delivery system outlined in Liberating the NHS (Department of Health, 2010a). Treating and caring for patients in a safe environment and protecting them from acquiring avoidable infections remains a high priority and a central quality improvement component within the outcome Indicator set for 2013/14 (NHS Commissioning Board, 2012a). Infection prevention and control practitioners will be required to use a range of innovative quality improvement strategies to facilitate engagement with clinicians and meet the challenges that lie ahead for the NHS. The purpose of this paper is to report on the implementation of an infection prevention and control self-audit (IPCSA) project within general practice. The aim of the project was to empower practice staff to become actively involved with an infection prevention and control (IPC) audit in order to support the development of an IPC quality improvement culture within general practice teams. The paper outlines the methodology used to implement self-audit. The findings suggest that IPCSA can be used as an effective alternative to an IPC nurse-led infection prevention and control audit.

  2. Observing and Quantifying Airflows in the Infection Control of Aerosol- and Airborne-Transmitted Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, J. W.; Noakes, C. J.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    techniques have been applied to examine the temporalespatial information about the airflow patterns and the movement of related, suspended material within this air in a hospital setting. Closer collaboration with engineers has allowed clinical microbiologists, virologists and infection control teams......With concerns about the potential for the aerosol and airborne transmission of infectious agents, particularly influenza, more attention is being focused on the effectiveness of infection control procedures to prevent hospital-acquired infections by this route. More recently a number of different...... to assess the effectiveness of hospital isolation and ventilation facilities. The characteristics of human respiratory activities have also been investigated using some familiar engineering techniques. Such studies aim to enhance the effectiveness of such preventive measures and have included experiments...

  3. Humans, 'things' and space: costing hospital infection control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, K; Graves, N; Halton, K; Barnett, A G

    2013-07-01

    Previous attempts at costing infection control programmes have tended to focus on accounting costs rather than economic costs. For studies using economic costs, estimates tend to be quite crude and probably underestimate the true cost. One of the largest costs of any intervention is staff time, but this cost is difficult to quantify and has been largely ignored in previous attempts. To design and evaluate the costs of hospital-based infection control interventions or programmes. This article also discusses several issues to consider when costing interventions, and suggests strategies for overcoming these issues. Previous literature and techniques in both health economics and psychology are reviewed and synthesized. This article provides a set of generic, transferable costing guidelines. Key principles such as definition of study scope and focus on large costs, as well as pitfalls (e.g. overconfidence and uncertainty), are discussed. These new guidelines can be used by hospital staff and other researchers to cost their infection control programmes and interventions more accurately. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Infection control: its evolution to the current standard precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, John A

    2003-05-01

    The use of appropriate infection control precautions to protect against transmission of bloodborne and other occupational microbial pathogens has become a routine component of health care provision. Evolution and revision of recommendations continues to be based on updated scientific information, as well as documented and inferred clinical applications of new knowledge. In addition, surveillance of occupational risks in medical treatment settings often has served as a basis for subsequent disease prevention recommendations for dental care. Guidelines designed to protect dental professionals and their patients have focused on bloodborne pathogens since the first published American Dental Association recommendations in the 1970s. Subsequent statements developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the ADA and other organizations during the past 30 years also have addressed prevention of other infections, transmitted by either direct or indirect contact with a variety of potentially infectious body fluids. Review of the major features of these recommendations provides an appropriate framework to consider current guideline revisions. The success of long-standing universal precautions, or UP, against bloodborne infection has been augmented with the incorporation of body substance isolation, or BSI, practices into the infection control protocol designated "standard precautions." Combination of the major tenets of UP with the BSI systems routinely employed in acute care facilities affords all health care professionals the means of preventing a spectrum of bloodborne, respiratory, contact and other potential exposures during provision of patient care. As infection control recommendations for dentistry are updated this year, they undoubtedly will include guidelines expanding previous UP to provide expanded protection for dental professionals in the multiple types of nonacute treatment settings in which routine treatment is provided.

  5. Randomized controlled trials for influenza drugs and vaccines: a review of controlled human infection studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobana Balasingam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Controlled human infection studies are an important research tool in assessing promising influenza vaccines and antivirals. These studies are performed quickly and are cost-effective and safe, with a low incidence of serious adverse events.

  6. Developing and utilizing controlled human models of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Chad K; Louis Bourgeois, A; Frenck, Robert W; Prouty, Michael; Maier, Nicole; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-12-14

    The controlled human infection model (CHIM) to assess the efficacy of vaccines against Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has several unique features that could significantly enhance the ability to test candidate vaccines. Despite increasing interest in these models, questions remain as to how to best incorporate them into vaccine development and how to maximize results. We designed a workshop focused on CHIM as part of the Vaccines Against Shigella and ETEC (VASE) Conference. The workshop, using the World Café method, focused on; clinical outcomes, nonclinical outcomes and model standardization. Researchers with a variety of expertise and experience rotated through each focus area and discussed relevant sub-topics. The results of these discussions were presented and questions posed to guide future workshops. Clinical endpoint discussions focused on the need for harmonized definitions; optimized attack rates; difficulties of sample collection and a need for non-stool based endpoints. Nonclinical discussions centered on evolving omics-based opportunities, host predictors of susceptibility and novel characterizations of the immune response. Model standardization focused on the value of shared procedures across institutions for clinical and non-clinical endpoints as well as for strain preparation and administration and subject selection. Participants agreed CHIMs for Shigella and ETEC vaccine development could accelerate vaccine development of a promising candidate; however, it was also appreciated that variability in the model and our limited understand of the host-pathogen interaction may yield results that could negatively impact a suitable candidate. Future workshops on CHIM are needed to ensure the optimal application of these models moving forward. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Burkholderia species infections in patients with cystic fibrosis in British Columbia, Canada. 30 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlosnik, James E A; Zhou, Guohai; Brant, Rollin; Henry, Deborah A; Hird, Trevor J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Chilvers, Mark A; Wilcox, Pearce; Speert, David P

    2015-01-01

    We have been collecting Burkholderia species bacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) for the last 30 years. During this time, our understanding of their multispecies taxonomy and infection control has evolved substantially. To evaluate the long-term (30 year) epidemiology and clinical outcome of Burkholderia infection in CF, and fully define the risks associated with infection by each species. Isolates from Burkholderia-positive patients (n=107) were speciated and typed annually for each infected patient. Microbiological and clinical data were evaluated by thorough review of patient charts, and statistical analyses performed to define significant epidemiological factors. Before 1995, the majority of new Burkholderia infections were caused by epidemic clones of Burkholderia cenocepacia. After implementation of new infection control measures in 1995, Burkholderia multivorans became the most prevalent species. Survival analysis showed that patients with CF infected with B. cenocepacia had a significantly worse outcome than those with B. multivorans, and a novel finding was that, after Burkholderia infection, the prognosis for females was significantly worse than for males. B. multivorans and B. cenocepacia have been the predominant Burkholderia species infecting people with CF in Vancouver. The implementation of infection control measures were successful in preventing new acquisition of epidemic strains of B. cenocepacia, leaving nonclonal B. multivorans as the most prevalent species. Historically, survival after infection with B. cenocepacia has been significantly worse than B. multivorans infection, and, of new significance, we show that females tend toward worse clinical outcomes.

  8. Infection prevention and control measures for acute respiratory infections in healthcare settings: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, W H; Conly, J M; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Malik, M; Eremin, S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses account for the majority of the acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) globally with a mortality exceeding 4 million deaths per year. The most commonly encountered viruses, in order of frequency, include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus. Current evidence suggests that the major mode of transmission of ARls is through large droplets, but transmission through contact (including hand contamination with subsequent self-inoculation) and infectious respiratory aerosols of various sizes and at short range (coined as "opportunistic" airborne transmission) may also occur for some pathogens. Opportunistic airborne transmission may occur when conducting highrisk aerosol generating procedures and airborne precautions will be required in this setting. General infection control measures effective for all respiratory viral infections are reviewed and followed by discussion on some of the common viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and the recently discovered novel coronavirus.

  9. Japanese encephalitis virus infection, diagnosis and control in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Karen L; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others. The impact of JEV infection is particularly apparent in pigs. Although infection in adult swine does not result in symptomatic disease, it is considered a significant reproductive problem causing abortion, still-birth and birth defects. Infected piglets can display fatal neurological disease. Equines are also infected, resulting in non-specific signs including pyrexia, but occasionally leading to overt neurological disease that in extreme cases can lead to death. Veterinary vaccination is available for both pigs and horses. This review of JEV disease in livestock considers the current diagnostic techniques available for detection of the virus. Options for disease control and prevention within the veterinary sector are discussed. Such measures are critical in breaking the link to zoonotic transmission into the human population where humans are dead-end hosts. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of a proposal for evaluating hospital infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2011-02-01

    To validate the construct and discriminant properties of a hospital infection prevention and control program. The program consisted of four indicators: technical-operational structure; operational prevention and control guidelines; epidemiological surveillance system; and prevention and control activities. These indicators, with previously validated content, were applied to 50 healthcare institutions in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the hospitals and indicator scores, and Cronbach's α coefficient was used to evaluate the internal consistency. The discriminant validity was analyzed by comparing indicator scores between groups of hospitals: with versus without quality certification. The construct validity analysis was based on exploratory factor analysis with a tetrachoric correlation matrix. The indicators for the technical-operational structure and epidemiological surveillance presented almost 100% conformity in the whole sample. The indicators for the operational prevention and control guidelines and the prevention and control activities presented internal consistency ranging from 0.67 to 0.80. The discriminant validity of these indicators indicated higher and statistically significant mean conformity scores among the group of institutions with healthcare certification or accreditation processes. In the construct validation, two dimensions were identified for the operational prevention and control guidelines: recommendations for preventing hospital infection and recommendations for standardizing prophylaxis procedures, with good correlation between the analysis units that formed the guidelines. The same was found for the prevention and control activities: interfaces with treatment units and support units were identified. Validation of the measurement properties of the hospital infection prevention and control program indicators made it possible to develop a tool for evaluating these programs

  11. Limited durability of viral control following treated acute HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Kaufmann

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Early treatment of acute HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy, followed by supervised treatment interruption (STI, has been associated with at least transient control of viremia. However, the durability of such control remains unclear. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a single-arm, open-label study assessing the impact of STI in the setting of acute HIV-1 infection.Fourteen patients were treated during acute HIV-1 infection and subsequently subjected to an STI protocol that required retreatment if viral load exceeded 50,000 RNA copies/ml plasma or remained above 5,000 copies/ml for more than three consecutive weeks. Eleven of 14 (79% patients were able to achieve viral loads of less than 5,000 RNA copies/ml for at least 90 d following one, two, or three interruptions of treatment. However, a gradual increase in viremia and decline in CD4+ T cell counts was observed in most individuals. By an intention-to-treat analysis, eight (57%, six (43%, and three (21% of 14 patients achieved a maximal period of control of 180, 360, and 720 d, respectively, despite augmentation of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The magnitude of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses before treatment interruption did not predict duration of viremia control. The small sample size and lack of concurrent untreated controls preclude assessment of possible clinical benefit despite failure to control viremia by study criteria.These data indicate that despite initial control of viremia, durable viral control to less than 5,000 RNA copies/ml plasma in patients following treated acute HIV-1 infection occurs infrequently. Determination of whether early treatment leads to overall clinical benefit will require a larger and randomized clinical trial. These data may be relevant to current efforts to develop an HIV-1 vaccine designed to retard disease progression rather than prevent infection since they indicate that durable maintenance of low

  12. Organization of nosocomial infection control measures and local networks for infectious disease control in middle-scale hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori-Yoshikawa, Namiko; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess nosocomial infection control measures at middle-scale hospitals throughout Japan. Of the 823 hospitals participating in this questionnaire-based survey, more than half of the middle-scale hospitals have implemented nosocomial infection control measures, including infection surveillance or infection control rounds, while acknowledging a shortage of infection control staff. These hospitals most frequently consulted public health centers to obtain information and advice. Improved nosocomial infection control in middle-scale hospitals requires sufficient staffing and a local network, with active participation by public health centers.

  13. Bacteraemic urinary tract infections may mimic respiratory infections: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, E; Martis, N; Guillouet-de Salvador, F; Demonchy, E; Degand, N; Carles, K; Roger, P-M

    2016-10-01

    Daily practice suggests that respiratory signs may be observed in bacteraemic urinary infections (BUI). Our objective was to search for an association between the presence of respiratory symptoms and the bacteraemic nature of urinary tract infections (UTI). A nested case-control study was carried out based on our computerised dashboard from January 2011 to June 2015. Cases were defined as patients with a BUI due to Enterobacteriaceae species, identified in blood and urine cultures. Controls had fever and a positive urinary sample but sterile blood cultures (NBUI) and a final diagnosis of urinary infection. Patients from the BUI group were 1:1 matched to the NBUI group according to four parameters: age, gender, cardiovascular and pulmonary comorbid conditions. Subjects with cognitive impairment limiting clinical accuracy and those with healthcare-associated infections were excluded. We compared systematically recorded respiratory and urinary symptoms between groups: signs on auscultation, dyspnoea, chest pain, cough and sputum, dysuria with burning, pollakiuria, flank or costovertebral angle tenderness and ischuria. One hundred BUI were compared to 100 NBUI, both groups exhibiting a similar rate for all considered comorbid conditions. In the BUI group, 58 % showed at least one respiratory sign vs. 20 % in the NBUI group, p respiratory signs, which overshadowed urinary symptoms, compared to those with non-bacteraemic UTI. Such observations impact clinical decision-making.

  14. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity.

  15. The Experience of Children with Hemophilia and HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Children with hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are not a transmission risk to other children, and they can help enact best practices for school attendance by other such children. The article examines the National Hemophilia Foundation's work to promote appropriate inclusion of students with hemophilia and HIV in all…

  16. Experience with Hospital- Acquired Infections in Pediatric Wards of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From January 1994 to December 1995, patients in the out -born (NNU) neonatal wards, lying in wards (C2/C3), general pediatrics wards (D2/D3) and the pediatric surgical ward (E4) of the Lagos University Hospital were prospectively monitored for nosocomial infections (NI) using the surveillance techniques of the Centers ...

  17. Infection Control Measures in Private Dental Clinics in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Jihad Dagher; Charles Sfeir; Ahmad Abdallah; Zeina Majzoub

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluate infection control knowledge, attitude, and practice in Lebanese private dental clinics. Materials and Methods. A survey including 46 questions related to routine safety procedures was sent to 1150 Lebanese dentists between July 1st and 2nd, 2015. The study sample was selected from the database of registered dentists based on a proportional random sampling ensuring equitable representation of the 5 geographic regions of Lebanon. A subset of 29 questions was used to generate a...

  18. Taenia ovis infection and its control: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, B D; Peregrine, A S; Jones-Bitton, A; Jansen, J T; Menzies, P I

    2014-01-01

    Distributed worldwide, Taenia ovis infection is responsible for the condemnation of sheep carcasses in many countries. This review highlights the programme used in New Zealand to successfully control T. ovis in sheep, and discusses how similar approaches may be modified for use in Canada, given what is currently known about the epidemiology of T. ovis. The lifecycle of the parasite is well known, involving dogs as the definitive host and sheep or goats as the intermediate host. An effective vaccine does exist, although it is not presently commercially available. In New Zealand an industry-based, non-regulatory programme was created to educate producers about T. ovis and necessary control strategies, including the need to treat farm dogs with cestocides regularly. This programme resulted in a substantial decrease in the prevalence of T. ovis infections between 1991 and 2012. Historically, T. ovis was not a concern for the Canadian sheep industry, but more recently the percentage of lamb condemnations due to T. ovis has increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 55% in 2012. It has been suggested that coyotes may be transmitting T. ovis, but this has not been confirmed. Recommendation are made for the Canadian sheep industry to adopt a control programme similar to that used in New Zealand in order to reduce the prevalence of T. ovis infection.

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Performance of Shiraz General Dentists about Infection Control Principles during Preparing Intraoral Radiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolaziz Hagh Negahdar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Infection control in dental centers is affected by the persons’ attitude and knowledge about mechanisms of infection transmission. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and the attitude of Shiraz dentists about infection control during intraoral radiographies preparation. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional, and analytical research, the attitude and the knowledge of 45 male and 25 female, randomly selected dentists, were obtained through completion of a researcher- planed questioner which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using Cronbach`s alpha, one-way ANOVA, student’s t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient in SPSS (V.21. Results: The average of the dentists’ age was 40.59±10.72 and their average occupational experience was 13.49±9.75 years. The mean score obtained for knowledge about infection control during intraoral radiographic procedures was less than fifty percent of total obtainable score, and was assessed as weak knowledge. There was no significant difference in the level of knowledge between studied male and female dentists (P>0.05. In addition, no significant relationship was detected between level, age/experience, and the university of education (P>0.05. The attitude of the dentists about infection control during intraoral radiography preparation assessed as moderate to good level. Conclusions: The results showed that the main reason for the present problems is insufficient knowledge of the dentists in related subjects. Therefore, the solution, which is recommended among dentists, is to raise their awareness and to change their attitudes and culture in order to improve their performance.

  20. Maternal geohelminth infections are associated with an increased susceptibility to geohelminth infection in children: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaj S Mehta

    Full Text Available Children of mothers infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH may have an increased susceptibility to STH infection.We did a case-control study nested in a birth cohort in Ecuador. Data from 1,004 children aged 7 months to 3 years were analyzed. Cases were defined as children with Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichiura, controls without. Exposure was defined as maternal infection with A. lumbricoides and/or T. trichiura, detected during the third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to households with a documented infection to control for infection risk. Children of mothers with STH infections had a greater risk of infection compared to children of uninfected mothers (adjusted OR 2.61, 95% CI: 1.88-3.63, p<0.001. This effect was particularly strong in children of mothers with both STH infections (adjusted OR: 5.91, 95% CI: 3.55-9.81, p<0.001. Newborns of infected mothers had greater levels of plasma IL-10 than those of uninfected mothers (p=0.033, and there was evidence that cord blood IL-10 was increased among newborns who became infected later in childhood (p=0.060.Our data suggest that maternal STH infections increase susceptibility to infection during early childhood, an effect that was associated with elevated IL-10 in cord plasma.

  1. Indoor environmental control of tuberculosis and other airborne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardell, E A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the airborne infection of global importance, although many environmental interventions to control TB apply to influenza and other infections with airborne potential. This review focuses on the global problem and the current state of available environmental interventions. TB transmission is facilitated in overcrowded, poorly ventilated congregate settings, such as hospitals, clinics, prisons, jails, and refugee camps. The best means of TB transmission control is source control- to identify unsuspected infectious cases and to promptly begin effective therapy. However, even with active case finding and rapid diagnostics, not every unsuspected case will be identified, and environmental control measures remain the next intervention of choice. Natural ventilation is the main means of air disinfection and has the advantage of wide availability, low cost, and high efficacy-under optimal conditions. It is usually not applicable all year in colder climates and may not be effective when windows are closed on cold nights in warm climates, for security, and for pest control. In warm climates, windows may be closed when air conditioning is installed for thermal comfort. Although mechanical ventilation, if properly installed and maintained, can provide adequate air disinfection, it is expensive to install, maintain, and operate. The most cost-effective way to achieve high levels of air disinfection is upper room germicidal irradiation. The safe and effective application of this poorly defined intervention is now well understood, and recently published evidence-based application guidelines will make implementation easier. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Norovirus outbreaks in a hospital setting: the role of infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sarah; Toop, Julianne; Hanger, Carl; Millar, Nigel

    2004-02-20

    Noroviruses (NV) (until recently known as Norwalk-like viruses) are a common cause of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis and can result in significant hospital disruption. We report our experience of two outbreaks that occurred in a geriatric rehabilitation hospital and the role of infection control in limiting their spread. The outbreaks occurred in two separate rehabilitation wards for older people. A case definition was developed and a register kept to record patient and staff sickness. The NV was identified from faecal specimens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. There were 41 cases in the first outbreak, with an attack rate of 57.1% for patients and 41% for staff. The outbreak lasted 14 days and closed the ward for 11 days. During this outbreak one patient died, with gastroenteritis the precipitating event of his final illness. There were 24 cases in the second outbreak, with an attack rate of 56.5% for patients and 18% for staff. The outbreak lasted 16 days with the ward closed for six days. The mean duration of staff sickness was 3.5 days in the second outbreak compared with only 1.2 days in the first outbreak. In both outbreaks infection was contained within a single ward. NV infections can significantly disrupt hospitals through their rapid spread to patients and staff as well as the associated high attack rate. Early recognition of an outbreak and prompt implementation of infection control measures, staffing restrictions and ward closure can limit the spread of infection.

  3. Infection control in IV therapy: a review of the chain of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Irene

    The aim of this article is to review the principles of infection control relating to intravenous (IV) therapy. IV therapy and peripheral IV cannulation are common procedures. Zingg and Pittet (2009) noted that as many as 80% of hospitalized patients will have a cannula in situ, and Hart (2008) suggested that patients who require IV therapy are often seriously ill and immunocompromised, thus are more susceptible to infection. The Department of Health (DH) (2007a) estimated that 6000 patients acquire a catheter-related bloodstream infection every year in the UK. Robust standards of practice are therefore paramount to ensure safe and competent practice, both in peripheral IV cannulation and IV care. Using the chain of infection as a framework to review practice will enable practitioners to ensure thorough standards of practice, and the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) (2005) stated that only trained and competent staff using strict aseptic techniques should be involved in IV or cannulae care. Furthermore, the Code (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), (2008) stipulates all practitioners must deliver care based on the best available evidence and/or best practice, and that knowledge and skills for safe and effective practice must be kept up-to-date throughout each health professional's working life.

  4. National infection prevention and control programmes: Endorsing quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempliuk, Valeska; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Holder, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Core components Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to pain and suffering, HAIs increase the cost of health care and generates indirect costs from loss of productivity for patients and society as a whole. Since 2005, the Pan American Health Organization has provided support to countries for the assessment of their capacities in infection prevention and control (IPC). More than 130 hospitals in 18 countries were found to have poor IPC programmes. However, in the midst of many competing health priorities, IPC programmes are not high on the agenda of ministries of health, and the sustainability of national programmes is not viewed as a key point in making health care systems more consistent and trustworthy. Comprehensive IPC programmes will enable countries to reduce the mobility, mortality and cost of HAIs and improve quality of care. This paper addresses the relevance of national infection prevention and control (NIPC) programmes in promoting, supporting and reinforcing IPC interventions at the level of hospitals. A strong commitment from national health authorities in support of national IPC programmes is crucial to obtaining a steady decrease of HAIs, lowering health costs due to HAIs and ensuring safer care.

  5. To what extent do dental students comply with infection control practices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura A. AL-Essa

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The dental students surveyed in this study showed satisfactory knowledge and positive attitudes regarding infection control. More effort is needed to provide proper training in ideal infection control measures for undergraduate students.

  6. Clinical experience of infective endocarditis complicated by acute cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chan-Yang; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Yu, Hsi-Yu

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). A total of 44 patients with IE complicated by CVA at admission were retrospectively analyzed in a single medical institute from 2005 to 2011. At the time of admission, 18 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic stroke, and 26 patients were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Fifteen patients received surgical intervention during hospitalization. The hospital mortality rate was 38.9% for the hemorrhagic stroke group and 42.3% for the ischemic stroke group (p = 0.821). The mortality rate was 33.3% for the surgical group and 44.8% for the nonsurgical group (p = 0.531). At 30 days of hospitalization, 45.8% of the patients experienced an adverse event (defined as death due to organ failure, restroke, cardiogenic shock, or septic shock during the treatment period), and the attrition rate was 1.5% per day. Surgery performed after the adverse events increased mortality (80.0%) compared with surgery performed on patients with no adverse events (10.0%; p = 0.017). A Cox regression analysis revealed that creatinine > 2 mg/dL, diabetes, and staphylococcal infection were the risk factors of the adverse events. Early surgical intervention for IE with ischemic stroke may prevent adverse events, particularly in patients with impaired renal function, diabetes, or staphylococcal infection. A delay in operation of > 30 days is recommended after hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  7. Pregnancy and postpartum control in HIV infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. Warley

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and postpartum control in HIV infected women. We present data from a retrospective observational descriptive study with the objective of evaluating characteristics of HIV-infected pregnant women, analyze the level of control of pregnancy and assess adherence to treatment and loss of follow up after delivery. We analyzed reported data of 104 pregnancies, 32.7% of them under 25 years old. The diagnosis was performed as part of pregnancy control in 36.5% of women. TARV started before 24 weeks of pregnancy in 70% of them and a regimen with 2 nucleos(tides and 1 ritonavir potenciated protease inhibitor (PIr was prescribed in 84.5%. Elective c-section was the most frequent mode of delivery. The viral load after 32 weeks of pregnancy was available in 82.7%, being less than 1000 cop/ml in 78 (75%, less than 200 cop/ml in 70 (67.3% and not available in 18 (17.3% of cases. We observed a considered high rate of adherence failure and loss of follow up after delivery. Reported data should alert programs on the need to implement strategies to promote early pregnancy control and increase adherence and retention in care, especially in the postpartum period

  8. Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

  9. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  10. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-31

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  11. The Lived Experience of Domestic Violence in Iranian HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Nooredin; Kochak, Hamid Emadi; Gharacheh, Maryam

    2015-02-24

    Domestic violence is one of the most prevalent problems linked to HIV. Domestic violence in HIV-infected women has not been sufficiently explored, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of domestic violence in Iranian HIV-infected women. A qualitative approach was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ten HIV-infected women and were analyzed using content analysis. During the data analysis, four main themes emerged including, "regretful past", "disappointing future", "loneliness", and "no other option", which refer to the condition that the participants experienced in their lives due to challenges that mainly stem from the experience of HIV-related domestic violence. HIV infection can be a risk factor for domestic violence. Health care providers need to address domestic violence during the assessment of HIV-infected women and make appropriate referrals for abused women.

  12. [Experience with infections in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Checa, Rosa María; Rojo Conejo, Pablo; González-Posada Flores, Aranzazu Flavia; Llorente de la Fuente, Ana María; Palacios Cuesta, Alba; Aguilar, Juan Miguel; Belda Hofheinz, Sylvia

    2017-10-11

    To identify risk factors associated with infectious complications acquired by paediatric patients during extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Patients under ECLS from January 2011 to December 2014 have been retrospectively reviewed and data on demographics, care and infectious complications were collected. There were 50 ECLS assistances in the study period, of which 20 patients had 23 infectious complications: 16 were bloodstream infections, with coagulase negative staphylococci being the predominant isolate (there were 2 cases of candidaemia). Age, site of cannulation procedure, cannulation site, severe coagulopathy, and surgical interventions during assistance were analysed as risk factors for infectious complications, but no significant differences were found. ECLS duration was significantly longer in patients with infectious complications (8.91 vs 5.91 days; P=.039). There were no significant differences as regards Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) stay, or in survival. Infectious complications during ECLS are very common, and ECLS duration is significantly longer in patients with infections. Measures should be put in place to prevent infectious complications and reduce time on ECLS. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Goldberg

    Full Text Available The oral microbial community (microbiota plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are

  14. Control beliefs and health locus of control in Ugandan, German and migrated sub-Saharan African HIV infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, Ruth U; Husstedt, Ingo-W; Reichelt, Doris; Evers, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the influence of control beliefs on antiretroviral drug adherence in patients who migrated from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in health locus of control and control beliefs between HIV infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa with and without a lifetime experience of migration. A sample of 62 HIV infected consecutive patients referred to the HIV clinics at the University Hospital of Münster (Germany) and at the Rubaga Hospital Kampala (Uganda) were enrolled into this study. We compared three groups of patients: sub-Saharan African migrants, German patients, and local Ugandan patients. We used the German health and illness related control beliefs questionnaire (KKG), the Competence and control beliefs questionnaire (FKK), and the Powe Fatalism Inventory-HIV/AIDS-Version (PFI-HIV/AIDS-Version) and translated these scales into English and Luganda. In addition, the patients' sociodemographic, acculturation, clinical, and immunological data were registered. Significant results were shown in HIV related external locus of control between migrated sub-Saharan African and local Ugandan patients compared to German patients. General control beliefs showed no significant differences. In the PFI-HIV-Version, there was a significant difference between migrated sub-Saharan African and Ugandan patients compared to German patients. Our data suggest that the experience of migration does not influence the locus of control. Compared to German HIV patients, African patients in general showed a significantly higher external health locus of control which might have implications for drug adherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuing Progress in Infection Control in U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Virginia A.; Molinari, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a 1988 survey of dental school deans concerning infection control instruction and protocols found increased attention to infection control and application of recommended protocols. Findings are contrasted with those of earlier studies, and remaining obstacles to implementation of infection control programs are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  16. An Integrative Review of Infection Control Research in Korean Nursing Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Mi Kim, RN, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To enhance the quality of infection control studies and establish infection control studies as a nursing knowledge body, meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews as well as quantitative studies are needed. Moreover, studies employing behavioral science to identify factors influencing the level of knowledge and practice and to change infection control behaviors are also warranted.

  17. Hospital infection control in Europe: evaluation of present practice and future goals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daschner, F.; Cauda, R.; Grundmann, H.; Voss, A.; Widmer, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess current infection control practice in Europe and its structure, future research priorities, and how infection control should be organised. A questionnaire was sent to 223 hospital infection control physicians throughout Europe, of whom 54 in 18 countries

  18. Survey on attitudes toward HIV-infected individuals and infection control practices among dentists in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, G; Acosta-Gío, E; Borges-Yáñez, S A; Díez-de-Bonilla, F J

    2000-02-01

    The teaching of infection control is gradually being introduced at dental schools in Mexico. However, most practicing dentists have limited access to current infection control standards. Deficiencies of knowledge with regard to blood-borne pathogens such as HIV and hepatitis B virus may influence attitudes toward infected individuals and reduce compliance with infection control recommendations. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) attitudes toward HIV-infected patients and hepatitis B virus-infected patients and (2) infection control knowledge and practices among dental practitioners in Mexico City. A total of 196 dentists were interviewed by means of a questionnaire with Likert-type scales and open-ended questions (response rate, 86.1%). Most respondents had no previous social or professional contact with HIV-positive individuals. Nine percent indicated that they had knowingly treated HIV-positive patients. Perceived professional and moral obligations to treat HIV-positive patients were high. Thirty-five percent of the respondents perceived the risk of HIV infection as "considerable" to "very strong." The risk of hepatitis B infection was considered significantly higher than the risk of HIV infection (P personal protective equipment was high. Most respondents used dry heat sterilization. The principal disinfectants used were quaternary ammonium compounds, bleach, and glutaraldehyde. Fifty-four percent of the respondents acknowledged that clinical precautions reduced occupational risks. This survey revealed contradictory attitudes toward HIV-positive individuals and limited understanding of infection control recommendations. Educational and regulatory efforts are needed to promote better adherence to current infection control standards.

  19. Dental infection control and occupational safety in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnyak, Marina A; Gurevich, Konstantin G; Fabrikant, Kate G; Miller, Kierste; Puttaiah, Raghunath

    2012-09-01

    In the recent past, the Russian Federation has seen a considerable increase in HIV caseload. A high level committee was formed to assess the status of dental infection control and safety (IC&S) in Russia. This article is one of the outcomes to assess the status of IC&S and is the research of a doctoral student (PhD) in public health. To assess needs in Dental Infection Control and Occupational Safety in the Moscow Metropolitan Region of the Russian Federation. A survey with variables assessing knowledge, attitude and practice of IC&S was administered to dentists practicing and or teaching in Moscow city and suburban areas on a convenience sample of dental practitioners. The total number of completed questionnaires were 303. Over 67% had up to three significant exposures to blood and potentially infectious materials (OPIM), but less than 30% got tested for HIV in the previous 3 months. Use of personal protective equipment was not based on anticipated exposure. Less than 10% had an understanding of Spaulding's classification with respect to sanitization, disinfection and sterilization. Only about 34% stated that there was a potential for infectious disease transmission through a percutaneous route and about 61% double gloved while treating patients with infectious diseases. Only about 61% disinfected impressions and most (83%) used alcohol for disinfection purposes. While 34% still used glass-bead sterilizers, about 13% did not sterilize handpieces between patients. Results from this study indicated a disparity in the practice of infection control and safety procedures requiring formulation of nationwide dental safety standards. Further, there is a need in implementation of a standardized dental safety curriculum for dental schools and continuing dental education requirements in dental safety for practicing dentists in the Russian Federation.

  20. Infection control practice across Europe: results of the EPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, J Y; Elseviers, M; Harrington, M; Zampieron, A; Vlaminck, H; Ormandy, P; Kafkia, T

    2006-01-01

    The European Practice Database (EPD) project, developed by the EDTNA/ERCA Research Board, collects data on renal practice at centre level in different European countries. Results presented in this paper focus on infection control practice in haemodialysis centres from 8 different European countries or regions following data collection from 2002 up to 2004. The prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), human immune deficiency (HIV) and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) was studied as well as the use of screening and preventive actions. These results will enable international comparison in practice and will stimulate further research and the development of new practice recommendations.

  1. Outbreak of hepatitis C virus infections at an outpatient hemodialysis facility: the importance of infection control competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Agam K; Luckman, Emily; Wise, Matthew E; MacCannell, Taranisia; Blythe, David; Lin, Yulin; Xia, Guoliang; Drobeniuc, Jan; Noble-Wang, Judith; Arduino, Matthew J; Thompson, Nicola D; Patel, Priti R; Wilson, Lucy E

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among patients treated in hemodialysis facilities is five times higher than among the general population. This study investigated eight new hepatitis C virus infections among patients treated at an outpatient hemodialysis facility. Epidemiologic investigation and viral sequencing demonstrated that transmission likely occurred between patients typically treated during the same or consecutive shifts at the same or a nearby station. Several infection control breaches were observed including lapses involving the preparation, handling, and administration of parenteral medications. Improved infection control education and training for all hemodialysis facility staff is an important component of assuring adherence to appropriate procedures and preventing future outbreaks.

  2. VNEC - A Virtual Network Experiment Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, François; Dej, Tomas; Esfandiari, Babak

    This paper presents VNEC, a tool to specify and execute network experiments in a virtual environment. The user first formulates the network topology and then provides the tasks that should be performed by the computers together with their execution. Next, VNEC initializes the environment by powering up and configuring the virtual machines to match the desired network topology. Finally, commands are dispatched to the right virtual machines in the specified order. VNEC provides an environment for several types of research experiments such as virus propagation patterns and reactions of different targets against a given attack.

  3. Experiences of young adults growing up with innate or early acquired HIV infection--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydström, Lise-Lott; Ygge, Britt-Marie; Tingberg, Björn; Navèr, Lars; Eriksson, Lars E

    2013-06-01

    To explore the experience of young adults growing up and living with HIV in urban Sweden. HIV has become a widespread pandemic. Effective antiretroviral treatment has dramatically increased the survival rate of infected individuals, such that HIV infection is currently considered a chronic disease where treatment is available. Data concerning the experience of living with HIV since early childhood is scarce and more empirical knowledge is needed to direct the development of adequate care and interventions for this growing demographic. Exploratory qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten HIV-infected young adults over the period from January-August 2008. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis revealed five categories illustrating the experiences of growing up and living with HIV in Sweden: (1) to protect oneself from the risk of being stigmatized; (2) to be in control; (3) losses in life, but HIV is not a big deal; (4) health care/healthcare providers; and (5) belief in the future. It is essential to offer a safe, trustworthy, and professional healthcare environment during the upbringing of HIV-infected children. Evidence-based interventions are needed to improve care and support, particularly about the handling of stigma and discrimination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Infection control in general practices in Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Don O'Mahony

    2012-01-01

    Background: Good infection control practices are effective in reducing rates of infection in health care settings. Studies in primary care in developed countries indicate that many general practitioners (GPs) do not comply with optimal infection control practices. There are no published studies from developing countries in Southern Africa.Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe infection control practices in private GP surgeries in the Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipaliti...

  5. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for laboratory experiments, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  6. Infection control measures to limit the spread of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, R-P; Kuijper, E J; Wilcox, M H; Barbut, F; Tüll, P; Gastmeier, P; van den Broek, P J; Colville, A; Coignard, B; Daha, T; Debast, S; Duerden, B I; van den Hof, S; van der Kooi, T; Maarleveld, H J H; Nagy, E; Notermans, D W; O'Driscoll, J; Patel, B; Stone, S; Wiuff, C

    2008-05-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) presents mainly as a nosocomial infection, usually after antimicrobial therapy. Many outbreaks have been attributed to C. difficile, some due to a new hyper-virulent strain that may cause more severe disease and a worse patient outcome. As a result of CDAD, large numbers of C. difficile spores may be excreted by affected patients. Spores then survive for months in the environment; they cannot be destroyed by standard alcohol-based hand disinfection, and persist despite usual environmental cleaning agents. All these factors increase the risk of C. difficile transmission. Once CDAD is diagnosed in a patient, immediate implementation of appropriate infection control measures is mandatory in order to prevent further spread within the hospital. The quality and quantity of antibiotic prescribing should be reviewed to minimise the selective pressure for CDAD. This article provides a review of the literature that can be used for evidence-based guidelines to limit the spread of C. difficile. These include early diagnosis of CDAD, surveillance of CDAD cases, education of staff, appropriate use of isolation precautions, hand hygiene, protective clothing, environmental cleaning and cleaning of medical equipment, good antibiotic stewardship, and specific measures during outbreaks. Existing local protocols and practices for the control of C. difficile should be carefully reviewed and modified if necessary.

  7. Collaboration between infection control and occupational health in three continents: a success story with international impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndelu Lindiwe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globalization has been accompanied by the rapid spread of infectious diseases, and further strain on working conditions for health workers globally. Post-SARS, Canadian occupational health and infection control researchers got together to study how to better protect health workers, and found that training was indeed perceived as key to a positive safety culture. This led to developing information and communication technology (ICT tools. The research conducted also showed the need for better workplace inspections, so a workplace audit tool was also developed to supplement worker questionnaires and the ICT. When invited to join Ecuadorean colleagues to promote occupational health and infection control, these tools were collectively adapted and improved, including face-to-face as well as on-line problem-based learning scenarios. The South African government then invited the team to work with local colleagues to improve occupational health and infection control, resulting in an improved web-based health information system to track incidents, exposures, and occupational injury and diseases. As the H1N1 pandemic struck, the online infection control course was adapted and translated into Spanish, as was a novel skill-building learning tool that permits health workers to practice selecting personal protective equipment. This tool was originally developed in collaboration with the countries from the Caribbean region and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO. Research from these experiences led to strengthened focus on building capacity of health and safety committees, and new modules are thus being created, informed by that work. The products developed have been widely heralded as innovative and interactive, leading to their inclusion into “toolkits” used internationally. The tools used in Canada were substantially improved from the collaborative adaptation process for South and Central America and South Africa. This international

  8. Controlled Nucleosynthesis Breakthroughs in Experiment and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, Stanislav; Merwe, Alwyn

    2007-01-01

    This book ushers in a new era of experimental and theoretical investigations into collective processes, structure formation, and self-organization of nuclear matter. It reports the results of experiments wherein for the first time the nuclei constituting our world (those displayed in Mendeleev's table as well as the super-heavy ones) have been artificially created. Pioneering breakthroughs are described, achieved at the "Proton-21" Laboratory, Kiev, Ukraine, in a variety of new physical and technological directions. A detailed description of the main experiments, their analyses, and the interpretation of copious experimental data are given, along with the methodology governing key measurements and the processing algorithms of the data that empirically confirm the occurrence of macroscopic self-organizing processes leading to the nuclear transformations of various materials. The basic concepts underlying the initiation of self-sustaining collective processes that result in the formation of nuclear structures a...

  9. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Mila F M; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Werneck, Silvia M C; Corrêa, Jôice D; Soriani, Frederico M; Garlet, Gustavo P; Souza, Daniele G; Teixeira, Mauro M; Silva, Tarcilia A; Perretti, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Alveolar bone loss is a result of an aggressive form of periodontal disease (PD) associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) infection. PD is often observed with other systemic inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. Melanocortin peptides activate specific receptors to exert antiarthritic properties, avoiding excessing inflammation and modulating macrophage function. Recent work has indicated that melanocortin can control osteoclast development and function, but whether such protection takes place in infection-induced alveolar bone loss has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of melanocortin in Aa-induced PD. Mice were orally infected with Aa and treated with the melanocortin analog DTrp8-γMSH or vehicle daily for 30 d. Then, periodontal tissue was collected and analyzed. Aa-infected mice treated with DTrp8-γMSH presented decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower degree of neutrophil infiltration in the periodontium than vehicle-treated animals; these actions were associated with reduced periodontal levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A. In vitro experiments with cells differentiated into osteoclasts showed that osteoclast formation and resorptive activity were attenuated after treatment with DTrp8-γMSH. Thus, melanocortin agonism could represent an innovative way to tame overexuberant inflammation and, at the same time, preserve bone physiology, as seen after Aa infection.-Madeira, M. F. M., Queiroz-Junior, C. M., Montero-Melendez, T., Werneck, S. M. C., Corrêa, J. D., Soriani, F. M., Garlet, G. P., Souza, D. G., Teixeira, M. M., Silva, T. A., Perretti, M. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection. © FASEB.

  10. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A; Parray, Hilal A; Lone, Jameel B; Paek, Woon K; Lim, Jeongheui; Bajpai, Vivek K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  11. Dynamic nonprehensile manipulation: Controllability, planning, and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Mason, M.T. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.

    1999-01-01

    The authors are interested in using low-degree-of-freedom robots to perform complex tasks by nonprehensile manipulation (manipulation without a form- or force-closure grasp). By not grasping, the robot can use gravitational, centrifugal, and Coriolis forces as virtual motors to control more degrees of freedom of the part. The part`s extra motion freedoms are exhibited as rolling, slipping, and free flight. This paper describes controllability, motion planning, and implementation of planar dynamic nonprehensile manipulation. The authors show that almost any planar object is controllable by point contact, and the controlling robot requires only two degrees of freedom (a point translating in the plane). They then focus on a one-joint manipulator (with a two-dimensional state space), and show that even this simplest of robots, by using slipping and rolling, can control a planar object to a full-dimensional subset of its six-0dimensional state space. The authors have developed a one-joint robot to perform a variety of dynamic tasks, including snatching an object from a table, rolling an object on the surface of the arm, and throwing and catching. Nonlinear optimization is used to plan robot trajectories that achieve the desired object motion via coupling forces through the nonprehensile contact.

  12. [Control of Opisthorchis viverrini infection for cholangiocarcinoma prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, Y

    2017-02-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified two liver flukes as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1): Opisthorchis viverrini in 1994 and Clonorchis sinensis in 2009. This review is focused on O. viverrini, the most studied of these two trematodes, which infects nearly 10 million people in Southeast Asia. The life cycle involves two intermediate hosts living in fresh water: a snail of the genus Bithynia and a ciprinid fish. The definitive hosts (human, cat, dog) become infected by ingesting raw fish containing metacercariae, the infective stage of the parasite. Adult flukes attach to the epithelium of the bile ducts where they feed for as long as 10 to 30 years, resulting in chronic inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and formation of granuloma. For a long asymptomatic, the distomatosis is revealed by a chronic cholangitis when the parasite load becomes high. Complications can occur with time: gallstones, cholangitis, liver abscess, pancreatitis and, after a few decades, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The epidemiological correlation between the prevalence of O. viverrini infection and the incidence of CCA has been demonstrated in the northeast of Thailand. Specifically, the Khon Kaen province has the highest incidence rate in the world. The CCA can develop asymptomatically for a long time, especially in intrahepatic locations. It is often discovered at a late stage, unresectable. Its prognosis is dreadful with a survival rate less than 5% at 5 years. The phenomenon of carcinogenesis induced by O. viverrini is multifactorial. It has been specially studied using experimental infection on the Syrian golden hamster. Three intricated mechanisms are involved: (i) the direct damage caused by adult worms on the bile duct epithelium, (ii) the immunopathologic processes related to chronic inflammation (oxidative stress) and (iii) the mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects of the proteins secreted by the parasite. Exogenous cofactors are

  13. [Application of quality control chart in quality control for nosocomial infection in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yumei; Liu, Yuanyi; Wang, Difen

    2017-02-01

    To explore the application value of control chart in the management of nosocomial infection in intensive care unit (ICU) by using quality control chart to monitor the infections in ICU. From October 2011 to June 2016, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), namely the three catheters, occurred in ICU of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University were monitored and recorded monthly, then the data was imput into the Excel, and the data was analyzed using SPSS. According to the properties of the data, control chart was derived for monitoring nosocomial infections, finding out problems and for taking actions on time. From October 2011 to June 2016, the numbers of new patients in ICU were 23-103 cases per month and the median was 45.00 (39.00, 55.50) cases per month. The numbers of new VAP patients were 0-7 cases per month which median was 3.00 (1.00, 4.00) cases per month and the VAP rates were 0-22.58 cases per 1 000 ventilation-days which median was 8.62 (3.28, 12.10) cases per 1 000 ventilation-days. The numbers of new CLABSI patients were 0-3 cases per month which median was 0.00 (0.00, 1.00) cases per month and the CLABSI rates were 0-14.82 cases per 1 000 catheter-days which median was 0.00 (0.00, 5.38) cases per 1 000 catheter-days. The numbers of new CAUTI patients were 0-8 cases per month which median was 1.00 (0.00, 2.00) cases per month and the CAUTI rates were 0-14.06 cases per 1 000 catheter-days which median was 3.02 (0.00, 5.86) cases per 1 000 catheter-days. 57 points of the three catheter-associated infections incidences were continuously monitored monthly, in which some data points overstepped the warning limit, only 1 CAUTI infection incidence overstepped the control limit, the other monthly three catheter-associated infections incidences were in the control range and had no abnormal arrangement occurred, so all of them were in a

  14. Use of e-learning to enhance medical students' understanding and knowledge of healthcare-associated infection prevention and control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2011-12-01

    An online infection prevention and control programme for medical students was developed and assessed. There was a statistically significant improvement (P<0.0001) in the knowledge base among 517 students after completing two modules. The majority of students who completed the evaluation were positive about the learning experience.

  15. Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment as a Remotely Controlled Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Bodo; Grober, Sebastian; Vetter, Martin; Jodl, Hans-Jorg

    2012-01-01

    The Millikan oil-drop experiment, to determine the elementary electrical charge e and the quantization of charge Q = n [middle dot] e, is an essential experiment in physics teaching but it is hardly performed in class for several reasons. Therefore, we offer this experiment as a remotely controlled laboratory (RCL). We describe the interactivity…

  16. Effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the prevalence of nosocomial infections in Kermanshah's Hospitals (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Sodabe; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Karchani, Mohsen; Hosseini, Zahra; Izadi, Babak; Moradi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the incidence of nosocomial infections in hospitals affiliated with the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010 and 2011. The numbers of patients admitted in 2010 and 2011 were 8084 and 7166, respectively, and the average prevalence of nosocomial infections in 2010 and 2011 was 0.8 and 1.9 infections per 100 patients, respectively. In 2010, the mean scores obtained by hospital for regular Infection Control Committee meetings, regular gatherings, registration of program information analysis, and regular follow-up meetings were 19, 31, 30.5, and 41.7 (out of 100), respectively. In 2011, they were 20.2, 36.4, 38.1, and 50, respectively. The results of this study indicated that executive programs of infection control committees had no effect on the incidence of nosocomial infections; therefore, the experts who assess hospitals should pay more attention to the systems that are used to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infection control programs.

  17. The prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in patients with reflux esophagitis - our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Zaim; Sherifi, Fadil; Shabani, Ragip

    2013-12-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori in esophageal disease has not been clearly defined. To clarify this issue, we analyzed 120 patients with histologically confirmed esophageal disease. In this prospective study, 120 patients who underwent upper endoscopy examination were included; among them 70 patients with clinically, endoscopically and histologically confirmed GERD, and 50 patients with BE. This investigation was performed in the Clinic of Gastrohepatology in Prishtina, during the period: June 2009-December 2011. Each patient was investigated for H. pylori infection, by performing biopsy for HUT test. In BE group, H. pylori infection was present in 16.0% of patients. In GERD group, H. pylori infection was present in 42.9%, and in patients of the control group, in 52.0% of cases. So, in BE group, the prevalence of H. pylori infection showed less significant difference, compared to the control group (P = 0.003) and in GERD group (P = 0.0035). Between GERD group and the control group there was no significant difference (GERD vs. G control. P = 0.421). The prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with BE (16%) was lower in comparison with patients with GERD (42.9%) and with control group (p <0.01). The prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with BE, especially those with LSBE (9.1%) was very low, which indicates a possible protective role of this microorganism.

  18. The Run Control and Monitoring System of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, A; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Bauer, G; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC at CERN will start taking data in 2008. To configure, control and monitor the experiment during data-taking the Run Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) was developed. This paper describes the architecture and the technology used to implement the RCMS, as well as the deployment and commissioning strategy of this important component of the online software for the CMS experiment.

  19. The run control and monitoring system of the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Gerry; /MIT; Boyer, Vincent; /CERN; Branson, James; /UCLA; Brett, Angela; Cano, Eric; Carboni, Andrea; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; /CERN; O' Dell, Vivian; /Fermilab; Erhan, Samim; /CERN /UC, San Diego; Gigi, Dominique; /CERN /Kyungpook Natl. U. /MIT /UCLA /CERN /INFN, Legnaro

    2007-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC at CERN will start taking data in 2008. To configure, control and monitor the experiment during data-taking the Run Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) was developed. This paper describes the architecture and the technology used to implement the RCMS, as well as the deployment and commissioning strategy of this important component of the online software for the CMS experiment.

  20. Experiment D010: Ion sensing attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagalyn, R. C.; Smiddy, M.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of an attitude control system that uses environmental positive ions and an electrostatic detection system to measure spacecraft pitch and yaw is studied. The secondary objective was to measure the spatial and temporal variations of ambient positively charged particles along the orbital path of the Gemini 10 and 12 spacecrafts. The results proved that the use of a horizon detector in conjunction with pitch and yaw sensors would facilitate complete description of the spacecraft position and attitude. Furthermore, with the addition of a servosystem, the unit could be used as a complete automatic attitude-control system that would be applicable from the lowest satellite altitudes up to at least 10 earth radii. Also, results established that the charge density along the trajectory of the satellite could be determined by transmission of output voltages from the individual electrometers.

  1. Population-based biomedical sexually transmitted infection control interventions for reducing HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Brian E; Butler, Lisa M; Horvath, Tara; Rutherford, George W

    2011-03-16

    The transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is closely related to the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Similar risk behaviours, such as frequent unprotected intercourse with different partners, place people at high risk of HIV and STIs, and there is clear evidence that many STIs increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. STI control, especially at the population or community level, may have the potential to contribute substantially to HIV prevention.This is an update of an existing Cochrane review. The review's search methods were updated and its inclusion and exclusion criteria modified so that the focus would be on one well-defined outcome. This review now focuses explicitly on population-based biomedical interventions for STI control, with change in HIV incidence being an outcome necessary for a study's inclusion. To determine the impact of population-based biomedical STI interventions on the incidence of HIV infection. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science/Social Science, PsycINFO, and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), for the period of 1 January1980 - 16 August 2010. We initially identified 6003 articles and abstracts. After removing 776 duplicates, one author (TH) removed an additional 3268 citations that were clearly irrelevant. Rigorously applying the inclusion criteria, three authors then independently screened the remaining 1959 citations and abstracts. Forty-six articles were chosen for full-text scrutiny by two authors. Ultimately, four studies were included in the review.We also searched the Aegis database of conference abstracts, which includes the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), the International AIDS Conference (IAC), and International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS) meetings from their inception dates (1993, 1985 and

  2. Potential Risk of Cross-Infection by Tourniquets: A Need for Effective Control Practices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Tourniquets are a potential reservoir and vehicle for the spread of nosocomial infections, including MRSA. Health care workers have inadequate knowledge about infection control procedures and personal hygiene for disinfecting reusable items.

  3. Synergy between azoles and 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative as an option to control fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježíková, Zuzana; Pagáč, Tomáš; Pfeiferová, Barbora; Bujdáková, Helena; Dižová, Stanislava; Jančíková, Iva; Gášková, Dana; Olejníková, Petra

    2017-09-01

    With emerging fungal infections and developing resistance, there is a need for understanding the mechanisms of resistance as well as its clinical impact while planning the treatment strategies. Several approaches could be taken to overcome the problems arising from the management of fungal diseases. Besides the discovery of novel effective agents, one realistic alternative is to enhance the activity of existing agents. This strategy could be achieved by combining existing antifungal agents with other bioactive substances with known activity profiles (combination therapy). Azole antifungals are the most frequently used class of substances used to treat fungal infections. Fluconazole is often the first choice for antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to study potential synergy between azoles and 1,4-dihydropyridine-2,3,5-tricarboxylate (termed derivative H) in order to control fungal infections. This article points out the synergy between azoles and newly synthesized derivative H in order to fight fungal infections. Experiments confirmed the role of derivative H as substrate/inhibitor of fungal transporter Cdr1p relating to increased sensitivity to fluconazole. These findings, plus decreased expression of ERG11, are responsible for the synergistic effect.

  4. The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Bahia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT, the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies.

  5. Thermal control of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ann B.; Roettker, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) will employ lidar techniques to study the atmosphere from space. The LITE instrument will be flown in the Space Shuttle Payload Bay with an earth directed orientation. The experiment thermal control incorporates both active and passive techniques. The Laser Transmitter Module (LTM) and the system electronics will be actively cooled through the Shuttle pallet coolant loop. The receiver system and experiment platform will be passsively controlled through the use of insulation and component surface properties. This paper explains the thermal control techniques used and the analysis results, with primary focus on the receiver system.

  6. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments.

  7. Does Extracellular DNA Production Vary in Staphylococcal Biofilms Isolated From Infected Implants versus Controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorska, Beata; Groger, Marion; Moser, Doris; Diab-Elschahawi, Magda; Lusignani, Luigi Segagni; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    Prosthetic implant infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis are major challenges for early diagnosis and treatment owing to biofilm formation on the implant surface. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is actively excreted from bacterial cells in biofilms, contributing to biofilm stability, and may offer promise in the detection or treatment of such infections. (1) Does DNA structure change during biofilm formation? (2) Are there time-dependent differences in eDNA production during biofilm formation? (3) Is there differential eDNA production between clinical and control Staphylococcal isolates? (4) Is eDNA production correlated to biofilm thickness? We investigated eDNA presence during biofilm formation in 60 clinical and 30 control isolates of S aureus and S epidermidis. The clinical isolates were isolated from patients with infections of orthopaedic prostheses and implants: 30 from infected hip prostheses and 30 from infected knee prostheses. The control isolates were taken from healthy volunteers who had not been exposed to antibiotics and a hospital environment during the previous 3 and 12 months, respectively. Control S epidermidis was isolated from the skin of the antecubital fossa, and control S aureus was isolated from the nares. For the biofilm experiments the following methods were used to detect eDNA: (1) fluorescent staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), (2) eDNA extraction using a commercial kit, and (3) confocal laser scanning microscopy for 24-hour biofilm observation using propidium iodide and concanavalin-A staining; TOTO®-1 and SYTO® 60 staining were used for observation and quantification of eDNA after 6 and 24 hours of biofilm formation. Additionally antibiotic resistance was described. eDNA production as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy was greater in clinical isolates than controls (clinical isolates mean ± SD: 1.84% ± 1.31%; control mean ± SD: 1.17% ± 1.37%; p biofilm formation. After 24 hours, the

  8. NK cells improve control of friend virus infection in mice persistently infected with murine cytomegalovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Sandra; Peng, Jing; Schwarz, Tatjana; Duppach, Janine; Gibbert, Kathrin; Dittmer, Ulf; Kraft, Anke RM

    2013-01-01

    Background Co-infection of HIV patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with enhanced AIDS progression and CMV end-organ diseases. On the other hand, persistent CMV infection has recently been shown to decrease tumor relapse and protect against lethal bacterial infection. The influence of persistent CMV on the outcome of an acute retroviral superinfection is still unknown. Results Here we show that a persistent murine CMV (mCMV) infection surprisingly confers higher resistance to a p...

  9. CD8+ lymphocytes control viral replication in SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques without decreasing the lifespan of productively infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichole R Klatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While CD8+ T cells are clearly important in controlling virus replication during HIV and SIV infections, the mechanisms underlying this antiviral effect remain poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the in vivo effect of CD8+ lymphocyte depletion on the lifespan of productively infected cells during chronic SIVmac239 infection of rhesus macaques. We treated two groups of animals that were either CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted or controls with antiretroviral therapy, and used mathematical modeling to assess the lifespan of infected cells either in the presence or absence of CD8+ lymphocytes. We found that, in both early (day 57 post-SIV and late (day 177 post-SIV chronic SIV infection, depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes did not result in a measurable increase in the lifespan of either short- or long-lived productively infected cells in vivo. This result indicates that the presence of CD8+ lymphocytes does not result in a noticeably shorter lifespan of productively SIV-infected cells, and thus that direct cell killing is unlikely to be the main mechanism underlying the antiviral effect of CD8+ T cells in SIV-infected macaques with high virus replication.

  10. Control of HPV infection and related cancer through vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam Phuong; Hung, Chien-Fu; Roden, Richard; Wu, T-C

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus, and its associated diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in over 600 million infected individuals. Major progress has been made with preventative vaccines, and clinical data have emerged regarding the efficacy and cross-reactivity of the two FDA approved L1 virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines. However, the cost of the approved vaccines currently limits their widespread use in developing countries which carry the greatest burden of HPV-associated diseases. Furthermore, the licensed preventive HPV vaccines only contain two high-risk types of HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) which can protect only up to 75 % of all cervical cancers. Thus, second generation preventative vaccine candidates hope to address the issues of cost and broaden protection through the use of more multivalent L1-VLPs, vaccine formulations, or alternative antigens such as L1 capsomers, L2 capsid proteins, and chimeric VLPs. Preventative vaccines are crucial to controlling the transmission of HPV, but there are already hundreds of millions of infected individuals who have HPV-associated lesions that are silently progressing toward malignancy. This raises the need for therapeutic HPV vaccines that can trigger T cell killing of established HPV lesions, including HPV-transformed tumor cells. In order to stimulate such antitumor immune responses, therapeutic vaccine candidates deliver HPV antigens in vivo by employing various bacterial, viral, protein, peptide, dendritic cell, and DNA-based vectors. This book chapter will review the commercially available preventive vaccines, present second generation candidates, and discuss the progress of developing therapeutic HPV vaccines.

  11. Toltrazuril treatment to control diaplacental Neospora caninum transmission in experimentally infected pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, B; Razmi, G R; Ammann, P; Sager, H; Müller, N

    2005-01-01

    We addressed the question whether diaplacental transmission of Neospora caninum can be controlled by metaphylactic chemotherapy using toltrazuril or enrofloxacin. Female C57/BL6 mice, infected on day 10 of pregnancy, were medicated for 6 consecutive days p.i. with 52.5 mg toltrazuril or - as an out-group control medication--16.7 mg enrofloxacin per kg body weight per day. Other control groups received either infection but no medication or vice versa. Toltrazuril treatment significantly reduced pre- and perinatal losses (10 deliveries of healthy newborns, versus 1 abortion and 4 failures) when compared to control-enrofloxacin (2 deliveries, versus 1 abortion, 7 failures and 2 pre-parturient deaths of dams) and non-treated animals (3 deliveries, versus 6 abortions, 8 failures and 4 pre-parturient deaths). Simultaneously, PCR-based parasite detection in the brain of mothers, histopathological findings as well as clinical fatality were significantly less frequent in toltrazuril-treated dams. The overall toltrazuril treatment efficacy was determined as 87 %, that of enrofloxacin-treatment as 17 %. The progenies of toltrazuril-treated dams also exhibited a very low rate of PCR-positivity in their brain (3 out of 39), whereas untreated dams delivered litters with mostly PCR-positive brains (12 out of 14) and a relatively high death rate post-partum (5 out of 19 newborns died). Mice subjected to a second mating delivered newborns all negative by N. caninum-PCR, indicating that diaplacental tachyzoite passage does not occur in a later, repeated pregnancy. Overall, our experiments showed that toltrazuril-treatment of an acute N. caninum-infection--induced during pregnancy--results in a clear reduction of fetal losses and a marked reduction of diaplacental passage of the parasite to the fetal brain, whereas enrofloxacin, as an out-group control substance, failed to show the same effect.

  12. Review of Infection Control Regulations in Dental Care with an Emphasis in HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bedoya Mejía, Germán Andrés; Fundación Grupo Especializado en Salud - GES

    2010-01-01

     This article introduces recommendations for the dental care of patients infected with HIV/ AIDS, and the norms to prevent and control incidents, work accidents and infections related to the dental practice. The recommendations are based on current standards for infection control and the preparation of medical records from the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC), the U.S. Occupational Security and Health Administration (OSHA), the American Dental Associa...

  13. Tuberculosis in Healthcare Workers and Infection Control Measures at Primary Healthcare Facilities in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Claassens, Mareli M.; Cari van Schalkwyk; Elizabeth du Toit; Eline Roest; Lombard, Carl J; Enarson, Donald A.; Nulda Beyers; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Challenges exist regarding TB infection control and TB in hospital-based healthcare workers in South Africa. However, few studies report on TB in non-hospital based healthcare workers such as primary or community healthcare workers. Our objectives were to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures at primary healthcare facilities, the smear positive TB incidence rate amongst primary healthcare workers and the association between TB infection control measures a...

  14. [Advances in research on harm and control of Enterobius vermicularis infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yao-Wu; Pang, Xin-Li; Liu, Jie-Bing; Huang, Shao-Yu

    2012-10-01

    In China, the infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis in children is still relatively high. Because the development and spread of worm eggs is fast, it is easy to treat but difficult to control the disease, and the control effect is also difficult to be consolidated. The long-term repeated Enterobius vermicularis infection may cause the damage on children's body and mind in different degrees. This paper offers an overview on the current status, harm and prevention and control of Enterobius vermicularis infection.

  15. Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Divina Barda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini-FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania. Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear, whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings--particularly for helminth diagnosis.

  16. A review of bovine Johne's disease control activities in 6 endemically infected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Timothy; Graham, David A; Mullowney, Peter; More, Simon J

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is endemic in the bovine populations of many countries and can cause a significant reduction in animal welfare and production efficiency making control desirable. Effective control has proved very difficult to achieve despite multiple regionally coordinated programmes being in existence since the 1920s. The international community increasingly recognises the value in learning from the collective experiences of existing programmes to improve the effectiveness of control. The aim of this review is to outline key aspects of bovine Johne's disease control activities across 6 endemically infected countries to facilitate comparison of current international practice. The background, control activities and monitoring components of programmes in Australia, Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States of America were individually reviewed. Factual accuracy of each review was checked by individuals involved in the respective programmes before the reviews were condensed and combined into a single document presented here, with the complete reviews of each programme available as supplementary material. There was considerable heterogeneity in key aspects of control activity design including goals, responses to declining participation, herd classification, recommended control measures and associated test requirements. The data presented will be of interest to organisations that are involved in developing new or existing regionally coordinated BJD control activities. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Data acquisition and experiment control system of the project Maus (materials science experiments under weightlessness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensch, D.

    In the context of Spacelab and Shuttle utilization, it is possible to conduct experiments in 'Small Self Contained Packages' (SSCP). This possibility exists primarily for experiments related to materials research/industrial processing engineering. The program involved is called 'get away special' (GAS). The project Maus was established in West Germany with the aim to participate in the program GAS. The autonomous design of the considered experiments made it necessary to develop an electronic unit for the control and the automatic conduction of the experiment. In addition, the process of the acquisition and the recording of the experimental data is also controlled.

  18. Knowledge and Practice of Nursing Staff towards Infection Control Measures in the Palestinian Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashafsheh, Imad; Ayed, Ahmad; Eqtait, Faeda; Harazneh, Lubna

    2015-01-01

    Health care professionals are constantly exposed to microorganisms. Many of which can cause serious or even lethal infections. Nurses in particular are often exposed to various infections during the course of carrying out their nursing activities. Therefore nurses should have sound knowledge and strict adherence to infection control practice. Aim…

  19. Experience with a Multinational, Secondary School Education Module with a Focus on Prevention of Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornekamp, Laura; Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Vlek, Odette M; Klop, Tanja; Goeijenbier, Marco; van Gorp, Eric C M

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, virus infections are responsible for many diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality. Vaccinations and therapies are only available for relatively few virus infections and not always where they are needed. However, knowledge of transmission routes can prevent virus infection. In the context of this study, we measured the effects of a secondary school education module, named Viruskenner, on knowledge, attitude, and risk behavior as these relate to virus infections. A nonrandomized intervention study was conducted between April and August 2015 to assess the effect of this 2-month education module on knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 684 secondary school students in the Netherlands, Suriname, and Indonesia. For the Netherlands, a control group of a further 184 students was added. Factor analysis was performed on questions pertaining to attitude and behavior. Comparative analyses between pre- and posttest per country were done using multiple linear regression, independent sample T-tests, and one-way analysis of variance. These showed a significant increase in knowledge about virus infections and the prevention of infectious diseases among the Dutch and Surinamese groups, whereas a trend of increased knowledge was evident among the Indonesian participants. The Dutch control group showed an overall decrease in knowledge. Regression analyses showed that there was a significant interaction effect between participation and time on knowledge, attitude, and awareness and behavior and risk infection. Attitudes improved significantly in the intervention group. Pearson correlation coefficients between knowledge, attitude, and behavior were found to be positive.

  20. Ventriculostomy-associated infection: a new, standardized reporting definition and institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, Yair M; Farley, Chad W; Hanseman, Dennis J; Harwell, Daniel; Magner, Mark; Andaluz, Norberto; Shutter, Lori

    2014-08-01

    Shortcomings created by the lack of both a uniform definition of ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) and reporting standards have led to widely ranging infections rates (2-24%) whose significance is uncertain. We propose a standardized definition of VAI and a consistent reporting format compliant with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for device-related infections. Using those parameters to establish an infection-control surveillance program, we report our 4-year institutional VAI rates. In this prospective study covering ventriculostomy utilization (October 2006-December 2010), 498 patients had a total of 4,673 ventriculostomy days. By review of the literature and our institutional analysis, we defined VAI as a positive CSF culture in a patient with ventriculostomy catheter, plus one or more of the following (1) fever recorded >101.5 °F or (2) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose level, either definition and CDC format seems promising toward facilitating future study and guideline development. Given our strict protocol of sterile catheter placement and care, and our institution's low 2.0% infection rates, we propose an infection-rate target of ≤5 per 1,000 device days. Our results suggest that the use of antibiotics or antibiotic-impregnated catheters is unwarranted--a positive given concerns of evolving anti-microbial resistance.

  1. Enteric parasitic infection among antiretroviral therapy Naïve HIV-seropositive people: Infection begets infection-experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parasitic opportunistic infections (POIs frequently occur in HIV/AIDS patients and affect the quality of life. Aims: This study assessing the standard organisms in the stool of HIV-positive patients, their comparison with HIV-negative controls, their relation with various factors, is the first of its kind in the eastern part of India. Settings and Design: hospital-based case-control study. Materials and Methods: A total of 194 antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-positive patients (18-60 years were taken as cases and 98 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative family members as controls. Demographical, clinical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters were studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P (350 cells/μl Cryptosporidium was the most common POI. Mean CD4 count was significantly (P < 0.001 lower among people having multiple infections. Male sex, hemoglobin <10 g/dl, WHO Clinical Stage 3 or 4, tuberculosis, absolute eosinophil count of more than 540/dl, CD4 count <350 cells/μl, and seroconcordance of spouses were significantly associated with HIV-seropositive cases having POI (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Physicians should advise HIV-infected patients to undergo routine evaluation for POI, and provision of chemoprophylaxis should be made in appropriate settings.

  2. Patient engagement with infection management in secondary care: a qualitative investigation of current experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Timothy M; Moore, Luke S P; Hernandez, Bernard; Castro-Sanchez, Enrique; Charani, Esmita; Georgiou, Pantelis; Ahmad, Raheelah; Holmes, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand patient engagement with decision-making for infection management in secondary care and the consequences associated with current practices. Design A qualitative investigation using in-depth focus groups. Participants Fourteen members of the public who had received antimicrobials from secondary care in the preceding 12 months in the UK were identified for recruitment. Ten agreed to participate. All participants had experience of infection management in secondary care pathways across a variety of South-East England healthcare institutes. Study findings were subsequently tested through follow-up focus groups with 20 newly recruited citizens. Results Participants reported feelings of disempowerment during episodes of infection in secondary care. Information is communicated in a unilateral manner with individuals ‘told’ that they have an infection and will receive an antimicrobial (often unnamed), leading to loss of ownership, frustration, anxiety and ultimately distancing them from engaging with decision-making. This poor communication drives individuals to seek information from alternative sources, including online, which is associated with concerns over reliability and individualisation. Failures in communication and information provision by clinicians in secondary care influence individuals’ future ideas about infections and their management. This alters their future actions towards antimicrobials and can drive prescription non-adherence and loss to follow-up. Conclusions Current infection management and antimicrobial prescribing practices in secondary care fail to engage patients with the decision-making process. Secondary care physicians must not view infection management episodes as discrete events, but as cumulative experiences which have the potential to shape future patient behaviour and understanding of antimicrobial use. PMID:27799238

  3. Wind Tunnel Experiments with Active Control of Bridge Section Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section model where movable flaps are integrated in the bridge girder so each flap is the streamlined part of the edge of the girder. This active control flap system is patented by COWIconsult and may be used to increase...... the flutter wind velocity for future ultra-long span suspension bridges. The purpose of the wind tunnel experiments is to investigate the principle to use this active flap control system. The bridge section model used in the experiments is therefore not a model of a specific bridge but it is realistic...

  4. A Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jordan L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process control experiment. The apparatus includes a three-vessel glass flow system with a variable flow configuration, means for feeding dye solution controlled by a stepper-motor driven valve, and a flow spectrophotometer. Students use impulse response data and nonlinear regression to estimate three parameters of a model…

  5. Fungal Metabolites for the Control of Biofilm Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Bergamo Estrela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many microbes attach to surfaces and produce a complex matrix of polymers surrounding their cells, forming a biofilm. In biofilms, microbes are much better protected against hostile environments, impairing the action of most antibiotics. A pressing demand exists for novel therapeutic strategies against biofilm infections, which are a grave health wise on mucosal surfaces and medical devices. From fungi, a large number of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity have been characterized. This review discusses natural compounds from fungi which are effective against fungal and bacterial biofilms. Some molecules are able to block the cell communication process essential for biofilm formation (known as quorum sensing, others can penetrate and kill cells within the structure. Several targets have been identified, ranging from the inhibition of quorum sensing receptors and virulence factors, to cell wall synthesizing enzymes. Only one group of these fungal metabolites has been optimized and made it to the market, but more preclinical studies are ongoing to expand the biofilm-fighting arsenal. The broad diversity of bioactive compounds from fungi, their activities against various pathogens, and the multi-target trait of some molecules are promising aspects of fungal secondary metabolites. Future screenings for biofilm-controlling compounds will contribute to several novel clinical applications.

  6. User experiences with editorial control in online newspaper comment fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes; Ihlebæk, Karoline Andrea; Larsson, Anders Olof

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates user experiences with editorial control in online newspaper comment fields following the public backlash against online comments after the 2011 terror attacks in Norway. We analyze data from a survey of online news consumers focusing on experiences and attitudes towards...... editorial control set against a spectrum between “interventionist” and “noninterventionist” positions. Results indicate that interventionist respondents rate the quality of online comments as poor, whereas noninterventionist respondents have most often experienced being the target of editorial control...

  7. Effect of effort-reward imbalance and burnout on infection control among Ecuadorian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colindres, C V; Bryce, E; Coral-Rosero, P; Ramos-Soto, R M; Bonilla, F; Yassi, A

    2017-11-07

    Nurses are frequently exposed to transmissible infections, yet adherence to infection control measures is suboptimal. There has been inadequate research into how the psychosocial work environment affects compliance with infection control measures, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To examine the association between effort-reward imbalance, burnout and adherence to infection control measures among nurses in Ecuador. A cross-sectional study linking psychosocial work environment indicators to infection control adherence. The study was conducted among 333 nurses in four Ecuadorian hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographic variables, perceived infection risk, effort-reward imbalance, burnout and infection control adherence. Increased effort-reward imbalance was found to be a unique incremental predictor of exposure to burnout, and burnout was a negative unique incremental predictor of nurses' self-reported adherence with infection control measures. Results suggest an effort-reward imbalance-burnout continuum, which, at higher levels, contributes to reduce adherence to infection control. The Ecuadorean government has made large efforts to improve universal access to health care, yet this study suggests that workplace demands on nurses remain problematic. This study highlights the contribution of effort-reward-imbalance-burnout continuum to the chain of infection by decreased adherence to infection control of nurses. Health authorities should closely monitor the effect of new policies on psychosocial work environment, especially when expanding services and increasing public accessibility with limited resources. Additionally, organizational and psychosocial interventions targeting effort-reward imbalance and burnout in nurses should be considered part of a complete infection prevention and control strategy. Further study is warranted to identify interventions that best ameliorate effort-reward imbalance and burnout in low- and middle

  8. Hospitalization Rates and Reasons Among HIV Elite Controllers and Persons With Medically Controlled HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Trevor A; Gebo, Kelly A; Blankson, Joel N; Korthuis, P Todd; Yehia, Baligh R; Rutstein, Richard M; Moore, Richard D; Sharp, Victoria; Nijhawan, Ank E; Mathews, W Christopher; Hanau, Lawrence H; Corales, Roberto B; Beil, Robert; Somboonwit, Charurut; Edelstein, Howard; Allen, Sara L; Berry, Stephen A

    2015-06-01

    Elite controllers spontaneously suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia but also demonstrate chronic inflammation that may increase risk of comorbid conditions. We compared hospitalization rates and causes among elite controllers to those of immunologically intact persons with medically controlled HIV. For adults in care at 11 sites from 2005 to 2011, person-years with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 cells/mm(2) were categorized as medical control, elite control, low viremia, or high viremia. All-cause and diagnostic category-specific hospitalization rates were compared between groups using negative binomial regression. We identified 149 elite controllers (0.4%) among 34 354 persons in care. Unadjusted hospitalization rates among the medical control, elite control, low-viremia, and high-viremia groups were 10.5, 23.3, 12.6, and 16.9 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, elite control was associated with higher rates of all-cause (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.77 [95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.60]), cardiovascular (3.19 [1.50-6.79]) and psychiatric (3.98 [1.54-10.28]) hospitalization than was medical control. Non-AIDS-defining infections were the most common reason for admission overall (24.1% of hospitalizations) but were rare among elite controllers (2.7%), in whom cardiovascular hospitalizations were most common (31.1%). Elite controllers are hospitalized more frequently than persons with medically controlled HIV and cardiovascular hospitalizations are an important contributor. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Veenhuis, Rebecca T; May, Megan; Luna, Krystle A; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Cox, Andrea L; Carrington, Mary; Bailey, Justin R; Arduino, Roberto C; Blankson, Joel N

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication. © 2016.

  10. Approaches to Golden Algae Control: In-Lake Mesocosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    ER D C/ EL C R- 12 -1 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Approaches to Golden Algae Control: In-Lake Mesocosm Experiments En vi ro...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program ERDC/EL CR-12-1 April 2012 Approaches to Golden...parvum cell toxicity and stable isotope ratios. Harmful Algae 8: 247-253. Lundholm, N., and O. Moestrup. 2006. The biogeography of harmful algae. In

  11. Infection prevention and control measures currently applied in South African audiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ehlert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To counter the global increase in infection-related deaths, infection control has recently developed into an active area of research. Many diseases can be prevented by infection control. In the confines of the audiology clinic, cross-contamination by micro-organisms associated with opportunistic infections remains a real concern.Objective: The primary aim of the study was to ascertain the methods that audiologists in South Africa use to prevent and control the spread of infections during and after consultation with clients.Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Fifty currently practising audiologists participated in the study.Results: The majority (84%; n = 42 of respondents acknowledged the importance of hand hygiene for the purpose of infection control, with 76% (n = 38 making use of no-rinse hand sanitisers. Approximately a third of audiologists wear gloves during procedures such as otoscopy and immittance, and while handling hearing aids. Disinfecting audiological equipment seem to be the preferred choice of infection control, with only 60% (n = 30 of respondents sterilising audiological equipment after each individual patient consultation. Less than half of the respondents disinfected touch surfaces and toys in the reception area.Conclusions: Based on the results, further education and training should focus on measures implemented in infection control, awareness of possible risk factors at work settings, and vaccination as an effective means of infection control.

  12. Barriers and facilitators to infection control at a hospital in northern India: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Barker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital acquired infections occur at higher rates in low- and middle-income countries, like India, than in high-income countries. Effective implementation of infection control practices is crucial to reducing the transmission of hospital acquired infections at hospitals worldwide. Yet, no comprehensive assessments of the barriers to sustained, successful implementation of hospital interventions have been performed in Indian healthcare settings to date. The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS model examines problems through the lens of interactions between people and systems. It is a natural fit for investigating the behavioral and systematic components of infection control practices. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to assess the facilitators and barriers to infection control practices at a 1250 bed tertiary care hospital in Haryana, northern India. Twenty semi-structured interviews of nurses and physicians, selected by convenience sampling, were conducted in English using an interview guide based on the SEIPS model. All interview data was subsequently transcribed and coded for themes. Results Person, task, and organizational level factors were the primary barriers and facilitators to infection control at this hospital. Major barriers included a high rate of nursing staff turnover, time spent training new staff, limitations in language competency, and heavy clinical workloads. A well developed infection control team and an institutional climate that prioritizes infection control were major facilitators. Conclusions Institutional support is critical to the effective implementation of infection control practices. Prioritizing resources to recruit and retain trained, experienced nursing staff is also essential.

  13. Preliminary experiments on use of zebrafish as a laboratory model for Giardia duodenalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysnes, Kristoffer R; Jørgensen, Anders; Poppe, Trygve; Midtlyng, Paul J; Robertson, Lucy J

    2012-03-01

    Although Giardia duodenalis is considered a parasite of mammals, different genotypes have been identified as infecting several species of freshwater and marine fish in Australia. Establishment of G. duodenalis infection in common laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), could provide an excellent tool for a range of studies on Giardia. We conducted preliminary experiments to investigate this possibility. Zebrafish were inoculated with viable G. duodenalis cysts from two different Assemblages (A and D) using a modified oro-gastric tube. Direct microscopy and immunofluorescent antibody test were used to check for Giardia cysts/trophozoites in the intestine, and histology was performed on intestinal mucosa to evaluate possible pathological changes. Giardia cysts were successfully deposited in the zebrafish alimentary tract using a modified oro-gastric tube, and were maintained in the fish gut for at least 8 days. Although a single trophozoite was observed in one fish three days post-exposure, we were unable to demonstrate established, propagative infection under the conditions tested.

  14. Strict Infection Control Leads to Low Incidence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection over 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Widmer, Andreas F; Lakatos, Botond; Frei, Reno

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide issue associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple infection control (IC) approaches have been tested to control its spread; however, the success of the majority of trials has been short-lived and many efforts have failed. We report the long-term success of MRSA control from a prospective observational study over 20 years. SETTING University Hospital Basel is a large tertiary care center with a median...

  15. Knowledge and practices of infection control among healthcare workers in a Tertiary Referral Center in North-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Garba; Dayyab, Farouq Muhammad; Habib, Zaiyad Garba; Tiamiyu, Abdulwasiu Bolaji; Abubakar, Salisu; Mijinyawa, Mohammad Sani; Habib, Abdulrazaq Garba

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare acquired infections (HCAIs) otherwise call nosocomial infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and predisposes healthcare workers (HCWs) to an increased risk of infections. The study explores the knowledge and practices of infection control among HCW in a tertiary referral center in North-Western Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed to the study group (of doctors and nurses). Data on knowledge and practice of infection control were obtained and analyzed. Study population were selected by convenience sampling. A total of 200 responses were analyzed, 152 were nurses while 48 were doctors. The median age and years of working experience of the respondents were 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 31-39) and 7 years (IQR 4-12), respectively. Most of the respondents 174/198 (87.9%) correctly identified hand washing as the most effective method to prevent HCAI, with nurses having better knowledge 139/152 (91%) (P = 0.001). Majority agreed that avoiding injury with sharps 172/200 (86%), use of barrier precaution 180/200 (90%) and hand hygiene 184/200 (92%) effectively prevent HCAI. Only 88/198 (44.4%), 122/198 (61.6%), and 84/198 (42.4%) of the respondents were aware of the risks of infection following exposure to human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus-infected blood, respectively. About 52% of doctors and 76% of nurses (P = 0.002) always practice hand hygiene in between patient care. Gaps have been identified in knowledge and practice of infection control among doctors' and nurses' in the study; hence, it will be beneficial for all HCW to receive formal and periodic refresher trainings.

  16. Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and

  17. Infection Control in dental practice for chair-side Assistants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the course: The aim of the course was to train and orient the chair-side assistants on cross-infection control in dental practice. The scope and implementation of the course: This is a two weeks course that covers principles and procedures for infection control in dental practice. The participants are guided through a ...

  18. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  19. The infection control audit: the standardized audit as a tool for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Elizabeth Ann; Scharf, Sydney; Walker, Moira; Walsh, Anne

    2007-05-01

    Health care workers' compliance with infection control practices and principles is vital in preventing the spread of disease. One tool to assess infection control practice in clinical areas is the infection control audit; however, many institutions do not approach this in a systematic fashion. Key features of the infection control audit were identified by the infection control team and developed into a standardized format for review of clinical areas. The audit incorporates a review of the physical layout, protocols and policies, knowledge of basic infection control principles, and workplace practice review. Over the last 13 years, the infection control unit has completed 17 audits involving 1525 employees. Four-hundred-one staff members have filled out questionnaires that assessed their understanding of standard precautions. A total of 257 recommendations have been made, and 95% of these have been implemented. The majority of recommendations address separation of clean and dirty supplies, hand hygiene compliance, hand hygiene signage, proper use of barriers, and environmental cleaning. The infection control audit is an opportunity to implement changes and to introduce remedial measures in collaboration with various departments and services. A standardized approach to the audit allows benchmarking of practices across the institution and enhances standards of care.

  20. Regional differences in infection control conditions in a sample of primary health care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3% dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.

  1. Device-associated nosocomial infections in limited-resources countries: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D

    2008-12-01

    The rates of health care-associated infections (HAIs) and bacterial resistance in developing countries are 3 to 5 times higher than international standards. HAIs increase length of stay (10 days), costs (US $5000 to US $12,000), and mortality (by a factor of 2 to 3). The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), founded in 1998, is the only source of aggregated international data on the epidemiology of device-associated infections (DAIs). Its advisory board includes 12 representatives from developed countries, who help guide INICC's activities, and 8 country coordinators. The INICC network has about 5400 active researchers in 98 intensive care units (ICUs) in 18 countries on 4 continents that conduct infection control research and surveillance using standardized DAI surveillance definitions and methodologies. Participating hospitals use the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) surveillance method and DAI definitions. Unlike the CDC, the INICC collects data from patients with and without DAI and matches patients to evaluate risk factors, attributable mortality, length of stay, and costs and conducts process surveillance to measure and improve compliance with infection control guidelines. INICC's surveillance at 98 ICUs in 18 limited resources countries on 4 continents for 10 years has significantly improved infection control guidelines compliance and reduced DAI rates and mortality rates. After 11 years of implementing process surveillance intervention in 77 ICUs of 34 cities of 14 countries, including observation of 88,661 opportunities for hand hygiene, education, performance monitoring, feedback, and peer support from high-level hospital administrators, hand-hygiene compliance among ICU healthcare workers increased from 35.1% to 60.7% (RR 1.73, P countries, by implementing outcome and process surveillance interventions, INICC reduced central line associated bloodstream infection (CLAB) rates from 16.1 to 10.1 CLABs per 1000 CL

  2. Combining Biofilm-Controlling Compounds and Antibiotics as a Promising New Way to Control Biofilm Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Bergamo Estrela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria grow on surfaces forming biofilms. In this structure, they are well protected and often high dosages of antibiotics cannot clear infectious biofilms. The formation and stabilization of biofilms are mediated by diffusible autoinducers (e.g. N-acyl homoserine lactones, small peptides, furanosyl borate diester. Metabolites interfering with this process have been identified in plants, animals and microbes, and synthetic analogues are known. Additionally, this seems to be not the only way to control biofilms. Enzymes capable of cleaving essential components of the biofilm matrix, e.g. polysaccharides or extracellular DNA, and thus weakening the biofilm architecture have been identified. Bacteria also have mechanisms to dissolve their biofilms and return to planktonic lifestyle. Only a few compounds responsible for the signalling of these processes are known, but they may open a completely novel line of biofilm control. All these approaches lead to the destruction of the biofilm but not the killing of the pathogens. Therefore, a combination of biofilm-destroying compounds and antibiotics to handle biofilm infections is proposed. In this article, different approaches to combine biofilm-controlling compounds and antibiotics to fight biofilm infections are discussed, as well as the balance between biofilm formation and virulence.

  3. The detector control system of the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poy, A Barriuso; Burckhart, H J; Cook, J; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hallgren, B; Schlenker, S; Varela, F [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Boterenbrood, H [NIKHEF, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Filimonov, V; Khomutnikov, V [PNPI, Gatchina, Leningrad reg., 188300 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: stefan.schlenker@cern.ch

    2008-05-15

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. The individual detector components as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision using operator commands, reads, processes and archives the operational parameters of the detector, allows for error recognition and handling, manages the communication with external control systems, and provides a synchronization mechanism with the physics data acquisition system. Given the enormous size and complexity of ATLAS, special emphasis was put on the use of standardized hardware and software components enabling efficient development and long-term maintainability of the DCS over the lifetime of the experiment. Currently, the DCS is being used successfully during the experiment commissioning phase.

  4. The detector control system of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barriuso Poy, A; Burckhart, H J; Cook, J; Filimonov, V; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hallgren, B; Khomutnikov, V; Schlenker, S; Varela, F

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. The individual detector components as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision using operator commands, reads, processes and archives the operational parameters of the detector, allows for error recognition and handling, manages the communication with external control systems, and provides a synchronization mechanism with the physics data acquisition system. Given the enormous size and complexity of ATLAS, special emphasis was put on the use of standardized hardware and software components enabling efficient development and long-term maintainability of the DCS over the lifetime of the experiment. Currently, the DCS is being used successfully during the experiment commissioning phase.

  5. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  6. Experiences of sexual violence and relocation in the lives of HIV infected Canadian women

    OpenAIRE

    McKeown, Iris; Reid, Sharon; Orr, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role, if any, that violence and physical relocation may play in the acquisition of HIV infection in Canadian women. Study Design. The present study is qualitative. Methods. Using in-depth open-ended interviews conducted among HIV-positive women volunteers as a method. Results. Twenty women were interviewed. Eighteen of the 20 were of aboriginal (First Nations) ethnicity. All participants reported experiences of isolation and violence in childhood (sexual abuse, ...

  7. Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains function as nuclear protein quality control centers during HSV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Livingston

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains form adjacent to nuclear viral replication compartments (RC during the early stages of HSV-1 infection. Between 2 and 3 hours post infection at a MOI of 10, host protein quality control machinery such as molecular chaperones (e.g. Hsc70, the 20S proteasome and ubiquitin are reorganized from a diffuse nuclear distribution pattern to sequestration in VICE domains. The observation that VICE domains contain putative misfolded proteins suggests that they may be similar to nuclear inclusion bodies that form under conditions in which the protein quality control machinery is overwhelmed by the presence of misfolded proteins. The detection of Hsc70 in VICE domains, but not in nuclear inclusion bodies, indicates that Hsc70 is specifically reorganized by HSV-1 infection. We hypothesize that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of nuclear protein quality control centers to remodel or degrade aberrant nuclear proteins that would otherwise interfere with productive infection. Detection of proteolytic activity in VICE domains suggests that substrates may be degraded by the 20S proteasome in VICE domains. FRAP analysis reveals that GFP-Hsc70 is dynamically associated with VICE domains, suggesting a role for Hsc70 in scanning the infected nucleus for misfolded proteins. During 42 degrees C heat shock, Hsc70 is redistributed from VICE domains into RC perhaps to remodel viral replication and regulatory proteins that have become insoluble in these compartments. The experiments presented in this paper suggest that VICE domains are nuclear protein quality control centers that are modified by HSV-1 to promote productive infection.

  8. Are sainfoin or protein supplements alternatives to control small strongyle infection in horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, C; Sallé, G; Dumont, B; Cabaret, J; Cortet, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Fleurance, G

    2018-02-01

    The spread of anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyle nematodes has become a major problem, advocating for the development of alternative control for strongyles. Our study consisted of both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We investigate for the first time the efficacy of a short-term consumption of tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or extra proteins in naturally infected horses. We used 30 horses allocated into three groups of 10 individuals that received for 18 days either (i) a tannin-rich diet with 70% DM sainfoin pellets (Sd), (ii) a protein-rich diet with 52% DM Italian rye-grass pellets and 18% DM grinded linseed expeller (Pd), or (iii) a control diet with 45% DM barley and 25% DM cereal-based pellets (Cd). The three diets were isoenergetic, covering 94% of animal energy requirements on average, and the Sd and Pd diets were isoproteic and provided extra proteins (227% of protein requirements v. 93% for the Cd diet). Pd and Cd were compared to test for benefits of receiving extra proteins, while Sd and Pd were compared to account for the effect of sainfoin secondary metabolites. There were no between-diet differences in faecal egg counts (FEC) or in worm burden evaluated from worm counts in faeces of drenched horses at the end of the experiment. However, coprocultures from the faeces collected in each group at the beginning and at the end of the experiment suggested a lower rate of strongyle larval development in the Sd group at the end of the experiment (Sd=8.1%, Pd=30.5%, Cd=22.6%). In vitro tests using sainfoin solutions evidenced the influence of sainfoin on strongyle larval development: adding 29% of sainfoin pellets to faeces reduced the strongyle egg development into infective larvae by 82% (P<0.001) and using solutions with sainfoin concentrations higher than 7.5 mg/ml reduced egg hatching by 37% (P<0.05). The short-term use of tannin-rich plants in horse diet could thus constitute a promising strategy to reduce the risk of infection

  9. Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un eHuh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppresses RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

  10. Modelling control of Schistosoma haematobium infection: predictions of the long-term impact of mass drug administration in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurarie, David; Yoon, Nara; Li, Emily; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial; Durham, David; Phillips, Anna E; Aurelio, H Osvaldo; Ferro, Josefo; Galvani, Alison P; King, Charles H

    2015-10-22

    Effective control of schistosomiasis remains a challenging problem for endemic areas of the world. Given knowledge of the biology of transmission and past experience with mass drug administration (MDA) programs, it is important to critically evaluate the likelihood that MDA programs will achieve substantial reductions in Schistosoma prevalence. In implementing the World Health Organization Roadmap for Neglected Tropical Diseases it would useful for policymaking to model projections of the status of Schistosoma control in MDA-treated areas in the next 5-10 years. Calibrated mathematical models were used to project the effects of different frequency and coverage of MDA for schistosomiasis haematobia control in present-day endemic communities, taking into account uncertainties of parasite biology and input data. The modeling approach in this analysis was the Stratified Worm Burden model developed in our earlier works, calibrated using data from longitudinal S. haematobium control trials in Kenya. Model-based simulations of MDA control in typical low-risk and higher-risk communities indicated that infection prevalence can be substantially reduced within 10 years only when there is a high degree of community participation (>70 %) with at least annual MDA. Significant risk for re-emergence of infection remains if MDA is suspended. In a stable (stationary) ecosystem, Schistosoma reproduction and transmission are sufficiently robust that the process of human infection continues, even under pressure from aggressive MDA. MDA alone is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and once mass treatment is suspended, the prevalence of human infection is likely to rebound to pre-control levels over a period of 25-30 years. MDA success in achieving very low levels of infection prevalence is highly dependent on treatment coverage and frequency within the local human population, and requires that both adults and children be included in drug delivery coverage. Ultimately, supplemental

  11. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2016-02-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes--Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal--emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Attitudes towards infection control among dental health care professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Rimkuvienė, Jūratė

    2011-01-01

    The oral flora is one of the most ecologically diverse microbial populiations known to man. It has been proved that any dental intervention: dental preparation, professional oral hygiene, extraction of teeth, regular prophylactic examination of patient‘s mouth is related with a possible spread of infection. Therefore, one of the most important tasks for the dental care professionals is to prevent the spread of infection and create safe environment for a patient, the dentist himself and other ...

  13. Opportunities and Possibilities from Illness: Volunteer Experiences among People Infected with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available All illnesses can be interpreted. In the case of HIV/AIDS, experience and interpretation are intercepted by meanings that recluse, insulate and morally expose patients and their social networks. Volunteers stand out in these networks, because they are the only ones that continue to have contact with patients. In many cases, they are stigmatized. This article is about the experience of female volunteers with people infected with HIV/AIDS. The phenomenological experience allows studying their perceptions, verifications and modifications of the disease. The results show the following: first, HIV/AIDS is an opportunity to thank a past event; second, it is an opportunity to construct, through altruism, a space of opportunity for them and their patients; third, HIV/AIDS shows social shortages. Although this experience does not construct political identities or legal discourse, it confronts and inverts negative perceptions of the disease through actions of care whose essential component is love, altruism and brotherhood.

  14. Mixed-Strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections and the Implications for Tuberculosis Treatment and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, Paul D.; Wilson, Douglas; Colijn, Caroline; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Warren, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Numerous studies have reported that individuals can simultaneously harbor multiple distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To date, there has been limited discussion of the consequences for the individual or the epidemiological importance of mixed infections. Here, we review studies that documented mixed infections, highlight challenges associated with the detection of mixed infections, and discuss possible implications of mixed infections for the diagnosis and treatment of patients and for the community impact of tuberculosis control strategies. We conclude by highlighting questions that should be resolved in order to improve our understanding of the importance of mixed-strain M. tuberculosis infections. PMID:23034327

  15. Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Purva

    2011-01-01

    Health care associated infections are drawing increasing attention from patients, insurers, governments and regulatory bodies. This is not only because of the magnitude of the problem in terms of the associated morbidity, mortality and cost of treatment, but also due to the growing recognition that most of these are preventable. The medical community is witnessing in tandem unprecedented advancements in the understanding of pathophysiology of infectious diseases and the global spread of multi-drug resistant infections in health care set-ups. These factors, compounded by the paucity of availability of new antimicrobials have necessitated a re-look into the role of basic practices of infection prevention in modern day health care. There is now undisputed evidence that strict adherence to hand hygiene reduces the risk of cross-transmission of infections. With “Clean Care is Safer Care” as a prime agenda of the global initiative of WHO on patient safety programmes, it is time for developing countries to formulate the much-needed policies for implementation of basic infection prevention practices in health care set-ups. This review focuses on one of the simplest, low cost but least accepted from infection prevention: hand hygiene. PMID:22199099

  16. Mindfulness instruction for HIV-infected youth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lindsey; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Ellen, Jonathan; Sibinga, Erica

    2017-10-25

    HIV-infected youth experience many stressors, including stress related to their illness, which can negatively impact their mental and physical health. Therefore, there is a significant need to identify potentially effective interventions to improve stress management, coping, and self-regulation. The object of the study was to assess the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program compared to an active control group on psychological symptoms and HIV disease management in youth utilizing a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-two HIV-infected adolescents, ages 14-22 (mean age 18.71 years), were enrolled from two urban clinics and randomized to MBSR or an active control. Data were collected on mindfulness, stress, self-regulation, psychological symptoms, medication adherence, and cognitive flexibility at baseline, post-program, and 3-month follow-up. CD4+ T lymphocyte and HIV viral load (HIV VL) counts were also pulled from medical records. HIV-infected youth in the MBSR group reported higher levels of mindfulness (P = .03), problem-solving coping (P = .03), and life satisfaction (P = .047), and lower aggression (P = .002) than those in the control group at the 3-month follow-up. At post-program, MBSR participants had higher cognitive accuracy when faced with negative emotion stimuli (P = .02). Also, those in the MBSR study arm were more likely to have or maintain reductions in HIV VL at 3-month follow-up than those in the control group (P = .04). In our sample, MBSR instruction proved beneficial for important psychological and HIV-disease outcomes, even when compared with an active control condition. Lower HIV VL levels suggest improved HIV disease control, possibly due to higher levels of HIV medication adherence, which is of great significance in both HIV treatment and prevention. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of MBSR for improving the psychological and physical health of HIV-positive youth.

  17. On-orbit experience with the HEAO attitude control subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D. P.; Berkery, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The first satellite (HEAO-1) in the High Energy Astronomy Observatory Program series was launched successfully on Aug. 12, 1977. To date it has completed over nine months of orbital operation in a science data gathering mode. During this period all attitude control modes have been exercised and all primary mission objectives have been achieved. This paper highlights the characteristics of the attitude control subsystem design and compares the predicted performance with the actual flight operations experience. Environmental disturbance modeling, component hardware/software characteristics, and overall attitude control performance are reviewed and are found to compare very well with the prelaunch analytical predictions. Brief comments are also included regarding the operations aspects of the attitude control subsystem. The experience in this regard demonstrates the effectiveness of the design flexibility afforded by the presence of a general purpose digital processor in the subsystem flight hardware implementation.

  18. The rate of following infection control principles in educational hospitals of Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tahereh Toulabi

    2006-11-01

    Results: The degree of following infection control principles in most of the personnel’s was medium (53.7% and in hand washing was low (90%. Wards status about physical environment (47.83%, resources and equipment (78.3% were medium level. Conclusion: Continuous education of personnel in different job categories, using instruments and methods to reduce infection, improvement of resources and equipment and physical environment, establishment of National Nosocomial Infection surveillance system (NNISS, yearly epidemiological investigations and performing regular microbiological cultures are the most important strategies for infection control, that must be performed in educational hospitals.

  19. Control Algorithms for a Sailboat Robot with a Sea Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A sailboat robot is a highly nonlinear system but which control is relatively easy, however. Indeed, its mechanical design is the result of an evolution over thousands of years. This paper focuses on a control strategy which remains simple, with few parameters to adjust and meaningful with respect to the intuition. A test on the sailboat robot called Vaimos is presented to illustrate the performance of the regulator with a sea experiment. Moreover, the HardWare In the ...

  20. Studying fitness cost of Plasmodium falciparum infection in malaria vectors: validation of an appropriate negative control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangare Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question whether Plasmodium falciparum infection affects the fitness of mosquito vectors remains open. A hurdle for resolving this question is the lack of appropriate control, non-infected mosquitoes that can be compared to the infected ones. It was shown recently that heating P. falciparum gametocyte-infected blood before feeding by malaria vectors inhibits the infection. Therefore, the same source of gametocyte-infected blood could be divided in two parts, one heated, serving as the control, the other unheated, allowing the comparison of infected and uninfected mosquitoes which fed on exactly the same blood otherwise. However, before using this method for characterizing the cost of infection to mosquitoes, it is necessary to establish whether feeding on previously heated blood affects the survival and fecundity of mosquito females. Methods Anopheles gambiae M molecular form females were exposed to heated versus non-heated, parasite-free human blood to mimic blood meal on non-infectious versus infectious gametocyte-containing blood. Life history traits of mosquito females fed on blood that was heat-treated or not were then compared. Results The results reveal that heat treatment of the blood did not affect the survival and fecundity of mosquito females. Consistently, blood heat treatment did not affect the quantity of blood ingested. Conclusions The study indicates that heat inactivation of gametocyte-infected blood will only inhibit mosquito infection and that this method is suitable for quantifying the fitness cost incurred by mosquitoes upon infection by P. falciparum.

  1. Compliance with infection prevention and control in oral health-care facilities: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuysen, Jeanné; Potgieter, Elsa; Fossey, Annabel

    2014-12-01

    Many publications are available on the topic of compliance with infection prevention and control in oral health-care facilities all over the world. The approaches of developing and developed countries show wide variation, but the principles of infection prevention and control are the same globally. This study is a systematic review and global perspective of the available literature on infection prevention and control in oral health-care facilities. Nine focus areas on compliance with infection-control measures were investigated: knowledge of infectious occupational hazards; personal hygiene and care of hands; correct application of personal protective equipment; use of environmental barriers and disposable items; sterilisation (recirculation) of instruments and handpieces; disinfection (surfaces) and housekeeping; management of waste disposal; quality control of dental unit waterlines, biofilms and water; and some special considerations. Various international studies from developed countries have reported highly scientific evidence-based information. In developed countries, the resources for infection prevention and control are freely available, which is not the case in developing countries. The studies in developing countries also indicate serious shortcomings with regard to infection prevention and control knowledge and education in oral health-care facilities. This review highlights the fact that availability of resources will always be a challenge, but more so in developing countries. This presents unique challenges and the opportunity for innovative thinking to promote infection prevention and control. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Infection prevention and control interventions in the first outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in an equine hospital in Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergström, Karin; Nyman, Görel; Widgren, Stefan; Johnston, Christopher; Grönlund-Andersson, Ulrika; Ransjö, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    The first outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in horses in Sweden occurred in 2008 at the University Animal Hospital and highlighted the need for improved infection prevention and control...

  3. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D. A.; Rowley, C. W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.

  4. The control architecture of the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Fredrick Bartlett et al.

    2002-11-21

    From a controls viewpoint, contemporary high energy physics collider detectors are comparable in complexity to small to medium size accelerators: however, their controls requirements often differ significantly. D0, one of two collider experiments at Fermilab, has recently started a second, extended running period that will continue for the next five years. EPICS [1], an integrated set of software building blocks for implementing a distributed control system, has been adapted to satisfy the slow controls needs of the D0 detector by (1) extending the support for new device types and an additional field bus, (2) by the addition of a global event reporting system that augments the existing EPICS alarm support, and (3) by the addition of a centralized database with supporting tools for defining the configuration of the control system. This paper discusses the control architecture of the current D0 experiment, how the EPICS system was extended to meet the control requirements of a large, high-energy physics detector, and how a formal control system contributes to the management of detector operations.

  5. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-08

    in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic Control with Insulin Pump Therapy: Preliminary Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Ren Hsu

    2008-07-01

    Conclusion: Our preliminary experience demonstrated the effectiveness of insulin pump therapy for both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The reduction in their HbA1C values was both statistically and clinically significant. This treatment should be considered for patients poorly controlled by subcutaneous insulin injection therapy.

  7. Designing Simulation Experiments with Controllable and Uncontrollable Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Kulahci, Murat; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    In this study we propose a new method for designing computer experiments inspired by the split plot designs used in physical experimentation. The basic layout is that each set of controllable factor settings corresponds to a whole plot for which a number of subplots, each corresponding to one...

  8. External quality control program: Experience in the department of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To share experiences and lessons learned from 2002 National External Quality Assessment Schemes for Leukocyte Immunophenotyping (UK NEQAS) and College of American Pathologists (CAP) proficiency testing (PT) panels received and tested as part of External Quality Control Program Setting: Department ...

  9. The VEPP-2000 Collider Control System: Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Senchenko, A I; Lysenko, A P; Rogovsky, Yu A; Shatunov, P Yu

    2017-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 collider was commissioned and operated successfully in 2010-2013. During the operation the facility underwent continuous updates and experience in maintenance was acquired. Strong cooperation between the staff of the accelerator complex and the developers of the control system proved effective for implementing the necessary changes in a short time.

  10. Innate immune control of West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Wang, Penghua; Montgomery, Ruth R; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), from the Flaviviridae family, is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen of medical importance. In humans, WNV infection may cause life-threatening meningoencephalitis or long-term neurologic sequelae. WNV is transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes and both the arthropod vector and the mammalian host are equipped with antiviral innate immune mechanisms sharing a common phylogeny. As far as the current evidence is able to demonstrate, mosquitoes primarily rely on RNA interference, Toll, Imd and JAK-STAT signalling pathways for limiting viral infection, while mammals are provided with these and other more complex antiviral mechanisms involving antiviral effectors, inflammatory mediators, and cellular responses triggered by highly specialized pathogen detection mechanisms that often resemble their invertebrate ancestry. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of how the innate immune systems of the vector and the mammalian host react to WNV infection and shape its pathogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. [Practical aspects of implementation quality management system ISO 9001:2000 by hospital infection control team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Czerniak, Beata; Frankowska, Krystyna; Gonia, Ewa; Salińska, Teresa; Motuk, Andrzej; Sobociński, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the Board of the Jan Biziel Hospital in Bydgoszcz decided to include procedures of health services in the implementation process within the confines of ISO 9001:2000 certification. The hospital infection control team that has operated in the hospital since 1989 performed the analysis of the forms of activities to date and on that basis the team prepared original plan of quality management. In April 2007, this plan was successfully accepted by the certifying team. The aim of this study is to present the aforementioned plan which is the result of 18 years experience of the team. At the same time, I hope that this study will be very helpful for all professionals interested in hospital epidemiology, especially in the context of implementing quality management systems.

  12. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  13. Vital Role for CD8+ Cells in Controlling Retroviral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Melissa; Case, Laure K.; Golovkina, Tatyana V.

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral adaptive immune defenses consist of humoral and cell-mediated responses, which together eliminate extracellular and intracellular virus. As most retrovirus-infected individuals do not raise efficient protective antivirus immune responses, the relative importance of humoral and cell-mediated responses in restraining retroviral infection is not well understood. We utilized retrovirus-resistant I/LnJ mice, which control infection with mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) via an adaptive immune mechanism, to assess the contribution of cellular responses and virus-neutralizing antibodies (Abs) to the control of retroviral infection. We found that in retrovirus-infected CD8-deficient I/LnJ mice, viral titers exceed the neutralizing capability of antiviral Abs, resulting in augmented virus spread and disease induction. Thus, even in the presence of robust neutralizing Ab responses, CD8-mediated responses are essential for full protection against retroviral infection. PMID:21248041

  14. PERTUSSIS IS COMING BACK? IMPROVEMENT OF FORGOTTEN CHILDHOOD INFECTION CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Fedoseenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection that more than 60 years ago was recognized one of the leading childhood diseases that caused infant mortality, is returning. Of course, with the introduction of vaccination against pertussis in the national programs, we rarely meet severe pertussis infection in our practice, considering that vaccinating children, we protect them. But why so far is this infectious disease remains a serious problem not only in Russia but throughout the world? Several global reasons contribute to the fact that until now vaccine-preventable diseases leads to a prolonged, exhausting cough in schoolchildren, deceiving the doctors with the correct diagnosis is still a real threat to infants. 

  15. A Cellular Automata Model of Infection Control on Medical Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Langarica, Alicia; Kojouharov, Hristo; Chen-Charpentier, Benito; Tang, Liping

    2011-01-01

    S. epidermidis infections on medically implanted devices are a common problem in modern medicine due to the abundance of the bacteria. Once inside the body, S. epidermidis gather in communities called biofilms and can become extremely hard to eradicate, causing the patient serious complications. We simulate the complex S. epidermidis-Neutrophils interactions in order to determine the optimum conditions for the immune system to be able to contain the infection and avoid implant rejection. Our cellular automata model can also be used as a tool for determining the optimal amount of antibiotics for combating biofilm formation on medical implants. PMID:23543851

  16. Infection with schistosome parasites in snails leads to increased predation by prawns: implications for human schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Scott J; De Leo, Giulio A; Wood, Chelsea L; Sokolow, Susanne H

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis - a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people across the globe - is primarily transmitted between human definitive hosts and snail intermediate hosts. To reduce schistosomiasis transmission, some have advocated disrupting the schistosome life cycle through biological control of snails, achieved by boosting the abundance of snails' natural predators. But little is known about the effect of parasitic infection on predator-prey interactions, especially in the case of schistosomiasis. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments performed on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria glabrata snails to investigate: (i) rates of predation on schistosome-infected versus uninfected snails by a sympatric native river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, and (ii) differences in snail behavior (including movement, refuge-seeking and anti-predator behavior) between infected and uninfected snails. In predation trials, prawns showed a preference for consuming snails infected with schistosome larvae. In behavioral trials, infected snails moved less quickly and less often than uninfected snails, and were less likely to avoid predation by exiting the water or hiding under substrate. Although the mechanism by which the parasite alters snail behavior remains unknown, these results provide insight into the effects of parasitic infection on predator-prey dynamics and suggest that boosting natural rates of predation on snails may be a useful strategy for reducing transmission in schistosomiasis hotspots. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. ‘This wound has spoilt everything’: emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to ‘germs’ or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. PMID:25470322

  18. 'This wound has spoilt everything': emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to 'germs' or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhua; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chau, Bolton; Fu, Amy S N

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotypic characterisation of human papillomavirus infections among persons living with HIV infection; a case-control study in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar, Denis Dekugmen; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Darko, Samuel Nkansah; Annan, Augustina Angelina; Gyimah, Akosua Adumea; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living with HIV and non-infected women in Ghana. A case-control study was conducted involving 107 women living with HIV aged between 18 and 59 years (cases) and 100 non-HIV-infected apparently healthy women (controls) who were recruited from the Kumasi South Hospital, from July to December, 2014. Cervicovaginal swabs were taken from study participants to characterise 28 high- and low-risk HPV genotypes using a multiplex real-time PCR. The overall mean age for the participants was 40.10 ± 9.76 years. The prevalence of high-risk (hr)-HPV genotypes was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (77.4% vs. 41.6%, P < 0.0001). Overall, HPV 58 and 54 were the most predominant high-risk (18.8%) and low-risk (15.0%) genotypes detected. The two most common hr-HPV genotype isolates were 58 (18.8%) and 35 (15.9%) with 58 being the most prevalent among age group 35-44 years compared with hr-HPV 16, 18, 35 and 45, found predominantly among 18-34 age group. Significant variations exist in HPV genotypes among HIV-infected and uninfected women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Scrapie infections initiated at varying doses: an analysis of 117 titration experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A R; Bostock, C J

    2000-08-29

    An analysis of 117 titration experiments in the murine scrapie model is presented. The experiments encompass 30 years' work and a wide range of experimental conditions. To check that the experimental designs were reasonably consistent over time, comparisons were made of size, duration, source of inoculum, etc., in each experiment. These comparisons revealed no systematic trends that would render invalid comparisons across experiments. For 114 of the experiments it was possible to calculate the dose at which half of the challenged animals were infected (the ID50). These 114 experiments were then combined on the basis of relative dose (i.e. tenfold dilution relative to the ID50). This created a data set in which over 4000 animals were challenged with doses of scrapie ranging from four orders of magnitude below to five orders of magnitude above the ID50. Analysis of this data reveals that mean incubation periods rise linearly with logarithmic decreases in dose. A one unit increase in relative dose (i.e. a tenfold increase in actual dose) will, on average, decrease the incubation period by 25 days. At ID50 the average incubation period in this data set is 300 days. Within a single dose, in a single experimental model, incubation periods have a distribution close to normal. Variability in incubation period also rises linearly as dose decreases. There is no age or sex effect upon the probability of infection, but female mice have incubation periods that are, on average, nine days shorter than their male counterparts and young mice have incubation periods that are longer by seven days. Although many of these patterns are apparent in the results of single titration curves, they can be more rigorously investigated by considering the outcome for thousands of mice.

  3. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  4. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively

  5. 76 FR 63622 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance, and related events in settings where healthcare is provided... are subject to change as priorities dictate. For Further Information Contact: Heidi Williams, HICPAC...- 07, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, E-mail: hicpac@cdc.gov . The Director, Management Analysis and Services...

  6. 78 FR 28221 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... resistance, and related events in settings where healthcare is provided; and (3) periodic updating of CDC... definitions for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Agenda items are subject to change as priorities...- 4045. Email: hicpac@cdc.gov . The Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, has been delegated...

  7. Infection control in anaesthesia in regional, tertiary and central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Contaminated anaesthetic equipment has been implicated in the nosocomial transmission of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of blood (occult or visible) and/or visible organic material contamination of anaesthetic equipment deemed to be ready for use in theatres in regional, ...

  8. Role of infection control in combating antibiotic resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) reduces the need for broad-spectrum antibiotics in particular, while interventions that decrease the risk of infection have an impact on the use of any antibiotic. Hand hygiene remains the cornerstone of decreasing the transmission of MDROs. Alcohol-based hand rubs ...

  9. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  10. Prevention and control of infection in non-acute healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Helen; Wright, Debbie; Jones, Martin; Dias, Esther; Pronyszyn, Anna; Hughes, Kath; Hawker, Karen; Newsham, Linda; O'Donovan, Tracey

    This article discusses the main principles of infection prevention and control in non-acute healthcare settings. It explores the use of a set of ten tools developed by the Infection Control Nurses Association (ICNA) to audit infection prevention and control, using the standard statements and criteria within the tools as a checklist. The results of the audit of facilities, commodities and practice using the ICNA audit tools will help staff to identify areas of best practice and areas where improvements are needed to enhance patient care.

  11. The new frontier of diagnostics: Molecular assays and their role in infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanchita; Shibib, Dena R; Vernon, Michael O

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in technology over the last decade have propelled the microbiology laboratory into a pivotal role in infection prevention and control. The rapid adaptation of molecular technologies to the field of clinical microbiology now greatly influences infectious disease management and significantly impacts infection control practices. This review discusses recent developments in molecular techniques in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. It describes the basic concepts of molecular assays, discusses their advantages and limitations, and characterizes currently available commercial assays with respect to cost, interpretive requirements, and clinical utility. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Azithromycin is able to control Toxoplasma gondii infection in human villous explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Toxoplasma gondii infection is normally asymptomatic, severe cases of toxoplasmosis may occur in immunosuppressed patients or congenitally infected newborns. When a fetal infection is established, the recommended treatment is a combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid (PSA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of azithromycin to control T. gondii infection in human villous explants. Methods Cultures of third trimester human villous explants were infected with T. gondii and simultaneously treated with either PSA or azithromycin. Proliferation of T. gondii, as well as production of cytokines and hormones by chorionic villous explants, was analyzed. Results Treatment with either azithromycin or PSA was able to control T. gondii infection in villous explants. After azithromycin or PSA treatment, TNF-α, IL-17A or TGF-β1 levels secreted by infected villous explants did not present significant differences. However, PSA-treated villous explants had decreased levels of IL-10 and increased IL-12 levels, while treatment with azithromycin increased production of IL-6. Additionally, T. gondii-infected villous explants increased secretion of estradiol, progesterone and HCG + β, while treatments with azithromycin or PSA reduced secretion of these hormones concurrently with decrease of parasite load. Conclusions In conclusion, these results suggest that azithromycin may be defined as an effective alternative drug to control T. gondii infection at the fetal-maternal interface. PMID:24885122

  13. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas R. Cusumano; Vivy Tran; Aileen Tlamsa; Philip Chung; Robert Grossberg; Gregory Weston; Uzma N. Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors’ experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Methods: Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who pre...

  14. Phage applications for improving food safety and infection control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shibiny, A; El-Sahhar, S; Adel, M

    2017-08-01

    The study investigated the use of bacteriophages to control bacterial contamination of chicken skin, eggs, tomatoes and meat. Experiments were performed to test the host ranges and killing potential of two isolated phages, ZCSE1 and ZCEC1, with hosts Salmonella and Escherichia coli respectively. The efficacy of both phages was determined by comparing the viable counts of recovered bacteria from treatment and phage-free control samples. In vitro experiments showed that phage ZCSE1 was able to reduce the numbers of Salmonella enterica ATCC 25566 to below 4·0 log 10 CFU per ml (3·4 log 10 CFU per ml reduction) in 240 min postinfection and phage ZCEC1 reduced the number of E. coli ATCC 8739 to undetectable levels (6·45 log 10 CFU per ml reduction) during the first hour of infection at 37°C. When applied to chicken skin and the surface of eggs, phage ZCSE1 treatment reduced the number of S. enterica ATCC 25566 by 2 log 10 and to undetectable levels (foods. The results suggest that phages could be effective treatments for pathogenic bacteria in food relevant contexts in Egypt. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. An integrative review of infection control research in Korean nursing journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mi; Choi, Jeong Sil

    2014-06-01

    This study was performed to analyze the characteristics and trends of published research papers related to infection control in Korean nursing journals. A total of 177 studies published between 1970 and 2011 were reviewed using analysis criteria. Subject articles were selected through KoreaMed and journal database searches on the website of subject academic societies using key words related to healthcare-associated infections. Most reports were quantitative studies and the majority of them were descriptive studies. The most common subjects of research were infection control measures for pathogens, followed by disinfection and sterilization, and hand hygiene. Among them, the most descriptive studies were conducted on the knowledge, attitude, and performance of infection control. Theoretical framework, criteria for sample size and ethical consideration were rarely presented in quantitative studies. To enhance the quality of infection control studies and establish infection control studies as a nursing knowledge body, meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews as well as quantitative studies are needed. Moreover, studies employing behavioral science to identify factors influencing the level of knowledge and practice and to change infection control behaviors are also warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A concealed observational study of infection control and safe injection practices in Jordanian governmental hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The recognized international organizations on infection prevention recommend using an observational method as the gold standard procedure for assessing health care professional's compliance with standard infection control practices. However, observational studies are rarely used in Jordanian infection control studies. This study aimed to evaluate injection practices among nurses working in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A cross-sectional concealed observational design is used for this study. A convenience sampling technique was used to recruit a sample of nurses working in governmental hospitals in Jordan. Participants were unaware of the time and observer during the observation episode. A total of 384 nurses from 9 different hospitals participated in the study. A total of 835 injections events were observed, of which 73.9% were performed without handwashing, 64.5% without gloving, and 27.5% were followed by needle recapping. Handwashing rate was the lowest (18.9%) when injections were performed by beginner nurses. Subcutaneous injections were associated with the lowest rate (26.7%) of postinjection handwashing compared with other routes. This study demonstrates the need for focused and effective infection control educational programs in Jordanian hospitals. Future studies should consider exploring the whole infection control practices related to waste disposal and the roles of the infection control nurse in this process in Jordanian hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Wu, Chun Sen; Nohr, Ellen A

    2013-12-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience. In a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial, 1,222 healthy nulliparous women were allocated to one of three groups during pregnancy: A hypnosis group participating in three 1-hour sessions teaching self-hypnosis to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-hour lessons in various relaxation methods and Mindfulness, and a usual care group receiving ordinary antenatal care only. Wijmas Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) was used to measure the childbirth experience 6 weeks postpartum. The intention-to-treat analysis indicated that women in the hypnosis group experienced their childbirth as better compared with the other two groups (mean W-DEQ score of 42.9 in the Hypnosis group, 47.2 in the Relaxation group, and 47.5 in the Care as usual group (p = 0.01)). The tendency toward a better childbirth experience in the hypnosis group was also seen in subgroup analyses for mode of delivery and for levels of fear. In this large randomized controlled trial, a brief course in self-hypnosis improved the women's childbirth experience. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Experience with synchronous and asynchronous digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenie, V. A.; Chacon, C. V.; Lock, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flight control systems have undergone a revolution since the days of simple mechanical linkages; presently the most advanced systems are full-authority, full-time digital systems controlling unstable aircraft. With the use of advanced control systems, the aerodynamic design can incorporate features that allow greater performance and fuel savings, as can be seen on the new Airbus design and advanced tactical fighter concepts. These advanced aircraft will be and are relying on the flight control system to provide the stability and handling qualities required for safe flight and to allow the pilot to control the aircraft. Various design philosophies have been proposed and followed to investigate system architectures for these advanced flight control systems. One major area of discussion is whether a multichannel digital control system should be synchronous or asynchronous. This paper addressed the flight experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center with both synchronous and asynchronous digital flight control systems. Four different flight control systems are evaluated against criteria such as software reliability, cost increases, and schedule delays.

  19. Experience with synchronous and asynchronous digital control systems. [for flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenie, Victoria A.; Chacon, Claude V.; Lock, Wilton P.

    1986-01-01

    Flight control systems have undergone a revolution since the days of simple mechanical linkages; presently the most advanced systems are full-authority, full-time digital systems controlling unstable aircraft. With the use of advanced control systems, the aerodynamic design can incorporate features that allow greater performance and fuel savings, as can be seen on the new Airbus design and advanced tactical fighter concepts. These advanced aircraft will be and are relying on the flight control system to provide the stability and handling qualities required for safe flight and to allow the pilot to control the aircraft. Various design philosophies have been proposed and followed to investigate system architectures for these advanced flight control systems. One major area of discussion is whether a multichannel digital control system should be synchronous or asynchronous. This paper addressed the flight experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center with both synchronous and asynchronous digital flight control systems. Four different flight control systems are evaluated against criteria such as software reliability, cost increases, and schedule delays.

  20. When staff handle staph : user-driven versus expert-driven communication of infection control guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, F.

    2009-01-01

    Health care-associated infections cause thousands of preventable deaths each year. Therefore, it is crucial that health care workers (HCWs) adhere to infection control guidelines. Although most HCWs are aware of the rationale for guidelines, adherence is generally poor, which might be caused by the

  1. Chronic infection with Achromobacter xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis patients; a retrospective case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne Hansen, Christine; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic infection of the airways with Achromobacter xylosoxidans have become more frequent. The pathogenic role of this is yet unclear. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of all patients chronically infected with A. xylosoxidans for at least 3 years. 15...

  2. Controlled Human Malaria Infection of Tanzanians by Intradermal Injection of Aseptic, Purified, Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekalaghe, S.; Rutaihwa, M.; Billingsley, P.F.; Chemba, M.; Daubenberger, C.A.; James, E.R.; Mpina, M.; Juma, O. Ali; Schindler, T.; Huber, E.; Gunasekera, A.; Manoj, A.; Simon, B.; Saverino, E.; Church, L.W.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Plowe, C.; Venkatesan, M.; Sasi, P.; Lweno, O.; Mutani, P.; Hamad, A.; Mohammed, A.; Urassa, A.; Mzee, T.; Padilla, D.; Ruben, A.; Sim, B.K.; Tanner, M.; Abdulla, S.; Hoffman, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by mosquito bite has been used to assess anti-malaria interventions in > 1,500 volunteers since development of methods for infecting mosquitoes by feeding on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) gametocyte cultures. Such CHMIs have never been used in Africa.

  3. Immune activation and induction of memory: lessons learned from controlled human malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholzen, A.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infections (CHMIs) are a powerful tool to assess the efficacy of drugs and/or vaccine candidates, but also to study anti-malarial immune responses at well-defined time points after infection. In this review, we discuss the insights that CHMI trials have provided into early

  4. Enhancing Schistosomiasis Control Strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on Past Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses J. Chimbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized.

  5. Experiences with the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two foci in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gryseels

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with population-based chemotherapy and other methods for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two subsaharan foci are described. In the forest area of Maniema (Zaire, intense transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, high prevalences and intensities of infection, and important morbidity have been documental. Taking into account the limited financial means and the poor logistic conditions, the control strategy has been based mainly on targeted chemotherapy of heavily infected people (>600 epg. After ten years of intervention, prevalences and intensities have hardly been affected, but the initial severe hepatosplenic morbidity has almost disappeared. In Burundi, a national research and control programme has been initiated in 1982. Prevalences, intensities and morbidity were moderate, transmission was focal and erratic in time and space. A more structural control strategy was developed, based on screening and selective therapy, health education, sanitation and domestic water supply. Prevalences and intensities have been considerably reduced, though the results show focal and unpredicatable variations. Transmission and reinfection were not signifcantly affected by chemotherapy alone, and eventual outcome of repeated selective treatment appears to be limited by the sensitivity of the screening method. Intestinal morbidity was strongly reduced by community-based selective treatment, but hepatosplenic enlargement was hardly affected; this is possibly due to the confounding impact of increasing malaria morbidity. The experiences show the importance of local structures and conditions for the development of an adapted control strategy. It is further concluded that population-based chemotherapy is a highly valid tool for the rapid control of morbidity, but should in most operational conditions not be considered as a tool for transmission control. Integration of planning, execution and surveillance in regular health services...

  6. Field experiments using SPEAR: a speech control system for UGVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Blanco, Chris; Czerniak, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Orin; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Liu, Dongqing; Karlsen, Robert; Brown, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on a Field Experiment carried out by the Human Research and Engineering Directorate at Ft. Benning to evaluate the efficacy of using speech to control an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) concurrently with a handcontroller. The SPEAR system, developed by Think-A-Move, provides speech-control of UGVs. The system picks up user-speech in the ear canal with an in-ear microphone. This property allows it to work efficiently in high-noise environments, where traditional speech systems, employing external microphones, fail. It has been integrated with an iRobot PackBot 510 with EOD kit. The integrated system allows the hand-controller to be supplemented with speech for concurrent control. At Ft. Benning, the integrated system was tested by soldiers from the Officer Candidate School. The Experiment had dual focus: 1) Quantitative measurement of the time taken to complete each station and the cognitive load on users; 2) Qualitative evaluation of ease-of-use and ergonomics through soldier-feedback. Also of significant benefit to Think-A-Move was soldier-feedback on the speech-command vocabulary employed: What spoken commands are intuitive, and how the commands should be executed, e.g., limited-motion vs. unlimited-motion commands. Overall results from the Experiment are reported in the paper.

  7. Surgical site infection rates in six cities of India: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Chakravarthy, Murali; Rosenthal, Victor Daniel; Myatra, Sheila N; Dwivedy, Arpita; Bagasrawala, Iqbal; Munshi, Nita; Shah, Sweta; Panigrahi, Bishnu; Sood, Sanjeev; Kumar-Nair, Pravin; Radhakrishnan, Kavitha; Gokul, B N; Sukanya, R; Pushparaj, L; Pramesh, C S; Shrikhande, S V; Gulia, A; Puri, A; Moiyadi, A; Divatia, J V; Kelkar, Rohini; Biswas, Sanjay; Raut, Sandhya; Sampat, Sulochana; Shetty, Suvin; Binu, Sheena; Pinto, Preethi; Arora, Sohini; Kamble, Asmita; Kumari, Neelakshi; Mendonca, Angelina; Singhal, Tanu; Naik, Reshma; Kothari, Vatsal; Sharma, Bindu; Verma, Neeru; Khanna, D K; Chacko, Felcy

    2015-09-01

    Surgical site infections are a threat to patient safety. However, in India, data on their rates stratified by surgical procedure are not available. From January 2005 to December 2011, the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) conducted a cohort prospective surveillance study on surgical site infections in 10 hospitals in 6 Indian cities. CDC National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) methods were applied and surgical procedures were classified into 11 types, according to the ninth edition of the International Classification of Diseases. We documented 1189 surgical site infections, associated with 28 340 surgical procedures (4.2%; 95% CI: 4.0-4.4). Surgical site infections rates were compared with INICC and CDC-NHSN reports, respectively: 4.3% for coronary bypass with chest and donor incision (4.5% vs 2.9%); 8.3% for breast surgery (1.7% vs 2.3%); 6.5% for cardiac surgery (5.6% vs 1.3%); 6.0% for exploratory abdominal surgery (4.1% vs 2.0%), among others. In most types of surgical procedures, surgical site infections rates were higher than those reported by the CDC-NHSN, but similar to INICC. This study is an important advancement towards the knowledge of surgical site infections epidemiology in the participating Indian hospitals that will allow us to introduce targeted interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Building and Strengthening Infection Control Strategies to Prevent Tuberculosis - Nigeria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Odume, Bethrand; Lipke, Virginia; Muianga, Custodio; Onu, Eugene; Olutola, Ayodotun; Ukachukwu, Lucy; Igweike, Patricia; Chukwura, Nneka; Ubochioma, Emperor; Aniaku, Everistus; Ezeudu, Chinyere; Agboeze, Joseph; Iroh, Gabriel; Orji, Elvina; Godwin, Okezue; Raji, Hasiya Bello; Aboje, S A; Osakwe, Chijioke; Debem, Henry; Bello, Mustapha; Onotu, Dennis; Maloney, Susan

    2016-03-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide, accounting for more than 1.5 million deaths in 2014, and is the leading cause of death among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Nigeria has the fourth highest annual number of TB cases among countries, with an estimated incidence of 322 per 100,000 population (1), and the second highest prevalence of HIV infection, with 3.4 million infected persons (2). In 2014, 100,000 incident TB cases and 78,000 TB deaths occurred among persons living with HIV infection in Nigeria (1). Nosocomial transmission is a significant source of TB infection in resource-limited settings (3), and persons with HIV infection and health care workers are at increased risk for TB infection because of their routine exposure to patients with TB in health care facilities (3-5). A lack of TB infection control in health care settings has resulted in outbreaks of TB and drug-resistant TB among patients and health care workers, leading to excess morbidity and mortality. In March 2015, in collaboration with the Nigeria Ministry of Health (MoH), CDC implemented a pilot initiative, aimed at increasing health care worker knowledge about TB infection control, assessing infection control measures in health facilities, and developing plans to address identified gaps. The approach resulted in substantial improvements in TB infection control practices at seven selected facilities, and scale-up of these measures across other facilities might lead to a reduction in TB transmission in Nigeria and globally.

  9. Development of a clinical data warehouse for hospital infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Mary F; Kieszkowski, Piotr; Zagorski, Brandon M; Trick, William E; Sommers, Michael; Weinstein, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Existing data stored in a hospital's transactional servers have enormous potential to improve performance measurement and health care quality. Accessing, organizing, and using these data to support research and quality improvement projects are evolving challenges for hospital systems. The authors report development of a clinical data warehouse that they created by importing data from the information systems of three affiliated public hospitals. They describe their methodology; difficulties encountered; responses from administrators, computer specialists, and clinicians; and the steps taken to capture and store patient-level data. The authors provide examples of their use of the clinical data warehouse to monitor antimicrobial resistance, to measure antimicrobial use, to detect hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, to measure the cost of infections, and to detect antimicrobial prescribing errors. In addition, they estimate the amount of time and money saved and the increased precision achieved through the practical application of the data warehouse.

  10. Infection prevention and control during prolonged human space travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged human spaceflight to another planet or an asteroid will introduce unique challenges of mitigating the risk of infection. During space travel, exposure to microgravity, radiation, and stress alter human immunoregulatory responses, which can in turn impact an astronaut's ability to prevent acquisition of infectious agents or reactivation of latent infection. In addition, microgravity affects virulence, growth kinetics, and biofilm formation of potential microbial pathogens. These interactions occur in a confined space in microgravity, providing ample opportunity for heavy microbial contamination of the environment. In addition, there is the persistence of aerosolized, microbe-containing particles. Any mission involving prolonged human spaceflight must be carefully planned to minimize vulnerabilities and maximize the likelihood of success.

  11. Development of a Clinical Data Warehouse for Hospital Infection Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Mary F.; Kieszkowski, Piotr; Zagorski, Brandon M.; Trick, William E.; Sommers, Michael; Weinstein, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Existing data stored in a hospital's transactional servers have enormous potential to improve performance measurement and health care quality. Accessing, organizing, and using these data to support research and quality improvement projects are evolving challenges for hospital systems. The authors report development of a clinical data warehouse that they created by importing data from the information systems of three affiliated public hospitals. They describe their methodology; difficulties encountered; responses from administrators, computer specialists, and clinicians; and the steps taken to capture and store patient-level data. The authors provide examples of their use of the clinical data warehouse to monitor antimicrobial resistance, to measure antimicrobial use, to detect hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, to measure the cost of infections, and to detect antimicrobial prescribing errors. In addition, they estimate the amount of time and money saved and the increased precision achieved through the practical application of the data warehouse. PMID:12807807

  12. The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC): goals and objectives, description of surveillance methods, and operational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Maki, Dennis G; Graves, Nicholas

    2008-11-01

    We have shown that intensive care units (ICUs) in countries with limited resources have rates of device-associated health care-associated infection (HAI), including central line-related bloodstream infection (CLAB), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), 3 to 5 times higher than rates reported from North American, Western European, and Australian ICUs. The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) is an international ongoing collaborative HAI control program with a surveillance system based on that of the US National Healthcare Safety Network. The INICC was founded 10 years ago to promote evidence-based infection control in hospitals in limited-resource countries and in hospitals of developed countries without sufficient experience in HAI surveillance and control, through the analysis and feedback of surveillance data collected voluntarily by the member hospitals. It developed from a handful of South American hospitals in 1998 to a dynamic network of 98 ICUs in 18 countries, and is the only source of aggregate standardized international data on HAI epidemiology. Herein we report the criteria and mechanisms for gaining membership in INICC; the training of personnel in INICC hospitals; the INICC protocol for outcome surveillance of CLABs, VAPs, and CAUTIs in ICUs, microorganism profiles, bacterial resistance, antibiotic use, extra length of stay, extra costs, extra mortality, and risk factor analysis, and for process surveillance, including compliance rates for hand hygiene, vascular catheter care, urinary catheter care, and measures for prevention of VAP; and the use of surveillance data feedback as a powerful weapon for control of HAIs. The INICC will continue to evolve in its quest to find more effective and efficient ways to assess patient risk and improve patient safety in hospitals.

  13. Infection Prevention and Control in Deployed Military Medical Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by day 5 after injury.8 Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Colonization and Infection of Wounds Numerous reports have documented the...the best place to start. More rapid detection, identification , and analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility could help guide antimicrobial selection...and sterilization in healthcare facilities, 2008. Available at: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/ pdf / guidelines/Disinfection_Nov_2008. pdf . Accessed April 27

  14. Infection control in hemodialysis units: A quick access to essential elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Karkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection is the most common cause of hospitalization and the second most common cause of mortality among hemodialysis (HD patients, after cardiovascular disease. HD patients as well as the dialysis staff are vulnerable to contracting health-care-associated infections (HAIs due to frequent and prolonged exposure to many possible contaminants in the dialysis environment. The extracorporeal nature of the therapy, the associated common environmental conditions and the immune compromised status of HD patients are major predisposing factors. The evident increased potential for transmission of infections in the HD settings led to the creation and implementation of specific and stricter infection prevention and control measures in addition to the usual standard precautions. Different international organizations have generated guidelines and recommendations on infection prevention and control for implementation in the HD settings. These include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Association of Professionals in Infection Control (APIC, the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI, the European Best Practice Guidelines/European Renal Best Practice (EBPG/ERBP and the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO. However, these guidelines are extensive and sometimes vary among different guideline-producing bodies. Our aim in this review is to facilitate the access, increase the awareness and encourage implementation among dialysis providers by reviewing, extracting and comparing the essential elements of guidelines and recommendations on infection prevention and control in HD units.

  15. LILRB2 interaction with HLA class I correlates with control of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman A Bashirova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR, a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs. We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126 to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10(-2. Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10(-11-10(-9 and African (p = 10(-5-10(-3 descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement.

  16. New trends in diagnosis and control strategies for implant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciola, Carla Renata; Montanaro, Lucio; Costerton, John William

    2011-09-01

    In implant infections, a quick and reliable identification of the etiological agent is crucial to realizing efficacious therapies. Among molecular methods, automated ribotyping has proven to be an accurate and rapid technique. More recently, MALDI-TOF/MS and PCR-electrospray ionization (ESI)/MS have been applied successfully to microbiological diagnosis. In implant infections, biofilm is still the major problem for bacterial persistence and recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. Among biofilm-disrupting agents, enzymes promise the greatest therapeutic possibilities. DNase I degrades biofilm extracellular DNA and has been shown to sensitize biofilm to various biocides and anionic detergents, while dispersin B acts on biofilm exopolysaccharide and, combined with antiseptic, gives a broad-spectrum antibiofilm and antimicrobial activity. The novel antimicrobial approach based on photodynamic treatment (PDT) applies, in combination with antibiotics, to the implant or medical devices reachable by optical fibers. Better progress could be gained by the development of infection-resistant biomaterials able to both inhibit bacterial adhesion and promote tissue integration. New knowledge regarding the fibronectin-mediated internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by osteoblasts, and on its role in the pathogenesis of implant-related osteomyelitis, paves the way for the development of vaccines against staphylococcal adhesins, to prevent both adhesion on biomaterials and bacterial invasion of bone cells.

  17. Geography and plumbing control the T cell response to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Kamal M; Lefrançois, Leo

    2008-07-01

    The orchestrated movement of cells of the immune system is essential to generation of productive responses leading to protective memory development. Recent advances have allowed the direct microscopic visualization of lymphocyte and antigen-presenting cell migration and interaction during immune response initiation and progression. These studies have defined important characteristics of the microanatomy of lymphocyte movement, particularly in the lymph node. Moreover, the ability to track endogenous antigen-specific T cells has revealed a coordinated pathway of CD8 T cell movement in the spleen following primary and secondary infection. As a consequence, the local anatomy of secondary lymphoid tissues during infection has emerged as a critical regulator of immunity. While some of the factors responsible for the migratory cues instructing immune cell movement have been identified, much remains to be learned. Here, we provide a brief overview of studies examining CD8 T cell localization during the immune response to infection in the context of our current understanding of immune system structure.

  18. Effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections: open randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardweg, M.T. van den; Boonacker, C.W.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoes, A.W.; Schilder, A.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. DESIGN: Open randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 11 general hospitals and two academic centres. PARTICIPANTS: 111 children aged 1-6 with recurrent upper respiratory tract

  19. ASSISTANCE FOR BURNED SINK PATIENTS AT HOSPITAL BY THE PERSPECTIVE OF INFECTION CONTROL: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Pires Damaceno

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The infection in burnings is very common, involve of the main mechanism of defense: the skin. Thus,this study aimed to identify and to analyze the measures adopted for the prevention and control of the infectionsrelated to this area. The research was constituted by a case study and data were obtained from systemizeobservation and of a questionnaire applied to the teams medical and of nursing of a unit of handling of burnnings ofthe city of Goiânia. The results showed deficiencies related to the infection control and pointed to the need of thetrainmen and update in infection control as direct patient’s care as in articles processing used for this care.Therefore the adequacy of procedure to the prevention and control of the nosocomial infections becomesnecessary.

  20. Nosocomial infection control in healthcare settings: Protection against emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuanxi; Wang, Shengyong

    2016-04-12

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea in 2015 may be attributable to poor nosocomial infection control procedures implemented. Strict infection control measures were taken in the hospital where an imported case with MERS was treated in southern China and 53 health care workers were confirmed to be MERS-CoV negative. Infection control in healthcare settings, in which patients with emerging infectious diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus disease, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are diagnosed and treated, are often imperfect. When it comes to emerging or unknown infectious diseases, before the imported case was finally identified or community transmission was reported, cases have often occurred in clusters in healthcare settings. Nosocomial infection control measures should be further strengthened among the workers and inpatients in designated healthcare settings that accommodate suspected cases suffering from emerging or unknown infectious diseases.

  1. The CFVib Experiment: Control of Fluids in Microgravity with Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Sánchez, P. Salgado; Tinao, I.; Porter, J.; Ezquerro, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    The Control of Fluids in Microgravity with Vibrations (CFVib) experiment was selected for the 2016 Fly Your Thesis! programme as part of the 65th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign. The aim of the project is to observe the potentially complex behaviour of vibrated liquids in weightless environments and to investigate the extent to which small-amplitude vibrations can be used to influence and control this behaviour. Piezoelectric materials are used to generate high-frequency vibrations to drive surface waves and large-scale reorientation of the interface. The theory of vibroequilibria, which treats the quasi-stationary surface configurations achieved by this reorientation, was used to predict interesting parameter regimes and interpret fluid behaviour. Here we describe the scientific motivation, objectives, and design of the experiment.

  2. Impact of Glycemic Control on Risk of Infections in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Dekkers, Olaf M; Nielsen, Jens S

    2017-01-01

    Infections are a major clinical challenge for type 2 diabetes patients, but little is known about the impact of glycemic control. We used Cox regression analyses to examine the association between baseline and time-varying HbA1c values and development of community antiinfective-treated and hospital.......51, 1.79) for the latest updated HbA1c. Our findings provide evidence for an association of current hyperglycemia with infection risk in type 2 diabetes patients.......-treated infections in 69,318 patients with type 2 diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 in Northern Denmark. Incidence rates were 394/1,000 patient-years for community-treated infections and 63/1,000 patient-years for hospital-treated infections. The adjusted hazard ratios for community-treated infection at an Hb...

  3. Alternatives to antibiotics to control bacterial infections: luminescent vibriosis in aquaculture as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2007-10-01

    The massive (mis)use of antibiotics to control infections in aquaculture has resulted in the development of resistant strains, which have rendered antibiotic treatments ineffective. Moreover, the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants to human pathogens and the presence of antibiotic residues in aquaculture products for human consumption constitute important threats to public health. Therefore, to make the aquaculture industry more sustainable, new strategies to control infections are urgently needed.

  4. To what extent do dental students comply with infection control practices?

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Essa, Noura A.; AlMutairi, Manal A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control measures among dental students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A self-administrated English-language questionnaire with questions related to hepatitis B vaccination and serology, the use of personal protective equipment, infection control practices and awareness, percutaneous and mucous membrane exposure, and attitudes toward the dental...

  5. Knowledge and Attitude of Dental Practitioners in Tabriz Regarding Infection Control Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghavi Zenouz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Blood-borne infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV might be transmitted from one individual to another during dental procedures. Therefore, sterilization and personal protection procedures are of utmost significance in dental offices. The importance of awareness of cross-infection and antiseptic principles lies in the fact that in most cases it is not possible to identify patients with hepatitis or AIDS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate awareness of infection control procedures among dental practitioners in Tabriz.

    Materials and methods. In this descriptive study, 150 dental practitioners working in clinics and private offices of Tabriz were randomly selected. Data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire, which included respondents’ personal profile and questions on infection control and sterilization methods.

    Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of knowledge between male and female dental practitioners regarding infection control; however, there was a decline in awareness as age increased.

    Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest that in some cases dental practitioners neglect the principles for personal protection and cross-infection control. Therefore, our society is subject to widespread infection in dental offices and clinics. This potential risk necessitates careful monitoring along with government support of treatment procedures, the inclusion of infection control costs into treatment expenses and an emphasis on continuing education about infection control procedures through seminars and congresses.

  6. Avoiding student infection during a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS outbreak: a single medical school experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Won Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM’s experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Methods: Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM’s efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. Results: The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion: Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology.

  7. Device-associated infection rates in 398 intensive care units in Shanghai, China: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lili; Hu, Bijie; Rosenthal, Victor D; Gao, Xiaodong; He, Lixian

    2011-11-01

    To determine device-associated healthcare-associated infection (DA-HAI) rates and the microorganism profile in 398 intensive care units (ICUs) of 70 hospitals in Shanghai, China. An open-label, prospective, cohort, active DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted on patients admitted to 398 tertiary-care ICUs in China from September 2004 to December 2009, implementing the methodology developed by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC). The data were collected in the participating ICUs, and uploaded and analyzed at the INICC headquarters on proprietary software. DA-HAI rates were registered by applying the definitions of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). We analyzed the rates of DAI-HAI, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), and their microorganism profiles. During the 5 years and 4 months of the study, 391 527 patients hospitalized in an ICU for an aggregate of 3,245,244 days, acquired 20,866 DA-HAIs, an overall rate of 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-5.4) and 6.4 (95% CI 6.3-6.5) infections per 1000 ICU-days. VAP posed the greatest risk (20.8 per 1000 ventilator-days, 95% CI 20.4-21.1), followed by CAUTI (6.4 per 1000 catheter-days, 95% CI 6.3-6.6) and CLABSI (3.1 per 1000 catheter-days, 95% CI 3.0-3.2). The most common isolated microorganism was Acinetobacter baumannii (19.1%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.9%). DA-HAIs in the ICUs of Shanghai pose a far greater threat to patient safety than in ICUs in the USA. This is particularly the case for the VAP rate, which is much higher than the rates found in developed countries. Active infection control programs that carry out infection surveillance and implement prevention guidelines can improve patient safety and must become a priority

  8. [Healthcare-associated infection rates: measuring and comparing. Experiences from the German National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KISS) and from other surveillance systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmeier, P; Behnke, M; Breier, A-C; Piening, B; Schwab, F; Dettenkofer, M; Geffers, C

    2012-11-01

    Surveillance of nosocomial infections is meanwhile a cornerstone of infection prevention activities in hospitals. The objective of this article is to compare healthcare-associated infection rates in intensive care patients, neonatal intensive care patients and operated patients (ICU-KISS, OP-KISS, NEO-KISS) of the German nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS) with the corresponding data of the US American National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). In general, the methodological differences among the three surveillance systems are minor but there are some exceptions. Therefore, differences between countries have to be interpreted very carefully as they may be due to differences in diagnostics, patient mix, types of interventions, length of stay, selection of participating hospitals, post-discharge surveillance activities and interpretation of case definitions. Organizational aspects, such as mandatory participation with public disclosure on infection rates may also have an impact.

  9. Job embeddedness factors as a predictor of turnover intention among infection control nurses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Sil; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2015-11-01

    Job embeddedness indicates the degree to which an employee of an organization intends to remain in his or her position at that organization. This study examined how job embeddedness affects infection control nurses' turnover intention along with general characteristics, job satisfaction, and perceived job alternatives. We collected data from a total of 133 infection control nurses using self-reporting questionnaire methods. All questions were answered on a 5-point Likert scale. The average turnover intention was 3.01 ± 0.72 (100-point conversion, 60.2%), and average job satisfaction was 3.48 ± 0.79 (100-point conversion, 69.6%). The average perceived availability of job alternatives was 3.02 ± 0.78 (100-point conversion, 60.4%), and average job embeddedness was 3.33 ± 0.57 (100-point conversion, 66.6%). Predictors of turnover intention were monthly income, perceived availability of job alternatives, and job embeddedness. Job embeddedness among predictors has high explanatory power as a predictor of infection control nurses' turnover intention. Through this study we identified predictors of turnover intention and found that job embeddedness among predictors has high explanatory power as a predictor of infection control nurses' turnover intention. Strategies to enhance infection control nurses' job embeddedness are needed. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Limits of control: the effects of uncontrollability experiences on the efficiency of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Marcin; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Marzecová, Anna; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the effects of experiencing uncontrollability on the efficiency of attentional control. The experience of uncontrollability was induced either by unsolvable tasks (Experiment 1) or by tasks in which non-contingent feedback was provided (Experiment 2). A version of the Attentional Network Test-Interactions with an additional measure of vigilance (ANTI-V) was used to evaluate the efficiency of the attentional networks (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive). Results of both experiments revealed a decreased efficiency of executive attention in participants who experienced stable control deprivation but no negative effects in participants who were able to restore their sense of previously deprived control. Additionally, when participants were asked to perform unsolvable tasks and did not receive feedback (Experiment 1), detrimental effects on the orienting network and vigilance were observed. The motivational and cognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of various uncontrollability experiences on conflict resolution and attentional control are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiresistant pathogens in geriatric nursing - infection control in residential facilities for geriatric nursing in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Claudia; Schablon, Anja; Bollongino, Kirsten; Maaß, Monika; Kaß, Dietmar; Dulon, Madeleine; Diel, Roland; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) causes problems in geriatric nursing homes. Older people are at increased a growing risk of infection due to multimorbidity and frequent stays in hospital. A high proportion of the elderly require residential care in geriatric nursing facilities, where hygiene requirements in nursing homes are similar to those in hospitals. For this reason we examined how well nursing homes are prepared for MDROs and how effectively protect their infection control residents and staff. A cross-sectional study was performed on infection control in residential geriatric nursing facilities in Germany 2012. The questionnaire recorded important parameters of hygiene, resident and staff protection and actions in case of existing MDROs. The response was 54% in Hamburg and 27% in the rest of Germany. Nursing homes were generally well equipped for dealing with infection control: There were standards for MDROs and regular hygiene training for staff. The facilities provided adequate protective clothing, affected residents are usually isolated and hygienic laundry processing conducted. There are deficits in the communication of information on infected residents with hospitals and general practitioners. 54% of nursing homes performed risk assessments for staff infection precaution. There is a growing interest in MDROs and infection control will be a challenge in for residential geriatric nursing facilities in the future. This issue has also drawn increasing attention. Improvements could be achieved by improving communication between different participants in the health service, together with specific measures for staff protection at work.

  12. How Helicobacter pylori infection controls gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Adam J; Backert, Steffen

    2012-06-01

    Infection of the human stomach mucosa by Helicobacter pylori induces strong inflammatory responses and a transitory hypochlorhydria which can progress in ~2 % of patients to atrophic gastritis, dysplasia, or gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection of gastric biopsies or cultured gastric epithelial cells in vitro represses the activity of endogenous or transfected promoter of the alpha-subunit (HKα) of gastric H,K-adenosine triphosphatase (H,K-ATPase), the parietal cell enzyme mediating acid secretion. Some mechanistic details of H. pylori-mediated repression of HKα and ensuing hypochlorhydria have been recently elucidated. H. pylori strains expressing a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island are known to upregulate the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The NF-κB-binding regions in the HKα promoter were identified and shown to repress its transcriptional activity. Interaction studies have indicated that although active phosphorylated NF-κB p65 is present in infected cells, an NF-κB p50/p65 heterodimeric complex fails to bind to the HKα promoter. Point mutations at -159 and -161 bp in the HKα promoter NF-κB binding sequence prevent the binding of NF-κB p50 and prevent H. pylori repression of point-mutated HKα promoter activity. The T4SS factors CagL, CagE, CagM, and possibly CagA and the lytic transglycosylase Slt, are mechanistically involved in NF-κB activation and repression of HKα transcription. CagL, a T4SS pilus component, binds to the integrin α(5)β(1) to mediate translocation of virulence factors into the host cell and initiate signaling. During acute H. pylori infection, CagL dissociates ADAM 17 (a disintegrin and a metalloprotease 17) from the integrin α(5)β(1) complex and stimulates ADAM17-dependent release of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulation, ERK1/2 kinase activation, and NF-κB-mediated repression of HKα. These studies suggest that H

  13. Parents' Expectations and Experiences of Antibiotics for Acute Respiratory Infections in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxeter, Peter D; Mar, Chris Del; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2017-03-01

    Primary care visits for children with acute respiratory infections frequently result in antibiotic prescriptions, although antibiotics have limited benefits for common acute respiratory infections and can cause harms, including antibiotic resistance. Parental demands are often blamed for antibiotic prescription. We aimed to explore parents' beliefs about antibiotic necessity, quantify their expectations of antibiotic benefit, and report experiences of other management options and exposure to and preferences for shared decision making. We conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews in an Australia-wide community sample of primary caregivers, hereafter referred to as parents, of children aged 1 to 12 years, using random digit dialing of household landline telephones. Of the 14,505 telephone numbers called, 10,340 were eligible numbers; 589 potentially eligible parents were reached, of whom 401 were interviewed. Most believed antibiotics provide benefits for common acute respiratory infections, especially for acute otitis media (92%), although not using them, particularly for acute cough and sore throat, was sometimes acceptable. Parents grossly overestimated the mean benefit of antibiotics on illness symptom duration by 5 to 10 times, and believed they reduce the likelihood of complications. The majority, 78%, recognized antibiotics may cause harm. Recalling the most recent relevant doctor visit, 44% of parents reported at least some discussion about why antibiotics might be used; shared decision making about antibiotic use was inconsistent, while 75% wanted more involvement in future decisions. Some parents have misperceptions about antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections, highlighting the need for improved communication during visits, including shared decision making to address overoptimistic expectations of antibiotics. Such communication should be one of several strategies that is used to reduce antibiotic use. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  14. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    whether BMPs maintain their osteoinductive capability in infected human wounds. The authors are aware of only one series describing the use of BMP in an...et al. Osteogenic protein-1 induces bone formation in the presence of bacterial infection in a rat intramuscular osteoinduction model. J Orthop Trauma

  15. Role Based Access Control system in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Valsan, M L; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, G; Scannicchio, D A; Schlenker, S; Filimonov, V; Khomoutnikov, V; Dumitru, I; Zaytsev, A S; Korol, A A; Bogdantchikov, A; Caramarcu, C; Ballestrero, S; Darlea, G L; Twomey, M; Bujor, F; Avolio, G

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS experiment motivated the deployment of an integrated Access Control System in order to guarantee safe and optimal access for a large number of users to the various software and hardware resources. Such an integrated system was foreseen since the design of the infrastructure and is now central to the operations model. In order to cope with the ever growing needs of restricting access to all resources used within the experiment, the Roles Based Access Control (RBAC) previously developed has been extended and improved. The paper starts with a short presentation of the RBAC design, implementation and the changes made to the system to allow the management and usage of roles to control access to the vast and diverse set of resources. The paper continues with a detailed description of the integration across all areas of the system: local Linux and Windows nodes in the ATLAS Control Network (ATCN), the Linux application gateways offering remote access inside ATCN, the Windows Terminal Serv...

  16. Role Based Access Control System in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Valsan, M L; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, G; Scannicchio, D A; Schlenker, S; Filimonov, V; Khomoutnikov, V; Dumitru, I; Zaytsev, A S; Korol, A A; Bogdantchikov, A; Avolio, G; Caramarcu, C; Ballestrero, S; Darlea, G L; Twomey, M; Bujor, F

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS experiment motivated the deployment of an integrated Access Control System in order to guarantee safe and optimal access for a large number of users to the various software and hardware resources. Such an integrated system was foreseen since the design of the infrastructure and is now central to the operations model. In order to cope with the ever growing needs of restricting access to all resources used within the experiment, the Roles Based Access Control (RBAC) previously developed has been extended and improved. The paper starts with a short presentation of the RBAC design, implementation and the changes made to the system to allow the management and usage of roles to control access to the vast and diverse set of resources. The paper continues with a detailed description of the integration across all areas of the system: local Linux and Windows nodes in the ATLAS Control Network (ATCN), the Linux application gateways offering remote access inside ATCN, the Windows Terminal Serv...

  17. A survey of cross-infection control procedures: knowledge and attitudes of Turkish dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Yüzbasioglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Turkish dentists in Samsun City regarding cross-infection control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about procedures used for the prevention of cross-infection in dental practices and determine the attitudes and perceptions of respondent dental practitioners to their procedures. The study population included all dentists in the city of Samsun, Turkey, in April 2005 (n=184. The questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of infection control procedures, sterilization, wearing of gloves, mask, use of rubber dam, method of storing instruments and disposal methods of contaminated material, etc. Questionnaire data was entered into a computer and analyzed by SPSS statistical software. RESULTS: From the 184 dentists to whom the questionnaires were submitted, 135 participated in the study (overall response rate of 73.36%. As much as 74.10% dentists expressed concern about the risk of cross-infection from patients to themselves and their dental assistants. Forty-three percent of the participants were able to define "cross-infection" correctly. The greatest majority of the respondents (95.60% stated that all patients have to be considered as infectious and universal precautions must apply to all of them. The overall responses to the questionnaire showed that the dentists had moderate knowledge of infection control procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Improved compliance with recommended infection control procedures is required for all dentists evaluated in the present survey. Continuing education programs and short-time courses about cross-infection and infection control procedures are suitable to improve the knowledge of dentists.

  18. Perspectives and control of hepatitis B virus infection in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lin Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in Taiwan. After the implementation of universal hepatitis B vaccination, there was a significant reduction of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seropositivity and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC incidence in children, teenagers, and young adults. However, the incidence of HBV-related HCC in adults remains high. Through several community- and hospital-based cohort studies, the viral factors affecting the prognosis of HBV carriers have been illustrated. Serum HBV DNA level > 2000 IU/mL at study entry starts to increase the risks of cirrhosis and HCC in adult patients with chronic HBV infection. In addition, serum HBsAg level > 1000 IU/mL is associated with a higher risk of HCC in HBeAg-negative patients with low viral load. Virologically, HBV genotype C/D and core promote/pre-S mutations correlate with an increased HCC risk. Recently, a risk calculator has been developed to predict HCC in noncirrhotic patients with external validation. Therapeutically, hospital-based cohort and population-based nationwide studies indicated that interferon and nucleos(tide analogue treatments could reduce the incidence of HCC over time. Towards the ultimate goal of HBV eradication, several novel agents aiming at viral and host targets are under development. In addition, the immune therapy may play a key role in HBV cure in the foreseeable future.

  19. A Neutral Control Condition for Hypnosis Experiments: "Wiki" Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Katalin; Kekecs, Zoltán; Myhre, P S; Józsa, Emese

    2017-01-01

    A new control condition called Wiki is introduced. Key themes of each test suggestion of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, were matched by a corresponding extract from Wikipedia.org. The authors compared phenomenological reports of participants across 4 conditions: hypnosis split into high and low hypnotizable subgroups, music, and Wiki condition, using the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. High hypnotizables undergoing hypnosis reported higher altered experience and altered states of awareness than individuals in the Wiki condition, supporting the authors' hypothesis that the Wiki condition does not evoke an altered state of consciousness (internal dialogue, volitional control, and self-awareness did not differ). Wiki might be a viable control condition in hypnosis research given further examination.

  20. Cost-Effective Interventions in The Control of Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlika Toy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B virus (HBV causes infection in the liver that can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and premature death. The disease is not widely recognised as a serious public health problem, and as a result, inadequate resources are being allocated to hepatitis B prevention and control. Vaccination against HBV has been a great success and has resulted in a reduction in the rate of chronic infection; however, the vaccine is of no help for those already infected. The big challenge is how to deliver effective and affordable care to those who are carriers and who are eligible for treatment, and affordable diagnostics to detect those who are not yet aware of their infection, to prevent the spread to susceptible individuals. This review intends to give the reader a brief overview of the types of control strategies that have been examined in recent cost-effectiveness studies on the control of chronic hepatitis B.

  1. Professional and Regulatory Infection Control Guidelines: Collaboration to Promote Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Judith L; Miller, Kimberly J

    2017-09-01

    Professional organizations and regulatory agencies collaborate on infection prevention and control guidelines to support preventing and controlling infection in the surgical setting. More specifically, regulatory and accrediting agencies, professional associations, and advisory committees create and promote the use of evidence-based recommendations for preventing surgical site infections. Many agencies perform accreditation surveys to ensure compliance with these standards and guidelines. Perioperative personnel can use these resources to implement and sustain essential processes for infection prevention and control and to facilitate staff member compliance with standards, regulations, and best practices. To guide perioperative practice, it is important for nurses to understand the role of these agencies and organizations and the resources each offers to help ensure the best patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods for computational disease surveillance in infection prevention and control: Statistical process control versus Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemken, Timothy L; Furmanek, Stephen P; Mattingly, William A; Wright, Marc-Oliver; Persaud, Annuradha K; Guinn, Brian E; Carrico, Ruth M; Arnold, Forest W; Ramirez, Julio A

    2017-09-12

    Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast statistical process control (SPC) charts with Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms. SPC and anomaly/breakout detection (ABD) charts were created for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection data. Both SPC and ABD charts detected similar data points as anomalous/out of control on most charts. The vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ABD chart detected an extra anomalous point that appeared to be higher than the same time period in prior years. Using a small subset of the central line-associated bloodstream infection data, the ABD chart was able to detect anomalies where the SPC chart was not. SPC charts and ABD charts both performed well, although ABD charts appeared to work better in the context of seasonal variation and autocorrelation. Because they account for common statistical issues in HAI data, ABD charts may be useful for practitioners for analysis of HAI surveillance data. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlling the Seedbeds of Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Cavalcante, Solange C.; Marais, Ben J.; Thim, Sok; Martinson, Neil A.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Chaisson, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The billions of people with latent tuberculosis infection serve as the seedbeds for future cases of active tuberculosis. Virtually all episodes of tuberculosis disease are preceded by a period of asymptomatic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; therefore, identifying infected individuals most likely to progress to disease and treating such subclinical infections to prevent future disease provides a critical opportunity to interrupt tuberculosis transmission and reduce the global burden of tuberculosis disease. Programs focusing on single strategies rather than comprehensive programs that deliver an integrated arsenal for tuberculosis control may continue to struggle. Tuberculosis preventive therapy is a poorly utilized tool that is essential for controlling the reservoirs of disease that drive the current epidemic. Comprehensive control strategies that combine preventive therapy for the most high-risk populations and communities with improved case-finding and treatment, control of transmission and health systems strengthening could ultimately lead to worldwide tuberculosis elimination. This paper outlines challenges to implementation of preventive therapy and provides pragmatic suggestions for overcoming them. It further advocates for tuberculosis preventive therapy as the core of a renewed global focus to implement a comprehensive epidemic control strategy that would reduce new tuberculosis cases to elimination targets. This strategy would be underpinned by accelerated research to further understand the biology of subclinical tuberculosis infections, develop novel diagnostics, and drug regimens specifically for subclinical tuberculosis infection, strengthen health systems, community engagement, and enhance sustainable large scale implementation of preventive therapy programs. PMID:26515679

  4. Infection control practices among hospital health and support workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J P C; Thompson, D R; Lee, D T F; Twinn, S

    2010-08-01

    A report by the Hong Kong government noted that hospital infection control standards were inadequate, requiring audit, development and implementation. In addition, hospital staff needed training in infection control measures. We investigated infection control practices among 162 hospital health workers (109 nurses, 45 doctors and 8 therapists) and 44 support workers in one acute hospital and two rehabilitation hospitals using a non-blinded, observational design. We examined compliance with isolation precautions and infection control guidelines, including proper wearing of a mask, goggles/face shield, or gown; handling patient care equipment, linen, and laundry; routine and terminal cleaning; and terminal cleaning of an isolation room. One major breakdown in compliance was use of sleeveless disposable plastic aprons instead of long-sleeved gowns during procedures likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood and body fluids. In more than half of the observed episodes, participants failed to disinfect medical devices, such as stethoscopes, before re-use. Thorough cleansing of commodes between patients was also lacking. Overall compliance with local and international infection control guidelines was satisfactory, but several aspects required improvement. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge of infection control practices among intensive care nurses in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Kanwalpreet; Shrivastava, Anupam; Arya, Muktanjali; Kumar, Manender

    2013-08-01

    The threat of hospital-acquired infections persists despite advances in the health care system. A lack of knowledge regarding infection control practices among health care workers decreases compliance with these practices. We conducted a study to assess the knowledge of infection control practices among nursing professionals at our hospital. In total, 100 nurses in the intensive care units at our hospital were given a questionnaire with 40 multiple choice questions, including 10 questions each regarding hand hygiene, standard and transmission-based precautions, care bundles and general infection control practices. The responses were scored as percentages. The overall knowledge and awareness regarding different infection control practices were excellent (>90% positive responses) in 5% of the nursing professionals, good (80-90% positive responses) in 37%, average (70-80% positive responses) in 40% and below average (<70% positive responses) in 18%. The infection control knowledge among the nurses was fairly good; however, there is still a wide scope of improvement with regular educational programs and in-house training. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Khademvatan, Shahram; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8-10 years old in one study. To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count - CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity - TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and χ(2) tests were used for comparison. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p hominis infection.

  7. Impact of infection control training for interns on PICU-acquired bloodstream infections in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yun Yun; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed El-Amin; Gan, Chin Seng; Siham, Anis; Zainol, Hasimah; Lum, Lucy Chai See

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the impact of an extended infection control training programme, which was conducted for all interns posted to the Department of Paediatrics, on the incidence of paediatric intensive care unit (PICU)-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs) in University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia. The development of nosocomial BSIs during the baseline period (1 January-31 October 2008) and intervention period (1 November-31 December 2009) was monitored. During the intervention period, all paediatric interns underwent training in hand hygiene and aseptic techniques for accessing vascular catheters. A total of 25 patients had PICU-acquired BSIs during the baseline period, while 18 patients had PICU-acquired BSIs during the intervention period (i.e. infection rate of 88 per 1,000 and 41 per 1,000 admissions, respectively). The infections were related to central venous catheters (CVCs) in 22 of the 25 patients who had PICU-acquired BSIs during the baseline period and 11 of the 18 patients who had PICU-acquired BSIs during the intervention period. Thus, the incidence rates of catheter-related BSIs were 25.2 per 1,000 CVC-days and 9.3 per 1,000 CVC-days, respectively (p low-cost intervention, resulted in a substantial reduction in the incidence of PICU-acquired BSIs.

  8. [A case-control study on risk factors for nosocomial infection of epilepsy in hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Neng-feng; Yang, Liu-qing; Huang, Yong-quan

    2003-09-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors for nosocomial infection in child epilepsy. A retrospective study was conducted among all (292 cases) hospitalized children epilepsy patients in First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from 1996 to 2000 in Fuzhou city. With all patients with nosocomial infection as cases and all patients without nosocomial infection as controls, a case-control study on risk factors for nosocomial infection was carried out. Available data were analyzed by one-way Chi-square test and unconditional logistic multiple regression model. One hundred fourteen cases of nosocomial infection were identified among 292 cases with epilepsy with an incidence of 39.0% (114/292). The one-way Chi-square test showed that nosocomial infection was significantly associated with age below 3 years (OR = 2.55, P length of hospitalization over 14 days (OR = 4.75, P length of hospitalization over 14 days (OR = 4.30, OR 95% CI: 2.48 - 7.46, P stay in the hospital with more kinds of antibiotic used and more gastrogarage they used, the greater the risk of nosocomial infection was. Data suggested that occurrence of the nosocomial infection of children epilepsy patients was correlated with the length of hospitalization over 14 days, unreasonable using antibiotic, using gastrogarage and low intelligence.

  9. Infection control in general practices in Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities, South Africa

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    Don O'Mahony

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good infection control practices are effective in reducing rates of infection in health care settings. Studies in primary care in developed countries indicate that many general practitioners (GPs do not comply with optimal infection control practices. There are no published studies from developing countries in Southern Africa.Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe infection control practices in private GP surgeries in the Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.Method: A literature review was conducted to appraise current best practice with respect to Standard Infection Control and Transmission Based Precautions. A questionnaire, inquiring into GPs’ actual practices, was posted to each surgery.Results: The valid response rate was 34% (47/140. Methods used to sterilise instruments in 40 practices were: ultraviolet sterilisation (23, chemical disinfection (14, boiling water (7, and steam autoclave (2. Compounds used for chemical disinfection included organotin quaternary, chlorhexidine and benzyl ammonium chloride with a quaternary complex. Twenty-two (47% used a hand rub. Sixteen (35% GPs stated that they had a policy to promptly triage patients who are coughing, and 23 (50% had a policy for airflow movement in the surgery. All practices appropriately disposed of sharps. Thirty-seven (80% expressed interest in a seminar on infection control.Conclusions: Overall, GPs were aware of infection control precautions. Ultraviolet sterilisers and chlorhexidine are not recommended, however, for sterilisation or high level disinfection of medical instruments, and their use should be discontinued. Hand rubs are underutilised. GPs should implement Transmission Based Precautions to prevent airborne and droplet infections.

  10. Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in pediatric intensive care units of 16 limited-resource countries: international Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Jarvis, William R; Jamulitrat, Silom; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Ramachandran, Bala; Dueñas, Lourdes; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Ersoz, Gulden; Novales, María Guadalupe Miranda; Khader, Ilham Abu; Ammar, Khaldi; Guzmán, Nayide Barahona; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; Seliem, Zeinab Salah; Espinoza, Teodora Atencio; Meng, Cheong Yuet; Jayatilleke, Kushlani

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium prospective surveillance study from January 2004 to December 2009 in 33 pediatric intensive care units of 16 countries and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated health care-associated infection rates. Additionally, we aim to compare these findings with the results of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network annual report to show the differences between developed and developing countries regarding device-associated health care-associated infection rates. A prospective cohort, active device-associated health care-associated infection surveillance study was conducted on 23,700 patients in International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium pediatric intensive care units. The protocol and methodology implemented were developed by International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. Data collection was performed in the participating intensive care units. Data uploading and analyses were conducted at International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium headquarters on proprietary software. Device-associated health care-associated infection rates were recorded by applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network device-associated infection definitions, and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated infection risk was evaluated. None. Central line-associated bloodstream infection rates were similar in private, public, or academic hospitals (7.3 vs. 8.4 central line-associated bloodstream infection per 1,000 catheter-days [p infection rates in lower middle-income countries were higher than low-income countries or upper middle-income countries (12.2 vs. 5.5 central line-associated bloodstream infections per 1,000 catheter-days [p infection rates were similar in academic, public and private

  11. Brazilian experience in EU-CORE: daptomycin registry and treatment of serious Gram-positive infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Timerman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To collect data about non-controlled prescribing use of daptomycin and its impact among Brazilian patients with serious Gram positive bacterial infection, as well as the efficacy and safety outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional registry (August 01, 2009 to June 30, 2011 to collect data on 120 patients (44 patients in the first year and 76 patients in the second year who had received at least one dose of commercial daptomycin in Brazil for the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infection. RESULTS: Right-sided endocarditis (15.8%, complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIwound (15.0% and bacteremia-catheter-related (14.2% were the most frequent primary infections; lung (21.7% was the most common site for infection. Daptomycin was used empirically in 76 (63.3% patients, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was the most common suspected pathogen (86.1%. 82.5% of the cultures were obtained prior to or shortly after initiation of daptomycin therapy. Staphylococcus spp. - coagulase negative, MRSA, and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were the most frequently identified pathogens (23.8%, 23.8% and 12.5%, respectively. The most common daptomycin dose administered for bacteremia and cSSTI was 6 mg/kg (30.6% and 4 mg/kg (51.7%, respectively. The median duration of inpatient daptomycin therapy was 14 days. Most patients (57.1% did not receive daptomycin while in intensive care unit. Carbapenem (22.5% was the most commonly used antibiotic concomitantly. The patients showed clinical improvement after two days (median following the start of daptomycin therapy. The clinical success rate was 80.8% and the overall rate of treatment failure was 10.8%. The main reasons for daptomycin discontinuation were successful end of therapy (75.8%, switched therapy (11.7%, and treatment failure (4.2%. Daptomycin demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile

  12. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  13. Collagen-Nanoparticles Composites for Wound Healing and Infection Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Grigore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world is facing a serious crisis represented by the rapid emergence of resistant bacteria, which jeopardizes the efficacy of antibiotics. This crisis has been attributed to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, as well as the cessation of new drug production by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, bacterial strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes have appeared, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review aims to provide an updated summary of the current approach to the treatment of infections due to resistant microorganisms, with a focus on the application of the antimicrobial effects of inorganic nanoparticles in combination with collagen to promote wound healing. In addition, the paper describes the current approaches in the field of functionalized collagen hydrogels capable of wound healing and inhibiting microbial biofilm production.

  14. Formal and Informal Control of Cannabis: Regular Users' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Serge; Lépine, Patrice; Patenaude, Catherine; Erickson, Patricia

    2018-01-16

    The debate on recreational use of cannabis, recently relaunched by the election of the Liberal Party of Canada that intends to legalize and regulate its use and access, implies a better understanding of social control mechanisms that are in place, and their influence on users' behaviors. This study addresses the issue of formal and informal controls by providing, first, a theoretical perspective of this concept, and, second, by illustrating its operation from the users' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 164 regular, adult cannabis users recruited in four large Canadian cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax). An initial qualitative analysis based on the principles of grounded theory was conducted. The main categories identified were then used to find and re-code relevant material on the respondents' experience with formal and informal control (secondary analysis). The users' perspective shows that mechanisms of informal control play an important role in defining the social context of their use (when, where, and with whom cannabis is consumed). In contrast, formal control had no deterrent impact on the cessation or reduction of use, but affected their behavior by influencing them to change the context of their practices to avoid criminal legal consequences and stigmatization. Conclusions/Importance: The regulatory controls based in public health that the Canadian government plans to implement (replacing criminal ones), should be based on a better understanding of current practices and patterns of cannabis users, and in accordance with informal controls already in place. Legislative formal controls, in a regulatory model, that are better defined and consistent with social practices, will be more accepted and respected by the user population and thus likely to be more effective in reducing harm.

  15. cIAP-1 controls innate immunity to C. pneumoniae pulmonary infection.

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    Hridayesh Prakash

    Full Text Available The resistance of epithelial cells infected with Chlamydophila pneumoniae for apoptosis has been attributed to the induced expression and increased stability of anti-apoptotic proteins called inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs. The significance of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1 in C. pneumoniae pulmonary infection and innate immune response was investigated in cIAP-1 knockout (KO mice using a novel non-invasive intra-tracheal infection method. In contrast to wildtype, cIAP-1 knockout mice failed to clear the infection from their lungs. Wildtype mice responded to infection with a strong inflammatory response in the lung. In contrast, the recruitment of macrophages was reduced in cIAP-1 KO mice compared to wildtype mice. The concentration of Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma was increased whereas that of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha was reduced in the lungs of infected cIAP-1 KO mice compared to infected wildtype mice. Ex vivo experiments on mouse peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes revealed that cIAP-1 is required for innate immune responses of these cells. Our findings thus suggest a new immunoregulatory role of cIAP-1 in the course of bacterial infection.

  16. Post-operative endophthalmitis: the application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to an infection control problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, D R; Henry, M; Liddell, K G; Mitchell, C M; Sneddon, J G

    2001-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) is a quality assurance system widely used in the food industry to ensure safety. We adopted the HACCP approach when conventional infection control measures had failed to solve an ongoing problem with an increased incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, and our ophthalmology unit was threatened with permanent cessation of intraocular surgery. Although time-consuming, the result was an entirely new set of protocols for the care of patients undergoing intraocular surgery, the development of an integrated care pathway, and a comprehensive and robust audit programme, which enabled intraocular surgery to continue in a new spirit of confidence. HACCP methodology has so far been little used in healthcare, but it might be usefully applied to a variety of apparently intractable infection control problems. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  17. Application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) as a possible control measure for Opisthorchis viverrini infection in cultured carp (Puntius gonionotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamboonruang, C; Keawvichit, R; Wongworapat, K; Suwanrangsi, S; Hongpromyart, M; Sukhawat, K; Tonguthai, K; Lima dos Santos, C A

    1997-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis due to Opisthorchis viverrini and transmitted through infected freshwater cyprinoid fish (carps) affects more than 8 million people in Thailand, People's Democratic Republic of Lao, and Vietnam. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-concept has been recommended by FAO and WHO to be included in programs to control foodborne trematode infections (FBT). HACCP is a multifactorial approach to control food hazards through surveillance of diseases, foods, and operations and education. This study describes the first attempt to apply HACCP to the prevention and control of Opisthorchis viverrini in pond culture carp (Puntius gonionotus). The experiment was designed and carried out by a multidisciplinary "HACCP team" including experts in the field of public health, parasitology, epidemiology, aquaculture, fisheries extension and fish inspection. The investigation was performed in two fish ponds in the District of Sun Pa Tong, Chiang Mai, Thailand. In the experimental pond, fish was cultured according to HACCP principles and compared with the control pond, which followed conventional aquaculture practices. Water supply to the pond, fish fry, fish feed and pond conditions during the growing period were identified as critical control points (CCPs). Hazards were identified and analyzed, as well as control measures, critical limits, monitoring procedures, corrective actions, and record keeping developed for each one of the above CCPs. Complete pond preparation, particularly aiming to eliminate contamination of pond water with O. viverrini eggs, fish infected with parasite meacercariae and the first intermediate host (Bithynia spp), was conducted. After the pond was filled with water, O. viverrini metacercaria-free fry were released into the pond. The preliminary results obtained indicate that HACCP-based principles applied to carp pond culture could be used as a strategy to prevent and control O. viverrini. Further studies should be undertaken aiming

  18. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George

    2008-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  19. Tuberculosis in healthcare workers and infection control measures at primary healthcare facilities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassens, Mareli M; van Schalkwyk, Cari; du Toit, Elizabeth; Roest, Eline; Lombard, Carl J; Enarson, Donald A; Beyers, Nulda; Borgdorff, Martien W

    2013-01-01

    Challenges exist regarding TB infection control and TB in hospital-based healthcare workers in South Africa. However, few studies report on TB in non-hospital based healthcare workers such as primary or community healthcare workers. Our objectives were to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures at primary healthcare facilities, the smear positive TB incidence rate amongst primary healthcare workers and the association between TB infection control measures and all types of TB in healthcare workers. One hundred and thirty three primary healthcare facilities were visited in five provinces of South Africa in 2009. At each facility, a TB infection control audit and facility questionnaire were completed. The number of healthcare workers who had had TB during the past three years was obtained. The standardised incidence ratio of smear positive TB in primary healthcare workers indicated an incidence rate of more than double that of the general population. In a univariable logistic regression, the infection control audit score was significantly associated with reported cases of TB in healthcare workers (OR=1.04, 95%CI 1.01-1.08, p=0.02) as was the number of staff (OR=3.78, 95%CI 1.77-8.08). In the multivariable analysis, the number of staff remained significantly associated with TB in healthcare workers (OR=3.33, 95%CI 1.37-8.08). The high rate of TB in healthcare workers suggests a substantial nosocomial transmission risk, but the infection control audit tool which was used did not perform adequately as a measure of this risk. Infection control measures should be monitored by validated tools developed and tested locally. Different strategies, such as routine surveillance systems, could be used to evaluate the burden of TB in healthcare workers in order to calculate TB incidence, monitor trends and implement interventions to decrease occupational TB.

  20. Prevention of Leptospirosis Infected Vector and Human Population by Multiple Control Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Altaf Khan; Saeed Islam; Sher Afzal Khan; Ilyas Khan; Sharidan Shafie; Taza Gul

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease that damages the liver and kidneys, found mainly in dogs and farm animals and caused by bacteria. In this paper, we present the optimal control problem applied to a dynamical leptospirosis infected vector and human population by using multiple control variables. First, we show the existence of the control problem and then use analytical and numerical techniques to investigate the existence cost effective control efforts for prevention of indirect and dir...

  1. Metrics for rapid quality control in RNA structure probing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Krishna; Shih, Nathan P; Deng, Fei; Ledda, Mirko; Li, Bo; Aviran, Sharon

    2016-12-01

    The diverse functionalities of RNA can be attributed to its capacity to form complex and varied structures. The recent proliferation of new structure probing techniques coupled with high-throughput sequencing has helped RNA studies expand in both scope and depth. Despite differences in techniques, most experiments face similar challenges in reproducibility due to the stochastic nature of chemical probing and sequencing. As these protocols expand to transcriptome-wide studies, quality control becomes a more daunting task. General and efficient methodologies are needed to quantify variability and quality in the wide range of current and emerging structure probing experiments. We develop metrics to rapidly and quantitatively evaluate data quality from structure probing experiments, demonstrating their efficacy on both small synthetic libraries and transcriptome-wide datasets. We use a signal-to-noise ratio concept to evaluate replicate agreement, which has the capacity to identify high-quality data. We also consider and compare two methods to assess variability inherent in probing experiments, which we then utilize to evaluate the coverage adjustments needed to meet desired quality. The developed metrics and tools will be useful in summarizing large-scale datasets and will help standardize quality control in the field. The data and methods used in this article are freely available at: http://bme.ucdavis.edu/aviranlab/SPEQC_software CONTACT: saviran@ucdavis.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani KV

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems

  3. IL-1β Signaling Promotes CNS-Intrinsic Immune Control of West Nile Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Hilario J.; Lanteri, Marion C.; Blahnik, Gabriele; Negash, Amina; Suthar, Mehul S.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Sodhi, Khushbu; Treuting, Piper M.; Busch, Michael P.; Norris, Philip J.; Gale, Michael

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging flavivirus capable of infecting the central nervous system (CNS) and mediating neuronal cell death and tissue destruction. The processes that promote inflammation and encephalitis within the CNS are important for control of WNV disease but, how inflammatory signaling pathways operate to control CNS infection is not defined. Here, we identify IL-1β signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome as key host restriction factors involved in viral control and CNS disease associated with WNV infection. Individuals presenting with acute WNV infection displayed elevated levels of IL-1β in their plasma over the course of infection, suggesting a role for IL-1β in WNV immunity. Indeed, we found that in a mouse model of infection, WNV induced the acute production of IL-1β in vivo, and that animals lacking the IL-1 receptor or components involved in inflammasome signaling complex exhibited increased susceptibility to WNV pathogenesis. This outcome associated with increased accumulation of virus within the CNS but not peripheral tissues and was further associated with altered kinetics and magnitude of inflammation, reduced quality of the effector CD8+ T cell response and reduced anti-viral activity within the CNS. Importantly, we found that WNV infection triggers production of IL-1β from cortical neurons. Furthermore, we found that IL-1β signaling synergizes with type I IFN to suppress WNV replication in neurons, thus implicating antiviral activity of IL-1β within neurons and control of virus replication within the CNS. Our studies thus define the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and IL-1β signaling as key features controlling WNV infection and immunity in the CNS, and reveal a novel role for IL-1β in antiviral action that restricts virus replication in neurons. PMID:23209411

  4. The Ly49E receptor inhibits the immune control of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Filtjens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT to Ly49E knockout (KO mice for their control of experimental T. cruzi infection. Our results show that young, i.e. 4- and 6-week-old, Ly49E KO mice control the infection better than WT mice, indicated by a lower parasite load and less cachexia. The beneficial effect of Ly49E depletion is more obvious in 4-week-old male than in female mice and weakens in 8-week-old mice. In young mice, the lower T. cruzi parasitemia in Ly49E KO mice is paralleled by higher IFN-γ production compared to their WT controls. Our data indicate that Ly49E receptor expression inhibits the immune control of T. cruzi infection. This is the first demonstration that the inhibitory Ly49E receptor can interfere with the immune response to a pathogen in vivo.

  5. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, Jonathan; Hutwagner, Lori; Vugia, Duc; Shallow, Sue; Daily, Pamela; Bender, Jeffrey; Koehler, Jane; Marcus, Ruthanne; Angulo, Frederick J

    2004-04-15

    To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996-1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; Preptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with approximately 74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

  6. Short-term glycemic control is effective in reducing surgical site infection in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroin, Jeffrey S; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Li, Jinyuan; Moric, Mario; Im, Hee-Jeong; Tuman, Kenneth J; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2015-06-01

    Patients and animals with diabetes exhibit enhanced vulnerability to bacterial surgical infections. Despite multiple retrospective studies demonstrating the benefits associated with glycemic control in reducing bacterial infection after cardiac surgery, there are fewer guidelines on the use of glycemic control for noncardiac surgeries. In the current study, we investigated whether long-term (begun 2 weeks before surgery) or immediate (just before surgery) glycemic controls, continued postoperatively, can reduce surgical site infection in type 1 diabetic-induced rats. Rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes. Four groups of animals underwent surgery and thigh muscle Staphylococcus aureus bacteria challenge (1 × 10 colony forming units) at the time of surgery. Group 1 diabetic rats received insulin treatment just before surgery and continued until the end of study (short-term glycemic control group). Group 2 diabetic rats received insulin treatment 2 weeks before surgery and continued until the end of study (long-term glycemic control). Group 3 diabetic rats received no insulin treatment (no glycemic control group). Group 4 nondiabetic rats served as a healthy control group. Rats were euthanized at 3 or 6 days after surgery. Blood glucose and muscle bacterial burden were measured at 3 or 6 days after surgery. Glycemic control was achieved in both long- and short-term insulin-treated diabetic rats. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, the bacterial burden in muscle was significantly lower in both groups of glycemic controlled diabetic rats at 3 (all P control regimen, initiated just before surgery and bacterial exposure, was as effective in reducing surgical site infection as a long-term glycemic control in type 1 diabetic rats. These data suggest that immediately implementing glycemic control in type 1 diabetic surgical patients before undergoing noncardiac surgery may decrease the risk of infection.

  7. Analysis of risk factors from salmonella infections and determination of critical control points in poultry industry production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper encompasses problems related to infection caused by Salmonella spp in poultry. The need to carry out adequate control measures and to provide safe food is emphasized. Using experiences from other countries, critical control points are presented in flocks during rearing and in hatcheries. In attempt to diagnose disease as early as possible and to advise proper therapy, the significance of serology monitoring is underlined. In order to produce safe food there is a need to control disease applying our Regulations concerning eradication of Salmonella spp in poultry flocks that is given in Official paper of Republic of Serbia No 6&88 and also to include serology monitoring in poultry flocks. Veterinary practitioners are expected to perform analysis of critical control points in poultry industry as well as to determine specificity and differences in production for single farms, which would enable more effective struggle with diseases in general.

  8. Infection Control Practices and Program Management in Labor and Delivery Units: A Cross-Sectional Study From Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei; Behmanesh Pour; Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Although Iranian women increasingly attend hospitals for childbirth, no information is available on programs and practices related to infection control in labor and delivery units. Objectives This study aims to investigate infection control program management and midwives’ practices in labor and delivery units. Patients and Methods We analyzed data related to infection c...

  9. DASHBOARDS & CONTROL CHARTS EXPERIENCES IN IMPROVING SAFETY AT HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2006-02-27

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of safety methodology, quality tools, leadership, and teamwork at Hanford and their significant positive impact on safe performance of work. Dashboards, Leading Indicators, Control charts, Pareto Charts, Dr. W. Edward Deming's Red Bead Experiment, and Dr. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge have been the principal tools and theory of an integrated management system. Coupled with involved leadership and teamwork, they have led to significant improvements in worker safety and protection, and environmental restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  10. Control and monitoring system for TRT detector in ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hajduk, Z

    2002-01-01

    In this article we present methods and tools for design and construction of the control and monitoring system for a big particle physics experiment taking as an example one of the ATLAS subdetectors. Several requirements has been enumerated which such a system have to meet both by hardware and software. Harsh environmental conditions, difficult if not impossible access and very long exploitation time create conditions where only application of industrial standards allow for serviceability, possibility of fast and easy upgrades and intuitive running of the system by relatively non-experienced staff. (6 refs).

  11. Identification and control of harmonic distortions report on Furnas experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano Filho, Salvatore; Medeiros, Jose Roberto de; Bezerra, Luiz Roberto; Oliveira, Denise Borges de; Praca, Antonio Augusto Souza; Paiva Fontes, Marco Antonio de; Marques, Luiz Carlos Borges C. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes FURNAS experience on identification and control of harmonic distortions obtained from conservation of system operation and research for solutions. Special attention is paid to the harmonic overload observed at Ibiuna substation, the receiving end of the FURNAS HVDC transmission of the Itaipu 50 Hz energy, and the solutions that have been adopted. Methods of measurement and digital simulation have been developed and successfully tested so far. The present stage of those methods will be described. Not less important is the need for a specific legislation on harmonic distortion as explained in this paper. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Controlling a multi-degree of freedom upper limb prosthesis using foot controls: user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Klinger, Shana Lieberman; Etter, Katherine; Fantini, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    The DEKA Arm, a pre-commercial upper limb prosthesis, funded by the DARPA Revolutionizing Prosthetics Program, offers increased degrees of freedom while requiring a large number of user control inputs to operate. To address this challenge, DEKA developed prototype foot controls. Although the concept of utilizing foot controls to operate an upper limb prosthesis has been discussed for decades, only small-sized studies have been performed and no commercial product exists. The purpose of this paper is to report amputee user perspectives on using three different iterations of foot controls to operate the DEKA Arm. Qualitative data was collected from 36 subjects as part of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Study to Optimize the DEKA Arm through surveys, interviews, audio memos, and videotaped sessions. Three major, interrelated themes were identified using the constant comparative method: attitudes towards foot controls, psychomotor learning and physical experience of using foot controls. Feedback about foot controls was generally positive for all iterations. The final version of foot controls was viewed most favorably. Our findings indicate that foot controls are a viable control option that can enable control of a multifunction upper limb prosthesis (the DEKA Arm). Multifunction upper limb prostheses require many user control inputs to operate. Foot controls offer additional control input options for such advanced devices, yet have had minimal study. This study found that foot controls were a viable option for controlling multifunction upper limb prostheses. Most of the 36 subjects in this study were willing to adopt foot controls to control the multiple degrees of freedom of the DEKA Arm. With training and practice, all users were able to develop the psychomotor skills needed to successfully operate food controls. Some had initial difficulty, but acclimated over time.

  13. Strict infection control leads to low incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Andreas F; Lakatos, Botond; Frei, Reno

    2015-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide issue associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple infection control (IC) approaches have been tested to control its spread; however, the success of the majority of trials has been short-lived and many efforts have failed. We report the long-term success of MRSA control from a prospective observational study over 20 years. University Hospital Basel is a large tertiary care center with a median bed capacity of 855 and 5 intensive care units (ICUs); currently, the facility has >32,000 admissions per year. The IC program at the University Hospital Basel was created in 1993, after 2 MRSA outbreaks. The program has included strict contact precautions with single rooms for MRSA-colonized or -infected patients, targeted admission screening of high-risk patients and healthcare workers at risk for carriage, molecular typing of all MRSA strains and routine decolonization of MRSA carriers including healthcare workers. We used the incidence of MRSA bloodstream infections (BSIs) to assess the effectiveness of this program. All MRSA cases were prospectively classified using a standardized case report form in nosocomial and nonnosocomial cases, based on CDC definitions. Between 1993 and 2012, 540,669 blood samples were cultured. The number of blood cultures increased from 865 per 10,000 patient days in 1993 to 1,568 per 10,000 patient days in 2012 (P<.001). We identified 1,268 episodes of S. aureus BSI from 1,204 patients. MRSA accounted for 34 episodes (2.7%) and 24 of these (1.9%) were nosocomial. MRSA BSI incidence varied between 0 and 0.27 per 10,000 patient days and remained stable with no significant variation throughout the study period (P=.882). Long-term control of MRSA is feasible when a bundle of IC precautions is strictly enforced over time.

  14. Successful human infection with P. falciparum using three aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: a new model for controlled human malaria infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI is a powerful method for assessing the efficacy of anti-malaria vaccines and drugs targeting pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the parasite. CHMI has heretofore required the bites of 5 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf sporozoite (SPZ-infected mosquitoes to reliably induce Pf malaria. We reported that CHMI using the bites of 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP was successful in 6 participants. Here, we report results from a subsequent CHMI study using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to validate the initial clinical trial. We also compare results of safety, tolerability, and transmission dynamics in participants undergoing CHMI using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to published studies of CHMI using 5 mosquitoes. Nineteen adults aged 18-40 years were bitten by 3 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of Pf. All 19 participants developed malaria (100%; 12 of 19 (63% on Day 11. The mean pre-patent period was 258.3 hours (range 210.5-333.8. The geometric mean parasitemia at first diagnosis by microscopy was 9.5 parasites/µL (range 2-44. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR detected parasites an average of 79.8 hours (range 43.8-116.7 before microscopy. The mosquitoes had a geometric mean of 37,894 PfSPZ/mosquito (range 3,500-152,200. Exposure to the bites of 3 aseptically-raised, PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes is a safe, effective procedure for CHMI in malaria-naïve adults. The aseptic model should be considered as a new standard for CHMI trials in non-endemic areas. Microscopy is the gold standard used for the diagnosis of Pf malaria after CHMI, but qPCR identifies parasites earlier. If qPCR continues to be shown to be highly specific, and can be made to be practical, rapid, and standardized, it should be considered as an alternative for diagnosis

  15. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  16. Infection control knowledge and practices related to HIV among Nigerian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uti, Omolara Gbonjubola; Agbelusi, Gbemisola A; Jeboda, Sonny Olukayode; Ogunbodede, Eyitope

    2009-09-15

    Many diseases including HIV/AIDS can be transmitted in the dental setting when effective infection control procedures are ignored. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the infection control knowledge and practices of Nigerian dentists in the era of HIV/AIDS. Information on knowledge of transmission of HIV, occupational vulnerability, infection control practices, and opinion on adequacy of infection control facilities were gathered from dentists through a self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge was assessed on a total score of 20 questions. Only 3.6% of the dentists had poor knowledge. Younger males and dentists working in teaching hospitals had significantly better knowledge than their counterparts. While 40.8% believed HIV could be transmitted through saliva, only 43.2% knew it could be transmitted through the conjunctiva. Most (93.2%) wore gloves routinely and the most common barrier to glove use was non-availability. Most (79.2%) used autoclaves for sterilization; however, chemical disinfectants and boiling were also used. The majority (72.4%) believed the facilities for infection control in their centres were inadequate. Close to half of the respondents (47.6%; n = 118) rated the occupational risk of becoming infected with HIV as high. The results of this study have shown that while the level of knowledge of the dentists was generally acceptable, there were still some misconceptions on the transmission and occupational vulnerability of HIV. It also indicates only partial compliance with recommended infection control procedures among Nigerian dentists as a result of inadequate supplies.

  17. Infection control in cystic fibrosis: cohorting, cross-contamination, and the respiratory therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Catherine A

    2009-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex genetic disease characterized by lung infections that lead to early morbidity and death. Pathogens that commonly infect the lungs of patients with CF include Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia. Aggressively treating pulmonary infection with antibiotics has contributed to improved survival in patients with CF but has also promoted multiple-drug-resistant bacteria. Other complexities include the ability of bacteria to form biofilms, which makes them more resistant to antibiotics, and emerging pathogens in CF, of which the clinical importance is not yet clear. Increasing evidence of patient-to-patient transmission of CF pathogens led the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation to produce evidence-based infection-control recommendations, which stress 4 principles: standard precautions, transmission-based precautions, hand hygiene, and care of respiratory equipment. Respiratory therapists need to know and follow these infection-control recommendations. Cohorting patients infected with B. cepacia complex is one of several interventions successful at keeping the spread of this pathogen low, but cohorting patients who are infected/colonized with other microbes is controversial, the main argument of which is not being certain of a patient's present respiratory culture status at any given patient visit.

  18. [Three years of AIDS. Experience of the Curry Cabral Hospital with HIV infections (1985-1988)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J A; Guimarães, R; Albuquerue e Sousa, J; Afonso, L; Costa, J; Morgado, A; Proença, R

    1989-01-01

    The AA. present a retrospective study on their experience with HIV positive patients, followed on the Infectious Diseases Department of the Hospital Curry Cabral, in Lisbon. This study was done in 90 patients seen since 1985 till March 1988. From the 90 patients, 81 were HIV--1 positive, 6 HIV--2 and 3 HIV1 + HIV2 positives. It is presented their distribution by sex (Male = 97.8%), age (mean--36.5 years), risk groups (homosexuals--64.4%, heterosexuals--21.1%, IVDA--7.7%, blood-related--5.6%), and their Walter Reed and CDC classifications. It is emphasised the increasing incidence of infected people along the years and an unexpected high rate of heterosexual males infected. It is also pointed the incidence of Kaposi (22%), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (55.6%), and Criptococosis (13.9%) in the WR6 group. The mortality rate was 31.3% for WR5 and 63.9% for WR6. We calculate some Relative Risks for clinical situations matched with risk groups and immunological status (meaning the T Helper lymphocitic count), and measured their statistical significance with the chi-square test. Besides the immunodeficiency, it was mentioned the associated lymphadenopathy and dermatological lesions, the HIV encephalopathy and the constitutional symptoms of the wasting syndrome.

  19. Control of murine cytomegalovirus infection by γδ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV can cause severe disease in immunosuppressed patients and infected newborns. Innate as well as cellular and humoral adaptive immune effector functions contribute to the control of CMV in immunocompetent individuals. None of the innate or adaptive immune functions are essential for virus control, however. Expansion of γδ T cells has been observed during human CMV (HCMV infection in the fetus and in transplant patients with HCMV reactivation but the protective function of γδ T cells under these conditions remains unclear. Here we show for murine CMV (MCMV infections that mice that lack CD8 and CD4 αβ-T cells as well as B lymphocytes can control a MCMV infection that is lethal in RAG-1(-/- mice lacking any T- and B-cells. γδ T cells, isolated from infected mice can kill MCMV infected target cells in vitro and, importantly, provide long-term protection in infected RAG-1(-/- mice after adoptive transfer. γδ T cells in MCMV infected hosts undergo a prominent and long-lasting phenotypic change most compatible with the view that the majority of the γδ T cell population persists in an effector/memory state even after resolution of the acute phase of the infection. A clonotypically focused Vγ1 and Vγ2 repertoire was observed at later stages of the infection in the organs where MCMV persists. These findings add γδ T cells as yet another protective component to the anti-CMV immune response. Our data provide clear evidence that γδ T cells can provide an effective control mechanism of acute CMV infections, particularly when conventional adaptive immune mechanisms are insufficient or absent, like in transplant patient or in the developing immune system in utero. The findings have implications in the stem cell transplant setting, as antigen recognition by γδ T cells is not MHC-restricted and dual reactivity against CMV and tumors has been described.

  20. Use of antibacterial sutures for skin closure in controlling surgical site infections: a systematic review of published randomized, controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad S; Craciunas, L; Sains, P; Singh, K K; Baig, M K

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically analyse the randomized, controlled trials that compare the use of antibacterial sutures (ABS) for skin closure in controlling surgical site infections. Randomized, controlled trials on surgical patients comparing the use of ABS for skin closure in controlling the surgical site infections were analysed systematically using RevMan® and combined outcomes were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and standardized mean differences (SMD). Seven randomized, controlled trials evaluating 1631 patients were retrieved from electronic databases. There were 760 patients in the ABS group and 871 patients in the simple suture group. There was moderate heterogeneity among trials (Tau(2) = 0.12; chi(2) = 8.40, df = 6 [P surgical patients was associated with a reduced risk of developing surgical site infections (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.37, 0.99; z = 2.02; P surgical procedures. Use of ABS for skin closure in surgical patients is effective in reducing the risk of surgical site infection and postoperative complications. ABS is comparable with SS in terms of length of hospital stay and duration of operation.

  1. Infection control practices in dental school: A patient perspective from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Patients revealed adequate knowledge towards the use of gloves, face mask and spectacles by dentist. However, their knowledge regarding the spread of Hepatitis-B, HIV infection and use of autoclave was poor. Previous visitor of dental clinics showed higher knowledge of infection control as compared to the first time visitors. Many patients expressed their negative attitudes towards dental care due to AIDS and Hepatitis-B concerns.

  2. Educational innovation for infection control in Tanzania: bridging the policy to practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark; Whitfield, Ann; Thomas, Susan; Gower, Shelley; Michael, Rene

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of hospital acquired infection in developing countries is between two to 20 times higher than in developed countries and is attributable to multiple causes. Evidence-based international policies and guidelines developed to improve infection prevention and control are often not used in practice in these countries. To combat this challenge, this article presents an innovative educational framework used to bridge the gap between policy written by global health agencies and the realities of practice in Tanzania.

  3. Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves immune control of influenza infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouria Belkacem

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections such as flu cause severe morbidity and mortality and are among the leading causes of death in children and adults worldwide. Commensal microbiota is critical for orchestrating tissue homeostasis and immunity in the intestine. Probiotics represent an interesting source of immune modulators and several clinical studies have addressed the potential beneficial effects of probiotics against respiratory infections. Therefore, we have investigated the mechanisms of protection conferred by L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 strain in a mouse model of influenza infection. Notably, local myeloid cells accumulation is generated in the lungs after seven days feeding with L. paracasei prior to viral infection. L. paracasei-fed mice showed reduced susceptibility to the influenza infection, associated with less accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lungs, faster viral clearance and general health improvement. Interestingly, Allobaculum was significantly increased in L. paracasei-fed mice 7 days after influenza infection, even if the gut microbiota composition was not altered overall. L. paracasei-purified peptidoglycan partially recapitulated the protective phenotype observed with the entire bacteria. Collectively, our results demonstrate that oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 modulates lung immunity was associated with an improved control of influenza infection. These results further extend the beneficial role for certain lactobacilli to alleviate the burden of respiratory tract infections.

  4. Infection Control Link Nurse Program: An interdisciplinary approach n targeting health care-acquired infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopirala, Madhuri M.; Yahle-Dunbar, Lisa; Smyer, Justin; Wellington, Linda; Dickman, Jeanne; Zikri, Nancy; Martin, Jennifer; Kulich, Pat; Taylor, David; Mekhjian, Hagop; Nash, Mary; Mansfield, Jerry; Pancholi, Preeti; Howard, Mary; Chase, Linda; Brown, Susan; Kipp, Kristopher; Lefeld, Kristen; Myers, Amber; Pan, Xueliang; Mangino, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe a successful interdisciplinary liaison program that effectively reduced health care-acquired (HCA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a university hospital setting. Methods Baseline was from January 2006 to March 2008, and intervention period was April 2008 to September 2009. Staff nurses were trained to be liaisons (link nurses) to infection prevention (IP) personnel with clearly defined goals assigned and with ongoing monthly education. HCA-MRSA incidence per 1,000 patient-days (PD) was compared between baseline and intervention period along with total and non-HCA-MRSA, HCA and non-HCA-MRSA bacteremia, and hand soap/sanitizer usage. Hand hygiene compliance was assessed. Results A reduction in MRSA rates was as follows in intervention period compared with baseline: HCA-MRSA decreased by 28% from 0.92 to 0.67 cases per 1,000 PD (incidence rate ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.62–0.83, P reeducation for the nurses by IP personnel helped drive these results. PMID:24548456

  5. Understanding low radiation background biology through controlled evolution experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Nathanael; Breton, Vincent; Sarramia, David; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Biron, David G

    2017-08-01

    Biological experiments conducted in underground laboratories over the last decade have shown that life can respond to relatively small changes in the radiation background in unconventional ways. Rapid changes in cell growth, indicative of hormetic behaviour and long-term inheritable changes in antioxidant regulation have been observed in response to changes in the radiation background that should be almost undetectable to cells. Here, we summarize the recent body of underground experiments conducted to date, and outline potential mechanisms (such as cell signalling, DNA repair and antioxidant regulation) that could mediate the response of cells to low radiation backgrounds. We highlight how multigenerational studies drawing on methods well established in studying evolutionary biology are well suited for elucidating these mechanisms, especially given these changes may be mediated by epigenetic pathways. Controlled evolution experiments with model organisms, conducted in underground laboratories, can highlight the short- and long-term differences in how extremely low-dose radiation environments affect living systems, shining light on the extent to which epimutations caused by the radiation background propagate through the population. Such studies can provide a baseline for understanding the evolutionary responses of microorganisms to ionizing radiation, and provide clues for understanding the higher radiation environments around uranium mines and nuclear disaster zones, as well as those inside nuclear reactors.

  6. On the control of global modes in swirling jet experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberleithner, K; Sieber, M; Nayeri, C N; Paschereit, C O, E-mail: kilian.oberleithner@pi.tu-berlin.de [Hermann-Foettinger-Institut, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Mueller-Breslau Str. 8, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    The aim of this work is to control the self-excited global mode that concomitants vortex breakdown in turbulent swirling jets. This mode is characterized by a co-rotating counter winding single helical instability wave that originates from the jet center. Experiments show that the amplitude of this global mode is effectively reduced by exciting a double-helical mode in the outer shear layer. This mode is shown to be convective unstable at growth rates that are well predicted by spatial linear stability analysis. The dampening of the global mode occurs through an energy transfer between the inner and the outer shear layer. In preparation of closed-loop experiments, a reduced order model of the flow dynamics is developed based on five leading POD modes. The model is calibrated to flow-transients recorded via time-resolved PIV. A state estimator is designed that predicts the flow state from two hotwire probes. The performance of the estimator is validated in open-loop experiments. First results support the design of the model and state estimator.

  7. Microrelief-Controlled Overland Flow Generation: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface microrelief affects overland flow generation and the related hydrologic processes. However, such influences vary depending on other factors such as rainfall characteristics, soil properties, and initial soil moisture conditions. Thus, in-depth research is needed to better understand and evaluate the combined effects of these factors on overland flow dynamics. The objective of this experimental study was to examine how surface microrelief, in conjunction with the factors of rainfall, soil, and initial moisture conditions, impacts overland flow generation and runoff processes in both laboratory and field settings. A series of overland flow experiments were conducted for rough and smooth surfaces that represented distinct microtopographic characteristics and the experimental data were analyzed and compared. Across different soil types and initial moisture conditions, both laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that a rough soil surface experienced a delayed initiation of runoff and featured a stepwise threshold flow pattern due to the microrelief-controlled puddle filling-spilling-merging dynamics. It was found from the field experiments that a smooth plot surface was more responsive to rainfall variations especially during an initial rainfall event. However, enhanced capability of overland flow generation and faster puddle connectivity of a rough field plot occurred during the subsequent rain events.

  8. Experiences of baby-led weaning: trust, control and renegotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Madelynne A; Abbott, Rachel L

    2015-10-01

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an approach to introducing solid foods that relies on the presence of self-feeding skills and is increasing in popularity in the UK and New Zealand. This study aimed to investigate the reported experiences and feelings of mothers using a BLW approach in order to better understand the experiences of the mother and infant, the benefits and challenges of the approach, and the beliefs that underpin these experiences. Fifteen UK mothers were interviewed over the course of a series of five emails using a semi-structured approach. The email transcripts were anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. There were four main themes identified from the analysis: (1) trusting the child; (2) parental control and responsibility; (3) precious milk; and (4) renegotiating BLW. The themes identified reflect a range of ideals and pressures that this group of mothers tried to negotiate in order to provide their infants with a positive and healthy introduction to solid foods. One of the key issues of potential concern is the timing at which some of the children ingested complementary foods. Although complementary foods were made available to the infants at 6 months of age, in many cases they were not ingested until much later. These findings have potentially important implications for mother's decision-making, health professional policy and practice, and future research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reimplantation and Repeat Infection After Cardiac-Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Experience From the MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Infection Cohort) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Thomas A; Uslan, Daniel Z; Prutkin, Jordan M; Greenspon, Arnold J; Baddour, Larry M; Danik, Stephan B; Tolosana, Jose M; Le, Katherine; Miro, Jose M; Peacock, James; Sohail, Muhammad R; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Carrillo, Roger G

    2017-03-01

    Infection is a serious complication of cardiovascular-implantable electronic device implantation and necessitates removal of all hardware for optimal treatment. Strategies for reimplanting hardware after infection vary widely and have not previously been analyzed using a large, multicenter study. The MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Infection Cohort) prospectively enrolled subjects with cardiovascular-implantable electronic device infections at multiple institutions in the United States and abroad between 2009 and 2012. Reimplantation strategies were evaluated overall, and every patient who relapsed within 6 months was individually examined for clinical information that could help explain the negative outcome. Overall, 434 patients with cardiovascular-implantable electronic device infections were prospectively enrolled at participating centers. During the initial course of therapy, complete device removal was done in 381 patients (87.8%), and 220 of them (57.7%) were ultimately reimplanted with new devices. Overall, the median time between removal and reimplantation was 10 days, with an interquartile range of 6 to 19 days. Eleven of the 434 patients had another infection within 6 months, but only 4 of them were managed with cardiovascular-implantable electronic device removal and reimplantation during the initial infection. Thus, the repeat infection rate was low (1.8%) in those who were reimplanted. Patients who retained original hardware had a 11.3% repeat infection rate. Our study findings confirm that a broad range of reimplant strategies are used in clinical practice. They suggest that it is safe to reimplant cardiac devices after extraction of previously infected hardware and that the risk of a second infection is low, regardless of reimplant timing. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Breaking the Chain of Infection: Dental Unit Water Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amrita; Mehta, Sonia; Dang, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The air–water syringes, ultrasonic scalers, high speed air turbine handpieces are connected to dental units by a network of small-bore plastic tubes through which water and air travel to activate or cool the instruments and it had been shown that this system is extensively contaminated with microbial biofilms and pose a potential risk of infection for patients as well as dental professionals. Aim To evaluate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants in reducing the microbial colony count in water derived from Dental Unit Waterlines. Materials and Methods Five random dental units were selected and samples were collected before and after intervention with 5 disinfectants (0.02% H2O2 continuously, 0.02% H2O2 continuously with shock treatment with 0.25% H2O2 weekly, 0.12% Chlorohexidine and 12% Ethanol overnight, 1:50 Original Listerine overnight, 2% Sodium Perborate and 2% EDTA 5 minutes in morning) using different disinfection methods for 4 weeks. Samples were cultured on Reasoner’s 2A (R2A) agar for microbial counting. Results Results were recorded as Colony forming units/ml (cfu/ml) and were evaluated statistically. Results showed that all the dental unit waterlines were heavily contaminated with microbes before any intervention. After 1 day of disinfection regime the counts reduced significantly and showed progressive reduction in consecutive weeks. Goals set by ADA & CDC were ultimately achieved at the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion All the disinfectants were equally effective in reducing the microbial colony count of DUWLs, irrespective of their concentration and method of disinfection. PMID:27630960

  11. Case-control study of disease determinants for non-typhoidal Salmonella infections among Michigan children

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    Davies Herbert D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with Salmonella serotypes continue to be a significant global public health problem. In addition to contaminated foods, several other sources contribute to infections with Salmonella serotypes. We have assessed the role of socioeconomic factors, exposure to food, and environmental sources in the etiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in Michigan children. Findings A case-control study among Michigan children aged ≤ 10 years was conducted. A total of 123 cases of children with laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections and 139 control children, who had not experienced symptoms of gastrointestinal illness during the month prior to the interviews, were enrolled. The cases and controls were matched on age-category (Salmonella infections were significantly associated with attendance of a daycare center (adjusted matched odds ratio = 5.00, 95% CI: 1.51 - 16.58, contact with cats (MOR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.14 - 5.88, and contact with reptiles (MOR = 7.90, 95% CI: 1.52 - 41.01, during the 3 days prior to the onset of child's illness. Conclusions Study results suggest that exposure to environmental sources may play an important role in sporadic infections with Salmonella serotypes in children. Additional efforts are needed to educate parents and caretakers about the risk of Salmonella transmission to children from these sources.

  12. A study of the efficacy of antibacterial sutures for surgical site infection: a retrospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Tanimura, Syu; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Noritomi, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    To reduce bacterial adherence to surgical sutures, triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 suture materials with antiseptic activity were developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the incidence of surgical site infections can be reduced when triclosan-coated sutures are used. Until December 2009, we used conventional polyglactin 910 sutures (VICRYL, Ethicon) for the closure of the fascia in digestive tract surgery. Therefore, for the control group we retrospectively collected surveillance data for 1.5 years. In the control group, 611 patients underwent digestive tract surgery with VICRYL sutures. Beginning in July 2010, we used triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 sutures (VICRYL Plus, Ethicon, Tokyo, Japan) for the closure of the fascia in all digestive surgeries. So, we collected data for the study group from July 2010 until June 2011. In the study group, 467 patients underwent digestive tract surgery with triclosan-coated VICRYL Plus sutures. In the control group, 75 patients (12.2%) developed wound infections. In the study group, 31 patients (6.6%) developed wound infections, which was significantly lower. Emergency cases; laparoscopic cases, including some cholecystectomy and colectomy cases; American Society of Anesthesiologists classification; the use of immunosuppressive therapy; colostomy cases; wound classification; and suture material were identified as the risk factors for wound infections. In both groups, as the wound classification worsened, the wound infection rate increased. Triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 antimicrobial sutures lead to a significant decrease in the incidence of surgical site infections, especially in clean/contaminated cases.

  13. Stress Response and Translation Control in Rotavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The general stress and innate immune responses are closely linked and overlap at many levels. The outcomes of these responses serve to reprogram host expression patterns to prevent viral invasions. In turn, viruses counter attack these cell responses to ensure their replication. The mechanisms by which viruses attempt to control host cell responses are as varied as the number of different virus families. One of the most recurrent strategies used by viruses to control the antiviral response of the cell is to hijack the translation machinery of the host, such that viral proteins are preferentially synthesized, while the expression of the stress and antiviral responses of the cell are blocked at the translation level. Here, we will review how rotaviruses, an important agent of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, overcome the stress responses of the cell to establish a productive infectious cycle.

  14. Designing a Hybrid Laminar-Flow Control Experiment: The CFD-Experiment Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/Boeing hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiment, designed during 1993-1994 and conducted in the NASA LaRC 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel in 1995, utilized computational fluid dynamics and numerical simulation of complex fluid mechanics to an unprecedented extent for the design of the test article and measurement equipment. CFD was used in: the design of the test wing, which was carried from definition of desired disturbance growth characteristics, through to the final airfoil shape that would produce those growth characteristics; the design of the suction-surface perforation pattern that produced enhanced crossflow-disturbance growth: and in the design of the hot-wire traverse system that produced minimal influence on measured disturbance growth. These and other aspects of the design of the test are discussed, after the historical and technical context of the experiment is described.

  15. Peer supporter experiences of home visits for people with HIV infection

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    Lee HJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Han Ju Lee,1 Linda Moneyham,2 Hee Sun Kang,3 Kyung Sun Kim41Department of Nursing, Sangmyung University, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea; 2School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Red Cross College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 4Gyeonggi Branch, Korean Alliance to Defeat AIDS, Anyang, Gyeonggi-do, South KoreaPurpose: This study's purpose was to explore the experiences of peer supporters regarding their work in a home visit program for people with HIV infection.Patients and methods: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using focus groups. Participants were 12 HIV-positive peer supporters conducting home visits with people living with HIV/AIDS in South Korea. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Results: Six major themes emerged: feeling a sense of belonging; concern about financial support; facing HIV-related stigma and fear of disclosure; reaching out and acting as a bridge of hope; feeling burnout; and need for quality education. The study findings indicate that although peer supporters experience several positive aspects in the role, such as feelings of belonging, they also experience issues that make it difficult to be successful in the role, including the position's instability, work-related stress, and concerns about the quality of their continuing education.Conclusion: The findings suggest that to maintain a stable and effective peer supporter program, such positions require financial support, training in how to prevent and manage stress associated with the role, and a well-developed program of education and training.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, qualitative research, workplace experience

  16. Controlling endemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Units using antimicrobial stewardship and infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Shinhye; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yun, Seon-Jin; Moon, Jae Young; Kim, Yeon-Sook

    2016-03-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii have become public-health problem. However, few studies have evaluated the control of endemic MDR A. baumannii in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship and comprehensive intensified infection control measures for controlling endemic MDR A. baumannii in ICUs at a tertiary care center. Carbapenem use was strictly restricted through antimicrobial stewardship. Environmental cleaning and disinfection was performed at least 3 times per day in addition to basic infection control measures. Isolation using plastic curtains and contact precautions were applied to patients who were colonized or infected with MDR A. baumannii. The outcome was measured as the incidence density rate of hospital-onset MDR A. baumannii among patients in the ICUs. The incidence density rate of hospital-onset MDR A. baumannii decreased from 22.82 cases per 1,000 patient-days to 2.68 cases per 1,000 patient-days after the interventions were implemented (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.4; p baumannii in our ICUs within 1 year.

  17. Association between post-craniotomy Propionibacterium acnes infection and dural implants: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerr, C; Coetzee, N; Edeghere, O; Suleman, S; Verlander, N Q; Banavathi, K

    2017-07-08

    In 2011, 15 deep-seated Propionibacterium acnes infections were identified in patients following craniotomies in a hospital in the UK. To describe the outbreak and report findings from the investigation undertaken in order to identify the source and risk factors and inform control measures. Data were obtained from hospital clinical records and included patient and surgical variables. Cases were defined as patients with microbiologically confirmed deep or organ space surgical site infection (SSI) caused by P. acnes following craniotomy undertaken in 2011. Four controls per case were randomly selected from patients who had a craniotomy in 2011 but who did not develop any SSI. The relationship between infection and putative exposures was examined using multivariate regression techniques. Infection prevention procedures and the theatre environment were reviewed to assess compliance with existing standards. Fifteen cases and 65 controls were recruited. Odds of infection were higher for those who had a dural implant inserted during their operation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 14.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-∞] and for those who had alcohol/Betadine(®)/chlorhexidine mix as a disinfectant (aOR: 7.9; 95% CI: 0.8-∞). Environmental investigations suggested that theatre ventilation systems delivered air exchange rates below the recommended standard. There was a positive association between using dural implants and P. acnes infection. Infection may have been facilitated by inefficient use of skin disinfectant and environmental factors. Recommendations included ongoing surveillance, the use of chlorhexidine skin disinfectant, ensuring adequate air exchanges and appropriate use of doors in theatre to minimize air turbulence. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiratory Tract Infections and its Preventive Measures among Hajj Pilgrims, 2010: A Nested Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Hassani, Ali Mohammad; Fateh, Mansooreh

    2013-09-01

    Respiratory tract infections are very common among the Hajj pilgrims. Some preventive measures including Influenza vaccination, using face mask and salt water gargling have been considered to control these infections and the reports show conflicting results about the effects of each one of these measures. This study is trying to assess the effects of these recommendations on respiratory tract infections. According to nested case-control design, in a cohort consisting of 338 Iranian pilgrims, the outcome examined, was all types of respiratory tract infections other than common colds. With occurrence of any patient in convoy, data collection form was completed for that person. On the same day, two people were randomly selected as control group from among pilgrims who have not affected so far. During Hajj, 32 pilgrims (9.5%) were affected by respiratory tract infections other than common colds. In univariable logistic regression analysis, salt water gargling (OR = 2.4, P = 0.08), existence of other patient in the room (OR = 2.14, P = 0.19), age over 60 years (OR = 1.84, P = 0.15) and the education more than or equal to 3 years (OR = 1.93, P = 0.16) were effective in the respiratory tract infections (P < 0.2). However, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that none of the above mentioned factors are significantly associated with these infections. This study showed that measures such as seasonal influenza vaccination, use of face masks and personal prayer carpet have no effect on the incidence of respiratory tract infections. However, washing throat and mouth with salt water can be considered the most effective preventive measures.

  19. [Use of statistical process control charts in the epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Aglai; Carvalho, Eduardo da Silva; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo; Farhat, Calil Kairalla; Mantese, Orlando César

    2003-12-01

    To monitor occurrence trends and identify clusters of nosocomial infection (NI) using statistical process control (SPC) charts. Between January 1998 and December 2000 nosocomial infection occurrence was evaluated in a cohort of 460 patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital, according to the concepts and criteria proposed by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control, in the United States. Graphs were plotted using Poisson statistical distribution, including four horizontal lines: center line (CL), upper warning limit (UWL) and upper control limit (UCL). The CL was the arithmetic mean NI rate calculated for the studied period; UWL and UCL were drawn at 2 and 3 standard deviations above average NI rates, respectively. Clusters were identified when NI rates remained above UCL. Mean NI incidence was 20 per 1,000 patient days. One urinary tract infection cluster was identified in July 2000, with an infection rate of 63 per 1,000 patient days, exceeding UCL and characterizing a period of epidemic. The use of SPC charts for controlling endemic levels of NI, through both global and site-specific evaluation, allowed for the identification of uncommon variations in NI rates, such as outbreaks and epidemics, and for their distinction from the natural variations observed in NI occurrence rates, without the need for calculations and hypothesis testing.

  20. Validation of a Cross-Infection Control Program in an Understaffed Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Amit; Borer, Abraham; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Brotfain, Evgeni; Koyfman, Leonid; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Adina, Alir; Klein, Moti

    2017-10-01

    The authors describe a multifaceted cross-infection control program that was implemented to contain an epidemic of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MRO) (carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii; extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter Cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis; and ‎methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species). To assess the effect of a control program on the incidence of cross-infection with MRO. Clinical criteria triaged patients into a high-risk wing (HRW) or a low-risk wing (LRW). Strict infection control measures were enforced; violations led to group discussions (not recorded). Frequent cultures were obtained, and use of antibiotics was limited. Each quarter, the incidence of MRO isolation was reported to all staff members. Over a 6 year period, 1028 of 3113 patients were placed in the HRW. The incidence of MRO isolation within 48 hours of admission was 8.7% (HRW) vs. 1.91% (LRW) (P < 0.001). Acquired MRO infection density was 30.4 (HRW) vs. 15.6 (LRW) (P < 0.009). After the second year, the incidence of group discussions dropped from once or twice a month to once or twice a year. These measures contained epidemics. Clinical criteria successfully triaged HRW from LRW patients and reduced cross-infection between the medical center wings. The quarterly reports of culture data were associated with improved staff compliance. MRO epidemic control with limited resources is feasible.

  1. B cell intrinsic T-bet expression is required to control chronic viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Burton E.; Staupe, Ryan P.; Odorizzi, Pamela M.; Palko, Olesya; Tomov, Vesselin T.; Mahan, Alison E.; Gunn, Bronwyn; Chen, Diana; Paley, Michael A.; Alter, Galit; Reiner, Steven L.; Lauer, Georg M.; Teijaro, John; Wherry, E. John

    2016-01-01

    The role of antibody and B cells in preventing infection is established. In contrast, the role of B cell responses in containing chronic infections remains poorly understood. IgG2a (IgG1 in humans) can prevent acute infections and T-bet promotes IgG2a isotype switching. However, whether IgG2a and B cell-expressed T-bet influence the host-pathogen balance during persisting infections is unclear. Here we demonstrate that B cell specific loss of T-bet prevents control of persisting viral infection. T-bet in B cells not only controlled IgG2a production, but also mucosal localization, proliferation, glycosylation, and a broad transcriptional program. T-bet controlled a broad antiviral program in addition to IgG2a since T-bet in B cells was important even in the presence of virus-specific IgG2a. Our data supports a model in which T-bet is a universal controller of antiviral immunity across multiple immune lineages. PMID:27430722

  2. Comparison of clinical and parasitological data from controlled human malaria infection trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Roestenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility. METHODS: We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-naïve subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program. RESULTS: We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates. CONCLUSIONS: Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development.

  3. Key priorities in the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infection: a survey of European and other international infection prevention experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenkofer, Markus; Humphreys, Hilary; Saenz, Henri; Carlet, Jean; Hanberger, Håkan; Ruef, Christian; Widmer, Andreas; Wolkewitz, Martin; Cookson, Barry

    2016-12-01

    Prevention and control of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) are important within and beyond Europe. However, it is unclear which areas are considered important by HCAI prevention and control professionals. This study assesses the priorities in the prevention and control of HCAI as judged by experts in the field. A survey was conducted by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases focussing on seven topics using SurveyMonkey(®). Through a newsletter distributed by email, about 5000 individuals were targeted throughout the world in February and March 2013. Participants were asked to rate the importance of particular topics from one (low importance) to ten (extraordinary importance), and there was no restriction on giving equal importance to more than one topic. A total of 589 experts from 86 countries participated including 462 from Europe (response rate: 11.8 %). Physicians accounted for 60 % of participants, and 57 % had ten or more years' experience in this area. Microbial epidemiology/resistance achieved the highest priority scoring with 8.9, followed by surveillance 8.2, and decolonisation/disinfection/antiseptics with 7.9. Under epidemiology/resistance, highly resistant Gram-negative bacilli scored highest (9.0-9.2). The provision of computerised healthcare information systems for the early detection of outbreaks was accorded the top priority under surveillance. The prevention of surgical site and central line infections ranked highest under the category of specific HCAI and HCAI in certain settings. Differences between regions are described. These findings reflect the concerns of experts in HCAI prevention and control. The results from this survey should inform national and international agencies on future action and research priorities.

  4. Effectiveness and efficiency of the two trolley system as an infection control mechanism in the operating theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisawana, Viliame

    2009-11-01

    A good infection control manager understands the need to prevent a complete cycle of infection. The Infection Control Working Group Manual of Fiji, emphasised that the Cycle of Infection is the series of stage in which infection is spread. Operating theatres have infection control protocols. Most equipments and instruments used in operating theatre circulate within the theatre. The theatre trolleys are a main component in managing an operating theatre but the least recognised. This paper reviews the effectiveness and efficiency of the current two-trolley system as an infection control mechanism in theatre. The paper will discuss infection control using the current trolley system in relation to the layout of Labasa Hospital operating theatre, human resource, equipment standard and random swab results. The following are random swab results of theatre equipments taken by the Infection Control Nurse from 2006 to 2008. The Labasa Hospital Infection Committee have discouraged random swab sample from mid 2008 based on new guidelines on infection control. The two trolley system, in which an allocated outside trolley transports patients from the ward to a semi-sterile area in theatre. The inside trolley which transports the patient to the operating table. The two trolley system means more trolleys, extra staffs for lifting, additional handling of very sick patients, congestion and delay in taking patients to operating table in theatres should be considered. The one-trolley system in theatre greatly reduces the chances of manually lifting patients, thus reducing the risk of patient injury from fall and risk of back injuries to nurses. There are other evident based practices which can compliment the one trolley system for an effective infection control mechanism in theatres. The Fiji Infection Control Manual (2002) emphases the importance of regularly cleaning the environment and equipments in theatre but there is never a mention about using a two trolley system as an

  5. Infection control for the otolaryngologist in the era of severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ashlin J; Tan, Andre K W; Evans, Gerald A; Allen, Janet

    2003-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has affected more than 8400 persons in 28 countries, with more than 800 deaths. The current SARS outbreak, especially in North American health care centers, has motivated a re-evaluation of infection control practices in the hospital and clinic environment. These considerations are particularly important to otolaryngology, in which examination and diagnostic procedures often bring the otolaryngologist in close--if not direct--contact with the patient's upper airway, mucosa, and secretions. The otolaryngologist is at increased risk of contracting a respiratory pathogen. A joint effort by the Department of Otolaryngology at Queen's University and the Infection Control Services of the Hotel Dieu Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, was carried out to develop specific infection control guidelines for the otolaryngologists using strategies from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States and the Laboratory Center for Disease Control, Health Canada. A set of specific recommendations was developed for the otolaryngologists to augment current infection control, including diligent use of personal protective equipment with every patient encounter. Moreover, this equipment should be removed according to specific protocol, to avoid contamination of self, others, and surroundings. Finally, a number of practice modifications are being adopted as prudent precautionary measures. It is essential to adhere to these recommendations in order to protect the health and safety of clinicians, colleagues, and patients.

  6. Association of Airborne Microorganisms in the Operating Room With Implant Infections: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darouiche, Rabih O; Green, David M; Harrington, Melvyn A; Ehni, Bruce L; Kougias, Panagiotis; Bechara, Carlos F; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of airborne colony-forming units (CFU) at incision sites during implantation of prostheses with the incidence of either incisional or prosthesis-related surgical site infections. DESIGN Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING Primary, public institution. PATIENTS Three hundred patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, instrumented spinal procedures, or vascular bypass graft implantation. METHODS Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either the intervention group or the control group. A novel device (Air Barrier System), previously shown to reduce airborne CFU at incision sites, was utilized in the intervention group. Procedures assigned to the control group were performed without the device, under routine operating room atmospheric conditions. Patients were followed up for 12 months to determine whether airborne CFU levels at the incision sites predicted the incidence of incisional or prosthesis-related infection. RESULTS Data were available for 294 patients, 148 in the intervention group and 146 in the control group. CFU density at the incision site was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (Poperations may be an effective strategy to reduce prosthesis-related infections. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01610271 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-8.

  7. Observations of infection prevention and control practices in primary health care, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Guadalupe; Dolinger, Amy; Rogo, Khama; Mwaura, Njeri; Wafula, Francis; Coarasa, Jorge; Goicoechea, Ana; Das, Jishnu

    2017-07-01

    To assess compliance with infection prevention and control practices in primary health care in Kenya. We used an observational, patient-tracking tool to assess compliance with infection prevention and control practices by 1680 health-care workers during outpatient interactions with 14 328 patients at 935 health-care facilities in 2015. Compliance was assessed in five domains: hand hygiene; protective glove use; injections and blood sampling; disinfection of reusable equipment; and waste segregation. We calculated compliance by dividing the number of correct actions performed by the number of indications and evaluated associations between compliance and the health-care worker's and facility's characteristics. Across 106 464 observed indications for an infection prevention and control practice, the mean compliance was 0.318 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.315 to 0.321). The compliance ranged from 0.023 (95% CI: 0.021 to 0.024) for hand hygiene to 0.871 (95% CI: 0.866 to 0.876) for injection and blood sampling safety. Compliance was weakly associated with the facility's characteristics (e.g. public or private, or level of specialization) and the health-care worker's knowledge of, and training in, infection prevention and control practices. The observational tool was effective for assessing compliance with infection prevention and control practices across multiple domains in primary health care in a low-income country. Compliance varied widely across infection prevention and control domains. The weak associations observed between compliance and the characteristics of health-care workers and facilities, such as knowledge and the availability of supplies, suggest that a broader focus on behavioural change is required.

  8. Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the neonatal period to school age.' In Saudi Arabia, the rate of 5.3 per cent was reported' while in Nigeria,. Okafor et a1,7 found the prevalence rate .... the multiplication of the organisms in the urine, resulting in lalse diagnosis of urinary tract infection. This over-diagnosis ofl ITI may account for the high prevalence rate ...

  9. Multiresistant pathogens in geriatric nursing – infection control in residential facilities for geriatric nursing in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs causes problems in geriatric nursing homes. Older people are at increased a growing risk of infection due to multimorbidity and frequent stays in hospital. A high proportion of the elderly require residential care in geriatric nursing facilities, where hygiene requirements in nursing homes are similar to those in hospitals. For this reason we examined how well nursing homes are prepared for MDROs and how effectively protect their infection control residents and staff.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on infection control in residential geriatric nursing facilities in Germany 2012. The questionnaire recorded important parameters of hygiene, resident and staff protection and actions in case of existing MDROs.Results: The response was 54% in Hamburg and 27% in the rest of Germany. Nursing homes were generally well equipped for dealing with infection control: There were standards for MDROs and regular hygiene training for staff. The facilities provided adequate protective clothing, affected residents are usually isolated and hygienic laundry processing conducted. There are deficits in the communication of information on infected residents with hospitals and general practitioners. 54% of nursing homes performed risk assessments for staff infection precaution.Conclusion: There is a growing interest in MDROs and infection control will be a challenge in for residential geriatric nursing facilities in the future. This issue has also drawn increasing attention. Improvements could be achieved by improving communication between different participants in the health service, together with specific measures for staff protection at work.

  10. Role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in infection control - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J

    2001-01-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories in Denmark are located in hospitals and staffed by clinical microbiologists who are clinically trained medical doctors. Each county has its own clinical microbiology unit, serving a population of 0.3-0.6 million. The responsibilities of clinical microbiology unit...... for standardization and documentation of quality. Currently a national standard for infection control is being prepared. It consists of a main standard defining requirements for the management system and 12 subsidiary standards defining requirements for specific areas of infection control. Adoption of the standard...

  11. Claudin-1 gene variants and susceptibility to hepatitis C infection in HIV-1 infected intravenous drug users (an ANRS case-control study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Jade; Fouquet, Baptiste; Quertainmont, Yann; Salmon, Dominique; Sahali, Sabrinel; Rioux, Christophe; Duvivier, Claudine; Mole, Martine; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Misrahi, Micheline

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence is highly diverse among human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients, ranging between 10% of HIV-1 infected homo-bisexuel men, to >92% in patients infected with HIV-1 who acquired HIV-1 through intravenous drug use. Thus, being HCV-free while having acquired HIV-1 via intravenous drug use is a rare situation. Claudin-1 is a protein involved in intracellular tight-junctions and has been identified as a major cellular co-receptor for HCV infection. Our objective was to determine whether Claudin-1 gene (CLDN1) mutations might be involved in natural resistance to HCV infection. We conducted a case-control study. All recruited patients acquired HIV-1 infection via intravenous drug use route before 1995. The case study patients remained free from HCV infection (negative anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA). The control study patients was co-infected with HCV (positive anti-HCV antibodies). Direct genomic sequencing of the CLDN1 gene coding region and adjacent intron/exons junctions was performed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A total of 138 Caucasian patients were enrolled. Twenty-two patients (cases) were free from HCV infection and 116 (controls) were co-infected with HCV. We found single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) described previously with no significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls. In conclusion, despite being a major cellular co-receptor for HCV entry in vitro, we did not identify any specific substitution in CLDN1 gene coding region in our study patients highly exposed but resistant to HCV infection in vivo. Other cellular co-factors involved in HCV infection should be investigated in this highly-exposed intravenous drug users patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Risk factors for HIV infection among circumcised men in Uganda: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediau, Michael; Matovu, Joseph K B; Byaruhanga, Raymond; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2015-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of HIV infection. However, the risk reduction effect of MC can be modified by type of circumcision (medical, traditional and religious) and sexual risk behaviours post-circumcision. Understanding the risk behaviours associated with HIV infection among circumcised men (regardless of form of circumcision) is critical to the design of comprehensive risk reduction interventions. This study assessed risk factors for HIV infection among men circumcised through various circumcision approaches. This was a case-control study which enrolled 155 cases (HIV-infected) and 155 controls (HIV-uninfected), all of whom were men aged 18-35 years presenting at the AIDS Information Center for HIV testing and care. The outcome variable was HIV sero-status. Using SPSS version 17, multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with HIV infection. Overall, 83.9% among cases and 56.8% among controls were traditionally circumcised; 7.7% of cases and 21.3% of controls were religiously circumcised while 8.4% of cases and 21.9% of controls were medically circumcised. A higher proportion of cases than controls reported resuming sexual intercourse before complete wound healing (36.9% vs. 14.1%; pHIV infection prior to circumcision were:being in a polygamous marriage (AOR: 6.6, CI: 2.3-18.8) and belonging to the Bagisu ethnic group (AOR: 6.1, CI: 2.6-14.0). After circumcision, HIV infection was associated with: being circumcised at >18 years (AOR: 5.0, CI: 2.4-10.2); resuming sexual intercourse before wound healing (AOR: 3.4, CI: 1.6-7.3); inconsistent use of condoms (AOR: 2.7, CI: 1.5-5.1); and having sexual intercourse under the influence of peers (AOR: 2.9, CI: 1.5-5.5). Men who had religious circumcision were less likely to have HIV infection (AOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) than the traditionally circumcised but there was no statistically significant difference between those who were traditionally circumcised and

  13. Antiviral immunity following smallpox virus infection: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W; Hanifin, Jon M; Mori, Motomi; Koudelka, Caroline W; Slifka, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of smallpox (i.e., caused by variola virus) resulted in up to 30% mortality, but those who survived smallpox infection were regarded as immune for life. Early studies described the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced after infection, but smallpox was eradicated before contemporary methods for quantifying T-cell memory were developed. To better understand the levels and duration of immunity after smallpox infection, we performed a case-control study comparing antiviral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses and neutralizing antibody levels of 24 smallpox survivors with the antiviral immunity observed in 60 smallpox-vaccinated (i.e., vaccinia virus-immune) control subjects. We found that the duration of immunity following smallpox infection was remarkably similar to that observed after smallpox vaccination, with antiviral T-cell responses that declined slowly over time and antiviral antibody responses that remained stable for decades after recovery from infection. These results indicate that severe, potentially life-threatening disease is not required for the development of sustainable long-term immunity. This study shows that the levels of immunity induced following smallpox vaccination are comparable in magnitude to that achieved through natural variola virus infection, and this may explain the notable success of vaccination in eradicating smallpox, one of the world's most lethal diseases.

  14. Antiviral Immunity following Smallpox Virus Infection: a Case-Control Study▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Mori, Motomi; Koudelka, Caroline W.; Slifka, Mark K.

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of smallpox (i.e., caused by variola virus) resulted in up to 30% mortality, but those who survived smallpox infection were regarded as immune for life. Early studies described the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced after infection, but smallpox was eradicated before contemporary methods for quantifying T-cell memory were developed. To better understand the levels and duration of immunity after smallpox infection, we performed a case-control study comparing antiviral CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and neutralizing antibody levels of 24 smallpox survivors with the antiviral immunity observed in 60 smallpox-vaccinated (i.e., vaccinia virus-immune) control subjects. We found that the duration of immunity following smallpox infection was remarkably similar to that observed after smallpox vaccination, with antiviral T-cell responses that declined slowly over time and antiviral antibody responses that remained stable for decades after recovery from infection. These results indicate that severe, potentially life-threatening disease is not required for the development of sustainable long-term immunity. This study shows that the levels of immunity induced following smallpox vaccination are comparable in magnitude to that achieved through natural variola virus infection, and this may explain the notable success of vaccination in eradicating smallpox, one of the world's most lethal diseases. PMID:20926574

  15. IL-4 receptor-alpha-dependent control of Cryptococcus neoformans in the early phase of pulmonary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Grahnert

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lung inflammation and meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised people. Previously we showed that mice succumb to intranasal infection by induction of pulmonary interleukin (IL-4Rα-dependent type 2 immune responses, whereas IL-12-dependent type 1 responses confer resistance. In the experiments presented here, IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice unexpectedly show decreased fungal control early upon infection with C. neoformans, whereas wild-type mice are able to control fungal growth accompanied by enhanced macrophage and dendritic cell recruitment to the site of infection. Lower pulmonary recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice is associated with reduced pulmonary expression of CCL2 and CCL20 chemokines. Moreover, IFN-γ and nitric oxide production are diminished in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice compared to wild-type mice. To directly study the potential mechanism(s responsible for reduced production of IFN-γ, conventional dendritic cells were stimulated with C. neoformans in the presence of IL-4 which results in increased IL-12 production and reduced IL-10 production. Together, a beneficial role of early IL-4Rα signaling is demonstrated in pulmonary cryptococcosis, which contrasts with the well-known IL-4Rα-mediated detrimental effects in the late phase.

  16. Using Positive Deviance in the prevention and control of MRSA infections in a Colombian hospital: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, N M Olarte; Márquez, I A Valderrama; Quiroga, J Avila; Trujillo, T Goretty; González, F; Aguilar, M I Garzón; Escobar-Pérez, J

    2017-04-01

    Positive Deviance (PD) is a process to achieve a social and cultural change. This strategy has been used for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in some health institutions in the United States, but has rarely been adopted in institutions from developing countries where resources are limited. We describe our experience of PD in the control of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to MRSA in a Colombian hospital with the aim of reducing HAI rates through a cultural change in processes. A time-series study was conducted based on the MRSA-HAI rate and the number of months with zero MRSA infections before and after application of PD (2001-2012). On comparing the pre-intervention and intervention periods, the mean overall rates of MRSA-HAI was 0·62 and 0·36, respectively (P = 0·0005); the number of months with zero MRSA-HAIs were 3/70 and 12/74 (odds ratio 0·264, 95% confidence interval 0·078-0·897); the percentage of MRSA-HAIs was 53·2% and 41·0%. These results are consistent with other published data. Implementation of PD was associated with a significant reduction of MRSA-HAIs, it did not involve high costs and the changes have been lasting.

  17. Detector Control System for an LHC experiment - User Requirements Document

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the user requirements for a detector control system kernel for the LHC experiments following the ESA standard PSS-05 [1]. The first issue will be used to provide the basis for an evaluation of possible development philosophies for a kernel DCS. As such it will cover all the major functionality but only to a level of detail sufficient for such an evaluation to be performed. Many of the requirements are therefore intentionally high level and generic, and are meant to outline the functionality that would be required of the kernel DCS, but not yet to the level of the detail required for implementation. The document is also written in a generic fashion in order not to rule out any implementation technology.

  18. Evaluating the Graph-based Visualization Technique: A Controlled Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Oswaldo Cárdenas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have highlighted the scarcity of empirical studies that systematically examine the advantages and disadvantages of the use of visualization techniques for software understanding activities. Such studies are crucial for gathering and analyzing objective and quantifiable evidence about the usefulness of proposed visualization techniques and tools, and ultimately, for guiding the research in software visualization. This paper presents a controlled experiment aimed at assessing the impact of a graph-based visualization technique on comprehension tasks. Six common comprehension tasks were performed by 20 undergraduate software engineering students. The completion time and the accuracy of the participants’ responses were measured. The results indicate that on one hand the use of the graph-based visualization increases the correctness (by 21.45% in average but on the other hand it does not reduce the completion time in program comprehension tasks.

  19. Interferon-alpha subtype 11 activates NK cells and enables control of retroviral infection.

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    Kathrin Gibbert

    Full Text Available The innate immune response mediated by cells such as natural killer (NK cells is critical for the rapid containment of virus replication and spread during acute infection. Here, we show that subtype 11 of the type I interferon (IFN family greatly potentiates the antiviral activity of NK cells during retroviral infection. Treatment of mice with IFN-α11 during Friend retrovirus infection (FV significantly reduced viral loads and resulted in long-term protection from virus-induced leukemia. The effect of IFN-α11 on NK cells was direct and signaled through the type I IFN receptor. Furthermore, IFN-α11-mediated activation of NK cells enabled cytolytic killing of FV-infected target cells via the exocytosis pathway. Depletion and adoptive transfer experiments illustrated that NK cells played a major role in successful IFN-α11 therapy. Additional experiments with Mouse Cytomegalovirus infections demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of IFN-α11 is not restricted to retroviruses. The type I IFN subtypes 2 and 5, which bind the same receptor as IFN-α11, did not elicit similar antiviral effects. These results demonstrate a unique and subtype-specific activation of NK cells by IFN-α11.

  20. A General Purpose Experiment Controller for low cost Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Garcia, D.; Rowland, D. E.; Uribe, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.

    2012-12-01

    Space activities are very expensive and include a high degree of risk. Nowadays, CubeSat missions represent a fast and inexpensive way to conduct scientific space research. These platforms are less expensive to develop and build than conventional satellites. There are ample demonstration that these platforms are well suited for a wide range of science missions in different fields, such as astrobiology, astronomy, atmospheric science, space weather and biology. This paper presents a hybrid "processor in an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)" experiment/spacecraft controller for Cubesat missions. The system has two objectives, first is to obtain a multipurpose and easily customizable system aimed at processing the data from the widest kind of instruments and second, to provide the system with the highest processing capabilities in order to be able to perform complex onboard algorithms. Due to the versatility of the system and its reduced dimensions, it can be employed in different space platforms. The system is envisioned to be employed for the first time as the smart radio receiver for the upcoming NASA FireStation instrument. It is one of four experiments manifested to fly on an experiment pallet the U.S Department of Defense plans to deploy on the International Space Station in 2013. FireStation will continue analyzing the link between the Lightning and the Terrestrial Gamma Rays initiated by the FireFly Cubesat. The system is responsible for the management of a set of small Heliophysics instrumentats, including a photometer, magnetometer, and electric and magnetic field antennas. A description of the system architecture and its main features are presented. The main functional and performance tests during the integration and calibration phase of the instruments are also discussed.

  1. Infection control consultation in a 150-bed acute care hospital: making this unobserved and unmeasured critical job function visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Patti S; Kim, Alex T

    2007-08-01

    One qualified infection control director, reporting directly to administration, was responsible for the Infection Prevention and Control Program of a 150-bed acute care, non-teaching, for-profit hospital. To observe for potential trending, questions (consultations) and determinations related to infectious processes were documented. To explore the possibility of measuring the essential although "hidden" function of the infection control consultation (process), which is a role not formerly linked to infection rates (outcomes). A 7-year retrospective study was conducted of all infection control consultations requiring more than a 5-minute intervention, as part of routine job responsibilities. The XmR Statistical Process Control charts (XmR Charts) and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient were used to analyze the activity of infection control consultations. From January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2004, there were 770 infection control consultations logged for 375.1 hours. Beginning with 2003, the variation in both the number and duration of infection control consultations in the XmR Charts become more standardized and has a smaller moving range between data points. The Pearson's Correlation Coefficient shows statistical significance (P control consultations at this 150-bed hospital illustrates that this essential component can be measured, and should be formerly tracked to document overall assessment of infection prevention and control interdisciplinary interaction. The consultation process became more efficient over the 7-year study period because, as the number of questions increased, the duration required to achieve closure decreased.

  2. Immediate postpartum glycemic control and risk of surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert C; Gabby, Lauryn; Tith, Tevy; Eaton, Kristina; Westermann, Melissa; Wing, Deborah A

    2017-02-01

    Nearly one-third of all births in the United States in 2013 were by cesarean delivery, with 6% complicated by diabetes. The purpose of this study was to correlate immediate postoperative hyperglycemia with wound morbidity in diabetic women who underwent cesarean delivery. This retrospective case-control study was performed at UC Irvine Health and Miller Women's & Children's Hospital Long Beach between 2009 and 2015. Subjects included women with at least Class B diabetes mellitus who underwent cesarean birth. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels (BGL) were recorded daily during postoperative days one through four. Outcomes included abscess formation, cellulitis, wound separation, fascial dehiscence, hospital readmission, secondary wound closure, antibiotic treatment, and a composite of the above. Outcomes were evaluated for 176 subjects. Twenty-nine experienced wound complications. Women readmitted for wound complications and those with composite morbidity experienced significantly higher mean fasting BGL, however, BGL during the immediate postoperative setting were not predictive of wound morbidity. In our cohort of diabetic women who underwent cesarean delivery, immediate postoperative hyperglycemia was not associated with wound morbidity.

  3. Knowledge gaps that hamper prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; Orsel, K; Nielsen, S S; Koets, A P; Rutten, V P M G; Bannantine, J P; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F; Wells, S J; Whittington, R J; Mackintosh, C G; Manning, E J; Weber, M F; Heuer, C; Forde, T L; Ritter, C; Roche, S; Corbett, C S; Wolf, R; Griebel, P J; Kastelic, J P; De Buck, J

    2017-09-22

    In the last decades, many regional and country-wide control programmes for Johne's disease (JD) were developed due to associated economic losses, or because of a possible association with Crohn's disease. These control programmes were often not successful, partly because management protocols were not followed, including the introduction of infected replacement cattle, because tests to identify infected animals were unreliable, and uptake by farmers was not high enough because of a perceived low return on investment. In the absence of a cure or effective commercial vaccines, control of JD is currently primarily based on herd management strategies to avoid infection of cattle and restrict within-farm and farm-to-farm transmission. Although JD control programmes have been implemented in most developed countries, lessons learned from JD prevention and control programmes are underreported. Also, JD control programmes are typically evaluated in a limited number of herds and the duration of the study is less than 5 year, making it difficult to adequately assess the efficacy of control programmes. In this manuscript, we identify the most important gaps in knowledge hampering JD prevention and control programmes, including vaccination and diagnostics. Secondly, we discuss directions that research should take to address those knowledge gaps. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal disease in Ghanaian infants and children: an outpatient case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Krumkamp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diarrheal diseases are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, especially in resource-poor areas. This case-control study assessed the associations between gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea in children from rural Ghana. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 548 children with diarrhea and from 686 without gastrointestinal symptoms visiting a hospital from 2007-2008. Samples were analyzed by microscopy and molecular methods. RESULTS: The organisms most frequently detected in symptomatic cases were Giardia lamblia, Shigella spp./ enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC, and Campylobacter jejuni. Infections with rotavirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-16.6, C. parvum/hominis (aOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.2 and norovirus (aOR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.3-3.0 showed the strongest association with diarrhea. The highest attributable fractions (AF for diarrhea were estimated for rotavirus (AF = 14.3%; 95% CI: 10.9-17.5%, Shigella spp./EIEC (AF = 10.5%; 95% CI: 3.5-17.1%, and norovirus (AF = 8.2%; 95% CI 3.2-12.9%. Co-infections occurred frequently and most infections presented themselves independently of other infections. However, infections with E. dispar, C. jejuni, and norovirus were observed more often in the presence of G. lamblia. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases.

  5. Roles of sunlight and natural ventilation for controlling infection: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, R A; Dancer, S J

    2013-08-01

    Infections caught in buildings are a major global cause of sickness and mortality. Understanding how infections spread is pivotal to public health yet current knowledge of indoor transmission remains poor. To review the roles of natural ventilation and sunlight for controlling infection within healthcare environments. Comprehensive literature search was performed, using electronic and library databases to retrieve English language papers combining infection; risk; pathogen; and mention of ventilation; fresh air; and sunlight. Foreign language articles with English translation were included, with no limit imposed on publication date. In the past, hospitals were designed with south-facing glazing, cross-ventilation and high ceilings because fresh air and sunlight were thought to reduce infection risk. Historical and recent studies suggest that natural ventilation offers protection from transmission of airborne pathogens. Particle size, dispersal characteristics and transmission risk require more work to justify infection control practices concerning airborne pathogens. Sunlight boosts resistance to infection, with older studies suggesting potential roles for surface decontamination. Current knowledge of indoor transmission of pathogens is inadequate, partly due to lack of agreed definitions for particle types and mechanisms of spread. There is recent evidence to support historical data on the effects of natural ventilation but virtually none for sunlight. Modern practice of designing healthcare buildings for comfort favours pathogen persistence. As the number of effective antimicrobial agents declines, further work is required to clarify absolute risks from airborne pathogens along with any potential benefits from additional fresh air and sunlight. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leith León-Maldonado

    Full Text Available HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico's early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP. Research on Mexican women's perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants.We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women's understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender.Women's confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men's sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes' desire for sex as natural but understood men's negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women's HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission.These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women's negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could be ameliorated with better health

  7. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmerón, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L; Thrasher, James F; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico's early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women's perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women's understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender. Women's confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men's sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes' desire for sex as natural but understood men's negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women's HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission. These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women's negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could be ameliorated with better health education and

  8. Implementation of tuberculosis infection control measures in designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China: are we doing enough to prevent nosocomial tuberculosis infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Min; Gu, Hua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wei; Shen, Jian; Jiang, Jianmin

    2016-03-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures are very important to prevent nosocomial transmission and protect healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals. The TB infection control situation in TB treatment institutions in southeastern China has not been studied previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures in TB-designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey using observation and interviews. All TB-designated hospitals (n=88) in Zhejiang Province, China in 2014. Managerial, administrative, environmental and personal infection control measures were assessed using descriptive analyses and univariate logistic regression analysis. The TB-designated hospitals treated a median of 3030 outpatients (IQR 764-7094) and 279 patients with confirmed TB (IQR 154-459) annually, and 160 patients with TB (IQR 79-426) were hospitalised in the TB wards. Most infection control measures were performed by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including regular monitoring of TB infection control in high-risk areas (49%), shortening the wait times (42%), and providing a separate waiting area for patients with suspected TB (46%) were sometimes neglected. N95 respirators were available in 85 (97%) hospitals, although only 44 (50%) hospitals checked that they fit. Hospitals with more TB staff and higher admission rates of patients with TB were more likely to set a dedicated sputum collection area and to conduct annual respirator fit testing. TB infection control measures were generally implemented by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including separation of suspected patients, regular monitoring of infection control practices, and regular fit testing of respirators should be strengthened. Infection measures for sputum collection and respirator fit testing should be improved in hospitals with lower admission rates of patients with TB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  9. The cost of infection in hip arthroplasty: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vélez, A E; Romero-Martín, M; Villanueva-Orbaiz, R; Díaz-Agero-Pérez, C; Robustillo-Rodela, A; Monge-Jodra, V

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) represents 30% of all causes of health care-associated infection (HAI) and is one of the most dreaded complications in surgical patients. We estimated the excess direct costs of SSI using a matched nested case-control study in acute-term care at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital in Spain. Cases were patients who developed a first episode of SSI according to the criteria established by the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network. Controls were matched to cases in 1:1 ratio taking into account the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, age, sex, surgery date, and principal diagnosis. This study found that infection in hip replacement increased direct costs by 134%. Likewise, the excess cost due to the infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 69% higher than the excess cost attributable to infections caused by other microorganisms. SSI after hip replacement continues to be a costly complication from the hospital perspective. Costs due to SSI can be used to prioritise preventive interventions to monitor and control HAI. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Leprosy and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda; a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawuma, H J; Bwire, R; Adatu-Engwau, F

    1994-12-01

    Both leprosy and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are endemic in Uganda. Various speculations about a possible interaction between the two infections have been put forward but not confirmed. A case-control study involving 189 new leprosy patients and 481 matched controls, resident in eight Ugandan districts, was carried out to investigate if any relationship exists between leprosy and infection with HIV-1 in Uganda. Serum samples from 23 (12.2%) of the 189 leprosy patients tested positive for HIV-1 antibodies as compared to 88 (18.3%) of the 481 control sera. The two proportions of HIV seropositivity are not different statistically. A stratified analysis of the data by districts was done and showed a negative relationship between leprosy and HIV infection in the case of Rakai District (0.04 studies seeking to observe the clinical progress of dually infected patients might help to reveal new knowledge about a possible relationship between HIV and leprosy and about the immunology of leprosy in general.

  11. Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of many animal models for tuberculosis (TB research, there still exists a need for better understanding of the quiescent stage of disease observed in many humans. Here, we explored the use of the Wistar rat model for the study of protective immunity and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The kinetics of bacillary growth, evaluated by the colony stimulating assay (CFU and the extent of lung pathology in Mtb infected Wistar rats were dependent on the virulence of the strains and the size of the infecting inoculums. Bacillary growth control was associated with induction of T helper type 1 (Th1 activation, the magnitude of which was also Mtb strain and dose dependent. Histopathology analysis of the infected lungs demonstrated the formation of well organized granulomas comprising epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and foamy macrophages surrounded by large numbers of lymphocytes. The late stage subclinical form of disease was reactivated by immunosuppression leading to increased lung CFU. CONCLUSION: The Wistar rat is a valuable model for better understanding host-pathogen interactions that result in control of Mtb infection and potentially establishment of latent TB. These properties together with the ease of manipulation, relatively low cost and well established use of rats in toxicology and pharmacokinetic analyses make the rat a good animal model for TB drug discovery.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and markers of gastric cancer risk in Alaska Native persons: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, James William; Miernyk, Karen M; Bulkow, Lisa R; Kelly, Janet J; McMahon, Brian J; Sacco, Frank; Hennessy, Thomas W; Bruce, Michael G

    2014-06-01

    Alaska Native persons experience gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates that are three to four times higher than in the general United States population. To evaluate pepsinogen I, pepsinogen I/II ratio, anti-Helicobacter pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antibody levels, and blood group for their associations with gastric cancer development in Alaska Native people. The present analysis was a retrospective case-control study that matched gastric cancers reported to the Alaska Native Tumor Registry from 1969 to 2008 to three controls on known demographic risk factors for H pylori infection, using sera from the Alaska Area Specimen Bank. Conditional logistic regression evaluated associations between serum markers and gastric cancer. A total of 122 gastric cancer cases were included, with sera predating cancer diagnosis (mean = 13 years) and 346 matched controls. One hundred twelve cases (91.8%) and 285 controls (82.4%) had evidence of previous or ongoing H pylori infection as measured by anti-H pylori antibody levels. Gastric cancer cases had a 2.63-fold increased odds of having positive anti-H pylori antibodies compared with their matched controls (P=0.01). In a multivariate model, noncardia gastric cancer (n=94) was associated with anti-H pylori antibodies (adjusted OR 3.92; P=0.004) and low pepsinogen I level (adjusted OR 6.04; P=0.04). No association between gastric cancer and blood group, anti-CagA antibodies or pepsinogen I/II ratio was found. Alaska Native people with gastric cancer had increased odds of previous H pylori infection. Low pepsinogen I level may function as a precancer marker for noncardia cancer.

  13. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Walker-Sperling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of <100 copies/mL. She did not have any known protective HLA alleles, but significant immune activation of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK cells was present, and both cell types inhibited viral replication. Virus cultured from this patient replicated as well in vitro as virus isolated from her partner, a patient with AIDS who was the source of transmission. Virologic breakthrough occurred 9 months after her initial presentation and was associated with an increase in CD4+ T cell activation levels and a significant decrease in NK cell inhibitory capacity. Remarkably, CD8+ T cell inhibitory capacity was preserved and there were no new escape mutations in targeted Gag epitopes. These findings suggest that fully replication-competent virus can be controlled in acute HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication.

  14. H. pylori infection and gastric cancer in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Khandker Kawser; Kabir, Md Jahangir; Bhuyian, A K M Minhaj Uddin; Alam, Md Shahjadul; Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Ahad, M Abdul; Rahman, Md Anisur; Rahman, M Mizanur

    2017-11-01

    Like that of other Asian countries gastric cancer (GC) is also a leading cancer in Bangladesh and also a cause for cancer-related mortality. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the strongest recognized risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. The infection is also prevalent in common people. This case-control study was carried out to find an association between GC and H. pylori infection in the community. To evaluate association of H. pylori and carcinoma of stomach this study was conducted at National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital, Dhaka from January 2013 to December 2014. H. pylori status was determined serologically by using H. pylori kit in the department of Biochemistry laboratory of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. In total, 114 patients with GC and 520 patients not having GC were studied as controls. Logistic regression method was used to calculate the odds ratio. Significantly more patients in the case group (86.8%) were found to be seropositive for H. pylori antigen in contrast to the control group (67.5%). All of the cases in the present study were in advanced stage. No significant association between H. pylori seropositivity and tumor location was found. It was noted that undifferentiated gastric carcinoma had slightly more association with H. pylori infection. Younger H. pylori-infected patients had been found to be at higher relative risk for GC than older patients. As there is a strong association found between GC and H. pylori infection special emphasis to eradicate H. pylori infection might reduce the incidence of this dreadly disease.

  15. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    lost by diuresis in early convalescence (1). Severe retention of body water, especially during central nervous system infection, has now been widely...adrenocortical production of glucocorticoid and ketosteroid hormones often declines into a subnormal range. The labile pool of body nitrogen is...may not become apparent until early convalescence when postfebrile diuresis causes excessive fluid to be excreted. (3) Protein requirements ’- Despite

  16. Monitoring global messenger RNA changes in externally controlled microarray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Peppel, Jeroen; Kemmeren, Patrick; van Bakel, Harm; Radonjic, Marijana; van Leenen, Dik; Holstege, Frank C.P.

    2003-01-01

    Expression profiling is a universal tool, with a range of applications that benefit from the accurate determination of differential gene expression. To allow normalization using endogenous transcript levels, current microarray analyses assume that relatively few transcripts vary, or that any changes that occur are balanced. When normalization using endogenous genes is carried out, changes in expression levels are calculated relative to the behaviour of most of the transcripts. This does not reflect absolute changes if global shifts in messenger RNA populations occur. Using external RNA controls, we have set up microarray experiments to monitor global changes. The levels of most mRNAs were found to change during yeast stationary phase and human heat shock when external controls were included. Even small global changes had a significant effect on the number of genes reported as being differentially expressed. This suggests that global mRNA changes occur more frequently than is assumed at present, and shows that monitoring such effects may be important for the accurate determination of changes in gene expression. PMID:12671682

  17. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control demonstration of intelligent procedures to automatically initialize a rack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). The autonomous operations concept includes a reduction of the amount of data a crew operator is required to verify during activation or de-activation, as well as integration of procedure execution status and relevant data in a single integrated display. During execution, the auto-procedures provide a step-by-step messaging paradigm and a high level status upon termination. This

  18. Risk Factors for Urinary Tract Infections in Renal Allograft Recipients: Experience of a Tertiary Care Center in Hyderabad, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M V N L R; Neeraja, M; Sudhaharan, S; Raju, S B; Gangadhar, T; Lakshmi, V

    2017-01-01

    Renal transplantation is an effective and commonly performed procedure for end-stage renal disease. Urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant patients. As data on postrenal transplant urinary tract infections from the Indian subcontinent are limited, the present study was conducted to estimate the burden of urinary tract infections in this vulnerable group of patients. This was a prospective study on patients undergoing renal transplantation in 2014 at our tertiary hospital in South India with a follow-up of 2 years to evaluate the risk factors for urinary tract infections. The prevalence of urinary tract infections was 41.9% with a male preponderance of 76.9%. Mean age of the 31 patients was 32.4 ± 10.2 years (range: 16-55 years). Gram-negative bacilli were the most common isolates with Escherichia coli being the predominant pathogen (53.3%). All the infections occurred within 1 year of transplantation with delayed graft function (P urinary tract infections. Carbapenemase production was noted in 33.3% of isolates and all the Gram-negative organisms isolated in the 1st month of transplantation were carbapenem-resistant (CR) E. coli. The high rate of carbapenem-resistant organisms in the early posttransplant period is a point of concern, especially with cadaver transplants. Infection control practices and catheter care need to be strictly monitored to minimize the risk for UTI in the immediate posttransplant period.

  19. Profile control simulations and experiments on TCV: a controller test environment and results using a model-based predictive controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T. C.; Galperti, C.; Sauter, O.; de Baar, M. R.; Carpanese, F.; Goodman, T. P.; Kim, D.; Kim, S. H.; Kong, M.; Mavkov, B.; Merle, A.; Moret, J. M.; Nouailletas, R.; Scheffer, M.; Teplukhina, A. A.; Vu, N. M. T.; The EUROfusion MST1-team; The TCV-team

    2017-12-01

    The successful performance of a model predictive profile controller is demonstrated in simulations and experiments on the TCV tokamak, employing a profile controller test environment. Stable high-performance tokamak operation in hybrid and advanced plasma scenarios requires control over the safety factor profile (q-profile) and kinetic plasma parameters such as the plasma beta. This demands to establish reliable profile control routines in presently operational tokamaks. We present a model predictive profile controller that controls the q-profile and plasma beta using power requests to two clusters of gyrotrons and the plasma current request. The performance of the controller is analyzed in both simulation and TCV L-mode discharges where successful tracking of the estimated inverse q-profile as well as plasma beta is demonstrated under uncertain plasma conditions and the presence of disturbances. The controller exploits the knowledge of the time-varying actuator limits in the actuator input calculation itself such that fast transitions between targets are achieved without overshoot. A software environment is employed to prepare and test this and three other profile controllers in parallel in simulations and experiments on TCV. This set of tools includes the rapid plasma transport simulator RAPTOR and various algorithms to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium and plasma profiles by merging the available measurements with model-based predictions. In this work the estimated q-profile is merely based on RAPTOR model predictions due to the absence of internal current density measurements in TCV. These results encourage to further exploit model predictive profile control in experiments on TCV and other (future) tokamaks.

  20. A joint Nordic interdisciplinary education programme in infection control: a successful, but short-lived initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jette; Sorknes, Nina K; Povlsen, Lene

    2014-11-01

    Prevention of healthcare-associated infections and a restrictive antibiotics policy in the Nordic countries have contributed to a low prevalence of multi-drug resistant microorganisms, compared to many other countries. This requires professional competences acquired through education in infection control, both in hospitals and in primary health care. This paper describes a joint Nordic Interdisciplinary Education Programme in infection control, established at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV (NHV) in 2007. The education programme was considered highly relevant and successful by students and their employers. The paper describes the background and contents of the programme, which may serve as inspiration in the development of future educational initiatives in other countries. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. Humans with chimpanzee-like major histocompatibility complex-specificities control HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoof, Ilka; Kesmir, Can; Lund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules allow immune surveillance by presenting a snapshot of the intracellular state of a cell to circulating cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The MHC class I alleles of an HIV-1 infected individual strongly influence the level of viremia...... and the progression rate to AIDS. Chimpanzees control HIV-1 viral replication and develop a chronic infection without progressing to AIDS. A similar course of disease is observed in human long-term non-progressors. Objective: To investigate if long-term non-progressors and chimpanzees have functional similarities...... in their MHC class I repertoire. Methods: We compared the specificity of groups of human MHC molecules associated with different levels of viremia in HIV-1 infected individuals with those of chimpanzee. Results and conclusion: We demonstrate that human MHC with control of HIV-1 viral load share binding motifs...

  2. Enabling Passive Immunization as an Alternative to Antibiotics for Controlling Enteric Infections in Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hald, Birthe; Madsen, M.

    . To control enteric infections by passive immunization a bolus of immunoglobulin may simply be administered orally. For this to work, large amounts of active immunoglobulins are needed. To be a real alternative to antibiotics the price of the immunoglobulin product needs to be low. We combined an efficient......Enteric infections cause major problems in most intensive animal production sectors, including poultry, pigs and cattle, leading to disease, reduced production and compromised welfare. In addition some of these infections are zoonotic, and they are to a large extent responsible for the continued...... massive use of antibiotics in food animals. Thus there is a pressing need for economically feasible, efficient, non-antibiotics based means for controlling the problem. Passive immunization has been known for decades as an efficient way of endowing humans or animals with short-term (weeks) immunity...

  3. The Effect of Infection Control Nurses on the Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Healthcare-Acquired Infection and Multidrug-Resistant Strains in Critically-Ill Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available Healthcare-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa infections in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU, which have a high incidence, increase treatment costs and mortality, and seriously threaten the safety of critically ill children. It is essential to seek convenient and effective methods to control and prevent healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs. This research was conducted to study the effect of infection control nurses on the occurrence of P. aeruginosa HAIs and multi-drug resistance (MDR strains in PICU.The clinical data was divided into two groups, with the age ranging from 1 month to 14 years. One group of the critically ill patients(N = 3,722 was admitted to PICU from 2007 to 2010, without the management of infection control nurses. The other group of the critically ill patients (N = 3,943 was admitted to PICU from 2011 to 2013, with the management of infection control nurses. Compare the mortality, morbidity and the incidence of acquired P. aeruginosa infections to evaluate the effect of infection control nurses.After implementation of the post of infection control nurses, the patient's overall mortality fell from 4.81% to 3.73%. Among the patients with endotracheal intubation more than 48 hours, the incidence of endotracheal intubation-related pneumonia decreased from 44.6% to 34.32%. The mortality of patients with endotracheal intubation decreased from 16.96% to 10.17%, and the morbidity of HAIs with P. aeruginosa decreased from 1.89% to 1.07%. The mutual different rate (MDR dropped from 67.95% to 44.23%. There were remarkable differences in these rates between the two groups (p<0.05.Implementing the post of infection control nurses is associated with effectively reducing the HAI rate, especially the incidence and morbidity of P. aeruginosa HAIs, reducing PICU mortality, improving P. aeruginosa drug resistance.

  4. The Effect of Infection Control Nurses on the Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Healthcare-Acquired Infection and Multidrug-Resistant Strains in Critically-Ill Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; He, Linxi; Liu, Chunfeng; Rong, Jian; Shi, Yongyan; Song, Wenliang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infections in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), which have a high incidence, increase treatment costs and mortality, and seriously threaten the safety of critically ill children. It is essential to seek convenient and effective methods to control and prevent healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs). This research was conducted to study the effect of infection control nurses on the occurrence of P. aeruginosa HAIs and multi-drug resistance (MDR) strains in PICU. The clinical data was divided into two groups, with the age ranging from 1 month to 14 years. One group of the critically ill patients(N = 3,722) was admitted to PICU from 2007 to 2010, without the management of infection control nurses. The other group of the critically ill patients (N = 3,943) was admitted to PICU from 2011 to 2013, with the management of infection control nurses. Compare the mortality, morbidity and the incidence of acquired P. aeruginosa infections to evaluate the effect of infection control nurses. After implementation of the post of infection control nurses, the patient's overall mortality fell from 4.81% to 3.73%. Among the patients with endotracheal intubation more than 48 hours, the incidence of endotracheal intubation-related pneumonia decreased from 44.6% to 34.32%. The mortality of patients with endotracheal intubation decreased from 16.96% to 10.17%, and the morbidity of HAIs with P. aeruginosa decreased from 1.89% to 1.07%. The mutual different rate (MDR) dropped from 67.95% to 44.23%. There were remarkable differences in these rates between the two groups (p<0.05). Implementing the post of infection control nurses is associated with effectively reducing the HAI rate, especially the incidence and morbidity of P. aeruginosa HAIs, reducing PICU mortality, improving P. aeruginosa drug resistance.

  5. What Makes a Tweet Fly? Analysis of Twitter Messaging at Four Infection Control Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brett G; Russo, Philip L; Otter, Jonathan A; Kiernan, Martin A; Aveling, Landon

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine tweeting activity, networks, and common topics mentioned on Twitter at 4 international infection control and infectious disease conferences. DESIGN A cross-sectional study. METHODS An independent company was commissioned to undertake a Twitter 'trawl' each month between July 1, 2016, and November 31, 2016. The trawl identified any tweets that contained the official hashtags of the conferences for (1) the UK Infection Prevention Society, (2) IDWeek 2016, (3) the Federation of Infectious Society/Hospital Infection Society, and (4) the Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control. Topics from each tweet were identified, and an examination of the frequency and timing of tweets was performed. A social network analysis was performed to illustrate connections between users. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was developed to explore the predictors of 'retweets.' RESULTS In total, 23,718 tweets were identified as using 1 of the 2 hashtags of interest. The results demonstrated that the most tweets were posted during the conferences. Network analysis demonstrated a diversity of twitter networks. A link to a web address was a significant predictor of whether a tweet would be retweeted (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-2.1). Other significant factors predicting a retweet included tweeting on topics such as Clostridium difficile (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7-2.4) and the media (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0). Tweets that contained a picture were significantly less likely to be retweeted (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.05-0.08). CONCLUSION Twitter is a useful tool for information sharing and networking at infection control conferences. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1271-1276.

  6. Borna disease virus (BDV) infection in psychiatric patients and healthy controls in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri-Tehrani, Elham; Maghsoudi, Nader; Shams, Jamal; Soori, Hamid; Atashi, Hasti; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Bode, Liv; Ludwig, Hanns

    2014-09-03

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is an evolutionary old RNA virus, which infects brain and blood cells of humans, their primate ancestors, and other mammals. Human infection has been correlated to mood disorders and schizophrenia, but the impact of BDV on mental-health still remains controversial due to poor methodological and cross-national comparability. This first report from the Middle East aimed to determine BDV infection prevalence in Iranian acute psychiatric disorder patients and healthy controls through circulating immune complexes (CIC), antibodies (Ab) and antigen (pAg) in blood plasma using a standardized triple enzyme immune assay (EIA). Samples of 314 subjects (114 psychiatric cases, 69 blood donors, and 131 healthy controls) were assayed and data analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. CICs revealed a BDV prevalence of one third (29.5%) in healthy Iranian controls (27.5% controls; 33.3% blood donors). In psychiatric patients CIC prevalence was higher than in controls (40.4%) and significantly correlating with bipolar patients exhibiting overt clinical symptoms (p = 0.005, OR = 1.65). CIC values were significantly elevated in bipolar (p = 0.001) and major depressive disorder (p = 0.029) patients as compared to controls, and in females compared to males (p = 0.031). This study supports a similarly high prevalence of subclinical human BDV infections in Iran as reported for central Europe, and provides again an indication for the correlation of BDV infection and mood disorders. Further studies should address the morbidity risk for healthy carriers and those with elevated CIC levels, along with gender disparities.

  7. Mathematical inference and control of molecular networks from perturbation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Rasheed, Mohammed

    in order to affect the time evolution of molecular activity in a desirable manner. In this proposal, we address both the inference and control problems of GRNs. In the first part of the thesis, we consider the control problem. We assume that we are given a general topology network structure, whose dynamics follow a discrete-time Markov chain model. We subsequently develop a comprehensive framework for optimal perturbation control of the network. The aim of the perturbation is to drive the network away from undesirable steady-states and to force it to converge to a unique desirable steady-state. The proposed framework does not make any assumptions about the topology of the initial network (e.g., ergodicity, weak and strong connectivity), and is thus applicable to general topology networks. We define the optimal perturbation as the minimum-energy perturbation measured in terms of the Frobenius norm between the initial and perturbed networks. We subsequently demonstrate that there exists at most one optimal perturbation that forces the network into the desirable steady-state. In the event where the optimal perturbation does not exist, we construct a family of sub-optimal perturbations that approximate the optimal solution arbitrarily closely. In the second part of the thesis, we address the inference problem of GRNs from time series data. We model the dynamics of the molecules using a system of ordinary differential equations corrupted by additive white noise. For large-scale networks, we formulate the inference problem as a constrained maximum likelihood estimation problem. We derive the molecular interactions that maximize the likelihood function while constraining the network to be sparse. We further propose a procedure to recover weak interactions based on the Bayesian information criterion. For small-size networks, we investigated the inference of a globally stable 7-gene melanoma genetic regulatory network from genetic perturbation experiments. We considered five

  8. Infection control--a European research perspective for the next decade.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dettenkofer, M.; Ammon, A.; Astagneau, P.; Dancer, S.J.; Gastmeier, P.; Harbarth, S.; Humphreys, H.; Kern, W.V.; Lyytikainen, O.; Sax, H.; Voss, A.; Widmer, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    A symposium was held in June 2009 near Freiburg in Germany. Twenty-nine attendees from several European countries participated, most of whom are actively involved in research and hospital infection prevention and control. The following topics were presented and discussed: isolation and screening for

  9. Infection Control in Dentistry: The Challenge of “SARS” | Uti | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a newly discovered infectious disease poses a fresh threat to infection control in dental practice. This paper reviews the mode of transmission of SARS and its implication on dental practice. It gives practical guidelines for the prevention of its transmission in the dental environment.

  10. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control: a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woezik, Anne; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process.

  11. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control : a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woezik, Anne F. G.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Kulyk, Olga; Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process.

  12. Controlled trial of inhaled budesonide in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchopulmonary Psuedomonas aeruginosa infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S S; Nielsen, K G

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of anti-inflammatory treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and complicating chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) lung infection was studied in a placebo-controlled, parallel, double-blind single center trial. Active treatment co...

  13. The Power of Malaria Vaccine Trials Using Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, L.E.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Vlas, S.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in healthy human volunteers is an important and powerful tool in clinical malaria vaccine development. However, power calculations are essential to obtain meaningful estimates of protective efficacy, while minimizing the risk of adverse events. To optimize

  14. The Power of Malaria Vaccine Trials Using Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc); C.C. Hermsen (Cornelus); R.W. Sauerwein (Robert); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractControlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in healthy human volunteers is an important and powerful tool in clinical malaria vaccine development. However, power calculations are essential to obtain meaningful estimates of protective efficacy, while minimizing the risk of adverse events.

  15. Norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes: the evaluation of infection control measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesema, I.H.; Vennema, H.; Heijne, J.C.; Jager, C.M. de; Morroy, G.; Kerkhof, J.H. van den; Coster, E.J. de; Wolters, B.A.; Waarbeek, H.L. ter; Fanoy, E.B.; Teunis, P.F.; Linde, R. van der; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Effective infection control measures during norovirus outbreaks are urgently needed in places where vulnerable individuals gather. In the present study, the effect of a number of measures was investigated in daily practice. Forty-nine Dutch nursing homes were monitored prospectively for norovirus

  16. NF135.C10: a new Plasmodium falciparum clone for controlled human malaria infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teirlinck, A.C.; Roestenberg, M.; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Scholzen, A.; Heinrichs, M.J.; Siebelink-Stoter, R.; Graumans, W.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Teelen, K.A.E.M.; Vos, M.W.; Nganou Makamdop, C.K.; Borrmann, S.; Rozier, Y.P.; Erkens, M.A.; Luty, A.J.F.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sim, B.K.; Lieshout, L. van; Hoffman, S.L.; Visser, L.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We established a new field clone of Plasmodium falciparum for use in controlled human malaria infections and vaccine studies to complement the current small portfolio of P. falciparum strains, primarily based on NF54. The Cambodian clone NF135.C10 consistently produced gametocytes and generated

  17. Analysis of hospital infection control awareness of ultrasound room office personnel in Busan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JJung Hoon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    146 people working in the ultrasound room in Busan were surveyed, and their perception of hospital infection was analyzed. According to the results of the survey, academic background showed the highest number in terms of awareness and performance of personal hygiene management and hand washing management, and the group with experience of infection education showed the highest number in terms of awareness of ultrasound equipment hygiene, and the group with less than college education showed the highest number in terms of performance of ultrasound equipment hygiene. The difference was statistically significant. Based on the results of this study, performance was lower than awareness in general. This result indicates that the degree of performance is inadequate. Therefore, it can be concluded that individuals need to change their perception of personal hygiene and take interest in it through infection education.

  18. Epidemiology and control of trematode infections in cattle in Zimbabwe : a review : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the main epidemiological aspects of the major domestic ruminant trematode infections in Zimbabwe are reviewed and discussed with regard to the available options for control. Seasonal occurrence of amphistomes, Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma mattheei are considered both in the definitive and intermediate hosts. The regional distribution of the trematodes is reviewed in relation to the distribution patterns of their snail intermediate hosts. Based on the epidemiological features of the trematodes, practical control measures are suggested.

  19. Predictors of wound infection in elective colorectal surgery. Multicenter observational case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccalvieri, Doménico; Kreisler Moreno, Esther; Flor Lorente, Blas; Torres García, Antonio; Muñoz Calero, Alberto; Mateo Vallejo, Francisco; Biondo, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Vicryl Plus(®) suture in reducing the rate of postoperative wound infection in elective colorectal surgery. A prospective case-control multicenter study with 480 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery was performed between 2006 and 2007. Patients were divided in 2 groups of equal sample size: group 1, closure of the abdominal wall using Vicryl Plus(®) and group 2 where PDS II(®) was used. The study involved 5 hospitals in the Spanish State. Wound infection was classified into superficial and deep. All patients diagnosed of wound infection during the hospital stay and up to 30 days after discharge were studied. For the statistical analysis Chi-square test and Fisher exact were used for bivariate analysis and logistic regression model for multivariate analysis. Wound infection rates were significantly lower in group 1: 14.6 vs. 29.2. Multivariate analysis showed that risk of wound infection was higher in patients with cancer, lung disease, anemia, operative time greater than 2 h, lack of second dose intra-operative prophylactic antibiotic and laparotomy closure with PDS suture II(®). The use of suture coated with triclosan can be an effective prophylactic tool in reducing wound infection rate in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. China's experience in population control: the elusive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H Y

    1975-04-01

    A critique of a report prepared for the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the U.S. House of Representatives titled "China's experience in population control: the elusive model is presented. The title is criticized, pointing out that the Chinese have done nothing "elusive," but, instead, have used methods familiar to family planning experts the world over. They have brought services close to home, used a variety of paramedical and lay people drawn from the community, have made services free, have offered a choice of services, and have used people from within the community for family planning education. Neither have the Chinese been secretive about it, as the report implies. It is the American refusal to admit that the People's Republic of China was the accepted government of the region which made Americans ignorant of developments. The report's author also seems unwilling to admit that the reason for the success of the program is that it has been integrated into a total plan for the improvement of socioeconomic conditions for the average person. Since 1949 some 200 million people have been added to the population of China, nearly the population of the U.S. Despite this large population growth, conditions have improved and the starvation which used to be common has been eliminated. Population growth has not been a bar to development. Any country which tries to reduce family size without putting it in a total context of development will find it difficult to succeed. Other developing nations cannot borr ow China's experience in toto as circumstances vary from country to country, but the essence is that no viable solution to population problems can be brought be fertility reduction invest as such. Meaningful socioeconomic change is also essential.

  1. Soft authority: ecologies of infection management in the working lives of modern matrons and infection control staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Paul; Brown, Brian

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the role of modern matrons and their work in the reduction of health care acquired infections. Based on in-depth interviews with 10 matrons in a health care trust in the UK Midlands region, we explore how they construe their working lives and their view of the powers they have to enhance cleanliness and reduce infection. Despite claims in policy documents that modern matrons would have considerable authority, participants felt their control over the environment was limited, and could be accomplished only through reflecting, communicating and liaising. The lack of formal structures of accountability and personal authority meant that participants could be characterised as working in what Courpasson calls a 'soft bureaucracy'. Moreover, in the light of limited power to command cleanliness, participants described their role in terms of reflexive work upon themselves and their interpersonal environment, involving self-scrutiny of their activity, channelling information, empowering, facilitating and remodelling the emotional environment of care delivery. This aligns with accounts of the self in the workplace from Anthony Giddens and Nikolas Rose where it is seen as a reflexive project. We explore why the project of the self seems to have eclipsed the managerial role as the major focus of matrons' work.

  2. Nosocomial urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase uropathogens: Prevalence, pathogens, risk factors, and strategies for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassida, Khaireddine; Jaidane, Mehdi; Bouallegue, Olfa; Tlili, Ghassen; Naija, Habiba; Mosbah, Ali Tahar

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the prevalence and antibiogram pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among uropathogens using isolates from urine samples collected at the Department of Urology in the Sahloul Hospital, Tunisia We also aimed to identify the risk factors for nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and the measures for infection control. Laboratory records of a five-year period from January 2004 to December 2008 were submitted for retrospective analysis to determine the incidence of ESBL infections. A total of 276 isolates were collected. A case-control study involving comparisons between two groups of patients who underwent TURP was performed to determine the risk factors for ESBL infection. Group 1, designated case subjects, included 51 patients with nosocomial UTI after TURP. Group 2, designated control subjects, consisted of 58 randomly selected patients who underwent TURP without nosocomial UTI in the same period. Factors suspected to be implicated in the emergence of ESBL infection were compared between the two groups in order to identify risk factors for infection. A univariate regression analysis was performed, followed by a multivariate one. The annual prevalence of ESBL infection ranged from 1.3-2.5%. After performing univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the main risk factors for ESBL infections were identified as: use of antibiotics the year preceding the admission, duration of catheter use, and bladder washout (p=0.012, p=0.019, and pnosocomial UTIs.

  3. Decidual soluble factors participate in the control of HIV-1 infection at the maternofetal interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkane Nadia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternofetal transmission (MFT of HIV-1 is relatively rare during the first trimester of pregnancy despite the permissivity of placental cells for cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. Invasive placental cells interact directly with decidual cells of the uterine mucosa during the first months of pregnancy, but the role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission is unknown. Results We found that decidual mononuclear cells naturally produce low levels of IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-γ and CXCL-12 (SDF-1, and large amounts of CCL-2 (MCP1, CCL-3 (MIP-1α, CCL-4 (MIP-1β, CCL-5 (Rantes, CXCL-10 (IP-10, IL-6 and IL-8. CCL-3 and CCL-4 levels were significantly upregulated by in vitro infection with R5 HIV-1 but not X4. Decidual CD14+ antigen presenting cells were the main CCL-3 and CCL-4 producers among decidual leukocytes. R5 and X4 HIV-1 infection was inhibited by decidual cell culture supernatants in vitro. Using HIV-1 pseudotypes, we found that inhibition of the HIV-1 entry step was inhibited by decidual soluble factors. Conclusion Our findings show that decidual innate immunity (soluble factors is involved in the control of HIV-1 infection at the maternofetal interface. The decidua could thus serve as a mucosal model for identifying correlates of protection against HIV-1 infection.

  4. Controlled Human Malaria Infection of Tanzanians by Intradermal Injection of Aseptic, Purified, Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekalaghe, Seif; Rutaihwa, Mastidia; Billingsley, Peter F.; Chemba, Mwajuma; Daubenberger, Claudia A.; James, Eric R.; Mpina, Maximillian; Ali Juma, Omar; Schindler, Tobias; Huber, Eric; Gunasekera, Anusha; Manoj, Anita; Simon, Beatus; Saverino, Elizabeth; Church, L. W. Preston; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Plowe, Christopher; Venkatesan, Meera; Sasi, Philip; Lweno, Omar; Mutani, Paul; Hamad, Ali; Mohammed, Ali; Urassa, Alwisa; Mzee, Tutu; Padilla, Debbie; Ruben, Adam; Lee Sim, B. Kim; Tanner, Marcel; Abdulla, Salim; Hoffman, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by mosquito bite has been used to assess anti-malaria interventions in > 1,500 volunteers since development of methods for infecting mosquitoes by feeding on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) gametocyte cultures. Such CHMIs have never been used in Africa. Aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Pf sporozoites, PfSPZ Challenge, were used to infect Dutch volunteers by intradermal injection. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess safety and infectivity of PfSPZ Challenge in adult male Tanzanians. Volunteers were injected intradermally with 10,000 (N = 12) or 25,000 (N = 12) PfSPZ or normal saline (N = 6). PfSPZ Challenge was well tolerated and safe. Eleven of 12 and 10 of 11 subjects, who received 10,000 and 25,000 PfSPZ respectively, developed parasitemia. In 10,000 versus 25,000 PfSPZ groups geometric mean days from injection to Pf positivity by thick blood film was 15.4 versus 13.5 (P = 0.023). Alpha-thalassemia heterozygosity had no apparent effect on infectivity. PfSPZ Challenge was safe, well tolerated, and infectious. PMID:25070995

  5. Whole genome sequencing in the prevention and control of Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J R; Didelot, X; Crook, D W; Llewelyn, M J; Paul, J

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection but weaknesses inherent in currently available typing methods impede effective infection prevention and control. The high resolution offered by whole genome sequencing has the potential to revolutionise our understanding and management of S. aureus infection. To outline the practicalities of whole genome sequencing and discuss how it might shape future infection control practice. We review conventional typing methods and compare these with the potential offered by whole genome sequencing. In contrast with conventional methods, whole genome sequencing discriminates down to single nucleotide differences and allows accurate characterisation of transmission events and outbreaks and additionally provides information about the genetic basis of phenotypic characteristics, including antibiotic susceptibility and virulence. However, translating its potential into routine practice will depend on affordability, acceptable turnaround times and on creating a reliable standardised bioinformatic infrastructure. Whole genome sequencing has the potential to provide a universal test that facilitates outbreak investigation, enables the detection of emerging strains and predicts their clinical importance. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful prevention of respiratory syncytial virus nosocomial transmission following an enhanced seasonal infection control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, V; Ghannoum, M; Weiss, K; Roy, J; Béliveau, C

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections can be serious in severely immunocompromised patients. Use of a targeted infection control program (TICP) has been shown to reduce RSV nosocomial transmission. We evaluated the impact of an enhanced seasonal infection control program (ESICP) vs standard TICP in a hematology-oncology ward. TICP was applied from 1999 to 2001 and ESICP applied from 2001 to 2003. ESICP consisted of strict isolation for all patients admitted on the ward during the RSV season. We prospectively evaluated the incidence, related morbidity and mortality of nosocomial RSV in both field interventions. A total of 40 hospitalized RSV infections were documented. The cumulative incidence of nosocomial RSV during TICP and ESICP was respectively of 42.8 and 3.9 cases/1000 admissions (relative risk = 0.09). ESICP needed to be implemented on 26 admitted patients on our ward to prevent one RSV nosocomial case. Furthermore, implementation of ESICP prevented four pneumonias and two deaths per RSV season. We conclude that ESICP is significantly more efficient than TICP to reduce the occurrence of nosocomial RSV infections and its related morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancy and recipients of hematopoietic SCT.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in east Africa: challenges and possibilities for prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalu, F S; Lyamuya, E

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency infection and AIDS are a major recent microbial infection in east Africa with serious health and socioeconomic impacts in the region. At present HIV infection and AIDS account for more than 50% of adult medical admissions into some of the national and provincial hospitals as well as for 10-15% of paediatric admissions. AIDS is also at present the commonest cause of death among those aged 15-45 years. Tuberculosis, a closely associated disease to HIV infection, has increased more than three fold in some countries in the region. The prevalence of HIV infection currently ranges from 10-30% among adults in urban areas and from less than 1% to 25% in adults in rural areas; since this prevalence is still rising, the full impact of the AIDS problem in east Africa is yet to be realised. This is different from the situation in many developed countries where AIDS is no longer a priority health issue and where peak prevalences of the infection have been reached. The differences in HIV prevalences between east Africa and developed countries are due to poverty, ignorance, high prevalence of other STDs and associated cultural and traditional practices which prevail and facilitate HIV transmission in the region. While more than 80% of HIV infection in east Africa is transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, 5-15% of cases are perinatally transmitted and the remaining cases are transmitted through blood and blood products. While a lot of scientific advances have been made in immunopathology of AIDS, diagnostics and in social behavioural studies, we are still a long way towards getting curative therapy and or effective preventive vaccines. Recent discovery that use of zidovudine can significantly reduce perinatal HIV transmission is an additional breakthrough. While knowledge and tools for preventing HIV transmission are available in the world, prospects for AIDS control in east Africa appear gloomy unless major efforts are made in the reduction of

  8. Primary psychosis and Borna disease virus infection in Lithuania: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliunaite, Violeta; Steibliene, Vesta; Bode, Liv; Podlipskyte, Aurelija; Bunevicius, Robertas; Ludwig, Hanns

    2016-11-03

    The hypothesis that microbial infections may be linked to mental disorders has long been addressed for Borna disease virus (BDV), but clinical and epidemiological evidence remained inconsistent due to non-conformities in detection methods. BDV circulating immune complexes (CIC) were shown to exceed the prevalence of serum antibodies alone and to comparably screen for infection in Europe (DE, CZ, IT), the Middle East (IR) and Asia (CN), still seeking general acceptance. We used CIC and antigen (Ag) tests to investigate BDV infection in Lithuania through a case-control study design comparing in-patients suffering of primary psychosis with blood donors. One hundred and six acutely psychotic in-patients with no physical illness, consecutively admitted to the regional mental hospital, and 98 blood donors from the Blood Donation Centre, Lithuania, were enrolled in the study. The severity of psychosis was assessed twice, prior and after acute antipsychotic therapy, by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). BDV-CIC and Ag markers were tested once after therapy was terminated. What we found was a significantly higher prevalence of CIC, indicating a chronic BDV infection, in patients with treated primary psychosis than in blood donor controls (39.6 % vs. 22.4 %, respectively). Free BDV Ag, indicating currently active infection, did not show significant differences among study groups. Higher severity of psychosis prior to treatment was inversely correlated to the presence of BDV Ag (42.6 vs. 34.1 BPRS, respectively; p = 0.022). The study concluded significantly higher BDV infection rates in psychotic than in healthy Lithuanians, thus supporting similar global trends for other mental disorders. The study raised awareness to consider the integration of BDV infection surveillance in psychiatry research in the future.

  9. The Social Stigma Experience in Patients With Hepatitis B Infection: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Bayani, Masomeh; Zabihi, Ali

    The social stigma in patients with hepatitis B virus infection has caused several complications for both the patients and the associated medical system. This study aimed at demonstrating the social stigma experienced by these patients in Iran. This is a qualitative study using a content analysis approach with references to primary and secondary sources. The data were collected through 15 unstructured and in-depth interviews conducted in 2014. By analyzing the data, two main themes were noted: extrinsic concepts of social stigma (causing reprehension, embarrassment, and discrimination) and intrinsic concepts of social stigma (sense of rejection, isolation, and frustration). The analysis of participants' experiences showed that social stigma is a simple lack of knowledge among the patients and society and it is more intense in the first days after the diagnosis. Stigma is prevalent among patients with hepatitis B virus, causes them to hide the disease, and provokes various complications for them as well as society. This study emphasizes the necessity of implementing health education programs about hepatitis B and its associated stigma, especially considering the potential impact of a mass media campaign.

  10. Preparing an Academic Medical Center to Manage Patients Infected With Ebola: Experiences of a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Carl H; Koenig, Kristi L; Alassaf, Wajdan

    2015-10-01

    As Ebola has spread beyond West Africa, the challenges confronting health care systems with no experience in managing such patients are enormous. Not only is Ebola a significant threat to a population's health, it can infect the medical personnel trying to treat it. As such, it represents a major challenge to those in public health, emergency medical services (EMS), and acute care hospitals. Our academic medical center volunteered to become an Ebola Treatment Center as part of the US effort to manage the threat. We developed detailed policies and procedures for Ebola patient management at our university hospital. Both the EMS system and county public health made significant contributions during the development process. This article shares information about this process and the outcomes to inform other institutions facing similar challenges of preparing for an emerging threat with limited resources. The discussion includes information about management of (1) patients who arrive by ambulance with prior notification, (2) spontaneous walk-in patients, and (3) patients with confirmed Ebola who are interfacility transfers. Hospital management includes information about Ebola screening procedures, personal protective equipment selection and personnel training, erection of a tent outside the main facility, establishing an Ebola treatment unit inside the facility, and infectious waste and equipment management. Finally, several health policy considerations are presented.

  11. Outcomes of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients with Rhinovirus Infection: A Matched, Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abandeh, Foad I.; Lustberg, Mark; Devine, Steven; Elder, Pat; Andritsos, Leslie; Martin, Stanley I.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of rhinovirus in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is not well defined. A retrospective, matched, case-control study of HSCT recipients with rhinovirus was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Controls were matched for timing relative to transplant, malignancy, and stem cell source. There were 47 cases and 94 controls. Cases and controls did not differ with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, donor source, malignancy, conditioning regimen, immunosuppression, antimicrobial prophylaxis, or significant comorbidities. There were no differences in need for ICU care, 100 day mortality, hospice discharge, relapse of disease, GVHD or development of disease or infection due to CMV or EBV. Other infectious complications after rhinovirus diagnosis were also equal. However, there was an increased number of recurrent hospitalizations from any cause among cases (46.8% vs. 24.5%, P=0.007). Recurrent hospitalizations due to any infection were also more common in cases (34% vs. 14.9%, P=0.015). For patients who were diagnosed with rhinovirus pre-transplant (n=13), there was no difference in outcomes compared to matched controls. HSCT recipients with rhinovirus have an increased risk of hospital readmission. However, there was no difference in outcomes compared to matched controls. Transplantation in patients with active rhinovirus infection appears to be safe. PMID:23872740

  12. Outcomes of hematopoietic SCT recipients with rhinovirus infection: a matched, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abandeh, F I; Lustberg, M; Devine, S; Elder, P; Andritsos, L; Martin, S I

    2013-11-01

    The impact of rhinovirus in hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) recipients is not well defined. A retrospective, matched, case-control study of HSCT recipients with rhinovirus was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Controls were matched for timing relative to transplant, malignancy, and stem cell source. There were 47 cases and 94 controls. The cases and controls did not differ with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, donor source, malignancy, conditioning regimen, immunosuppression, antimicrobial prophylaxis or significant comorbidities. There were no differences in need for intensive care unit care, 100 day mortality, hospice discharge, relapse of disease, GVHD or development of disease or infection due to CMV or EBV. Other infectious complications after rhinovirus diagnosis were also equal. However, there was an increased number of recurrent hospitalizations from any cause among the cases (46.8% vs 24.5%, P=0.007). Recurrent hospitalizations due to any infection were also more common in cases (34% vs 14.9%, P=0.015). For patients who were diagnosed with rhinovirus pre-transplant (n=13), there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. HSCT recipients with rhinovirus have an increased risk of hospital readmission. However, there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. Transplantation in patients with active rhinovirus infection appears to be safe.

  13. Association of tattooing and hepatitis C virus infection: a multicenter case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kerrilynn; Dhalla, Sameer; Aytaman, Ayse; Tenner, Craig T; Francois, Fritz

    2013-06-01

    Although injection drug use (IDU) and blood transfusions prior to 1992 are well-accepted risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, many studies that evaluated tattooing as a risk factor for HCV infection did not control for a history of IDU or transfusion prior to 1992. In this large, multicenter, case-control study, we analyzed demographic and HCV risk factor exposure history data from 3,871 patients, including 1,930 with chronic HCV infection (HCV RNA-positive) and 1,941 HCV-negative (HCV antibody-negative) controls. Crude and fully adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of tattoo exposure by multivariate logistic regression in HCV-infected versus controls were determined. As expected, IDU (65.9% versus 17.8%; P history of having one or more tattoos (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 3.23-4.49; P history of ever injecting drugs and those who had a blood transfusion prior to 1992, a total of 1,886 subjects remained for analysis (465 HCV-positive patients and 1,421 controls). Among these individuals without traditional risk factors, HCV-positive patients remained significantly more likely to have a history of one or more tattoos after adjustment for age, sex, and race/ethnicity (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 3.75-7.11; P Tattooing is associated with HCV infection, even among those without traditional HCV risk factors such as IDU and blood transfusion prior to 1992. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Infection control knowledge, attitudes, and practices among healthcare workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward A; Margoles, Lindsay; Kacha, Ermias; Blumberg, Henry M; Kempker, Russell R

    2013-12-01

    To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes, and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. An anonymous 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at 2 university hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge items were scored as correct/incorrect. Attitude and practice items were assessed using a Likert scale. In total, 261 surveys were completed by physicians (51%) and nurses (49%). Fifty-one percent of respondents were male; mean age was 30 years. While hand hygiene knowledge was fair, self-reported practice was suboptimal. Physicians reported performing hand hygiene 7% and 48% before and after patient contact, respectively. Barriers for performing hand hygiene included lack of hand hygiene agents (77%), sinks (30%), and proper training (50%) as well as irritation and dryness (67%) caused by hand sanitizer made in accordance with the World Health Organization formulation. TB infection control knowledge was excellent (more than 90% correct). Most HCWs felt that they were at high risk for occupational acquisition of TB (71%) and that proper TB infection control can prevent nosocomial transmission (92%). Only 12% of HCWs regularly wore a mask when caring for TB patients. Only 8% of HCWs reported that masks were regularly available, and 76% cited a lack of infrastructure to isolate suspected/known TB patients. Training HCWs about the importance and proper practice of hand hygiene along with improving hand sanitizer options may improve patient safety. Additionally, enhanced infrastructure is needed to improve TB infection control practices and allay HCW concerns about acquiring TB in the hospital.

  15. Follow up of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in two mammals species, Nasua narica and Procyon lotor (Carnivora: Procyonidae): evidence of infection control?