WorldWideScience

Sample records for expedited response action

  1. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  2. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  3. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  4. Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-04-01

    On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

  5. 49 CFR 385.105 - Expedited action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.105 Expedited action. (a) A Mexico-domiciled... driver who tests positive for controlled substances or alcohol or who refuses to submit to required controlled substances or alcohol tests. (6) Operating within the United States a motor vehicle that is not...

  6. Multimodal responsive action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    While a first pair part projects a limited set of second pair parts to be provided next, responders select different types and formats for second pair parts to assemble activities (Schegloff 2007). Accordingly, various ways of shaping responses have been extensively studied (e.g. Pomerantz 1984...... the recipient’s gaze shift becomes a significant part of the speaker’s turn construction (Goodwin 1980), and when head nods show the recipient’s affiliation with the speaker’s stance (Stivers 2008). Still, much room remains for extending our current understanding of responding actions that necessarily involve...... both verbal and body-behavioral elements. This paper explores one such situation in professional-client interaction, during the event of evaluating a service outcome in a haircutting session. In general, a haircutting session is brought to its closure through the service-assessment sequence, in which...

  7. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper presents an argumentative case study of the discursive representation of risk, responsibility and political action in the Spanish media. The study uses a critical discourse analytical approach combined with theories on risk, agency and political communication in the media...... in discourse. Discourse analysis shows that in the Spanish newspaper sample the focus was on the construal of high risk and on the construal of the national Spanish politicians, the EU and the Brit-ish nation as scapegoats. No responsibility was associated with consumers or other individual players. Political....... It is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as for revealing relationships between social domains such as moral, politics, economics and science...

  8. 49 CFR 385.308 - What may cause an expedited action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quantity of certain radioactive materials (Class 7). (ii) Any quantity of certain explosives (Class 1..., FMCSA will send the new entrant a notice advising it to submit evidence of corrective action within 30...

  9. Ethology of fear : Responses, actions, universes

    OpenAIRE

    Riba, Carles, 1949-

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the motivational-behavioural system of fear from an ethological point of view. Fear behaviour is primarily considered reactive, that is, dependent upon past events, so its manifestations should be classified as responses rather than actions. The behavioural outcomes of fear which are closer to actions are those involved in defensive aggression and in deceit targeted at predators or rivals. We also analyse the perceptual worlds around fear and relate...

  10. Speech Versus Action in Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanna Ferreira Peixoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of rethinking the consumption culture in contemporary society brings up the interest in researching how consumption habits are related to environmental preservation. Even though sustainable practices are valuable, the comparison amid how people act as consumers and their assumed ethical stance raises questions. Consumers advocate a concern for environmental issues but research shows that their consumption habits are still old fashioned. This study target the convergence and divergence between environmentally responsible speech and consumption behavior under the perspective of theories of action (Argyris, Putnam & Smith, 1985. Research utilized in-depth interviews and self-reports, using a logbook, to collect information about environmentally responsible discourse and consumption behavior of 11 participants. Data collection and analysis explore dimensions of environmentally responsible behavior (Stern, 1999, 2000: personal domain; behavioral domain; contextual domain; personal capabilities; and habits & routines. Results suggest that environmentally responsible behavior is not always consistent with the discourse due to influence of motivational issues (impotence, lack of interest, sacrifice, and convenience and contextual issues (financial situation, lack of public policies, time constraints, and culture.

  11. Towards Responsible Action through Agroecological Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Francis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Agroecology MSc Program in the Nordic Region, conventional training of routine skills and memorizing facts, principles and theories are only two components of the educational activities.We have established a dual learning ladder metaphor to explore the expanded learning process. To establish context and build relevance, student teams begin their studies in agroecology by working with farmers and other key clients in the food system. After exploring the current situation, students can step down the learning ladder to acquire additional needed information and skills. Next they explore the links between theory and application, and we provide a safe space to experiment with putting knowledge into directed action. To help clients plan for a desirable future in farming and food systems, students step up the learning ladder to practice their ability to think creatively about the future, and then to evaluate the expected impacts and potential implications of alternative scenarios. Underlying the learning of skills, principles, and methods for action are the internal values and attitudes that will motivate and drive students in their future work. These include individual learning as a process of practicing, assimilating, connecting, creating, and acting with responsibility. In this paper we describe the educational process used in agroecology, with the dual learning ladder as metaphor for both cognitive learning and personal growth.

  12. Towards Responsible Action through Agroecological Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Lieblein

    Full Text Available In the Agroecology MSc Program in the Nordic Region, conventional training of routine skills and memorizing facts, principles and theories are only two components of the educational activities.We have established a dual learning ladder metaphor to explore the expanded learning process. To establish context and build relevance, student teams begin their studies in agroecology by working with farmers and other key clients in the food system. After exploring the current situation, students can step down the learning ladder to acquire additional needed information and skills. Next they explore the links between theory and application, and we provide a safe space to experiment with putting knowledge into directed action. To help clients plan for a desirable future in farming and food systems, students step up the learning ladder to practice their ability to think creatively about the future, and then to evaluate the expected impacts and potential implications of alternative scenarios. Underlying the learning of skills, principles, and methods for action are the internal values and attitudes that will motivate and drive students in their future work. These include individual learning as a process of practicing, assimilating, connecting, creating, and acting with responsibility. In this paper we describe the educational process used in agroecology, with the dual learning ladder as metaphor for both cognitive learning and personal growth.

  13. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: the roles of response programming and external attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Cooke, Andrew; Ring, Christopher; Wilson, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Quiet eye training expedites skill learning and facilitates anxiety-resistant performance. Changes in response programming and external focus of attention may explain such benefits. We examined the effects of quiet eye training on golf-putting performance, quiet eye duration, kinematics (clubhead acceleration), and physiological (heart rate, muscle activity) responses. Forty participants were assigned to a quiet eye or technical trained group and completed 420 baseline, training, retention, and pressure putts. The quiet eye group performed more accurately and displayed more effective gaze control, lower clubhead acceleration, greater heart rate deceleration, and reduced muscle activity than the technical trained group during retention and pressure tests. Thus, quiet eye training was linked to indirect measures of improved response programming and an external focus. Mediation analyses partially endorsed a response programming explanation. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. 17 CFR 8.25 - Member responsibility actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member responsibility actions. 8.25 Section 8.25 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXCHANGE PROCEDURES FOR DISCIPLINARY, SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Summary Actions § 8.25 Member...

  15. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  16. Expedition sol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?......Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?...

  17. Summary of canister overheating incident at the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driggers, S.A.

    1994-03-10

    The granular activated carbon (GAC)-filled canister that overheated was being used to adsorb carbon tetrachloride vapors drawn from a well near the 216-Z-9 Trench, a subsurface disposal site in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The overheating incident resulted in a band of discolored paint on the exterior surface of the canister. Although there was no other known damage to equipment, no injuries to operating personnel, and no releases of hazardous materials, the incident is of concern because it was not anticipated. It also poses the possibility of release of carbon tetrachloride and other hazardous vapors if the incident were to recur. All soil vapor extraction system (VES) operations were halted until a better understanding of the cause of the incident could be determined and controls implemented to reduce the possibility of a recurrence. The focus of this report and the intent of all the activities associated with understanding the overheating incident has been to provide information that will allow safe restart of the VES operations, develop operational limits and controls to prevent recurrence of an overheating incident, and safely optimize recovery of carbon tetrachloride from the ground.

  18. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Enforcement Action Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Enforcement Action Response System collects waste transaction information, and liability determination information. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  19. Harmful Algal Blooms – Special Sampling and Response Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Harmful Algal Blooms – Special Sampling and Response Actions webpage contains information about Background on Harmful Algae in Surface Waters and What to Do if Your System Has Indicators of an Algal Bloom.

  20. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  1. Conditional autonomy and responsible Action: A response to Yusef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusef Waghid in his response to Martin Hall argues that Martin Hall offers a better way of making sense of some of the conceptual and pragmatic links between academic freedom and institutional autonomy. Nevertheless Waghid critiques Hall's uncritical treatment of prominent theoretical positions for his claims, which ...

  2. Erythropoietin Action in Stress Response, Tissue Maintenance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR, suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease.

  3. Action Research and Response to Intervention: Bridging the Discourse Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define and clarify the process of instructional problem-solving using assessment data within action research (AR) and Response to Intervention (RtI). Similarities between AR and RtI are defined and compared. Lastly, specific resources and examples of the instructional problem-solving process of AR within…

  4. 40 CFR 307.22 - Preauthorization of response actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), if there is acute threat of fire, explosion, or direct human contact with hazardous substances... an application for preauthorization; (2) Submit an application for preauthorization (EPA Form 2075-3... the Administrator or his designee before initiating the response action. (b) All applications for...

  5. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise P Kirsch

    Full Text Available Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS and zygomaticus major (ZM muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation.

  6. Response actions influence the categorization of directions in auditory space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Castro Campos Velten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial region concepts such as front, back, left and right reflect our typical interaction with space, and the corresponding surrounding regions have different statuses in memory. We examined the representation of spatial directions in the auditory space, specifically in how far natural response actions, such as orientation movements towards a sound source, would affect the categorization of egocentric auditory space. While standing in the middle of a circle with 16 loudspeakers, participants were presented acoustic stimuli coming from the loudspeakers in randomized order, and verbally described their directions by using the concept labels front, back, left, right, front-right, front-left, back-right and back-left. Response actions varied in three blocked conditions: 1 facing front, 2 turning the head and upper body to face the stimulus, and 3 turning the head and upper body plus pointing with the hand and outstretched arm towards the stimulus. In addition to a protocol of the verbal utterances, motion capture and video recording generated a detailed corpus for subsequent analysis of the participants’ behavior. Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides. We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides’ regions.

  7. Visual responses to action between unfamiliar object pairs modulate extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Melanie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies show that positioning familiar pairs of objects for action ameliorates visual extinction in neuropsychological patients (Riddoch, Humphreys, Edwards, Baker, & Willson, 2003). This effect is stronger when objects are viewed from a self-perspective and are placed in locations congruent with the patient's premorbid handedness (Humphreys, Wulff, Yoon, & Riddoch, 2010a), consistent with it being modulated by a motor response to the stimuli. There is also some evidence that extinction can be reduced with unfamiliar object pairs positioned for action (Riddoch et al. 2006), but the effects of reference frame and hand-object congruence have not been examined with such items. This was investigated in the present experiment. There was greater recovery from extinction when objects were action-related compared to when they were not, in line with previous studies. In addition, patients benefited more when they saw action-related pairs from a third-person than from a first-person perspective. Interestingly, on trials where extinction occurred, there was a bias reporting the 'active' object on the extinguished side-a reversal of the standard pattern of extinction-but only when objects were seen from a self-perspective. The data show that several factors contribute to the effects of action relations on attention, depending upon the familiarity of the object pairs and the reference frame that stimuli have been seen in. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Observation of action and autonomic nervous system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Olivier; Collet, Christian; Dittmar, André

    2005-08-01

    Observing somebody performing an action has been shown to elicit neuronal activity in the premotor cortex. This paper investigated physiological effect of observing an effortful action at the peripheral level. As Autonomic Nervous System responses reflect central nervous system processes such as movement planning and programming, it was expected that observing an action would elicit a pattern of ANS responses matching those recorded during actual movement. 12 male subjects, ages 23 to 28 years (M = 25.5, SD = 1.9), were selected as they were experienced in weight lifting. They were asked to observe a squat movement followed by returning to the upright position under 3 different conditions: (i) observation of actual movement performed by somebody else, (ii) observation of a video of the subject himself (first-person video), and (iii) observation of a video of somebody else performing the same movement (third-person video). Moreover, each movement was observed when performed at 50% and 90% of each participant's personal best mark (% of the highest weight which could be lifted). Three ANS parameters were continuously recorded: skin resistance, temperature and heart rate. ANS responses varied as a function of movement intensity: autonomic responses recorded during movement observation at 90% were significantly higher and longer than those recorded during movement observation at 50%. Thus, autonomic responses were linked to the amount of observed effort. Conversely, no difference was found among the three conditions of observation. ANS responses from observation of actual movement were shown to resemble those recorded under the two conditions of video observation.

  9. Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM`s after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide`s scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary.

  10. Dynamic structure of joint-action stimulus-response activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryLauren Malone

    Full Text Available The mere presence of a co-actor can influence an individual's response behavior. For instance, a social Simon effect has been observed when two individuals perform a Go/No-Go response to one of two stimuli in the presence of each other, but not when they perform the same task alone. Such effects are argued to provide evidence that individuals co-represent the task goals and the to-be-performed actions of a co-actor. Motivated by the complex-systems approach, the present study was designed to investigate an alternative hypothesis--that such joint-action effects are due to a dynamical (time-evolving interpersonal coupling that operates to perturb the behavior of socially situated actors. To investigate this possibility, participants performed a standard Go/No-Go Simon task in joint and individual conditions. The dynamic structure of recorded reaction times was examined using fractal statistics and instantaneous cross-correlation. Consistent with our hypothesis that participants responding in a shared space would become behaviorally coupled, the analyses revealed that reaction times in the joint condition displayed decreased fractal structure (indicative of interpersonal perturbation processes modulating ongoing participant behavior compared to the individual condition, and were more correlated across a range of time-scales compared to the reaction times of pseudo-pair controls. Collectively, the findings imply that dynamic processes might underlie social stimulus-response compatibility effects and shape joint cognitive processes in general.

  11. Anaphylactic shock: catecholamine actions in the responses to opioid antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, S

    1988-01-01

    The pathophysiological consequences of endorphin release in anaphylactic shock were investigated through pharmacological studies using opiate antagonists (naloxone, naltrexone, natrexone methyl bromide) as well as agonists (morphine, beta-endorphin). These studies suggest that induction of anaphylaxis provokes the release of endogenous opioids, possibly from the hypothalamus, which contribute to the shock process by stimulating opiate receptors in the CNS. The mechanism of pathophysiologic action of endorphin in anaphylaxis involves, at least in part, inhibition of the central component of the sympatho-adrenalmedullary system. This results in reduced effectiveness of the sympathetic system to physiologically reverse the circulatory effects of the toxic mediators of anaphylaxis. Naloxone, by blocking endorphin action at CNS opiate receptors located at autonomic regulatory centers (e.g. hypothalamus), reverses the sympatho-inhibitory effect of the endorphin peptides. This results in increased central sympathetic outflow to peripheral sympathetic neuroeffector mechanisms; it affords improved sympathetic compensatory responses and increases survival. TRH and DT gamma E physiologically oppose the action of endorphins upon the autonomic system. They stimulate central sympathetic mechanisms through their own receptor systems and increase outflow to peripheral sympathetic effectors. This also results in improved circulatory function and survival.

  12. Responses to irrational actions in action observation and mentalising networks of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Lauren E; Mullett, Timothy L; Ropar, Danielle; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2014-12-01

    By observing other people, we can often infer goals and motivations behind their actions. This study examines the role of the action observation network (AON) and the mentalising network (MZN) in the perception of rational and irrational actions. Past studies in this area report mixed results, so the present paper uses new stimuli which precisely control motion path, the social form of the actor and the rationality of the action. A cluster in medial prefrontal cortex and a large cluster in the right inferior parietal lobule extending to the temporoparietal junction distinguished observation of irrational from rational actions. Activity within the temporoparietal region also correlated on a trial-by-trial basis with each participant's judgement of action rationality. These findings demonstrate that observation of another person performing an irrational action engages both action observation and mentalising networks. Our results advance current theories of action comprehension and the roles of action observation and mentalising networks in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Middle School Responses to Cyberbullying: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidack, Astri Marie

    2013-01-01

    This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…

  14. Effects of Velocity on Electromyographic, Mechanomyographic, and Torque Responses to Repeated Eccentric Muscle Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ethan C; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Smith, Cory M; Cochrane, Kristen C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Cramer, Joel T; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of the velocity of repeated eccentric muscle actions on the torque and neuromuscular responses during maximal isometric and eccentric muscle actions. Twelve resistance-trained men performed 30 repeated, maximal, eccentric, isokinetic muscle actions at randomly ordered velocities of 60, 120, or 180°·s on separate days. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) were performed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the repeated eccentric muscle actions on each day. Eccentric isokinetic peak torque (EIPT) values were the averages of the first 3 and last 3 repetitions of the 30 repeated eccentric muscle actions. During the EIPT and MVIC muscle actions, electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (EMG AMP and MMG AMP) and mean power frequency (EMG MPF and MMG MPF) values were assessed. These results indicated that the repeated eccentric muscle actions had no effects on EIPT, or the EMG AMP, EMG MPF, or MMG MPF values assessed during the EIPT muscle actions, but decreased MMG AMP. The repeated eccentric muscle actions, however, decreased MVIC torque, and also the EMG AMP and MMG MPF values assessed during the MVIC muscle actions, but increased MMG AMP. The results indicated that the velocity of the repeated eccentric muscle actions affected the MVIC torque responses, but not EIPT or any of the neuromuscular parameters. Furthermore, there are differences in the torque and neuromuscular responses for isometric vs. eccentric muscle actions after repeated eccentric muscle actions.

  15. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  16. 7 CFR 3565.108 - Responsibility for actions of agents and mortgage brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... brokers. 3565.108 Section 3565.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Requirements § 3565.108 Responsibility for actions of agents and mortgage brokers. An approved lender is responsible for the actions of its agents and mortgage brokers. ...

  17. Researching Multilingualism and Superdiversity: Grassroots Actions and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this thematic issue document studies of grassroots actions in promoting multilingualism across different sectors of society as well as in different social and professional domains. In doing so, the contributors raise issues of the relevance of the notion of community in the age of superdiversity and the researcher's…

  18. Responsible Action Research for the Pursuit of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Allan; Bennett, Kory; Vernaza-Hernández, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of justice has concerned human beings for centuries and, despite its importance, often remains outside the boundaries of our educational systems. This article reports on a study of an action research seminar for a group of teacher leaders in a position to instigate positive change within their educational context, and make their…

  19. 16 CFR 1015.5 - Time limitation on responses to requests for records and requests for expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Sundays, and legal public holidays). The time limitations on responses to requests for records shall begin to run as of the time a request for records is received by the Office of the Secretary and a date stamp notation placed directly on the request. (b) The time for responding to requests for records may...

  20. Occupational Therapy in Primary Health Care: responsibilities, actions, and technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata dos Humildes Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide means to mobilize occupational therapists towards reflections and studiesthat support and tool up Occupational Therapy (OT for its attributions, actions and technologies related toPrimary Health Care (PHC. It is the result of discussions held at the First National Seminar on OccupationalTherapy in PHC, which occurred in the Brazilian Congress of OT in Sao Paulo/2011. Its goal is to look at PHCin the sanitary international movement, its expression in Brazil and some historical reflections on the insertionof OT at such level of care. It points out that the formation of such profession, in spite of being historicallygrounded on the biomedical view of health, has contributed to a more effectual and comprehensive approachto the concept of health, for in its object of study and intervention, which includes the understanding of therelationship that individuals establish with their everyday activities, there is an expansion of awareness of the processes of illness and disabilities and also the biopsychosocial understanding of the individuals cared at thislevel. It also carries out an exercise of confrontation between the principles and propositions advocated byPrimary Care and the normative, epistemic and pragmatic precepts of this profession, suggesting possible OTattributions, actions and technologies related to Primary Health Care. It ends with the warning that, in spite ofOT progress so far, this profession is still quantitatively and qualitatively limited as to its actions, attributionsand technologies, and suggests further studies and debates on the matter to strengthen and tool up OccupationalTherapy for Primary Health Care.

  1. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this "language-to-action" link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance ("action-to-language" link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an "embodied or not" focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the link between

  2. EPA Actions in Response to Release of Radioactive Material from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about the actions EPA is taking to support and provide oversight of the WIPP release of radioactive material response effort, and provide information for the public.

  3. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this “language-to-action” link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance (“action-to-language” link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an “embodied or not” focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the

  4. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Actions on South Korean Adolescents’ Perceptions in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hee Lim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this study is to understand how adolescents respond to the food industry’s corporate social responsibility (CSR activities, especially the effects of such activities on consumers’ emotional responses, perceived authenticity, and attitudes toward the company. Understanding which types of CSR actions most influence adolescents is important for managers. This study examines adolescents’ responses to three types of CSR actions (career-related, environment-related, and wellbeing-related across two types of products (unhealthy and healthy foods. We find that CSR actions related to career issues have the greatest effects on adolescents’ emotional responses, perceived authenticity,and attitudes toward a company under the condition of healthy food products. In other words, when a healthy food company offers a career-related CSR program, adolescents have better responses than when an unhealthy food company offers the same CSR program.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliasha, Michael A.

    1991-08-23

    This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 22, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root causes of the findings identified during the assessment. The action plan has benefited from a complete review by various offices at DOE Headquarters as well as review by the Tiger Team that conducted the assessment to ensure that the described actions are responsive to the observed problems.

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliasha, Michael A.

    1991-08-23

    This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 2, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root cause of the findings identified during the assessment. This report is concerned with reactors safety and health findings, responses, and planned actions. Specific areas include: organization and administration; quality verification; operations; maintenance; training and certification; auxiliary systems; emergency preparedness; technical support; nuclear criticality safety; security/safety interface; experimental activities; site/facility safety review; radiological protection; personnel protection; fire protection; management findings, responses, and planned actions; self-assessment findings, responses, and planned actions; and summary of planned actions, schedules, and costs.

  7. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated

  8. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances response selection during action cascading processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Verkuil, Bart; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-06-01

    The ever-changing environment we are living in requires us to apply different action control strategies in order to fulfill a task goal. Indeed, when confronted with multiple response options it is fundamental to prioritize and cascade different actions. So far, very little is known about the neuromodulation of action cascading. In this study we assessed the causal role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and noradrenergic system in modulating the efficiency of action cascading by applying transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a new non-invasive and safe method to stimulate the vagus nerve and to increase GABA and norepinephrine concentrations in the brain. A single-blind, sham-controlled, between-group design was used to assess the effect of on-line (i.e., stimulation overlapping with the critical task) tVNS in healthy young volunteers (n=30)-on a stop-change paradigm. Results showed that active, as compared to sham stimulation, enhanced response selection functions during action cascading and led to faster responses when two actions were executed in succession. These findings provide evidence for the important role of the GABA-ergic and noradrenergic system in modulating performance in action cascading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND...

  10. Preparedness and response to terrorism: a framework for public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofin, Rosa

    2005-02-01

    Political group violence in the form of terrorist actions has become a reality worldwide, affecting the health and economies of populations. As a consequence, preparedness and response are becoming an integral part of public health action. Risk appraisal, preservation of human and civil rights and communications within and between countries are all issues to be considered in the process. The combination of the natural history of terrorist actions and the epidemiological triangle model has been adapted in this paper and suggested as a comprehensive approach for preparedness and action. It covers preparedness (pre-event), response (event) and the consequences (post-event) of a terrorist attack. It takes into account the human factor, vectors and environment involved in each one of the phases. Terrorism is a global reality with varying underlying causes, manifestations and impact on the health of the public. Preparedness, response and rehabilitation are an integral part of public health action. Consideration of the pre-event, event and post-event phases in terrorist actions, together with the human factor, vector/agent and environment in each of these phases, offers a framework for public health preparedness, response and rehabilitation. Planning should consider risk assessment, risk communication, inter-sectorial cooperation, enactment of laws and regulations which consider protection of the public's health and civil liberties. Allocation of resources would need to make allowance for maintenance and development of ongoing public health activities.

  11. Expeditions and other exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1964-01-01

    Previous to the 4th UNESCO Expedition, Dr H. Sleumer of the Rijksherbarium made three trips together with Mr Tem Smitinand, first to Doi Chiengdao and Doi Suthep in the North (Aug. 15-21, 1963), then to the Khao Yai National Park in Central Siam (Aug. 28-29), then to Pha Nok Khao and Phu Krading

  12. 25 CFR 30.119 - Who is responsible for implementing required remedial actions at a Bureau-funded school...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... actions at a Bureau-funded school identified for school improvement, corrective action or restructuring... YEARLY PROGRESS Failure To Make Adequate Yearly Progress § 30.119 Who is responsible for implementing required remedial actions at a Bureau-funded school identified for school improvement, corrective action or...

  13. Risk Communication Emergency Response Preparedness: Contextual Assessment of the Protective Action Decision Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub; Palenchar, Michael J; Lemon, Laura L

    2017-06-14

    Studies are continuously performed to improve risk communication campaign designs to better prepare residents to act in the safest manner during an emergency. To that end, this article investigates the predictive ability of the protective action decision model (PADM), which links environmental and social cues, predecision processes (attention, exposure, and comprehension), and risk decision perceptions (threat, alternative protective actions, and stakeholder norms) with protective action decision making. This current quasi-longitudinal study of residents (N = 400 for each year) in a high-risk (chemical release) petrochemical manufacturing community investigated whether PADM core risk perceptions predict protective action decision making. Telephone survey data collected at four intervals (1995, 1998, 2002, 2012) reveal that perceptions of protective actions and stakeholder norms, but not of threat, currently predict protective action decision making (intention to shelter in place). Of significance, rather than threat perceptions, perception of Wally Wise Guy (a spokes-character who advocates shelter in place) correlates with perceptions of protective action, stakeholder norms, and protective action decision making. Wally's response-efficacy advice predicts residents' behavioral intentions to shelter in place, thereby offering contextually sensitive support and refinement for PADM. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Action of ethanol on responses to nicotine from cerebellar Purkinje neurons: relationship to methyllycaconitine (MLA) inhibition of nicotine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Criswell, H E; Breese, G R

    1999-08-01

    The effect of ethanol on responses to nicotine from rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons was investigated using extracellular single-unit recording. Systemic administration of ethanol initially enhanced the nicotine-induced inhibition from 50% of the Purkinje neurons. However, irrespective of whether there was an initial enhancement, systemic administration of ethanol antagonized the response to nicotine from the majority of Purkinje neurons. When varying ethanol concentrations were electro-osmotically applied to this neuronal cell type, the responses to nicotine (6/8) were enhanced when a low concentration of ethanol (40 mM) was in the pipette, whereas the majority of nicotine responses (10/11) were antagonized when a higher concentration of ethanol (160 mM) was applied to Purkinje neurons. Thus, the concentration of ethanol presented to the neuron seemed to explain the biphasic consequence of systemically administered ethanol on responses to nicotine. In order to determine whether ethanol affected a specific nACh receptor subtype containing the alpha-7 subunit, it was initially established that the nicotinic antagonists, alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX) and methyllycaconitine (MLA), which are associated with this subunit, had identical actions on responses to nicotine from Purkinje neurons. When MLA was tested against responses to nicotine from this cell type, MLA antagonized the response to nicotine from 45% (9/20) of the neurons tested. In a direct comparison of the action of ethanol to inhibit responses to nicotine with the action of MLA on the same Purkinje neuron, ethanol inhibited responses to nicotine on all neurons sensitive to MLA. However, ethanol also affected nicotine-induced neural changes from some Purkinje neurons not sensitive to MLA antagonism of nicotine. These data support the supposition that ethanol affects a nACh receptor subtype which has an alpha-7 subunit as well as other nACh receptor subtypes without this specific subunit.

  15. A lunar polar expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Thomas

    This paper reviews issues related to a five-person expedition to the lunar north pole which primarily addresses site selection and the requirements for transportation, power, and life support. A one-year stay on the lunar surface is proposed based on available technology, and proposals are detailed for incorporating flight-proven systems, abort or rescue options, and the use of the base as the nucleus for subsequent operations. Specific details are given regarding lunar orbital data, the characteristics of the proposed base, power and consumables requirements, and equipment such as two-person lunar roving vehicles and space suits. During the expedition: (1) water is recycled; (2) Autolanders are used to deliver equipment; (3) two rovers are included in the mass budget; (4) the lunar surface is studied in detail. A polar lunar-base site offers the advantages of unobstructed astronomy, enhanced heat rejection, and the potential for reuse.

  16. Onset and duration of action of topical antihistamine: a study of histamine skin test response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danarti, Retno; Waskito, Fajar; Indrastuti, Niken

    2008-08-01

    Most patients who require skin prick testing cannot deal with their pruritus without taking antihistamines (AH). Orally administered AH has a quick onset of action, but it will suppress skin test responses (STR) from several days to weeks. In this study, we aimed to determine the onset and duration of action of single topical AH application by observing histamine-STR suppression over time. A two-step, randomized, intraindividual parallel-comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on the volar side of the forearm. Step 1 was aimed to determine the onset, while step 2 determined the duration of action. The topical AH tested was a single application of 5% doxepin hydrochloride cream, while 10 mg/ml histamine dihydrochloride was used to test the skin responses. Our 10 subjects' mean age was 35.8 +/- 3.179 years. Histamine wheal response was suppressed starting on minute 90 and the wheal width were back to >/= 7 mm(2 )on minute 270. Significant histamine reactivity difference between genders (P = 0.201) and atopic status (P = 1.000), which could be a source of bias in histamine STR, was not found among our subjects. Single application of topical AH has an onset of action in 90 min and duration of action skin prick testing after a few hours, without influencing the patient's STR.

  17. PRO-ECOLOGICAL ACTIONS AND CONSUMER CHOICES IN THE MODEL OF RESPONSIBLE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Olejniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current farming conditions cause that recent social and environmental aspects of management play an important role for the functioning of modern enterprises. This results from the fact that on the one hand the activities of modern enterprises are determined by the surroundings’ increasing complexity, on the other hand the growing demands of various groups of stakeholders build company’s success based not only on a quest to maximize their profi t, but primarily on taking the responsibility for the consequences of their actions. Additionally, the growing awareness of consumers makes more and more enterprises implement the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR in their actions. For this reason, it is important to discuss about the actions and choices of consumers in the model of CSR. The aim of this article is to present the results of the research on customers‘s environmentally conscious activities and choices.

  18. 75 FR 17453 - International Product Change-Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice... Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts to the Competitive Products List pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642...

  19. 78 FR 33452 - International Product Change-Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 2 AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice... Commission to add Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 2 to the Competitive Products List. DATES...

  20. Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

    2007-01-01

    Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…

  1. Gender-responsive budgeting in Africa: An action learning project in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender-responsive budgeting in Africa: An action learning project in Senegal and Uganda. Budgets are the implementing tools that transform government promises and commitments into programs and services. Mainstreaming gender considerations into the budget development process is critical to creating more equitable ...

  2. Linking Action Research to Response to Intervention (RtI): The Strategy Implementation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppey, David

    This paper showcases how one teacher preparation program embedded action research within the Response to Intervention (RtI) model. This integration helped preservice teachers gain a deeper knowledge of RtI key concepts and pedagogical decision making for meeting diverse students' needs. Examples from a course assignment are provided to demonstrate…

  3. Improving Responsiveness to Intervention in a Virtual Publically Supported Program: An Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to increase the elementary teachers' utilization of the RtI process. Another purpose of the study was to determine the teachers' background knowledge and perceptions about the Responsiveness to Intervention (RtI) process at the…

  4. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  5. 17 CFR 171.40 - Notice of the commencement of a member responsibility action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REVIEW OF NATIONAL FUTURES ASSOCIATION DECISIONS IN... National Futures Association pursuant to its rules shall advise the affected parties of their right to... by the National Futures Association In Member Responsibility Actions § 171.40 Notice of the...

  6. Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

  7. Five-Year Review of CERCLA Response Actions at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. L. Jolley

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes the documentation submitted in support of the five-year review or remedial actions implemented under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Sitewide at the Idaho National Laboratory. The report also summarizes documentation and inspections conducted at the no-further-action sites. This review covered actions conducted at 9 of the 10 waste area groups at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10. Waste Area Group 8 was not subject to this review, because it does not fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office. The review included past site inspections and monitoring data collected in support of the remedial actions. The remedial actions have been completed at Waste Area Groups 2, 4, 5, 6, and 9. Remedial action reports have been completed for Waste Area Groups 2 and 4, and remedial action reports are expected to be completed during 2005 for Waste Area Groups 1, 5, and 9. Remediation is ongoing at Waste Area Groups 3, 7, and 10. Remedial investigations are yet to be completed for Operable Units 3-14, 7-13/14, and 10-08. The review showed that the remedies have been constructed in accordance with the requirements of the Records of Decision and are functioning as designed. Immediate threats have been addressed, and the remedies continue to be protective. Potential short-term threats are being addressed though institutional controls. Soil cover and cap remedies are being maintained properly and inspected in accordance with the appropriate requirements. Soil removal actions and equipment or system removals have successfully achieved remedial action objectives identified in the Records of Decision. The next Sitewide five-year review is scheduled for completion by 2011.

  8. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his... responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee. (a) A farm labor contractor is responsible for... contractor who utilizes the services of another farm labor contractor who is not his employee must also...

  9. Overlapping dose responses of spermatogenic and extragonadal testosterone actions jeopardize the principle of hormonal male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwole, Olayiwola O; Vydra, Natalia; Wood, Nicholas E M; Samanta, Luna; Owen, Laura; Keevil, Brian; Donaldson, Mandy; Naresh, Kikkeri; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

    2014-06-01

    Testosterone (T), alone or in combination with progestin, provides a promising approach to hormonal male contraception. Its principle relies on enhanced negative feedback of exogenous T to suppress gonadotropins, thereby blocking the testicular T production needed for spermatogenesis, while simultaneously maintaining the extragonadal androgen actions, such as potency and libido, to avoid hypogonadism. A serious drawback of the treatment is that a significant proportion of men do not reach azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, commensurate with contraceptive efficacy. We tested here, using hypogonadal luteinizing hormone/choriongonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) knockout (LHR(-/-)) mice, the basic principle of the T-based male contraceptive method, that a specific T dose could maintain extragonadal androgen actions without simultaneously activating spermatogenesis. LHR(-/-) mice were treated with increasing T doses, and the responses of their spermatogenesis and extragonadal androgen actions (including gonadotropin suppression and sexual behavior) were assessed. Conspicuously, all dose responses to T were practically superimposable, and no dose of T could be defined that would maintain sexual function and suppress gonadotropins without simultaneously activating spermatogenesis. This finding, never addressed in clinical contraceptive trials, is not unexpected in light of the same androgen receptor mediating androgen actions in all organs. When extrapolated to humans, our findings may jeopardize the current approach to hormonal male contraception and call for more effective means of inhibiting intratesticular T production or action, to achieve consistent spermatogenic suppression. © FASEB.

  10. Abnormal Brain Responses to Action Observation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  12. Rubble masonry response under cyclic actions: The experience of L’Aquila city (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonti, Roberta, E-mail: roberta.fonti@tum.de; Barthel, Rainer, E-mail: r.barthel@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [TUM University, Chair of Structural Design, Arcisstraße 21, 80333 Munich (Germany); Formisano, Antonio, E-mail: antoform@unina.it [University of Naples “Federico II”, DIST Department, P.le V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Borri, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.borri@unipg.it [University of Perugia, Department of Engineering, Via G. Duranti 95, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Candela, Michele, E-mail: ing.mcandela@libero.it [University of Reggio Calabria, PAU Department, Salita Melissari 1, 89124 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    Several methods of analysis are available in engineering practice to study old masonry constructions. Two commonly used approaches in the field of seismic engineering are global and local analyses. Despite several years of research in this field, the various methodologies suffer from a lack of comprehensive experimental validation. This is mainly due to the difficulty in simulating the many different kinds of masonry and, accordingly, the non-linear response under horizontal actions. This issue can be addressed by examining the local response of isolated panels under monotonic and/or alternate actions. Different testing methodologies are commonly used to identify the local response of old masonry. These range from simplified pull-out tests to sophisticated in-plane monotonic tests. However, there is a lack of both knowledge and critical comparison between experimental validations and numerical simulations. This is mainly due to the difficulties in implementing irregular settings within both simplified and advanced numerical analyses. Similarly, the simulation of degradation effects within laboratory tests is difficult with respect to old masonry in-situ boundary conditions. Numerical models, particularly on rubble masonry, are commonly simplified. They are mainly based on a kinematic chain of rigid blocks able to perform different “modes of damage” of structures subjected to horizontal actions. This paper presents an innovative methodology for testing; its aim is to identify a simplified model for out-of-plane response of rubbleworks with respect to the experimental evidence. The case study of L’Aquila district is discussed.

  13. Infants' somatotopic neural responses to seeing human actions: I've got you under my skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni N Saby

    Full Text Available Human infants rapidly learn new skills and customs via imitation, but the neural linkages between action perception and production are not well understood. Neuroscience studies in adults suggest that a key component of imitation-identifying the corresponding body part used in the acts of self and other-has an organized neural signature. In adults, perceiving someone using a specific body part (e.g., hand vs. foot is associated with activation of the corresponding area of the sensory and/or motor strip in the observer's brain-a phenomenon called neural somatotopy. Here we examine whether preverbal infants also exhibit somatotopic neural responses during the observation of others' actions. 14-month-old infants were randomly assigned to watch an adult reach towards and touch an object using either her hand or her foot. The scalp electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded and event-related changes in the sensorimotor mu rhythm were analyzed. Mu rhythm desynchronization was greater over hand areas of sensorimotor cortex during observation of hand actions and was greater over the foot area for observation of foot actions. This provides the first evidence that infants' observation of someone else using a particular body part activates the corresponding areas of sensorimotor cortex. We hypothesize that this somatotopic organization in the developing brain supports imitation and cultural learning. The findings connect developmental cognitive neuroscience, adult neuroscience, action representation, and behavioral imitation.

  14. Plagiarism: A Shared Responsibility of All, Current Situation, and Future Actions in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    As combating plagiarism is a shared responsibility of all, this article focuses on presenting the current situation of higher education in Yemen. The critical review of four implementable policy documents and interviews revealed the absence of research ethics code, research misconduct policy, and institutional policies in the country. This led to the presence of several acts of research dishonesty. The article concludes with an initiative for necessary future actions in the nation.

  15. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited processes. 303.101 Section 303.101... STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.101 Expedited processes. (a) Definition. Expedited processes means... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to establish...

  16. 12 CFR 347.118 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited processing. 347.118 Section 347.118... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.118 Expedited processing. (a) Expedited processing of branch applications. An... foreign country, after complying with the expedited processing requirements contained in § 303.182(b) and...

  17. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  18. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eSoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-error slowing is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms. Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs. Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS. Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but post-error slowing did not take place immediately. Delayed post-error slowing was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to post-error slowing. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with post-error slowing and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater post-error slowing and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and post-error slowing did not occur quickly. Furthermore, post-error slowing and its neural correlate (N2 were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke

  19. Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Peggy Doyle

    2014-03-01

    Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance.

  20. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  1. ISS Expedition 33 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 33 from 07/2012-11/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  2. ISS Expedition 37 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 37 from 05/2013-11/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  3. ISS Expedition 01 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 01 from 10/2000-03/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  4. ISS Expedition 23 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 23 from 12/2009-09/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  5. ISS Expedition 24 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 24 from 04/2010-11/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. ISS Expedition 11 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 11 from 04/2005-10/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  8. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  9. ISS Expedition 16 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 16 from 10/2007-04/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  10. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  11. ISS Expedition 03 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 03 from 08/2001-12/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  12. ISS Expedition 10 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 10 from 10/2004-04/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  13. ISS Expedition 07 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 07 from 04/2003-10/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  14. ISS Expedition 39 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 39 from 11/2013-05/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  15. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  16. ISS Expedition 15 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 15 from 04/2007-10/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  17. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  18. ISS Expedition 05 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 05 from 06/2002-12/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  19. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  20. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  1. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  2. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  3. ISS Expedition 19 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 19 from 03/2009-05/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  4. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  5. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. ISS Expedition 34 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 34 from 12/2012-03/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. Specificity of high-intensity intermittent action remains important to MMA athletes' physical conditioning: response to Paillard (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-02-01

    This response to Paillard (2011) focuses on the intermittent nature of mixed martial arts (MMA). It also emphasizes that the main goal of MMA athletes is to win by knockout or submission and that these actions normally are high-intensity actions or preceded by high-intensity actions. Additionally, there is evidence that high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols are able to improve aerobic fitness. It is important only to adjust physical training to the athletes' techniques and tactics.

  8. Stochastic Response Characteristic and Equivalent Damping of Weak Nonlinear Energy Dissipation System under Biaxial Earthquake Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The random response characteristic of weak nonlinear structure under biaxial earthquake excitation is investigated. The structure has a SDOF (single degree of freedom with supporting braces and viscoelastic dampers. First, it adopts integral constitutive relation and establishes a differential and integral equations of motion. Then, according to the principle of energy balance, the equation is linearized. Finally, based on the stochastic averaging method, the general analytical solution of the variance of the displacement and velocity response and the equivalent damping is deduced and derived. At the same time, the joint probability density function of the amplitude and phase and displacement and velocity of the energy dissipation structure are also given. The dynamic characteristics of a structure with viscoelastic dampers are determined as a solution to the variance of displacement response, so the equivalent damping is taken into consideration as a solution to replace the original nonlinear damping. It means it has established a unified analytical solution of stochastic response analysis and equivalent damping of a SDOF nonlinear dissipation structure with the brace under biaxial earthquake action in this paper.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment. Volume 1, Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliasha, Michael A.

    1991-08-23

    This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 22, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root causes of the findings identified during the assessment. The action plan has benefited from a complete review by various offices at DOE Headquarters as well as review by the Tiger Team that conducted the assessment to ensure that the described actions are responsive to the observed problems.

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment. Volume 2, Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliasha, Michael A.

    1991-08-23

    This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 2, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root cause of the findings identified during the assessment. This report is concerned with reactors safety and health findings, responses, and planned actions. Specific areas include: organization and administration; quality verification; operations; maintenance; training and certification; auxiliary systems; emergency preparedness; technical support; nuclear criticality safety; security/safety interface; experimental activities; site/facility safety review; radiological protection; personnel protection; fire protection; management findings, responses, and planned actions; self-assessment findings, responses, and planned actions; and summary of planned actions, schedules, and costs.

  11. Lessons from the Ebola Outbreak: Action Items for Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Aguirre, A Alonso; Bailey, Charles L; Baranova, Ancha V; Crooks, Andrew T; Croitoru, Arie; Delamater, Paul L; Gupta, Jhumka; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Narayanan, Aarthi; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Rowan, Katherine E; Schwebach, J Reid; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan; Sklarew, Dann M; Stefanidis, Anthony; Agouris, Peggy

    2016-03-01

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa wanes, it is time for the international scientific community to reflect on how to improve the detection of and coordinated response to future epidemics. Our interdisciplinary team identified key lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak that can be clustered into three areas: environmental conditions related to early warning systems, host characteristics related to public health, and agent issues that can be addressed through the laboratory sciences. In particular, we need to increase zoonotic surveillance activities, implement more effective ecological health interventions, expand prediction modeling, support medical and public health systems in order to improve local and international responses to epidemics, improve risk communication, better understand the role of social media in outbreak awareness and response, produce better diagnostic tools, create better therapeutic medications, and design better vaccines. This list highlights research priorities and policy actions the global community can take now to be better prepared for future emerging infectious disease outbreaks that threaten global public health and security.

  12. A participatory action research pilot study of urban health disparities using rapid assessment response and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G; Celestin, Michel J; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention.

  13. Tourism Pedagogy and Visitor Responsibilities in Destinations of Local-Global Significance: Climate Change and Social-Political Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazim Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of climate change pedagogy and social action in tourism, with particular interest in globally-significant destinations under threat from climate change. Little is understood of the role and responsibility of visitors as key stakeholders in climate change-related action or the potential of such sites to foster environmental learning, as well as social and political action on climate change. Drawing on insights from Aldo Leopold and John Dewey, it is argued here that destinations that are valued intrinsically for their ecological and cultural importance are (or ought to be sites of enjoyment and pedagogy, facilitating experiential learning, care, responsibility and civic action towards their conservation. An exploratory case study of visitors to the Great Barrier Reef offers corroborative insights for such a “reef ethic” as described in this paper, related to visitor experience, learning and action in this World Heritage Area. The results of this paper support the need for a stronger pedagogic role to be adopted by tourism experience providers and site managers to facilitate climate change literacy and responsible action (hence facilitating global environmental citizenship. Their responsibility and that of reef visitors is discussed further.

  14. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either: (1...

  15. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture... processing. (a) A requester may apply for expedited processing at the time of the initial request for records. Within ten calendar days of its receipt of a request for expedited processing, an agency shall decide...

  16. 21 CFR 20.44 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited processing. 20.44 Section 20.44 Food and... Procedures and Fees § 20.44 Expedited processing. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will provide expedited processing of a request for records when the requester demonstrates a compelling need, or in other cases as...

  17. 28 CFR 802.8 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited processing. 802.8 Section 802.8... DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 802.8 Expedited processing. (a) Requests and appeals will... basis. (b) If you seek expedited processing, you must submit a statement, certified to be true and...

  18. Central exercise action increases the AMPK and mTOR response to leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Ropelle

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR are key regulators of cellular energy balance and of the effects of leptin on food intake. Acute exercise is associated with increased sensitivity to the effects of leptin on food intake in an IL-6-dependent manner. To determine whether exercise ameliorates the AMPK and mTOR response to leptin in the hypothalamus in an IL-6-dependent manner, rats performed two 3-h exercise bouts, separated by one 45-min rest period. Intracerebroventricular IL-6 infusion reduced food intake and pretreatment with AMPK activators and mTOR inhibitor prevented IL-6-induced anorexia. Activators of AMPK and fasting increased food intake in control rats to a greater extent than that observed in exercised ones, whereas inhibitor of AMPK had the opposite effect. Furthermore, the reduction of AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and increase in phosphorylation of proteins involved in mTOR signal transduction, observed in the hypothalamus after leptin infusion, were more pronounced in both lean and diet-induced obesity rats after acute exercise. Treatment with leptin reduced food intake in exercised rats that were pretreated with vehicle, although no increase in responsiveness to leptin-induced anorexia after pretreatment with anti-IL6 antibody, AICAR or Rapamycin was detected. Thus, the effects of leptin on the AMPK/mTOR pathway, potentiated by acute exercise, may contribute to appetite suppressive actions in the hypothalamus.

  19. Impact of the Innate Immune Response in the Actions of Ethanol on the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Jorge; Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Guerri, Consuelo

    2016-11-01

    The innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) participates in both synaptic plasticity and neural damage. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies supports the role of the neuroimmune system response in many actions of ethanol (EtOH) on the CNS. Research studies have shown that alcohol stimulates brain immune cells, microglia, and astrocytes, by activating innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) triggering signaling pathways, which culminate in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that lead to neuroinflammation. This review focuses on evidence that indicates the participation of TLRs and the inflammasome NLRs signaling response in many effects of EtOH on the CNS, such as neuroinflammation associated with brain damage, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and adolescent brain development alterations. It also reviews findings that indicate the role of TLR4-dependent signaling immune molecules in alcohol consumption, reward, and addiction. The research data suggest that overactivation of TLR4 or NLRs increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators to cause neural damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, while modest TLR4 activation, along with the generation of certain cytokines and chemokines in specific brain areas (e.g., amygdala, ventral tegmental area), modulate neurotransmission, alcohol drinking, and alcohol rewards. Elimination of TLR4 and NLRP3 abolishes many neuroimmune effects of EtOH. Despite much progress being made in this area, there are some research gaps and unanswered questions that this review discusses. Finally, potential therapies that target neuroimmune pathways to treat neuropathological and behavioral consequences of alcohol abuse are also evaluated. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Cancer distress screening data: translating knowledge into clinical action for a quality response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Doris; Hack, Thomas F; Green, Esther; Fitch, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the use of the knowledge to action framework for adapting guidelines for practice and the evidence for effective implementation interventions to promote a quality response to cancer distress screening data. We summarize progress in screening implementation in Ontario, Canada and the application of a systematic approach for adapting knowledge to practice and use of evidence-based knowledge translation interventions to ensure the uptake of best practices to manage distress. While significant progress has been made in the uptake of distress screening it is less clear if this has resulted in improvements in patient outcomes, i.e., reduced distress. The use of evidence-based knowledge translation strategies tailored to barriers at many levels of care delivery is critical to facilitate the uptake of distress screening data by the primary oncology team. There is a wealth of knowledge about the approaches that can be applied to translate knowledge into practice to improve psychosocial care and promote evidence-based distress management by the primary care oncology team. However, further implementation research is needed to advance knowledge about the most effective strategies in the context of cancer care.

  1. Mirror and (absence of) counter-mirror responses to action sounds measured with TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Waszak, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To what extent is the mirror neuron mechanism malleable to experience? The answer to this question can help characterising its ontogeny and its role in social cognition. Some suggest that it develops through sensorimotor associations congruent with our own actions. Others argue for its extreme volatility that will encode any sensorimotor association in the environment. Here, we added to this debate by exploring the effects of short goal-directed ‘mirror’ and ‘counter-mirror’ trainings (a ‘mirror’ training is defined as the first type of training encountered by the participants) on human auditory mirror motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). We recorded MEPs in response to two tones void of previous motor meaning, before and after mirror and counter-mirror trainings in which participants generated two tones of different pitch by performing free-choice button presses. The results showed that mirror MEPs, once established, were protected against an equivalent counter-mirror experience: they became manifest very rapidly and the same number of training trials that lead to the initial association did not suffice to reverse the MEP pattern. This steadiness of the association argues that, by serving direct-matching purposes, the mirror mechanism is a good solution for social cognition. PMID:29036454

  2. Benthic Biotic Response to Climate Changes over the Last 700,000 Years, the Sea of Japan: Ostracode Assemblages from Site U1427, IODP Expedition 346

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. H. M.; Yasuhara, M.; Iwatani, H.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Bassetti, M. A.; Sagawa, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea, semi-enclosed by the Eurasian Continent, Korean Peninsula, Japanese Islands, and shallow straits (water depth influence of TWC. Here we present 700,000-year record of benthic biotic response to the paleoceanographic changes in the southern Sea of Japan based on ostracode assemblage reconstruction at IODP Site U1427. Five local extinction events were caused by extreme bottom conditions (mainly oxygen depletion) during the Ice Age Terminations I, II, IV, V, and VII. Primary and secondary ostracode assemblages were revealed by Q-mode k-means clustering, CABFAC factor analysis, and non-metric multidimensional scaling. The primary ostracode components, characterized by Krithe sawanensis and Cytheropteron hyalinosa, broadly reflect glacial/interglacial and high-latitude insolation cycles. In contrast, a faunal shift determined by the secondary faunal components was driven by the TWC enhancement at 300 ka.

  3. Signature movements lead to efficient search for threatening actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A van Boxtel

    Full Text Available The ability to find and evade fighting persons in a crowd is potentially life-saving. To investigate how the visual system processes threatening actions, we employed a visual search paradigm with threatening boxer targets among emotionally-neutral walker distractors, and vice versa. We found that a boxer popped out for both intact and scrambled actions, whereas walkers did not. A reverse correlation analysis revealed that observers' responses clustered around the time of the "punch", a signature movement of boxing actions, but not around specific movements of the walker. These findings support the existence of a detector for signature movements in action perception. This detector helps in rapidly detecting aggressive behavior in a crowd, potentially through an expedited (subcortical threat-detection mechanism.

  4. Expeditions and other exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    The Flora of Ceylon Project (continued from p. 1684). This project of the Smithsonian Institution stands in Ceylon under the responsibility of Dr. R. Read, who himself is working on Monocots. Otherwise it is performed by visiting botanists who get transport, drying facilities, and can amply do field

  5. From Idea to Action: Promoting Responsible Management Education through a Semester-Long Academic Integrity Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Marc H.; Roussin, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a semester-long action-learning project where undergraduate or graduate management students learn about ethics, responsibility, and organizational behavior by examining the policy of their college or university that addresses academic integrity. Working in teams, students adopt a stakeholder management approach as they make…

  6. Pre-SMA graymatter density predicts individual differences in action selection in the face of conscious and unconscious response conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2011-02-01

    The presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is considered key in contributing to voluntary action selection during response conflict. Here we test whether individual differences in the ability to select appropriate actions in the face of strong (conscious) and weak (virtually unconscious) distracting alternatives are related to individual variability in pre-SMA anatomy. To this end, we scanned 58 participants, who performed a masked priming task in which conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or virtually unconsciously (strongly masked primes), with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that individual differences in pre-SMA gray-matter density are related to subjects' ability to voluntary select the correct action in the face of conflict, irrespective of the awareness level of conflict-inducing stimuli. These results link structural anatomy to individual differences in cognitive control ability, and provide support for the role of the pre-SMA in the selection of appropriate actions in situations of response conflict. Furthermore, these results suggest that flexible and voluntary behavior requires efficiently dealing with competing response tendencies, even those that are activated automatically and unconsciously.

  7. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  8. Evaluation of management of communication in the actions of preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Beserra, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes, E-mail: maurootto@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: maurootto@gmail.com, E-mail: mbeserra@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Celso Sucknow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Julio Cesar de Faria Alvim, E-mail: geowass@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in diverse areas of knowledge increases every day. This growth warning about the increased probability of accidents, radiological and nuclear emergencies, with possible consequences for the public, workers and the environment. Within this scenario, it is clear that studies and reassessments of the emergency response actions, receive proposals for continuous improvement. The achievement of the objectives of the response must be sustained by tactical, operation and logistics optimized processes. The articulation through communication between the teams involved in the response must be adaptable to each accident or emergency, respecting its size. The objectives of this study is to perform an assessment on the management of communication in the actions of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. This assessment is supported by best practices of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the Institute of Project Management (Project Management Institute-PMI). For this purpose, based on models referred were established performance indicators supported by the BSC (Balanced Scorecard). These indicators allowed to evaluate more objectively the performance of the communication processes associated with each phase of the response. The study resulted in the proposed model documents aiming to assist planning of communications exercises in preparation and response actions, supported and adapted the best practices of PMI. These methodologies were evaluated by real cases selected from radiological and nuclear emergencies published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  9. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  10. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  11. Transcriptional regulation of myotrophic actions by testosterone and trenbolone on androgen-responsive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; McCoy, Sean C; Ross, Heather H; Bernardo, Joseph A; Beharry, Adam W; Senf, Sarah M; Judge, Andrew R; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Cannady, Darryl F; Smith, Barbara K; Yarrow, Joshua F; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Androgens regulate body composition and skeletal muscle mass in males, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that trenbolone (a potent synthetic testosterone analogue that is not a substrate for 5-alpha reductase or for aromatase) induces myotrophic effects in skeletal muscle without causing prostate enlargement, which is in contrast to the known prostate enlarging effects of testosterone. These previous results suggest that the 5α-reduction of testosterone is not required for myotrophic action. We now report differential gene expression in response to testosterone versus trenbolone in the highly androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex of the adult rat after 6weeks of orchiectomy (ORX), using real time PCR. The ORX-induced expression of atrogenes (Muscle RING-finger protein-1 [MuRF1] and atrogin-1) was suppressed by both androgens, with trenbolone producing a greater suppression of atrogin-1 mRNA compared to testosterone. Both androgens elevated expression of anabolic genes (insulin-like growth factor-1 and mechano-growth factor) after ORX. ORX-induced increases in expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA were suppressed by trenbolone treatment, but not testosterone. In ORX animals, testosterone promoted WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP-2) gene expression while trenbolone did not. Testosterone and trenbolone equally enhanced muscle regeneration as shown by increases in LABC mass and in protein expression of embryonic myosin by western blotting. In addition, testosterone increased WISP-2 protein levels. Together, these findings identify specific mechanisms by which testosterone and trenbolone may regulate skeletal muscle maintenance and growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prior Cocaine Self-Administration Increases Response-Outcome Encoding That Is Divorced from Actions Selected in Dorsal Lateral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Zhao, Adam C; Patel, Pooja K; Roesch, Matthew R

    2017-08-09

    Dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) is a highly associative structure that encodes relationships among environmental stimuli, behavioral responses, and predicted outcomes. DLS is known to be disrupted after chronic drug abuse; however, it remains unclear what neural signals in DLS are altered. Current theory suggests that drug use enhances stimulus-response processing at the expense of response-outcome encoding, but this has mostly been tested in simple behavioral tasks. Here, we investigated what neural correlates in DLS are affected by previous cocaine exposure as rats performed a complex reward-guided decision-making task in which predicted reward value was independently manipulated by changing the delay to or size of reward associated with a response direction across a series of trial blocks. After cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited stronger biases toward higher-value reward and firing in DLS more strongly represented action-outcome contingencies independent from actions subsequently taken rather than outcomes predicted by selected actions (chosen-outcome contingencies) and associations between stimuli and actions (stimulus-response contingencies). These results suggest that cocaine self-administration strengthens action-outcome encoding in rats (as opposed to chosen-outcome or stimulus-response encoding), which abnormally biases behavior toward valued reward when there is a choice between two options during reward-guided decision-making.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Current theories suggest that the impaired decision-making observed in individuals who chronically abuse drugs reflects a decrease in goal-directed behaviors and an increase in habitual behaviors governed by neural representations of response-outcome (R-O) and stimulus-response associations, respectively. We examined the impact that prior cocaine self-administration had on firing in dorsal lateral striatum (DLS), a brain area known to be involved in habit formation and affected by drugs of abuse

  13. Enhancing action of LSD on neuronal responsiveness to serotonin in a brain structure involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghoul, Tarek; Blier, Pierre

    2003-03-01

    Potent serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors are the only drugs that consistently exert a therapeutic action in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given that some hallucinogens were reported to exert an anti-OCD effect outlasting their psychotomimetic action, possible modifications of neuronal responsiveness to 5-HT by LSD were examined in two rat brain structures: one associated with OCD, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and another linked to depression, the hippocampus. The effects of concurrent microiontophoretic application of LSD and 5-HT were examined on neuronal firing rate in the rat OFC and hippocampus under chloral hydrate anaesthesia. In order to determine whether LSD could also exert a modification of 5-HT neuronal responsiveness upon systemic administration, after a delay when hallucinosis is presumably no longer present, it was given once daily (100 microg/kg i.p.) for 4 d and the experiments were carried out 24 h after the last dose. LSD attenuated the firing activity of OFC neurons, and enhanced the inhibitory effect of 5-HT when concomitantly ejected on the same neurons. In the hippocampus, LSD also decreased firing rate by itself but decreased the inhibitory action of 5-HT. The inhibitory action of 5-HT was significantly greater in the OFC, but smaller in the hippocampus, when examined after subacute systemic administration of LSD. It is postulated that some hallucinogens could have a beneficial action in OCD by enhancing the responsiveness to 5-HT in the OFC, and not necessarily in direct relation to hallucinosis. The latter observation may have theoretical implications for the pharmacotherapy of OCD.

  14. Joint action of chemicals in algal toxicity tests: Influence of response level and dose-response regression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E.R.; Chen, D.; Nyholm, Niels

    2001-01-01

    . The response parameter was growth rate based on biomass, and several response levels were used. Dose–response curves were developed for dilution series using fixed ratios between concentrations in toxic units of the compounds. Probit and Weibull dose–response curves were then determined by nonlinear regression......The joint toxicity of nonylamine and decylamine and of atrazine and decylamine was evaluated in assays with the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum based on an isobologram method. In this method, curves of constant response, isoboles, are plotted versus concentrations of two toxicants...

  15. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the suspension...

  16. Book Review Expedition Field Techniques: Small Mammals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review. Expedition Field Techniques: Small. Mammals (excluding bats) Second Edition. A. Barnett and J. Dutton. Published and distributed 1995 by the Expedition Advisory. Cenlre, Royal Geographic Society, 1 Kensington Gore,. London, SW7 2AR. 126 pages. Price: £8.50 (softcover). ISBN 0-907649-68-8.

  17. 77 FR 43492 - Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... use the same assessment of your residual functional capacity at step five of the sequential evaluation... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 RIN 0960-AH26 Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: We are revising our...

  18. 76 FR 56357 - Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... assessment of your residual functional capacity at step five of the sequential evaluation process to decide... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 RIN 0960-AH26 Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...

  19. 42 CFR 8.28 - Expedited procedures for review of immediate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Procedures for Review of Suspension or Proposed Revocation of OTP Certification, and of Adverse Action Regarding Withdrawal of Approval of an Accreditation Body § 8.28 Expedited procedures for review of immediate suspension. (a) Applicability. When the...

  20. Action Research in the Secondary Science Classroom: Student Response to Differentiated, Alternative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Faith H.; Smeaton, Patricia S.; Burns, Todd G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share classroom action research studying the perception of students to a differentiated, alternative assessment model in a secondary science classroom. Results of the study indicated the majority of the students preferred the differentiated, alternative assessment model to solely traditional assessment. The…

  1. Response of Southeast Asian Muslims to the increasingly globalized world: discourse and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iik Arifin Mansurnoor

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Habiéndose desarrollado a partir de una orientación global, el Islam en el sudeste asiático se ha vuelto global desde sus inicios. El sudeste musulmán de Asia siempre ha aceptado y participado en el mundo globalizado, aunque manteniendo una cierta atención sobre el origen y el objetivo de la acción y del diseño global. Históricamente el sudeste musulmán de Asia se enfrenta a la globalización y al colonialismo con una crítica formal. El Islam ha encontrado dos importantes bases de apoyo para su traducción en el sudeste asiático: el Estado y los líderes religiosos autónomos. Con la creciente sofisticación y penetración del colonialismo occidental, las organizaciones musulmanas modernas poco a poco han asumido el papel social de los desaparecidos estados indígenas y otras instituciones. El Sudeste musulmán de Asia ha mostrado su visión moral del mundo globalizado y su diseño para lograrlo. En este artículo, se hace hincapié en las principales tendencias de la espiritualidad centradas en los movimientos del sudeste musulmán de Asia, representados por las organizaciones de masas, las instituciones tradicionales reformadas, y los movimientos sociales más significativos en esta región. A pesar de que la hegemonía del estado y la presencia cada vez más decisiva de la shari'a, a veces interfieren y matizan las actividades de estos movimientos, ellos han sin lugar a dudas demostrado la viabilidad y el potencial del movimiento de espiritualidad centrado en la reestructuración de los rápidos cambios que hoy en día ocurre en el mundo globalizado._____________ABSTRACT:Having itself grown out of a global orientation, Islam in Southeast Asia has gone global since its inception. Southeast Asian Muslims always welcome and participate in the globalized world, even though they are vigilant to the origin and aim of global action and design. Historically Southeast Asian Muslims faced globalization and colonialism with responsible

  2. [The ABC of abscisic acid action in plant drought stress responses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jeffrey; Valon, Christiane; Moreau, Bertrand; Boeglin, Martin; Lefoulon, Cécile; Joshi-Saha, Archana; Chérel, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The combined daily consumption of fresh water ranges from 200 to 700 liters per capita per day in most developed countries, with about 70% being used for agricultural needs. Unlike other resources such as the different forms of energy, water has no other alternatives. With the looming prospect of global water crisis, the recent laudable success in deciphering the early steps in the signal transduction of the "stress hormone" abscisic acid (ABA) has ignited hopes that crops can be engineered with the capacity to maintain productivity while requiring less water input. Although ABA was first discovered in plants, it has resurfaced in the human brain (and many other non-plant organisms : sea sponge, some parasites, hydra to name a few), suggesting that its existence may be widespread. In humans, more amazingly, ABA has shown anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. Even its receptors and key signaling intermediates have homologs in the human genome suggesting that evolution has re-fashioned these same proteins into new functional contexts. Thus, learning about the molecular mechanisms of ABA in action using the more flexible plant model will be likely beneficial to other organisms, and especially in human diseases, which is topical in the medical circle. ABA can accumulate up to 10 to 30-fold in plants under drought stress relative to unstressed conditions. The built up of the hormone then triggers diverse adaptive pathways permitting plants to withstand temporary bouts of water shortage. One favorite experimental model to unravel ABA signaling mechanisms in all of its intimate detail is based on the hormone's ability to elicit stomatal closure - a rapid cellular response of land plants to limit water loss through transpiration. Each microscopic stoma, or pore, is contoured by two specialized kidney-shaped cells called the guard cells. Because land plants are protected by a waxy cuticle impermeable to gas exchange, the stomatal pores are thus the primary portals for

  3. If climate action becomes urgent: The importance of response times for various climate strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Stehfest, E.

    2013-01-01

    Most deliberations on climate policy are based on a mitigation response that assumes a gradually increasing reduction over time. However, situations may occur where a more urgent response is needed. A key question for climate policy in general, but even more in the case a rapid response is needed,

  4. Impairments in goal-directed actions predict treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Alvares

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive fear and habitual avoidance of social situations. Decision-making models suggest that patients with anxiety disorders may fail to exhibit goal-directed control over actions. We therefore investigated whether such biases may also be associated with social anxiety and to examine the relationship between such behavior with outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Patients diagnosed with social anxiety and controls completed an instrumental learning task in which two actions were performed to earn food outcomes. After outcome devaluation, where one outcome was consumed to satiety, participants were re-tested in extinction. Results indicated that, as expected, controls were goal-directed, selectively reducing responding on the action that previously delivered the devalued outcome. Patients with social anxiety, however, exhibited no difference in responding on either action. This loss of a devaluation effect was associated with greater symptom severity and poorer response to therapy. These findings indicate that variations in goal-directed control in social anxiety may represent both a behavioral endophenotype and may be used to predict individuals who will respond to learning-based therapies.

  5. Impairments in goal-directed actions predict treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Gail A; Balleine, Bernard W; Guastella, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive fear and habitual avoidance of social situations. Decision-making models suggest that patients with anxiety disorders may fail to exhibit goal-directed control over actions. We therefore investigated whether such biases may also be associated with social anxiety and to examine the relationship between such behavior with outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Patients diagnosed with social anxiety and controls completed an instrumental learning task in which two actions were performed to earn food outcomes. After outcome devaluation, where one outcome was consumed to satiety, participants were re-tested in extinction. Results indicated that, as expected, controls were goal-directed, selectively reducing responding on the action that previously delivered the devalued outcome. Patients with social anxiety, however, exhibited no difference in responding on either action. This loss of a devaluation effect was associated with greater symptom severity and poorer response to therapy. These findings indicate that variations in goal-directed control in social anxiety may represent both a behavioral endophenotype and may be used to predict individuals who will respond to learning-based therapies.

  6. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: C. Michael Foale - CDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    C. Michael Foale, Commander of the Expedition 8 crew to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions in this video. The questions cover: 1) The goals of the Expedition; 2) How his Mir experience prepared him for long-duration spaceflight; 3) The reaction the Columbia accident where he was training in Star City, Russia; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he wanted to become an astronaut; 6) His career path; 7) His influences; 8) His path of study; 9) His responsibilities on a mission; 10) What a Soyuz capsule is like; 11) What the oncoming and offgoing ISS crews will do together; 12) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 13) Training and plans for extravehicular activity (EVA); 14) Return to Flight of Shuttle; 15) What is needed to make his mission a success; 16) The most valuable contribution of the ISS.

  7. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  8. Using Rapid Improvement Events for Disaster After-Action Reviews: Experience in a Hospital Information Technology Outage and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Charles M; McStay, Christopher; Oeth, Justin; Koehler, April; Bookman, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    The use of after-action reviews (AARs) following major emergency events, such as a disaster, is common and mandated for hospitals and similar organizations. There is a recurrent challenge of identified problems not being resolved and repeated in subsequent events. A process improvement technique called a rapid improvement event (RIE) was used to conduct an AAR following a complete information technology (IT) outage at a large urban hospital. Using RIE methodology to conduct the AAR allowed for the rapid development and implementation of major process improvements to prepare for future IT downtime events. Thus, process improvement methodology, particularly the RIE, is suited for conducting AARs following disasters and holds promise for improving outcomes in emergency management. Little CM , McStay C , Oeth J , Koehler A , Bookman K . Using rapid improvement events for disaster after-action reviews: experience in a hospital information technology outage and response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):98-100.

  9. Applying international standards and guidelines on corporate social responsibility: An action plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    How can a company start the process of corporate social responsibility in an international context, thereby makinge use of diverse standards and guidelines? This question immediately came to the fore emerged after the start of the programme ‘Corporate social responsibility in international context’

  10. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this becomes...

  11. A model to inform management actions as a response to chytridiomycosis-associated decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah; Bailey, Larissa L.; Mosher, Brittany A.; Funk, W. Chris; Gerber, Brian D.; Muths, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Decision-analytic models provide forecasts of how systems of interest will respond to management. These models can be parameterized using empirical data, but sometimes require information elicited from experts. When evaluating the effects of disease in species translocation programs, expert judgment is likely to play a role because complete empirical information will rarely be available. We illustrate development of a decision-analytic model built to inform decision-making regarding translocations and other management actions for the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas), a species with declines linked to chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Using the model, we explored the management implications of major uncertainties in this system, including whether there is a genetic basis for resistance to pathogenic infection by Bd, how translocation can best be implemented, and the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the spread of Bd. Our modeling exercise suggested that while selection for resistance to pathogenic infectionDecision-analytic models provide forecasts of how systems of interest will respond to management. These models can be parameterized using empirical data, but sometimes require information elicited from experts. When evaluating the effects of disease in species translocation programs, expert judgment is likely to play a role because complete empirical information will rarely be available. We illustrate development of a decision-analytic model built to inform decision-making regarding translocations and other management actions for the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas), a species with declines linked to chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Using the model, we explored the management implications of major uncertainties in this system, including whether there is a genetic basis for resistance to pathogenic infection by Bd, how translocation can best be implemented, and the effectiveness of efforts to

  12. Corrections in Grasp Posture in Response to Modifications of Action Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charmayne M. L.; Seegelke, Christian; Spiegel, Marnie Ann; Oehmichen, Corinna; Hammes, Julia; Schack, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is ample evidence that people plan their movements to ensure comfortable final grasp postures at the end of a movement. The end-state comfort effect has been found to be a robust constraint during unimanual movements, and leads to the inference that goal-postures are represented and planned prior to movement initiation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals make appropriate corrections to ensure comfortable final goal postures when faced with an unexpected change in action goal. Participants reached for a horizontal cylinder and placed the left or right end of the object into the target disk. As soon as the participant began to move, a secondary stimuli was triggered, which indicated whether the intended action goal had changed or not. Confirming previous research, participants selected initial grasp postures that ensured end-state comfort during non-perturbed trials. In addition, participants made appropriate on-line corrections to their reach-to-grasp movements to ensure end-state comfort during perturbed trials. Corrections in grasp posture occurred early or late in the reach-to-grasp phase. The results indicate that individuals plan their movements to afford comfort at the end of the movement, and that grasp posture planning is controlled via both feedforward and feedback mechanisms. PMID:22970119

  13. Assuming policy responsibility for health equity: local public health action in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis; Sayani, Ambreen

    2017-10-30

    In Canada's liberal welfare state the public is given little exposure by governmental authorities to the importance of promoting health equity through public policy action on the social determinants of health (SDoH). Not surprisingly, Canada lags in implementing health equity-enhancing public policy. In Ontario, Canada's most populous province, a local public health unit (PHU) took on the task of promoting health equity by developing the video animation Let's Start a Conversation about Health and Not Talk about Health Care at All. In the wake of this work, an additional 17 local PHUs (of 36) adapted it for local use. By placing these activities within Nutbeam's and de Leeuw's concepts of critical health literacy as an essential component of health promotion, we examine how these PHUs came to adopt the video, their intended uses, and supports and barriers encountered. These efforts by local PHUs to promote health equity through action on the SDoH have implications for those in jurisdictions where State attention to these issues is lacking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Stress Responses as a Tool To Detect and Characterize the Mode of Action of Antibacterial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Allison A.; Baneyx, François

    1999-01-01

    Single-copy gene fusions between the lacZ reporter gene and Escherichia coli strains containing promoters induced by cold shock (cspA), cytoplasmic stress (ibp), or protein misfolding in the cell envelope (P3rpoH) were constructed and tested to determine their ability to detect antibacterial agents while simultaneously providing information on their cellular targets. Antibiotics that affect prokaryotic ribosomes selectively induced the cspA::lacZ or ibp::lacZ gene fusion, depending on their mode of action. The membrane-damaging peptide polymyxin B induced both the P3rpoH::lacZ and ibp::lacZ fusions, while the β-lactam antibacterial agent carbenicillin activated only the P3rpoH promoter. Nalidixic acid, a compound that causes DNA damage, downregulated β-galactosidase synthesis from P3rpoH but had little effect on expression of the reporter enzyme from either the cspA or ibp promoter. All model antibiotics could be identified over a wide range of sublethal concentrations with signal-to-noise ratios between 2 and 11. A blue halo assay was developed to rapidly characterize the modes of action of antibacterial agents by visual inspection, and this assay was used to detect chloramphenicol secreted into the growth medium of Streptomyces venezuelae cultures. This simple system holds promise for screening natural or combinatorial libraries of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:10543818

  15. Seek help from teachers or fight back? Student perceptions of teachers' actions during conflicts and responses to peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves, Mario J; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Previous research has shown that teachers' actions when addressing conflict on school grounds can shape adolescent perceptions regarding how well the school manages victimization. Our objective in this study was to determine how these perceptions influenced the likelihood that adolescent students would react to victimization scenarios by either seeking help from school authority or physically fighting back. Vignettes describing two events of victimization were administered to 148 ethnic minority adolescents (Latino, African American, and Asian backgrounds; 49% female) attending an urban high school with high rates of conflict. Positive perceptions of teachers' actions during conflicts--assessed via a questionnaire tapping how teachers manage student conflicts both generally and in a specific instance of strife--predicted a greater willingness to seek help from school authority, which in turn negatively predicted self-reported aggressive responses to the victimization scenarios. Path analysis established the viability of this indirect effect model, even when we controlled for sex, beliefs about the acceptability of aggression, and previous levels of reactive aggression. Adolescents' perceptions of teachers' actions during conflicts are discussed in relation to social information processing models, improving student-teacher relations, and decreasing aggression at schools.

  16. Seek Help from Teachers or Fight Back? Student Perceptions of Teachers’ Actions during Conflicts and Responses to Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that teachers’ actions when addressing conflict on school grounds can shape adolescent perceptions regarding how well the school manages victimization. Our objective in this study was to determine how these perceptions influenced the likelihood that adolescent students would react to victimization scenarios by either seeking help from school authority or physically fighting back. Vignettes describing two events of victimization were administered to 148 ethnic minority adolescents (Latino, African American, and Asian backgrounds; 49% female) attending an urban high school with high rates of conflict. Positive perceptions of teachers’ actions during conflicts—assessed via a questionnaire tapping how teachers manage student conflicts both generally and in a specific instance of strife—predicted a greater willingness to seek help from school authority, which in turn negatively predicted self-reported aggressive responses to the victimization scenarios. Path analysis established the viability of this indirect effect model, even when we controlled for sex, beliefs about the acceptability of aggression, and previous levels of reactive aggression. Adolescents’ perceptions of teachers’ actions during conflicts are discussed in relation to social information processing models, improving student–teacher relations, and decreasing aggression at schools. PMID:19690950

  17. The road less traveled: new views of steroid receptor action from the path of dose-response curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. Stoney; Chow, Carson C.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional studies of steroid hormone action proceed via quantitation of the maximal activity for gene induction at saturating concentrations of agonist steroid (i.e., Amax). Less frequently analyzed parameters of receptor-mediated gene expression are EC50 and PAA. The EC50 is the concentration of steroid required for half-maximal agonist activity and is readily determined from the dose-response curve. The PAA is the partial agonist activity of an antagonist steroid, expressed as percent of Amax under the same conditions. Recent results demonstrate that new and otherwise inaccessible mechanistic information is obtained when the EC50 and/or PAA are examined in addition to the Amax. Specifically, Amax, EC50, and PAA can be independently regulated, which suggests that novel pathways and factors may preferentially modify the EC50 and/or PAA with little effect on Amax. Other approaches indicate that the activity of receptor-bound factors can be altered without changing the binding of factors to receptor. Finally, a new theoretical model of steroid hormone action not only permits a mechanistically based definition of factor activity but also allows the positioning of when a factor acts, as opposed to binds, relative to a kinetically defined step. These advances illustrate some of the benefits of expanding the mechanistic studies of steroid hormone action to routinely include EC50 and PAA. PMID:21664235

  18. Biphasic response of action potential duration to metabolic inhibition in rabbit and human ventricular myocytes: role of transient outward current and ATP-regulated potassium current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A. O.; Veldkamp, M. W.; van Ginneken, A. C.; Bouman, L. N.

    1996-01-01

    Inhibition of cell metabolism is associated with significant changes in action potential duration. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of the changes in action potential duration during metabolic inhibition and to determine what changes in membrane currents are responsible. The

  19. 17 CFR 171.41 - Petition for a stay of effective date of a member responsibility action pending a hearing by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its action in accordance with the applicable rules of the association. If the petition for a stay is... a hearing under the appropriate rules of the association, to make the suspension, restriction or... effective date of a member responsibility action pending a hearing by the National Futures Association. 171...

  20. The precision of experienced action video-game players: line bisection reveals reduced leftward response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-two experienced action video-game players (AVGPs) and 18 non-VGPs were tested on a pen-and-paper line bisection task that was untimed. Typically, right-handers bisect lines 2 % to the left of true centre, a bias thought to reflect the dominance of the right-hemisphere for visuospatial attention. Expertise may affect this bias, with expert musicians showing no bias in line bisection performance. Our results show that experienced-AVGPs also bisect lines with no bias with their right hand and a significantly reduced bias with their left hand compared to non-AVGPs. Bisections by experienced-AVGPs were also more precise than those of non-AVGPs. These findings show the cognitive proficiencies of experienced-AVGPs can generalize beyond computer based tasks, which resemble their training environment.

  1. ISS Expedition 21/22 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 21/22 from 10/2009-03/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  2. Educational expeditions - et norsk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Horgen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe topic of this article is the Norwegian concept of “friluftsliv” (outdoor life, used as a pedagogical tool to support personal growth. While supporting personal growth appears to be a central pedagogical strategy within Anglo-American and British youth expeditions and adventure programming, this does not appear to be case in the Norwegian outdoor tradition. My research question is: Do Norwegian Outdoor Education students experience a learning outcome related to personal growth, and to their abilities as leaders/mentors, during ski expeditions? I have collected data through a three-year period, after three ski expeditions with Outdoor Education students from an outdoor bachelor-programme at Telemark University College.The students have given written answers to questions regarding personal growth in which several informants’ express thoughts about experiences related to “self” and “identity”. They reflect upon experiences related to “mastering” and “performing”, to acceptance of their own strengths and weaknesses, and about developing self-confidence. They also reflect upon learning outcomes related to interpersonal relations and abilities, self-control, communication and caregiving. The informants have experienced, as leaders/mentors, that it is important to be able to, to “read” situations, to make good assessments of the situations, and to make good decisions related to the situations. As a follow up to this, the informants highlight the importance of being aware of each individual in the group, the importance of encouragement, being positive and caregiving. This study has shown that ski expeditions in “a Norwegian tradition” may have a potential when it comes to encouraging reflections related to personal growth and leadership abilities. Hopefully this study can contribute to increased awareness of the pedagogical potential, for personal growth, within the Norwegian concept of

  3. Time Analysis of Building Dynamic Response Under Seismic Action. Part 1: Theoretical Propositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufimtcev, E. M.

    2017-11-01

    The first part of the article presents the main provisions of the analytical approach – the time analysis method (TAM) developed for the calculation of the elastic dynamic response of rod structures as discrete dissipative systems (DDS) and based on the investigation of the characteristic matrix quadratic equation. The assumptions adopted in the construction of the mathematical model of structural oscillations as well as the features of seismic forces’ calculating and recording based on the data of earthquake accelerograms are given. A system to resolve equations is given to determine the nodal (kinematic and force) response parameters as well as the stress-strain state (SSS) parameters of the system’s rods.

  4. No anticipation without intention: response-effect compatibility in effect-based and stimulus-based actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwosta, Katharina; Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2013-11-01

    Goal-directed behavior is characterized by the anticipation of the resulting effect during response selection. Such anticipations can be contextualized in the sense that response-effect relationships in one stimulus context are inverted in another stimulus context. The primary study aim was to test the hypothesis that contextualized effect anticipation might depend on whether subjects adopt either an effect-based action control style or a stimulus-based control style. Importantly, we hypothesized that the choice of control styles depends on explicit instruction. Effect anticipation during response selection was determined by assessing the behavioral impact of spatial compatibility between the required response and an additional task-irrelevant spatial feature attached to the anticipated effect that would be produced by that response in a given context. In two experiments we found a compatibility effect exclusively in blocks with effect-based instruction but not in stimulus-based blocks. Furthermore, subjects could quickly switch between styles without one strategy dominating the others. Together, this shows that contextualized anticipation of distal visual effects is not an automatic process but depends on the intention to produce an effect. © 2013.

  5. 34 CFR 200.49 - SEA responsibilities for school improvement, corrective action, and restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-achieving schools to meet the progress goals in the school improvement plans under § 200.41. (c) Technical... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA responsibilities for school improvement, corrective... THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational...

  6. Response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth to the action of citric acid and EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Berthold Sperandio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the inflammatory response of dog's periapical tissues to 17% trisodium EDTA salt (pH 8.0 and 1% citric acid (pH 2.0. Saline was used as a control. Six adult dogs were used as the biological model of the study. The experimental units comprised 56 roots of mandibular molars (first and second and premolars (first, second and third. After coronal opening, pulpectomy and root canal instrumentation were performed using the above-mentioned irrigating solutions. After 24 and 48 hours, the animals were euthanized and the teeth and their supporting tissues were removed and histologically processed. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed histopathologically with a light microscope at x100 magnification. The histological analysis focused on the occurrence of acute inflammatory response. The presence of swelling, vasodilatation and inflammatory cells were evaluated and the degree of inflammation was determined for each case. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test using the SPSS software with a confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05. 17% EDTA and 1% citric acid caused inflammatory responses in dog's periapical tissues with no significant differences to each other or to saline (control at either the 24-hour (p=0.482 or 48-hour (p=0.377 periods. It may be concluded that the inflammatory response was of mild intensity for the tested substances.

  7. RESPONSE OF THE PERIAPICAL TISSUE OF DOGS' TEETH TO THE ACTION OF CITRIC ACID AND EDTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Cristina Berthold; Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; de Araújo, Lenita Aver; Mertos, Josué; Malshe, Ashwin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the inflammatory response of dog's periapical tissues to 17% trisodium EDTA salt (pH 8.0) and 1% citric acid (pH 2.0). Saline was used as a control. Six adult dogs were used as the biological model of the study. The experimental units comprised 56 roots of mandibular molars (first and second) and premolars (first, second and third). After coronal opening, pulpectomy and root canal instrumentation were performed using the above-mentioned irrigating solutions. After 24 and 48 hours, the animals were euthanized and the teeth and their supporting tissues were removed and histologically processed. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed histopathologically with a light microscope at x100 magnification. The histological analysis focused on the occurrence of acute inflammatory response. The presence of swelling, vasodilatation and inflammatory cells were evaluated and the degree of inflammation was determined for each case. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test using the SPSS software with a confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05). 17% EDTA and 1% citric acid caused inflammatory responses in dog's periapical tissues with no significant differences to each other or to saline (control) at either the 24-hour (p=0.482) or 48-hour (p=0.377) periods. It may be concluded that the inflammatory response was of mild intensity for the tested substances. PMID:19089291

  8. Preparation, Action, Recovery: A Conceptual Framework for Counselor Preparation and Response in Client Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Charles R.; Keener, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing requirements for counselor proficiency in crisis response, there is an absence in the standards for counselor preparation, certification, and supervision of consistent criteria on which best practice in crisis prevention and intervention, and postcrisis recovery can be gauged. The authors present a conceptual framework that…

  9. Pre-SMA Gray-matter Density Predicts Individual Differences in Action Selection in the Face of Conscious and Unconscious Response Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    van Gaal, Simon; Scholte, H. Steven; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is considered key in contributing to voluntary action selection during response conflict. Here we test whether individual differences in the ability to select appropriate actions in the face of strong (conscious) and weak (virtually unconscious) distracting alternatives are related to individual variability in pre-SMA anatomy. To this end, we scanned 58 participants, who performed a masked priming task in which conflicting response tendencies were eli...

  10. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  11. Analysis of social responsibility practices and actions. A case study in Cun corporation. Magdalena region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinso Jiménez Sierra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The project will analyze the policies, practices and social responsibility plans of the Unified Regional Higher Education Corporation Magdalena today, in order to promote corporate memory related to CSR through a measurement model based on eight indicators related to changing economic, social and environmental stakelholders practices. The analysis also seeks to measure the correlation between CSR practices implemented and perceived levels of the most influential stakeholders of the corporation.

  12. Different responses of Caco-2 and MCF-7 cells to silver nanoparticles are based on highly similar mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Meike; Undas, Anna K; Kramer, Evelien; Monopoli, Marco P; Peters, Ruud J; Garry, David; Antunes Fernandes, Elsa C; Hendriksen, Peter J; Marvin, Hans J P; Peijnenburg, Ad A; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2016-12-01

    The mode of action of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is suggested to be exerted through both Ag+ and AgNP dependent mechanisms. Ingestion is one of the major NP exposure routes, and potential effects are often studied using Caco-2 cells, a well-established model for the gut epithelium. MCF-7 cells are epithelial breast cancer cells with extensive well-characterized toxicogenomics profiles. In the present study, we aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the cellular molecular responses in Caco-2 and MCF-7 cells after AgNP exposure in order to evaluate whether epithelial cells derived from different tissues demonstrated similar responses. These insights could possibly reduce the size of cell panels for NP hazard identification screening purposes. AgNPs of 20, 30, 60, and 110 nm, and AgNO3 were exposed for 6 h and 24 h. AgNPs were shown to be taken up and dissolve intracellularly. Compared with MCF-7 cells, Caco-2 cells showed a higher sensitivity to AgNPs, slower gene expression kinetics and absence of NP size-dependent responses. However, on a molecular level, no significant differences were observed between the two cell types. Transcriptomic analysis showed that Ag(NP) exposure caused (oxidative) stress responses, possibly leading to cell death in both cell lines. There was no indication for effects specifically induced by AgNPs. Responses to AgNPs appeared to be induced by silver ions released from the AgNPs. In conclusion, differences in mRNA responses to AgNPs between Caco-2 and MCF-7 cells were mainly related to timing and magnitude, but not to a different underlying mechanism.

  13. How long can fisheries management delay action in response to ecosystem and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Possingham, Hugh P; Richardson, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of fisheries is often compromised by management delaying implementation of regulations that reduce harvest, in order to maintain higher catches in the short-term. Decreases or increases in fish population growth rate driven by environmental change, including ecosystem and climate change, affect the harvest that can be taken sustainably. If not acted on rapidly, environmental change could result in unsustainable fishing or missed opportunity for higher catches. Using simulation models of harvested fish populations influenced by environmental change, we explore how long fisheries managers can afford to wait before changing harvest regulations in response to changes in population growth. If environmental change causes population declines, delays greater than five years increase the probability of population collapse. Species with fast and highly variable population growth rates are more susceptible to collapse under delays and should be a priority for revised management where delays occur. Generally, the long-term cost of delay, in terms of lost fishing opportunity, exceeds the short-term benefits of overfishing. Lowering harvest limits and monitoring for environmental change can alleviate the impact of delays; however, these measures may be more costly than reducing delays. We recommend that management systems that allow rapid responses to population growth changes be enacted for fisheries management to adapt to ecosystem and climate change.

  14. INL Sitewide Operations and Maintenance Report for CERCLA Response Actions - FY 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. R. Fitch

    2005-09-22

    This report documents how remedies mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act for the Idaho National Laboratory Site were operated and maintained during fiscal year 2005. The activities addressed in the INEEL Sitewide Operations and Maintenance Plan are reported in this document. Waste Area Groups 7 and 8 are not reported in this document. Waste Area Group 7 is an operating facility, and the status of its operations is reported directly to the regulatory agencies. Waste Area Group 8 is excluded from this report, because it falls outside the direct control of U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office. The INEEL Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan discusses the inspection, maintenance, repair, and reporting activities involving institutional controls at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Therefore, the maintenance of institutional controls is not discussed in this report. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan provides a reference to support this report by providing current and projected facility and land uses and by listing the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act sites.

  15. Comprehensive DNA Adduct Analysis Reveals Pulmonary Inflammatory Response Contributes to Genotoxic Action of Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousuke Ishino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized-magnetite (MGT is widely utilized in medicinal and industrial fields; however, its toxicological properties are not well documented. In our previous report, MGT showed genotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems, and it was suggested that inflammatory responses exist behind the genotoxicity. To further clarify mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity, a comprehensive DNA adduct (DNA adductome analysis was conducted using DNA samples derived from the lungs of mice exposed to MGT. In total, 30 and 42 types of DNA adducts were detected in the vehicle control and MGT-treated groups, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA against a subset of DNA adducts was applied and several adducts, which are deduced to be formed by inflammation or oxidative stress, as the case of etheno-deoxycytidine (εdC, revealed higher contributions to MGT exposure. By quantitative-LC-MS/MS analysis, εdC levels were significantly higher in MGT-treated mice than those of the vehicle control. Taken together with our previous data, it is suggested that inflammatory responses might be involved in the genotoxicity induced by MGT in the lungs of mice.

  16. Action at a Distance: Functional Drug Delivery Using Electromagnetic-Field-Responsive Polypyrrole Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a free-standing, vertically aligned conductive polypyrrole (Ppy) architecture that can serve as a high-capacity drug reservoir. This novel geometric organization of Ppy provides a new platform for improving the drug-loading efficiency. Most importantly, we present the first formal evidence that an impregnated drug (dexamethasone, DEX) can be released on demand by a focal, pulsatile electromagnetic field (EMF). This remotely controlled, on–off switchable polymer system provides a framework for implantable constructs that can be placed in critical areas of the body without any physical contact (such as percutaneous electrodes) with the Ppy, contributing to a low “foreign body” footprint. We demonstrate this possibility by using a BV-2 microglia culture model in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was attenuated in response to DEX released from EMF-stimulated Ppy. PMID:24961510

  17. The numerical simulation on dynamic response of Tibetan traditional stone-wood structure under earthquake action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Jia, Bin; Chen, Ke

    2017-06-01

    Based on the existing test data obtained from preliminary study, the numerical modeling work for the characteristics of Tibetan traditional Stone-wood structure was performed in this paper. The mode of vibration and frequency were researched by modal analysis method. Meanwhile, the time history curves of displacement at different parts of structure and peak displacements were obtained after simulating the dynamic response of structure under frequent earthquakes. And the weakest parts and damage characteristics under the frequent earthquakes have been summarized. Studies showed that the shapes of displacement curves at different parts of structure were so similar that the displacement of all components reached to the peak at the same time. Finally the weakest parts of Tibetan Stone-wood structure were parapet walls with the largest peak displacement under earthquake and walls near to structural opening were easier to be destroyed than others.

  18. The Public Health Responsibility deal: has a public-private partnership brought about action on alcohol reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; Petticrew, Mark; Durand, Mary Alison; Scott, Courtney; James, Lesley; Mehrotra, Anushka; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Mays, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between industry, government and other organizations, with the aim of improving public health. This paper aims to evaluate what action resulted from the RD alcohol pledges. We analysed publically available data on organizations' plans and progress towards achieving key alcohol pledges of the RD. We assessed the extent to which activities pledged by signatories could have been brought about by the RD, as opposed to having happened anyway (the counterfactual), using a validated coding scheme designed for the purpose. Progress reports were submitted by 92% of signatories in 2013 and 75% of signatories in 2014, and provided mainly descriptive feedback rather than quantifiable performance metrics. Approximately 14% of 2014 progress reports were identical to those presented in 2013. Most organizations (65%) signed pledges that involved actions to which they appear to have been committed already, regardless of the RD. A small but influential group of alcohol producers and retailers reported taking measures to reduce alcohol units available for consumption in the market. However, where reported, these measures appear to involve launching and promoting new lower-alcohol products rather than removing units from existing products. The RD is unlikely to have contributed significantly to reducing alcohol consumption, as most alcohol pledge signatories appear to have committed to actions that they would have undertaken anyway, regardless of the RD. Irrespective of this, there is considerable scope to improve the clarity of progress reports and reduce the variability of metrics provided by RD pledge signatories. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Melatonin exerts direct inhibitory actions on ACTH responses in the human adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campino, C; Valenzuela, F J; Torres-Farfan, C; Reynolds, H E; Abarzua-Catalan, L; Arteaga, E; Trucco, C; Guzmán, S; Valenzuela, G J; Seron-Ferre, M

    2011-05-01

    In nonhuman primates and rodents, melatonin acting directly on the adrenal gland, inhibits glucocorticoid response to ACTH. In these species, an intrinsic adrenal circadian clock is involved in ACTH-stimulated glucocorticoid production. We investigated whether these findings apply to the human adrenal gland by determining i) expression of clock genes in vivo and ii) direct effects of melatonin in ACTH-stimulated adrenal explants over a) expression of the clock genes PER1 (Period 1) mRNA and BMAL1 [Brain-Muscle (ARNT)-like] protein, ACTH-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and b) over cortisol and progesterone production. Adrenal tissue was obtained from 6 renal cancer patients undergoing unilateral nephrectomy-adrenalectomy. Expression of the clock genes PER1, PER2, CRY2 (Cryptochrome 2), CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) and BMAL1, was investigated by RT-PCR in a normal adrenal and in an adenoma. In independent experiments, explants from 4 normal adrenals were preincubated in culture medium (6 h) followed by 12 h in: medium alone; ACTH (100 nM); ACTH plus melatonin (100 nM); and melatonin alone. The explants' content of PER1 mRNA (real-time PCR) and StAR, 3β-HSD, BMAL1 (immuno slot-blot), and their cortisol and progesterone production (RIA) were measured. The human adrenal gland expresses the clock genes PER1, PER2, CRY2, CLOCK, and BMAL1. ACTH increased PER1 mRNA, BMAL1, StAR, and 3β-HSD protein levels, and cortisol and progesterone production. Melatonin inhibited these ACTH effects. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, direct inhibitory effects of melatonin upon several ACTH responses in the human adrenal gland. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Effects of fatiguing constant versus alternating intensity intermittent isometric muscle actions on maximal torque and neuromuscular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C M; Housh, T J; Hill, E C; Cochrane, K C; Jenkins, N Dm; Schmidt, R J; Johnson, G O

    2016-12-14

    To determine the effects of constant versus alternating applications of torque during fatiguing, intermittent isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque and neuromuscular responses. Sixteen subjects performed two protocols, each consisting of 50 intermittent isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors with equal average load at a constant 60% MVIC or alternating 40 then 80% (40/80%) MVIC with a work-to-rest ratio of 6-s on and 2-s off. MVIC torque as well as electromyographic signals from the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) and mechanomyographic signals from the VL were recorded pretest, immediately posttest, and 5-min posttest. The results indicated that there were no time-related differences between the 60% MVIC and 40/80% MVIC protocols. The MVIC torque decreased posttest (22 to 26%) and remained depressed 5-min posttest (9%). There were decreases in electromyographic frequency (14 to 19%) and mechanomyographic frequency (23 to 24%) posttest that returned to pretest levels 5-min posttest. There were no changes in electromyographic amplitude and mechanomyogrpahic amplitude. These findings suggested that these neuromuscular parameters did not track the fatigue-induced changes in MVIC torque after 5-min of recovery.

  1. The Flash Environmental Assessment Tool: worldwide first aid for chemical accidents response, pro action, prevention and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, Leo; Wahlstrom, Emilia; Nijenhuis, René; Dijkens, Chris; de Zwart, Dick; van de Meent, Dik; Hollander, Anne; Brand, Ellen; den Hollander, Henri A; van Middelaar, Johan; van Dijk, Sander; Hall, E F; Hoffer, Sally

    2014-11-01

    The United Nations response mechanism to environmental emergencies requested a tool to support disaster assessment and coordination actions by United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) teams. The tool should support on-site decision making when substantial chemical emissions affect human health directly or via the environment and should be suitable for prioritizing impact reduction management options under challenging conditions worldwide. To answer this need, the Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) was developed and the scientific and practical underpinning and application of this tool are described in this paper. FEAT consists of a printed decision framework and lookup tables, generated by combining the scientific data on chemicals, exposure pathways and vulnerabilities with the pragmatic needs of emergency field teams. Application of the tool yields information that can help prioritize impact reduction measures. The first years of use illustrated the usefulness of the tool as well as suggesting additional uses and improvements. An additional use is application of the back-office tool (Hazard Identification Tool, HIT), the results of which aid decision-making by the authorities of affected countries and the preparation of field teams for on-site deployment. Another extra use is in disaster pro action and prevention. In this case, the application of the tool supports safe land-use planning and improved technical design of chemical facilities. UNDAC teams are trained to use the tool after large-scale sudden onset natural disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between the action of arginine vasopressin and responsiveness to oral desmopressin in older men: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Theodore M; Burridge, Andrea; Issa, Muta M; Miller, Myron; Tang, Terence; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2007-04-01

    To identify whether oral desmopressin (ddAVP) reduced nocturnal urine volume (NUV) in older men with nocturia without obvious bladder outlet obstruction and to determine whether deficiencies in arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and action demonstrated using water deprivation testing predicted responsiveness to ddAVP. Participants had a 2-day Clinical Research Center (CRC) evaluation followed by a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of individually titrated oral ddAVP. Participants were from a single Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Maximum urine osmolality and percentage increase in osmolality were measured after subjects received aqueous vasopressin as part of the overnight water deprivation study; these data were used to categorize participants as normal, having partial central AVP deficiency, or having impaired renal responsiveness to AVP. Response to ddAVP was assessed using data from frequency-volume records. Fourteen participants completed the CRC stay and ddAVP trial. Subjects given ddAVP reduced NUV significantly from baseline (P=.02) and had significantly lower NUV than when on placebo (P=.01). The mean net reduction in NUV from ddAVP compared to placebo was 14+/-18%. Using water deprivation testing to categorize participants, 10 were normal, two had partial central AVP deficiency, and two had impaired renal responsiveness. The mean net reduction in NUV for those with abnormal water deprivation tests was 11+/-25%, versus 15+/-16% for those with normal water deprivation testing (P=.70). In this small randomized, controlled trial in older men with nocturia, ddAVP reduced NUV. Counter to expectations, participants deemed normal according to water deprivation tests had approximately equivalent responsiveness to ddAVP. Although this study cannot offer definitive conclusions on the lack of prediction of water deprivation testing for ddAVP benefit, these data offer additional information that may help clarify the pathophysiology and

  3. A measuring instrument for trends of management in prioritizing actions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Del Castillo Mory

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE ha evolucionado como concepto. En sus inicios, las mencionesen la literatura sobre el tema vinculaban la RSE con los principios y valores corporativos. Con el paso deltiempo, estos principios y valores se han hecho tangibles en los sistemas de gestión empresarial. Es así quediversos instrumentos internacionales han recogido una gran variedad de prácticas deseables en los distintosámbitos de la actuación de la empresa. Si bien existe abundancia de instrumentos, no hay evidencia de suvalidación en términos de rigurosidad académica. El trabajo aquí presentado ha buscado sistematizar losaportes de diversos instrumentos utilizados en el ámbito internacional, y particularmente en el de Latinoamérica,para producir una escala de medida –validada estadísticamente– que permita la priorización de acciones deRSE. A partir de la aplicación de este instrumento en una muestra de cien de las más grandes empresas queoperan en el Perú, las autoras analizan la forma en que los directivos de estas organizaciones otorgan mayoro menor relevancia a los posibles campos de la actuación responsable. Una mayor comprensión de estadinámica de decisión puede contribuir al desarrollo de mecanismos más efectivos para promover en losdirectivos una visión integral de la gestión de la RSE.Los hallazgos de esta investigación dan cuenta de una visión de la RSE aún heterogénea y lejana al desarrollo deuna conceptualización integral de la actuación responsable, donde el mayor énfasis está puesto en aquellasacciones directamente identificadas con el resultado económico del negocio, en contraposición a aquellas otrasque fortalecen relaciones más amplias con otros grupos de interés de la empresa. Los ámbitos que obtuvieron laspuntuaciones promedio más elevadas fueron: «la oferta de productos y servicios al mercado» y «la gestióninterna», en contraposición con otros ámbitos que exigen una alta

  4. Another surprise from Metformin: novel mechanism of action via K-Ras influences endometrial cancer response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, David A; Yates, Melinda S; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Rodkey, Travis L; Zhang, Qian; Co, Ngai Na; Burzawa, Jennifer; Chigurupati, Sravanthi; Celestino, Joseph; Bowser, Jessica; Broaddus, Russell; Hancock, John F; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Lu, Karen H

    2013-12-01

    Metformin is an oral biguanide commonly used for the treatment of type II diabetes and has recently been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative properties that can be exploited for the prevention and treatment of a variety of cancers. The mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, we examined the effects of metformin on endometrial tumors with defined aberrations in the PI3K/PTEN/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways to understand metformin mechanism of action and identify clinically useful predictors of response to this agent. In vitro assays of proliferation, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis were used to quantify the effects of metformin on endometrial cancer cell lines with mutations in the PI3K/PTEN/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. The in vivo effects of oral metformin on tumor progression were further examined using xenograft mouse models of endometrial cancer. K-Ras localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy using GFP-labeled oncogenic K-Ras and by immunoblot following subcellular fractionation. Metformin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and decreased tumor growth in preclinical endometrial cancer models, with the greatest response observed in cells harboring activating mutations in K-Ras. Furthermore, metformin displaces constitutively active K-Ras from the cell membrane, causing uncoupling of the MAPK signaling pathway. These studies provide a rationale for clinical trials using metformin in combination with PI3K-targeted agents for tumors harboring activating K-Ras mutations, and reveal a novel mechanism of action for metformin. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Expedition Two crew arrives at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut James Voss (right) stands with astronaut John Young on the tarmac at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. Voss is flying on mission STS-102, launching March 8, as part of the Expedition Two crew going to the International Space Station. Young made his fifth flight as Spacecraft Commander of STS-1, the first flight of the Space Shuttle, April 12-14, 1981. His sixth and final flight was as Spacecraft Commander of STS-9, the first Spacelab mission, Nov. 28-Dec. 8, 1983. The other members of the Expedition Two crew are Susan Helms and Yury Usachev. STS-102 will be Helms' and Voss's fifth Shuttle flight, and Usachev's second. They will be replacing the Expedition One crew (Bill Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev), who will return to Earth March 20 on Discovery along with the STS-102 crew.

  6. Greenland Expeditions by Alfred Wegener - A photographic window to past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, M.; Tschürtz, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Kranzelbinder, H.; Prügger, B.; Krause, R. A.; Kalliokoski, M.; Thórhallsdóttir, E.

    2012-04-01

    On several expeditions to Greenland, Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) took pictures on glass plates from landscapes and glaciers, the expedition equipment, the people and animals taking part on the expeditions as well as physical phenomena as dust storm, clouds or spherical light phenomena. Chronologically the plates show the Danmark Expedition 1906-1908, the crossing of Greenland expedition with stop in Iceland 1912-1913, and the German Greenland Expedition 1929-1930. Until the tragic end of the expedition in 1930, Wegener was professor at the University of Graz, and such a stock of about 300 glass plates stayed there. The aim of our work is to digitize all plates for further studies. We present a first selection of Wegener's Greenland expedition pictures. For those made at Iceland in 1912 we will present a comparison of the past with pictures from the same viewing point made in 2011.

  7. Sustained action of developmental ethanol exposure on the cortisol response to stress in zebrafish larvae and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Brennan, Caroline H; Vinson, Gavin P

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects, leading to a range of symptoms collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. More moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure lead to a range of behavioural deficits including aggression, poor social interaction, poor cognitive performance and increased likelihood of addiction in later life. Current theories suggest that adaptation in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroendocrine systems contributes to mood alterations underlying behavioural deficits and vulnerability to addiction. In using zebrafish (Danio rerio), the aim is to determine whether developmental ethanol exposure provokes changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis (the teleost equivalent of the HPA), as it does in mammalian models, therefore opening the possibilities of using zebrafish to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and to test novel therapeutics to alleviate deleterious symptoms. The results showed that developmental exposure to ambient ethanol, 20mM-50mM 1-9 days post fertilisation, had immediate effects on the HPI, markedly reducing the cortisol response to air exposure stress, as measured by whole body cortisol content. This effect was sustained in adults 6 months later. Morphology, growth and locomotor activity of the animals were unaffected, suggesting a specific action of ethanol on the HPI. In this respect the data are consistent with mammalian results, although they contrast with the higher corticosteroid stress response reported in rats after developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms that underlie the specific sensitivity of the HPI to ethanol require elucidation.

  8. Development of the public exercise system for an emergency using response action applied with the event tree approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, De Whey; Lee, Byung Il; Park, Youn Won [BEES Inc., Rm No. L507, KAIST Munji Campus, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    According to APPRE (Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency), Korea Nuclear Safety and Security Committee (NSSC) jointly with other central government ministries shall conduct a unified radiological exercise once every year while a local government conduct an integrated exercise once every two-year period. What we experience up to date there are several limitations in the emergency exercises such as low public acceptance, poor enthusiasm in the exercise participation, not very attracting exercise scenarios, low efficiency in conducting an exercise, and so on. In order to overcome the limitations of the current exercise system, we have endeavored to develop an emergency exercise system using the VR (virtual reality) method based on a radioactive material release accident from the nuclear power plant. In this paper, we aim to introduce some basic development methods and emergency response action event tree for the public based on the exercise scenario as a beginning stage. We introduce a VR based emergency exercise system, which is expected to overcome some difficulties in the current exercise system. After developing this system properly and by testing it, we shall expect to deduce the weak points identified in the current emergency arrangements and emergency response strategy we now have.

  9. Emotions predictably modify response times in the initiation of human motor actions: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Garrett F; Cranley, Nicole M; Carnaby, Giselle; Janelle, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Emotions motivate individuals to attain appetitive goals and avoid aversive consequences. Empirical investigations have detailed how broad approach and avoidance orientations are reflected in fundamental movement attributes such as the speed, accuracy, and variability of motor actions. Several theoretical perspectives propose explanations for how emotional states influence the speed with which goal directed movements are initiated. These perspectives include biological predisposition, muscle activation, distance regulation, cognitive evaluation, and evaluative response coding accounts. A comprehensive review of literature and meta-analysis were undertaken to quantify empirical support for these theoretical perspectives. The systematic review yielded 34 studies that contained 53 independent experiments producing 128 effect sizes used to evaluate the predictions of existing theories. The central tenets of the biological predisposition (Hedges' g = -0.356), distance regulation (g = -0.293; g = 0.243), and cognitive evaluation (g = -0.249; g = -0.405; g = -0.174) accounts were supported. Partial support was also identified for the evaluative response coding (g = -0.255) framework. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that substantiate existing theoretical perspectives, and provide potential direction for conceptual integration of these independent perspectives. Recommendations for future empirical work in this area are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. When unintended movements "leak" out: a startling acoustic stimulus can elicit a prepared response during motor imagery and action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovat, Dana; Chua, Romeo; Hodges, Nicola J

    2013-04-01

    Covert forms of practice, such as observation and imagery, have been shown to involve neurophysiological activation of the motor system, and a functional equivalence between covert and overt processes involved in action execution has been proposed (Jeannerod, 2001). We used a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), which has been shown to trigger prepared movements involuntarily at short latencies via an increase in cortical activation, to probe the similarity of these processes and elicit movement responses in imagery and observation trials. Startle trials were interspersed with control trials while participants (n=16) performed or imagined a right hand key lift or observed a model perform the key lift. During physical movement trials, intended movements were triggered by the SAS at a short latency (RT=78 ms) in comparison to control trials (RT=110 ms). During imagery and observation, unimanual partial movements (assessed by force change and muscle activation) were elicited by the SAS, providing novel behavioural evidence for a functional similarity between covert and overt movement preparation processes. Examination of the magnitude of the reflexive startle response (an index of motor preparation) during imagery and observation also revealed similarities to physical movement trials. We conclude that covert and overt movements involve similarities in motor preparation and neural pathways, and propose that movements do not normally occur during imagery and observation due to low level neural activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expedition Three Crew Onboard Photograph of Sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The setting sun and the thin blue airglow line at Earth's horizon was captured by the International Space Station's (ISS) Expedition Three crewmembers with a digital camera. Some of the Station's components are silhouetted in the foreground. The crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission, on August 10, 2001, replacing the Expedition Two crew. After marning the orbiting ISS for 128 consecutive days, the three returned to Earth on December 17, 2001, aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour.

  12. 76 FR 64107 - Uranium From Russia; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended Investigation on Uranium From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  13. 76 FR 31360 - Paper Clips From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... COMMISSION Paper Clips From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Paper Clips From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... revocation of the antidumping duty order on paper clips from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  14. 78 FR 68472 - Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Steel Nails From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... revocation of the antidumping duty order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  15. 77 FR 65204 - Honey From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Honey From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Honey From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on honey from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  16. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review AGENCY: United States...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China... Commission has found the response submitted by the Fresh Garlic Producers Association and its individual...

  17. 20 CFR 404.926 - Agreement in expedited appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Expedited Appeals Process § 404.926 Agreement in expedited appeals process. If you meet... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreement in expedited appeals process. 404...

  18. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section... § 1703.112 Expedited telecommunications loans RUS will expedite consideration and determination of an application submitted by an RUS telecommunications borrower for a loan under the Act or an advance of such...

  19. Detecting Threat-Related Intentional Actions of Others: Effects of Image Quality, Response Mode, and Target Cuing on Vigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Raja; de Visser, Ewart; Clarke, Ellen; McGarry, W. Ryan; Hussey, Elizabeth; Shaw, Tyler; Thompson, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments examined the vigilance performance of participants watching videos depicting intentional actions of an individual's hand reaching for and grasping an object--involving transporting or using either a gun or a hairdryer--in order to detect infrequent threat-related actions. Participants indicated detection of target actions either…

  20. Multivariate Bayesian decoding of single-trial event-related fMRI responses for memory retrieval of voluntary actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongha; Yun, Sungjae; Jang, Changwon; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a method for classifying event-related fMRI responses in a specialized setting of many known but few unknown stimuli presented in a rapid event-related design. Compared to block design fMRI signals, classification of the response to a single or a few stimulus trial(s) is not a trivial problem due to contamination by preceding events as well as the low signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome such problems, we proposed a single trial-based classification method of rapid event-related fMRI signals utilizing sparse multivariate Bayesian decoding of spatio-temporal fMRI responses. We applied the proposed method to classification of memory retrieval processes for two different classes of episodic memories: a voluntarily conducted experience and a passive experience induced by watching a video of others' actions. A cross-validation showed higher classification performance of the proposed method compared to that of a support vector machine or of a classifier based on the general linear model. Evaluation of classification performances for one, two, and three stimuli from the same class and a correlation analysis between classification accuracy and target stimulus positions among trials suggest that presenting two target stimuli at longer inter-stimulus intervals is optimal in the design of classification experiments to identify the target stimuli. The proposed method for decoding subject-specific memory retrieval of voluntary behavior using fMRI would be useful in forensic applications in a natural environment, where many known trials can be extracted from a simulation of everyday tasks and few target stimuli from a crime scene.

  1. Multivariate Bayesian decoding of single-trial event-related fMRI responses for memory retrieval of voluntary actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Lee

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for classifying event-related fMRI responses in a specialized setting of many known but few unknown stimuli presented in a rapid event-related design. Compared to block design fMRI signals, classification of the response to a single or a few stimulus trial(s is not a trivial problem due to contamination by preceding events as well as the low signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome such problems, we proposed a single trial-based classification method of rapid event-related fMRI signals utilizing sparse multivariate Bayesian decoding of spatio-temporal fMRI responses. We applied the proposed method to classification of memory retrieval processes for two different classes of episodic memories: a voluntarily conducted experience and a passive experience induced by watching a video of others' actions. A cross-validation showed higher classification performance of the proposed method compared to that of a support vector machine or of a classifier based on the general linear model. Evaluation of classification performances for one, two, and three stimuli from the same class and a correlation analysis between classification accuracy and target stimulus positions among trials suggest that presenting two target stimuli at longer inter-stimulus intervals is optimal in the design of classification experiments to identify the target stimuli. The proposed method for decoding subject-specific memory retrieval of voluntary behavior using fMRI would be useful in forensic applications in a natural environment, where many known trials can be extracted from a simulation of everyday tasks and few target stimuli from a crime scene.

  2. Using the Expedition Leader Style Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Phipps, Cynthia A.

    The Expedition Leader Style Analysis (ELSA) is an inventory designed to measure leadership style adaptability and effectiveness in terms of the situational leadership model. Situational leadership arose from the Experiential Leadership Education model, which is used in business and management, by replacing management jargon and phrases with…

  3. Expedition medicine: A southern African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the death of a celebrity and lack of helicopter rescue during the night on. Mount Kilimanjaro illustrates a pervasive lack of understanding of the local rescue capabilities in that area. The expedition medic must be au fait with available facilities on the ground, and help potential participants to understand the risks in relation to ...

  4. Expedition: Yellowstone! A Cooperative School Outreach Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Golia, Jack; And Others

    Designed to help upper elementary school teachers prepare for a class expedition to Yellowstone National Park, this workbook presents environmental learning activities that are also useful in schools too distant for an actual visit. Either way, the workbook aims to develop student appreciation of Yellowstone, the life in it, and the park's value…

  5. Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions and Appeals. 323. In order to achieve expeditious resolution of electoral disputes, various attempts have been made using the rules of court to fast track election petitions. The most significant of all is the Practice Direction issued by the then president of the. Court of ...

  6. Sustained action of developmental ethanol exposure on the cortisol response to stress in zebrafish larvae and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Baiamonte

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects, leading to a range of symptoms collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. More moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure lead to a range of behavioural deficits including aggression, poor social interaction, poor cognitive performance and increased likelihood of addiction in later life. Current theories suggest that adaptation in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and neuroendocrine systems contributes to mood alterations underlying behavioural deficits and vulnerability to addiction. In using zebrafish (Danio rerio, the aim is to determine whether developmental ethanol exposure provokes changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI axis (the teleost equivalent of the HPA, as it does in mammalian models, therefore opening the possibilities of using zebrafish to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and to test novel therapeutics to alleviate deleterious symptoms.The results showed that developmental exposure to ambient ethanol, 20mM-50mM 1-9 days post fertilisation, had immediate effects on the HPI, markedly reducing the cortisol response to air exposure stress, as measured by whole body cortisol content. This effect was sustained in adults 6 months later. Morphology, growth and locomotor activity of the animals were unaffected, suggesting a specific action of ethanol on the HPI. In this respect the data are consistent with mammalian results, although they contrast with the higher corticosteroid stress response reported in rats after developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms that underlie the specific sensitivity of the HPI to ethanol require elucidation.

  7. Development of the table of initial isolation distances and protective action distances for the 2004 emergency response guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. F.; Freeman, W. A.; Carhart, R. A.; Krumpolc, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2005-09-23

    This report provides technical documentation for values in the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances (PADs) in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG2004). The objective for choosing the PADs specified in the ERG2004 is to balance the need to adequately protect the public from exposure to potentially harmful substances against the risks and expenses that could result from overreacting to a spill. To quantify this balance, a statistical approach is adopted, whereby the best available information is used to conduct an accident scenario analysis and develop a set of up to 1,000,000 hypothetical incidents. The set accounts for differences in containers types, incident types, accident severity (i.e., amounts released), locations, times of day, times of year, and meteorological conditions. Each scenario is analyzed using detailed emission rate and atmospheric dispersion models to calculate the downwind chemical concentrations from which a 'safe distance' is determined. The safe distance is defined as the distance downwind from the source at which the chemical concentration falls below health protection criteria. The American Industrial Hygiene Association's Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 2 (ERPG-2) or equivalent is the health criteria used. The statistical sample of safe distance values for all incidents considered in the analysis are separated into four categories: small spill/daytime release, small spill/nighttime release, large spill/daytime release, and large spill/nighttime release. The 90th-percentile safe distance values for each of these groups became the PADs that appear in the ERG2004.

  8. An Empirical Analysis Of The Motivational Value Of Corporate Social Responsibility Actions In Sugar Production Firms In Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Janet N. Manyasi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between CSR activities and employee motivation is still an area that is under- researched. Few studies have tried to compare the motivational value of the different types of CSR actions in the company especially in the manufacturing firms in Kenya. This study therefore investigated the effect of different types of corporate social responsibility activities on the motivation of employees in sugar production firms in western Kenya. The study employed a descriptive survey design to investigate this relationship. Stratified and random sampling techniques were used to obtain a sample of 306 respondents from the research population. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect primary data which was analyzed statistically with the help of the SPSS software 20. To determine the statistical associations between the different types of CSR activities and employee motivation correlation was used. The results from the hypotheses testing indicated that there are significant positive correlations between all the types of CSR activities and employee motivation. These are customers-related the local community-related the business partners-related and employees-related CSR activities. On the whole each type of CSR activities had its own strength and degree to which it could promote or influence employee motivation.

  9. Gastric electrical stimulation decreases gastric distension-induced central nociception response through direct action on primary afferents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Ouelaa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES is an effective therapy to treat patients with chronic dyspepsia refractory to medical management. However, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. METHODS: Gastric pain was induced by performing gastric distension (GD in anesthetized rats. Pain response was monitored by measuring the pseudo-affective reflex (e.g., blood pressure variation, while neuronal activation was determined using c-fos immunochemistry in the central nervous system. Involvement of primary afferents was assessed by measuring phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. RESULTS: GES decreased blood pressure variation induced by GD, and prevented GD-induced neuronal activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (T9-T10, the nucleus of the solitary tract and in CRF neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. This effect remained unaltered within the spinal cord when sectioning the medulla at the T5 level. Furthermore, GES prevented GD-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: GES decreases GD-induced pain and/or discomfort likely through a direct modulation of gastric spinal afferents reducing central processing of visceral nociception.

  10. A review of accelerated response actions available to the environmental restoration program: Selected case histories and associated issues. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, J D; Quinn, R D [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Gianti, S J [CH2M Hill, Reston, VA (USA)

    1991-05-01

    Accelerated actions were developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) within the regulatory framework for initiating early cleanup action or accelerating ongoing cleanup action to abate, mitigate, or reduce risk to human health or the environment at a contaminated waste site. The purposes of this report are to review the regulatory frameworks available to initiate accelerated actions at sites on the National Priorities List (NPL) and to provide case histories of sites where accelerated actions have been implemented. The findings of this report are applicable to non-NPL waste sites also. Accelerated actions are of interest to the Department of Energy (DOE) for two primary reasons: they are methods available to demonstrate progress in environmental restoration at DOE waste sites, and a subset of accelerated actions, termed interim remedial actions, may be required in place of final actions to avoid violating National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines during the development of DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management's (DOE- EM's) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). To provide the case histories, interviews with staff and reviews of compliance documents were conducted for sites in EPA Regions 3, 4, and 7. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Physiologic adaptation changes of the "Bering Bridge" expedition participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidaraliyev, A A; Maximov, A L; Mala, T

    1993-04-01

    Cardiorespiratory measurements were repeatedly performed on indigenous and Caucasian Soviet and American male team members of the Bering Bridge expedition which covered approximately 1280 km over a 61 day period. Significant baseline differences in cardiorespiratory functions at rest and during submaximal cycle ergometer exercise were noted between racial groups. Indigenous members had significantly lower mean vital lung capacity and oxygen consumption levels during submaximal exercise, but a greater systolic blood pressure response to exercise. The energy cost during submaximal work decreased during the trek in both groups, but was marked in the Caucasians, suggesting that the indigenous subjects were better adapted at baseline to the Arctic environment. Overall, there was stabilization of functional responses in four of seven parameters studied, although differences between racial groups remained the same.

  12. Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, B Zane

    2003-01-01

    In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths.

  13. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: Alexander Y. Kaleri - FE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Russian cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Flight Engineer on Expedition 8 to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions on this video, either himself or with the help of an interpreter. The questions cover: 1) The goal of the expedition; 2) The place in history of Mir; 3) The reaction to the loss of Columbia in Houston; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he decided to become a cosmonaut; 6) His memory of Yuri Gagarin's first flight; 7) What happens on a Soyuz capsule during launch and flight; 8) Are Soyuz maneuvers automatic or manual; 8) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 9) The responsibilities of a Flight Engineer onboard the ISS; 10) Extravehicular activity (EVA) plans at that time; 11) The Shuttle Return to Flight and his preference for a Shuttle or Soyuz landing; 12) Why the last Soyuz landing was too rough; 13) The most valueable contribution of the ISS program.

  14. Normative findings of electrically evoked compound action potential measurements using the neural response telemetry of the Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarelli-Dees, D.; Dillier, N.; Lai, W.K.; Wallenberg, E. von; Dijk, B. van; Akdas, F.; Aksit, M.; Batman, C.; Beynon, A.J.; Burdo, S.; Chanal, J.M.; Collet, L.; Conway, M.; Coudert, C.; Craddock, L.; Cullington, H.; Deggouj, N.; Fraysse, B.; Grabel, S.; Kiefer, J.; Kiss, J.G.; Lenarz, T.; Mair, A.; Maune, S.; Muller-Deile, J.; Piron, J.P.; Razza, S.; Tasche, C.; Thai-Van, H.; Toth, F.; Truy, E.; Uziel, A.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty-seven adult recipients of the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system, from 13 different European countries, were tested using neural response telemetry to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), according to a standardised postoperative measurement

  15. Actions in response to drug safety signals arising from a spontaneous reporting system : Retrospective study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfes, Leàn; Kolfschoten, Judith; van Hunsel, Florence; Kooijman, Michel; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited information on actions taken in response to drug safety signals originating from a spontaneous reporting system (SRS) in pharmacovigilance. In The Netherlands the Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb is an independent organization that works in close collaboration with the

  16. Expedition Two crew inspects airlock in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Inside the air lock in the Space Station Processing Facility, the Expedition Two crew look at equipment. Seen from left are cosmonaut Yury Usachev, a technician, and astronauts Susan Helms and James Voss. At far right is astronaut John Young, who flew on mission STS-1. Usachev, Helms and Voss will be flying on mission STS-102, launching March 8. The air lock will be carried to the Station during their tenure in space. STS-102 will be Helms' and Voss's fifth Shuttle flight, and Usachev's second. They will be replacing the Expedition One crew (Bill Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev), who will return to Earth March 20 on Discovery along with the STS-102 crew.

  17. National Wildlife Refuge System Action Plan : Response to Independent Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This action plan is the first in what the Leadership Team intends to be a recurring annual plan to monitor and address overall Refuge System effectiveness. The plan...

  18. ISS Expedition 1 Crew Interviews: Sergei K. Krikalev

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Flight Engineer Sergei K. Krikalev is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Krikalev became a cosmonaut, the events that led to his interest, the transition from being an engineer to being selected as a Russian cosmonaut. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses are the main goals of the first Expedition Crew, their scheduled docking with the International Space Station (ISS), making the ISS ready for human inhabitance, and all the specifics that will make his living arrangements difficult. Krikalev mentions his responsibilities during the much-anticipated two-day flight to the ISS, as well as the possibility of his space-walk. Krikalev also discusses the crew's first tasks upon entrance including other scheduled tasks for the first week, docking from cargo ships, and spacecraft delivering equipment or performing Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). He explains his opinion of the implications of having human beings in space.

  19. Sound-Making Actions Lead to Immediate Plastic Changes of Neuromagnetic Evoked Responses and Induced β-Band Oscillations during Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Bernhard; Barat, Masihullah; Fujioka, Takako

    2017-06-14

    Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as talking and singing or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at β-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening. Nineteen healthy young adults (7 female, 12 male) participated in three magnetoencephalographic recordings while first passively listening to recorded sounds of a bell ringing, then actively striking the bell with a mallet, and then again listening to recorded sounds. Auditory cortex activity showed characteristic P1-N1-P2 waves. The N1 was attenuated during sound making, while P2 responses were unchanged. In contrast, P2 became larger when listening after sound making compared with the initial naive listening. The P2 increase occurred immediately, while in previous learning-by-listening studies P2 increases occurred on a later day. Also, reactivity of β-band oscillations, as well as θ coherence between auditory and sensorimotor cortices, was stronger in the second listening block. These changes were significantly larger than those observed in control participants (eight female, five male), who triggered recorded sounds by a key press. We propose that P2 characterizes familiarity with sound objects, whereas β-band oscillation signifies involvement of the action-perception cycle, and both measures objectively indicate functional neuroplasticity in auditory perceptual learning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT While suppression of auditory responses to self-generated sounds is well known, it is not clear whether the learned action-sound association

  20. John Murray / MABAHISS expedition versus the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, A. A.; Morcos, S. A.

    In addition to its scientific achievements, the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition was a unique experiment in technology transfer and it pioneered bilateral relations in the field of oceanography, at a time when the Law of the Sea was not even an embryonic concept. The Expedition will be remembered for its profound influence on the development of oceanography in Egypt, and subsequently in several Arab and African countries, as well as for its socio-economic impact in Egypt. The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was an elaborate exercise involving both the most sophisticated developments in oceanography of the day and the full complexity of international relations which necessitated the scientific, coordinating and supporting mechanisms of SCOR, IOC and Unesco combined. Each exercise separated by 25 years represented a significant event in the development of oceanography. Each was a natural product of the prevailing state of the art and the international climate. Oceanography had made a quantum jump in technology in the intervening quarter of a century, which had put the cost of deep sea oceanography quite beyond the financial capabilities of many developing countries, an important factor to bear in mind when comparing the impact of the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition on Egypt with that of the IIOE, on the Indian Ocean countries.

  1. Biological results of the Snellius expedition. XXIV. Pelagic Tunicates of the Snellius expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokioka, T.

    1974-01-01

    Eleven samples of pelagic tunicates were found in the material collected during the Snellius Expedition 1929-30. In these, seven species, viz., two pyrosomas and five salpas, are included. In addition, a few old specimens of another species of Pyrosoma were found in the collection of the Leiden

  2. Environmental Action and Student Environmental Leaders: Exploring the Influence of Environmental Attitudes, Locus of Control, and Sense of Personal Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Julie; Blood, Nathaniel; Beery, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Student Climate and Conservation Congress (SC3) is a joint educational effort between the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the Green Schools Alliance that aims to develop the next generation of conservation leaders through fostering action competence in youth. Data from SC3 participants was used to investigate four predictors of…

  3. Focus on SREB States' Responses to the Economic Slowdown: Budget Actions Affecting Education in 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Gale

    2008-01-01

    Unfortunately, Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states are not immune to the economic slowdown sweeping the nation. States are taking action to bring budgets into balance while working to protect essential services and programs. In a 1991 report, "Coping With the Sluggish Economy," SREB noted the accelerated efforts to reshape schools and…

  4. National action plan for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in Iran; a response to emerging epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peykari, Niloofar; Hashemi, Hassan; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Haji-Aghajani, Mohammad; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sadrolsadat, Ali; Sayyari, Ali Akbar; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Delavari, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Heshmat, Ramin; Jamshidi, Hamidreza; Kalantari, Naser; Koosha, Ahmad; Takian, Amirhossein; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-01-01

    Emerging Non-communicable diseases burden move United Nation to call for 25% reduction by 2025 in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The World Health Organization (WHO) developed global action plan for prevention and control NCDs, but the countries' contexts, priorities, and health care system might be different. Therefore, WHO expects from countries to meet national commitments to achieve the 25 by 25 goal through adapted targets and action plan. In this regards, sustainable high-level political statement plays a key role in rules and regulation support, and multi-sectoral collaborations to NCDs' prevention and control by considering the sustainable development goals and universal health coverage factors. Therefore, Iran established the national authority's structure as Iranian Non Communicable Diseases Committee (INCDC) and developed NCDs' national action plan through multi-sectoral approach and collaboration researchers and policy makers. Translation Iran's expertise could be benefit to mobilizing leadership in other countries for practical action to save the millions of peoples.

  5. Seek Help from Teachers or Fight Back? Student Perceptions of Teachers' Actions during Conflicts and Responses to Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves, Mario J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that teachers' actions when addressing conflict on school grounds can shape adolescent perceptions regarding how well the school manages victimization. Our objective in this study was to determine how these perceptions influenced the likelihood that adolescent students would react to victimization scenarios by either…

  6. 45 CFR 284.35 - What action will we take in response to the State's assessment and other information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STATE OR TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.35 What action will we... assessment along with other available information. If we determine that the increase in the child poverty... determine that the increase in the State's child poverty rate of five percent or more is the result of the...

  7. Pilot test of a novel food response and attention training treatment for obesity: Brain imaging data suggest actions shape valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stice, E.; Yokum, S.; Veling, H.P.; Kemps, E.; Lawrence, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region

  8. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 235.3 Section 235.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.3 Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (a) Detention...

  9. 12 CFR 229.55 - Expedited recredit for banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited recredit for banks. 229.55 Section 229.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... Expedited recredit for banks. (a) Circumstances giving rise to a claim. A bank that has an indemnity claim...

  10. Social interaction and pain: An arctic expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Per; Heathcote, Lauren C; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie

    2017-11-08

    Complex human behaviour can only be understood within its social environment. However, disentangling the causal links between individual outcomes and social network position is empirically challenging. We present a research design in a closed real-world setting with high-resolution temporal data to understand this interplay within a fundamental human experience - physical pain. Study participants completed an isolated 3-week hiking expedition in the Arctic Circle during which they were subject to the same variation in environmental conditions and only interacted amongst themselves. Adolescents provided daily ratings of pain and social interaction partners. Using longitudinal network models, we analyze the interplay between social network position and the experience of pain. Specifically, we test whether experiencing pain is linked to decreasing popularity (increasing isolation), whether adolescents prefer to interact with others experiencing similar pain (homophily), and whether participants are increasingly likely to report similar pain as their interaction partners (contagion). We find that reporting pain is associated with decreasing popularity - interestingly, this effect holds for males only. Further exploratory analyses suggest this is at least partly driven by males withdrawing from contact with females when in pain, enhancing our understanding of pain and masculinity. Contrary to recent experimental and clinical studies, we found no evidence of pain homophily or contagion in the expedition group. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) Regulate Action Potential and Synaptic Response in Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wendy C.; Xiao, Shaohua; Huang, Fen; Harfe, Brian D.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Central neurons respond to synaptic inputs from other neurons by generating synaptic potentials. Once the summated synaptic potentials reach threshold for action potential firing, the signal propagates leading to transmitter release at the synapse. The calcium influx accompanying such signaling opens calcium-activated ion channels for feedback regulation. Here we report a novel mechanism for modulating hippocampal neuronal signaling that involves calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs). We present the first evidence that CaCCs reside in hippocampal neurons and are in close proximity of calcium channels and NMDA receptors to shorten action potential duration, dampen excitatory synaptic potentials, impede temporal summation, and raise the threshold for action potential generation by synaptic potential. Having recently identified TMEM16A and TMEM16B as CaCCs, we further show that TMEM16B but not TMEM16A is important for hippocampal CaCC, laying the groundwork for deciphering the dynamic CaCC modulation of neuronal signaling in neurons important for learning and memory. PMID:22500639

  12. Anger fosters action. Fast responses in a motor task involving approach movements towards angry faces and bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josje eDe Valk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently responding to others’ emotions, especially threatening expressions such as anger and fear, can have great survival value. Previous research has shown that humans have a bias towards threatening stimuli. Most of these studies focused on facial expressions, yet emotions are expressed by the whole body. Body language contains a direct action component, and activates action preparation areas in the brain more than facial expressions. Hence, biases towards threat may be larger following threatening bodily expressions as compared to facial expressions. The current study investigated reaction times of movements directed towards emotional bodies and faces. For this purpose, a task was developed where participants were standing in front of a computer screen on which angry, fearful and neutral faces and bodies were presented which they had to touch as quickly as possible. Results show that participants responded faster to angry than to neutral stimuli, regardless of the source (face or body. No significant difference was observed between fearful and neutral stimuli, demonstrating that the threat bias was not related to the negativity of the stimulus, but likely to the directness of the threat. Whereas fearful stimuli might signal an environmental threat that requires further exploration before action, angry expressions signal

  13. Antagonistic effect of juvenile hormone on hemocyte-spreading behavior of Spodoptera exigua in response to an insect cytokine and its putative membrane action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonggyun; Jung, Sungchae; Madanagopal, Nalini

    2008-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) acts on membrane of follicle cells to induce ovarian patency for vitellogenesis, though it regulates various other physiological processes via putative intracellular receptors. This study suggests another JH membrane action by analyzing in vitro hemocyte behavior. In response to nonself, both granular cells and plasmatocytes of Spodoptera exigua can exhibit cell shape changes through spreading behaviors. Plasmatocytes were separated from total S. exigua hemocytes by Percoll gradient and exposed in vitro to an insect cytokine, plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP), identified from Pseudoplusia includens. In response, the purified plasmatocytes spread in a dose-dependent manner from picomolar to micromolar concentrations. Interestingly, the PSP responses of plasmatocytes in S. exigua varied among different larval ages during fifth instar ( approximately 5 days at 25 degrees C) in a sensitivity order of late (5 days old)responsive for this developmental modulation of plasmatocyte sensitivity to PSP. We tested this hypothesis by exposing plasmatocytes to hormone agonists in vitro. Pyriproxyfen, a JH agonist, significantly inhibited plasmatocyte sensitivity to PSP. JH I and II had significant effects on antagonizing plasmatocyte sensitivity to PSP, but either JH III or farnesoic acid did not. In contrast, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) enhanced the plasmatocyte sensitivity to PSP. Ethoxyzolamide, a putative JH competitor to membrane receptor, inhibited JH action on the plasmatocyte sensitivity to PSP. Though staurosporine (a protein kinase inhibitor) alone did not influence plasmatocyte sensitivity to PSP, it antagonized the JH inhibitory effect on the plasmatocytes. Ouabain, a specific Na+ -K+ ATPase inhibitor, also masked the JH action on the plasmatocytes. These

  14. Public health response systems in-action: learning from local health departments' experiences with acute and emergency incidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Hunter

    Full Text Available As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems.

  15. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  16. Rapid and reversible responses to IVIG in autoimmune neuromuscular diseases suggest mechanisms of action involving competition with functionally important autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Melvin; McCallus, Daniel E; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is widely used in autoimmune neuromuscular diseases whose pathogenesis is undefined. Many different effects of IVIG have been demonstrated in vitro, but few studies actually identify the mechanism(s) most important in vivo. Doses and treatment intervals are generally chosen empirically. Recent studies in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy show that some effects of IVIG are readily reversible and highly dependent on the serum IgG level. This suggests that in some autoantibody-mediated neuromuscular diseases, IVIG directly competes with autoantibodies that reversibly interfere with nerve conduction. Mechanisms of action of IVIG which most likely involve direct competition with autoantibodies include: neutralization of autoantibodies by anti-idiotypes, inhibition of complement deposition, and increasing catabolism of pathologic antibodies by saturating FcRn. Indirect immunomodulatory effects are not as likely to involve competition and may not have the same reversibility and dose-dependency. Pharmacodynamic analyses should be informative regarding most relevant mechanism(s) of action of IVIG as well as the role of autoantibodies in the immunopathogenesis of each disease. Better understanding of the role of autoantibodies and of the target(s) of IVIG could lead to more efficient use of this therapy and better patient outcomes. PMID:24200120

  17. A Flow Cytometry Method for Rapidly Assessing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Responses to Antibiotics with Different Modes of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon-Dunn, Charlotte Louise; Doris, Kathryn Sarah; Thomas, Stephen Richard; Allnutt, Jonathan Charles; Marriott, Alice Ann Neville; Hatch, Kim Alexandra; Watson, Robert James; Bottley, Graham; Marsh, Philip David; Taylor, Stephen Charles; Bacon, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Current methods for assessing the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are lengthy and do not capture information about viable organisms that are not immediately culturable under standard laboratory conditions as a result of antibiotic exposure. We have developed a rapid dual-fluorescence flow cytometry method using markers for cell viability and death. We show that the fluorescent marker calcein violet with an acetoxy-methyl ester group (CV-AM) can differentiate between populations of M. tuberculosis growing at different rates, while Sytox green (SG) can differentiate between live and dead mycobacteria. M. tuberculosis was exposed to isoniazid or rifampin at different concentrations over time and either dual stained with CV-AM and SG and analyzed by flow cytometry or plated to determine the viability of the cells. Although similar trends in the loss of viability were observed when the results of flow cytometry and the plate counting methods were compared, there was a lack of correlation between these two approaches, as the flow cytometry analysis potentially captured information about cell populations that were unable to grow under standard conditions. The flow cytometry approach had an additional advantage in that it could provide insights into the mode of action of the drug: antibiotics targeting the cell wall gave a flow cytometry profile distinct from those inhibiting intracellular processes. This rapid drug susceptibility testing method could identify more effective antimycobacterials, provide information about their potential mode of action, and accelerate their progress to the clinic. Copyright © 2016 Hendon-Dunn et al.

  18. Responses to loud auditory stimuli indicate that movement-related activation builds up in anticipation of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovic, Welber; de Rugy, Aymar; Lipp, Ottmar V; Tresilian, James R

    2013-02-01

    Previous research using a loud acoustic stimulus (LAS) to investigate motor preparation in reaction time (RT) tasks indicates that responses can be triggered well in advance of the presentation of an imperative stimulus (IS). This is intriguing given that high levels of response preparation cannot be maintained for long periods (≈ 200 ms). In the experiments reported here we sought to assess whether response-related activation increases gradually over time in simple RT tasks. In experiment 1, a LAS was presented at different times just prior to the presentation of the IS to probe the level of activation for the motor response. In experiment 2, the same LAS was presented at different times after the presentation of the IS. The results provide evidence that response-related activation does increase gradually in anticipation of the IS, but it remains stable for a short time after this event. The data display a pattern consistent with the response being triggering by the LAS, rather than a reaction to the IS.

  19. The responsiveness and correlation between Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the Action Research Arm Test in chronic stroke with upper-extremity rehabilitation robotic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi-Jun; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Responsiveness of clinical assessments is an important element in the report of clinical effectiveness after rehabilitation. The correlation could reflect the validity of assessments as an indication of clinical performance before and after interventions. This study investigated the correlation and responsiveness of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Motor Status Scale (MSS), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), which are used frequently in effectiveness studies of robotic upper-extremity training in stroke rehabilitation. Twenty-seven chronic stroke patients were recruited for a 20-session upper-extremity rehabilitation robotic training program. This was a rater-blinded randomized controlled trial. All participants were evaluated with FMA, MSS, ARAT, MAS, and Functional Independent Measure before and after robotic training. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied for the analysis of correlation. The standardized response mean (SRM) and Guyatt's responsiveness index (GRI) were used to analyze responsiveness. Spearman's correlation coefficient showed a significantly high correlation (ρ=0.91-0.96) among FMA, MSS, and ARAT and a fair-to-moderate correlation (ρ=0.40-0.62) between MAS and the other assessments. FMA, MSS, and MAS on the wrist showed higher responsiveness (SRM=0.85-0.98, GRI=1.59-3.62), whereas ARAT showed relatively less responsiveness (SRM=0.22, GRI=0.81). The results showed that FMA or MSS would be the best choice for evaluating the functional improvement in stroke studies on robotic upper-extremity training with high responsiveness and good correlation with ARAT. MAS could be used separately to evaluate the spasticity changes after intervention in terms of high responsiveness.

  20. Differential response of regulatory and conventional CD4+ lymphocytes to CD3 engagement: clues to a possible mechanism of anti-CD3 action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Nishio, Junko; van Maurik, André; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Several clinical trials have shown anti-CD3 treatment to be a promising therapy for autoimmune diabetes, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are likely to be involved, but through unknown mechanistic pathways. We profiled the transcriptional consequences in CD4+ Treg and conventional T (Tconv) cells in the first hours and days after anti-CD3 treatment of NOD mice. Anti-CD3 treatment led to a transient transcriptional response, terminating faster than most antigen-induced responses. Most transcripts were similarly induced in Treg and Tconv cells, but several were differential, in particular those encoding the IL7 receptor (IL7R) and transcription factors Id2/3 and Gfi1, upregulated in Treg but repressed in Tconv cells. As IL7R was a plausible candidate for driving the homeostatic response of Treg cells to anti-CD3, we tested its relevance by supplementation of anti-CD3 treatment with IL7/anti-IL7 complexes. Although ineffective alone, IL7 significantly improved the rate of remission induced by anti-CD3. Four anti-human CD3 mAbs exhibited the same differential effect on IL7R expression in human as in mouse cells, suggesting that the mechanism also underlie therapeutic effect in human cells, and perhaps a rationale for testing a combination of anti-CD3 and IL7 for the treatment of recent-onset human type-1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, systems level analysis of the response to anti-CD3 in the early phase of the treatment demonstrates different responses in Treg and Tconv cells, and provides new leads to a mechanistic understanding of its mechanism of action in reverting recent-onset diabetes. PMID:23986534

  1. Mathematics in narratives of Geodetic expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrall, Mary

    2006-12-01

    In eighteenth-century France, geodesy (the measure of the earth's shape) became an arena where mathematics and narrative intersected productively. Mathematics played a crucial role not only in the measurements and analysis necessary to geodesy but also in the narrative accounts that presented the results of elaborate and expensive expeditions to the reading public. When they returned to France to write these accounts after their travels, mathematician-observers developed a variety of ways to display numbers and mathematical arguments and techniques. The numbers, equations, and diagrams they produced could not be separated from the story of their acquisition. Reading these accounts for the interplay of these two aspects--the mathematical and the narrative--shows how travelers articulated the intellectual and physical difficulties of their work to enhance the value of their results for specialist and lay readers alike.

  2. Mechanomyographic responses for the biceps brachii are unable to track the declines in peak torque during 25, 50, 75, and 100 fatiguing isokinetic muscle actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Ye, Xin

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the peak torque and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and mean frequency (MNF) responses during fatiguing isokinetic muscle actions. On four separate occasions, twenty men (mean ± SD age = 23 ± 3 years) performed 25, 50, 75, and 100 repeated maximal concentric isokinetic muscle actions of the dominant forearm flexors. During each muscle action, the MMG signal was detected from the biceps brachii with an accelerometer. The data were examined with linear regression and one-way repeated measures analyses of variance. The results indicated that the mean percent decline in peak torque value for the 25 repetition trial (25.6%) was significantly less than that for the 50 repetition trial (45.2%). Furthermore, the mean linear slope coefficient for the peak torque versus repetition number relationship for the 50 repetition trial was significantly less than that for the 100 repetition trial. There were no mean differences among the trials for the linear slope coefficients and y-intercepts for the MMG amplitude and MNF versus repetition number relationships. When detected with an accelerometer, the linear slope coefficients and y-intercepts for the MMG amplitude and MNF versus repetition number relationships were not sensitive enough to track the decline in muscle function during fatigue.

  3. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  4. Behavioral Issues Associated With Long Duration Space Expeditions: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struster, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Personal journals maintained by NASA astronauts during six-month expeditions onboard the International Space Station were analyzed to obtain information concerning a wide range of behavioral and human factors issues. Astronauts wrote most about their work, followed by outside communications (with mission control, family, and friends), adjustment to the conditions, interactions with crew mates, recreation/leisure, equipment (installation, maintenance), events (launches, docking, hurricanes, etc.), organization/management, sleep, and food. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the missions and identified key factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance during long-duration space expeditions. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals because it helped maintain perspective on their work and relations with others. Responses to questions asked before, during, and after the expeditions show that living and working onboard the ISS is not as difficult as the astronauts anticipate before starting their six-month tours of duty. Recommendations include application of study results and continuation of the experiment to obtain additional data as crew size increases and operations evolve.

  5. The Twelfth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica: Events and achievements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The twelfth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica comprising 56 members coming from different scientific organisations/institutions and the logistic contingent from three wings of defense services was flagged off by Shri Ravi Naik, Honourable...

  6. Biological results of the Snellius expedition : XXIX. Echinodermata, Asteroidea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, M.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-eight species of starfish were collected during the Snellius Expedition (19291930). The collection contains seven rare or uncommon species, i.e., Astropecten novaeguineae, A. sumbawanus, Celerina heffernani, Fromia eusticha, Disasterina abnormalis, Nepanthia briareus and Echinaster

  7. Field Science Ethnography: Methods For Systematic Observation on an Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Haughton-Mars expedition is a multidisciplinary project, exploring an impact crater in an extreme environment to determine how people might live and work on Mars. The expedition seeks to understand and field test Mars facilities, crew roles, operations, and computer tools. I combine an ethnographic approach to establish a baseline understanding of how scientists prefer to live and work when relatively unemcumbered, with a participatory design approach of experimenting with procedures and tools in the context of use. This paper focuses on field methods for systematically recording and analyzing the expedition's activities. Systematic photography and time-lapse video are combined with concept mapping to organize and present information. This hybrid approach is generally applicable to the study of modern field expeditions having a dozen or more multidisciplinary participants, spread over a large terrain during multiple field seasons.

  8. The indolic compound hypaphorine produced by ectomycorrhizal fungus interferes with auxin action and evokes early responses in nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboutier, David; Bianchi, Michele; Brault, Mathias; Roux, Camille; Dauphin, Aurélien; Rona, Jean-Pierre; Legué, Valérie; Lapeyrie, Frédéric; Bouteau, François

    2002-09-01

    Signals leading to mycorrhizal differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the sensitivity of the root system from plant model Arabidopsis thaliana to hypaphorine, the major indolic compound isolated from the basidiomycetous fungus Pisolithus tinctorius. This fungi establishes ectomycorrhizas with Eucalyptus globulus. Hypaphorine controls root hair elongation and counteracts the activity of indole-3-acetic acid on root elongation on A. thaliana, as previously reported for the host plant. In addition, we show that hypaphorine counteracts the rapid upregulation by indole-3-acetic acid and 1-naphthalenic-acetic acid of the primary auxin-responsive gene IAA1 and induces a rapid, transient membrane depolarization in root hairs and suspension cells, due to the modulation of anion and K+ currents. These early responses indicate that components necessary for symbiosis-related differentiation events are present in the nonhost plant A. thaliana and provide tools for the dissection of the hypaphorine-auxin interaction.

  9. Carbohydrate Nutrient Content Claims: Proposals for FDA Action and Lessons for Regulatory Response to Emerging Consumer Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the recent experience of the low-carbohydrate trend in nutrition. During the early years of this decade, thousands of new products claiming to be low in carbohydrates appeared on supermarket shelves in response to surging consumer demand. Despite the cooling of the fad, a substantial number of these products are still offered to consumers. While many of these foods make a variety of explicit and implicit claims on their labels about their carbohydrate content, the Food an...

  10. Problems in the Optimization of Manned Interplanetary Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiforenko, B. N.; Vasil'Ev, I. Yu.

    Within the scope of the unified variation problem the authors discuss the optimization of parameters, choosing flight trajectories and optimal flight control as well as control of life support systems in spacecraft in manned interplanetary expeditions. They examine the efficiency of ejecting the life support systems waste by jets from high-thrust rocket engines as compared to partial waste regeneration. They confirm the possibility of manned expeditions to Mars before efficient life support systems based on biological regeneration are developed.

  11. Rhizon Sampling of Pore Waters on Scientific Drilling Expeditions: An Example from the IODP Expedition 302, Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzie Schnieders

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than 35 years, interstitial water (IW samples have been collected from sediment recovered during marine scientific coring expeditions. Pioneering work of DSDP and ODP quickly demonstrated that pore water chemistry differed from that of overlying seawater and from one location to another for myriad reasons (Sayles and Manheim, 1975. Extraction and analysis of IW samples has now becomeroutine on deep-sea drilling cruises; the ensuing pore water profiles are being used to understand a range of processes, such as subsurface fluid flow (e.g., Brown et al., 2001; Saffer and Screaton, 2003, mineral diagenesis (e.g., Rudnicki et al., 2001; Malone et al., 2002, microbial reactions (e.g., Böttcher and Khim, 2004; D’Hondt et al., 2004, gas hydrate dissociation (e.g., Egeberg and Dickens, 1999; Tréhu et al., 2004, and glacial to interglacial changes in the composition of bottom water (e.g., Paul et al., 2001; Adkins and McIntyre, 2002.

  12. Antibacterial Compounds from Marine Vibrionaceae Isolated on a Global Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Gram

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global research expedition, over 500 bacterial strains inhibitory towards pathogenic bacteria were isolated. Three hundred of the antibacterial strains were assigned to the Vibrionaceae family. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phylogeny and bioactivity of five Vibrionaceae strains with pronounced antibacterial activity. These were identified as Vibrio coralliilyticus (two strains, V. neptunius (two strains, and Photobacterium halotolerans (one strain on the basis of housekeeping gene sequences. The two related V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains were isolated from distant oceanic regions. Chemotyping by LC-UV/MS underlined genetic relationships by showing highly similar metabolite profiles for each of the two V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains, respectively, but a unique profile for P. halotolerans. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two known antibiotics as being responsible for the antibacterial activity; andrimid (from V. coralliilyticus and holomycin (from P. halotolerans. Despite the isolation of already known antibiotics, our findings show that marine Vibrionaceae are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential for future natural product discovery.

  13. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature ‘prototype’ PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27491391

  14. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-08-05

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature 'prototype' PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits.

  15. Transcript profiling of cytokinin action in Arabidopsis roots and shoots discovers largely similar but also organ-specific responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Wolfram G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plant hormone cytokinin regulates growth and development of roots and shoots in opposite ways. In shoots it is a positive growth regulator whereas it inhibits growth in roots. It may be assumed that organ-specific regulation of gene expression is involved in these differential activities, but little is known about it. To get more insight into the transcriptional events triggered by cytokinin in roots and shoots, we studied genome-wide gene expression in cytokinin-treated and cytokinin-deficient roots and shoots. Results It was found by principal component analysis of the transcriptomic data that the immediate-early response to a cytokinin stimulus differs from the later response, and that the transcriptome of cytokinin-deficient plants is different from both the early and the late cytokinin induction response. A higher cytokinin status in the roots activated the expression of numerous genes normally expressed predominantly in the shoot, while a lower cytokinin status in the shoot reduced the expression of genes normally more active in the shoot to a more root-like level. This shift predominantly affected nuclear genes encoding plastid proteins. An organ-specific regulation was assigned to a number of genes previously known to react to a cytokinin signal, including root-specificity for the cytokinin hydroxylase gene CYP735A2 and shoot specificity for the cell cycle regulator gene CDKA;1. Numerous cytokinin-regulated genes were newly discovered or confirmed, including the meristem regulator genes SHEPHERD and CLAVATA1, auxin-related genes (IAA7, IAA13, AXR1, PIN2, PID, several genes involved in brassinosteroid (CYP710A1, CYP710A2, DIM/DWF and flavonol (MYB12, CHS, FLS1 synthesis, various transporter genes (e.g. HKT1, numerous members of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family, genes involved in light signalling (PhyA, COP1, SPA1, and more than 80 ribosomal genes. However, contrasting with the fundamental difference of

  16. Transcript profiling of cytokinin action in Arabidopsis roots and shoots discovers largely similar but also organ-specific responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The plant hormone cytokinin regulates growth and development of roots and shoots in opposite ways. In shoots it is a positive growth regulator whereas it inhibits growth in roots. It may be assumed that organ-specific regulation of gene expression is involved in these differential activities, but little is known about it. To get more insight into the transcriptional events triggered by cytokinin in roots and shoots, we studied genome-wide gene expression in cytokinin-treated and cytokinin-deficient roots and shoots. Results It was found by principal component analysis of the transcriptomic data that the immediate-early response to a cytokinin stimulus differs from the later response, and that the transcriptome of cytokinin-deficient plants is different from both the early and the late cytokinin induction response. A higher cytokinin status in the roots activated the expression of numerous genes normally expressed predominantly in the shoot, while a lower cytokinin status in the shoot reduced the expression of genes normally more active in the shoot to a more root-like level. This shift predominantly affected nuclear genes encoding plastid proteins. An organ-specific regulation was assigned to a number of genes previously known to react to a cytokinin signal, including root-specificity for the cytokinin hydroxylase gene CYP735A2 and shoot specificity for the cell cycle regulator gene CDKA;1. Numerous cytokinin-regulated genes were newly discovered or confirmed, including the meristem regulator genes SHEPHERD and CLAVATA1, auxin-related genes (IAA7, IAA13, AXR1, PIN2, PID), several genes involved in brassinosteroid (CYP710A1, CYP710A2, DIM/DWF) and flavonol (MYB12, CHS, FLS1) synthesis, various transporter genes (e.g. HKT1), numerous members of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family, genes involved in light signalling (PhyA, COP1, SPA1), and more than 80 ribosomal genes. However, contrasting with the fundamental difference of the growth response of

  17. Knowledge of stroke warning symptoms and intended action in response to stroke in Spain: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundelin, Krista; Graciani, Auxiliadora; García-Puig, Juan; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Taboada, José M; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide thrombolysis rates remain suboptimal. Ambulance transfer is associated with greater use of this time-dependent treatment. Information on public awareness of stroke symptoms is important for planning effective education programs to promote calling of emergency services for suspected stroke. However, there is a paucity of data on this subject in European countries. Our objectives were to explore the recognition of stroke symptoms, awareness of the need to activate the emergency medical services for acute stroke events, and the association between knowledge of warning symptoms and intent to call for an ambulance among a sample representative of the adult population of Spain. This is the largest study on this subject to date in Europe. The data were taken from the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain, a cross-sectional study conducted in a sample representative of the Spanish noninstitutionalized population aged ≥18 years in 2008-2010. Study participants were selected by multistage clustered random sampling. The households within each section were selected by random telephone dialing using the landline telephone directory as the sampling frame. Subjects in the households were selected proportionally to the distribution of the population of Spain by sex and age. The study included a computer-assisted telephone interview on stroke symptom knowledge and the first action to perform in a stroke event, based on the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association recommendations, and two home visits to perform a physical examination and to obtain blood samples. Among 11,827 adults, 7,711 (65.2%; 95% CI = 64.1-66.3) identified 4-6 stroke warning symptoms, considered as adequate knowledge. A total of 1,348 (11.4%) were unable to classify any of the symptoms correctly. In the multivariate analysis, higher education was significantly associated with better knowledge of symptoms, and age ≥65 years, fair/poor self-rated health, history of

  18. The effect of phase-shift on the passive avoidance response in rats and the modifying action of chlordiazepoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J.A.; Navaratnam, V.; Redfern, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    1 In rats trained to a 12 h light-12 h dark cycle, advancing the phase by 6 h produced a resynchronization of the 24 h variation in passive avoidance response (PAR) which was completed after 10 days. 2 The attainment of the new steady state was preceded by a period of disruption which was greatest 5 days after phase-shift. 3 The presence of chlordiazepoxide (62.5-500 μg/ml) in the drinking water during the days after phase-shift produced a dose-dependent lessening of the disruptive effect of phase-shift, and a more rapid adaptation to the new light-dark cycle. PMID:4451757

  19. Action, Participation and Social Practices: a psychosocial study of older woman who are in a responsability position of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Pérez Salanova

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present the results of a study on social practices of older women who are involved in different kinds of associations in responsibility positions. This study is a subproject of the investigation “Older women, daily life and social participation. Strategies for the promotion of Active Ageing”, whose aim was improving the comprehension of older women’s social practices taking as a reference the WHO perspective. A qualitative methodology was used based on 7 discussion groups and 5 interviews in which 50 informants participated. The results report how older women who are in formal power positions understand their activity, which activities are they doing and in which conditions, as well as the relationship between life trajectory and the practice of leading roles.

  20. The influence of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol on ventricular action potential duration and triangulation in response to potassium channel inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdale, James E; Overholser, Brian R; Wroblewski, Heather A; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2011-03-01

    Females are at increased risk for torsades de pointes (TdP). Some evidence suggests that progesterone may protect against TdP, but few data exist regarding the effects of progesterone on cardiac repolarization. We determined the effects of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol on ventricular action potential duration (APD) and triangulation in response to potassium channel inhibition. Female New Zealand white rabbits (n = 30) underwent ovariectomy and were implanted with 21-day sustained release pellets (each n = 6): progesterone; estradiol; progesterone; & estradiol combined; dihydrotestosterone (DHT); and placebo. After 20 days, hearts were excised, mounted, perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer, and paced at 150 bpm. After baseline measurements, hearts were perfused with quinidine 3 μmol/L. The degree of quinidine-associated prolongation of ventricular APD at 90% repolarization (APD(90) ) in the progesterone group was significantly less than that in the estradiol and the combined estradiol and progesterone groups, and not significantly different than in the DHT group. The degree of prolongation of action potential triangulation (APD(90) - APD(30) ) in hearts from progesterone-treated rabbits was significantly less than that in the estradiol group, and not significantly different from that in hearts from DHT-treated rabbits. There were no significant differences in quinidine effects on ventricular APD(90) or action potential triangulation between hearts exposed to estradiol alone or those exposed to both estradiol and progesterone. Progesterone protects against prolongation of APD(90) and triangulation associated with potassium channel inhibition. However, progesterone does not attenuate the effects of estradiol on prolongation of ventricular APD(90) associated with potassium channel inhibition. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Mechanism to Enhance Cellular Responsivity to Hormone Action: Krüppel-Like Factor 9 Promotes Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β Autoinduction During Postembryonic Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fang; Knoedler, Joseph R; Denver, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR)-β (trb) is induced by TH (autoinduced) in Xenopus tadpoles during metamorphosis. We previously showed that Krüppel-like factor 9 (Klf9) is rapidly induced by TH in the tadpole brain, associates in chromatin with the trb upstream region in a developmental stage and TH-dependent manner, and forced expression of Klf9 in the Xenopus laevis cell line XTC-2 accelerates and enhances trb autoinduction. Here we investigated whether Klf9 can promote trb autoinduction in tadpole brain in vivo. Using electroporation-mediated gene transfer, we transfected plasmids into premetamorphic tadpole brain to express wild-type or mutant forms of Klf9. Forced expression of Klf9 increased baseline trb mRNA levels in thyroid-intact but not in goitrogen-treated tadpoles, supporting that Klf9 enhances liganded TR action. As in XTC-2 cells, forced expression of Klf9 enhanced trb autoinduction in tadpole brain in vivo and also increased TH-dependent induction of the TR target genes klf9 and thbzip. Consistent with our previous mutagenesis experiments conducted in XTC-2 cells, the actions of Klf9 in vivo required an intact N-terminal region but not a functional DNA binding domain. Forced expression of TRβ in tadpole brain by electroporation-mediated gene transfer increased baseline and TH-induced TR target gene transcription, supporting a role for trb autoinduction during metamorphosis. Our findings support that Klf9 acts as an accessory transcription factor for TR at the trb locus during tadpole metamorphosis, enhancing trb autoinduction and transcription of other TR target genes, which increases cellular responsivity to further TH action on developmental gene regulation programs.

  2. The German-Tanzanian Tendaguru Expedition 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-D. Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The celebrated fossil locality of Tendaguru (Tanzania, East Africa has been well known for its unique Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages since the early decades of the 20th century. Recently, within the scope of the German-Tanzanian Tendaguru project, an expedition returned to Tendaguru with the aim of collecting microvertebrates, micro- and macroinvertebrates, plant fossils and new sedimentological and stratigraphical data. Applying a multidisciplinary research approach, the data collected were used to address various controversial issues regarding the Tendaguru Beds. These include their exact age, depositional environments and reconstructions of the palaeoecosystems in which the dinosaurs lived. Field work resulted in a new standard section for the Tendaguru Beds. Preliminary biostratigraphic results, based on ammonites, charophytes and palynomorphs, support a Late Kimmeridgian age for the Nerinea Bed, an early Tithonian age for the Trigonia smeei Bed, and an Early Cretaceous (possibly Valanginian to Hauterivian age for the Trigonia schwarzi Bed. Facies analysis of the Tendaguru Beds indicates environments ranging from storm- and tide-influenced, siliciclastic coastal barrier systems, ooid sand bar complexes and backbarrier tidal flats to sabkha-like coastal plains with brackish lakes and pools. Sedimentological indicators of palaeoclimate and palynological data point to a subtropical to tropical climate with pronounced dry seasons. In concert with sedimentological data, quantitative palaeoecological analysis of macroinvertebrates helped to finetune understanding of environmental factors such as substrate conditions, salinity, sedimentation rate and water depth. Along with abundant microvertebrate remains and fragments of fusain and cuticles, these new data have considerably improved our knowledge of the fauna and flora found in the Tendaguru Beds, and provide a solid basis for developing a better understanding of the Late Jurassic and Early

  3. The Stimuli-Actions-Effects-Responses (SAER)-framework for exploring perceived relationships between private and public climate change adaptation in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Hermine; Schönhart, Martin; Larcher, Manuela; Schmid, Erwin

    2018-01-03

    Empirical findings on actors' roles and responsibilities in the climate change adaptation process are rare even though cooperation between private and public actors is perceived important to foster adaptation in agriculture. We therefore developed the framework SAER (Stimuli-Actions-Effects-Responses) to investigate perceived relationships between private and public climate change adaptation in agriculture at regional scale. In particular, we explore agricultural experts' perceptions on (i) climatic and non-climatic factors stimulating private adaptation, (ii) farm adaption actions, (iii) potential on-farm and off-farm effects from adaptation, and (iv) the relationships between private and public adaptation. The SAER-framework is built on a comprehensive literature review and empirical findings from semi-structured interviews with agricultural experts from two case study regions in Austria. We find that private adaptation is perceived as incremental, systemic or transformational. It is typically stimulated by a mix of bio-physical and socio-economic on-farm and off-farm factors. Stimulating factors related to climate change are perceived of highest relevance for systemic and transformational adaptation whereas already implemented adaptation is mostly perceived to be incremental. Perceived effects of private adaptation are related to the environment, weather and climate, quality and quantity of agricultural products as well as human, social and economic resources. Our results also show that public adaptation can influence factors stimulating private adaptation as well as adaptation effects through the design and development of the legal, policy and organizational environment as well as the provision of educational, informational, financial, and technical infrastructure. Hence, facilitating existing and new collaborations between private and public actors may enable farmers to adapt effectively to climate change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rescuing biogeographic legacy data: The "Thor" Expedition, a historical oceanographic expedition to the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavraki, Dimitra; Fanini, Lucia; Tsompanou, Marilena; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Stamatina; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Plaitis, Wanda; Faulwetter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the digitization of a series of historical datasets based οn the reports of the 1908-1910 Danish Oceanographical Expeditions to the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. All station and sampling metadata as well as biodiversity data regarding calcareous rhodophytes, pelagic polychaetes, and fish (families Engraulidae and Clupeidae) obtained during these expeditions were digitized within the activities of the LifeWatchGreece Research Ιnfrastructure project and presented in the present paper. The aim was to safeguard public data availability by using an open access infrastructure, and to prevent potential loss of valuable historical data on the Mediterranean marine biodiversity. The datasets digitized here cover 2,043 samples taken at 567 stations during a time period from 1904 to 1930 in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. The samples resulted in 1,588 occurrence records of pelagic polychaetes, fish (Clupeiformes) and calcareous algae (Rhodophyta). In addition, basic environmental data (e.g. sea surface temperature, salinity) as well as meterological conditions are included for most sampling events. In addition to the description of the digitized datasets, a detailed description of the problems encountered during the digitization of this historical dataset and a discussion on the value of such data are provided.

  5. In-Patient Code Stroke: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Overcome Knowledge-to-Action Gaps in Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassardjian, Charles D; Willems, Jacqueline D; Skrabka, Krystyna; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Barnaby, Judith; Kostyrko, Pawel; Selchen, Daniel; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2017-08-01

    Stroke is a relatively common and challenging condition in hospitalized patients. Previous studies have shown delays in recognition and assessment of inpatient strokes leading to poor outcomes. The goal of this quality improvement initiative was to evaluate an in-hospital code stroke algorithm and educational program aimed at reducing the response times for inpatient stroke. An inpatient code stroke algorithm was developed, and an educational intervention was implemented over 5 months. Data were recorded and compared between the 36-month period before and the 15-month period after the intervention was implemented. Outcome measures included time from last seen normal to initial assessment and from last seen normal to brain imaging. During the study period, there were 218 inpatient strokes (131 before the intervention and 87 after the intervention). Inpatient strokes were more common on cardiovascular wards (45% of cases) and occurred mainly during the perioperative period (60% of cases). After implementation of an inpatient code stroke intervention and educational initiative, there were consistent reductions in all timed outcome measures (median time to initial assessment fell from 600 [109-1460] to 160 [35-630] minutes and time to computed tomographic scan fell from 925 [213-1965] to 348.5 [128-1587] minutes). Our study reveals the efficacy of an inpatient code stroke algorithm and educational intervention directed at nurses and allied health personnel to optimize the prompt management of inpatient strokes. Prompt assessment may lead to faster stroke interventions, which are associated with better outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Mechanism of action and morphologic changes in the alveolar bone in response to selective alveolar decortication-facilitated tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloul, S Susan; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Morgan, Elise F; Carvalho, Roberto S; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test if corticotomy-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling underlie orthodontic tooth movement and how selective alveolar decortication enhances the rate of tooth movement. A total of 114 Sprague-Dawley rats were included in 3 treatment groups: selective alveolar decortication alone (SADc); tooth movement alone (TM); and "combined" therapy (SADc + TM). Surgery was performed around the buccal and palatal aspects of the left maxillary first molar tooth and included 5 decortication dots on each side. Tooth movement was performed on the first molar using a 25-g Sentalloy spring. Measurements were done at baseline (day 0: no treatment rendered) and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. Microcomputed tomography, Faxitron analyses, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) of expressed mRNAs were used to assess changes. The combined group showed increased tooth movement (P = 0.04) at 7 days compared with the tooth movement group with significantly decreased bone volume (62%; P = 0.016) and bone mineral content (63%; P = 0.015). RNA markers of osteoclastic cells and key osteoclastic regulators (M-CSF [macrophage colony-stimulating factor], RANKL [receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand], OPG [osteoprotegerin], calcitonin receptor [CTR], TRACP-5b [tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b], cathepsin K [Ctsk]) all showed expression indicating increased osteoclastogenesis in the combined group. RNA markers of osteoblastic cells (OPN [osteopontin], BSP [bone sialoprotein], OCN [osteocalcin]) also showed increased anabolic activity in response to the combination of alveolar decortication and tooth movement. The data suggest that the alveolar decortication enhances the rate of tooth movement during the initial tooth displacement phase; this results in a coupled mechanism of bone resorption and bone formation during the earlier stages of treatment, and this mechanism underlies the rapid orthodontic tooth movement

  7. The Boston Marathon bombing: after-action review of the Brigham and Women's Hospital emergency radiology response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, John; Rocha, Tatiana C; Chudgar, Avni A; Goralnick, Eric; Havens, Joaquim M; Raja, Ali S; Sodickson, Aaron

    2014-10-01

    To analyze imaging utilization and emergency radiology process turnaround times in response to the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing in order to identify opportunities for improvement in the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) emergency operations plan. Institutional review board approval was obtained with waivers of informed consent. Patient demographics, injuries, and outcomes were gathered, along with measures of emergency department (ED) imaging utilization and turnaround times, which were compared with operations from the preceding year by using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess contributors to examination cancellations. Forty patients presented to BWH after the bombing; 16 were admitted and 24 were discharged home. There were no fatalities. Ten patients required emergent surgery. Blast injury types included 13 (33%) primary, 20 (51%) secondary, three (8%) tertiary, and 19 (49%) quaternary. Thirty-one patients (78%) underwent imaging in the ED; 57 radiographic examinations in 30 patients and 16 computed tomographic (CT) examinations in seven patients. Sixty-two radiographic and 14 CT orders were cancelled. Median time from blast to patient arrival was 97 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 43-139 minutes), patient arrival to ED examination order, 24 minutes (IQR, 12-50 minutes), order to examination completion, 49 minutes (IQR, 26-70 minutes), and examination completion to available dictated text report, 75 minutes (IQR, 19-147 minutes). Examination completion turnaround times were significantly increased for radiography (52 minutes [IQR, 26-73 minutes] vs annual median, 31 minutes [IQR, 19-48 minutes]; P = .001) and decreased for CT (37 minutes [IQR, 26-50 minutes] vs annual median, 72 minutes [IQR, 40-129 minutes]; P = .001). There were no significant differences in report availability turnaround time (75 minutes [IQR, 19-147 minutes] vs annual median, 74 minutes [IQR, 35-127 minutes]; P = .34). The surge in

  8. Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose-response effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joao Zotti, Moises; Dionel Grutzmacher, Anderson; Heres Lopes, Isac; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-12-01

    The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2×MFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron > lufenuron > teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2 048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Teoria da Ação Comunicativa e responsabilidade social empresarial: uma proposta de pesquisa Communicative Action Theory and company's social responsibility: a research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvon Pesqueux

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, empreendemos uma revisão da Teoria da Ação Comunicativa e propomos uma agenda de pesquisa sobre a adoção de fóruns de debate de inspiração habermasiana nas organizações, visando à fixação de agendas de desenvolvimento sustentável para diversos setores da economia. Como a responsabilidade social da empresa diz respeito à implementação, por parte dela, de ações de desenvolvimento sustentável, considera-se que deva estabelecer uma agenda de desenvolvimento sustentável tendo em vista sua atuação em setores específicos da economia. Assim, a pauta de desenvolvimento de produtos, serviços e tecnologias que obedeçam às diretrizes de desenvolvimento sustentável deve ser fixada de acordo com critérios substantivos a ser debatidos em fóruns de comunicação de inspiração habermasiana.In this paper, we undertook a review of the Communicative Action Theory and propose a research agenda on the adoption of Habermasian-inspired debate forums at organizations, aimed at setting sustainable development agendas for various sectors of the economy. As the company's social responsibility concerns the implementation, on its part, of sustainable development actions, one thinks there's a need for establishing a sustainable development agenda taking into account its operation in specific sectors of the economy. Thus, an agenda for developing products, services, and technologies which complies with the sustainable development guidelines should be set in accordance with the substantive criteria which are going to be debated on Habermasian inspired communication forums.

  10. Prioritizing action on health inequities in cities: An evaluation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in 15 cities from Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi; Dagg, Kendra Ann-Masako; Mori, Hanako; Senkoro, Hawa Hamisi; Ardakani, Mohammad Assai; Elfeky, Samar; Good, Suvajee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Ross, Alex; Armada, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Following the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008), the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) to support local stakeholders in identifying and planning action on health inequities. The objective of this report is to analyze the experiences of cities in implementing Urban HEART in order to inform how the future development of the tool could support local stakeholders better in addressing health inequities. The study method is documentary analysis from independent evaluations and city implementation reports submitted to WHO. Independent evaluations were conducted in 2011-12 on Urban HEART piloting in 15 cities from seven countries in Asia and Africa: Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Local or national health departments led Urban HEART piloting in 12 of the 15 cities. Other stakeholders commonly engaged included the city council, budget and planning departments, education sector, urban planning department, and the Mayor's office. Ten of the 12 core indicators recommended in Urban HEART were collected by at least 10 of the 15 cities. Improving access to safe water and sanitation was a priority equity-oriented intervention in 12 of the 15 cities, while unemployment was addressed in seven cities. Cities who piloted Urban HEART displayed confidence in its potential by sustaining or scaling up its use within their countries. Engagement of a wider group of stakeholders was more likely to lead to actions for improving health equity. Indicators that were collected were more likely to be acted upon. Quality of data for neighbourhoods within cities was one of the major issues. As local governments and stakeholders around the world gain greater control of decisions regarding their health, Urban HEART could prove to be a valuable tool in helping them pursue the goal of health equity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Alcohol Regulates Genes that Are Associated with Response to Endocrine Therapy and Attenuates the Actions of Tamoxifen in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Nicholes R; Weldon, Ryan; Muthusamy, Selvaraj; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Addanki, Sridevi; Yoffou, Paule-Helena; Karaboga, Husna; Blessing, Alicia M; Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Miranda, Rajesh C; Lin, Chin-Yo

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary, hormonal, and behavioral factors contribute to the development of breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable behavior that is linked to increased breast cancer risks and is associated with the development of hormone-dependent breast cancers as well as disease progression and recurrence following endocrine treatment. In this study we examined the molecular mechanisms of action of alcohol by applying molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches in characterizing its effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. Treatments with alcohol promoted cell proliferation, increased growth factor signaling, and up-regulated the transcription of the ER target gene GREB1 but not the canonical target TFF1/pS2. Microarray analysis following alcohol treatment identified a large number of alcohol-responsive genes, including those which function in apoptotic and cell proliferation pathways. Furthermore, expression profiles of the responsive gene sets in tumors were strongly associated with clinical outcomes in patients who received endocrine therapy. Correspondingly, alcohol treatment attenuated the anti-proliferative effects of the endocrine therapeutic drug tamoxifen in ER-positive breast cancer cells. To determine the contribution and functions of responsive genes, their differential expression in tumors were assessed between outcome groups. The proto-oncogene BRAF was identified as a novel alcohol- and estrogen-induced gene that showed higher expression in patients with poor outcomes. Knock-down of BRAF, moreover, prevented the proliferation of breast cancer cells. These findings not only highlight the mechanistic basis of the effects of alcohol on breast cancer cells and increased risks for disease incidents and recurrence, but may facilitate the discovery and characterization of novel oncogenic pathways and markers in breast cancer research and therapeutics.

  12. Lessons from Previous Expeditions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, J.

    Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and future space missions. From an engineering perspective, the differences between future and past expeditions are considerable. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, and one of the factors that drives the complexity is the requirement to support the crew in the hostile environment of space. The technological differences are significant, but from a behavioral perspective, are the differences really that great between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space? The psychological differences probably are few. This paper discusses some of the most salient behavioral and technical lessons from previous expeditions that can be applied to facilitate the human explora- tion of Mars.

  13. Ship Sensor Observations for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007" expedition sponsored by the...

  14. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006. Additional...

  15. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007" expedition, June 4 through July 6, 2007. Additional...

  16. 77 FR 12724 - International Postal Service-Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Part 20 International Postal Service--Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts AGENCY: Postal... change for the international competitive product Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts. The... States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM ) to incorporate a change concerning the...

  17. Sustainable Foods and Medicines Support Vitality, Sex and Longevity for a 100-Year Starship Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. R.

    Extended space flight requires foods and medicines that sustain crew health and vitality. The health and therapeutic needs for the entire crew and their children for a 100-year space flight must be sustainable. The starship cannot depend on resupply or carry a large cargo of pharmaceuticals. Everything in the starship must be completely recyclable and reconstructable, including food, feed, textiles, building materials, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medicines. Smart microfarms will produce functional foods with superior nutrition and sensory attributes. These foods provide high-quality protein and nutralence (nutrient density), that avoids obesity, diabetes, and other Western diseases. The combination of functional foods, lifestyle actions, and medicines will support crew immunity, energy, vitality, sustained strong health, and longevity. Smart microfarms enable the production of fresh medicines in hours or days, eliminating the need for a large dispensary, which eliminates concern over drug shelf life. Smart microfarms are adaptable to the extreme growing area, resource, and environmental constraints associated with an extended starship expedition.

  18. 12 CFR 1202.10 - Will FHFA expedite my request or appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will FHFA expedite my request or appeal? 1202... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 1202.10 Will FHFA expedite my request or appeal? (a) Applications for... application must be in writing. FHFA will grant expedited processing, and give the request or appeal priority...

  19. 20 CFR 404.925 - How to request expedited appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Expedited Appeals Process § 404.925 How to request expedited appeals process. (a) Time... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How to request expedited appeals process. 404...

  20. 8 CFR 1235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 1235.3 Section 1235.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.3 Inadmissible aliens...

  1. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  2. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific Expedition to Central Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1898-01-01

    In a paper dated April 1897 (Notes from the Leyden Museum, 1897, p. 25) Dr. Büttikofer stated that the work of the expedition was still being continued in Borneo, Dr. Nieuwenhuis having once more started for the Upper-Mahakkam with a staff of collectors, and that, according to the latest news he

  3. Jean-Baptiste Charcot, the French Antarctic expedition and scurvy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the second expedition to the South Pole, Commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot and some members of the crew of “Pourquoi Pas?” developed symptoms suggestive of scurvy. The clinical picture was totally reversed after dietary changes.

  4. Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justice delayed, they say, is justice denied. Delay in the dispensation of electoral disputes in Nigeria has become an albatross to the Nigerian nation. It has become a sour point in our electoral process. In this article, the writer meticulously looked at the various strategies and procedures for expediting election petitions and ...

  5. Recognizing and Developing Adaptive Expertise within Outdoor and Expedition Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Mark; Fazey, Ioan; Fazey, John

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive expertise, an individual's ability to perform flexibly and innovatively in novel and unstructured situations, could have particular relevance for expedition and outdoor leaders. This element may be recognized in leadership practitioners who are able to act more effectively when problem-solving in complex, ambiguous and unpredictable…

  6. Joint pricing and inventory replenishment decisions with returns and expediting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Stuart X.

    2012-01-01

    We study a single-item periodic-review model for the joint pricing and inventory replenishment problem with returns and expediting. Demand in consecutive periods are independent random variables and their distributions are price sensitive. At the end of each period, after the demand is realized, a

  7. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  8. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 425 I Street NW., Washington, DC, 20536. (c) Expedited processing of... Section 287.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD... enforcement activities. Alleged violations of the standards for enforcement activities established in...

  9. Action perception predicts action performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Courage to Critique Policies and Practices from within: Youth Participatory Action Research as Critical Policy Analysis. A Response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Anjale

    2011-01-01

    This response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" by Jason G. Irizarry demonstrates how youth participatory action research (YPAR) as an instrument of subverting oppressive school policies and structures is a form of critical policy analysis (CPA). As an evolving method, CPA acknowledges the absent voices in…

  11. The Construction of Shared Knowledge in an Internet-based Shared Environment for Expeditions (iExpeditions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Laffey, James; Poole, Melissa J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how participants (39 teenagers and 10 college-age online mentors) interacted and constructed shared knowledge of concepts, goals, tasks, procedures, and solutions when solving a real-world problem in an Internet-mediated project-based learning environment (iExpeditions). The main focus of the study was on how different patterns of…

  12. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A; Kreil, Katherine R; Melka, David C; Boden, William D; Dion, Jamie L; Miller, Zachary A; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B; Zink, Donald L

    2015-09-01

    Background.  In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods.  A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production information from Retail Chain A's sole supplier of PB, Company A. The PB samples collected from case-patients and Company A were tested for Salmonella. Results.  Forty-two case-patients from 20 states were identified. Of 33 case-patients from whom food exposure information was obtained, 25 (76%) shopped at Retail Chain A and 25 (100%) purchased Company A PB. Three state health departments isolated the outbreak strain from opened jars of PB collected from case-patients. The FDA investigators identified multiple deficiencies in current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) in Company A's manufacturing facility and determined that internal controls were insufficient to prevent shipment of contaminated product. The FDA isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney from implicated product collected at the firm and the environment of the firm's food production facility. Conclusions.  Timely laboratory, investigational, and epidemiologic data led to the voluntary recall of PB by Company A. The FDA suspended Company A's food facility registration, prohibiting the firm from introducing food into interstate commerce. This outbreak underscores the need for effective preventive controls, including robust internal environmental monitoring programs, appropriate action in response to contamination findings, and an improved understanding of food safety at the managerial and corporate levels.

  13. Volcano crisis response at Yellowstone volcanic complex - after-action report for exercise held at Salt Lake City, Utah, November 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    A functional tabletop exercise was run on November 14-15, 2011 in Salt Lake City, Utah, to test crisis response capabilities, communication protocols, and decision-making by the staff of the multi-agency Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) as they reacted to a hypothetical exercise scenario of accelerating volcanic unrest at the Yellowstone caldera. The exercise simulated a rapid build-up of seismic activity, ground deformation, and hot-spring water-chemistry and temperature anomalies that culminated in a small- to moderate-size phreatomagmatic eruption within Yellowstone National Park. The YVO scientific team's responses to the unfolding events in the scenario and to simulated requests for information by stakeholders and the media were assessed by (a) the exercise organizers; (b) several non-YVO scientists, who observed and queried participants, and took notes throughout the exercise; and (c) the participants themselves, who kept logs of their actions during the exercise and later participated in a group debriefing session and filled out detailed questionnaires. These evaluations were tabulated, interpreted, and summarized for this report, and on the basis of this information, recommendations have been made. Overall, the YVO teams performed their jobs very well. The exercise revealed that YVO scientists were able to successfully provide critical hazards information, issue information statements, and appropriately raise alert levels during a fast-moving crisis. Based on the exercise, it is recommended that several measures be taken to increase YVO effectiveness during a crisis: 1. Improve role clarification within and between YVO science teams. 2. Improve communications tools and protocols for data-sharing and consensus-building among YVO scientists, who are geographically and administratively dispersed among various institutions across the United States. 3. Familiarize YVO staff with Incident Command System (ICS) procedures and protocols, and provide more in

  14. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  15. Best Practice Guidelines on Surgical Response in Disasters and Humanitarian Emergencies : Report of the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit Working Group on Surgical Issues within the Humanitarian Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chackungal, S.; Nickerson, J.W.; Knowlton, L.M.; Black, L.; Burkle Jr., F.M.; Casey, K.; Crandell, D.; Demey, D.; di Giacomo, L.; Dohlman, L.; Goldstein, J.; Gosney Jr., J.E.; Ikeda, K.; Linden, A.; Mullaly, C.M.; O'Connell, C.; Redmond, A.D.; Richards, A.; Rufsvold, R.; Rodrigues Santos, A.L.; Skelton, T.; McQueen, K.

    2011-01-01

    The provision of surgery within humanitarian crises is complex, requiring coordination and cooperation among all stakeholders. During the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit best practice guidelines were proposed to provide greater accountability and standardization in surgical humanitarian relief

  16. Geothermal policy development program: expediting the local geothermal permitting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    For a number of years, concerns have been raised about the length of time and the complexity involved in obtaining required permits in order to develop the geothermal resource at the Geysers. Perhaps the most important factor is jurisdiction. At the Geysers, all three levels of government - local, state, and federal - exercise significant authority over various aspects of geothermal development. In addition, several agencies within each governmental level play an active role in the permitting process. The present study is concerned primarily with the local permitting process, and the ways in which this process could be expedited. This report begins by looking at the local role in the overall permitting process, and then reviews the findings and conclusions that have been reached in other studies of the problem. This is followed by a case study evaluation of recent permitting experience in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties, and the report concludes by outlining several approaches to expediting the local permitting process.

  17. Logistical Support of the China Relief Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    economy, but it was based on cheap labor. Chinese transportation methods had changed little in thousands of years. For Europeans, the Chinese 25 Cl 0...Commissary Department also handled health and welfare supplies for the soldiers. Examples of these types of supplies included: spices and sauces and other...to load and off-load the transports and distribute supplies through the various islands in the Philippines. They were also responsible for the loading

  18. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 expressions, responsible for disparity in action of curcumin against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Barua, Chandana C; Mundhe, Nitin

    2017-07-01

    Cisplatin is a regularly employed effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of many types of cancer. The main drawback of cisplatin treatment is kidney toxicity which affects 25-35% of treated patients. Many mechanisms are believed to be involved in this kidney damage, but inflammation plays a significant role in this event. Curcumin is a polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of curcumin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, curcumin, cisplatin, curcumin plus cisplatin (pre-treatment group) and cisplatin plus curcumin (post-treatment group). Rats were given cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg body weight) with or without curcumin treatment (120 mg/kg body weight). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, albumin, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 expressions and histological changes were determined on the 5th day after cisplatin injection. Acute kidney damage was evident by increased BUN and creatinine levels. In addition, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as revealed by a significant increase in the tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and decrease in the IL-10 level. Pre-treatment of curcumin reduced cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which was clearly evident from the reduced BUN, creatinine, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels and increased albumin and IL-10 levels. Additionally, these findings were also supported by histopathology of the kidneys. In contrast, post-treatment of curcumin failed to cut down the expression of inflammatory markers substantially and also neglected to increase the expression of IL-10. The disparity in the action of curcumin after pre- and post-treatment with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was due to the inability of post-treatment to reduce TNF-α & IL-6, besides to show a concurrent rise in IL-10 expression in renal tissues.

  19. Medical Operational Challenges in the Expedition 16 Landing and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, S.; Johnston, S. L.; Ilcus, L. S.; Shevchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    On April 19, 2008 the crew of Expedition 16 left the International Space Station and returned to earth via their Soyuz TMA-11 capsule after 192 days on orbit. Their capsule experienced the second consecutive and third ballistic reentry in the last 10 TMA recoveries and landed approximately 260 miles (420 km) from the prime landing site. Issues: The purpose of this presentation will be to describe, not only the typical medical operational challenges faced by Flight Surgeons recovering a long duration crew from space, but also address the unique challenges that existed with the Expedition 16 landing and crew recovery. Nominal Soyuz recovery challenges include remote recovery sites with crew exposures to sleep shifting and fatigue, dehydration, hypothermia and hyperthermia, and rotational, sustained, and impact g-forces. These environmental factors coupled with the patho-physiologic neuro-vestibular and orthostatic intolerance changes that occur secondary to the crews reintroduction into the earth s gravity field will be detailed. Additional challenges that were unique to this expedition included a ballistic reentry with higher g-loads, the presence of fire outside of the capsule on landing, a contingency medical event of a ground support personnel, and loss of communications with the crew just prior to landing and during recovery operations. Conclusions: In spite of these unique challenges the Russian Search and Rescue Forces and Medical Support personnel along with U.S. Medical Support performed well together. Possible improvements in training and coordination will be discussed.

  20. Actionable Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  1. Early scientific expeditions and local encounters: new perspectives on Carsten Niebuhr and 'The Arabian Journey'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholarly expeditions and voyages from the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, placing the Danish expedition in a broad context of early scientific expeditions. This was a time when the coastlines of continents, except in the Pacific and the Polar regions, were reasonably well known. Yet scientific...... and longer encounters with local populations. Most studies in this volume focus on expeditions that involved contacts between local people and travelling European scientists and scholars. Others examine the scholarly questions which the scientific expeditions and travellers were sent out to solve and how......, the papers in these proceedings paint a varied picture of eighteenth and early nineteenth century scientific expeditions and scholarly travel. In the eighteenth century the considerate and careful approach of Niebuhr and Forsskål in their dealing with local people was new or at least not so common...

  2. Textual hermeneutics, interpretive responsibility and the objectification and interpretation of action: Paul Ricoeur and “the model of the text”

    OpenAIRE

    Standen, David J

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I develop a critical but sympathetic reading of Paul Ricoeur’s textual model of interpretation as it is presented in his 1971 essay “The Model of the Text: Meaningful Action Considered as a Text”. My reading of Ricoeur’s essay aims to clarify some of the strengths and limitations of his project in “The Model of the Text”, and to develop the analogy between text and action in directions left largely undeveloped by Ricoeur. In particular, I argue that hermeneutic philosophy...

  3. "In Dreams Begins Responsibility": A Self-Study about How Insights from Dreams May Be Brought into the Sphere of Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that material from dreams offers a resource within the social sphere that has potential for the practice of action research. The modern approach to dream interpretation, following Freud, has almost exclusively been situated at the level of the therapeutic dyad where the significance of dream material is circumscribed within…

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides against Gram-Positives: Current Progress Made in Understanding the Mode of Action and the Response of Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omardien, S.; Brul, S.; Zaat, S.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as a novel class of antimicrobials that could aid the fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The mode of action of AMPs as acting on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane has often been presented as an enigma and there are doubts whether the

  5. Developing Toxicogenomics as a Research Tool by Applying Benchmark Dose-Response Modeling to inform Chemical Mode of Action and Tumorigenic Potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Results of global gene expression profiling after short-term exposures can be used to inform tumorigenic potency and chemical mode of action (MOA) and thus serve as a strategy to prioritize future or data-poor chemicals for further evaluation. This compilation of cas...

  6. Invited Commentary: Participatory Action Research Meets the Emic, the Etic, and Program Evaluation: A Response to Vaughn et al. and Fox et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, George H. S.

    1997-01-01

    This commentary discusses the limitations of traditional research and the benefits of participatory action research (PAR) that changes the stance of the researcher from dispassionate observer to that of friend, ally, and colleague of the "subject". The use of PAR in helping researchers, parents, and advocates work together in promoting…

  7. The Prose of Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ulrik; Thrane, Sof

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study how risk management systems are applied to make organizational actors interested in responding to emerging risks. The empirical domain of the paper is the Defense Procurement Unit in a Scandinavian country. The paper is based on detailed data from monthly risk update meetings......, interviews with both military and civilian managers, and 1 year's worth of monthly risk reports. Our study illustrates how Frontline Managers – to make General Management at the Procurement Unit interested in responding to emerging risks – use the content of the risk reports. The translation of emerging...... risks changes over time in response to a lack of action on reported risks. In these processes Frontline Managers take on new responsibilities to make General Managers take action on reported risk. The reporting practice changes from the mere identification of risk to risk assessment and, finally...

  8. Translating Mechanism of Regulatory Action of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells to Monitoring Endpoints in Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Suwandi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs have reached patients with autoimmune and inflammatory disease, at least in clinical trials. The safety of tolDCs as intervention therapy has been established, but the capacity to modulate autoimmune response in vivo remains to be demonstrated. Studies have revealed a diversity of regulatory mechanisms that tolDCs may employ in vivo. These mechanisms differ between various types of modulated tolDC. The most often foreseen action of tolDCs is through regulatory polarization of naïve T cells or activation of existing regulatory T cells, which should ultimately diminish autoimmune inflammation. Yet, selection of a target autoantigen remains critical to expedite tissue specific tolerance induction, while measuring immune modulation incited by tolDCs in vivo provides a great challenge. We will discuss the regulatory action of different types of tolDCs and the possible methods to monitor immunological efficacy endpoints for the next generation clinical trials.

  9. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    . After delisting, state Fish and Wildlife Services in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming will be responsible for managing wolves. Each state must submit a wolf management plan to the USFWS which then must be approved before management shifts occur. As of this writing, the process of delisting the wolves in the state of Wyoming is ongoing. However, the reclassification of wolves nationwide was completed on April 1, 2003. Wolves outside of YNP changed in status from endangered to threatened. The wolves classified in the experimental nonessential population did not change in status (USFWS and others, 2004). This classification of experimental nonessential population allows for flexibility in management decisions concerning the wolves (Smith and others, 2004). For example, control actions in the GYA included trapping and radio-collaring four wolves; intensive monitoring; increasing riders on grazing allotments; harassing wolves with rubber bullets, cracker shells, and lights; moving livestock to different pastures; and issuing four shoot on-sight permits. When non-lethal control methods were not effective, wolves were killed in an attempt to prevent further livestock depredations (USFWS and others, 2004; Table 1). At the same time that wolf numbers are rising, human population statistics in the GRTE area are also rising. The population of Teton County, Wyoming in 1990 was just over 11,000 people; today that number has increased to approximately 19,000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2005). park visitation for GRTE has been substantial over the last several years with an average visitation of 2.5 million visitors (NPS, 2004a). Furthermore, land ownership surrounding GRTE and the establishment of grazing rights within park boundaries are problem areas for wolf-human interactions due to livestock depredation. With increasing numbers of visitors, residents, and livestock it is reasonable to assume that conflicts are going to increase also. In 1950, GRTE was expanded to in

  10. Action preferences and the anticipation of action outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David L; Schaefers, Teuntje; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2014-10-01

    Skilled performers of time-constrained motor actions acquire information about the action preferences of their opponents in an effort to better anticipate the outcome of that opponent's actions. However, there is reason to doubt that knowledge of an opponent's action preferences would unequivocally influence anticipatory responses in a positive way. It is possible that overt information about an opponent's actions could distract skilled performers from using the advance kinematic information they would usually rely on to anticipate actions, particularly when the opponent performs an 'unexpected' action that is not in accordance with his or her previous behaviour. The aim of this study was to examine how the ability to anticipate the outcome of an opponent's actions can be influenced by exposure to the action preferences of that opponent. Two groups of skilled handball goalkeepers anticipated the direction of penalty throws performed by opponents before and after a training intervention that provided situational probability information in the form of action preferences (AP). During the training phase participants in an AP-training group anticipated the action outcomes of two throwers who had a strong preference to throw in one particular direction, whilst participants in a NP-training group viewed players who threw equally to all directions. Exposure to opponents who did have an action preference during the training phase resulted in improved anticipatory performance if the opponent continued to bias their throws towards their preferred direction, but decreased performance if the opponent did not. These findings highlight that skilled observers use information about action preferences to enhance their anticipatory ability, but that doing so can be disadvantageous when the outcomes are no longer consistent with their generated expectations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Grasping with the Press of a Button: Grasp-selective Responses in the Human Anterior Intraparietal Sulcus Depend on Nonarbitrary Causal Relationships between Hand Movements and End-effector Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Scott H; Hansen, Marc; Marchal, Noah

    2015-06-01

    Evidence implicates ventral parieto-premotor cortices in representing the goal of grasping independent of the movements or effectors involved [Umilta, M. A., Escola, L., Intskirveli, I., Grammont, F., Rochat, M., Caruana, F., et al. When pliers become fingers in the monkey motor system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 105, 2209-2213, 2008; Tunik, E., Frey, S. H., & Grafton, S. T. Virtual lesions of the anterior intraparietal area disrupt goal-dependent on-line adjustments of grasp. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 505-511, 2005]. Modern technologies that enable arbitrary causal relationships between hand movements and tool actions provide a strong test of this hypothesis. We capitalized on this unique opportunity by recording activity with fMRI during tasks in which healthy adults performed goal-directed reach and grasp actions manually or by depressing buttons to initiate these same behaviors in a remotely located robotic arm (arbitrary causal relationship). As shown previously [Binkofski, F., Dohle, C., Posse, S., Stephan, K. M., Hefter, H., Seitz, R. J., et al. Human anterior intraparietal area subserves prehension: A combined lesion and functional MRI activation study. Neurology, 50, 1253-1259, 1998], we detected greater activity in the vicinity of the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) during manual grasp versus reach. In contrast to prior studies involving tools controlled by nonarbitrarily related hand movements [Gallivan, J. P., McLean, D. A., Valyear, K. F., & Culham, J. C. Decoding the neural mechanisms of human tool use. Elife, 2, e00425, 2013; Jacobs, S., Danielmeier, C., & Frey, S. H. Human anterior intraparietal and ventral premotor cortices support representations of grasping with the hand or a novel tool. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 2594-2608, 2010], however, responses within the aIPS and premotor cortex exhibited no evidence of selectivity for grasp when participants employed the robot. Instead, these regions showed

  12. Embark students on geosciences expeditions, across the oceans …

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Marion; Darrieu, Michele; Pointu, Agnes; Maruejol, Patricia; Cooper, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    As teachers we can live and share a fabulous experience of science and research on the scientific drilling vessels and platforms of IODP-ECORD and JAMSTEC consortiums. ECORD offered us the opportunity to embark on the IODP 359, 360 and 362 expeditions as Education Officers. Our task was to communicate about science with the general public and students from 7 to 25 years-old. In this presentation, we will focus on the 360 expedition, South West Indian Ridge-lower crust and Moho. We explain the three steps of the "teacher at sea" experience from the very first idea to the real pedagogical work during and after the expedition. -Apply, get ready and leave… for two months: From the difficulties you may encounter to the most efficient ways to prepare the pedagogical tasks. -Work, live onboard and get back: We will describe the main activities of the Education officers among the Science party and the way all this can become a highly changing-life experience. -Use data, share and inspire: We will detail some strategies we used to catch the attention of the students. They could participate to "live" science and have a better idea of the job of researcher. Now, we have to inspire others teachers to use our data and pedagogical documents, or to get the opportunity to embark ! What gets out of these crossed experiences is that the quality of the human relationships, and the way the students can get closer to the scientists during the interactions, are the keys to motivate students and give them a new vision of the scientific research.

  13. Korea to Kalimantan and Beyond: The Employment of United States Army Forces in Military Civic Action in the Pacific Command Area of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-09

    opportunity for MCA than did the preceeding countries. Laos is contiguous to the People’s Republic of China and all of the states on the Indochinese...solution slowed Comunist inroads only slightly more than the previous military action had. 5 6 The history of MCA in Laos begins two short years after...influences (North Vietnam and the People’s Republic of China ). However, it cannot be said that military forces were ineffective in their mission

  14. A study of strategic responses and actions of Malaysian law firms in face of the liberalisation of legal services in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Soo Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is set to embrace the liberalisation of legal services. This will pose strategic challenges to Malaysian law firms and will impact on industry competition. It is not certain as to how Malaysian law firms perceive the liberalisation of legal services, and what strategic actions will be taken by them in order to maintain their strategic position and competitiveness. Against this backdrop, this study seeks to find out the answers to the questions as to how Malaysian law f...

  15. Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (Pre-Flight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The first segment of this video gives an overview of the Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, an international effort using balloon payloads, ground based instruments, and airborne instruments to study ozone depletion and the hole in the ozone over Antarctica which occurs every spring. False color imagery taken from NASA's Nimbus 7 satellite which documents daily changes in ozone is also shown. The second segment of this video shows actual take-off and flight footage of the two aircraft used in the experiment: the DC-8 Flying Laboratory and the high flying ER-2.

  16. Community College's CAN do Research A Decade of Eclipse Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saken, Jon M.

    2006-12-01

    Gale force winds, ravenous Tsetse flies and duct-tape equipment repairs. Now that's science! This talk will describe the triumphs and disasters over almost a decade of world-wide astronomical expeditions involving community college students, faculty and K-12 teachers chasing one of nature's most spectacular shows a total solar eclipse. The impact of this kind of field science on the participants and the wider community, along with other lessons learned along the way, will also be discussed, as we present ideas to encourage others to join in the fun.

  17. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  18. Impact of wave action on the structure of material on the beach in Calypsobyen (Spitsbergen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędrek, Karolina; Herman, Agnieszka; Moskalik, Mateusz; Rodzik, Jan; Zagórski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    The research was conducted during the XXVI Polar Expedition of Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin on Spitsbergen. It involved recording water wave action in the Bellsund Strait, and taking daily photographs of the beach on its shore in Calypsobyen. The base of polar expeditions of UMCS, Calypsobyen, is located on the coast of Calypsostranda, developed by raised marine terraces. Weakly resistant Tertiary sandstones occur in the substrate, covered with glacigenic sediments and marine gravels. No skerries are encountered along this section of the accumulation coast. The shore is dominated by gravel deposits. The bottom slopes gently. The recording of wave action was performed from 8 July to 27 August 2014 by means of a pressure based MIDAS WTR Wave and Tide Recorder set at a depth of 10 m at a distance of about 1 km from the shore. The obtained data provided the basis for the calculation of the significant wave height, and the corresponding mean wave period . These parameters reflect wave energy and wave level, having a considerable impact on the dynamics of coastal processes and the type and grain size of sediments accumulated on the beach. Material consisting of medium gravel and seaweed appeared on the beach at high values of significant wave height and when the corresponding mean wave period showed average values. The contribution of fine, gravel-sandy material grew with an increase in mean period and a decrease in significant wave height. At maximum values of mean period and low values of significant wave height, the beach was dominated by well-sorted fine-grained gravel. The lowest mean periods resulted in the least degree of sorting of the sediment (from very coarse sand to medium gravel). The analysis of data from the wave and tide recorder set and their comparison with photographs of the beach suggest that wave action, and particularly wave energy manifested in significant wave height, has a considerable impact on the type and grain size of material

  19. Non-Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 - Office of Ocean Exploration and Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Non-dive activities reported to the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research for the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006....

  20. Bodily action penetrates affective perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Carlo; Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer's internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer's internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  1. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  2. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon . Part 1. General Account and List of Stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strack, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives a general account of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (Moluccas, Indonesia) held in 1990. The primary objective of the expedition was to collect marine invertebrates on the localities mentioned by Rumphius (1627-1702) in his book "D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer" (1705).

  3. The Indigo V Indian Ocean Expedition: a prototype for citizen microbial oceanography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauro, Frederico; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Cullen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    sample acquisition. The ultimate goal of the Indigo V Expedition is to create a working blue-print for ’citizen microbial oceanography’.We will present the preliminary outcomes of the first Indigo V expedition, from Capetown to Singapore, highlighting the challenges and opportunities of such endeavours....

  4. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific Expedition to Central-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1905-01-01

    The following pages contain an enumeration of the lizards collected in Borneo by the Dutch Borneo-Expedition, of which expedition Mr. J. Büttikofer was the zoologist, and also of the lizards collected by Dr. A. W. Nieuwenhuis during his travels in the interior of this island. The collections made

  5. Zoological results of the Dutch New Guinea expedition, 1939. No. 51) The Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1953-01-01

    The present paper is the report on a collection of birds brought together during the expedition of the "Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap" to the Wissel Lake area in 1939. The zoologist of this expedition Prof. Dr. H. Boschma collected with the assistance of two mantris of the

  6. 42 CFR 422.572 - Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited organization determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Organization Determinations and Appeals § 422.572 Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited organization... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited organization determinations. 422.572 Section 422.572 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...

  7. 42 CFR 423.572 - Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited coverage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and notice requirements for expedited coverage determinations. (a) Timeframe for determination and... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited coverage determinations. 423.572 Section 423.572 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...

  8. Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Indonesia collected by the Siboga (1899-1900) and Snellius II expeditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguado, M.T.; San Martín, G.; ten Hove, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven samples of syllids (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Indonesia collected during the Siboga Expedition (1899-1900) and five during the Snellius II Expedition (1984) have been examined. Material from several other museums and Institutions has also been included. Unpublished identifications of

  9. 75 FR 26343 - Request for Expedited Certification and Type Approval of Amtrak Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Request for Expedited Certification and Type Approval of Amtrak Advanced... for expedited certification and type approval of the Amtrak ACSES. ACSES has been deployed on the... party seeking certification and type approval of ACSES, the regulatory provisions involved, the nature...

  10. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997 : taxonomy and new germplasm resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Schueler, K.

    2000-01-01

    Wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) germplasm has been collected in Mexico on nine major expeditions, as determined by 20 collections or more from each expedition currently at the United States potato genebank, the National Research Support Program-6 (NRSP-6). These have resulted in 609 accessions

  11. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  12. The Responsiveness and Correlation between Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the Action Research Arm Test in Chronic Stroke with Upper-Extremity Rehabilitation Robotic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi-Jun; Tong, Kai-yu; Hu, Xiao-ling

    2011-01-01

    Responsiveness of clinical assessments is an important element in the report of clinical effectiveness after rehabilitation. The correlation could reflect the validity of assessments as an indication of clinical performance before and after interventions. This study investigated the correlation and responsiveness of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA),…

  13. A comparison of heart rate response and frequencies of technical actions between half-court and full-court 3-a-side games in high school female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlı, Halil; Köklü, Yusuf; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Koçak, Fatma Ünver

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate (HR) response and frequency of technical actions between half-court and full-court 3-a-side games in female high school basketball players. Twelve young female basketball players (age 15.5 ± 0.5 years; height 165.1 ± 5.7 cm; body mass 57.3 ± 7.2 kg; training age 4.2 ± 0.7 years; HRmax 202.9 ± 5.6 b·min(-1)) participated in this study voluntarily. On the first day, anthropometric measurements (height and body mass) were taken for each player; this was followed by the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YIRT) level 1 for the subjects. Then, half-court and full-court 3-a-side games were organized in random order at 2-day intervals. The HRmax for each player was determined during the YIRT, after which the HR was measured during the 3-a-side games. In addition, the frequencies of different categories of technical actions were counted manually during the 3-a-side games. A paired t-test was calculated for each dependent variable, including HR, percentage of maximum HR (%HRmax), and the frequencies of different technical actions to compare half-court and full-court 3-a-side games. The study results indicate that the full-court 3-a-side games produced significantly higher responses than the half-court 3-a-side games in terms of HR and %HRmax (p basketball players should organize full-court 3-a-side games, whereas coaches who want to focus on technical actions should arrange half-court 3-a-side games.

  14. Early scientific expeditions and local encounters: new perspectives on Carsten Niebuhr and 'The Arabian Journey'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholarly expeditions and voyages from the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, placing the Danish expedition in a broad context of early scientific expeditions. This was a time when the coastlines of continents, except in the Pacific and the Polar regions, were reasonably well known. Yet scientific...... knowledge about natural history and detailed geography of the interior of the continents other than Europe, as well as scholarly understanding of foreign cultures, both ancient and contemporary, was still limited. Increasing focus on land-based travels in the eighteenth century and onwards meant more...... and longer encounters with local populations. Most studies in this volume focus on expeditions that involved contacts between local people and travelling European scientists and scholars. Others examine the scholarly questions which the scientific expeditions and travellers were sent out to solve and how...

  15. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... categories of research that may be reviewed by the IRB through an expedited review procedure. The list will... uses an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  16. 49 CFR 11.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor... an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  17. INFORM'ACTION

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    INFORM’ACTION Commission ! It’s all in the title ! At a time when one of the keywords is COMMUNICATE, the Staff Association has a duty to take it seriously. This is why, among other reasons, the youngest of the Staff Association internal commissions was created in 20005. As its name indicates, this commission is responsible for INFORMING, TRAINING (FORMER) and organizing ACTIONs. INFORMING : The members of this commission endeavour to work using all imaginable and known channels of information: articles, emails, alerts, posters, web site, organizing meetings, distributing flyers, banners, videos, etc. In 2009 a new web site (http://cern.ch/association) was put on line.   Since then this site has been continually updated to provide information regarding the latest news in the social domain (Pension Fund, CHIS, 5YR), and also special offers for our members, club news, and social and cultural activities. In 2009 and 2010, the Staff Association notice boards were ...

  18. A novel, helminth-derived immunostimulant enhances human recall responses to hepatitis C virus and tetanus toxoid and is dependent on CD56+ cells for its action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A J; Libri, N A; Lustigman, S; Barker, S J; Whelan, M A; Semper, A E; Rosenberg, W M

    2008-05-01

    We have described previously an immunostimulant derived from Onchocerca volvulus, the helminth parasite that causes onchocerciasis. Recombinant O. volvulus activation-associated secreted protein-1 (rOv-ASP-1) was a potent adjuvant for antibody and cellular responses to protein, polypeptide and small peptide antigens. Our aims were to determine whether rOv-ASP-1 is immunostimulatory for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and, if so, whether it could augment cellular responses against human pathogen antigens in vitro. Cytokines from rOv-ASP-1-stimulated human PBMC were measured by a fluorescence activated cell sorter-based multiplex assay. Recall responses of normal healthy donor (NHD) and chronic hepatitis C virus (c-HCV)-infected patient PBMC to tetanus toxoid (TT) or HCV core (HCVco) antigen, respectively, were measured by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Interferon-gamma was the predominant cytokine induced by rOv-ASP-1. 77.3% of NHD anti-TT and 88.9% of c-HCV anti-HCVco responses were enhanced by rOv-ASP-1. The immunostimulant effect was dependent upon contact between CD56+ and CD56- fractions of PBMC. We have described a helminth-derived protein that can act as an immunostimulant for human recall responses in vitro to TT and, perhaps more importantly, HCV antigens in patients with chronic HCV infection. Our longer-term goal would be to boost anti-viral responses in chronic infections such as HCV.

  19. Demonstrated Actions of Instructional Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Petersen

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available To confirm perceptions, actions, and behaviors articulated by the district superintendents, triangulation interviews were conducted with school principals and school board members in each of the participating districts. A 52- item questionnaire was also administered to every principal and school board member in these districts. Responses of these personnel confirmed the articulated actions and behaviors of these superintendents in their promotion of the technical core of curriculum and instruction.

  20. The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Greg; Hood, Raleigh

    2015-04-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. SCOR and the IOC are working to stimulate a new phase of coordinated international research focused on the Indian Ocean for a 5-year period beginning in late 2015 and continuing through 2020. The goal is to help to organize ongoing research and stimulate new initiatives in the 2015-2020 time frame as part of a larger expedition. Several International programs that have research ongoing or planned in the Indian Ocean during this time period and many countries are planning cruises in this time frame as well. These programs and national cruises will serve as a core for the new Indian Ocean research focus, which has been dubbed "IIOE-2." The overarching goal of the IIOE-2 is to advance our understanding of interactions between geological, oceanic and atmospheric processes that give rise to the complex physical dynamics of the Indian Ocean region, and to determine how those dynamics affect climate, extreme events, marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems and human populations. This understanding is required to predict the impacts of climate change, pollution, and increased fish harvesting on the Indian Ocean and its nations, as well as the influence of the Indian Ocean on other components of the Earth System. New understanding is also fundamental to policy makers for

  1. DOSE-RESPONSE RELATION, NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING ACTION, INTUBATION CONDITIONS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF ORG-9273, A NEW NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-AGENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBROEK, L; LAMBALK, LM; RICHARDSON, FJ; WIERDA, JMKH

    The ED50 and the ED90, the time-course of the neuromuscular block, the intubation conditions, and the cardiovascular effects of Org 9273, a new steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, have been evaluated in 41 anesthetized patients. From cumulative dose-response curves the ED50 and

  2. Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to different metabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling including its receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stress responses and development. Scope The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New data of the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception and signalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens, in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception. Conclusions The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of the jasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature of networks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can be addressed. PMID:23558912

  3. Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasternack, C; Hause, B

    2013-06-01

    Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to different metabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling including its receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stress responses and development. The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New data of the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception and signalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens, in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception. The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of the jasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature of networks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can be addressed.

  4. Students Have Their Own Minds. A Response to "Beyond the Catch-22 of School-Based Social Action Programs: Toward a More Pragmatic Approach for Dealing with Power"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwasser, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In response to the authors' work on finding a more pragmatic approach to dealing with power, this commentary calls into question the possibility of a preestablished agenda by the researchers, who struggled to engage high school students. There might have been a case of overly ambitious expectations at work; also, the authors confess to being in…

  5. An antagonist of lipid A action in mammals has complex effects on lipid A induction of defence responses in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbs, Gitte; Jensen, Tina Tandrup; Silipo, Alba

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides, the ubiquitous part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and their derivatives are recognised by plants to trigger or potentiate particular defence responses such as induction of genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. The molecular mechanisms of LPS...

  6. Growth hormone and prolactin responses to corticotrophin-releasing-hormone in patients with Cushing's disease: a paracrine action of the adenomatous corticotrophic cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, P; Boccardi, E; Branca, V; Bramerio, M; Barberis, M; Losa, M; Terreni, M T; Lodrini, S; Pollo, B; Vignati, F

    1998-10-01

    In patients with Cushing's disease multihormonal responses to ovine corticotrophin releasing hormone (oCRH) have been detected in blood from inferior petrosal sinuses. This finding has been explained by co-secretion of other hormones, in addition to ACTH, by the pituitary adenoma itself or by paracrine effects exerted by the adenoma on normal periadenomatous pituitary cells. To assess these hypotheses we compared the presence of a CRH induced GH and/or PRL response during inferior petrosal sinus sampling to the immunohistochemical detection of PRL and GH in adenomatous tissue removed from patients with Cushing's disease. Twenty-two patients with Cushing's disease and two patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid were studied; each patient had undergone preoperative inferior petrosal sinus sampling for diagnostic purposes with determination of GH and PRL in addition to ACTH, before and after administration of oCRH. Immunohistochemical studies for ACTH, GH and PRL detection were carried out on adenomatous tissue removed at surgery in the patients with pituitary dependent Cushing's disease and on the carcinoid tumours from the two patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome. All pituitary adenomas immunostained for ACTH, and four adenomas immunostained for GH or PRL in addition to ACTH. A PRL increase in the inferior petrosal sinus after oCRH administration was found in 11 of 22 patients, but none of their tumours immunostained for PRL. Immunostaining for PRL was found in the pituitary tumours from two patients but in neither patient was there a PRL response after oCRH. A GH response was found in 13 of 20 patients in whom it was sought; no patient showed immunostaining in their tumour. GH immunostaining was found in two tumours but in neither patient was there a GH response after oCRH. The oCRH-induced increase of GH and PRL was always recorded in the dominant inferior petrosal sinus. The ACTH response to oCRH was significantly higher in patients who

  7. Okeanos Explorer 2014 Gulf of Mexico Expedition: engaging and connecting with diverse and geographically dispersed audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. W.; Elliott, K.; Lobecker, E.; McKenna, L.; Haynes, S.; Crum, E.; Gorell, F.

    2014-12-01

    From February to May 2014, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer conducted a telepresence-enabled ocean exploration expedition addressing NOAA and National deepwater priorities in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. The community-driven expedition connected diverse and geographically dispersed audiences including scientists from industry, academia, and government, and educators, students, and the general public. Expedition planning included input from the ocean science and management community, and was executed with more than 70 scientists and students from 14 U.S. states participating from shore in real time. Training the next generation permeated operations: a mapping internship program trained undergraduate and graduate students; an ROV mentorship program trained young engineers to design, build and operate the system; and undergraduate through doctoral students around the country collaborated with expedition scientists via telepresence. Online coverage of the expedition included background materials, daily updates, and mission logs that received more than 100,000 visits by the public. Live video feeds of operations received more than 700,000 views online. Additionally, professional development workshops hosted in multiple locations throughout the spring introduced educators to the Okeanos Explorer Educational Materials Collection and the live expedition, and taught them how to use the website and education resources in their classrooms. Social media furthered the reach of the expedition to new audiences, garnered thousands of new followers and provided another medium for real-time interactions with the general public. Outreach continued through live interactions with museums and aquariums, Exploration Command Center tours, outreach conducted by partners, and media coverage in more than 190 outlets in the U.S. and Europe. Ship tours were conducted when the ship came in to port to engage local scientists, ocean managers, and educators. After the expedition, data and products were

  8. After-effects of a high altitude expedition on blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, D; Maassen, N; Jochum, F; Steinacker, J; Halder, A; Thomas, A; Schmidt, W; Noé, G; Kubanek, B

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate blood alterations caused by altitude acclimatization which last more than few days after return and might play a role for exercise performance at sea level. Measurements were performed in 12 mountaineers before, during and either 7/8 or 11/12 days after a Himalaya expedition (26-29 days at 4900 to 7600 m altitude). [Erythropoietin] rose only temporarily at altitude (max. +11 +/- 1 [SE] mu/ml serum). After return hemoglobin mass (initially 881 +/- 44 g, CO-Hb method) was increased by 14% (p training, partly in the Alps, and the stay in the Himalaya influenced O2-affinity for a prolonged time. The adaptations might reduce the loss of physical performance capacity at altitude and be part of altitude training effects.

  9. Expedited Demolition Notification for 2nd Quarter CY 2012 Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The National Nuclear Security Administration and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) (collectively the Permittees) are informing the New Mexico Environment Department Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the need to expedite the demolition of structures summarized in the enclosures. These structures have been identified to receive funding and be demolished prior to the 3rd Quarter Demolition Notification (June 30, 2012). This letter is a follow up to the email that was sent to the NMED-HWB on April 17, 2012. The enclosures attached to this letter satisfy the reporting requirements as outlined in Section 1.17 of the LANL Hazardous Facility Waste Permit (Permit). Demolition of buildings that appear on this list will not occur until 30 days after NMED has received this notification.

  10. Expediting the transfer of evidence into practice: building clinical partnerships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Tamara; Gagnon, Anita J.

    2000-01-01

    A librarian/clinician partnership was fostered in one hospital through the formation of the Evidence-based Practice Committee, with an ulterior goal of facilitating the transfer of evidence into practice. The paper will describe barriers to evidence-based practice and outline the committee's strategies for overcoming these barriers, including the development and promotion of a Web-based guide to evidence-based practice specifically designed for clinicians (health professionals). Educational strategies for use of the Web-based guide will also be addressed. Advantages of this partnership are that the skills of librarians in meeting the needs of clinicians are maximized. The evidence-based practice skills of clinicians are honed and librarians make a valuable contribution to the knowledgebase of the clinical staff. The knowledge acquired through the partnership by both clinicians and librarians will increase the sophistication of the dialogue between the two groups and in turn will expedite the transfer of evidence into practice. PMID:10928710

  11. The Paran\\'a Ra'anga expedition

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro; Vena, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Paran\\'a Ra'anga (the image of Paran\\'a, in Guaran\\'i) is the name of a cultural and scientific expedition that traveled the rivers: R\\'io de la Plata, Paran\\'a and Paraguay, from Buenos Aires to Asunci\\'on, during March 2010. The project brought together some forty scientists and artists from three countries in a slow and enriching cruise, putting in active contact actors from different backgrounds and disciplines -which usually run separately- in the framework of an unusual space-time experience. The project recovers the historical tradition of the trip as an instrument of knowledge and collaboration between the arts and sciences, necessary to build new ways of seeing and understanding the river and its banks. This article reports on the motivations of this project and its projection.

  12. Expedited partner treatment for sexually transmitted infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Hogben, Matthew

    2011-04-01

    To date, seven randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy of expedited partner treatment (EPT). These trials have included heterosexual men and women and examine EPT for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and Trichomonas vaginalis. These studies demonstrated either superiority for percentage of partners being treated, for a reduction in repeat infections, or cost benefit for EPT compared to the standard partner referral method and reported no adverse events. In the United States, although the number of states where EPT is legal continues to grow, adoption of EPT remains low. Provider concerns about liability and payment issues continue to be a barrier to implementation of EPT. More translational research is needed to improve adoption by the players involved: index patients, partners, providers, and payers.

  13. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...... with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology...... degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization...

  14. Action-effect bindings and ideomotor learning in intention- and stimulus-based actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Arvid; Waszak, Florian

    2012-01-01

    According to ideomotor theory, action-effect associations are crucial for voluntary action control. Recently, a number of studies started to investigate the conditions that mediate the acquisition and application of action-effect associations by comparing actions carried out in response to exogenous stimuli (stimulus-based) with actions selected endogenously (intention-based). There is evidence that the acquisition and/or application of action-effect associations is boosted when acting in an intention-based action mode. For instance, bidirectional action-effect associations were diagnosed in a forced choice test phase if participants previously experienced action-effect couplings in an intention-based but not in a stimulus-based action mode. The present study aims at investigating effects of the action mode on action-effect associations in more detail. In a series of experiments, we compared the strength and durability of short-term action-effect associations (binding) immediately following intention- as well as stimulus-based actions. Moreover, long-term action-effect associations (learning) were assessed in a subsequent test phase. Our results show short-term action-effect associations of equal strength and durability for both action modes. However, replicating previous results, long-term associations were observed only following intention-based actions. These findings indicate that the effect of the action mode on long-term associations cannot merely be a result of accumulated short-term action-effect bindings. Instead, only those episodic bindings are selectively perpetuated and retrieved that integrate action-relevant aspects of the processing event, i.e., in case of intention-based actions, the link between action and ensuing effect.

  15. Action-effect bindings and ideomotor learning in intention- and stimulus-based actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid eHerwig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available According to ideomotor theory, action-effect associations are crucial for voluntary action control. Recently, a number of studies started to investigate the conditions that mediate the acquisition and application of action-effect associations by comparing actions carried out in response to exogenous stimuli (stimulus-based with actions selected endogenously (intention-based. There is evidence that the acquisition and/or application of action-effect associations is boosted when acting in an intention-based action mode. For instance, bidirectional action-effect associations were diagnosed in a forced choice test phase if participants previously experienced action-effect couplings in an intention-based but not in a stimulus-based action mode. The present study aims at investigating effects of the action mode on action-effect associations in more detail. In a series of experiments, we compared the strength and durability of short-term action-effect associations (binding immediately following intention- as well as stimulus-based actions. Moreover, long-term action-effect associations (learning were assessed in a subsequent test phase. Our results show short-term action-effect associations of equal strength and durability for both action modes. However, replicating previous results, long-term associations were observed only following intention-based actions. These findings indicate that the effect of the action mode on long-term associations cannot merely be a result of accumulated short-term action-effect bindings. Instead, only those episodic bindings are selectively perpetuated or retrieved that integrate action-relevant aspects of the processing event, i.e., in case of intention-based actions, the link between action and ensuing effect.

  16. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Rios

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The information about the sponges in this dataset is derived from the samples collected during five Spanish Antarctic expeditions: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using va­rious sampling gears.The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides in­formation for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea. It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data.This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS. The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodivers­ity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies.The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the author’s collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO in the city of Gijón (Spain. The data are available in GBIF.

  17. Marine omega-3 fatty acid intake: associations with cardiometabolic risk and response to weight loss intervention in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Reboussin, David M; Haffner, Steven M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Schwenke, Dawn C; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2010-01-01

    To examine usual marine omega-3 fatty acid (mO-3FA) intake in individuals with diabetes; its association with adiposity, lipid, and glucose control; and its changes with behavioral lifestyle intervention for weight loss. Cross-sectional and 1-year longitudinal analyses were performed on 2,397 Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) participants. Look AHEAD is a cardiovascular outcome trial evaluating the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Baseline mO-3FA intake was 162 +/- 138 mg/day. It was inversely associated with triglycerides (beta = -0.41, P < 0.001) and weakly with HDL (beta = 4.14, P = 0.050), after multiple covariate adjustment. One-year mO-3FA and fried/sandwich fish intake decreased with intensive lifestyle intervention (P < 0.001). mO-3FA intake in Look AHEAD participants was low but associated favorably with lipids. These results encourage investigation on the potential benefits of increasing mO-3FA intake in lifestyle interventions for weight loss in individuals with diabetes.

  18. MF59 and Pam3CSK4 boost adaptive responses to influenza subunit vaccine through an IFN type I-independent mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, Elena; Tritto, Elaine; Cortese, Mario; Muzzi, Alessandro; Mosca, Flaviana; Monaci, Elisabetta; Baudner, Barbara; Seubert, Anja; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2012-04-01

    The innate immune pathways induced by adjuvants required to increase adaptive responses to influenza subunit vaccines are not well characterized. We profiled different TLR-independent (MF59 and alum) and TLR-dependent (CpG, resiquimod, and Pam3CSK4) adjuvants for the ability to increase the immunogenicity to a trivalent influenza seasonal subunit vaccine and to tetanus toxoid (TT) in mouse. Although all adjuvants boosted the Ab responses to TT, only MF59 and Pam3CSK4 were able to enhance hemagglutinin Ab responses. To identify innate immune correlates of adjuvanticity to influenza subunit vaccine, we investigated the gene signatures induced by each adjuvant in vitro in splenocytes and in vivo in muscle and lymph nodes using DNA microarrays. We found that flu adjuvanticity correlates with the upregulation of proinflammatory genes and other genes involved in leukocyte transendothelial migration at the vaccine injection site. Confocal and FACS analysis confirmed that MF59 and Pam3CSK4 were the strongest inducers of blood cell recruitment in the muscle compared with the other adjuvants tested. Even though it has been proposed that IFN type I is required for adjuvanticity to influenza vaccines, we found that MF59 and Pam3CSK4 were not good inducers of IFN-related innate immunity pathways. By contrast, resiquimod failed to enhance the adaptive response to flu despite a strong activation of the IFN pathway in muscle and lymph nodes. By blocking IFN type I receptor through a mAb, we confirmed that the adjuvanticity of MF59 and Pam3CSK4 to a trivalent influenza vaccine and to TT is IFN independent.

  19. California Earthquake Clearinghouse: Advocating for, and Advancing, Collaboration and Technology Interoperability, Between the Scientific and Emergency Response Communities, to Produce Actionable Intelligence for Situational Awareness, and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Beilin, P.; Colwell, J.; Hornick, M.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Morentz, J.; Smorodinsky, S.; Millington, A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Penn, P.; Ortiz, M.; Kennedy, M.; Long, K.; Miller, K.; Stromberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Clearinghouse provides emergency management and response professionals, scientific and engineering communities with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes or tsunamis. Clearinghouse activations include participation from Federal, State and local government, law enforcement, fire, EMS, emergency management, public health, environmental protection, the military, public and non-governmental organizations, and private sector. For the August 24, 2014 S. Napa earthquake, over 100 people from 40 different organizations participated during the 3-day Clearinghouse activation. Every organization has its own role and responsibility in disaster response; however all require authoritative data about the disaster for rapid hazard assessment and situational awareness. The Clearinghouse has been proactive in fostering collaboration and sharing Essential Elements of Information across disciplines. The Clearinghouse-led collaborative promotes the use of standard formats and protocols to allow existing technology to transform data into meaningful incident-related content and to enable data to be used by the largest number of participating Clearinghouse partners, thus providing responding personnel with enhanced real-time situational awareness, rapid hazard assessment, and more informed decision-making in support of response and recovery. The Clearinghouse efforts address national priorities outlined in USGS Circular 1242, Plan to Coordinate NEHRP post-earthquake investigations and S. 740-Geospatial Data Act of 2015, Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT), to streamline and coordinate geospatial data infrastructure, maximizing geospatial data in support of the Robert T. Stafford Act. Finally, the US Dept. of Homeland Security, Geospatial Management Office, recognized Clearinghouse's data sharing efforts as a Best Practice to be included in the forthcoming 2015 HLS Geospatial Concept of Operations.

  20. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  1. Action plan for the Tiger Team assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-30

    This document contains responses and planned actions that address the findings of the Tiger Team Assessment of Brookhaven National Laboratory, June 1990. In addition, the document contains descriptions of the management and organizational structure to be used in conducting planned actions, root causes for the problems identified in the findings, responses, planned actions, schedules and milestones for completing planned actions, and, where known, costs associated with planned actions.

  2. Givental action and trivialisation of circle action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the Givental group action on genus zero cohomological field theories, also known as formal Frobenius manifolds or hypercommutative algebras, naturally arises in the deformation theory of Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras. We prove that the Givental action is equal to an action

  3. IODP Expedition 302, Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX: A First Look at the Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 302 Scientists

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The behavior and inf luence of the A rct ic Oceanthroughout the course of the global Cenozoic climateevolution have been virtually unknown. Only the uppermostfew meters of the Arctic’s sediment record, representingHolocene and late Pleistocene times, have been retrievedfrom ridges through a limited number of short piston,gravity, and box cores. Even less of the thick sedimentsequences, ~6 km in the Canada Basin and ~3 km in theNansen Basin(Grantz et al., 1990; Jokat et al., 1995, restingon the Arctic Ocean’s abyssal plains, have been cored.Prior to the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX, informationon Neogene or Paleogene conditions in the central Arcticwas limited to a 1.6-m interval in a 3.6-m-long T-3 gravitycore raised from the Alpha Ridge (Clark, 1974, providingthe sole evidence for marine conditions no older than themiddle Eocene in the central Arctic (Bukry, 1984.

  4. Is the interaction between fatty acids and tryptophan responsible for the efficacy of a ketogenic diet in epilepsy? The new hypothesis of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejak, P; Szyndler, J; Turzyńska, D; Sobolewska, A; Kołosowska, K; Krząścik, P; Płaźnik, A

    2016-01-28

    The effects of a ketogenic diet in controlling seizure activity have been proven in many studies, although its mechanism of action remains elusive in many regards. We hypothesize that the ketogenic diet may exert its antiepileptic effects by influencing tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of octanoic and decanoic fatty acids (FAs), the main components in the MCT diet (medium-chain triglyceride diet, a subtype of the ketogenic diet), on the metabolism of TRP, the activity of the kynurenic pathway and the concentrations of monoamines and amino acids, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) in rats. The acute effects of FA on the sedation index and hippocampal electrical after-discharge threshold were also assessed. We observed that intragastric administration of FA increased the brain levels of TRP and the central and peripheral concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA), as well as caused significant changes in the brain and plasma concentrations of BCAA and AAA. We found that the administration of FA clearly increased the seizure threshold and induced sedation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that blocking TRP passage into the brain abolished these effects of FA but had no similar effect on the formation of ketone bodies. Given that FAs are major components of a ketogenic diet, it is suggested that the anticonvulsant effects of a ketogenic diet may be at least partly dependent on changes in TRP metabolism. We also propose a more general hypothesis concerning the intracellular mechanism of the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of the Mode of Action Underlying the Tumorigenic Response Induced in B6C3F1 Mice Exposed Orally to Hexavalent Chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Haws, Laurie C.; Hébert, Charles D.; Grimes, Sheila D.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Kopec, Anna K.; Hixon, J.Gregory; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Harris, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice. To investigate the mode of action (MOA) underlying these tumors, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted using similar exposure conditions as in a previous cancer bioassay, as well as lower (heretofore unexamined) drinking water concentrations. Tissue samples were collected in mice exposed for 7 or 90 days and subjected to histopathological, biochemical, toxicogenomic, and toxicokinetic analyses. Described herein are the results of toxicokinetic, biochemical, and pathological findings. Following 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/l of sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), total chromium concentrations in the duodenum were significantly elevated at ≥ 14 mg/l. At these concentrations, significant decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed. Beginning at 60 mg/l, intestinal lesions were observed including villous cytoplasmic vacuolization. Atrophy, apoptosis, and crypt hyperplasia were evident at ≥ 170 mg/l. Protein carbonyls were elevated at concentrations ≥ 4 mg/l SDD, whereas oxidative DNA damage, as assessed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, was not increased in any treatment group. Significant decreases in the GSH/GSSG ratio and similar histopathological lesions as observed in the duodenum were also observed in the jejunum following 90 days of exposure. Cytokine levels (e.g., interleukin-1β) were generally depressed or unaltered at the termination of the study. Overall, the data suggest that Cr(VI) in drinking water can induce oxidative stress, villous cytotoxicity, and crypt hyperplasia in the mouse intestine and may underlie the MOA of intestinal carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:21712504

  6. An examination of resveratrol's mechanisms of action in human tissue: impact of a single dose in vivo and dose responses in skeletal muscle ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron B Williams

    Full Text Available The current study tested the hypothesis that a single, moderate dose of RSV would activate the AMPK/SIRT1 axis in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Additionally, the effects of RSV on mitochondrial respiration in PmFBs were examined. Eight sedentary men (23.8±2.4 yrs; BMI: 32.7±7.1 reported to the lab on two occasions where they were provided a meal supplemented with 300 mg of RSV or a placebo. Blood samples, and a muscle biopsy were obtained in the fasted state and again, with the addition of an adipose tissue biopsy, two hours post-prandial. The effect of RSV on mitochondrial respiration was examined in PmFBs taken from muscle biopsies from an additional eight men (23.4±5.4 yrs; BMI: 24.4±2.8. No effect of RSV was observed on nuclear SIRT1 activity, acetylation of p53, or phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC or PKA in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. A decrease in post absorptive insulin levels was accompanied by elevated skeletal muscle phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but no change in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue insulin signalling. Mitochondrial respiration in PmFBs was rapidly inhibited by RSV at 100-300 uM depending on the substrate examined. These results question the efficacy of a single dose of RSV at altering skeletal muscle and adipose tissue AMPK/SIRT1 activity in humans and suggest that RSV mechanisms of action in humans may be associated with altered cellular energetics resulting from impaired mitochondrial ATP production.

  7. Influence of Matrices on 3D-Cultured Prostate Cancer Cells' Drug Response and Expression of Drug-Action Associated Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Rasheena; Adcock, Audrey F.; Yang, Liju

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of matrix on the behaviors of 3D-cultured cells of two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and DU145. Two biologically-derived matrices, Matrigel and Cultrex BME, and one synthetic matrix, the Alvetex scaffold, were used to culture the cells. The cell proliferation rate, cellular response to anti-cancer drugs, and expression levels of proteins associated with drug sensitivity/resistance were examined and compared amongst the 3D-cultured cells on the three matrices and 2D-cultured cells. The cellular responses upon treatment with two common anti-cancer drugs, Docetaxel and Rapamycin, were examined. The expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and β-III tubulin in DU145 cells and p53 in LNCaP cells were examined. The results showed that the proliferation rates of cells cultured on the three matrices varied, especially between the synthetic matrix and the biologically-derived matrices. The drug responses and the expressions of drug sensitivity-associated proteins differed between cells on various matrices as well. Among the 3D cultures on the three matrices, increased expression of β-III tubulin in DU145 cells was correlated with increased resistance to Docetaxel, and decreased expression of EGFR in DU145 cells was correlated with increased sensitivity to Rapamycin. Increased expression of a p53 dimer in 3D-cultured LNCaP cells was correlated with increased resistance to Docetaxel. Collectively, the results showed that the matrix of 3D cell culture models strongly influences cellular behaviors, which highlights the imperative need to achieve standardization of 3D cell culture technology in order to be used in drug screening and cell biology studies. PMID:27352049

  8. Public health action and mass chemoprophylaxis in response to a small meningococcal infection outbreak at a nursery in the West Midlands, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Antony; Coetzee, Nic; Knapper, Elizabeth; Rajanaidu, Subhadra; Iqbal, Zafar; Duggal, Harsh

    2013-03-01

    Meningococcal infection is fatal in 10% of cases, and age-specific attack rates are highest in infancy. A nursery outbreak was declared just before a bank holiday weekend in August 2010, when two children attending the same nursery were confirmed to have meningococcal infection. Although such outbreaks are rare, they generate considerable public alarm and are challenging to manage and control. This report describes the investigation and public health response to the outbreak. Both cases had relatively mild disease and were confirmed as having serogroup B infection. Chemoprophylaxis and advice were given to most of the 146 children and 30 staff at the nursery. Within 28 hours of declaring the outbreak, over 95% of parents received information, advice and prescriptions for their children. GPs were also given information and the after-hours service provided continuity over the weekend. No further cases were identified and the outbreak was closed four weeks after being declared. Considerable logistical challenges were involved in providing timely advice and chemoprophylaxis to the entire nursery and staff one day before a bank holiday weekend. The speed of the public health response and implementation of preventive measures was crucial in providing assurance to parents and staff, and reducing their anxiety. The decision to provide on-site prescribing at the nursery (coupled with information sessions and individual counselling) proved to be a key implementation-success factor. Effective coordination and management by the outbreak control team was able to rapidly provide leadership, delegate tasks, identify gaps, allocate resources and ensure a proactive media response. A number of useful lessons were learnt and recommendations were made for future local practice.

  9. Influence of Matrices on 3D-Cultured Prostate Cancer Cells' Drug Response and Expression of Drug-Action Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Rasheena; Adcock, Audrey F; Yang, Liju

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of matrix on the behaviors of 3D-cultured cells of two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and DU145. Two biologically-derived matrices, Matrigel and Cultrex BME, and one synthetic matrix, the Alvetex scaffold, were used to culture the cells. The cell proliferation rate, cellular response to anti-cancer drugs, and expression levels of proteins associated with drug sensitivity/resistance were examined and compared amongst the 3D-cultured cells on the three matrices and 2D-cultured cells. The cellular responses upon treatment with two common anti-cancer drugs, Docetaxel and Rapamycin, were examined. The expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and β-III tubulin in DU145 cells and p53 in LNCaP cells were examined. The results showed that the proliferation rates of cells cultured on the three matrices varied, especially between the synthetic matrix and the biologically-derived matrices. The drug responses and the expressions of drug sensitivity-associated proteins differed between cells on various matrices as well. Among the 3D cultures on the three matrices, increased expression of β-III tubulin in DU145 cells was correlated with increased resistance to Docetaxel, and decreased expression of EGFR in DU145 cells was correlated with increased sensitivity to Rapamycin. Increased expression of a p53 dimer in 3D-cultured LNCaP cells was correlated with increased resistance to Docetaxel. Collectively, the results showed that the matrix of 3D cell culture models strongly influences cellular behaviors, which highlights the imperative need to achieve standardization of 3D cell culture technology in order to be used in drug screening and cell biology studies.

  10. A global/local approach for the prediction of the electric response of cracked solar cells in photovoltaic modules under the action of mechanical loads

    OpenAIRE

    M. Paggi; Corrado, M; Berardone, I.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical approach based on the finite element method to assess the impact of cracks in Silicon solar cells on the electric response of photovoltaic modules is proposed. A global coarse-scale finite element model of the composite laminate is used for carrying out the structural analysis. The computed displacements at the edges of each solar cell are passed via a projection scheme as boundary conditions to a 3D local fine-scale finite element model of the cells which accounts for cohesive cr...

  11. Particle sizes of Pliocene and Pleistocene core sediments from IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data compilation includes the results of grain size analyses of core sediment collected by IODP during Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea. One dataset is included...

  12. Effects of an Arctic Ocean Ski Traverse on the Protective Capabilities of Expedition Footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas; Frykman, Peter; O'Brien, Catherine; Giblo, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A traverse of the Arctic Ocean during a 2000-km unsupported ski expedition provided an opportunity to assess the impact of an extreme cold environment on the protective capabilities of a specialized footwear system (FS...

  13. ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data is produced with the express purpose of providing the ASTER Science Team members and others, data...

  14. ASTER Expedited L1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Expedited ASTER Level-1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor data set is produced with the express purpose of providing ASTER Science Team members data of their...

  15. Australian solar eclipse expeditions: the voyage to Cape York in 1871

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomb, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Techniques such as photography and spectroscopy only became available to study solar eclipses in the 1860s. The first subsequent total eclipse of the Sun to be visible from Australia was one in December 1871 that was visible from far north Queensland. Initiated by the Royal Society of Victoria, astronomers in Melbourne and Sydney cooperated to organise the Australian Eclipse Expedition aboard the steamship Governor Blackall to a suitable observing location. Though on the day of the eclipse clouds prevented viewing, this was an important expedition that was complex to organise and involved dealings with colonial Governments and with relatively large sums of money that Australian scientists had not previously experienced. With a newspaper reporter as part of the expedition along with two photographers the expedition was well recorded and provides a clear insight into the activities of late nineteenth century astronomers and other scientists.

  16. Expediting Clinician Adoption of Safety Practices: The UCSF Venous Access Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donaldson, Nancy E; Plank, Rosemary K; Williamson, Ann; Pearl, Jeffrey; Kellogg, Jerry; Ryder, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    ...) Venous Access Device (VAD) Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project was to develop a 30-hour/one clinical academic unit VAD patient safety course with the aim of expediting clinician adoption of critical concepts...

  17. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  18. A comparison of the RCRA Corrective Action and CERCLA Remedial Action Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, Thomas T.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the RCRA corrective action and the CERCLA remedial action processes. On the even-numbered pages a discussion of the RCRA corrective action process is presented and on the odd-numbered pages a comparative discussion of the CERCLA remedial action process can be found. Because the two programs have a difference structure, there is not always a direct correlation between the two throughout the document. This document serves as an informative reference for Departmental and contractor personnel responsible for oversight or implementation of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA remedial action activities at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  19. Investigating the role of virtual reality in geography via Google Expeditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tilling, Steve; Tudor, Ana-Despina; Kitchen, Becky; Minocha, Shailey

    2017-01-01

    This workshop-session explored the use of Google Expeditions (GEs), virtual reality-based field trips, to support and encourage outdoor fieldwork and facilitate visualisation of processes and locations. Participants had the opportunity to trial GEs and were invited to discuss and evaluate the outcomes (particularly the educator’s perspective) of a project investigating the role of virtual reality in geography education.\\ud \\ud We first showed several Expeditions to the educators, such as Rio ...

  20. Action needed on refugee crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swing, William Lacy

    2016-01-01

    ... perished on Mediterranean routes just through the first four months of this year. We have said throughout this crisis that it's inadequate to count the casualties. We also must insist on action: saving lives, demanding a cessation of hostilities and creating a coordinated humanitarian response to this continuing tragedy. William Lacy Swing, Geneva...

  1. Raman Spectroscopy: an essential tool for future IODP expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Kulhanek, Denise K.

    2016-04-01

    The scientific drilling of oceanic sedimentary sequences plays a fundamental part in provenance studies, paleoclimate recostructions, and source-to-sink investigations (e.g., France-Lanord et al., 2015; Pandey et al., 2015). When studying oceanic deposits, Raman spectroscopy can and does represent an essential flexible tool for the multidisciplinary approach necessary to integrate the insight provided by different disciplines. This new user-friendly technique opens up an innovative avenue to study in real time the composition of detrital mineral grains of any origin, complementing traditional methods of provenance analysis (e.g., sedimentary petrography, heavy minerals; Andò and Garzanti, 2014). Raman spectra can readily reveal the chemistry of foraminiferal tests, nannofossils and other biogenic debris for the study of ecosystem evolution and paleoclimate, or the Ca/Mg ratio in biogenic or terrigenous carbonates for geological or marine biological applications and oil exploration (Borromeo et al., 2015). For the study of pelagic or turbiditic muds, which represent the bulk of the deep-marine sedimentary record, Raman spectroscopy allows us to identify silt-sized grains down to the size of a few microns with the same precision level required in quantitative provenance analysis of sand-sized sediments (Andò et al., 2011). Silt and siltstone also represent a very conspicuous part of the stratigraphic record onshore and usually preserve original mineralogical assemblages better than more permeable interbedded sand and sandstone (Blatt, 1985). Raman spectra can be obtained on sample volumes of only a few cubic microns by a confocal micro-Raman coupled with a standard polarizing light microscope using a 50× objective. The size of this apparatus can be easily placed onboard an IODP vessel to provide crucial information and quickly solve identification problems for the benefit of a wide range of scientists during future expeditions. Cited references Andò, S., Vignola

  2. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea. Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf). The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens. The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)). Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings

  3. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea from the ANDEEP3 expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Danis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm, deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72 expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude and from 0 to -65°W (longitude. A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern, including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf.The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m, while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m, Lysasterias adeliae (4832m, Lophaster stellans (4752m, Cheiraster planeta (4708m, Eremicaster crassus (4626m, Lophaster gaini (4560m and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m.Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light

  4. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf).The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)).Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six

  5. Gender, culture, and astrophysical fieldwork: Elizabeth Campbell and the Lick Observatory-Crocker eclipse expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, A. S.-K.

    The article is organized as follows. It begins with an overview of women in nineteenth-century American science. It then describes the culture of mountaintop observatories and life on Mount Hamilton. Elizabeth Campbell's unique role in the Crocker-Lick expeditions drew upon her equally unique role in the observatory, and also on the meaning given to women's work in general on the mountain. The bulk of the article focuses on the Campbells and their expeditions to India in 1898, Spain in 1905, and the South Pacific in 1908. The third section compares the Lick Observatory expeditions to those conducted by David Todd of Amherst College. Todd's wife, Mabel Loomis Todd, went into the field several times with her husband, but her place in the field was radically different from Elizabeth Campbell's, a difference that can be ascribed to a combination of local culture and personality. Finally, it compares American expeditions to British expeditions of the period, to see what the absence of British women on expeditions can tell us about the way national scientific styles and cultures affected gender roles in science.

  6. The expedition to Peru and Chile (1777-1788): inventory of scientific production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, A G; Rodríguez Nozal, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an inventory of the scientific corpus produced by the Spanish members of the Expedition to Peru and Chile (1777-1788). This material is divided into six large sections. The first section covers the different versions of the diary of the journey taken by the Expedition. The second section covers the drafts and workbooks used by the Expedition members for the writing of "Flora Peruviana et Chilensis," the manuscripts and published editions of this work, the materials used in the preparation of both the "Prodromus" and the "Systema Vegetabilium," the contributions of the assistants on the Expedition and some monographs of taxonomic interest. The third section is dedicated to quinological studies and other pharmacological works undertaken by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Pavón Jiménez. The fourth section includes the writings concerning Ruiz's dispute with Antonio José Cavanilles. The fifth section contains texts which set forth the botanical thought of the members of the Expedition. The sixth and final section includes the Expedition members' writings on various subjects, from anthropology and ethnography to others of a purely historical nature.

  7. Downhole Logging Measurements from IODP Expedition 313: an Overview and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inwood, J.; Lofi, J.; Scienceparty, E.

    2009-12-01

    Downhole geophysical measurements and images allow the characterization of the lithology and physical properties of the subsurface, thus making a powerful contribution to the evaluation of facies and sediment composition and to the recognition of key surfaces in siliciclastic successions. The mission-specific IODP Expedition 313 (May-July 2009) cored and logged sequences deposited on the New Jersey continental margin during the post-Eocene ice-house world. One of the aims of the Expedition is to evaluate sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. 5800 m of wireline logging data were collected in three boreholes drilled to a composite total of 2062 m; here we present an overview of these data. Continuous through-pipe spectral gamma ray logs were acquired in each borehole and repeated in open hole intervals for calibration. Magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, sonic and acoustic image logs were obtained in open hole at key intervals and/or where borehole conditions allowed. Due to space limitations on the offshore platform, Exp313 cores were not split. Samples from core catchers, whole-round multi-sensor track measurements, vertical seismic profiles and these logging data comprise the full data set at the time of this writing. Preliminary analysis shows lateral and vertical changes in the physical properties of the sediments that enable us to distinguish depositional intervals at several scales (cms - tens of meters). Medium to high resolution acoustic images of the borehole walls reveal sedimentary characteristics even within intervals of low core recovery, and provide an accurate core-depth positioning of some key surfaces. Likewise, the continuous spectral gamma logs allow assessment of lithologies in intervals with incomplete core recovery, and show great promise of providing excellent log-core-seismic correlations once the cores are split and fully

  8. Difference in soft tissue response between immediate and delayed delivery suggests a new mechanism for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 action in large segmental bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khaled A; Zakhary, Ibrahim E; Elawady, Ahmed R; Emam, Hany A; Sharawy, Mohamed; Baban, Babak; Akeel, Sara; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Elsalanty, Mohammed E

    2012-03-01

    The ability of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 on absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP2/ACS) to regenerate bone in segmental defect has been well characterized. However, clinical results of rhBMP2/ACS constructs in secondary reconstruction of large mandibular and craniofacial defects have not been consistent. We hypothesized that rhBMP2 delivery triggers an endogenous response in the soft tissues surrounding the defect, in the form of expression of BMP2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Such osteogenic response will occur only after immediate, as opposed to delayed, rhBMP2 delivery, suggesting a new explanation to the difference in bone regeneration between the two settings. A 35-mm segmental bone and periosteum defect was created on one side of the mandible in 16 dogs divided in three groups. Group 1 (Gp1, n=6) ACS was loaded with 8 mL of rhBMP2 (0.2 mg/mL). In Gp2 (n=5) the same dose of rhBMP2/ACS was delivered into the defect 4 weeks after surgery. In Gp3 (control; n=5) the defect was reconstructed using ACS loaded with 8 mL of buffer only (devoid of rhBMP2). Tissues were collected after 12 weeks of reconstruction in all groups. Direct measurement of physical dimensions of regenerates and bone morphometry was performed to evaluate bone regeneration. The mRNA expression of both BMP2 and VEGF in the soft tissue surrounding the defect was evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR. Both BMP2 and VEGF proteins were quantified in immunostained sections. Immunoflurescence colocalization of BMP2 and acetylated low density lipoprotein (AcLDL) was done to detect the source of BMP2. Immediate delivery yielded better bone regeneration. Both BMP2 and VEGF mRNA expression was upregulated only in Gp1 (+7.3, p=0.001; +1.53, p=0.001, respectively). BMP2 protein was significantly higher in the immediate reconstruction group; however, VEGF protein was undetected in the examined sections. Immediate delivery of rhBMP2 seemed to induce endogenous release of

  9. Aging Periosteal Progenitor Cells have Reduced Regenerative Responsiveness to Bone Injury and to the Anabolic Actions of PTH 1-34 Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukata, Kiminori; Xie, Chao; Li, Tian-Fang; Takahata, Masahiko; Hoak, Donna; Kondabolu, Sirish; Zhang, Xinping; Awad, Hani A.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Jonason, Jennifer H.; O’Keefe, Regis J.

    2014-01-01

    A stabilized tibia fracture model was used in young (8-week old) and aged (1-year old) mice to define the relative bone regenerative potential and the relative responsiveness of the periosteal progenitor population with aging and PTH 1-34 (PTH) systemic therapy. Bone regeneration was assessed through gene expressions, radiographic imaging, histology/histomorphometry, and biomechanical testing. Radiographs and microCT showed increased calcified callus tissue and enhanced bone healing in young compared to aged mice. A key mechanism involved reduced proliferation, expansion, and differentiation of periosteal progenitor cell populations in aged mice. The experiments showed that PTH increased calcified callus tissue and torsional strength with a greater response in young mice. Histology and quantitative histomorphometry confirmed that PTH increased callus tissue area due primarily to an increase in bone formation, since minimal changes in cartilage and mesenchyme tissue area occurred. Periosteum examined at 3, 5, and 7 days showed that PTH increased cyclin D1 expression, the total number of cells in the periosteum, and width of the periosteal regenerative tissue. Gene expression showed that aging delayed differentiation of both bone and cartilage tissues during fracture healing. PTH resulted in sustained Col10a1 expression consistent with delayed chondrocyte maturation, but otherwise minimally altered cartilage gene expression. In contrast, PTH 1-34 stimulated expression of Runx2 and Osterix, but resulted in reduced Osteocalcin. β-catenin staining was present in mesenchymal chondroprogenitors and chondrocytes in early fracture healing, but was most intense in osteoblastic cells at later times. PTH increased active β-catenin staining in the osteoblast populations of both young and aged mice, but had a lesser effect in cartilage. Altogether the findings show that reduced fracture healing in aging involves decreased proliferation and differentiation of stem cells lining

  10. Arctic Collaboration: Developing a Successful Researcher/Teacher Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicki, S.; Loranty, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Are you a researcher working in the polar regions of the world or a K-12 science teacher who would like to be part of a field research expedition in the polar regions? Researchers and K-12 science teachers can apply for funding from PolarTREC, a program that pairs researchers and teachers to conduct field science in Antarctica and the Arctic. Our poster presentation will offer details of one such successful researcher/teacher partnership. During the summer of 2016, Science Teacher Stan Skotnicki (Cheektowaga Central Middle School in Buffalo, NY) was teamed up with Assistant Professor Mike Loranty (Colgate University) to study vegetation and ecosystem impacts on permafrost vulnerability. Stan joined Mike and his research team in Northeastern Siberia preparing field sites, collecting data, processing samples, discussing methods, and planning daily activities. In order to raise awareness and broaden the impact of the research being conducted, Stan communicated the science through a series of journals on the PolarTREC website with his students, staff, and members of the community. Additionally, Mike and Stan held a live webinar from Siberia discussing the content of the research, the nature of the fieldwork, and why it was important to travel so far for this information. This expedition allowed Stan to experience working with a field research team for an extended period of time. Mike benefited from having a team member dedicated to learning about and communicating project details that also provided valuable field assistance. Stan gets to bring his hands-on experience back to his classroom in Buffalo and Mike has the opportunity to share his research with a new and different audience, including presenting to students at Cheektowaga Central with the help of his undergraduate students. This model of collaboration provides a number of valuable benefits for both teachers and researchers. While the PolarTREC program provides necessary logistics and funding to conduct these

  11. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  12. Responses to comments on the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for remedial action at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site (November 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The integrated remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS) documents for the chemical plant area were issued to the public in November 1992 as the draft RI/FS-EIS. (The CERCLA RI/FS is considered final when issued to the public, whereas per the NEPA process, an EIS is initially issued as a draft and is finalized after substantive public comments have been addressed.) Four documents made up the draft RI/FS-EIS, which is hereafter referred to as the RI/FS-EIS: (1) the RI (DOE 1992d), which presents general information on the site environment and the nature and extent of contamination; (2) the baseline assessment (BA) (DOE 1992a), which evaluates human health and environmental effects that might occur if no cleanup actions were taken; (3) the FS (DOE 1992b), which develops and evaluates alternatives for site cleanup; and (4) the proposed plan (PP) (DOE 1992c), which summarizes key information from the RI, BA, and FS reports and identifies DOE`s preferred alternative for remedial action. This comment response document combined with those four documents constitutes the final RI/FS-EIS for the chemical plant area.

  13. Resposta da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill à ação de bioestimulante = Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill response to biostimulant action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina Alflen Klahold

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar o efeito do bioestimulante, Stimulate®, aplicado via semente e pulverização foliar, na cultura da soja, conduziu-se um experimento sob ambiente protegido, em vasos. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de doses de bioestimulate, aplicadas via semente (0, 3 e 5 mL kg-1 de sementes na semeadura e via foliar (0,0; 0,075; 0,150 e 0,225 mL L-1, aos 58 dias após a emergência (DAE. Realizaram-se coletas de plantas aos 73 e 129 DAE.Para algumas das variáveis estudadas, nas doses utilizadas, houve efeito negativo na resposta à aplicação de bioestimulante, para algumas doses testadas. Respostas positivas foram verificadas para massa seca de flores, raízes, razão raiz/parte aérea, número de flores, vagens e grãos e produção por planta. Destacaram-se positivamente os tratamentos: 0,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,150 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,0 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS+ 0,225 mL L-1 (APF e 5,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,075 mL L-1 (APF.Aiming to verify the effect of the bioestimulant, Stimulate®, applied saw by seed and leaf pulverization, in the culture of the soybean. It behaved an experiment under greenhouse, in vases. Randomized block experimental design was used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the combination of bioestimulant doses: seed application (SA (0; 3; and 5 mL kg-1 of seeds in the sowing and leaf spray (LS (0.0; 0.075; 0.150; and 0.225 mL L- 1, to the 58 days after the emergency (DAE. Collections of plants were accomplished to the 73 and 129 DAE. For some of the studied variables, in the used doses, there was negative effect in the response of the biostimulant application, for some tested doses. Positives responses were verified for flowers and roots dry mass; root/shoot relation; flowers; beans and grains number; and yield for plant. They stood out the treatments: 0,0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.150 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg

  14. Spectroscopic studies of terrestrial impact materials: Preparation for Popigai expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, N. A.; Rodin, A. V.; Masaitis, V. L.; Timofeev, I. S.; Roste, O. Z.; Korablev, O. I.; Dolnikov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    Terrestrial craters give us an excellent opportunity of direct analisys as opposed to craters out of the E arth. However, on the Earth there are only few sites where traces of strong impacts event could be studied in the fi eld. The traces of ancient impacts are better preserved in the frozen subsoil at subpolar latitudes. One of such sites is Popigai crater, located in subpolar Siberia, Russia, presumably caused by a giant impactor 35 Ma ago. This astrobleme gives a good chance to observe in situ the asteroid crater, impact materials and other consequenses of great energy deposition. T he crater was thoroughly studied during last few decades due to impact diamond inventories associated with it [1]. However a number of problems remain unresolved and wait for further studies: the physics and chemistry of impactites and impact breccias; mineral components with metamorphic rocks affected by great shock and impactites; material ejecta; structural forms invoked by crater formation; problems of remote sensing studies and problems related to comparative planetology. In the framework o f Europlanet program, we plan the expedition to Popigai site scheduled to 2012.

  15. Expeditions to Drill Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2005-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international collaboration of Earth, ocean, and life scientists that began in 2003, offers scientists worldwide unprecedented opportunities to address a vast array of scientific problems in all submarine settings. Recently, the scientific advisory structure of the proposal-driven IODP scheduled drilling expeditions, targeting critical scientific problems in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean, for 2005 and early 2006 (Figure 1, Table 1). The IODP, which is co-led by Japan and the United States, with strong contributions from the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) and China, is guided by an initial science plan, ``Earth, Oceans, and Life'' (www.iodp.org). For the first time, through the IODP, scientists have at their disposal both a riser (drilling vessel which has a metal tube surrounding the drill pipe that enables the return of drilling fluid and cuttings to the drill ship; the ``riser'' is attached to a ``blow-out preventer'' or shut-off device at the seafloor) and riserless drilling vessel (which lacks a riser pipe and blow-out preventer), as well as mission-specific capabilities such as drilling barges and jack-up rigs for shallow-water and Arctic drilling.

  16. Europa’s lost expedition a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This classically styled, chilling murder mystery about an expedition under the ice of Jupiter’s ocean moon Europa, backed up by the latest scientific findings on this icy satellite. The science fiction premise explores real possibilities of exploring other bodies in the Solar System, including probing their possible astrobiology. Now that the most recent world war has concluded on Earth, human explorers are returning to exploration, carrying out a full-court press to journey into the alien abyss using tele-operated biorobotics and human-tended submersibles. Nine scientists head out to Jupiter’s icy ocean-moon. But at Europa’s most remote outpost, one by one, the team members who shared the cruise out begin to die under suspicious circumstances. All was well until humans begin diving into Europa’s subsurface ocean. The deaths have all the symptoms of some sort of plague, despite Europa’s seemingly sterile environment. Besides providing thrills, a science section covers the very latest in undersea rob...

  17. Action-effect binding by observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; van Dam, Wessel; Hunnius, Sabine; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-10-01

    The acquisition of bidirectional action-effect associations plays a central role in the ability to intentionally control actions. Humans learn about actions not only through active experience, but also through observing the actions of others. In Experiment 1, we examined whether action-effect associations can be acquired by observational learning. To this end, participants observed how a model repeatedly pressed two buttons during an observation phase. Each of the buttonpresses led to a specific tone (action effect). In a subsequent test phase, the tones served as target stimuli to which the participants had to respond with buttonpresses. Reaction times were shorter if the stimulus-response mapping in the test phase was compatible with the action-effect association in the observation phase. Experiment 2 excluded the possibility that the impact of perceived action effects on own actions was driven merely by an association of spatial features with the particular tones. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the presence of an agent is necessary to acquire novel action-effect associations through observation. Altogether, the study provides evidence for the claim that bidirectional action-effect associations can be acquired by observational learning. Our findings are discussed in the context of the idea that the acquisition of action-effect associations through observation is an important cognitive mechanism subserving the human ability for social learning.

  18. Activities of the summer operation of the 52nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-52 in 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamanouchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the activities of the 52nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-52 during the 2010-2011 austral summer. JARE-52, as the first year of the"VIIIth JARE 6-year program", carried out various research projects and logistical plans. Basic observations, composed of routine observations and monitoring observations, were continued as part of long-term observations, and a newly established prioritized research program"Global Warming Investigated from the Antarctic"was started, comprising three sub-targets:"Global Environmental Changes from the Antarctic Middle and Upper Atmosphere","Responses of Southern Ocean Ecosystems in Global Warming"and"Current and Future Global Environment seen from Glacial-Interglacial Cycles". Ten projects of the ordinary research observations program, including astronomy in Antarctica, were also carried out. The largest tasks of the expedition were the setting of the large atmospheric MST/IS radar (PANSY and the construction of a building for harnessing natural energy and providing garage space. The main summer activities involved the transportation of materials, the maintenance of facilities at Syowa Station, and observations from on board the icebreaker RV Shirase and in the field, including an inland trip to Dome Fuji Station. Given the extensive sea ice in Lutzow-Holm Bay following the 51st expedition, we expected difficult conditions during the 2010-2011 season and possibly challenges to overcome in accomplishing the entire program. Our predictions proved to be accurate, as we encountered thick fast ice covered by a thick snow layer, and severe ice conditions in the pack ice area with folded ice. The weather conditions were relatively calm in December but challenging in January, with long periods of strong wind, snowfall, and blowing snow, as well as record low sunshine hours. Despite the conditions, we managed to accomplish most of the large-scale construction projects and observations that

  19. A global framework for action to improve the primary care response to chronic non-communicable diseases: a solution to a neglected problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot; Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Enarson, Don

    2009-09-22

    Although in developing countries the burden of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases has often overshadowed that due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), there is evidence now of a shift of attention to NCDs. Decreasing the chronic NCD burden requires a two-pronged approach: implementation of the multisectoral policies aimed at decreasing population-level risks for NCDs, and effective and affordable delivery of primary care interventions for patients with chronic NCDs. The primary care response to common NCDs is often unstructured and inadequate. We therefore propose a programmatic, standardized approach to the delivery of primary care interventions for patients with NCDs, with a focus on hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic airflow obstruction, and obesity. The benefits of this approach will extend to patients with related conditions, e.g. those with chronic kidney disease caused by hypertension or diabetes. This framework for a "public health approach" is informed by experience of scaling up interventions for chronic infectious diseases (tuberculosis and HIV). The lessons learned from progress in rolling out these interventions include the importance of gaining political commitment, developing a robust strategy, delivering standardised interventions, and ensuring rigorous monitoring and evaluation of progress towards defined targets. The goal of the framework is to reduce the burden of morbidity, disability and premature mortality related to NCDs through a primary care strategy which has three elements: 1) identify and address modifiable risk factors, 2) screen for common NCDs and 3) and diagnose, treat and follow-up patients with common NCDs using standard protocols. The proposed framework for NCDs borrows the same elements as those developed for tuberculosis control, comprising a goal, strategy and targets for NCD control, a package of interventions for quality care, key operations for national implementation of these interventions

  20. A global framework for action to improve the primary care response to chronic non-communicable diseases: a solution to a neglected problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Rony

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although in developing countries the burden of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases has often overshadowed that due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, there is evidence now of a shift of attention to NCDs. Discussion Decreasing the chronic NCD burden requires a two-pronged approach: implementation of the multisectoral policies aimed at decreasing population-level risks for NCDs, and effective and affordable delivery of primary care interventions for patients with chronic NCDs. The primary care response to common NCDs is often unstructured and inadequate. We therefore propose a programmatic, standardized approach to the delivery of primary care interventions for patients with NCDs, with a focus on hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic airflow obstruction, and obesity. The benefits of this approach will extend to patients with related conditions, e.g. those with chronic kidney disease caused by hypertension or diabetes. This framework for a "public health approach" is informed by experience of scaling up interventions for chronic infectious diseases (tuberculosis and HIV. The lessons learned from progress in rolling out these interventions include the importance of gaining political commitment, developing a robust strategy, delivering standardised interventions, and ensuring rigorous monitoring and evaluation of progress towards defined targets. The goal of the framework is to reduce the burden of morbidity, disability and premature mortality related to NCDs through a primary care strategy which has three elements: 1 identify and address modifiable risk factors, 2 screen for common NCDs and 3 and diagnose, treat and follow-up patients with common NCDs using standard protocols. The proposed framework for NCDs borrows the same elements as those developed for tuberculosis control, comprising a goal, strategy and targets for NCD control, a package of interventions for quality care, key operations for

  1. Some notes on further readings of Wilma Stockenström’s slave narrative, The Expedition to the Baobab Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gray

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some aspects of Wilma Stockenström’s novella of 1981, Die Kremetartekspedisie, in its English translation by J.M. Coetzee of 1983, The Expedition to the Baobab Tree. After isolating the formal aspects which are characteristic of the structure of the work, as explained by the author in the text, it reviews and identifies a general reluctance in the responses to date to engage with the text in terms it sets for itself. Arising out of this deadlock situation, the article suggests some approaches which could more appropriately be applied in further readings of the work. These are with regard to the author’s use of: (a received South African history and (b narrative mode, both of which contribute to the beginnings of the formation of a new, particularly female, consciousness and scope in South African fiction.

  2. Expedition 308 synthesis: overpressure, consolidation, and slope stability on the continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flemings, P. B.; John, C.; Behrmann, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 308 quantified the coupling between sedimentation, consolidation, overpressure, fluid flow, and slope instability in continental margin settings. We summarize and synthesize peer-reviewed hydrogeologic studies published since the end of Expedition 308 that focus on Expedition 308 sites drilled in Ursa Basin: Sites U1322, U1323, and U1324. There is a rich stratigraphic complexity in the Ursa Basin, deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The ...

  3. Local Actions, Global Effects? Understanding the Circumstances in which Locally Beneficial Environmental Actions Cumulate to Have Global Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Rudel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally beneficial actions come in diverse forms and occur in a wide range of settings ranging from personal decisions in households to negotiated agreements between nations. This article draws upon both social and ecological theory to outline, theoretically, the circumstances in which localized actions, undertaken by citizens, should cumulate to have global effects. The beliefs behind these actions tend to be either 'defensive environmentalism' in which actors work to improve their personal, local environments or 'altruistic environmentalism' in which actors work to improve the global environment. Defensive environmental actions such as creating common property institutions, limiting fertility, reducing waste streams, using energy efficient technologies, and eating organic foods have cumulative effects whereas altruistic environmental action often occurs through threshold crossings following a focusing event. Defensive environmentalism expedites altruistic environmentalism by persuading politicians, after focusing events, that rank and file citizens really do want a regime change. The resulting political transformation should, at least theoretically, create a sustainable development state that would promote additional defensive and altruistic environmental actions.

  4. Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Potable Water for ISS Expeditions 12 and 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E. II; Plumlee, Deborah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2007-01-01

    The crews of Expeditions 12 and 13 aboard the International Space Station (ISS) continued to rely on potable water from two different sources, regenerated humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water. The Space Shuttle launched twice during the 12- months spanning both expeditions and docked with the ISS for delivery of hardware and supplies. However, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during either of these missions. The chemical quality of the ISS onboard potable water supplies was verified by performing ground analyses of archival water samples at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL). Since no Shuttle flights launched during Expedition 12 and there was restricted return volume on the Russian Soyuz vehicle, only one chemical archive potable water sample was collected with U.S. hardware and returned during Expedition 12. This sample was collected in March 2006 and returned on Soyuz 11. The number and sensitivity of the chemical analyses performed on this sample were limited due to low sample volume. Shuttle flights STS-121 (ULF1.1) and STS-115 (12A) docked with the ISS in July and September of 2006, respectively. These flights returned to Earth with eight chemical archive potable water samples that were collected with U.S. hardware during Expedition 13. The average collected volume increased for these samples, allowing full chemical characterization to be performed. This paper presents a discussion of the results from chemical analyses performed on Expeditions 12 and 13 archive potable water samples. In addition to the results from the U.S. samples analyzed, results from pre-flight samples of Russian potable water delivered to the ISS on Progress vehicles and in-flight samples collected with Russian hardware during Expeditions 12 and 13 and analyzed at JSC are also discussed.

  5. Dance Education Action Research: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the practices, philosophy, and history of action research, also known as participatory action research, to the purposes and practices of dance education. The comparison yields connections in four categories, enhancing self-reflective teaching and curriculum design, taking responsibility for teaching outcomes,…

  6. 9 CFR 417.3 - Corrective actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.3 Corrective actions. (a) The written HACCP plan.... The HACCP plan shall describe the corrective action to be taken, and assign responsibility for taking... identified deviation or other unforeseen hazard should be incorporated into the HACCP plan. (c) All...

  7. 40 CFR 300.415 - Removal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (ii) Request immediate activation of the RRT; and (iii) Take whatever additional response actions are deemed appropriate. When requested by the OSC, the lead agency or RRT shall dispatch appropriate... removal actions shall submit OSC reports to the RRT as required by § 300.165. (n) Community relations in...

  8. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  9. Action video game training reduces the Simon Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Barrett, Doug J. K; Nitka, Aleksander; Raynes, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we demonstrate that action video game play can also reduce the Simon Effect, and, hence, may have the potential to improve response selection during the planning and execution of goal-directed action...

  10. Binding action and emotion in social understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ferri

    Full Text Available In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent's facial expression, compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing.

  11. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  12. Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica eVidovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.

  13. [The real philanthropic expedition of the smallpox vaccine: monarchy and modernity in 1803].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, José G

    2004-09-01

    Smallpox resulted in the death of 30 % of those who acquired it, so the preventive method discovered by Edward Jenner (London, 1798) spread very quickly. At the request in 1803 of Carlos IV, king of Spain, his government evaluated offers to carry smallpox vaccine to the colonies. The selected proposal, by doctor Francisco Xavier de Balmis, sought to take the lymph to America and Asia in a chain of arm to arm vaccination of foundlings. The Expedition set sail from Corunna on November 30, 1803, stopped in the Canary Isles, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela and after Caracas (1804) split in two groups. Balmis led some members of the Expedition to Cuba and Mexico. For the trip to the Philippines, in 1805, parents lent their children in exchange for economic compensation and the promise that the boys would be returned home. The Expedition returned to Mexico in August, 1807, but Balmis separately took vaccine to China and returned to Spain. Another contingent of the Expedition, under vice-director José Salvany, took vaccine to what we know as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His assistant Manuel Grajales reached the Chilean Patagonia in 1811. This article also comments on three principal themes - the institutional management of the scientific project, the conflicts that characterized its course, and the children's experience. The Vaccine Expedition was a brave and humanitarian endeavor, but also an extraordinary sanitary and administrative success. It was not until the twentieth century that a global eradication campaign eliminated smallpox in the world.

  14. Revisiting J.M. Gilliss' astronomical expedition to Chile in 1849‒1852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Germán Hidalgo

    2017-08-01

    Between 1849 and 1852 the U.S. astronomer J.M. Gilliss led an expedition to Santiago, Chile, aimed at improving the accepted value for the solar parallax. Although this particular research project was not a success, the astronomers did make other useful astronomical contributions, and the expedition was the catalyst that led directly to the founding of the Chilean National Observatory. Meanwhile, Gilliss later went on to achieve further prominence as Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. The results of the Chilean expedition were published by Gilliss in a six-volume work titled The U.S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere during the Years 1849-50-51-52 that was issued over a 40-year period. In Volume I (published in 1855) Gilliss presented a 'warts-and-all' account of Chile, its politics and its people, which at the time—and subsequently—created considerable controversy. In this paper, after briefly reviewing Gilliss' Southern Hemisphere expedition we focus on the extensive non-astronomical narrative that Gilliss presents in this first volume.

  15. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  16. Probiotic mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gómez-Llorente, Carolina; Gil, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to the host when ingested in adequate amounts. The strains most frequently used as probiotics include lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Probiotics have demonstrated significant potential as therapeutic options for a variety of diseases, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated yet. Several important mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effects of probiotics on various microorganisms include the following: modification of the gut microbiota, competitive adherence to the mucosa and epithelium, strengthening of the gut epithelial barrier and modulation of the immune system to convey an advantage to the host. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that probiotics communicate with the host by pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-like receptors, which modulate key signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-ĸB and mitogen-activated protein kinase, to enhance or suppress activation and influence downstream pathways. This recognition is crucial for eliciting measured antimicrobial responses with minimal inflammatory tissue damage. A clear understanding of these mechanisms will allow for appropriate probiotic strain selection for specific applications and may uncover novel probiotic functions. The goal of this systematic review was to explore probiotic modes of action focusing on how gut microbes influence the host. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  18. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  19. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  20. 40 CFR 763.90 - Response actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Analytical Testing Program for phase contrast microscopy (PCM). (iii) Until the National Bureau of Standards... phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to confirm completion of removal, encapsulation, or enclosure of ACBM... affected functional space and analyzed by phase contrast microscopy using the National Institute for...

  1. Derivative actions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was rarely exercised. This raises a question about the role of derivative actions in China; namely, should a derivative action system play a key role in protecting shareholder interests? If the answer is positive, the next question is how such a system could be improved...

  2. Action research: Scandinavian Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article focus on paradigms, methods and ethics of action research in the Scandinavian countries. The special features of the action research paradigm is identified. A historical overview follows of some main action research projects in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The tendency towards upsclae...

  3. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  4. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  5. An Exploration of Canadian Identity in Recent Literary Narratives of the Franklin Expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kennedy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sir John Franklin’s three expeditions to the high Arctic in 1819, 1825, and 1845 have become the stuff of Canadian legend, enshrined in history books, songs, short stories, novels, and web sites. Franklin set out in 1845 to discover the Northwest Passage with the most advanced technology the British Empire could muster, and disappeared forever. Many rescue explorations found only scant evidence of the Expedition, and the mystery was finally solved only recently. This paper will explore four recent fictional works on Franklin’s expeditions, Stan Rogers’ song “Northwest Passage”, Margaret Atwood’s short story “The Age of Lead”, Rudy Wiebe’s A Discovery of Strangers, and John Wilson’s North with Franklin: the Lost Journals of James Fitzjames, to see how Franklin’s ghost has haunted the hopes and values of nineteenth-century, as well as modern, Canada.

  6. The social event of the season. Solar eclipse expeditions and Victorian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, A. S.-K.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the construction of eclipse expeditions in Victorian and Edwardian Britain. (American expeditions will also be discussed to highlight national styles in organization and fieldwork.) The author begins by examining how expeditions were planned and how choices about observing sites, observers, and travel plans were made. He then follows parties out into the field. He argues that eclipse expeditons were powerfully affected by the practices and culture of tourism and were further shaped by expectations surrounding the encounter of "civilized" and "uncivilized" peoples. Finally, the author examines the crafting of observing practices used during totality. The evolution of astrophotography, the rise of big instruments, and battles between amateurs and professionals all had their effect on eclipse observation, but a close examination of observing practices and instrument design will show that the tools of empire were as important as cameras and telescopes for the production of reliable knowledge about the Sun.

  7. On the Turn of Two Millennia (60 Years of the Mari Archaeological Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitin Valeriy V.,

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the 60th Anniversary of the Mari Archaeological Expedition and summarizes the two decades of its studies (1996-2016 into the early cultures of the Mari region, starting from the era of the original settlement (Mesolithic, through the Neolithic-Eneolithic, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age and up to the Middle Ages. The expedition studied stations and settlements of primitive cultures, as well as unfortified and fortified settlements and necropolises. Special studies focused on formation and development of the early Mari culture, as well as the material and spiritual culture of the medieval Mari. The expedition continues its survey exploration in order to identify new archaeological sites. During the reported period, twelve monographs were published and three monographs prepared based on the expedition’s materials.

  8. Not Just About the Science: Cold War Politics and the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2016-12-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition broke ground for a series of multi-national oceanographic expeditions starting in the late 1950s. In and of itself, it would have been historically significant—like the International Geophysical Year (1957-58)—for pulling together the international scientific community during the Cold War. However, US support for this and follow-on Indian Ocean expeditions were not just about the science; they were also about diplomacy, specifically efforts to bring non-aligned India into the US political orbit and out of the clutches of its Cold War enemy, the Soviet Union. This paper examines the behind-the-scenes efforts at the highest reaches of the US government to extract international political gain out of a large-scale scientific effort.

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data from CTD casts from the icebreaker ODEN during the Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expedition in 2007 (NODC Accession 0093533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CTD data were taken during the expedition "Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland" (LOMROG) in summer 2007 with the Swedish icebreaker Oden. The LOMROG expedition...

  10. IODP Expedition 360: Analyzing the Media Coverage of a High Profile Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, L.; Martinez, A. O.; Burgio, M.; Zhang, J.; Expedition 360 Scientists, I.

    2016-12-01

    During Expedition 360 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), the JOIDES Resolution drilled 789 meters of lower crustal gabbro in the Southwest Indian Ocean. This hole began a multi-expedition project with the goal of one day drilling across the crust-mantle boundary for the first time. This simplified narrative of the research objectives struck a chord with media and the project received worldwide coverage in the form of over 50 stories with a total audience in the millions. This expedition is presented as a case study in science communication. A four-member education and outreach team onboard the ship acted as the point of contact for interested reporters. Major outlets that ran stories include the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, British Broadcasting Corporation, Boston Globe, Daily Express, Fox News, Nature, Smithsonian, and Chinese based Xinhua News Agency who sailed a reporter on the ship for the duration of the expedition. The majority of stories published provided accurate and favourable coverage of the project; however, a few contained critical errors and cast the expedition in a less positive light. Public reaction varied greatly depending on the article. Positive themes include interest in the scientific outcomes and encouragement of human exploration. Negative themes include the project being an inefficient use of money and a perceived risk of the drilling triggering an earthquake or volcano. Through a review of published articles and online comments, the successes and challenges faced by Expedition 360 are identified. Despite minimal preparation for media relations, the team successfully maintained a public profile while working in one of the most remote locations on Earth. Interviews were facilitated and videos, articles, and podcasts were produced onboard the ship. A simple, catchy narrative resulted in a large volume of coverage; however, this simplicity also formed the root of a number of misconceptions and issues of public concern.

  11. 15 CFR 27.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research...

  12. 40 CFR 26.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA § 26.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26...

  13. 45 CFR 46.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.110 Expedited review procedures... list of categories of research that may be reviewed by the IRB through an expedited review procedure... reviewers may not disapprove the research. A research activity may be disapproved only after review in...

  14. 34 CFR 97.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) § 97.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 97.110 Section 97...

  15. 7 CFR 1c.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor... an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  16. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in...

  17. Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Boog

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

  18. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Learning progressions from a sociocultural perspective: response to "co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses a case for a different, socio-cultural way of looking at learning progressions as treated in the next generation science standards (NGSS) as described by Ralph Cordova and Phyllis Balcerzak's paper "Co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action". The paper is interesting for a number of reasons, and in this response I will identify different aspects of the paper and link the points made to my own research, and that of colleagues, as complementary perspectives. First, the way that the science curriculum is conceived as an expanding experience that moves from the classroom into the community, across subjects, and across time, links to theoretical positions on disciplinary literacies and notions of learning as apprenticeship into the discursive tools, or `habits of mind' as the authors put it, that underpin disciplinary practice. Second, the formulation of progression through widening communities of practice is a strong feature of the paper, and shows how children take on the role of scientists through this expanding exposure. I will link this approach to some of our own work with school—community science partnerships, drawing on the construct of boundary crossing to tease out relations between school science and professional practice. Third, the demonstration of the expansion of the children's view of what scientists do is well documented in the paper, illustrated by Figure 13 for instance. However I will, in this response, try to draw out and respond to what the paper is saying about the nature of progression; what the progression consists of, over what temporal or spatial dimensions it progresses, and how it can productively frame curriculum processes.

  20. Piperine inhibits the activities of platelet cytosolic phospholipase A2 and thromboxane A2 synthase without affecting cyclooxygenase-1 activity: different mechanisms of action are involved in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong Ju; Akiba, Satoshi; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Hwang, Seock Yeon; Park, Young Hyun; Lee, Sung Eun

    2014-08-22

    Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms.

  1. Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ju Son

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum and long pepper (Piper longum, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2 synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms.

  2. Politicians, Patriots and Plotters: Unlikely Debates Occasioned by Maximilian Hell's Venus Transit Expedition of 1769

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontler, Laszlo

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the cultural and political contexts and reception of the most important by-product of Maximilian Hell's famous Venus transit expedition of 1768-69, the Demonstratio. Idioma Ungarorum et Lapponum idem esse (1770) by Hell's associate Janos Sajnovics. Now considered a landmark in Finno-Ugrian linguistics, the Demonstratio addressed an academic subject that was at that time almost destined to be caught up in an ideological battlefield defined by the shifting relationship between the Habsburg government, the Society of Jesus, and the Hungarian nobility. The "enlightened absolutist" policies of the former aimed at consolidating the Habsburg monarchy as an empire, at the expense of privileged groups, including religious orders as well as the noble estates. In the situation created by the 1773 suppression of the Jesuit order (a signal of declining patronage from the dynasty), the growing preoccupation on the part of ex-Jesuits like Hell and Sajnovics with "things Hungarian" could have been part of an attempt to re-situate themselves on the Central European map of learning. At the same time, the founding document of this interest, the Demonstratio, evoked violent protests from the other target of Habsburg policies, the Hungarian nobility, because its basic assumptions - the kinship of the Hungarian and the Sami (Lappian) language - potentially undermined the noble ideology of social exclusiveness, established on the alleged "Scythian" ancestry of Hungarians. By exploring the complex motives, intentions, reactions and responses of the chief agents in this story, it is possible to highlight the extra-scientific constraints and facilitators for the practice of knowledge in late eighteenth century Central Europe.

  3. Early Science Results from the Williams College Eclipse Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Dantowitz, Ron; Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton, Tim; Meadors, Erin N.; Perez, Cielo C.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross; Rosseau, Brendan; Daly, Declan M.; Ide, Charles A.; Davis, Allen B.; Lu, Muzhou; Sliski, David; Seiradakis, John; Voulgaris, Aris; Rusin, Vojtech; Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael; Seaton, Daniel B.; Steele, Amy; Lee, Duane M.; Freeman, Marcus J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe our first cut of data reduction on a wide variety of observations of the solar corona and of the effect of the penumbra and umbra on the terrestrial atmosphere, carried out from our eclipse site on the campus of Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. Our team of faculty, undergraduate students, graduate students, and other colleagues observed the eclipse, taking images and spectra with a variety of sensors and telescopes. Equipment included frame-transfer cameras observing at 3 Hz in 0.3 nm filters at the coronal green and red lines to measure the power spectrum of oscillations in coronal loops or elsewhere in the lower corona; 3 spectrographs; a variety of telescopes and telephotos for white-light imaging; a double Lyot system tuned at Fe XIV 530.3 nm (FWHM 0.4 nm) and Fe X 637.4 nm (FWHM 0.5 nm); and a weather station to record changes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We are comparing our observations with predictions based on the previous mapping of the photospheric magnetic field, and preparing wide-field complete coronal imaging incorporating NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI and NRL/NASA/LASCO for the corona outside our own images (which extend, given the completely clear skies we had, at least 4 solar radii), and NASA SDO/AIA and NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI for the solar disk. One of our early composites appeared as Astronomy Picture of the Day for September 27: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap170927.htmlOur expedition was supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation, with additional student support from the STP/AGS of NSF, the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Sigma Xi honorary scientific society, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation studentship and the Freeman Foote Expeditionary Fund at Williams College, other Williams College funds, and U. Pennsylvania funds.

  4. Studioantarctica: Embedding Art in a Geophysics Sea Ice Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Gabby; Stevens, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Here we report on a six year collaboration developing new modes of communication using the interconnections between art and science in the context of climate science. We use the polar regions as a context for the collaboration in part because it holds a special place in the imaginations of many people. Not only is it is a part of the planet likely to be never visited be the viewer but there is a growing understanding of the role the poles play in the planet's climate. Motivated by the potential for cross-disciplinary outcomes, an artist was embedded in a science expedition to the fast sea ice around Antarctica. Both the science and art focused on ice crystal formation. Most elements of the art process had three phases, pre, during and post - as with the science. The environment largely dominated the progress and evolution of ideas. The results were multi-material and multiscale and provide a way to entrain a wide range of audiences, while also making non-didactic connections around global climate - and producing art. This built on a continuum of approaches where we have evolved from consideration and debate about synergies in approach, through to cross-fertilisation of ideas, shared labour, trial remote controlling and finally shared field experimentation. Certainly this is ground-breaking in an academic sense, but beyond this, it is proving a powerful attractor in engaging primary school students. In a class room setting we describe our work and experiences, both separately and in combination, as well as our recent experiences seeking to bridge the disciplinary divide. We then ask the students to contribute to the process of creating science-inspired art. There are complementary perspectives on the evolving process, their associated communication strands and how this drives a suite of communication and education outcomes. The need to understand how these systems are changing as the human species modifies its planet is urgent. Science around the connection between

  5. Medical supplies for the expeditions of the heroic age of Antarctic exploration: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guly, H R

    2012-06-01

    During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration (1895-1922) there were at least 18 expeditions to the Antarctic lasting between 18 and 30 months. This is an introduction to a series of articles about the drugs taken and used in the Antarctic at this time. Most of the information relates to the expeditions of Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton and the main supplier of medical equipment was Burroughs Wellcome and Co. This article also describes the medical cases that were taken to the Antarctic.

  6. Expeditions to Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994; Tokt til Komsomolets i 1993 og 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets went down about 180 km southwest of the Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea on April 7, 1989. According to Russian information the submarine contains one nuclear reactor and two torpedoes with nuclear warheads. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has taken part in the Russian expeditions to the accident site since 1991. This is a report from the expeditions in 1993 and 1994. It includes sampling, analysis and results obtained by the Norwegian part. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. The Visible Empire: The Expert View and Images in the Scientific Expeditions of the Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BLEICHMAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the Spanish natural history expeditions to Latin America in the late 18th Century —particularly the Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva Granada, directed by José Celestino Mutis— as an approach to an analysis of the importance of visual culture in European natural history, especially in imperial contexts. It explains the connections between economic botany and taxonomic botany, and highlights the role of visual epistemology in bringing them together. It proposes that the scientific expeditions constituted visualization projects that, through the circulation of images and collections, transformed locally rooted natures into global natures in motion.

  8. 12 CFR 225.23 - Expedited action for certain nonbanking proposals by well-run bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exceed 35 percent of the consolidated risk-weighted assets of the acquiring bank holding company. For... proposals by well-run bank holding companies. 225.23 Section 225.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK...

  9. Joint action aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicary, Staci; Sperling, Matthias; von Zimmermann, Jorina; Richardson, Daniel C; Orgs, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running. The choreography was performed live to four audiences, as we continuously tracked the performers' movements, and the spectators' affective responses. We computed dynamic synchrony among performers using cross recurrence analysis of data from wrist accelerometers, and implicit measures of arousal from spectators' heart rates. Additionally, a subset of spectators provided continuous ratings of enjoyment and perceived synchrony using tablet computers. Granger causality analyses demonstrate predictive relationships between synchrony, enjoyment ratings and spectator arousal, if audiences form a collectively consistent positive or negative aesthetic evaluation. Controlling for the influence of overall movement acceleration and visual change, we show that dance communicates group coordination via coupled movement dynamics among a group of performers. Our findings are in line with an evolutionary function of dance-and perhaps all performing arts-in transmitting social signals between groups of people. Human movement is the common denominator of dance, music and theatre. Acknowledging the time-sensitive and immediate nature of the performer-spectator relationship, our study makes a significant step towards an aesthetics of joint actions in the performing arts.

  10. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  11. Action Research for Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contemporary society encounters profound economical, socio-ecological and political crises challenging the democratic foundation of our societies. This book addresses the potentials and challenges for Action Research supporting democratic alternatives. It offers a broad spectrum of examples from...... Scandinavian Action Research showing different openings towards democratic development. The book’s first part contributes with a wide range of examples such as Action Research in relation to the Triple Helix/Mode II contexts, to design as a democratic process, to renewal of welfare work and public institutions......, to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific...

  12. Shaking hands: priming by social action effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Rüdiger; Press, Clare; Badets, Arnaud; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-11-01

    In a semi-naturalistic response-effect compatibility paradigm, participants were given the opportunity to learn that hand-shaking actions would be followed by social effects (human hand-shaking stimuli from a third-person perspective) or inanimate effects (block arrow stimuli). Relative to the actions, these effects appeared on the same or the opposite side of the screen (positional compatibility), and pointed towards or away from the response hand (directional compatibility). After learning, response times indicated a positional compatibility effect for both social and inanimate effects, but a directional compatibility effect occurred only for social action effects. These findings indicate that actions can be represented, not only by their effects on the inanimate world, but also by their effects on the actions of others. They are consistent with ideomotor theory, and with the view that actions are represented by bidirectional response-effect associations. They also have implications with respect to the origins and on-line control of imitation and the systems supporting imitation.

  13. Neuroscience of decision making: from goal-directed actions to habits

    OpenAIRE

    Topalidou, Meropi

    2016-01-01

    Action-outcome and stimulus-response processes are two important components of behavior. The former evaluates the benefit of an action in order to choose the best action among those available (action selection) while the latter is responsible for automatic behavior, eliciting a response as soon as a known stimulus is present. Such habits are generally associated (and mostly opposed) to goal-directed actions that require a deliberative process to evaluate the best option to take in order to re...

  14. Dynamic modulation of the action observation network by movement familiarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, T.; Goulden, N.; Cross, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    When watching another person's actions, a network of sensorimotor brain regions, collectively termed the action observation network (AON), is engaged. Previous research suggests that the AON is more responsive when watching familiar compared with unfamiliar actions. However, most research into AON

  15. Silent film: The Carlsberg Foundation’s Oceanographic Expedition Round the World, 1928–30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Danish marine scientist, Johannes Schmidt was also a pioneer when it comes to popularizing deep-sea marine research through the use of mass media. When Schmidt headed the Carlsberg Foundation’s Oceanographical Expedition Round the World, 1928-1930, he brought along a film camera, documenting...

  16. Seaweeds of the Snellius-II Expedition. Chlorophyta: Caulerpales (except Caulerpa and Halimeda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppejans, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper a survey is given of species belonging to the genera Avrainvillea, Chlorodesmis, Rhipilia, Rhipiliopsis, Tydemania, and Udotea collected during the Indonesian-Dutch Snellius- II Expedition (1984) in the Banda, Sawu and Flores Seas. The morphology and anatomy of these seaweeds

  17. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) procured by the CANCAP I-VII expeditions, 1976-86

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1991-01-01

    The 327 specimens of chitons captured during six out of seven CANCAP Expeditions have been examined. They belong to 26 species, including two recently described ones: Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) substriatus Kaas & Van Belle, 1990 and Ischnochiton (Ischnochiton nicklesi Kaas & Van Belle, 1990.

  18. 42 CFR 405.1206 - Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Hospital Discharges § 405.1206 Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care. (a... discharge, or at any time for good cause. The QIO will issue a decision in accordance with paragraph (d)(6... hospital to demonstrate that discharge is the correct decision, either on the basis of medical necessity...

  19. 77 FR 10774 - Silicon Metal From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Silicon Metal From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on silicon metal from China...

  20. Species of Caulerpa (Chlorophyceae) collected on the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Wm. Randolph

    1967-01-01

    One of the major scientific efforts of the decade has been the International Indian Ocean Expedition of 1960—64, involving several institutions and ships and numerous scientists. With an oceanographic focus, not only physical and biological open sea oceanographic studies were carried on, but

  1. Expedition agroparks : research by design into sustainable development and agriculture in network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard

  2. 77 FR 33254 - Expediting Transition of Government Performed and Sponsored Aeronautics Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Expediting Transition of Government Performed and Sponsored Aeronautics Research and... improve future national aeronautics R&D plans and progress assessments, the Council seeks public comment on the utility of certain national aeronautics R&D planning documents for providing transparency of...

  3. 75 FR 8745 - Expedited Review Scheduling Notice; Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Expedited Review Scheduling Notice; Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From China AGENCY... concerning the antidumping duty order on hand trucks and certain parts thereof from China. SUMMARY: The... duty order on hand trucks and certain parts thereof from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  4. Results of the CERPOLEX/Mammuthus Expeditions on the Taimyr Peninsula, Arctic Siberia, Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, D.; Tikhonov, A.; van der Plicht, J.; Kahlke, R.D.; Debruyne, R.; van Geel, B.; van Reenen, G.B.A.; Pals, J.P.; de Marliave, C.; Reumer, J.W.F.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract During a series of expeditions organized by CERPOLEX/Mammuthus to the Taimyr region in northern Siberia several mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) carcasses were discovered and subsequently excavated and studied. The oldest specimen is the Arilakh Mammoth (ca. 55,800 BP). Much younger are the

  5. Results of the CERPOLEX/Mammuthus expeditions on the Taimyr peninsula, Arctic Siberia, Russian federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, D; Tikhonov, A; van der Plicht, J; Kahlke, RD; Debruyne, R; van Geel, B; van Reenen, G; Pals, JP; de Marliave, C; Reumer, JWF; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; Pals, Jan Peter; Reumer, Jelle W.F.

    During a series of expeditions organized by CERPOLEX/Mammuthus to the Taimyr region in northern Siberia several mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) carcasses were discovered and subsequently excavated and studied. The oldest specimen is the Arilakh Mammoth (ca. 55,800 BP). Much younger are the Jarkov

  6. 76 FR 30176 - Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... animal drug applications, in support of the review of animal drug products. As a result of these... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly Docket No. 2001D-0107) Expedited Review for New...

  7. Satellite Eye for the Galathea 3 ship expedition: Global tour 2006-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Sørensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Islands, New Zealand, Antarctica, Chile, Galapagos, the Caribbean, the Northeastern USA and finishing in Denmark 25 April 2007. During the entire expedition satellite images were ordered along the ship track, downloaded, processed, archived and used for education. The satellite images are displayed...

  8. Starvation Resulting From Inadequate Dietary Planning for a 50-Day Rowing Expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Hamish A B; Dennison, Nicholas C; Quayle, Jonathan; Preston, Tom

    2017-09-01

    Meeting the energy demands of prolonged arduous expeditions and endurance sport may be a significant barrier to success. Expedition rowing is associated with high levels of body-mass loss, reflecting the challenge of meeting energy expenditure in this exacting environment. To use the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique to calculate the total energy expenditure (TEE) and body-composition changes of two 28-y-old healthy male athletes during a 50-d continuous and unsupported row around Great Britain. A measured dose of DLW was taken at the start of 2 separate study periods (days 5-19 and 34-48) followed by sequential urine collection, which was analyzed on return to land. Mean TEE was 15.3 MJ/d: athlete 1, 16.4 MJ/d; athlete 2, 14.9 MJ/d. Athlete 1 lost 11.2 kg and athlete 2 lost 14.9 kg of body mass during the row. Average energy provision was 19.1 MJ per 24-h ration pack. These results highlight the difficulty of maintaining energy balance during expedition rowing. A starvation state was observed despite dietary provision in excess of estimated energy expenditure, indicating that nutritional strategy rather than caloric availability was at fault. The authors recommend that future expeditions prioritize thorough testing and the individualization of rations to ensure that they are both palatable and practical during the weeks to months at sea.

  9. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Favorites ACIP Recommendations Package Inserts Additional Immunization Resources Photos Adult Vaccination Screening Checklists Ask the ...

  10. Global action networks: agents for collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Global action networks (GANs) are civil society initiated multi-stakeholder arrangements that aim to fulfill a leadership role for systemic change in global governance for sustainable development. The paper develops a network approach to study some of these GANs as motivators of global collective

  11. Expression and actions of corticotropin-releasing factor/diuretic hormone-like peptide (CDLP) and teneurin C-terminal associated peptide (TCAP) in the vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis: Antagonism of the feeding response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquila, Andrea L; Hsieh, Alan Hwa-Ruey; Hsieh, Adam Hwa-Ming; De Almeida, Reuben; Lovejoy, Sabine R; Lovejoy, David A

    2017-05-15

    Teneurin C-terminal associated peptide (TCAP) is a neuropeptide that bears some structural similarity to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides. TCAP and CRF are both implicated in the regulation of stress-related behaviors, as established in rodent models. However, in vertebrates, both TCAP and CRF possess three additional paralogous forms making vertebrate models difficult to assess with respect to TCAP-CRF interaction. As a urochordate, this species possesses single homologs of TCAP and of a CRF/Diuretic-like peptide (CDLP) in the genome, thereby establishing Ciona intestinalis as an excellent model organism to examine the interaction of these peptide systems. However, the lack of C. intestinalis synthetic peptides and specific antisera has complicated experimentation. We, therefore, prepared synthetic versions of CDLP and TCAP to prepare specific antisera and to investigate their bioactivity in this species. To analyze stress-related behaviors, a novel behavioral assay was used to characterize different types of contraction-based behaviors, using buccal opening contractions, cloacal opening contractions, lateral contractions, longitudinal contractions and expulsions. Protein and mRNA expression data indicate that the mature versions of both peptides are present in a number of tissues. With respect to behavioral activity, both TCAP- and CDLP-treated animals had distinct contraction profiles under ambient conditions. Moreover, food stimulation tests revealed that whereas CDLP-treated animals displayed a strong expulsion behavior in response to feeding, TCAP-treated animals did not show this effect. These actions are consistent with previous studies done in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Commanders Responsibilities in the Operations Process During the 1864 Red River Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    thought feedback. I would like to thank the staff at the Combat Studies Institute and Combined Arms Research Library at Ft. Leavenworth for providing the...contemporary times, was nothing more than sand dunes and seaweed covered beaches and so provided no military or political advantage to the Union. Despite

  13. Commanders’ Responsibilities in the Operations Process During the 1864 Red River Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    thought feedback. I would like to thank the staff at the Combat Studies Institute and Combined Arms Research Library at Ft. Leavenworth for providing the...contemporary times, was nothing more than sand dunes and seaweed covered beaches and so provided no military or political advantage to the Union. Despite

  14. MITAS-2009 Expedition, U.S. Beaufort Shelf and Slope—Lithostratigraphy Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.; Johnson, J.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Smith, J.; Reed, A.; Disenhof, C.; Presley, J.

    2012-09-17

    The volume of methane released through the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere and its potential role in the global climate cycle have increasingly become the focus of studies seeking to understand the source and origin of this methane. In 2009, an international, multi-disciplinary science party aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea successfully completed a trans-U.S. Beaufort Shelf expedition aimed at understanding the sources and volumes of methane across this region. Following more than a year of preliminary cruise planning and a thorough site evaluation, the Methane in the Arctic Shelf/Slope (MITAS) expedition departed from the waters off the coast of Barrow, Alaska in September 2009. The expedition was organized with an international shipboard science team consisting of 33 scientists with the breadth of expertise necessary to meet the expedition goals. NETL researchers led the expedition’s initial core processing and lithostratigraphic evaluations, which are the focus of this report. This data report is focused on the lithostratigraphic datasets from the recovered vibra cores and piston cores. Operational information about the piston and vibra cores such as date acquired, core name, total length, water depth, and geographic location is provided. Once recovered, gas samples were immediately collected from cores. In addition, each core was run through the Geotek multi-sensor core logger for magnetic susceptibility, P-wave velocity, resistivity, and gamma-density measurements (Rose et al., 2010). After the samples and measurements were completed, the cores were split into working and archive halves. Visual core descriptions of the archive half was completed for each core. Samples for shipboard smear slides, coarse fractions, and XRD analyses were collected, as well as corresponding samples for post-cruise grain size analysis from the working half of each core. Line scan images of the split core surfaces were collected post-expedition. The methods used to

  15. Framing the Arctic: Reconsidering Roald Amundsen’s Gjøa Expedition Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Høvik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1906 Roald Amundsen’s Gjøa Expedition returned to Norway after three years in the Arctic. The first to complete a Northwest Passage by sea, the expedition also brought back a substantial amount of ethnographic material concerning the Netsilik Inuit, with whom Amundsen and his crew had been in sustained contact during their stay on King William Island in Nunavut between 1903 and 1905. This material included a large number of photographs, forty-two of which were included as illustrations in his expedition narrative, titled Nordvest-passagen and first released in Norwegian in 1907. Focusing on a selection of published and unpublished photographs from Amundsen’s voyage and their interrelationships, this article examines the degree to which the Gjøa Expedition’s use of photography formed part of a planned project that intersected with anthropological concerns and practices of its time. My purpose is further to demonstrate that there is a discernible change in the representation of indigeneity that occurs when particular photographs were selected and then contextually reframed as illustrations in Nordvest-passagen. On the one hand, the extensive body of photographs taken in the field elaborates the close interaction between crew and Inuit recorded in Amundsen’s personal diary and published narrative, testifying to the existence of an active and dynamic contact zone. In this regard, the original photographs could arguably be read as a dialogic portrayal of the unique individuals Amundsen’s crew met while in the Arctic. On the other hand, a peculiar distancing seems to have taken place as the Gjøa Expedition’s photographs were selected and reproduced as illustrations for Amundsen’s expedition narrative. Likely connected to a desire to match his expedition narrative to existing scientific visual and literary conventions, this shift suggests Amundsen’s attempts through textual and visual means to deny the Netsilik Inuit

  16. IODP Expedition 317: Exploring the Record of Sea-Level Change off New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Expedition 317 investigated the record of global sea-level change (eustasy within continental margin sedimentary sequences and how eustasy interacts with local forcing to produce preserved sedimentary architectures. The Canterbury Basin, on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand, was selected to study these complex interactions because of high rates of Neogene sediment supply fromthe uplifting Southern Alps. This sediment input results in a high-frequency (~0.1–0.5 My periods record of depositional cyclicity that is modulated by the presence of strong ocean currents. The expedition recovered sediments as old as Eocene but focused on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to Recent, when global sea-level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. A transect of three sites was drilled on the continental shelf (Sites U1353, U1354, and U1351, plus one on the continental slope (Site U1352. The transectsamples the shallow-water environment most directly affected by relative sea-level change. Lithologic boundaries, provisionally correlative with seismic sequence boundaries, have been identified in cores from each site. Continental slope Site U1352 provides a record of ocean circulation and fronts during the last ~35 My. The early Oligocene (~30 MaMarshall Paraconformity was the deepest target ofExpedition 317 and is hypothesized to represent intensified current erosion or non-deposition associated with the initiation of thermohaline circulation in the region. Expedition 317 involved operational challenges for JOIDES Resolution, including shallow-water, continental-shelf drilling and deep penetrations. Despitethese challenges, Expedition 317 set a number of records for scientific ocean drilling penetration and water-depth.

  17. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  18. Action Learning and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  19. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  20. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...

  1. Action and Interactiv research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart

    The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...

  2. Staying mindful in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    this tendency by sharing a study looking into what hinders and promotes mindful awareness on the process, while dealing with a business challenge in an Action Lab®. Drawing on the findings, the account of practice will share some recommendations for the Action Learning facilitator to take up the challenge...

  3. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...

  4. Teaching for Action Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Hedefalk; Jonas Almqvist; Malena Lidar

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explore preschool children’s possibilities to learn to act for sustainable development. The purpose is to describe and analyze which actions are privileged when children participate in preschool activities. Analyses of video recordings of everyday preschool activities show how children experience activities where they critically discuss and make value judgments about actions. The results...

  5. Visions, Actions and Partnerships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    Evaluation Association (AFREA). Comments on this document can be sent to ccaa@idrc.ca. Introduction. “Visions, actions, partnerships” (VAP) is presented as a participatory tool that can be used ... The tool embraces the philosophy of the Visions actions requests approach (Beaulieu et al,. 2002) based on the formulation of ...

  6. Freedom in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, N. van

    2015-01-01

    Free will is the capacity to select and execute one really possible action alternative. In recent years this simple libertarian picture of our capacity to freely act has drawn much criticism. Many neuroscientists claim that we do not have a capacity to select alternative courses of action since our

  7. Online Action Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Geest, R.; Gavves, E.; Ghodrati, A.; Li, Z.; Snoek, C.; Tuytelaars, T.; Leibe, B.; Matas, J.; Sebe, N.; Welling, M.

    2016-01-01

    In online action detection, the goal is to detect the start of an action in a video stream as soon as it happens. For instance, if a child is chasing a ball, an autonomous car should recognize what is going on and respond immediately. This is a very challenging problem for four reasons. First, only

  8. Critical Utopian Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated.......The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated....

  9. Social Action Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  10. Creativity as action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lubart, Todd; Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The present paper outlines an action theory of creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating creative expression in five different domains. We propose an action framework for the analysis of creative acts built on the assumption that creativity is a relational, inter......-subjective phenomenon. This framework, drawing extensively from the work of Dewey (1934) on art as experience, is used to derive a coding frame for the analysis of interview material. The article reports findings from the analysis of 60 interviews with recognized French creators in five creative domains: art, design......, science, scriptwriting, and music. Results point to complex models of action and inter-action specific for each domain and also to interesting patterns of similarity and differences between domains. These findings highlight the fact that creative action takes place not “inside” individual creators but “in...

  11. [The journey of the vaccine against smallpox: one expedition, two oceans, three continents, and thousands of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuells, José; Duro-Torrijos, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Spain encouraged, during the Bourbon dynasty, the formation of scientific expeditions, among which was the Royal Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition, an example of biopolitics applied by the state in order to protect health. The expedition went all over the world, using children as a reservoir to transport the vaccine fluid. Francisco Xavier Balmis established a human chain that arm-to-arm materialized the success of the mission. The characteristics and difficulties which children had to pass through and their contribution to the spread of the smallpox vaccine are analyzed.

  12. Action recognition is sensitive to the identity of the actor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Ylva; Bülthoff, Heinrich; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing who is carrying out an action is essential for successful human interaction. The cognitive mechanisms underlying this ability are little understood and have been subject of discussions in embodied approaches to action recognition. Here we examine one solution, that visual action recognition processes are at least partly sensitive to the actor's identity. We investigated the dependency between identity information and action related processes by testing the sensitivity of neural action recognition processes to clothing and facial identity information with a behavioral adaptation paradigm. Our results show that action adaptation effects are in fact modulated by both clothing information and the actor's facial identity. The finding demonstrates that neural processes underlying action recognition are sensitive to identity information (including facial identity) and thereby not exclusively tuned to actions. We suggest that such response properties are useful to help humans in knowing who carried out an action. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Joint action aesthetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci Vicary

    Full Text Available Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running. The choreography was performed live to four audiences, as we continuously tracked the performers' movements, and the spectators' affective responses. We computed dynamic synchrony among performers using cross recurrence analysis of data from wrist accelerometers, and implicit measures of arousal from spectators' heart rates. Additionally, a subset of spectators provided continuous ratings of enjoyment and perceived synchrony using tablet computers. Granger causality analyses demonstrate predictive relationships between synchrony, enjoyment ratings and spectator arousal, if audiences form a collectively consistent positive or negative aesthetic evaluation. Controlling for the influence of overall movement acceleration and visual change, we show that dance communicates group coordination via coupled movement dynamics among a group of performers. Our findings are in line with an evolutionary function of dance-and perhaps all performing arts-in transmitting social signals between groups of people. Human movement is the common denominator of dance, music and theatre. Acknowledging the time-sensitive and immediate nature of the performer-spectator relationship, our study makes a significant step towards an aesthetics of joint actions in the performing arts.

  14. A neural network model of causative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to "do" anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the "causative actions" circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in "functional" actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013).

  15. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Action Observation in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Moiseev, Alexander; Cheung, Teresa; Weeks, Daniel J.; Cheyne, Douglas; Ribary, Urs

    2010-01-01

    Results of a magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging study conducted to examine the cortical responses during action execution and action observation in 10 healthy adults and 8 age-matched adults with Down syndrome are reported. During execution, the motor responses were strongly lateralized on the ipsilateral rather than the contralateral side…

  16. Decision Making in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relations between leadership, communication, decision making and overall crew performance. Implications of these findings for spaceflight and training for offshore installations will be discussed.

  17. Collective Responsibility for Oppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, Titus

    2017-01-01

    Many contemporary forms of oppression are not primarily the result of formally organized collective action nor are they an unintended outcome of a combination of individual actions. This raises the question of collective responsibility. I argue that we can only determine who is responsible for

  18. Spacelike brane actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Ho, Pei-Ming; Wang, John E

    2003-04-11

    We derive effective actions for "spacelike branes" (S-branes) and find a solution describing the formation of fundamental strings in the rolling tachyon background. The S-brane action is a Dirac-Born-Infeld action for Euclidean world volumes defined in the context of time-dependent tachyon condensation of non-BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) branes. It includes gauge fields and, in particular, a scalar field associated with translation along the time direction. We show that the BIon spike solutions constructed in this system correspond to the production of a confined electric flux tube (a fundamental string) at late time of the rolling tachyon.

  19. 13 CFR 102.4 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section, or to arrange an alternative time period for processing the request or a modified request. (c... be in imminent danger if SBA does not expedite its response to your request; or (ii) You are a news media representative (as defined in § 102.6(b)(8)) who demonstrates an urgent need to inform the public...

  20. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...