Full Text Available Abstract Background The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. Results The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. Conclusion The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and
Amin, Waqas; Kang, Hyunseok P; Egloff, Ann Marie; Singh, Harpreet; Trent, Kerry; Ridge-Hetrick, Jennifer; Seethala, Raja R; Grandis, Jennifer; Parwani, Anil V
The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs) that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs) that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP) Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR) standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure.The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and scientific review committee.
Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim
Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...
Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian
Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...
Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian
Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...
Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra
Translational research is the science of application of basic research knowledge to develop novel methods of improving public health outcome. This review briefly discusses the various phases involved and the hurdles faced in the translational pathway, how translational science originated, and the infrastructures consigned for translational research. Translational research also faces numerous diverse ethical issues similar to those observed in biomedical research. The various types of ethical issues faced whereas conducting translational research are discussed briefly in this review to help researchers identify and prevent unethical practices while conducting or regulating translational research.
Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy
Feeney, Mary K.; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W.
There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators. PMID:24064431
Translational Research (TR) appears to be developing into the key health research issue of the beginning of this century. Initially proposed in the United States, TR is spread rapidly throughout both the developed and the developing world. This article discusses the main topics it covers, such as its definition and scope and the reasons why it has emerged in the USA and in this century. It examines the relationship between TR and the basic principles of US scientific policy established at the end of World War II. It sees the demands of a mighty pharmaceutical industry, currently facing a major crisis, linked to scientific genomic and post-genomic output impairments in terms of real innovative products and processes as being the explanation for US government intervention in biomedical research via the NIH. It realizes that it is not easy to predict the future of TR and suggests that it is not sustained by a solid conceptual and theoretical framework. It also discusses the opportunities and possibilities of TR in countries with nascent national innovative systems, such as Brazil. Lastly, it suggests that the existence of a universal health system can be an important tool to provide potential research answers tin health for the demands of innovation on the part of society.
Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen
It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....
Full Text Available Structured as a companion piece to "Translation as Research: A Manifesto", this essay argues that there are compelling reasons for translation to be one of the ways in which academics, notably in Modern Languages, spend their "research time". It speculates on the nature of possible misgivings or hesitations on this point; these seem to include the fear that embracing translation may undermine the discipline's commitment to reading in the original, and apprehension at the difficulty of assessing translations as research, especially where aesthetic criteria are involved. Rather than being drawn into debates over the definition of "research", however, the essay argues, we should start by committing to the broad intellectual and cultural value of translations, and recognize that, in the UK context, the REF already provides a framework in which translation can be embraced as a research practice, as a form of scholarship and/or creative writing.
Wendler, M Cecilia; Kirkbride, Geri; Wade, Kristen; Ferrell, Lynne
BACKGROUND/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Little is known about which approaches facilitate adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practice change in the highly complex care environments that constitute clinical practice today. The purpose of this article was to complete a concept analysis of translational research using a modified Walker and Avant approach. DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION: Using a rigorous and thorough review of the recent health care literature generated by a deep electronic search from 2004-2011, 85 appropriate documents were retrieved. Close reading of the articles by three coresearchers yielded an analysis of the emerging concept of translational research. Using the iterative process described by Walker and Avant, a tentative definition of the concept of translational research, along with antecedents and consequences were identified. Implications for health care professionals in education, practice, and research are offered. Further research is needed to determine the adequacy of the definition, to identify empirical referents, and to guide theory development. The study resulted in a theoretical definition of the concept of translational research, along with identification of antecedents and consequences and a description of an ideal or model case to illustrate the definition. Implications for practice and education include the importance of focusing on translational research approaches that may reduce the research-practice gap in health care, thereby improving patient care delivery. Research is needed to determine the usefulness of the definition in health care clinical practice.
Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth
Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605
Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette
Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.
Maienschein, Jane; Sunderland, Mary; Ankeny, Rachel A; Robert, Jason Scott
Calls for the "translation" of research from bench to bedside are increasingly demanding. What is translation, and why does it matter? We sketch the recent history of outcome-oriented translational research in the United States, with a particular focus on the Roadmap Initiative of the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD). Our main example of contemporary translational research is stem cell research, which has superseded genomics as the translational object of choice. We explore the nature of and obstacles to translational research and assess the ethical and biomedical challenges of embracing a translational ethos.
Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.
Sofaer, Neema; Eyal, Nir
Commentators on the ethics of translational research find it morally problematic. Types of translational research are said to involve questionable benefits, special risks, additional barriers to informed consent, and severe conflicts of interest. Translational research conducted on the global poor is thought to exploit them and increase international disparities. Some commentators support especially stringent ethical review. However, such concerns are grounded only in pre-approval translational research (now called T1). Whether or not T1 has these features, translational research beyond approval (T2: phase IV, health services, and implementation research) is unlikely to and, when conducted on the global poor, may support development. Therefore, insofar as T1 is morally problematic, and no independent objections to T2 exist, the ethics of translational research is diverse: while some translational research is problematic, some is not. Funding and oversight should reflect this diversity, and T2 should be encouraged, particularly when conducted among the global poor.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: FungiProgram: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational ResearchDescription:Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom that...
Beek, van I.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.
The Saba Bank is a large submerged carbonate platform of approximately 2,200 km2 in the Caribbean Sea which lies partially within the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Netherlands and partially within the territorial waters of Saba and St. Eustatius. The Saba Bank research program aims to obtain
McGaghie, William C
Research on medical education is translational science when rigorous studies on trainee clinical skill and knowledge acquisition address key health care problems and measure outcomes in controlled laboratory settings (T1 translational research); when these outcomes transfer to clinics, wards, and offices where better health care is delivered (T2); and when patient or public health improves as a result of educational practices (T3). This Commentary covers features of medical education interventions and environments that contribute to translational outcomes, reviews selected research studies that advance translational science in medical education at all three levels, and presents pathways to improve medical education translational science.
Curtis, Kate; Fry, Margaret; Shaban, Ramon Z; Considine, Julie
To describe the importance of, and methods for, successfully conducting and translating research into clinical practice. There is universal acknowledgement that the clinical care provided to individuals should be informed on the best available evidence. Knowledge and evidence derived from robust scholarly methods should drive our clinical practice, decisions and change to improve the way we deliver care. Translating research evidence to clinical practice is essential to safe, transparent, effective and efficient healthcare provision and meeting the expectations of patients, families and society. Despite its importance, translating research into clinical practice is challenging. There are more nurses in the frontline of health care than any other healthcare profession. As such, nurse-led research is increasingly recognised as a critical pathway to practical and effective ways of improving patient outcomes. However, there are well-established barriers to the conduct and translation of research evidence into practice. This clinical practice discussion paper interprets the knowledge translation literature for clinicians interested in translating research into practice. This paper is informed by the scientific literature around knowledge translation, implementation science and clinician behaviour change, and presented from the nurse clinician perspective. We provide practical, evidence-informed suggestions to overcome the barriers and facilitate enablers of knowledge translation. Examples of nurse-led research incorporating the principles of knowledge translation in their study design that have resulted in improvements in patient outcomes are presented in conjunction with supporting evidence. Translation should be considered in research design, including the end users and an evaluation of the research implementation. The success of research implementation in health care is dependent on clinician/consumer behaviour change and it is critical that implementation strategy
Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J
The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment. We therefore outline a translational framework for public health research. Our framework redefines the objective of translation from that of institutionalising effective interventions to that of improving population health by influencing both individual and collective determinants of health. It incorporates epidemiological perspectives with those of the social sciences, recognising that many types of research may contribute to the shaping of policy, practice and future research. It also identifies a pivotal role for evidence synthesis and the importance of non-linear and intersectoral interfaces with the public realm. We propose a research agenda to advance the field and argue that resources for 'applied' or 'translational' public health research should be deployed across the framework, not reserved for 'dissemination' or 'implementation'.
Trochim, William; Kane, Cathleen; Graham, Mark J.; Pincus, Harold A.
Abstract Objective: We examine the concept of translational research from the perspective of evaluators charged with assessing translational efforts. One of the major tasks for evaluators involved in translational research is to help assess efforts that aim to reduce the time it takes to move research to practice and health impacts. Another is to assess efforts that are intended to increase the rate and volume of translation. Methods: We offer an alternative to the dominant contemporary tendency to define translational research in terms of a series of discrete “phases.”Results: We contend that this phased approach has been confusing and that it is insufficient as a basis for evaluation. Instead, we argue for the identification of key operational and measurable markers along a generalized process pathway from research to practice. Conclusions: This model provides a foundation for the evaluation of interventions designed to improve translational research and the integration of these findings into a field of translational studies. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 153–162 PMID:21707944
Skotnicki, S.; Loranty, M. M.
Are you a researcher working in the polar regions of the world or a K-12 science teacher who would like to be part of a field research expedition in the polar regions? Researchers and K-12 science teachers can apply for funding from PolarTREC, a program that pairs researchers and teachers to conduct field science in Antarctica and the Arctic. Our poster presentation will offer details of one such successful researcher/teacher partnership. During the summer of 2016, Science Teacher Stan Skotnicki (Cheektowaga Central Middle School in Buffalo, NY) was teamed up with Assistant Professor Mike Loranty (Colgate University) to study vegetation and ecosystem impacts on permafrost vulnerability. Stan joined Mike and his research team in Northeastern Siberia preparing field sites, collecting data, processing samples, discussing methods, and planning daily activities. In order to raise awareness and broaden the impact of the research being conducted, Stan communicated the science through a series of journals on the PolarTREC website with his students, staff, and members of the community. Additionally, Mike and Stan held a live webinar from Siberia discussing the content of the research, the nature of the fieldwork, and why it was important to travel so far for this information. This expedition allowed Stan to experience working with a field research team for an extended period of time. Mike benefited from having a team member dedicated to learning about and communicating project details that also provided valuable field assistance. Stan gets to bring his hands-on experience back to his classroom in Buffalo and Mike has the opportunity to share his research with a new and different audience, including presenting to students at Cheektowaga Central with the help of his undergraduate students. This model of collaboration provides a number of valuable benefits for both teachers and researchers. While the PolarTREC program provides necessary logistics and funding to conduct these
Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J
The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment...
De Paoli Paolo
Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization
De Paoli, Paolo
The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment
and interstitial fibrosis, as well as abnormal echocardiography results. By 15 weeks of age, the double homozygotes develop dilated cardiomyopathy . The...website also links to a An article in the JAX Search Magazine that features Dr. Greg Cox and his research on MD and Brian Denger’s two children
The United States Congress will decide the future of the Small Business Innovation Research program in the coming months. Essential changes needed in the program and its unique role in translational research are discussed.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Non-dive activities reported to the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research for the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006....
... categories of research that may be reviewed by the IRB through an expedited review procedure. The list will... uses an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...
... Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor... an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...
Berman, Ari E; Barnett, William K; Mooney, Sean D
Biomedical research has entered a period of renewed vigor with the introduction and rapid development of genomic technologies and next-generation sequencing methods. This research paradigm produces extremely large datasets that are both difficult to store and challenging to mine for relevant data. Additionally, the thorough exploration of such datasets requires more resources, personnel, and multidisciplinary expertise to properly analyze and interpret the data. As a result, modern biomedical research practices are increasingly designed to include multi-laboratory collaborations that effectively distribute the scientific workload and expand the pool of expertise within a project. The scope of biomedical research is further complicated by increased efforts in translational research, which mandates the translation of basic laboratory research results into the human medical application space, adding to the complexity of potential collaborations. This increase in multidisciplinary, multi-laboratory, and biomedical translational research identifies a specific need for formalized collaboration practices and software applications that support such efforts. Here, we describe formal technological requirements for such efforts and we review several software solutions that can effectively improve the organization, communication, and formalization of collaborations in biomedical research today.
Grifenhagen, Jill F.; Barnes, Erica M.; Collins, Molly F.; Dickinson, David K.
Decades of research have identified features of classrooms and teachers' talk that are associated with children's language growth. Unfortunately, much of this work has not yet translated to widespread practice in early childhood classrooms. Given the important contributions that early language development makes to later academic achievement,…
Rubin, Bruce K
As readers of this journal know, translational research is the application of basic science findings to improve clinical care; a process that was once called "bench-to-bedside" research. In my field of pediatric pulmonary disease, the rapid advancement of basic science understanding into improved clinical care has been, to use an appropriate term, breathtaking. In this perspective article, I will describe a few of these advances, as they relate to specific pulmonary diseases.
Mata, Holly J; Davis, Sharon
The phrase "from bench to bedside to curbside" is a common definition of translational research among health disparities researchers. Health Education Specialists can make important contributions to the field of clinical translational medicine, particularly in light of U.S. health care reform and a renewed emphasis on medical home or health care home models.Health Education Specialists have the training and experience to engage in and facilitate translational research, as well as the opportunity to learn from the translational efforts of other professions and enhance our research, practice, and community partnerships through translational efforts. In this paper, a Translational Health Education Research framework for health education researchers is suggested to foster increased translational efforts within our profession as well as to promote interdisciplinary collaborations to translate a variety of health-related research. A conceptual framework adapted from translational health disparities research that highlights the level and scope of translational research necessary for changes in practice and policy is also provided.
Mizrahi , MD – PI D. Frost, MD D. Friedman, MD R. Hrachovy, M.D J. Slater, MD Project Summary Introduction: This report outlines the participation...of Eli M. Mizrahi , M.D. and his colleagues in the Mission Connect Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) Translational Research Consortium during the...time period of August 1, 2009 through July 31, 2010. Dr. Mizrahi is the principal investigator (P.I.) for the Neurophysiology Core which supports the
Chen, Hsiao-Yu; Boore, Jennifer Rp
To examine the effects of the procedure of translation and the techniques used on the collection and interpretation of original language qualitative data for English presentation. Nursing and health research increasingly use qualitative research for a broadened perspective on practice and research. In numerous qualitative nursing research papers, data are collected in the original language (example Chinese) and the findings are presented in English. No standardised procedures exist for evaluating the influences of translation on the trustworthiness of qualitative data in nursing research. Translation and back-translation related literature review was conducted. This is a methodological review paper. Discussion. This paper discusses the factors influencing the quality of translation including translator, back-translation, culture and language. Additionally, the translation procedures reported in the literature and the author's experiences are considered. The translation procedures described in qualitative nursing research can be summarised as: 1 Verbatim transcription of the content in original language, and then analysis of content; 2 Two bilingual translators are necessary to translate the emerged concepts and categories; 3 Back translate is employed; 4 An expert panel committee is involved in reaching final agreement on the translation. Development of the translation procedures could provide qualitative nursing researchers with a guide when collecting data in one language and presenting results in another language. In this way, the necessary rigour in qualitative nursing research could be achieved.
Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin
The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.
Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, Jose G.; Baker, Richard S.; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C.; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.
Translational research has tremendous potential as a tool to reduce health disparities in the United States, but a lack of common understanding about the scope of this dynamic, multidisciplinary approach to research has limited its use. The term “translational research” is often associated with the phrase “bench to bedside,” but the expedited movement of biomedical advances from the laboratory to clinical trials is only the first phase of the translational process. The second phase of translation, wherein innovations are moved from the bedside to real-world practice, is equally important, but it receives far less attention. Due in part to this imbalance, tremendous amounts of money and effort are spent expanding the boundaries of understanding and investigating the molecular underpinnings of disease and illness, while far fewer resources are devoted to improving the mechanisms by which those advances will be used to actually improve health outcomes. To foster awareness of the complete translational process and understanding of its value, we have developed two complementary models that provide a unifying conceptual framework for translational research. Specifically, these models integrate many elements of the National Institutes of Health roadmap for the future of medical research and provide a salient conceptualization of how a wide range of research endeavors from different disciplines can be used harmoniously to make progress toward achieving two overarching goals of Healthy People 2010—increasing the quality and years of healthy life and eliminating health disparities. PMID:18646340
Symposium Title: Social Determinants of Health, Environmental Exposures, and Disproportionately Impacted Communities: What We Know and How We Tell Others Topic 3: Community Engagement and Research Translation Title: Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communicati...
Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka; Yamashita, Cory; Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Fraser, Douglas D
The role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the care of children with airway and pulmonary diseases is well established, with collected BAL fluid most often used clinically for microbiologic pathogen identification and cellular analyses. More recently, powerful analytic research methods have been used to investigate BAL samples to better understand the pathophysiological basis of pediatric respiratory disease. Investigations have focused on the cellular components contained in BAL fluid, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, as well as the noncellular components such as serum molecules, inflammatory proteins, and surfactant. Molecular techniques are frequently used to investigate BAL fluid for the presence of infectious pathologies and for cellular gene expression. Recent advances in proteomics allow identification of multiple protein expression patterns linked to specific respiratory diseases, whereas newer analytic techniques allow for investigations on surfactant quantification and function. These translational research studies on BAL fluid have aided our understanding of pulmonary inflammation and the injury/repair responses in children. We review the ethics and practices for the execution of BAL in children for translational research purposes, with an emphasis on the optimal handling and processing of BAL samples. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Saken, Jon M.
Gale force winds, ravenous Tsetse flies and duct-tape equipment repairs. Now that's science! This talk will describe the triumphs and disasters over almost a decade of world-wide astronomical expeditions involving community college students, faculty and K-12 teachers chasing one of nature's most spectacular shows a total solar eclipse. The impact of this kind of field science on the participants and the wider community, along with other lessons learned along the way, will also be discussed, as we present ideas to encourage others to join in the fun.
... SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.110 Expedited review procedures... list of categories of research that may be reviewed by the IRB through an expedited review procedure... reviewers may not disapprove the research. A research activity may be disapproved only after review in...
Vukotich, Charles J., Jr.
Translational research is a new and important way of thinking about research. It is a major priority of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States. NIH has created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards to promote this priority. NIH has defined T1 and T2 phases of translational research in the medical field, in order to…
Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD are defined as a series of diseases caused by atherosclerosis (AS, including coronary heart disease (CHD, myocardial infarction (MI, stable or unstable angina pectoris, revascularization of coronary artery or other arteries, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic onset or atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. AS has common pathological basis with ASCVD as it is a general arterial regressive disease of human beings. With the industrialization progression, AS morbidity increases annually and it also leads to coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral stroke and peripheral artery stenosed occlusion or dilation, thus becoming the main cause for high disability and mortality. The main purpose of translational medicine is to break the intrinsic barrier between basic medicine with drug research and development as well as clinical and public healthcare, and establish a direct connection between them. It is also can rapidly transform basic research results to new clinical preventive and therapeutic methods. This study mainly reviewed AS from the aspect of translational medicine, aiming to provide a reliable basis for the prevention and treatment of AS.
Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi
A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of practitioners and installed base
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.
... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research...
... EPA § 26.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26...
...) § 97.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 97.110 Section 97...
This article considers the implications of current developments in research methodology in translation studies for translation studies in Africa. It makes use of Tymoczko's (2006, 2007) arguments in favour of the internationalisation of translation studies as well as her notions on the underlying logic of research and definition ...
Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.
Tashiro, Ty; Mortensen, Laura
In an effort to generate innovative treatments, the National Institute of Mental Health has made translational research for alleviating mental illness a major funding priority. Although translational research is a powerful approach for moving basic science findings into novel treatments, it remains ambiguous and rarely implemented in psychology. The current article describes conceptual and methodological issues involved with translational research, including considerations about time frame, scope of hypothesis tested, dose of treatment, contraindication, and sampling. Translational concepts and methods are illustrated with areas of social psychology that are promising for translation into solutions for pressing questions in psychotherapy research. Copyright 2006 APA.
Marshall M Scott
Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG, set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need
... review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor... an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...
... AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in...
Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete
Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. © The Author(s) 2014.
Colina, Sonia; Marrone, Nicole; Ingram, Maia; Sánchez, Daisey
As international research studies become more commonplace, the importance of developing multilingual research instruments continues to increase and with it that of translated materials. It is therefore not unexpected that assessing the quality of translated materials (e.g., research instruments, questionnaires, etc.) has become essential to cross-cultural research, given that the reliability and validity of the research findings crucially depend on the translated instruments. In some fields (e.g., public health and medicine), the quality of translated instruments can also impact the effectiveness and success of interventions and public campaigns. Back-translation (BT) is a commonly used quality assessment tool in cross-cultural research. This quality assurance technique consists of (a) translation (target text [TT 1 ]) of the source text (ST), (b) translation (TT 2 ) of TT 1 back into the source language, and (c) comparison of TT 2 with ST to make sure there are no discrepancies. The accuracy of the BT with respect to the source is supposed to reflect equivalence/accuracy of the TT. This article shows how the use of BT as a translation quality assessment method can have a detrimental effect on a research study and proposes alternatives to BT. One alternative is illustrated on the basis of the translation and quality assessment methods used in a research study on hearing loss carried out in a border community in the southwest of the United States.
... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Expediting Transition of Government Performed and Sponsored Aeronautics Research and... improve future national aeronautics R&D plans and progress assessments, the Council seeks public comment on the utility of certain national aeronautics R&D planning documents for providing transparency of...
This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges. PMID:22500917
In accordance with professional standards, translates a variety of often complex, urgent, and important texts intended either for external and international audiences, or for Centre staff for internal communications purposes, ensuring the high linguistic and terminological quality of texts. Revises texts translated by independent ...
Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…
Kavanagh, L.; Martinez, A. O.; Burgio, M.; Zhang, J.; Expedition 360 Scientists, I.
During Expedition 360 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), the JOIDES Resolution drilled 789 meters of lower crustal gabbro in the Southwest Indian Ocean. This hole began a multi-expedition project with the goal of one day drilling across the crust-mantle boundary for the first time. This simplified narrative of the research objectives struck a chord with media and the project received worldwide coverage in the form of over 50 stories with a total audience in the millions. This expedition is presented as a case study in science communication. A four-member education and outreach team onboard the ship acted as the point of contact for interested reporters. Major outlets that ran stories include the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, British Broadcasting Corporation, Boston Globe, Daily Express, Fox News, Nature, Smithsonian, and Chinese based Xinhua News Agency who sailed a reporter on the ship for the duration of the expedition. The majority of stories published provided accurate and favourable coverage of the project; however, a few contained critical errors and cast the expedition in a less positive light. Public reaction varied greatly depending on the article. Positive themes include interest in the scientific outcomes and encouragement of human exploration. Negative themes include the project being an inefficient use of money and a perceived risk of the drilling triggering an earthquake or volcano. Through a review of published articles and online comments, the successes and challenges faced by Expedition 360 are identified. Despite minimal preparation for media relations, the team successfully maintained a public profile while working in one of the most remote locations on Earth. Interviews were facilitated and videos, articles, and podcasts were produced onboard the ship. A simple, catchy narrative resulted in a large volume of coverage; however, this simplicity also formed the root of a number of misconceptions and issues of public concern.
Pfund, Christine; House, Stephanie; Spencer, Kimberly; Asquith, Pamela; Carney, Paula; Masters, Kristyn S; McGee, Richard; Shanedling, Janet; Vecchiarelli, Stephanie; Fleming, Michael
To design and evaluate a research mentor training curriculum for clinical and translational researchers. The resulting 8-hour curriculum was implemented as part of a national mentor training trial. The mentor training curriculum was implemented with 144 mentors at 16 academic institutions. Facilitators of the curriculum participated in a train-the-trainer workshop to ensure uniform delivery. The data used for this report were collected from participants during the training sessions through reflective writing, and following the last training session via confidential survey with a 94% response rate. A total of 88% of respondents reported high levels of satisfaction with the training experience, and 90% noted they would recommend the training to a colleague. Participants also reported significant learning gains across six mentoring competencies as well as specific impacts of the training on their mentoring practice. The data suggest the described research mentor training curriculum is an effective means of engaging research mentors to reflect upon and improve their research mentoring practices. The training resulted in high satisfaction, self-reported skill gains as well as behavioral changes of clinical and translational research mentors. Given success across 16 diverse sites, this training may serve as a national model. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Howard, Matt; Bakker-Dyos, J; Gallagher, L; O'Hara, J P; Woods, D; Mellor, A
The British Service Dhaulagiri Research Expedition (BSDMRE) took place from 27 March to 31 May 2016. The expedition involved 129 personnel, with voluntary participation in nine different study protocols. Studies were conducted in three research camps established at 3600, 4600 and 5140 m and involved taking and storing blood samples, cardiac echocardiography and investigations involving a balance plate. Research in this remote environment requires careful planning in order to provide a robust and resilient power plan. In this paper we aim to report the rationale for the choices we made in terms of power supply, the equipment used and potential military applicability. This is a descriptive account from the expedition members involved in planning and conducting the medical research. Power calculations were used to determine estimates of requirement prior to the expedition. The primary sources used to generate power were internal combustion engine (via petrol fuelled electric generators) and solar panels. Having been generated, power was stored using lithium-ion batteries. Special consideration was given to the storage of samples taken in the field, for which electric freezers and dry shippers were used. All equipment used functioned well during the expedition, with the challenges of altitude, temperature and transport all overcome due to extensive prior planning. Power was successfully generated, stored and delivered during the BSDMRE, allowing extensive medical research to be undertaken. The challenges faced and overcome are directly applicable to delivering military medical care in austere environments, and lessons learnt can help with the planning and delivery of future operations, training exercises or expeditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Budge, Eleanor Jane; Tsoti, Sandra Maria; Howgate, Daniel James; Sivakumar, Shivan; Jalali, Morteza
Translational medicine bridges the gap between discoveries in biomedical science and their safe and effective clinical application. Despite the gross opportunity afforded by modern research for unparalleled advances in this field, the process of translation remains protracted. Efforts to expedite science translation have included the facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration within both academic and clinical environments in order to generate integrated working platforms fuelling the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and tools to align biomedical research with clinical need. However, barriers to scientific translation remain, and further progress is urgently required. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing applications offer the potential for global online networks, allowing connection and collaboration between a wide variety of fields. This would drive the alignment of biomedical science with biotechnology, clinical need, and patient experience, in order to deliver evidence-based innovation which can revolutionize medical care worldwide. Here we discuss the critical steps towards implementing collective intelligence in translational medicine using the experience of those in other fields of science and public health.
Mata, Holly J.; Davis, Sharon
The phrase ?from bench to bedside to curbside? is a common definition of translational research among health disparities researchers. Health Education Specialists can make important contributions to the field of clinical translational medicine, particularly in light of U.S. health care reform and a renewed emphasis on medical home or health care home models. Health Education Specialists have the training and experience to engage in and facilitate translational research, as well as the opportu...
Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack
Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research.Method:Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights f...
Pollack, Lori A; Hawkins, Nikki A; Peaker, Brandy L.; Buchanan, Natasha; Risendal, Betsy C.
As the field of survivorship research grows, the need for translation is imperative to expand new knowledge into arenas that directly impact survivors. This commentary seeks to encourage research focused on dissemination and translation of survivorship interventions and programs, including practice-based research. We overview diffusion, dissemination and translation in the context of cancer survivorship and present the RE-AIM and Knowledge to Action frameworks as approaches that can be used t...
Svetlana Shklarov, MD, RSW, PhD Candidate
Full Text Available Grounded theory research in cross-language, cross-cultural context is associated with the challenges of linguistic sensitivity of conceptualization. The author, a bilingual researcher, offers reflection on her experience of doing grounded theory research, assuming a dual role of a theorist and a translator. The reflection is based on self-observations. Grounding the translation is shown to be acheived through the strategy of intertwining the activities of translation and conceptual analysis, performed by one person. The two activities are inseparable in time and take place along with constant comparison across language boundaries. Intertwining requires that theoretical sensitivity of the researcher be enriched with the sensitivity to linguistic and cultural meanings. Intertwining, through revealing differences between linguistic meanings or language structures, facilitates the emergence of concepts and theoretical categories from the very act of translation. Combining the functions of translation and analysis and using the strategy of intertwining worked effectively for this researcher.
Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard
and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product.......Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking...... is unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...
Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt
The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe...... itself, into regions like cognitive psychology, psycho- and neurolinguistics, and neuroscience, where the interest in what goes on in our heads is also very strong....
Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai
Translation is an integral component of cross-cultural research that has remained invisible. It is commonly assumed that translation is an objective and neutral process, in which the translators are "technicians" in producing texts in different languages. Drawing from the field of translation studies and the findings of a translation exercise conducted with three bilingual Cantonese-English translators, the authors highlight some of the methodological issues about translation in cross-cultural qualitative research. They argue that only by making translation visible and through open dialogue can researchers uncover the richness embedded in the research data and facilitate multiple ways of knowing.
Tashiro, Ty; Mortensen, Laura
In an effort to generate innovative treatments, the National Institute of Mental Health has made translational research for alleviating mental illness a major funding priority. Although translational research is a powerful approach for moving basic science findings into novel treatments, it remains ambiguous and rarely implemented in psychology.…
Edwards, Oliver W.
This article addresses a translational research framework for school psychology. Translational research uses outcomes of basic and applied science to enhance the overall well-being of persons. This transdisciplinary framework connects disciplines and uses their resources, capacities, systems, and procedures to advance prevention, intervention, and…
Little data have been published on the subject of medical research and translation. This study endeavours to contribute to such literature by investigating the quality of original and retranslated medical questionnaires. The various steps researchers follow when translating their questionnaires or other texts are considered, ...
Corpus-based translation research emerged in the late 1990s as a new area of research in the discipline of translation studies. It is informed by a specific area of linguistics known as corpus linguistics which involves the analysis of large corpora of authentic running text by means of computer software. Within linguistics, this ...
Silva, Angélica Baptista; Morel, Carlos Médicis; de Moraes, Ilara Hämmerli Sozzi
OBJECTIVE To review the conceptual relationship between telehealth and translational research. METHODS Bibliographical search on telehealth was conducted in the Scopus, Cochrane BVS, LILACS and MEDLINE databases to find experiences of telehealth in conjunction with discussion of translational research in health. The search retrieved eight studies based on analysis of models of the five stages of translational research and the multiple strands of public health policy in the context of telehealth in Brazil. The models were applied to telehealth activities concerning the Network of Human Milk Banks, in the Telemedicine University Network. RESULTS The translational research cycle of human milk collected, stored and distributed presents several integrated telehealth initiatives, such as video conferencing, and software and portals for synthesizing knowledge, composing elements of an information ecosystem, mediated by information and communication technologies in the health system. CONCLUSIONS Telehealth should be composed of a set of activities in a computer mediated network promoting the translation of knowledge between research and health services. PMID:24897057
Information science has in recent years developed an algorithmic procedure for content analysis of abstracts which includes setting up a metalanguage for a particular field of knowledge. Such a procedure may aid in solving problems of automatic text analysis in machine translation. (TL)
While there has been continued growth in family nursing knowledge, the complex process of implementing and sustaining family nursing in health care settings continues to be a challenge for family nursing researchers and clinicians alike. Developing knowledge and skills about how to translate family nursing theory to practice settings is a global priority to make family nursing more visible. There is a critical need for more research methods and research evidence about how to best move family nursing knowledge into action. Enhancing health care practice is a multifactorial process that calls for a systemic perspective to ensure its efficacy and sustainability. This article presents insights derived from lessons learned through recent research experiences of using a knowledge translation model to promote practice changes in health care settings. These insights aim to optimize (a) knowledge translation of a Family Systems Approach (FSA) in practice settings; (b) knowledge translation research processes; and (c) sustainability of desired changes in practice with families in health care settings.
Baker, Hannah B.; McQuilling, John P.; King, Nancy M. P.
Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from...
Hu, Hai; Correll, Mick; Kvecher, Leonid; Osmond, Michelle; Clark, Jim; Bekhash, Anthony; Schwab, Gwendolyn; Gao, De; Gao, Jun; Kubatin, Vladimir; Shriver, Craig D; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Maxwell, Larry G; Kovatich, Albert J; Sheldon, Jonathan G; Liebman, Michael N; Mural, Richard J
The linkage between the clinical and laboratory research domains is a key issue in translational research. Integration of clinicopathologic data alone is a major task given the number of data elements involved. For a translational research environment, it is critical to make these data usable at the point-of-need. Individual systems have been developed to meet the needs of particular projects though the need for a generalizable system has been recognized. Increased use of Electronic Medical Record data in translational research will demand generalizing the system for integrating clinical data to support the study of a broad range of human diseases. To ultimately satisfy these needs, we have developed a system to support multiple translational research projects. This system, the Data Warehouse for Translational Research (DW4TR), is based on a light-weight, patient-centric modularly-structured clinical data model and a specimen-centric molecular data model. The temporal relationships of the data are also part of the model. The data are accessed through an interface composed of an Aggregated Biomedical-Information Browser (ABB) and an Individual Subject Information Viewer (ISIV) which target general users. The system was developed to support a breast cancer translational research program and has been extended to support a gynecological disease program. Further extensions of the DW4TR are underway. We believe that the DW4TR will play an important role in translational research across multiple disease types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P
Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cusack, Stacy; Ferrone, Kristine; Garvin, Christy; Kramer, W. Vernon; Palaia, Joseph, IV; Shiro, Brian
The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS), located on the rim of the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, is a simulated Mars habitat that provides operational constraints similar to those which will be faced by future human explorers on Mars. In July 2009, a six-member crew inhabited the isolated habitation module and conducted the twelfth FMARS mission. The crew members conducted frequent EVA operations wearing mock space suits to conduct field experiments under realistic Mars-like conditions. Their scientific campaign spanned a wide range of disciplines and included many firsts for Mars analog research. Among these are the first use of a Class IV medical laser during a Mars simulation, helping to relieve crew stress injuries during the mission. Also employed for the first time in a Mars simulation at FMARS, a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was used by the space-suited explorers, aiding them in their search for mineral resources. Sites identified by the UAV were then visited by geologists who conducted physical geologic sampling. For the first time, explorers in spacesuits deployed passive seismic equipment to monitor earthquake activity and characterize the planet's interior. They also conducted the first geophysical electromagnetic survey as analog Mars pioneers to search for water and characterize geological features under the surface. The crew collected hydrated minerals and attempted to produce drinkable water from the rocks. A variety of equipment was field tested as well, including new cameras that automatically geotag photos, data-recording GPS units, a tele-presence rover (operated from Florida), as well as MIT-developed mission planning software. As plans develop to return to the Moon and go on to Mars, analog facilities like FMARS can provide significant benefit to NASA and other organizations as they prepare for robust human space exploration. The authors will present preliminary results from these studies as well as their
Poling, Alan; Edwards, Timothy L.
The authors find Critchfield's article ("Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior," "The Behavior Analyst," v34, p3-17, 2011) scholarly, clear, and insightful. In it, Critchfield provides an excellent overview of translational research in behavior analysis and suggests several general strategies for increasing the…
Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Farr, Tracy D
The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve...... on translational stories ranging from fundamental research on neurode- and -regeneration to late stage translational or early stage clinical investigations....
Victor J. Krawczyk
Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.
Alfano, Catherine M; Smith, Tenbroeck; de Moor, Janet S; Glasgow, Russell E; Khoury, Muin J; Hawkins, Nikki A; Stein, Kevin D; Rechis, Ruth; Parry, Carla; Leach, Corinne R; Padgett, Lynne; Rowland, Julia H
To meet the complex needs of a growing number of cancer survivors, it is essential to accelerate the translation of survivorship research into evidence-based interventions and, as appropriate, recommendations for care that may be implemented in a wide variety of settings. Current progress in translating research into care is stymied, with results of many studies un- or underutilized. To better understand this problem and identify strategies to encourage the translation of survivorship research findings into practice, four agencies (American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, LIVE STRONG: Foundation, National Cancer Institute) hosted a meeting in June, 2012, titled: "Biennial Cancer Survivorship Research Conference: Translating Science to Care." Meeting participants concluded that accelerating science into care will require a coordinated, collaborative effort by individuals from diverse settings, including researchers and clinicians, survivors and families, public health professionals, and policy makers. This commentary describes an approach stemming from that meeting to facilitate translating research into care by changing the process of conducting research-improving communication, collaboration, evaluation, and feedback through true and ongoing partnerships. We apply the T0-T4 translational process model to survivorship research and provide illustrations of its use. The resultant framework is intended to orient stakeholders to the role of their work in the translational process and facilitate the transdisciplinary collaboration needed to translate basic discoveries into best practices regarding clinical care, self-care/management, and community programs for cancer survivors. Finally, we discuss barriers to implementing translational survivorship science identified at the meeting, along with future directions to accelerate this process. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.
Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan
Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research.
Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B
To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.
Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH and the Medical Research Council (MRC have been driving translational research by defining and tackling the hurdles but more still remains to be achieved. This article discusses the ongoing challenges translational researchers face and outlines recent initiatives to tackle these including the new changes to translational funding schemes proposed by the NIH and the MRC and the launch of the “European Advanced Translational Research InfraStructure in Medicine” (EATRIS. It is anticipated that initiatives such as these will not only strengthen translational biomedical research programmes already initiated but should lead to rapid benefits to patients and society.
Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Baines, Katherine J
that translational aspects are added to randomised clinical trials, as well as Real World studies, but also to use other trial designs such as platform studies, which allow for simultaneous assessment of different interventions. Furthermore, demonstrating clinical impact, i.e. research translation......Obstructive airways diseases (OAD) represent a huge burden of illness worldwide, and in spite of the development of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality related to asthma and COPD still remains. Over the past decade, our understanding of OAD has improved vastly, and novel...... treatments have evolved. This evolution is the result of successful translational research, which has connected clinical presentations of OAD and underlying disease mechanisms, thereby enabling the development of targeted treatments. The next challenge of translational research will be to position...
Munoz, David A; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L
The purpose of this paper is to quantify complexity in translational research. The impact of major operational steps and technical requirements is calculated with respect to their ability to accelerate moving new discoveries into clinical practice. A three-phase integrated quality function deployment (QFD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to quantify complexity in translational research. A case study in obesity was used to usability. Generally, the evidence generated was valuable for understanding various components in translational research. Particularly, the authors found that collaboration networks, multidisciplinary team capacity and community engagement are crucial for translating new discoveries into practice. As the method is mainly based on subjective opinion, some argue that the results may be biased. However, a consistency ratio is calculated and used as a guide to subjectivity. Alternatively, a larger sample may be incorporated to reduce bias. The integrated QFD-AHP framework provides evidence that could be helpful to generate agreement, develop guidelines, allocate resources wisely, identify benchmarks and enhance collaboration among similar projects. Current conceptual models in translational research provide little or no clue to assess complexity. The proposed method aimed to fill this gap. Additionally, the literature review includes various features that have not been explored in translational research.
Ameredes, Bill T; Hellmich, Mark R; Cestone, Christina M; Wooten, Kevin C; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Anderson, Karl E; Brasier, Allan R
Multiinstitutional research collaborations now form the most rapid and productive project execution structures in the health sciences. Effective adoption of a multidisciplinary team research approach is widely accepted as one mechanism enabling rapid translation of new discoveries into interventions in human health. Although the impact of successful team-based approaches facilitating innovation has been well-documented, its utility for training a new generation of scientists has not been thoroughly investigated. We describe the characteristics of how multidisciplinary translational teams (MTTs) promote career development of translational research scholars through competency building, interprofessional integration, and team-based mentoring approaches. Exploratory longitudinal and outcome assessments from our experience show that MTT membership had a positive effect on the development of translational research competencies, as determined by a self-report survey of 32 scholars. We also observed that all trainees produced a large number of collaborative publications that appeared to be associated with their CTSA association and participation with MTTs. We conclude that the MTT model provides a unique training environment for translational and team-based learning activities, for investigators at early stages of career development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wagner, Paul D.; Srivastava, Sudhir
Despite significant investments in basic science by the US National Institutes of Health, there is a concern that the return on this investment has been limited in terms of clinical utility. In the field of biomarkers, translational research is used to bridge the gap between the results of basic research that identify biomolecules involved in or the consequence of carcinogenesis and their incorporation into medical application. The cultural separation between different scientific disciplines often makes it difficult to establish the multidisciplinary and multi-skilled teams that are necessary for successful translational research. The field of biomarker research requires extensive interactions between academic researchers and industrial developers, and clinicians are needed to help shape the research direction that can only be addressed by multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. In this article, we provide our perspective on the relatively slow pace of cancer biomarker translation, especially those for early detection and screening. PMID:22424436
Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario
Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntingtons Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field.
Jones, Elaine G; Boyle, Joyceen S
The purpose of this special section is to describe culturally competent approaches for working with translators or interpreters who participate in transcultural studies. This article provides background for three exemplars of lessons learned in working with translators in transcultural studies: (a) the resettlement transition experiences of women from the Dinka tribe of Southern Sudan (Baird), (b) Samoans' risk for heart disease (Siaki), and (c) culturally Deaf adults' perceptions about depression (Sheppard).Capitalizing the word "Deaf" has gained wide acceptance to indicate a linguistic minority of people who have a hearing loss and use American Sign Language, a hallmark of Deaf culture. In each case, the individual researcher made adaptations to the usual processes of translation/back-translation when appropriate to the cultural context and the specific situations of the translators. Although these lessons were learned during research-related activities, they may apply to other circumstances when nurses work with bilingual/bicultural translators (e.g., translating consent forms or communicating with persons who have limited literacy in their native language).
Sharon Fontaine Terry
Full Text Available Disease advocacy organizations have long played an important role in the continuum from basic science to therapy development in rare disease research. PXE International has sometimes led the field in innovative ways, venturing into specific activities that have traditionally been conducted by scientists. As lay founders, we have engaged in gene discovery, gene patenting, diagnostic development, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and therapy research and development. This article will describe the steps that we took, and the ways in which we have scaled these efforts for the larger community.
Kotarba, Joseph A; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R
We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of "scientist" to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research.
Perakslis, Eric D; Stanley, Martin
Virtually all health care organizations have had at least one data breach since 2012. Most of the largest data breaches and Health Care Information Privacy and Accountability Act fines could have been prevented by the simplest of strategies. Each researcher must clearly understand his or her responsibilities and liability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Katayoun Maleki; Sharareh Ahghari; Reza Majdzadeh
"nOne of the vital aspects of transferring research results is intellectual property of information. The key point in intellectual property is lack of use or misuse of research results. At times the urgent or early transfer of research results is necessary, and at times it is not possible prior to peer review. Since there were no specific rules in this field in the country, one of the innovations suggested for strengthening knowledge translation was compilation of an ethical code for res...
Czajkowski, Susan M; Lynch, Minda R; Hall, Kara L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Haverkos, Lynne; Perl, Harold; Scott, Marcia S; Shirley, Mariela C
The translation of basic behavioral science discoveries into practical strategies represents a promising approach to developing more effective preventive interventions to improve health. Since translational research inevitably involves making use of diverse perspectives from multiple disciplines, it is best conducted as a transdisciplinary enterprise. In this paper, we discuss current strategies used by NIH to support transdisciplinary translational behavioral (TDTB) research, summarize successful efforts, and highlight challenges encountered in conducting such work (ranging from conceptual to organizational to methodological). Using examples from NIH-funded projects we illustrate the potential benefits of, and barriers to, pursuing this type of research and discuss next steps and potential future directions for NIH-supported TDTB research.
Ransohoff, David F
"Discovery" research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Experimental Selected examples are used to illustrate: (i) what features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? (ii) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example, within randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like health maintenance organization (HMOs)? Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer, a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer, and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be "cultivated" in the future. By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of "cultivating cohorts" in ongoing RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy.
Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.
Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821
Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri
This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…
Tarawneh, Rawan; Holtzman, David M
The identification and characterization of amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau as the main pathological substrates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have driven many efforts in search for suitable biomarkers for AD. In the last decade, research in this area has focused on developing a better understanding of the principles that govern protein deposition, mechanisms that link aggregation to toxicity and neuronal death, and a better understanding of protein dynamics in brain tissue, interstitial fluid and CSF. While Abeta and tau represent the two key pathological mediators of disease, other aspects of this multifaceted disease (e.g. oxidative stress, calcium-mediated toxicity, and neuroinflammation) are being unraveled, with the hope to develop a more comprehensive approach in exploring disease mechanisms. This has not only expanded possible areas for disease-modifying therapies, but has also allowed the introduction of novel, and potentially useful, fluid and radiological markers for the presence and progression of AD pathology. There is no doubt that the identification of several fluid and imaging biomarkers that can reliably detect the early stages of AD will have great implications in the design of clinical trials, in the selection of homogenous research populations, and in the assessment of disease outcomes. Markers with good diagnostic specificity will aid researchers in differentiating individuals with preclinical and probable AD from individuals who do not have AD pathology or have other dementing disorders. Markers that change with disease progression may offer utility in assessing the rates of disease progression and the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents on AD pathology. For both of these purposes, CSF Abeta42, amyloid imaging, and CSF tau appear to be very good markers of the presence of AD pathology as well as predictive of who will progress from MCI to AD. Volumetric MRI is also good at separating individuals with MCI and AD from controls and is predictive of
Nedjat, Saharnaz; Gholami, Jaleh; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Sima; Maleki, Katayoun; Majdzadeh, Reza
Knowledge Translation is a process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and application of knowledge to improve the health, services and products In this study we have attempted to examine the knowledge translation practice and its perceived barriers on the universalities and research institutes (research sector) in Iran. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire had prepared for this study was completed by 88 authors country wide from randomly selected papers. In the qualitative section 13 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions were held with managers and policy makers, clinical and health service providers, and researchers. Twenty four percent of the authors had no interaction whatsoever with the target audience. Lack of expectation toward creating change in the target audience, researchers' incentives, low level of trust among researchers and decision makers, absence of a predefined mechanism for delivery of research results and inappropriate research priorities were among the most important barriers identified in the qualitative section. Translation of research findings into some concrete outputs which can affect health of people is not in mandate of researchers and subsequently they are not prepared for this as well. Based on the barriers identified, it seems that the following interventions are necessary: cooperation among policy makers at macro and meso (organizational) level and the research sector; establishing networks for researchers and decision makers in choosing the research topic, priority setting, and building trust among researchers and policy makers.
Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack
, satisfaction, Quality of Life), organization-related (staff and work environment, internal and external communication and relationships) and economics-related (start-up costs, financial implications and externalities)). Conclusion: Web-based decision support can provide nursing with a template, technique......Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research...... into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research. Method: Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights for multiple person/patient-important criteria can be combined in an expected value...
Bradshaw, Catherine P
Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Colloca, Luana; Miller, Franklin G.
Laboratory research recently has greatly enhanced the understanding of placebo and nocebo effects by identifying specific neuromodulators and brain areas associated with them. However, little progress has been made in translating this knowledge into improved patient care. Here, we discuss the limitations in our knowledge about placebo (and nocebo) effects and the need for translational research with the aim of guiding physicians in maximizing placebo effects and minimizing nocebo effects in their routine clinical practice. We suggest some strategies for how, when and why interventions to promote beneficial placebo responses might be administered in the clinical setting. PMID:21576150
Celis, Julio E; Moreira, José M A; Gromova, Irina
Discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer is moving steadily from the study of cell lines to the analysis of clinically relevant samples that, together with the ever increasing number of novel and powerful technologies available within genomics, proteomics and functional genomics......, promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...... biology approach to fight breast cancer....
Inouye, Jillian; Seto, Todd B; Braun, Kathryn L
The purpose of this needs assessment was to identify the translational research education and training needs of researchers and administrators working in Hawai‘i's communities and to use the finding to develop an education and training plan. The assessment was led by a community advisory board with members from community health centers, social agencies, hospitals, and academia on O‘ahu. The survey, developed with input of the community advisory board, was sent to 94 administrators and researchers involved or affiliated with research being conducted in Hawai‘i. Forty-one respondents (43%) completed the survey. Respondents wanted education and training in research processes, specific research-related skills, and facilitating interactions between community and academic researchers. Sixty-one percent were interested in training related to community-engaged research and yearly seminars on “collaborative mentoring.” Popular topics of interest were related to data monitoring, networking with different cultural groups, statistics, and human subjects review. A majority of respondents wanted to attend workshops, seminars, and presentations rather than take a class. Approximately 50% of the respondents wanted to gain information through on-line training. Findings guided the development of a translational research education and training plan for the University of Hawai‘i National Institute of Health (NIH) Research Centers in Minority Institutions Multidisciplinary and Translational Research Infrastructure Expansion (RMATRIX) grant. PMID:26019985
Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Inouye, Jillian; Seto, Todd B; Braun, Kathryn L
The purpose of this needs assessment was to identify the translational research education and training needs of researchers and administrators working in Hawai'i's communities and to use the finding to develop an education and training plan. The assessment was led by a community advisory board with members from community health centers, social agencies, hospitals, and academia on O'ahu. The survey, developed with input of the community advisory board, was sent to 94 administrators and researchers involved or affiliated with research being conducted in Hawai'i. Forty-one respondents (43%) completed the survey. Respondents wanted education and training in research processes, specific research-related skills, and facilitating interactions between community and academic researchers. Sixty-one percent were interested in training related to community-engaged research and yearly seminars on "collaborative mentoring." Popular topics of interest were related to data monitoring, networking with different cultural groups, statistics, and human subjects review. A majority of respondents wanted to attend workshops, seminars, and presentations rather than take a class. Approximately 50% of the respondents wanted to gain information through on-line training. Findings guided the development of a translational research education and training plan for the University of Hawai'i National Institute of Health (NIH) Research Centers in Minority Institutions Multidisciplinary and Translational Research Infrastructure Expansion (RMATRIX) grant.
Chen, Feng; Bu, Wenbo; Cai, Weibo; Shi, Jianlin
The design, application, and translation of targeted multimodality molecular imaging probes based on nanotechnology has attracted increasing attentions during the last decade and will continue to play vital roles in cancer diagnosis and personalized medicine. With the growing awareness of drawbacks of traditional organic dyes and quantum dots, biocompatible lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles have emerged as promising candidates for clinically translatable imaging probes, owing to their unique features that are suitable for future targeted multimodal imaging in living subjects. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in the field of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (f-UCNP) for biological imaging and therapy in vivo, and discussed the future research directions, obstacles ahead, and the potential use of f-UCNP in translational research. PMID:24206131
Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind
Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.
Joyce J. Fitzpatrick, PhD, RN, FAAN
Full Text Available It is proposed that individuals who find meaning in their lives experience a higher level of health and wellness. In this paper, research focused on life meaning is described. This program of research includes studies of life meaning from the individual person and/or patient perspective and studies of the meaningfulness of nurses' professional work life. Translations of the theoretical concepts into research and professional nursing interventions are described.
Koppe, Roland; Scientific MaNIDA-Team
The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of marine data from distinct data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI 1.2). In order to provide users integrated access and retrieval of expedition or cruise metadata, data, services and publications as well as relationships among the various objects, we are developing (web) applications based on state of the art technologies: the Data Portal of German Marine Research. Since the German network of distributed content providers have distinct objectives and mandates for storing digital objects (e.g. long-term data preservation, near real time data, publication repositories), we have to cope with heterogeneous metadata in terms of syntax and semantic, data types and formats as well as access solutions. We have defined a set of core metadata elements which are common to our content providers and therefore useful for discovery and building relationships among objects. Existing catalogues for various types of vocabularies are being used to assure the mapping to community-wide used terms. We distinguish between expedition metadata and continuously harvestable metadata objects from distinct data providers. • Existing expedition metadata from distinct sources is integrated and validated in order to create an expedition metadata catalogue which is used as authoritative source for expedition-related content. The web application allows browsing by e.g. research vessel and date, exploring expeditions and research gaps by tracklines and viewing expedition details (begin/end, ports, platforms, chief scientists, events, etc.). Also expedition-related objects from harvesting are dynamically associated with expedition information and presented to the user. Hence we will provide web services to detailed expedition information. • Other harvestable content is separated into four categories: archived data and data products, near
Slashinski, M J; Whitney, S N; Achenbaum, L S; Keitel, W A; McCurdy, S A; McGuire, A L
Human microbiome research has the potential to transform the practice of medicine, fundamentally shifting the ways in which we think not only about human health, illness and disease, but also about clinical practice and public health interventions. Drawing from a larger qualitative study on ethical, legal and social dimensions of human microbiome research, in this article, we document perspectives related to the translation of human microbiome research into clinical practice, focusing particularly on implications for health, illness and disease. We conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews (2009-2010) with 63 researchers and National Institutes of Health project leaders ('investigators') involved with human microbiome research. The interviews explored a range of ethical, legal and social implications of human microbiome research, including investigators' perspectives on potential strategies for translating findings to clinical practice. Using thematic content analysis, we identified and analyzed emergent themes and patterns. We identified 3 themes: (1) investigators' general perspectives on the clinical utility of human microbiome research, (2) investigators' perspectives on antibiotic use, overuse and misuse, and (3) investigators' perspectives concerning future challenges of translating data to clinical practice. The issues discussed by investigators concerning the clinical significance of human microbiome research, including embracing a new paradigm of health and disease, the importance of microbial communities, and clinical utility, will be of critical importance as this research moves forward. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Smith, J. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Malahoff, A.
The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) was established by NOAA at the University of Hawaii 25 years ago as part of its National Undersea Research Program. HURL's mission is to study deep water marine processes in the Pacific Ocean through a competitive proposal and review process. The dual Pisces IV and Pisces V 2000-meter manned submersibles, an RCV-150 1000-meter ROV, and multibeam equipped support ship R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa ( KoK) were largely acquired from the petroleum industry then adapted and upgraded to carry out cutting edge scientific expeditions. These studies range from active submarine volcanoes, delicate precious coral gardens, endangered marine mammal and fisheries management, to engineering surveys and deployment of observatory systems. HURL successfully completed a major 5-month expedition to the South Pacific during March-August 2005, working in the waters of New Zealand, Tonga, American Samoa, and the U.S. Line Islands covering a distance of nearly 14,500 nautical miles. This mission was significant in both the scientific merit and scope of operations, consisting of 8 different cruise legs at 21 study sites, with 12 chief and co-chief scientists, 58 total science team participants, and completing 61 out of 56 scheduled Pisces science dives, 17 ROV dives, 5 multibeam survey areas, 6 CTD rosette deployments, and 7 instrument mooring recoveries. The $3.5 million expedition was funded by an international partnership with New Zealand agencies (GNS & NIWA) and the University of Kiel in Germany along with the NOAA Office of Exploration and National Undersea Research Program. While most of the individual cruise legs focused on active submarine volcanoes of the Tonga-Kermadec Islands Arc and the Samoan hot spot chain with their hydrothermal systems and associated biological communities, others concentrated on marine protected areas including those of American Samoa and the remote atolls of the Line Islands of the Central Pacific. These studies
Preyde, Michele; Carter, Jeff; Penney, Randy; Lazure, Kelly; Vanderkooy, John; Chevalier, Pat
Through this article the authors present a case summary of the early phases of research conducted with an Integrated Knowledge Translation (iKT) approach utilizing four factors: research question, research approach, feasibility, and outcome. iKT refers to an approach for conducting research in which community partners, referred to as knowledge users, are engaged in the entire research process. In this collaborative approach, knowledge users and researchers jointly devise the entire research agenda beginning with the development of the research question(s), determination of a feasible research design and feasible methods, interpretation of the results, dissemination of the findings, and the translation of knowledge into practice or policy decisions. Engaging clinical or community partners in the research enterprise can enhance the utility of the research results and facilitate its uptake. This collaboration can be a complex arrangement and flexibility may be required to accommodate the various configurations that the collaboration can take. For example, the research question can be jointly determined and refined; however, one person must take the responsibility for orchestrating the project, including preparing the proposal and application to the Research Ethics Board. This collaborative effort also requires the simultaneous navigation of barriers and facilitators to the research enterprise. Navigating these elements becomes part of the conduct of research with the potential for rewarding results, including an enriched work experience for clinical partners and investigators. One practice implication is that iKT may be considered of great utility to service providers due to its field friendly nature.
ABSTRACT Situated learning has become a dominant goal in the translation classroom: translation didactics is being developed in a learner-, situation- and experience-based direction, following constructivist and participatory teaching philosophies. However, the explicit use of situated approaches has, so far, not been the centre of attention in translation theory teaching and research training. As a consequence, translation theory often remains unconnected to the skills learned and topics tackled in language-specific translation teaching and the challenges experienced in real-life translation practice. This article reports on the results of an exploratory action research project into the teaching of academic research skills in translation studies at Master’s level. The goal of the project is to develop and test possibilities for employing situated learning in translation research training. The situatedness perspective has a double relevance for the teaching project: the students are involved in an authentic, ongoing research project, and the object of the research project itself deals with authentic translation processes at the workplace. Thus, the project has the potential to improve the expertise of the students as both researchers and reflective practitioners. PMID:27499805
Situated learning has become a dominant goal in the translation classroom: translation didactics is being developed in a learner-, situation- and experience-based direction, following constructivist and participatory teaching philosophies. However, the explicit use of situated approaches has, so far, not been the centre of attention in translation theory teaching and research training. As a consequence, translation theory often remains unconnected to the skills learned and topics tackled in language-specific translation teaching and the challenges experienced in real-life translation practice. This article reports on the results of an exploratory action research project into the teaching of academic research skills in translation studies at Master's level. The goal of the project is to develop and test possibilities for employing situated learning in translation research training. The situatedness perspective has a double relevance for the teaching project: the students are involved in an authentic, ongoing research project, and the object of the research project itself deals with authentic translation processes at the workplace. Thus, the project has the potential to improve the expertise of the students as both researchers and reflective practitioners.
McMillin, Stephen Edward
Management of the dissemination of effective interventions in social work is often uncertain, and even when attention is paid to diffusing effective, innovative interventions, the focus is often disproportionately on a marketplace orientation of increasing the market share of branded, manualized interventions and social service treatment products. Public health frameworks of dissemination can improve knowledge translation in social interventions by focusing dissemination efforts on achieving equity and increasing the availability of effective interventions to all those who can benefit from them rather than simply focusing on commercial processes. This article identifies three equity-focused translation frameworks that can aid the dissemination of effective social interventions at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Sahoo Satya S
Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical aspect of the NIH Translational Research roadmap, which seeks to accelerate the delivery of "bench-side" discoveries to patient's "bedside," is the management of the provenance metadata that keeps track of the origin and history of data resources as they traverse the path from the bench to the bedside and back. A comprehensive provenance framework is essential for researchers to verify the quality of data, reproduce scientific results published in peer-reviewed literature, validate scientific process, and associate trust value with data and results. Traditional approaches to provenance management have focused on only partial sections of the translational research life cycle and they do not incorporate "domain semantics", which is essential to support domain-specific querying and analysis by scientists. Results We identify a common set of challenges in managing provenance information across the pre-publication and post-publication phases of data in the translational research lifecycle. We define the semantic provenance framework (SPF, underpinned by the Provenir upper-level provenance ontology, to address these challenges in the four stages of provenance metadata: (a Provenance collection - during data generation (b Provenance representation - to support interoperability, reasoning, and incorporate domain semantics (c Provenance storage and propagation - to allow efficient storage and seamless propagation of provenance as the data is transferred across applications (d Provenance query - to support queries with increasing complexity over large data size and also support knowledge discovery applications We apply the SPF to two exemplar translational research projects, namely the Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi SPSE and the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR project, to demonstrate its effectiveness. Conclusions The SPF provides a unified framework to effectively manage provenance
Sahoo, Satya S; Nguyen, Vinh; Bodenreider, Olivier; Parikh, Priti; Minning, Todd; Sheth, Amit P
A critical aspect of the NIH Translational Research roadmap, which seeks to accelerate the delivery of "bench-side" discoveries to patient's "bedside," is the management of the provenance metadata that keeps track of the origin and history of data resources as they traverse the path from the bench to the bedside and back. A comprehensive provenance framework is essential for researchers to verify the quality of data, reproduce scientific results published in peer-reviewed literature, validate scientific process, and associate trust value with data and results. Traditional approaches to provenance management have focused on only partial sections of the translational research life cycle and they do not incorporate "domain semantics", which is essential to support domain-specific querying and analysis by scientists. We identify a common set of challenges in managing provenance information across the pre-publication and post-publication phases of data in the translational research lifecycle. We define the semantic provenance framework (SPF), underpinned by the Provenir upper-level provenance ontology, to address these challenges in the four stages of provenance metadata:(a) Provenance collection - during data generation(b) Provenance representation - to support interoperability, reasoning, and incorporate domain semantics(c) Provenance storage and propagation - to allow efficient storage and seamless propagation of provenance as the data is transferred across applications(d) Provenance query - to support queries with increasing complexity over large data size and also support knowledge discovery applicationsWe apply the SPF to two exemplar translational research projects, namely the Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi SPSE) and the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR) project, to demonstrate its effectiveness. The SPF provides a unified framework to effectively manage provenance of translational research data during pre and post
Savory, Clive; Fortune, Joyce
The purpose of this paper is to question whether the emphasis placed within translational research on a linear model of innovation provides the most effective model for managing health technology innovation. Several alternative perspectives are presented that have potential to enhance the existing model of translational research. A case study is presented of innovation of a clinical decision support system. The paper concludes from the case study that an extending the triple helix model of technology transfer, to one based on a quadruple helix, present a basis for improving the performance translational research. A case study approach is used to help understand development of an innovative technology within a teaching hospital. The case is then used to develop and refine a model of the health technology innovation system. The paper concludes from the case study that existing models of translational research could be refined further through the development of a quadruple helix model of heath technology innovation that encompasses greater emphasis on user-led and open innovation perspectives. The paper presents several implications for future research based on the need to enhance the model of health technology innovation used to guide policy and practice. The quadruple helix model of innovation that is proposed can potentially guide alterations to the existing model of translational research in the healthcare sector. Several suggestions are made for how innovation activity can be better supported at both a policy and operational level. This paper presents a synthesis of the innovation literature applied to a theoretically important case of open innovation in the UK National Health Service. It draws in perspectives from other industrial sectors and applies them specifically to the management and organisation of innovation activities around health technology and the services in which they are embedded.
Vollmer, Timothy R.
The author agrees with Critchfield's ("Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior," "The Behavior Analyst," v34, p3-17, 2011) thesis (to paraphrase): Behavior analysis must adapt; we cannot simply will ourselves into greater social relevance. Critchfield focused on the survival of the basic research arm of behavior…
microscopy, which even in the best of hands is only 50% sensitive. This creates a challenge for diagnosing smear‑negative TB, which is partly driven by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub‑Saharan. Translation from research to clinical practice: Fostering improved patient care through microscopicobservation drug susceptibility ...
van der Scheer, Lieke; Garcia, Elisa; van der Laan, A.L.; van der Burg, Simone; Boenink, Marianne
The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement (‘translation’) of basic scientific findings to relevant and
Clear research questionnaires ultimately help to ensure the reliability and comparability of the data that they gather (Fowler 1992; Lenzner 2012; Moroney and Cameron 2016). This paper explores the intersection of best practices in the fields of questionnaire design and intralingual translation as a means to ensure clarity ...
Vivian, Dina; Hershenberg, Rachel; Teachman, Bethany A; Drabick, Deborah A G; Goldfried, Marvin R; Wolfe, Barry
We propose a four-level, recursive Research-Practice Integration framework as a heuristic to (a) integrate and reflect on the articles in this Special Section as contributing to a bidirectional bridge between research and practice, and (b) consider additional opportunities to address the research-practice gap. Level 1 addresses Treatment Validation studies and includes an article by Lochman and colleagues concerning the programmatic adaptation, implementation, and dissemination of the empirically supported Coping Power treatment program for youth aggression. Level 2 translation, Training in Evidence-Based Practice, includes a paper by Hershenberg, Drabick, and Vivian, which focuses on the critical role that predoctoral training plays in bridging the research-practice gap. Level 3 addresses the Assessment of Clinical Utility and Feedback to Research aspects of translation. The articles by Lambert and Youn, Kraus, and Castonguay illustrate the use of commercial outcome packages that enable psychotherapists to integrate ongoing client assessment, thus enhancing the effectiveness of treatment implementation and providing data that can be fed back to researchers. Lastly, Level 4 translation, the Cross-Level Integrative Research and Communication, concerns research efforts that integrate data from clinical practice and all other levels of translation, as well as communication efforts among all stakeholders, such as researchers, psychotherapists, and clients. Using a two-chair technique as a framework for his discussion, Wolfe's article depicts the struggle inherent in research-practice integration efforts and proposes a rapprochement that highlights advancements in the field. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Love, John; Cooley, Vic
The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a
The field of bioinformatics has allowed the interpretation of massive amounts of biological data, ushering in the era of 'omics' to biomedical research. Its potential impact on pharmacology research is enormous and it has shown some emerging successes. A full realization of this potential, however, requires standardized data annotation for large health record databases and molecular data resources. Improved standardization will further stimulate the development of system pharmacology models, using translational bioinformatics methods. This new translational bioinformatics paradigm is highly complementary to current pharmacological research fields, such as personalized medicine, pharmacoepidemiology and drug discovery. In this review, I illustrate the application of transformational bioinformatics to research in numerous pharmacology subdisciplines. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.
Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Heitman, Elizabeth; Pollock, Brad H.; Klugman, Craig M.
Statistical analysis is a cornerstone of the scientific method and evidence-based medicine, and statisticians serve an increasingly important role in clinical and translational research by providing objective evidence concerning the risks and benefits of novel therapeutics. Researchers rely on statistics and informatics as never before to generate and test hypotheses and to discover patterns of disease hidden within overwhelming amounts of data. Too often, clinicians and biomedical scientists are not adequately proficient in statistics to analyze data or interpret results, and statistical expertise may not be properly incorporated within the research process. We argue for the ethical imperative of statistical standards, and we present ten nontechnical principles that form a conceptual framework for the ethical application of statistics in clinical and translational research. These principles are drawn from the literature on the ethics of data analysis and the American Statistical Association Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice. PMID:21751225
The field of bioinformatics has allowed the interpretation of massive amounts of biological data, ushering in the era of ‘omics’ to biomedical research. Its potential impact on pharmacology research is enormous and it has shown some emerging successes. A full realization of this potential, however, requires standardized data annotation for large health record databases and molecular data resources. Improved standardization will further stimulate the development of system pharmacology models, using translational bioinformatics methods. This new translational bioinformatics paradigm is highly complementary to current pharmacological research fields, such as personalized medicine, pharmacoepidemiology and drug discovery. In this review, I illustrate the application of transformational bioinformatics to research in numerous pharmacology subdisciplines. PMID:25753093
Lim, Y.W.; Cuevas, D.A.; Silva, G.G.; Aguinaldo, K.; Dinsdale, E.A.; Haas, A.F.; Hatay, M.; Sanchez, S.E.; Wegley-Kelly, L.; Dutilh, B.E.; Harkins, T.T.; Lee, C.C.; Tom, W.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Zgliczynski, B.; Vermeij, M.J.; Rohwer, F.; Edwards, R.A.
Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned
Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A
Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned
Naeem, Farooq; Kingdon, David; Saeed, Athar Ahmed; Zaidi, Qaiser; Ayub, Muhammad
Although there is some literature on translation and cultural adaptation of measurement scales, none is available on the translation of diagnostic guidelines, such as the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Our group translated ICD-10, Research Diagnostics Criteria (RDC) into Urdu, which is the official language of Pakistan but is also spoken in some states in India. Significant diasporas of Urdu speakers also exist in Western Countries. We describe the translation process and the principles that guided our work. The translation process consisted of preparation, forward-translation, external translation, synthesis, focus group discussions with laypersons to clarify terminology, and review by mental health professionals and laypersons. Translation also included a wider consultation process in which the final version was sent to Pakistani mental health professionals in Pakistan and abroad.
Mamzer, Marie-France; Duchange, Nathalie; Darquy, Sylviane; Marvanne, Patrice; Rambaud, Claude; Marsico, Giovanna; Cerisey, Catherine; Scotté, Florian; Burgun, Anita; Badoual, Cécile; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Hervé, Christian
The research program CARPEM (cancer research and personalized medicine) brings together the expertise of researchers and hospital-based oncologists to develop translational research in the context of personalized or "precision" medicine for cancer. There is recognition that patient involvement can help to take into account their needs and priorities in the development of this emerging practice but there is currently no consensus about how this can be achieved. In this study, we developed an empirical ethical research action aiming to improve patient representatives' involvement in the development of the translational research program together with health professionals. The aim is to promote common understanding and sharing of knowledge between all parties and to establish a long-term partnership integrating patient's expectations. Two distinct committees were settled in CARPEM: an "Expert Committee", gathering healthcare and research professionals, and a "Patient Committee", gathering patients and patient representatives. A multidisciplinary team trained in medical ethics research ensured communication between the two committees as well as analysis of discussions, minutes and outputs from all stakeholders. The results highlight the efficiency of the transfer of knowledge between interested parties. Patient representatives and professionals were able to identify new ethical challenges and co-elaborate new procedures to gather information and consent forms for adapting to practices and recommendations developed during the process. Moreover, included patient representatives became full partners and participated in the transfer of knowledge to the public via conferences and publications. Empirical ethical research based on a patient-centered approach could help in establishing a fair model for coordination and support actions during cancer research, striking a balance between the regulatory framework, researcher needs and patient expectations. Our approach addresses
Children represent a special population characterized by dynamic changes which may affect drug safety and efficacy. The interplay of pharmacogenetics with physiological alterations that occur throughout development is an area of increasing research focus. Given the translational nature of pharmacogenetic research, it is possible that pharmacogenetic research results may possess clinically actionable information. The potential long-term implications of pharmacogenetic test results throughout the lifespan of the child, and the potential impact of the results for other members of the family need to be considered. Comprehensive counselling and communication strategies may need to be integrated as part of pharmacogenetic research studies in children.
Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.
Pass Harvey I
Full Text Available Abstract This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC, quality assurance (QA, data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease.
Full Text Available Welcome to the journal of Burns & Trauma launched in 2013 and published by the prestigious Wolters Kluwer Health. We are grateful to promote a cultural challenge toward a new horizon in the field of translational research (TR. We enjoy to work together with the common objective to perform continuous medical education programs, exploring the methods in research, designing study, and to improve multidisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration in the basic sciences and in the clinical trials. Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. Epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure and what are its limits? More broadly, epistemology is about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry as defined and revisiting at the beginning of the last decades. Translational medicine (TM should meet the demands to maintain or expanding the biomedical workforce and education programs that attract and retain young people in the translational and biomedical sciences. With this present contributes, we invite the members of the editorial board of Burns & Trauma to encourage submitting, in a special section, their personal experience about the philosophy of "Translation research." If this has a chance, welcome to the researchers, clinicians, and the allied people for their decisive contributions to strengthen the importance of a common way about the principles and methods of basic and clinical research. TR and TM represent a dynamic entity making a link, a sort of bridge, "from bench to bedside", or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. Epistemological pluralism is a critical point for conducting innovative, collaborative research which can lead to more successful integrated and successfully study
Landrigan, Philip J; Wright, Robert O; Cordero, Jose F; Eaton, David L; Goldstein, Bernard D; Hennig, Bernhard; Maier, Raina M; Ozonoff, David M; Smith, Martyn T; Tukey, Robert H
The Superfund Research Program (SRP) is an academically based, multidisciplinary, translational research program that for 25 years has sought scientific solutions to health and environmental problems associated with hazardous waste sites...
Fundamental tensions affected planning for United States involvement in the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE). At the highest levels of the US state, science advisors and State Department officials praised the proposed Indian Ocean research plan—loosely modeled on the recently completed International Geophysical Year of 1957-58—as a way of promoting scientific internationalism, seeing this undertaking as a way to help bring India more firmly within the Western sphere amid Cold War East-West conflicts. Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential science advisor, George Kistiakowsky, had the IIOE in mind when he advised the National Security Council that a key role science could play in American foreign relations lay "in relation with the neutral and less-developed countries." At the same time, American scientists invited to take part in the Indian Ocean Expedition—while generally sympathetic with U.S. foreign policy aims—prioritized research programs in the physical branches of the environmental sciences. While policy-makers hoped to encourage biological research, with the aim of encouraging fisheries and protein production to aid Indian citizens, earth scientists—better-funded, better-organized, supported by military agencies because their studies were crucial to national security—came to dominate the IIOE. While the IIOE was later judged a success, for it extended long-running research programs in physical and chemical oceanography into a less-explored ocean, hopes to advance biological programs on an equal footing proved premature.
Fudge, Nina; Sadler, Euan; Fisher, Helen R; Maher, John; Wolfe, Charles D A; McKevitt, Christopher
Translational research is central to international health policy, research and funding initiatives. Despite increasing use of the term, the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical practice is not straightforward. This systematic search and narrative synthesis aimed to examine factors enabling or hindering translational research from the perspective of basic and clinician scientists, a key stakeholder group in translational research, and to draw policy-relevant implications for organisations seeking to optimise translational research opportunities. We searched SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception until April 2015 for papers reporting scientists' views of the factors they perceive as enabling or hindering the conduct of translational research. We screened 8,295 papers from electronic database searches and 20 papers from hand searches and citation tracking, identifying 26 studies of qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. We used a narrative synthesis approach and identified the following themes: 1) differing concepts of translational research 2) research processes as a barrier to translational research; 3) perceived cultural divide between research and clinical care; 4) interdisciplinary collaboration as enabling translation research, but dependent on the quality of prior and current social relationships; 5) translational research as entrepreneurial science. Across all five themes, factors enabling or hindering translational research were largely shaped by wider social, organisational, and structural factors. To optimise translational research, policy could consider refining translational research models to better reflect scientists' experiences, fostering greater collaboration and buy in from all types of scientists. Organisations could foster cultural change, ensuring that organisational practices and systems keep pace with the change in knowledge production brought about by the translational research agenda.
Full Text Available Translational research is central to international health policy, research and funding initiatives. Despite increasing use of the term, the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical practice is not straightforward. This systematic search and narrative synthesis aimed to examine factors enabling or hindering translational research from the perspective of basic and clinician scientists, a key stakeholder group in translational research, and to draw policy-relevant implications for organisations seeking to optimise translational research opportunities.We searched SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception until April 2015 for papers reporting scientists' views of the factors they perceive as enabling or hindering the conduct of translational research. We screened 8,295 papers from electronic database searches and 20 papers from hand searches and citation tracking, identifying 26 studies of qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. We used a narrative synthesis approach and identified the following themes: 1 differing concepts of translational research 2 research processes as a barrier to translational research; 3 perceived cultural divide between research and clinical care; 4 interdisciplinary collaboration as enabling translation research, but dependent on the quality of prior and current social relationships; 5 translational research as entrepreneurial science. Across all five themes, factors enabling or hindering translational research were largely shaped by wider social, organisational, and structural factors.To optimise translational research, policy could consider refining translational research models to better reflect scientists' experiences, fostering greater collaboration and buy in from all types of scientists. Organisations could foster cultural change, ensuring that organisational practices and systems keep pace with the change in knowledge production brought about by the translational research agenda.
Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O
In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.
Full Text Available This article presents contributions from three translation scholars aimed at discussing the present situation of audiovisual translation research in Brazil and in Europe. The first contribution deals with issues concerning both contexts whereas the two others focus on local research issues.Este artigo apresenta contribuições de três pesquisadoras de tradução que discutem a situação atual das pesquisas sobre tradução audiovisual no Brasil e na Europa. A primeira contribuição trata de questões correlatas aos dois contextos enquanto que as duas outras enfocam questões de pesquisa de interesse local.
Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.
Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...
Børresen, Betina; Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias
Cancer bearing dogs represent a unique clinical cancer model with a direct potential for accelerating translation into human patients. A research collaboration between the veterinary and human medical facilities at Copenhagen University and Rigshospitalet has taken offset in this. Canine cancer...... patients are implemented for development of new strategies in molecular imaging and radiotherapy. The obtained results will be used to guide human clinical trials....
The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies. | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC takes advantage of the specific binding between antigen and antibody to measure the presence and abundance of antigen while simultaneously providing morphologic context on a tissue section. Since the revolutionary application of heat-induced epitope retrieval methods on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, which started in early 1990s, IHC has been routinely used in diagnostic pathology. This approach has also enabled mining of the rich archives of pathologic specimens for exploration in translational cancer research. Newer IHC biomarkers are being continuously found as aids in differential diagnosis, prediction of outcome or response to molecular-targeted therapies. These are prime examples for translational cancer research. The last decade has witnessed some significant improvements in the use of this technology. This review provides an overview on the current status of IHC as applied in translational cancer research, commenting on the underlying principles in specimen preparation, reagent choice, staining procedure, and results evaluation so that both beginners and seasoned users could appreciate the key factors and benefit from this update.
Sajdyk, Tammy J; Sors, Thomas G; Hunt, Joe D; Murray, Mary E; Deford, Melanie E; Shekhar, Anantha; Denne, Scott C
The trend in conducting successful biomedical research is shifting from individual academic labs to coordinated collaborative research teams. Teams of experienced investigators with a wide variety of expertise are now critical for developing and maintaining a successful, productive research program. However, assembling a team whose members have the right expertise requires a great deal of time and many resources. To assist investigators seeking such resources, the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (Indiana CTSI) created the Project Development Teams (PDTs) program to support translational research on and across the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana University, Purdue University, and University of Notre Dame campuses. PDTs are multidisciplinary committees of seasoned researchers who assist investigators, at any stage of research, in transforming ideas/hypotheses into well-designed translational research projects. The teams help investigators capitalize on Indiana CTSI resources by providing investigators with, as needed, mentoring and career development; protocol development; pilot funding; institutional review board, regulatory, and/or nursing support; intellectual property support; access to institutional technology; and assistance with biostatistics, bioethics, recruiting participants, data mining, engaging community health, and collaborating with other investigators.Indiana CTSI leaders have analyzed metrics, collected since the inception of the PDT program in 2008 from both investigators and team members, and found evidence strongly suggesting that the highly responsive teams have become an important one-stop venue for facilitating productive interactions between basic and clinical scientists across four campuses, have aided in advancing the careers of junior faculty, and have helped investigators successfully obtain external funds.
Flores, África; Fullana, Miquel À; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Andero, Raül
We address some of the current limitations of translational research in fear memory and suggest alternatives that might help to overcome them. Appropriate fear responses are adaptive, but disruption of healthy fear memory circuits can lead to anxiety and fear-based disorders. Stress is one of the main environmental factors that can disrupt memory circuits and constitutes as a key factor in the etiopathology of these psychiatric conditions. Current therapies for anxiety and fear-based disorders have limited success rate, revealing a clear need for an improved understanding of their neurobiological basis. Although animal models are excellent for dissecting fear memory circuits and have driven tremendous advances in the field, translation of these findings into the clinic has been limited so far. Animal models of stress-induced pathological fear combined with powerful cutting-edge techniques would help to improve the translational value of preclinical studies. We also encourage combining animal and human research, including psychiatric patients in order to find new pharmacological targets with real therapeutic potential that will improve the extrapolation of the findings. Finally, we highlight novel neuroimaging approaches that improve our understanding of anxiety and fear-based disorders.
Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Lentini, Salvatore; Favaloro, Angelo; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Di Mauro, Debora
Costameres encircle the myocyte perpendicular to its long axis, and comprise two protein complexes: the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) and the vinculin-talin-integrin system. They participate in signaling functions and protect muscle cells from damage induced by workload. The behaviour of those proteins has been a focus of study starting from skeletal and smooth muscle cells to cardiomyocytes, and still represents a topical subject for cardiovascular translational research. This review summarizes the past and present novel approaches of our and other groups of work on this subject of research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe
Bioethicists have long debated the content of sponsors and researchers' obligations of justice in international clinical research. However, there has been little empirical investigation as to whether and how obligations of responsiveness, ancillary care, post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening are upheld in low- and middle-income country settings. In this paper, the authors argue that research ethics guidelines need to be more informed by international research practice. Practical guidance on how to fulfil these obligations is needed if research groups and other actors are to successfully translate them into practice because doing so is often a complicated, context-specific process. Case study research methods offer one avenue for collecting data to develop this guidance. The authors describe how such methods have been used in relation to the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit's vivax malaria treatment (VHX) trial (NCT01074905). Relying on the VHX trial example, the paper shows how information can be gathered from not only international clinical researchers but also trial participants, community advisory board members and research funder representatives in order to: (1) measure evidence of responsiveness, provision of ancillary care, access to post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening in international clinical research; and (2) identify the contextual factors and roles and responsibilities that were instrumental in the fulfilment of these ethical obligations. Such empirical work is necessary to inform the articulation of obligations of justice in international research and to develop guidance on how to fulfil them in order to facilitate better adherence to guidelines' requirements.
Addressing complex adolescent health problems such as youth violence and teen pregnancy requires innovative strategies to promote protective social environments, increase healthier behaviors, and reduce the impact of health risk behaviors into adulthood. Multilevel, interdisciplinary, and translational approaches are needed to address these challenges in adolescent health. In May 2012, a group of adolescent health researchers participated in a 1-day research symposium titled "From Genes to Community: Exploring Translational Science in Adolescent Health Research," sponsored by the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) of the University of Pittsburgh and the Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The research symposium offered opportunities for adolescent health researchers to share examples of translational research as well as to identify potential collaborations to promote translational research. This and subsequent issues of Clinical and Translational Science will include papers from this symposium. The studies and reviews presented range from how basic biobehavioral sciences such as functional neuroimaging and decision science can be made relevant for intervention development as well as improving strategies for community-partnered knowledge transfer of cutting-edge research findings to promote adolescent health and well-being. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hughes, Claude; Waters, Michael; Allen, David; Obasanjo, Iyabo
Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures.The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan; 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models; 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for: 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics.
Sadasivam, Rajani S; Tanik, Murat M
Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users' needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements.
Chen, Jia-huan; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Xiao-jun; Su, Xiao-quan; Ning, Kang
Humans are born with microbiota, which have accompanied us through our life-span. There is an important symbiotic relationship between us and the microbial communities, thus microbial communities are of great importance to our health. All genomic information within this microbiota is referered to as "metagenomics" (also referred to as "human's second genome"). The analysis of high throughput metagenomic data generated from biomedical experiments would provide new approaches for translational research, and it have several applications in clinics. With the help of next generation sequencing technology and the emerging metagenomic approach (analysis of all genomic information in microbiota as a whole), we can overcome the pitfalls of tedious traditional method of isolation and cultivation of single microbial species. The metagenomic approach can also help us to analyze the whole microbial community efficiently and offer deep insights in human-microbe relationships as well as new ideas on many biomedical problems. In this review, we summarize frontiers in metagenomic research, including new concepts and methods. Then, we focus on the applications of metagenomic research in medical researches and clinical applications in recent years, which would clearly show the importance of metagenomic research in the field of translational medicine.
Meisel, Zachary F; Gollust, Sarah E; Grande, David
Identifying effective strategies to translate research evidence to policy is a national priority and a priority of the health policy research community. Multiple channels exist to disseminate, translate, and communicate research evidence. Some thought leaders have specifically advocated for researchers to play a direct role in research dissemination, particularly through social media. However, this view remains controversial. This Commentary explores the current state of and future opportunities and barriers for alternative avenues of policy-relevant research dissemination. The authors identify four intersecting realities influencing the manner in which the health research community views and adopts various approaches to research translation: (1) persistent gaps in evidence translation and knowledge transfer, particularly in the realm of health policy; (2) public demand for scholars to embrace new modes of research dissemination; (3) the rapid growth and reach of social media to disseminate information; and (4) skepticism and confusion within the academic community about how best to use social media to disseminate policy-relevant research. They conclude that while scholars will need to be engaged in evidence translation to inform health policy, they may be best served by connecting with trusted intermediaries and knowledge brokers to promote efficient use of the best available evidence to answer the most timely policy questions. Journals and universities may be well positioned to invest in this capacity to curate research evidence and disseminate it using social media and other technologies.
Dwyer-White, Molly; Choate, Celeste; Markel, Dorene S
Background: Increasingly clinical and health research awareness is a priority for health and medical research communities. Translational research, including the prevention and treatment of conditions, relies upon proper funding as well as public participation in research studies. This requires executing more effective communication strategies to…
Full Text Available This report describes the result of meteorological observations at Syowa Station by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-49 during the period 1 February 2008 to 27 January 2009. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by the JARE-49 team are nearly the same as those used by the JARE-48 observation team. Remarkable weather phenomena observed during the period of JARE-49 are as follows. 1 On 1 September 2008, the record minimum temperature for September was observed in the upper atmosphere (pressure greater than 175 hPa. 2 The monthly mean temperature at Syowa Station during October 2008 was -17.5°C; this is the lowest monthly mean October temperature recorded at Syowa Station. 3 The total ozone over Syowa Station was less than or equal to 220 m atm-cm during the period from late August to late November, and was close to minimum levels during the period from mid-September to mid-October. The lowest total ozone in 2008, recorded on 16 October 2008, was 140 m atm-cm.
Full Text Available Methanesulphonic acid (MSA, mainly derived from marine biogenic emissions has been frequently used to estimate the marine biogenic contribution. However, there are few reports on MSA over the Arctic Ocean, especially the central Arctic Ocean. Here, we analyzed MSA in aerosol samples collected over the ocean and seas during the Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 2012 using ion chromatography. The aerosol MSA concentrations over the Arctic Ocean varied considerably and ranged from non-detectable (ND to 229 ng/m3, with an average of 27 ± 54 ng/m3 (median: 10 ng/m3. We found the distribution of aerosol MSA exhibited an obvious regional variation, which was affected by biotic and abiotic factors. High values were generally observed in the Norwegian Sea; this phenomenon was attributed to high rates of phytoplankton primary productivity and dimethylsulfide (DMS fluxes in this region. Concentrations over the pack ice region in the central Arctic Ocean were generally lower than over the open waters at the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea. This difference was the mainly caused by sea ice. In addition, we found that higher MSA concentrations were associated with warmer sea surface temperature (SST.
Lucy J Miller
Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.
Miller, Lucy J; Nielsen, Darci M; Schoen, Sarah A; Brett-Green, Barbara A
THIS ARTICLE EXPLORES THE CONVERGENCE OF TWO FIELDS, WHICH HAVE SIMILAR THEORETICAL ORIGINS: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.
Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world of research, communicating with scholars in the same language and culture and with scholars from other cultures and linguistic background is a sine qua non in/of all sciences, including those using qualitative social research. The nature of language is at least latently recognized especially by those scholars who communicate with their peers in a non-native language, such as English, which has become de facto the scientific lingua franca. Although many are aware of the difficulties of rendering something a scholar wants to say in another language, the nature of language as a non-self-identical process is hardly if ever articulated. Instead, the metaphysical idea of the same "meanings" that can be rendered in multiple languages by means of translation—literally, "carried across"—is endemic to the scientific culture. In the very definition of science (e.g., in the description of research methods, experiments must operate the same (must be reproducible wherever and by whomever these are conducted. In this contribution to the debate concerning translation, conducted in the context of the FQS debate "Quality of Qualitative Research," I articulate theoretical and pragmatic dimensions on the topic, drawing on empirical investigations, literary works, and philosophical investigations to explicate how translation is both theoretically impossible and pervasively achieved in/as everyday praxis. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302132
Murtagh, Madeleine J; Minion, Joel T; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W; Burton, Paul R
Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement is, by its nature, reciprocal and relational: the process of engaging research participants, patients, citizens and others (the many 'publics' of engagement) brings them closer to the research but also brings the research closer to them. When translating research into practice, engaging the public and other stakeholders is explicitly intended to make the outcomes of translation relevant to its constituency of users. In practice, engagement faces numerous challenges and is often time-consuming, expensive and 'thorny' work. We explore the epistemic and ontological considerations and implications of four common critiques of engagement methodologies that contest: representativeness, communication and articulation, impacts and outcome, and democracy. The ECOUTER (Employing COnceptUal schema for policy and Translation Engagement in Research) methodology addresses problems of representation and epistemic foundationalism using a methodology that asks, "How could it be otherwise?" ECOUTER affords the possibility of engagement where spatial and temporal constraints are present, relying on saturation as a method of 'keeping open' the possible considerations that might emerge and including reflexive use of qualitative analytic methods. This paper describes the ECOUTER process, focusing on one worked example and detailing lessons learned from four other pilots. ECOUTER uses mind-mapping techniques to 'open up' engagement, iteratively and organically. ECOUTER aims to balance the breadth, accessibility and user-determination of the scope of engagement. An ECOUTER
Pienta, Kenneth J
Translational research encompasses the effective movement of new knowledge and discoveries into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. There are many roadblocks to successful bench to bedside research, but few have received as much recent attention as the "valley of death". The valley of death refers to the lack of funding and support for research that moves basic science discoveries into diagnostics, devices, and treatments in humans, and is ascribed to be the result of companies unwilling to fund research development that may not result in a drug or device that will be utilized in the clinic and conversely, the fact that researchers have no access to the funding needed to carry out preclinical and early clinical development to demonstrate potential efficacy in humans. The valley of death also exists because bridging the translational gap is dependent on successfully managing an additional four risks: scientific, intellectual property, market, and regulatory. The University of Michigan (UM) has partnered with the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation (CF) to create a model providing an infrastructure to overcome these risks. This model is easily adoptable to other academic medical centers (AMCs). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Willem H.
Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.
Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; van Harten, Willem H.
Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.
Minssen, Timo; Verlinden, Michiel; Huys, Isabelle
The gradual shift from traditional closed innovation systems to more “open” and “transparent” innovation models, rapid technological advances and bio-pharmaceutical innovation gaps have highlighted the importance of an effective governance and use of biobanks. This raises important legal questions...... an overview and analysis of the most relevant IPRs in biobanking and to discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with an effective use of biobanks in translational research and innovation. Section 1 specifies challenges in finding a balance between an open and a close collaboration model. Section 2...
Bayer, Jordana K; Rapee, Ronald M; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Mihalopoulos, Catherine; Wake, Melissa
This article discusses the importance of and one approach to translational research to prevent internalizing problems very early in life. The World Health Organisation (WHO) predicts that by 2,030 internalizing problems will be second only to HIV/AIDS in the international burden of disease. Internalizing problems affect one in every seven school age children, with negative impacts on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, adult relationships, and employment. There is persuasive evidence that intervention in the preschool years can have a cost-effective impact on general developmental outcomes, compared to later school or adult intervention. However, the development of early childhood prevention for internalizing problems is in its infancy. Two significant risk factors for child internalizing problems are temperamental inhibition (characterized by fearfulness and withdrawal) and overinvolved/protective parenting practices. Rapee et al. have conducted two randomized "efficacy" trials with inhibited preschoolers in which a parenting group intervention reduced internalizing disorders up to 3 years later. Translational "effectiveness" research is now underway at the population level, to determine the balance of benefits and harms of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition and subsequent intervention for all those affected. This rigorous public health research, followed by effective dissemination, addresses gaps identified in the WHO Prevention of Mental Disorders report. Depression and Anxiety, 2011.© 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M
Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.
Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M
Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility...
Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M
Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility...... with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...
Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.
Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927
Jiang Fan; Zhang Jun; Wang Xiangdong; Shen Xiaoming
Abstract Translational medicine entails not only “from-bench-to-bedside” but also preventive medicine. The present article proposes a conceptual framework of translational research from scientific research to health care policy and public health policy. We highlight the importance of translational medicine to bridge between research and policy and share our experience of translating medical research to public health policy in China as well as obstacles and challenges we are facing in the tran...
Yan Wei Lim
Full Text Available Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.
Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A
Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.
Full Text Available Abstract The King's College London (KCL Infectious Diseases BioBank opened in 2007 and collects peripheral venous blood (PVB from individuals infected with pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. PVBs are fractionated into plasmas, lymphocytes and DNA and are then frozen. All donations are from subjects who have given 'open consent' so samples can be used for virtually any type of biomedical research. The HIV component of the BioBank contains samples from over 400 donations from 138 HIV+ patients. Thus, the KCL Infectious Diseases BioBank - together with establishments such as the Spanish HIV BioBank - is likely to expedite translational research into this infection.
Williams, Rachel; Mant, Christine; Cason, John
The King's College London (KCL) Infectious Diseases BioBank opened in 2007 and collects peripheral venous blood (PVB) from individuals infected with pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PVBs are fractionated into plasmas, lymphocytes and DNA and are then frozen. All donations are from subjects who have given 'open consent' so samples can be used for virtually any type of biomedical research. The HIV component of the BioBank contains samples from over 400 donations from 138 HIV+ patients. Thus, the KCL Infectious Diseases BioBank--together with establishments such as the Spanish HIV BioBank--is likely to expedite translational research into this infection.
Christine Azevedo Coste
Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.
Estape, Estela S; Mays, Mary Helen; Harrigan, Rosanne; Mayberry, Robert
The transfer of new scientific discoveries into healthcare interventions requires that basic and clinical researchers work together with health care providers to generate team science. These innovative models require translational teams, and need to extend beyond the academic environment. The future of translational science requires partnerships with the healthcare community as well as the broader, general community. This new integrated model of effective translational teams holds promise for addressing thorny and persistent health disparities, is consistent with the nation's strategic priority of eliminating health disparities, and bodes well for increasing healthcare effectiveness aimed at better health for all. As part of the 13th Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) International Symposium on Health Disparities, several senior academic leaders joined efforts to hold a workshop to discuss a model that considers the incorporation of two translational research strategies in research career development programs: Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and community-based participatory research (CBPR) for increasing healthcare effectiveness and eliminating healthcare disparities. Discussion included what issues may be most germane to the concept of a unified model for research workforce development through formal training and career development leading to increased effectiveness in healthcare for better health. We believe that there is a gap in knowledge and skills in formal research career development programs that will enable physicians, other clinicians, and basic scientists to actively participate in these two translational research strategies. The purpose of this paper is to share the outcomes of these discussions, and encourage further discussion and possible innovation in the formulation of a new model for translational research workforce development.
Kaitin, Kenneth I
This article addresses current challenges facing pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical developers, including the expiration of patents on many high-revenue-generating products, increasing competition in the marketplace, low public support, high regulatory hurdles, and the increasing time, cost, and risk of new product development. To meet these challenges, drug developers are looking to new models of innovation to improve efficiency, lower risk, and increase output. These new models include codevelopment agreements with small companies, multicompany consortia, and strategic partnerships with academic research centers. In the United States and the European Union, the government is supporting these efforts by creating incentives for academic centers to foster translational research and become more "commercially minded". The goal for all stakeholders is to reduce the barriers to product development and bring new medicines to market in a timely and cost-efficient manner.
Gold, E Richard
Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.
Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.
Contemporary research models are becoming increasingly transdisciplinary (TD), multilevel, community-connected, and bent on expediting the movement of research to impact. This requires not only fresh thinking about the science of social work but an educational architecture that fosters both cross-disciplinary understanding of complex underlying…
This article explores aspects of translation, multilingualism and language policy in the field of transnational civil society. By focusing on translation policies at Amnesty International, an international non-governmental organisation that performs a key role in global governance, this article seeks to contribute to a globalisation-sensitive sociolinguistics. It argues that combining a sociolinguistic approach, more precisely linguistic ethnography, with translation studies leads to an incre...
Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen
It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An ess...
Zoellner, Jamie; Van Horn, Linda; Gleason, Philip M; Boushey, Carol J
This monograph is tenth in a series of articles focused on research design and analysis, and provides an overview of translational research concepts. Specifically, this article presents models and processes describing translational research, defines key terms, discusses methodological considerations for speeding the translation of nutrition research into practice, illustrates application of translational research concepts for nutrition practitioners and researchers, and provides examples of translational research resources and training opportunities. To promote the efficiency and translation of evidence-based nutrition guidelines into routine clinical-, community-, and policy-based practice, the dissemination and implementation phases of translational research are highlighted and illustrated in this monograph. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard
Michael R. Emmert-Buck
Full Text Available Advances in biology are occurring at a breathtaking pace today, from genetic insights facilitated by the Human Genome Project and next generation DNA sequencing technologies, to global nucleic acid and proteomic expression measurement using new high-throughput methods. Less publicized in recent years, yet still the central driver of progress, are the steadily proceeding biological insights gained through tried and true hypothesis-driven investigation into the complex worlds of metabolism, growth, development, and regulation. Certainly, the basic science ecosystem is productive and this portends well for the myriad new applications that will benefit mankind; drugs, vaccines, devices, and related economic growth—or perhaps not—in stark contrast to the generation of fundamental biological knowledge are inefficiencies in applying this information to real-world problems, especially those of the clinic. While investigation hums along at light speed, translation often does not. The good news is that obstacles to progress are tractable. The bad news, however, is that these problems are difficult. The present paper examines translational research from multiple perspectives, beginning with a historical account and proceeding to the current state of the art. Included are descriptions of successes and challenges, along with conjecture on how the field may need to evolve in the future.
The result is that apartheid vocabulary is highlighted. The second translation of the Afrikaans Bible goes pari passu with acquiescent social consciousness among the Afrikaners. This translation as a target text oriented translation introduces a new vocabulary of reconciliation, clearly apparent from the quotes contained in ...
Wang, William S-Y.; And Others
This report documents results of a two-year effort toward the study and investigation of the design of a prototype system for Chinese-English machine translation in the general area of physics. Previous work in Chinese-English machine translation is reviewed. Grammatical considerations in machine translation are discussed and detailed aspects of…
大木, 桃代; 遊佐, 希; 村山, 明美; 佐田, 礼子; 小瀧, 一; 田原, 秀晃
Translational research involves the development of new treatments for currently incurable illnesses, based on cutting edge findings of scientific research. In order to conduct translational research maintaining the highest ethics and science, Translational Research Coordinators (TRCs) at the Research Hospital of the Institute of Medical Science of the University of Tokyo monitor research from an objective third-party perspective. The objectives of the present study were two-fold: 1) from the ...
New health technologies are rapidly emerging from various areas of bioscience research, such as gene editing, regenerative medicine and synthetic biology. These technologies raise promising medical possibilities but also a range of ethical considerations. Apart from the issues involved in considering whether novel health technologies can or should become part of mainstream medical treatment once established, the process of research translation to develop such therapies itself entails particular ethical concerns. In this paper I use synthetic biology as an example of a new and largely unexplored area of health technology to consider the ways in which novel health technologies are likely to emerge and the ethical challenges these will present. I argue that such developments require us to rethink conventional attitudes towards clinical research, the roles of doctors/researchers and patients/participants with respect to research, and the relationship between science and society; and that a broader framework is required to address the plurality of stakeholder roles and interests involved in the development of treatments based on novel technologies.
Li, Ying; Cao, Jia; Zhou, Laixin
Translational research in public health (TRPH) increasingly attracted attention. Focus of TRPH is not only patients, it also emphasizes to promote health for all society and whole population. Therefore, TRPH is more complicated, involves multi-disciplines and multi-sectors. This paper analyzed the conception, features of TRPH, and challenges faced by research organization of public health.
Full Text Available The 40th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-40 wintering party, with 40 members, has successfully conducted the third-year project of the Vth five-year JARE program, over the period from 1st February 1999 to 31st January 2000, at Syowa Station, Antarctica.The framework of the JARE-40 wintering party program was the same as those of JARE-38 and JARE-39, comprising three routine observation programs and project/monitoring research observation programs in upper atmospheric physics, atmospheric sciences and glaciology, geophysics, and biology. In addition to many continuing projects, several new observations were started: 50MHz/112MHz aurora radars and a VLF wave receiver as part of the ionosphere program, aerosol sonde observations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs as part of the meteorological program, HF/MF radars as part of the upper atmospheric physics program, frequent VLBI experiments as part of the geophysics program, and biological field surveys (including two dives, including monitoring of the undersea behavior of Weddell seals using bio-logging devices.In terms of inland field surveys, two parties were organized: fuel transportation and glaciological/meteorological observations along the route to Mizuho Station in August-September and to Dome Fuji/Yamato air-basecamp in November-January. These surveys involved snow sampling, precise GPS positioning, and sub-glacial surveys using three types of ice radar.Logistical activities, conducted in cooperation with the JARE-40 summer party, included the construction of a second summer lodge, the startup of a second 300 kVA generator and co-generator system, the development of a sewage plant, solar power panels, an access road to the A-heliport, and the cleanup of disused buildings. During the wintering period, efforts were directed towards the maintenance of all facilities at Syowa Station, safety management, and practical support for field operations.The Antarctic Environmental
Brassil, Donna; Kost, Rhonda G; Dowd, Kathleen A; Hurley, Arlene M; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Coller, Barry S
The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty-four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brandizi, Marco; Melnichuk, Olga; Bild, Raffael; Kohlmayer, Florian; Rodriguez-Castro, Benedicto; Spengler, Helmut; Kuhn, Klaus A; Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Ohmann, Christian; Mustonen, Timo; Linden, Mikael; Nyrönen, Tommi; Lappalainen, Ilkka; Brazma, Alvis; Sarkans, Ugis
Translational researchers need robust IT solutions to access a range of data types, varying from public data sets to pseudonymised patient information with restricted access, provided on a case by case basis. The reason for this complication is that managing access policies to sensitive human data must consider issues of data confidentiality, identifiability, extent of consent, and data usage agreements. All these ethical, social and legal aspects must be incorporated into a differential management of restricted access to sensitive data. In this paper we present a pilot system that uses several common open source software components in a novel combination to coordinate access to heterogeneous biomedical data repositories containing open data (open access) as well as sensitive data (restricted access) in the domain of biobanking and biosample research. Our approach is based on a digital identity federation and software to manage resource access entitlements. Open source software components were assembled and configured in such a way that they allow for different ways of restricted access according to the protection needs of the data. We have tested the resulting pilot infrastructure and assessed its performance, feasibility and reproducibility. Common open source software components are sufficient to allow for the creation of a secure system for differential access to sensitive data. The implementation of this system is exemplary for researchers facing similar requirements for restricted access data. Here we report experience and lessons learnt of our pilot implementation, which may be useful for similar use cases. Furthermore, we discuss possible extensions for more complex scenarios.
Runyon, Michael S; Sawe, Hendry R; Levine, Adam C; Pousson, Amelia; House, Darlene R; Agrawal, Pooja; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Weiner, Scott G; Douglass, Katherine
As policy-makers increasingly recognize emergency care to be a global health priority, the need for high-quality clinical and translational research in this area continues to grow. As part of the proceedings of the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, this article discusses the importance of: 1) including clinical and translational research in the initial emergency care development plan, 2) defining the burden of acute disease and the barriers to conducting research in resource-limited settings, 3) assessing the appropriateness and effectiveness of local and global acute care guidelines within the local context, 4) studying the local research infrastructure needs to understand the best methods to build a sustainable research infrastructure, and 5) studying the long-term effects of clinical research programs on health care systems. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Reis, Steven E; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R; Califf, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Johnson, Peter C
Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process, in turn, depends on observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation's academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding.To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006 the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program's overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation's academic health centers.
Jaeyoung Choi RN, PhD
Full Text Available Achieving conceptual equivalence between two languages is a challenge in cross-cultural, cross-language research, as the research is conducted in a language that is not the researcher's or research team's first language. Therefore, translation provides an additional challenge in cross-cultural research. The comprehension and interpretation of the meaning of data is central in cross-cultural qualitative analysis. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the translation process and explore some of the challenges, such as difficulties in finding a suitable translator, and the importance of communication between the researcher and the translator.
To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...
de Graaf, Gimon; Postmus, Douwe; Buskens, Erik
Translational research is conducted to achieve a predefined set of economic or societal goals. As a result, investment decisions on where available resources have the highest potential in achieving these goals have to be made. In this paper, we first describe how multicriteria decision analysis can
Background Translational medicine is attracting much attention worldwide and many translational research organizations (TROs) have been established. In China, translational medicine has developed rapidly, but faces many challenges. This study was aimed at exploring these challenges faced by emerging TROs in China. Method A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to assess the challenges faced by TROs in China. Data were collected between May and August 2012. Results Eight cases were identified. Overall, four themes that characterized TROs in China emerged from analyses: 1. objectives, organizer, and funding resources, 2. participating partners and research teams, 3. management, and 4. achievements. All TROs had objectives related to translating basic discovery to clinic treatment and cultivating translational researchers. In terms of organizer and funding resources, 7 out of 8 TROs were launched only by universities and/or hospitals, and funded mostly through research grants. As for participating partners and multidisciplinary research teams, all but one of the TROs only involved biomedical research institutions who were interested in translational research, and characterized as clinical research centers; 7 out of 8 TROs involved only researchers from biomedicine and clinical disciplines and none involved disciplines related to education, ethnicity, and sociology, or engaged the community. Current management of the TROs were generally nested within the traditional research management paradigms, and failed to adapt to the tenets of translational research. Half of the TROs were at developmental stages defined as infrastructure construction and recruitment of translational researchers. Conclusions TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should
Schork, Nicholas J; Goetz, Laura H
There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e.g., nutrient supplementation) or disease prevention strategy (e.g., specific diet). However, as compelling and intuitive as personalized nutrition might be in the current era in which data-intensive biomedical characterization of individuals is possible, appropriately and objectively vetting personalized nutrition strategies is not trivial and requires novel study designs and data analytical methods. These designs and methods must consider a very integrated use of the multiple contemporary biomedical assays and technologies that motivate them, which adds to their complexity. Single-subject or N-of-1 trials can be used to assess the utility of personalized interventions and, in addition, can be crafted in such a way as to accommodate the necessarily integrated use of many emerging biomedical technologies and assays. In this review, we consider the motivation, design, and implementation of N-of-1 trials in translational nutrition research that are meant to assess the utility of personalized nutritional strategies. We provide a number of example studies, discuss appropriate analytical methods given the complex data they generate and require, and consider how such studies could leverage integration of various biomarker assays and clinical end points. Importantly, we also consider the development of strategies and
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Reisner, Sari L; Juvonen, Jaana; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Perrotti, Jeff; Schuster, Mark A
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth experience significant bullying that undermines their mental and physical health. National health organizations have called for the development of innovative strategies to address LGBTQ bullying. Pediatricians and other clinicians, medical and public health students, interdisciplinary researchers, government officials, school leaders, community members, parents, and youth from around the country came together at a national symposium entitled "LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action to Improve the Health of All Youth" in May 2016 to generate strategies to prevent LGBTQ bullying and meet the needs of LGBTQ youth experiencing bullying. This article describes key scientific findings on bullying, LGBTQ stigma, and LGBTQ bullying interventions that were shared at the symposium and provides recommendations for pediatricians to address LGBTQ bullying via clinical care, research, interventions, and policy. Symposium participants recommended that pediatricians engage in efforts to foster inclusive and affirming health care environments wherein LGBTQ youth feel comfortable discussing their identities and experiences, identify youth experiencing LGBTQ bullying, and prevent the negative health consequences of bullying among youth. Moreover, pediatricians can attend to how multiple identities (eg, sexual orientation, gender identity, race and/or ethnicity, disability, and others) shape youth experiences of bullying and expand intervention efforts to address LGBTQ bullying in health care settings. Pediatricians can further advocate for evidence-based, antibullying policies prohibiting bullying on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. Collaboration between pediatricians and diverse stakeholders can contribute to the development and implementation of lasting change in all forms of bullying, including LGBTQ bullying. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research). Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation. Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer. She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act. These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed. They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening. Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening. The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public
Surkis, Alisa; Hogle, Janice A; DiazGranados, Deborah; Hunt, Joe D; Mazmanian, Paul E; Connors, Emily; Westaby, Kate; Whipple, Elizabeth C; Adamus, Trisha; Mueller, Meridith; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon
Translational research is a key area of focus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), as demonstrated by the substantial investment in the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program. The goal of the CTSA program is to accelerate the translation of discoveries from the bench to the bedside and into communities. Different classification systems have been used to capture the spectrum of basic to clinical to population health research, with substantial differences in the number of categories and their definitions. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the CTSA program and of translational research in general is hampered by the lack of rigor in these definitions and their application. This study adds rigor to the classification process by creating a checklist to evaluate publications across the translational spectrum and operationalizes these classifications by building machine learning-based text classifiers to categorize these publications. Based on collaboratively developed definitions, we created a detailed checklist for categories along the translational spectrum from T0 to T4. We applied the checklist to CTSA-linked publications to construct a set of coded publications for use in training machine learning-based text classifiers to classify publications within these categories. The training sets combined T1/T2 and T3/T4 categories due to low frequency of these publication types compared to the frequency of T0 publications. We then compared classifier performance across different algorithms and feature sets and applied the classifiers to all publications in PubMed indexed to CTSA grants. To validate the algorithm, we manually classified the articles with the top 100 scores from each classifier. The definitions and checklist facilitated classification and resulted in good inter-rater reliability for coding publications for the training set. Very good performance was achieved for the classifiers as represented by the area under the receiver operating
Rennie, Timothy W; Engova, Dita; Bates, Ian
To research patient perceptions of medicines and illness in a multicultural setting, it is appropriate to translate research materials. However, the translation procedures should be valid and reliable to assure accuracy. To translate into 3 languages-Turkish, Urdu, and Bengali-a research questionnaire investigating illness and medicines perceptions of tuberculosis patients and to validate the translation. A 4-stage protocol for the translation and validation of research questionnaires investigating illness and medicines perceptions was designed and implemented. This involved forward and back-translation, group-validation, and post hoc conceptual equivalence rating in 3 different languages. The translation protocol was found to be very useful in identifying discrepancies between original and translated versions; a total of 83 amendments were required. Post hoc evaluations also demonstrated improvements for 2 of the 3 language translations. Some redundancy was apparent and an improved protocol was suggested by the authors. This study demonstrated that including a protocol for translation and validation of the translation is crucial to assure accuracy in multicultural research.
Jabbari, Ali; Petukhova, Lynn; Cabral, Rita M; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M
Synopsis Alopecia Areata (AA) is a recurrent autoimmune type of hair loss that affects about 5.3 million people in the United States alone. Despite being the most prevalent autoimmune disease, affecting more individuals than most other autoimmune diseases combined, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this complex disease are still poorly understood, and rational treatments are lacking. It is currently accepted that AA is an autoimmune disease that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and that environmental factors play a role in the development and progression of the disease. However, further efforts are necessary to clearly pinpoint the causes and molecular pathways leading to this disease and, most importantly, to find evidence-based treatments to treat AA. Here, we will focus on the central role of genetics for gaining insight into disease pathogenesis and setting the stage for the rational development of novel effective therapeutic approaches. This is an exciting new era marking the beginning of translational research in AA based on genetic findings. PMID:23159180
Full Text Available It sounds simple to obtain sufficient numbers of cells derived from fetal or adult human tissues, isolate and/or expand the stem cells, and then transplant an appropriate number of these cells into the patient at the correct location. However, translating basic research into routine therapies is a complex multistep process which necessitates product regulation. The challenge relates to managing the expected therapeutic benefits with the potential risks and to balance the fast move to clinical trials with time-consuming cautious risk assessment. This paper will focus on the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, and challenges and achievements in the manufacturing process enabling their use in clinical studies. It will allude to different cellular sources, special capacities of MSCs, but also to current regulations, with a special focus on accessory material of human or animal origin, like media supplements. As cellular integrity and purity, formulation and lot release testing of the final product, validation of all procedures, and quality assurance are of utmost necessity, these topics will be addressed.
Rodgers, R J
Despite substantial progress in our understanding of the complex bio-machinery involved in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis, few weight loss drugs are currently government-approved in the USA or Europe. While acknowledging novel drug monotherapies (such as Belviq ® & Saxenda ® ), this review focuses on the various drug polytherapies that are currently attracting so much research interest. Unfortunately, however, the dependent variables in these new studies remain firmly rooted in outcome measures i.e. reduced food intake and bodyweight. Such evidence is clearly essential, as are physiological data bearing upon potential 'off-target' effects of any new treatment. However, as emphasised by many authors, this profiling has to be matched by sophisticated behavioural analysis addressing fundamental 'process' questions such as how such reductions in intake and/or bodyweight have been achieved. The value of behavioural analysis is exemplified, and it is argued that such a process-led approach should optimise the translation from preclinical to clinical development of candidate drugs, and avoid yet further expensive blind alleys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Main, Deborah S; Felzien, Maret C; Magid, David J; Calonge, B Ned; O'Brien, Ruth A; Kempe, Allison; Nearing, Kathryn
National growth in translational research has increased the need for practical tools to improve how academic institutions engage communities in research. One used by the Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) to target investments in community-based translational research on health disparities is a Community Engagement (CE) Pilot Grants program. Innovative in design, the program accepts proposals from either community or academic applicants, requires that at least half of requested grant funds go to the community partner, and offers two funding tracks: One to develop new community-academic partnerships (up to $10,000), the other to strengthen existing partnerships through community translational research projects (up to $30,000). We have seen early success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $272,742 in our first cycle led to over $2.8 million dollars in additional grant funding, with grantees reporting strengthening capacity of their community- academic partnerships and the rigor and relevance of their research.
Full Text Available Globally, one of the major trends is the development of translational medicine. The traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer and to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. Following the times, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. To establish a research-oriented hospital has become an important strategy to guide the scientific development of high-quality medical institutions and to advance translational medicine development. To facilitate translational medicine by developing research-oriented hospital, the Chinese Research Hospital Association (CRHA has been established, which provides service of medicine, talents cultivation, scientific research and clinical teaching and covers areas of theoretical research, academic exchange, translational medicine, talents training and practice guiding. On the whole, research-oriented hospital facilitated translational medicine by developing interdisciplinary platform, training core competencies in clinical and translational research, providing financial support of translational research, and hosting journals on translational medicine, etc.
Larizza, C; Gabetta, M; Milani, G; Bucalo, M; Mulas, F; Nuzzo, A; Favalli, V; Arbustini, E; Bellazzi, R
The INHERITANCE project, funded by the European Commission, is aimed at studying genetic or inherited Dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM) and at understanding the impact and management of the disease within families that suffer from heart conditions that are caused by DCMs. The biomedical informatics research activity of the project aims at implementing information technology solutions to support the project team in the different phases of their research, in particular in genes screening prioritization and new gene-disease association discovery. In order to manage the huge quantity of scientific, clinical and patient data generated by the project several advanced biomedical informatics tools have been developed. The paper describes a layer of software instruments to support translation of the results of the project in clinical practice as well as to support the scientific discovery process. This layer includes data warehousing, intelligent querying of the phenotype data, integrated search of biological data and knowledge repositories, text mining of the relevant literature, and case based reasoning. At the moment, a set of 1,394 patients and 9,784 observations has been stored into the INHERITANCE data warehouse. The literature database contains more than 1,100,000 articles retrieved from the Pubmed and generically related to cardiac diseases, already analyzed for extracting medical concepts and genes. After two years of project the data warehouse has been completely set up and the text mining tools for automatic literature analysis have been implemented and tested. A first prototype of the decision support tool for knowledge discovery and gene prioritization is available, but a more complete release is still under development.
Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen
The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These
Baldwin, Julie A; Williamson, Heather J; Eaves, Emery R; Levin, Bruce L; Burton, Donna L; Massey, Oliver T
While some research training programs have considered the importance of mentoring in inspiring professionals to engage in translational research, most evaluations emphasize outcomes specific to academic productivity as primary measures of training program success. The impact of such training or mentoring programs on stakeholders and local community organizations engaged in translational research efforts has received little attention. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore outcomes other than traditional academic productivity in a translational research graduate certificate program designed to pair graduate students and behavioral health professionals in collaborative service-learning projects. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with scholars, community mentors, and academic mentors were conducted regarding a translational research program to identify programmatic impacts. Interviews were transcribed and coded by the research team to identify salient themes related to programmatic outcomes. Results are framed using the Translational Research Impact Scale which is organized into three overarching domains of potential impact: (1) research-related impacts, (2) translational impacts, and (3) societal impacts. This evaluation demonstrates the program's impact in all three domains of the TRIS evaluation framework. Graduate certificate participants (scholars) reported that gaining experience in applied behavioral health settings added useful skills and expertise to their present careers and increased their interest in pursuing translational research. Scholars also described benefits resulting from networks gained through participation in the program, including valuable ties between the university and community behavioral health organizations. This evaluation of the outcomes of a graduate certificate program providing training in translational research highlights the need for more community-oriented and practice-based measures of success. Encouraging practitioner
Jacqueline M. Tetroe; Ian D. Graham; Robbie Foy; Nicole Robinson; Martin P. Eccles; Michel Wensing; Pierre Durieux; France Légaré; Camilla Palmhøj Nielson; Armita Adily; Jeanette E. Ward; Cassandra Porter; Beverley Shea; Jeremy M. Grimshaw
Context: The process of knowledge translation (KT) in health research depends on the activities of a wide range of actors, including health professionals, researchers, the public, policymakers, and research funders...
Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith
This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.
Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne
Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. Performance assessment can identify improvement areas that will help reduce translational delays. Currently, no standard method exists to identify models for use in performance assessment. This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Methods. We conducted a systematic review to identify models and developed a set of criteria based on scientometrics, complex adaptive systems, research and development processes, and strategic evaluation. Models were assessed for linkage between research and care components, new knowledge, systems integration, performance assessment, and review of other models. Results. Twelve models were identified; six described phases/components for translational research in different blocks (T models) and six described the process of translational research (process models). Both models view translational research as an accumulation of new knowledge. However, process models more clearly address systems integration, link research and care components, and were developed for evaluating and improving the performance of translational research. T models are more likely to review other models. Conclusion. Process models seem to be more suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers than T models. The most suitable process models (the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications) must be thoroughly tested in practice. PMID:23263926
Dao, Hanh Dung; Kota, Pravina; James, Judith A; Stoner, Julie A; Akins, Darrin R
In response to National Institutes of Health initiatives to improve translation of basic science discoveries we surveyed faculty to assess patterns of and barriers to translational research in Oklahoma. An online survey was administered to University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Medicine faculty, which included demographic and research questions. Results: Responses were received from 126 faculty members (24%). Two-thirds spent ≥ 20%time on research; among these, 90% conduct clinical and translational research. Identifying funding; recruiting research staff and participants; preparing reports and agreements; and protecting research time were commonly perceived as at least moderate barriers to conducting research. While respondents largely collaborated within their discipline, clinical investigators were more likely than basic science investigators to engage in interdisciplinary research. While engagement in translational research is common, specific barriers impact the research process. This could be improved through an expanded interdisciplinary collaboration and research support structure.
Full Text Available This report describes the activities of the 52nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-52 during the 2010-2011 austral summer. JARE-52, as the first year of the"VIIIth JARE 6-year program", carried out various research projects and logistical plans. Basic observations, composed of routine observations and monitoring observations, were continued as part of long-term observations, and a newly established prioritized research program"Global Warming Investigated from the Antarctic"was started, comprising three sub-targets:"Global Environmental Changes from the Antarctic Middle and Upper Atmosphere","Responses of Southern Ocean Ecosystems in Global Warming"and"Current and Future Global Environment seen from Glacial-Interglacial Cycles". Ten projects of the ordinary research observations program, including astronomy in Antarctica, were also carried out. The largest tasks of the expedition were the setting of the large atmospheric MST/IS radar (PANSY and the construction of a building for harnessing natural energy and providing garage space. The main summer activities involved the transportation of materials, the maintenance of facilities at Syowa Station, and observations from on board the icebreaker RV Shirase and in the field, including an inland trip to Dome Fuji Station. Given the extensive sea ice in Lutzow-Holm Bay following the 51st expedition, we expected difficult conditions during the 2010-2011 season and possibly challenges to overcome in accomplishing the entire program. Our predictions proved to be accurate, as we encountered thick fast ice covered by a thick snow layer, and severe ice conditions in the pack ice area with folded ice. The weather conditions were relatively calm in December but challenging in January, with long periods of strong wind, snowfall, and blowing snow, as well as record low sunshine hours. Despite the conditions, we managed to accomplish most of the large-scale construction projects and observations that
Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.
This article maps audiovisual translation research by analysing in a contrastive way the abstracts presented at three audiovisual translation conferences ten years ago and nowadays. The comparison deals with the audiovisual transfer modes and topics under discussion, and the approach taken by the authors in their abstracts. The article then shifts the focus to the role of technology in audiovisual translation research, as it is considered an element that is impacting and will continue to impa...
Yip, Y L
To review current excellent research and trend in the field of bioinformatics and translational informatics with direct application in the medical domain. Synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2012. Six excellent articles were selected in this Yearbook's section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics. They exemplify current key advances in the use of patient information for translational research and health surveillance. First, two proof-of-concept studies demonstrated the cross-institutional and -geographic use of Electronic Health Records (EHR) for clinical trial subjects identification and drug safety signals detection. These reports pave ways to global large-scale population monitoring. Second, there is further evidence on the importance of coupling phenotypic information in EHR with genotypic information (either in biobank or in gene association studies) for new biomedical knowledge discovery. Third, patient data gathered via social media and self-reporting was found to be comparable to existent data and less labor intensive. This alternative means could potentially overcome data collection challenge in cohort and prospective studies. Finally, it can be noted that metagenomic studies are gaining momentum in bioinformatics and system-level analysis of human microbiome sheds important light on certain human diseases. The current literature showed that the traditional bench to bedside translational research is increasing being complemented by the reverse approach, in which bedside information can be used to provide novel biomedical insights.
Reier, Paul J; Lane, Michael A; Hall, Edward D; Teng, Y D; Howland, Dena R
Advances in the neurobiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) have prompted increasing attention to opportunities for moving experimental strategies towards clinical applications. Preclinical studies are the centerpiece of the translational process. A major challenge is to establish strategies for achieving optimal translational progression while minimizing potential repetition of previous disappointments associated with clinical trials. This chapter reviews and expands upon views pertaining to preclinical design reported in recently published opinion surveys. Subsequent discussion addresses other preclinical considerations more specifically related to current and potentially imminent cellular and pharmacological approaches to acute/subacute and chronic SCI. Lastly, a retrospective and prospective analysis examines how guidelines currently under discussion relate to select examples of past, current, and future clinical translations. Although achieving definition of the "perfect" preclinical scenario is difficult to envision, this review identifies therapeutic robustness and independent replication of promising experimental findings as absolutely critical prerequisites for clinical translation. Unfortunately, neither has been fully embraced thus far. Accordingly, this review challenges the notion "everything works in animals and nothing in humans", since more rigor must first be incorporated into the bench-to-bedside translational process by all concerned, whether in academia, clinical medicine, or corporate circles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Escamilla, Julia; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Vega, Susan; Bolaños, Liliana
Many behavioral health materials have not been translated into Spanish. Of those that are available in Spanish, some of them have not been translated correctly, many are only appropriate for a subgroup of Latinos, and/or multiple versions of the same materials exist. This article describes an innovative model of conducting bilingual English–Spanish translations as part of community-based participatory research studies and provides recommendations based on this model. In this article, the traditional process of conducting bilingual translations is reviewed, and an innovative model for conducting translations in collaboration with community partners is described. Finally, recommendations for conducting future health research studies with community partners are provided. Researchers, health care providers, educators, and community partners will benefit from learning about this innovative model that helps produce materials that are more culturally appropriate than those that are produced with the most commonly used method of conducting translations. PMID:25741929
Full Text Available In order to ensure accuracy of motorized linear translation stages theoretical and experimental investigations were performed, that allow to establish moving platform vibration level depending of operating modes (different velocities and used lubricant in the system. Lubricants had different viscosity, which has effect to the system moving smoothness, sound level and vibration level of the stage. Such work gives possibility to done conclusions: with what lubricant or with what viscosity of the lubricant motorized linear translation stage works smoother, with less noise and vib-ration level, and also show best movement characteristics.
Wallace, Alison; Joss, Nerida
Without deliberate and resourced translation, research evidence is unlikely to inform policy and practice. This paper describes the processes and practical solutions used to translate evaluation research findings to improve the readability of print materials in a large scale worksite health programme. It is argued that a knowledge brokering and…
Jacobsen, Aase Roland
Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?......Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?...
Bennett, Sally; Whitehead, Mary; Eames, Sally; Fleming, Jennifer; Low, Shanling; Caldwell, Elizabeth
There has been widespread acknowledgement of the need to build capacity in knowledge translation however much of the existing work focuses on building capacity amongst researchers rather than with clinicians directly. This paper's aim is to describe a research project for developing a knowledge translation capacity building program for occupational therapy clinicians. Participatory action research methods were used to both develop and evaluate the knowledge translation capacity-building program. Participants were occupational therapists from a large metropolitan hospital in Australia. Researchers and clinicians worked together to use the action cycle of the Knowledge to Action Framework to increase use of knowledge translation itself within the department in general, within their clinical teams, and to facilitate knowledge translation becoming part of the department's culture. Barriers and enablers to using knowledge translation were identified through a survey based on the Theoretical Domains Framework and through focus groups. Multiple interventions were used to develop a knowledge translation capacity-building program. Fifty-two occupational therapists participated initially, but only 20 across the first 18 months of the project. Barriers and enablers were identified across all domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework. Interventions selected to address these barriers or facilitate enablers were categorised into ten different categories: educational outreach; teams working on clinical knowledge translation case studies; identifying time blocks for knowledge translation; mentoring; leadership strategies; communication strategies; documentation and resources to support knowledge translation; funding a knowledge translation champion one day per week; setting goals for knowledge translation; and knowledge translation reporting strategies. Use of these strategies was, and continues to be monitored. Participants continue to be actively involved in learning and
Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David
Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707
van der Laan, A.L.; Boenink, Marianne
The label ‘Translational Research’ (TR) has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the lab bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the
Lane, Montez; Bell, Ronny; Latham-Sadler, Brenda; Bradley, Catherine; Foxworth, Judy; Smith, Nancy; Millar, A Lynn; Hairston, Kristen G; Roper, Bernard; Howlett, Allyn
Translational research addressing health disparities brings interventions and medical discoveries into clinical practice to improve health outcomes. However, academic researchers' and clinicians' lack of understanding of methodologies limits the application of basic science to clinical settings. To solve the problem, a multidisciplinary collaboration from two academic institutions offered a workshop building on translational research methodologies to clarify the measures and interventions needed to address health disparities from a research perspective. Three two-day workshops targeted underrepresented minority participants whose research experience and professional development varied. The evaluation surveys administered after the three workshops indicated that workshop 1 which focused on translational and educational research increased participants' knowledge, and made all participants think critically about the subject. Training opportunities focused on translational research can enhance researchers and clinicians' confidence and capabilities to address health disparities.
Kotarba, Joseph A
In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This
University of Maine's Follow a Researcher Program™, Expedition 3: Antarctica, Using Graduate Student Fieldwork Experiences as a framework to Incorporate Next Generation Science Standard Practices in the Classroom
Kaluzienski, L. M.; Kranich, G.; Wilson, L.; Hamley, C.
For the past three years the University of Maine Cooperative Extension 4-H has connected K-12 students in Maine and around the country to UMaine researchers in the field as part of its Follow a Researcher (FAR) Program™. This program aims to provide middle and high school students with a look into future science career paths. FAR™ selects one student engaged in university level research per year to showcase their work. Previous years have selected graduate students with field-work intensive research. During the graduate student's field expedition, a weekly education science video is released based on the Next Generation Science Standards. Similarly, classroom students are encouraged to ask questions during weekly Twitter session hosted live from the field. Past expeditions have taken students to the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru as well as the Falkland Islands. This year's expedition shared graduate student Lynn Kaluzienski's expedition to the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Highlights include obtaining GPS observations in a remote setting using helicopter support, as well acquiring scientific measurements from a heavily crevassed area through the use of robotically towed ground penetrating radar (GPR). Future program plans include connecting K-12 students with graduate students with a focus in lab-intensive research as well as engineering. We also are developing a training program for university outreach staff and a Follow a Researcher™ network that would allow other universities to host their own program while tapping into a larger national K-12 audience.
Lee, Cheng-Chih; Li, Denise; Arai, Shoshana; Puntillo, Kathleen
The aim of this article is to describe a formal process used to translate research study materials from English into traditional Chinese characters. This process may be useful for translating documents for use by both research participants and clinical patients. A modified Brislin model was used as the systematic translation process. Four bilingual translators were involved, and a Flaherty 3-point scale was used to evaluate the translated documents. The linguistic discrepancies that arise in the process of ensuring cross-cultural congruency or equivalency between the two languages are presented to promote the development of patient-accessible cross-cultural documents.
Wilcox, H.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jafarov, E. E.; Strawhacker, C.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Thurmes, N.
Schweikhart, Sharon A; Dembe, Allard E
Lean and Six Sigma are business management strategies commonly used in production industries to improve process efficiency and quality. During the past decade, these process improvement techniques increasingly have been applied outside the manufacturing sector, for example, in health care and in software development. This article concerns the potential use of Lean and Six Sigma in improving the processes involved in clinical and translational research. Improving quality, avoiding delays and errors, and speeding up the time to implementation of biomedical discoveries are prime objectives of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research and the NIH's Clinical and Translational Science Award program. This article presents a description of the main principles, practices, and methods used in Lean and Six Sigma. Available literature involving applications of Lean and Six Sigma to health care, laboratory science, and clinical and translational research is reviewed. Specific issues concerning the use of these techniques in different phases of translational research are identified. Examples of Lean and Six Sigma applications that are being planned at a current Clinical and Translational Science Award site are provided, which could potentially be replicated elsewhere. We describe how different process improvement approaches are best adapted for particular translational research phases. Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methods are well suited to help achieve NIH's goal of making clinical and translational research more efficient and cost-effective, enhancing the quality of the research, and facilitating the successful adoption of biomedical research findings into practice.
Graffi, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William; Willis, Kim; Runco, Sue
Teachers in today s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and
de Graaf, Gimon; Postmus, Douwe; Buskens, Erik
Translational research is conducted to achieve a predefined set of economic or societal goals. As a result, investment decisions on where available resources have the highest potential in achieving these goals have to be made. In this paper, we first describe how multicriteria decision analysis can assist in defining the decision context and in ensuring that all relevant aspects of the decision problem are incorporated in the decision making process. We then present the results of a case study to support priority setting in a translational research consortium aimed at reducing the burden of disease of type 2 diabetes. During problem structuring, we identified four research alternatives (primary, secondary, tertiary microvascular, and tertiary macrovascular prevention) and a set of six decision criteria. Scoring of these alternatives against the criteria was done using a combination of expert judgement and previously published data. Lastly, decision analysis was performed using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis, which allows for the combined use of numerical and ordinal data. We found that the development of novel techniques applied in secondary prevention would be a poor investment of research funds. The ranking of the remaining alternatives was however strongly dependent on the decision maker's preferences for certain criteria.
Milat, Andrew J; Li, Ben
A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice) AND (framework OR model OR theory) AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine). Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or 'T' models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research-practice gap.
Oliveira Reis, Leonardo
The translation of health related QoL (HRQL) instruments for use in another culture is still a science under development and there are situations of more than one version of the same questionnaire. Specialized medical subjects are difficult content area and good professional translators are often incapable of translating medical material. Technical traps may lead to erroneous research conclusions that, although due to methodological flaws, are undetectable as such and considered to be substantive in nature and even those who are aware of the problem find its solution daunting. Although standards for translation of questionnaires do not exist, are we doing the right thing?
Haley, Rand; Champagne, Thomas J., Jr.
This review article presents a simplified framework for thinking about research strategy priorities for academic medical centers (AMCs). The framework can serve as a precursor to future advancements in translational medicine and as a set of planning guideposts toward ultimate translational excellence. While market pressures, reform uncertainties,…
Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina
In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis, ...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....
Koh, Howard K.; Massin-Short, Sarah B.; Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, K.
Translating research evidence to reduce health disparities has emerged as a global priority. The 2008 World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health recently urged that gaps in health attributable to political, social, and economic factors should be closed in a generation. Achieving this goal requires a social determinants approach to create public health systems that translate efficacy documented by research into effectiveness in the community. We review the scope, definitions, and framing of health disparities and explore local, national, and global programs that address specific health disparities. Such efforts translate research evidence into real-world settings and harness collaborative social action for broad-scale, sustainable change. PMID:20147686
El-Behadli, Ana F; Neger, Emily N; Perrin, Ellen C; Sheldrick, R Christopher
Children whose parents do not speak English experience significant disparities in the identification of developmental delays and disorders; however, little is known about the availability and validity of translations of developmental screeners. The goal was to create a map of the scientific evidence regarding translations of the 9 Academy of Pediatrics-recommended screening instruments into languages other than English. The authors conducted a systematic search of Medline and PsycINFO, references of identified articles, publishers' Web sites, and official manuals. Through evidence mapping, a new methodology supported by AHRQ and the Cochrane Collaboration, the authors documented the extent and distribution of published evidence supporting translations of developmental screeners. Data extraction focused on 3 steps of the translation and validation process: (1) translation methods used, (2) collection of normative data in the target language, and (3) evidence for reliability and validity. The authors identified 63 distinct translations among the 9 screeners, of which 44 had supporting evidence published in peer-reviewed sources. Of the 63 translations, 35 had at least some published evidence regarding translation methods used, 28 involving normative data, and 32 regarding reliability and/or construct validity. One-third of the translations found were of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Specific methods used varied greatly across screeners, as did the level of detail with which results were reported. Few developmental screeners have been translated into many languages. Evidence map of the authors demonstrates considerable variation in both the amount and the comprehensiveness of information available about translated instruments. Informal guidelines exist for conducting translation of psychometric instruments but not for documentation of this process. The authors propose that uniform guidelines be established for reporting translation research in peer
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on knowledge translation in population health. Methods Using the Concept Mapping approach, the research team wanted to identify priority themes for the development of research on KT in population health. Mapping is based on multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis in which statements produced during a brainstorming session are grouped in weighted clusters. The final maps are a visual representation of the priority themes of research on KT. Especially designed for facilitating consensus in the understanding and organization of various concepts, the Concept Mapping method proved suitable for achieving this objective. Results The maps were produced by 19 participants from university settings, and from institutions within the health and social services network. Three main perspectives emerge from this operation: (1 The evaluation of the effectiveness of KT efforts is one of the main research priorities; (2 The importance of taking into consideration user contexts in any KT effort; (3 The challenges related to sharing power for decision-making and action-taking among various stakeholder groups. These perspectives open up avenues of collaboration for stakeholders who are involved in research on KT. Besides these three main perspectives, the concept maps reveal three other trends which should be emphasized. Conclusion The Concept Mapping process reported in this article aimed to provoke collective reflection on the
Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E
Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
To describe the translation process of nursing instruments into Arabic and discuss the equivalence issues arising from this process. Review of the literature. The Arabic language is essentially three different languages: Classical Arabic; Modern Standard Arabic (fuS-Ha or MSA); and colloquial Arabic (Lahja A'mmeya), which is itself divided into five different regional Arabic dialects. The Arabic fuS-Ha language is the dialect most widely used in the translation of instruments into Arabic. The literature reveals that only a few studies focused on the linguistic issues in the translation of instruments into Arabic. Brislin's back-translation emerged as the most common method widely used by researchers in studies with Arabic-speaking subjects, but not the perfect one. Linguistic issues in nursing research have not been sufficiently described and discussed in the context of Arabic language and culture. Although there is no standard guideline for instrument translation, the combined translation model is the most recommended procedure to use in cross-cultural research. Linguistic differences between the source culture and the target Arabic culture should be taken into account. Finally, we recommend the use of the fuS-Ha dialect and trilingual translators in the translation of nursing instruments into Arabic.
McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, S Barry; Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B
Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research.
Schweikhart, Sharon A.; Dembe, Allard E
Background Lean and Six Sigma are business management strategies commonly used in production industries to improve process efficiency and quality. During the past decade, these process improvement techniques increasingly have been applied outside of the manufacturing sector, for example, in health care and in software development. This article concerns the potential use of Lean and Six Sigma to improve the processes involved in clinical and translational research. Improving quality, avoiding delays and errors, and speeding up the time to implementation of biomedical discoveries are prime objectives of the NIH Roadmap for Biomedical Research and the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program. Methods This article presents a description of the main principles, practices, and methodologies used in Lean and Six Sigma. Available literature involving applications of Lean and Six Sigma to health care, laboratory science, and clinical and translational research is reviewed. Specific issues concerning the use of these techniques in different phases of translational research are identified. Results Examples are provided of Lean and Six Sigma applications that are being planned at a current CTSA site, which could potentially be replicated elsewhere. We describe how different process improvement approaches are best adapted for particularly translational research phases. Conclusions Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methodologies are well suited to help achieve NIH’s goal of making clinical and translational research more efficient and cost-effective, enhancing the quality of the research, and facilitating the successful adoption of biomedical research findings into practice. PMID:19730130
Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M
A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: "Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions," with the competency "Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis." These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bernardo C. Lunar
Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.
Full Text Available There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge translation plans. It identifies the challenges faced by the Men’s Mental Health Program Team and how these were resolved. The strategies explored include articulating knowledge translation requirements, ensuring a common understanding of knowledge translation, assessing knowledge translation plans, methods of engaging end users, and building capacity with applicants. An iterative approach to facilitating knowledge translation planning within project development was rolled out in Australia just prior to Canada so that lessons learned were immediately available to refine the second roll out. Implementation included the use of external knowledge translation expertise, the development of knowledge translation plans, and the need for internal infrastructure to support monitoring and reporting. Differences in the Australian and Canadian contexts may point to differential exposure to the concepts and practices of knowledge translation. This case study details an example of designing and implementing an integrated knowledge translation strategy that moves beyond traditional dissemination models. Lessons learned point to the importance of a long lead-up time, the use of knowledge translation expertise for capacity building, the need for flexible implementation, and the need for efficiencies in supporting applicants.
Wuchner, Staci S
The purpose of this review was to synthesize and critique experimental and/or quasi-experimental research that has evaluated implementation strategies for translation of research-based evidence into nursing practice. Successfully implementing evidence-based research can improve patient outcomes. Identifying successful implementation strategies is imperative to move research-based evidence into practice. As implementation science gains popularity, it is imperative to understand the strategies that most effectively translate research-based evidence into practice. The review used the CINAHL and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases. Articles were included if they were experimental and/or quasi-experimental research designs, were written in English, and measured nursing compliance to translation of research-based evidence. An independent review was performed to select and critique the included articles. A wide array of interventions were completed, including visual cues, audit and feedback, educational meetings and materials, reminders, outreach, and leadership involvement. Because of the complex multimodal nature of the interventions and the variety of research topics, comparison across interventions was difficult. Many difficulties exist in determining what implementation strategies are most effective for translation of research-based evidence into practice by nurses. With these limited findings, further research is warranted to determine which implementation strategies most successfully translate research-based evidence into practice.
Results and Conclusion: The relevant regulations, guidelines, and strategies were detailed by step-by-step demonstration so that readers can quickly understand the requirements and know-how of a translational research.
Payne, Philip R O; Embi, Peter J; Niland, Joyce
Advances in clinical and translational science, along with related national-scale policy and funding mechanisms, have provided significant opportunities for the advancement of applied clinical research informatics (CRI) and translational bioinformatics (TBI). Such efforts are primarily oriented to application and infrastructure development and are critical to the conduct of clinical and translational research. However, they often come at the expense of the foundational CRI and TBI research needed to grow these important biomedical informatics subdisciplines and ensure future innovations. In light of this challenge, it is critical that a number of steps be taken, including the conduct of targeted advocacy campaigns, the development of community-accepted research agendas, and the continued creation of forums for collaboration and knowledge exchange. Such efforts are needed to ensure that the biomedical informatics community is able to advance CRI and TBI science in the context of the modern clinical and translational science era.
Moore, Frederick A.; ZIEGLER, THOMAS R.; Heyland, Daren K.; Marik, Paul E.; Bruce R. Bistrian
Most clinicians believe that nutrition support therapy improves outcome in hospitalized patients. Unfortunately, few patients receive optimal nutrition management. A lack of strong, well-designed research studies may prevent the medical/surgical community from fully embracing the practice. More quality research is needed. This article discusses 3 potential strategies to improve research activity in clinical nutrition: increase funding of nutrition research, foster young physician training in ...
Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna
This paper discusses how a research team negotiated the challenges of language differences in a qualitative study that involved two languages. The lead researcher shared the participants' language and culture, and the interviews were conducted using the Arabic language as a source language, which was then translated and disseminated in the English language (target language). The challenges in relation to translation in cross-cultural research were highlighted from a perspective of establishing meaning as a vital issue in qualitative research. The paper draws on insights gained from a study undertaken among Arabic-speaking participants involving the use of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study was undertaken using a purposive sample of 15 participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and co-existing depression and explored their perception of self-care management behaviours. Data analysis was performed in two phases. The first phase entailed translation and transcription of the data, and the second phase entailed thematic analysis of the data to develop categories and themes. In this paper there is discussion on the translation process and its inherent challenges. As translation is an interpretive process and not merely a direct message transfer from a source language to a target language, translators need to systematically and accurately capture the full meaning of the spoken language. This discussion paper highlights difficulties in the translation process, specifically in managing data in relation to metaphors, medical terminology and connotation of the text, and importantly, preserving the meaning between the original and translated data. Recommendations for future qualitative studies involving interviews with non-English speaking participants are outlined, which may assist researchers maintain the integrity of the data throughout the translation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Helmich, Esther; Cristancho, Sayra; Diachun, Laura; Lingard, Lorelei
Medical education researchers increasingly collaborate in international teams, collecting data in different languages and from different parts of the world, and then disseminating them in English-language journals. Although this requires an ever-present need to translate, it often occurs uncritically. With this paper we aim to enhance researchers' awareness and reflexivity regarding translations in qualitative research. In an international study, we carried out interviews in both Dutch and English. To enable joint data analysis, we translated Dutch data into English, making choices regarding when and how to translate. In an iterative process, we contextualized our experiences, building on the social sciences and general health literature about cross-language/cross-cultural research. We identified three specific translation challenges: attending to grammar or syntax differences, grappling with metaphor, and capturing semantic or sociolinguistic nuances. Literature findings informed our decisions regarding the validity of translations, translating in different stages of the research process, coding in different languages, and providing 'ugly' translations in published research reports. The lessons learnt were threefold. First, most researchers, including ourselves, do not consciously attend to translations taking place in international qualitative research. Second, translation challenges arise not only from differences in language, but also from cultural or societal differences. Third, by being reflective about translations, we found meaningful differences, even between settings with many cultural and societal similarities. This conscious process of negotiating translations was enriching. We recommend researchers to be more conscious and transparent about their translation strategies, to enhance the trustworthiness and quality of their work.
Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe
common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....
Translation of biomedical research knowledge to effective clinical treatment is essential to the public good. The first level of translation ("from bench to bedside") corresponds to efficacy studies under controlled conditions with careful attention to internal validity (clinical research). The second level is the translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making. The article summarises the ethical issues involved in the translation of biomedical research advances to clinical applications and to clinical practice. In particular, the article synthesizes theory from clinical ethics, operational design, and philosophy to examine the unique bioethical issues raised by the recent focus on translational research. In this framework safety of study participants and balancing of risk due to treatment with the potential benefits of the research are crucial: in clinical research there is a danger that the emphasis on advancements in scientific knowledge might prevail over the protection of the people who participate in research. These issues involve basic scientists, clinicians and bioethicists because of their application to comparative effectiveness research, clinical trials and evidence-based medicine, as well basic biomedical research.
Heaton, Janet; Day, Jo; Britten, Nicky
In this article, we present the findings of a participatory realistic evaluation of a 5-year program of health care research intended to promote the translation of knowledge into routine clinical practice. The program was one of the nine pilot Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care funded by the English National Institute for Health Research between 2008 and 2013. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms by which, and circumstances in which, some projects carried out under the program achieved success in knowledge translation while others were frustrated. Using qualitative methods, we examined how closer collaboration between academics and clinicians worked in four purposefully chosen case studies. In a synthesis of the findings, we produced a "black box" model of how knowledge translation was enabled by the activation of nine mechanisms. These are summarized in the form of five simple rules for promoting knowledge translation through collaborations based on principles of coproduction. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ansari, Daniel; Chen, Bi-Cheng; Dong, Lei; Zhou, Meng-Tao; Andersson, Roland
Despite improvements in surgical techniques and adjuvant chemotherapy, the overall mortality rates in pancreatic cancer have generally remained relatively unchanged and the 5-year survival rate is actually below 2%. This paper will address the importance of achieving an early diagnosis and identifying markers for prognosis and response to therapy such as genes, proteins, microRNAs or epigenetic modifications. However, there are still major hurdles when translating investigational biomarkers into routine clinical practice. Furthermore, novel ways of secondary screening in high-risk individuals, such as artificial neural networks and modern imaging, will be discussed. Drug resistance is ubiquitous in pancreatic cancer. Several mechanisms of drug resistance have already been revealed, including human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 status, multidrug resistance proteins, aberrant signaling pathways, microRNAs, stromal influence, epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells and recently the presence of cancer stem cells/cancer-initiating cells. These factors must be considered when developing more customized types of intervention (“personalized medicine”). In the future, multifunctional nanoparticles that combine a specific targeting agent, an imaging probe, a cell-penetrating agent, a biocompatible polymer and an anti-cancer drug may become valuable for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:22509073
Phillip Atiba Goff
Full Text Available Despite the historical importance of translational research to social psychological investigations of social justice issues, the culture and incentives of contemporary social psychology are ambivalent towards non-experimental field research. This ambivalence poses a significant impediment to social psychology’s role in societal change. This paper offers a brief history of how the field evolved from a relative emphasis on translating social psychology from the laboratory to the field (and back to the present moment. In doing so, we enumerate the most significant impediments to contemporary translational social psychology, namely that conducting translational research often involves greater cost, greater difficulty advancing psychological theory, and more time navigating logistics compared with basic laboratory research. Finally, using the example of recent multi-investigator research on race and gender equity in policing, we outline emerging strategies for how to conduct translational research amidst contemporary impediments, and offer modest suggestions for how the field can better facilitate this kind of research in the future. Taken together this review offers a set of theoretical and practical suggestions for easing the path from research to societal change.
Feldman, Susan; Hopgood, Alan; Dickins, Marissa
Increasingly, qualitative scholars in health and social sciences are turning to innovative strategies as a way of translating research findings into informative, accessible and enjoyable forms for the community. The aim of this article is to describe how the research findings of a doctoral thesis - a narrative study about 58 older women's experiences of widowhood - were translated into a unique and professionally developed script to form the basis for a successful theatrical production that has travelled extensively within Australia. This article reports on the process of collaboration between a researcher, a highly regarded Australian actor/script writer and an ensemble of well-known and experienced professional actors. Together the collaborating partners translated the research data and findings about growing older and 'widowhood' into a high quality theatre production. In particular, we argue in this paper that research-based theatre is an appropriate medium for communicating research findings about important life issues of concern to older people in a safe, affirming and entertaining manner. By outlining the process of translating research findings into theatre we hope to show that there is a real value in this translation approach for both researcher and audience alike. © 2013.
Clavier, Carole; Sénéchal, Yan; Vibert, Stéphane; Potvin, Louise
This article explores the innovative practices of actors specifically mandated to support interactions between academic researchers and their partners from the community during public health participatory research. Drawing on the concept of translation as developed in actor-network theory and found in the literature on knowledge transfer and the sociology of intermediate actors, we build a theory-based model of the translation practices developed by these actors at the interface between community and university. We refine this model by using it to analyse material from two focus groups comprising participants purposively selected because they work at the nexus between research and practice. Our model of translation practices includes cognitive (dealing with the contents of the research), strategic (geared to facilitating the research process and balancing power relationships among the partners) and logistic practices (the hands-on tasks of coordination). Combined, these three types of translation practices demonstrate that actors working at the interface in participatory research contribute to multidirectional exchanges and the co-construction of knowledge among research partners. Beyond the case of participatory research, theorising translation practices helps understand how knowledge is produced at the interface between academic and experiential (or lay) knowledge. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
eu/index_en.php). A Stellenbosch student of psychiatric genetics has been awarded such a grant for studies at. Karolinska Institutet. Moving from Sweden to Europe, there is a program closing in 2013 to enable UCT researchers to spend a total of 138 months at European research centers or vice versa, namely the Joint ...
Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.
Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848
Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R
Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses.
Du, Hong-jun; Zhang, Kang; Hui, Yan-nian
Although the resource devoted for scientific research increased substantially in recent years, the quality of our basic and clinical study still leaves much to be improved. Besides the shortcomings in administration of research funding, our researchers, as the entity of scientific work, should fully recognize that innovation and application are vital for basic and clinical research in ophthalmology. It is emphasized that the principles and methods in an innovative study, including comprehensive grasp for up-to-date information, proposal of a key project, collaboration of multi-disciplines, through design of a study, and acceleration of application in practice, should be followed in order to make new advances in our cause in ophthalmology.
Ouyang, Xiang-ying; Yang, Wen
Translational Medicine is an evolutional concept that encompasses the rapid translation of basic research for use in clinical disease diagnosis, prevention, treatment and finally in public health promotion. It follows the idea "from bench to bedside and back", and hence relies on cooperation between laboratory research and clinical care. Translation process is a complex process that requires both research and non-research activities. During the past ten years, there has been intense interest in the development of new clinical procedures, therapeutic molecules, and prototypes based on translational medicine concept including dentistry. Periodontitis is a globally prevalent inflammatory disease that causes the destruction of the tooth supporting apparatus. Current methods to reconstitute lost periodontal structures have been shown to have limited and variable outcomes. Stem cell therapy can be used for periodontal regeneration and it is also one of the hot topics in translational regenerative medicine. In this article, recent advances and current status of translational medicine in stem cell therapy in periodontal regeneration field were reviewed. However, a number of biological, technical and clinical hurdles must be overcome before stem cell therapy could be used in clinics.
Full Text Available In this issue of the EPPM journal, we include five interesting papers reporting on the research undertaken within the contexts of five different countries: Italy, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Romania and Iran. These papers address various key issues in engineering and project management, including green building rating system, agile project management, construction delays, awarding process of public construction projects and Building Information Modelling (BIM. A good mixture of both quantitative and qualitative research methods is also worth noting in this issue.
Joiner Keith A
Full Text Available Abstract Translational research conducted in academic health centers is confounded by the organizational structure in which the work is performed. Investigators must obtain research funding and appropriate recognition as a part of a research team in a not-for-profit environment which has more readily rewarded basic work, and individual accomplishments. What results is a unique form of conflict of interest, best understood by relating the basic principles underlying the not-for-profit form to the conduct of translational research in the AHC setting.
Estapé, Estela S; Segarra, Barbara; Báez, Adriana; Huertas, Aracelis; Díaz, Clemente; Frontera, Walter R
In 2011, research educators face significant challenges. Training programs in Clinical and Translational Research need to develop or enhance their curriculum to comply with new scientific trends and government policies. Curricula must impart the skills and competencies needed to help facilitate the dissemination and transfer of scientific advances at a faster pace than current health policy and practice. Clinical and translational researchers are facing also the need of new paradigms for effective collaboration, and resource sharing while using the best educational models. Both government and public policy makers emphasize addressing the goals of improving health quality and elimination of health disparities. To help achieve this goal, our academic institution is taking an active role and striving to develop an environment that fosters the career development of clinical and translational researchers. Consonant with this vision, in 2002 the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus School of Health Professions and School of Medicine initiated a multidisciplinary post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical Research focused in training Hispanics who will address minority health and health disparities research. Recently, we proposed a curriculum revision to enhance this commitment in promoting competency-based curricula for clinician-scientists in clinical and translational sciences. The revised program will be a post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical and Translational Research (MCTR), expanding its outreach by actively engaging in establishing new collaborations and partnerships that will increase our capability to diversify our educational efforts and make significant contributions to help reduce and eliminate the gap in health disparities.
Informed consent is crucial in research, but potential participants may not all speak the same language, posing questions that have not been examined concerning decisions by institutional review boards (IRBs) and research ethics committees' (RECs) about the need for researchers to translate consent forms and other study materials. Sixty US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by The National Institutes of Health funding) were contacted, and leaders (eg, chairs) from 34 (response rate=57%) and an additional 12 members and administrators were interviewed. IRBs face a range of problems about translation of informed consent documents, questionnaires and manuals-what, when and how to translate (eg, for how many or what proportion of potential subjects), why to do so and how to decide. Difficulties can arise about translation of specific words and of broader cultural concepts regarding processes of informed consent and research, especially in the developing world. In these decisions, IRBs weigh the need for autonomy (through informed consent) and justice (to ensure fair distribution of benefits and burdens of research) against practical concerns about costs to researchers. At times IRBs may have to compromise between these competing goals. These data, the first to examine when and how IRBs/RECs require researchers to translate materials, thus highlight a range of problems with which these committees struggle, suggesting a need for further normative and empirical investigation of these domains, and consideration of guidelines to help IRBs deal with these tensions.
Full Text Available From July to September 2012, during the fifth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE, the concentrations of black carbon (BC aerosols inside the marine boundary layer were measured by an in situ aethalometer. BC concentrations ranged from 0.20 ng∙m−3 to 1063.20 ng∙m−3, with an average of 75.74 ng∙m−3. The BC concentrations were significantly higher over the mid-latitude and coastal areas than those over the remote ocean and high latitude areas. The highest average concentration was found over offshore China (643.44 ng∙m−3 during the cruise, while the lowest average was found over the Arctic Ocean (5.96 ng∙m−3. BC aerosol was found mainly affected by the terrestrial input and displayed seasonal and spatial variations. Compared with the results from the third and fourth CHINARE of summer 2008, and summer 2010, the inter-annual variation of BC over the Arctic Ocean was negligible.
Young, Belinda-Rose; Williamson, Heather J; Burton, Donna L; Massey, Oliver Thomas; Levin, Bruce Lubotsky; Baldwin, Julie A
Translational research seeks to build bridges between research and practice to address public health issues efficiently and effectively. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate a newly formed Institute that provided graduate students and adolescent behavioral health community professionals with a translational research service-learning opportunity through the creation of a community-university mentoring partnership. Goals of the team-based research mentorship approach included: 1) providing students the skills for implementing translational research; 2) providing research opportunities for community agencies to enhance operations and to encourage ongoing research involvement; and 3) developing relationships between university faculty and community agency professionals for further research collaborations. The Institute used the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Mentoring Mosaic to select a diverse group of Community and Academic Mentors. The research mentorship experience of the initial cohort was evaluated based upon the Research Mentorship Conceptual Framework and Self-Assessment Tool. As a direct result of the research mentorship, outcomes for the Academic and Community Mentors and Scholars (i.e., those seeking a graduate certificate) included improved working relationships/networking and research experience. Through experiential learning, Scholars also discovered career trajectory clarity, the need for community collaboration in research, opportunities for continuing professional development, a greater understanding of public health competencies and how they align with community-based research, and skill development in best practices for translational research. The team mentoring approach is a form of pedagogy that holds promise to enhance translational research and community-based research efforts while developing public health competencies.
Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie
A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who
Full Text Available A number of researchers in the field of education theory promote the view that education is based primarily on the student(s – teacher interaction, rather than being dependent on the teacher’s realization of educational procedures that expand the student’s knowledge. Some researchers in translator education share the view. This paper gives insight into a selection of these holistic and humanistic theories of education and translator education. The underlying idea is that the translator education curriculum should no longer be contained within the translation classroom. Instead, the idea of opening it to new educational perspectives, such as non-formal extracurricular initiatives, is proposed. However, it is not enough to just include the non-formal educational components in the formal programme. The pivotal idea expressed here is to allow for washback from non-formal learning to enhance the formal curriculum.
The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.
Amanda E Links
Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.
As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.
Zhang, Pengyue; Wu, Heng‐Yi; Chiang, Chien‐Wei; Wang, Lei; Binkheder, Samar; Wang, Xueying; Zeng, Donglin; Quinney, Sara K.
Drug interaction is a leading cause of adverse drug events and a major obstacle for current clinical practice. Pharmacovigilance data mining, pharmacokinetic modeling, and text mining are computation and informatic tools on integrating drug interaction knowledge and generating drug interaction hypothesis. We provide a comprehensive overview of these translational biomedical informatics methodologies with related databases. We hope this review illustrates the complementary nature of these informatic approaches and facilitates the translational drug interaction research. PMID:29193890
Gabriel Moore; Therese Fitzpatrick; Ivy Lim-Carter; Abby Haynes; Anna Flego; Barbara Snelgrove
There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge trans...
Shiramizu, Bruce; Shambaugh, Vicki; Petrovich, Helen; Seto, Todd B; Ho, Tammy; Mokuau, Noreen; Hedges, Jerris R
Building research infrastructure capacity to address clinical and translational gaps has been a focus of funding agencies and foundations. Clinical and Translational Sciences Awards, Research Centers in Minority Institutions Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research (RCTR), and the Institutional Development Award Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research funded by the US government to fund clinical translational research programs have existed for over a decade to address racial and ethnic health disparities across the USA. While the impact on the nation's health cannot be made in a short period, assessment of a program's impact could be a litmus test to gauge its effectiveness at the institution and communities. We report the success of a Pilot Project Program in the University of Hawaii RCTR Award in advancing careers of emerging investigators and community collaborators. Our findings demonstrated that the investment has a far-reaching impact on engagement with community-based research collaborators, career advancement of health disparity investigators, and favorable impacts on health policy.
Raymer, Anastasia M.; Beeson, Pelagie; Holland, Audrey; Kendall, Diane; Maher, Lynn M.; Martin, Nadine; Murray, Laura; Rose, Miranda; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Turkstra, Lyn; Altmann, Lori; Boyle, Mary; Conway, Tim; Hula, William; Kearns, Kevin; Rapp, Brenda; Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.
Purpose: In this article, the authors encapsulate discussions of the Language Work Group that took place as part of the Workshop in Plasticity/NeuroRehabilitation Research at the University of Florida in April 2005. Method: In this narrative review, they define neuroplasticity and review studies that demonstrate neural changes associated with…
Eva, Amy L.; Thayer, Natalie M.
This article features a stress management approach that is becoming increasingly influential in schools: mindfulness-based stress reduction. The authors describe what it is, provide research-based evidence of its usefulness, and highlight mindfulness resources that educators can use to manage stress and improve their well-being (including…
Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew
In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…
This paper addresses Appadurai's challenge to expand the research imagination. It follows Boaventura de Sousa Santos in suggesting a need to separate analytically the trajectories of capitalism and modernity. For Santos, this involves the recognition that we cannot solve the problems of postmodernity with the tools of modernity. The paper…
Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…
Landrigan, Philip J; Wright, Robert O; Cordero, Jose F; Eaton, David L; Goldstein, Bernard D; Hennig, Bernhard; Maier, Raina M; Ozonoff, David M; Smith, Martyn T; Tukey, Robert H
The Superfund Research Program (SRP) is an academically based, multidisciplinary, translational research program that for 25 years has sought scientific solutions to health and environmental problems associated with hazardous waste sites. SRP is coordinated by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). It supports multi-project grants, undergraduate and postdoctoral training programs, individual research grants, and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Technology Transfer Research (STTR) grants. SRP has had many successes: discovery of arsenic's toxicity to the developing human central nervous system; documentation of benzene toxicity to hematologic progenitor cells in human bone marrow; development of novel analytic techniques such as the luciferase expression assay and laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy; demonstration that PCBs can cause developmental neurotoxicity at low levels and alter the genomic characteristics of sentinel animals; elucidation of the neurodevelopmental toxicity of organophosphate insecticides; documentation of links between antimicrobial agents and alterations in hormone response; discovery of biological mechanisms through which environmental chemicals may contribute to obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer; tracking the health and environmental effects of the attacks on the World Trade Center and Hurricane Katrina; and development of novel biological and engineering techniques to facilitate more efficient and lower-cost remediation of hazardous waste sites. SRP must continue to address the legacy of hazardous waste in the United States, respond to new issues caused by rapid advances in technology, and train the next generation of leaders in environmental health science while recognizing that most of the world's worst toxic hot spots are now located in low- and middle-income countries.
In this issue of the EPPM journal, we include five interesting papers reporting on the research undertaken within the contexts of five different countries: Italy, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Romania and Iran. These papers address various key issues in engineering and project management, including green building rating system, agile project management, construction delays, awarding process of public construction projects and Building Information Modelling (BIM). A good mixture of both quantitative a...
Daudelin, Denise H; Selker, Harry P; Leslie, Laurel K
There is growing appreciation that process improvement holds promise for improving quality and efficiency across the translational research continuum but frameworks for such programs are not often described. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework and case examples of a Research Process Improvement Program implemented at Tufts CTSI. To promote research process improvement, we developed online training seminars, workshops, and in-person consultation models to describe core process improvement principles and methods, demonstrate the use of improvement tools, and illustrate the application of these methods in case examples. We implemented these methods, as well as relational coordination theory, with junior researchers, pilot funding awardees, our CTRC, and CTSI resource and service providers. The program focuses on capacity building to address common process problems and quality gaps that threaten the efficient, timely and successful completion of clinical and translational studies. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Hyun-Jun; McKenzie, Glenise L.; Krinsky, Lisa; Emlet, Charles A.
Abstract Despite accumulating evidence of health disparities, there exists limited translational research to enhance optimal health and aging of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identified* (LGBTQ) older adults. Based on the Health Equity Promotion Model that addresses the distinct needs and strengths of LGBTQ older adults, we underscore the important role of collaborations among researchers, practitioners, and communities to build community capacity. Given the rapidly shifting context, we advance principles to guide future work that will enhance translational research and the development of evidence-based practice so that LGBTQ older adults can reach their full health potential. PMID:29099666
Alwood, Joshua S.; Ronca, April E.; Mains, Richard C.; Shelhamer, Mark J.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Goodwin, Thomas J.
NASA?s Space Biology and Human Research Program entities have recently spearheaded communications both internally and externally to coordinate the agency?s translational research efforts. In this paper, we strongly advocate for translational research at NASA, provide recent examples of NASA sponsored early-stage translational research, and discuss options for a path forward. Our overall objective is to help in stimulating a collaborative research across multiple disciplines and entities that,...
Alwood, Joshua S; Ronca, April E; Mains, Richard C; Shelhamer, Mark J; Smith, Jeffrey D; Goodwin, Thomas J
NASA's Space Biology and Human Research Program entities have recently spearheaded communications both internally and externally to coordinate the agency's translational research efforts. In this paper, we strongly advocate for translational research at NASA, provide recent examples of NASA sponsored early-stage translational research, and discuss options for a path forward. Our overall objective is to help in stimulating a collaborative research across multiple disciplines and entities that, working together, will more effectively and more rapidly achieve NASA's goals for human spaceflight.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal
Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....
Middlemiss, Wendy; Yaure, Robin; Huey, Erron L
Review infant sleep research with a focus on understanding the elements related to infant safety and infant and maternal well-being during nighttime care. This review summarizes current research and addresses the controversies and conflicting outcomes reported in infant nighttime care. This review addresses current literature on infant sleep patterns, as well as factors that influence infant sleep and are consequences of different care routines. Conversation points are provided to help nurse practitioners (NPs) address safety and practice concerns. Shared information can help parents provide a safe and healthy environment for infants and help to facilitate communication ties between the healthcare providers and the families. NPs need to help parents understand infant sleep patterns norms, what is current knowledge about infant nightwakings and parental presence, as well as about approaches to altering infant sleep patterns. Integrating this knowledge with parent preferences that are influenced by cultural practices and individual differences is crucial in helping parents develop a strong sense of competence and comfort with their choices and behaviors. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Westra, Bonnie L; Latimer, Gail E; Matney, Susan A; Park, Jung In; Sensmeier, Joyce; Simpson, Roy L; Swanson, Mary Jo; Warren, Judith J; Delaney, Connie W
There is wide recognition that, with the rapid implementation of electronic health records (EHRs), large data sets are available for research. However, essential standardized nursing data are seldom integrated into EHRs and clinical data repositories. There are many diverse activities that exist to implement standardized nursing languages in EHRs; however, these activities are not coordinated, resulting in duplicate efforts rather than building a shared learning environment and resources. The purpose of this paper is to describe the historical context of nursing terminologies, challenges to the use of nursing data for purposes other than documentation of care, and a national action plan for implementing and using sharable and comparable nursing data for quality reporting and translational research. In 2013 and 2014, the University of Minnesota School of Nursing hosted a diverse group of nurses to participate in the Nursing Knowledge: Big Data and Science to Transform Health Care consensus conferences. This consensus conference was held to develop a national action plan and harmonize existing and new efforts of multiple individuals and organizations to expedite integration of standardized nursing data within EHRs and ensure their availability in clinical data repositories for secondary use. This harmonization will address the implementation of standardized nursing terminologies and subsequent access to and use of clinical nursing data. Foundational to integrating nursing data into clinical data repositories for big data and science, is the implementation of standardized nursing terminologies, common data models, and information structures within EHRs. The 2014 National Action Plan for Sharable and Comparable Nursing Data for Transforming Health and Healthcare builds on and leverages existing, but separate long standing efforts of many individuals and organizations. The plan is action focused, with accountability for coordinating and tracking progress designated
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is
Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy
In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were key entered from analog manuscript "JARE data Reports. Oceanografic Data of the 10th Japanise Antarctic Research Expedition 1968-1969. Kobe...
Joshi, Kalpana S; Bhonde, Ramesh
Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Ayurveda therapies are based on restoration of body balance and nourishment of dhatus or tissues. Rasayana concept of Ayurveda explains tissue regeneration and cell renewal. The drugs and therapies explained as rasayana provide research opportunities for biology of regeneration. Specific rasayana stimulate and nourish respective dhatus. Interpretation of this description offers clues for specific differentiation of stem cells with appropriate extract. The preliminary experiments on Medhya drugs suggest neuronal stem cells differentiation. Authors highlight the potential of Ayurveda and its possible contributions in regenerative medicine. Authors propose a protocol based on integrative approach derived from Ayurveda concepts and current understanding of regenerative medicine. The advanced understanding about adult and embryonic stem cells along with concepts of regeneration in Ayurveda has immense potential in the development of regenerative medicine.
Kalpana S Joshi
Full Text Available Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Ayurveda therapies are based on restoration of body balance and nourishment of dhatus or tissues. Rasayana concept of Ayurveda explains tissue regeneration and cell renewal. The drugs and therapies explained as rasayana provide research opportunities for biology of regeneration. Specific rasayana stimulate and nourish respective dhatus. Interpretation of this description offers clues for specific differentiation of stem cells with appropriate extract. The preliminary experiments on Medhya drugs suggest neuronal stem cells differentiation. Authors highlight the potential of Ayurveda and its possible contributions in regenerative medicine. Authors propose a protocol based on integrative approach derived from Ayurveda concepts and current understanding of regenerative medicine. The advanced understanding about adult and embryonic stem cells along with concepts of regeneration in Ayurveda has immense potential in the development of regenerative medicine.
Full Text Available Again and again scholars evoke a seriously dysfunctional relationship between management research and education on the one hand, and the practice of management on the other. We share this viewpoint, and with this appraisal intend to (re-open the debate. We expose some views on the intellectual and sociological roots of the malaise, advocating a philosophical stance rooted in pragmatism and particularly in John Dewey’s pragmatic stance. We outline a number of essentially workable, albeit for debate’s sake provocative and unpolished proposals for the redesign of academic institutions and of their publishing process. We sketch out radical redesign of academia—with, inter alia, (a permeable academic and practical careers, so that executives and scholars could move between and act within each others’ realities; (b a focus of management education on post-experience graduate level; and (c an academic publishing process worthy of the real-time era of the Internet.
Martin Christensen; Judy Craft
Background and context: Implementation of current research in practice is challenging for ward-based nursing staff. However, university-based nursing academics are seen as the research experts and are perhaps well placed to support clinical nursing research. The problem lies with the divide between practice and academia; universities often use the clinical environment as the place to conduct research but this is often not translated effectively into practice. The development of a nursing prof...
Shirey-Rice, Jana; Mapes, Brandy; Basford, Melissa; Zufelt, Anneliese; Wehbe, Firas; Harris, Paul; Alcorn, Michael; Allen, David; Arnim, Margaret; Autry, Susan; Briggs, Michael S; Carnegie, Andrea; Chavis-Keeling, Deborah; De La Pena, Carlos; Dworschak, Doris; Earnest, Julie; Grieb, Terri; Guess, Marilyn; Hafer, Nathaniel; Johnson, Tesheia; Kasper, Amanda; Kopp, Janice; Lockie, Timothy; Lombardo, Vincetta; McHale, Leslie; Minogue, Andrea; Nunnally, Beth; O'Quinn, Deanna; Peck, Kelly; Pemberton, Kieran; Perry, Cheryl; Petrie, Ginny; Pontello, Andria; Posner, Rachel; Rehman, Bushra; Roth, Deborah; Sacksteder, Paulette; Scahill, Samantha; Schieri, Lorri; Simpson, Rosemary; Skinner, Anne; Toussant, Kim; Turner, Alicia; Van der Put, Elaine; Wasser, June; Webb, Chris D; Williams, Maija; Wiseman, Lori; Yasko, Laurel; Pulley, Jill
The 61 CTSA Consortium sites are home to valuable programs and infrastructure supporting translational science and all are charged with ensuring that such investments translate quickly to improved clinical care. Catalog of Assets for Translational and Clinical Health Research (CATCHR) is the Consortium's effort to collect and make available information on programs and resources to maximize efficiency and facilitate collaborations. By capturing information on a broad range of assets supporting the entire clinical and translational research spectrum, CATCHR aims to provide the necessary infrastructure and processes to establish and maintain an open-access, searchable database of consortium resources to support multisite clinical and translational research studies. Data are collected using rigorous, defined methods, with the resulting information made visible through an integrated, searchable Web-based tool. Additional easy-to-use Web tools assist resource owners in validating and updating resource information over time. In this paper, we discuss the design and scope of the project, data collection methods, current results, and future plans for development and sustainability. With increasing pressure on research programs to avoid redundancy, CATCHR aims to make available information on programs and core facilities to maximize efficient use of resources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Healy, E.; Reynolds, N.J.
Summary Background Translational research is the direct application of basic and applied research to patient care. It is estimated that there are at least 2,000 different skin diseases, thus there are considerable challenges in seeking to undertake research on each of these disorders. Objective This eDelphi exercise was conducted in order to generate a list of translational dermatology research questions which are regarded as a priority for further investigations. Results During the first phase of the eDelphi, 228 research questions were generated by an expert panel which included clinical academic dermatologists, clinical dermatologists, non-clinical scientists, dermatology trainees and representatives from patient support groups. Following completion of the second and third phases, 40 questions on inflammatory skin disease, 20 questions on structural skin disorders / genodermatoses, 37 questions on skin cancer and 8 miscellaneous questions were designated as priority translational dermatology research questions (PRQs). In addition to PRQs on a variety of disease areas (including multiple PRQs on psoriasis, eczema, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma), there were a number of cross-cutting themes which identified a need to investigate mechanisms / pathogenesis of disease and the necessity to improve treatments for patients with skin disease. Conclusion It is predicted that this list of PRQs will help to provide a strategic direction for translational dermatology research in the UK and that addressing this list of questions will ultimately provide clinical benefit for substantial numbers of subjects with skin disorders. PMID:26149834
Fredericks, Suzanne; Martorella, Géraldine; Catallo, Cristina
Knowledge translation has been defined as the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health, resulting in a stronger health-care system. Using KT activities to aid in the adoption of evidence into practice can address current health-care challenges such as increasing organizational practice standards, alleviating the risk for adverse events and meeting practitioner needs for evidence at the bedside. Two general forms of KT have been identified. These being integrated KT and end-of-grant KT. Integrated KT involves the knowledge users in the research team and in the majority of stages of the research process. End-of-grant KT relates to the translation of findings through a well-developed dissemination plan. This paper describes the process of using an integrated knowledge translation approach to design a research protocol that will examine the effectiveness of a web-based patient educational intervention. It begins with a description of integrated knowledge translation, followed by the presentation of a specific case example in which integrated knowledge translation is used to develop a nursing intervention. The major elements of integrated knowledge translation pertain to need for a knowledge user who represents the broad target user group, and who is knowledgeable in the area under investigation and who as authority to enact changes to practice. Use of knowledge users as equal partners within the research team; exploring all feasible opportunities for knowledge exchange; and working with knowledge users to identify all outcomes related to knowledge translation are the other major elements of integrated knowledge translation that are addressed throughout this paper. Furthermore, the relevance of psychosocial or educational interventions to knowledge translation is also discussed as a source of knowledge. In summary, integrated knowledge translation is an important tool for the development of new interventions, as
Danielle S. McNAMARA
Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.
Dawson, Harry D; Chen, Celine; Gaynor, Brady; Shao, Jonathan; Urban, Joseph F
The use of swine in biomedical research has increased dramatically in the last decade. Diverse genomic- and proteomic databases have been developed to facilitate research using human and rodent models. Current porcine gene databases, however, lack the robust annotation to study pig models that are relevant to human studies and for comparative evaluation with rodent models. Furthermore, they contain a significant number of errors due to their primary reliance on machine-based annotation. To address these deficiencies, a comprehensive literature-based survey was conducted to identify certain selected genes that have demonstrated function in humans, mice or pigs. The process identified 13,054 candidate human, bovine, mouse or rat genes/proteins used to select potential porcine homologs by searching multiple online sources of porcine gene information. The data in the Porcine Translational Research Database (( http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=6065 ) is supported by >5800 references, and contains 65 data fields for each entry, including >9700 full length (5' and 3') unambiguous pig sequences, >2400 real time PCR assays and reactivity information on >1700 antibodies. It also contains gene and/or protein expression data for >2200 genes and identifies and corrects 8187 errors (gene duplications artifacts, mis-assemblies, mis-annotations, and incorrect species assignments) for 5337 porcine genes. This database is the largest manually curated database for any single veterinary species and is unique among porcine gene databases in regard to linking gene expression to gene function, identifying related gene pathways, and connecting data with other porcine gene databases. This database provides the first comprehensive description of three major Super-families or functionally related groups of proteins (Cluster of Differentiation (CD) Marker genes, Solute Carrier Superfamily, ATP binding Cassette Superfamily), and a comparative description of porcine microRNAs.
Krishnan, Anand; Yadav, Kapil; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh
Despite significant progress in medical research, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) continue to be the largest contributors of morbidity and mortality both in developed and developing countries. The status of public health interventions related to CVDs prevention was reviewed to identify actions that are required to bridge the existing gap between the evidence and the policy. We used a framework comprising two steps - "bench to bedside" and from "bedside to community" to evaluate translational research. Available literature was reviewed to document the current status of CVD prevention and control at national level in India. Case studies of risk factor surveillance, tobacco control and blood pressure measurement were used to understand different aspects of translational research. National level initiatives in non-communicable diseases surveillance, prevention and control are a recent phenomena in India. The delay in translation of research to policy has occurred primarily at the second level, i.e., from 'bedside to community'. The possible reasons for this were: inappropriate perception of the problem by policy makers and programme managers, lack of global public health guidelines and tools, and inadequate nationally relevant research related to operationalization and cost of public health interventions. Public health fraternity, both nationally and internationally, needs to establish institutional mechanisms to strengthen human resource capacity to initiate and monitor the process of translational research in India. Larger public interest demands that focus should shift to overcoming the barriers at community level translation. Only this will ensure that the extraordinary scientific advances of this century are rapidly translated for the benefit of more than one billion Indians.
Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.
Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.
Full Text Available The activities in the 2006-2007 austral summer of the 48th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-48 are reported. JARE-48 consisted of 62 personnel including 27 summer personnel and 35 wintering personnel. In addition, several observers joined to the voyage of Icebreaker Shirase (four Japanese, operation at Dome Fuji Station (two foreigners, Japan-Germany Collaborative Airborne Survey (eleven foreigners, and terrestrial observation around Syowa Station (three foreigners. Icebreaker Shirase arrived at the ice edge on 16 December 2006. She anchored at Syowa Station on 23 December and unloaded ca. 1000 t of cargo and fuel by mid-January 2007. Because weather in this season was extremely good, transportation and construction works at Syowa Station were going well. Biological, geodetic and geological field investigations and geophysical field station observations were carried out in the Ltzow-Holm Bay region. The JARE-48 summer party and JARE-47 wintering party on board Shirase left Syowa Station on 16 February. On the return voyage, oceanographic and marine biological observations, geomagnetism and other studies were carried out. All personnel disembarked at the Port of Sydney on 21 March. A 7-person special team (five summer and two wintering personnel for the deep ice-drilling project took air transportation from Cape Town via Novolazarevskaya Station. The team met the traverse party of JARE-47 wintering team at ARP2 point on 3 December. They carried out ice drilling to a depth of 3025.22 m at Dome Fuji Station. The summer members of the drilling team arrived in Tokyo on 20 February. One summer personnel, who conducted the Japan-Germany Collaborative Airborne Survey, arrived to Neumayer Station on 8 December. He conducted the airbone survey in the vicinity of Neumayer Station, and moved to S17 on 6 January. The airbone survey was conducted above Ltzow-Holm Bay region. He arrived to Japan on 8 February.
Full Text Available The activities in the 2001-2002 austral summer of the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 are reported. JARE-43 consisted of 60 personnel including 20 summer and 40 wintering personnel. In addition, 7 observers joined the voyage of R/V Shirase. She left Harumi on Nov. 14 in 2001, and the 56 personel and 7 observers went on boad in Freemantle of Western Australia for Syowa Station, other 4 personel for another ship as mentioned below. R/V Shirase left the ground on Dec. 3 and arrived at the ice edge on Dec. 14, after carrying out marine observations on the cruise. She anchored at Syowa Station on Dec. 23, after the first flight on Dec. 18. All the cargo and fuel necessary for the wintering program of JARE-43 were unloaded and the missions for the summer party were forced to finish by the last flight on Feb. 12 in 2002. The helicopter, chartered by JARE-43, moved to Syowa Station from R/V Shirase on Dec. 23 and supported the observation programs until Feb. 3, including the inland areas of ice sheets. The observation on the Mizuho Ice Plateau for the seismic exploration programs was especially supported by air during the traverse. Constructions with engineering works and facilities update were conducted in the several areas in Syowa Station, and most of them were accomplished, some, however, left for the wintering party. In addition, 4 summer members carried out other marine observations using R/V Tangaroa chartered by JARE-43.
Background Funders of health research increasingly seek to understand how best to allocate resources in order to achieve maximum value from their funding. We built an international consortium and developed a multinational case study approach to assess benefits arising from health research. We used that to facilitate analysis of factors in the production of research that might be associated with translating research findings into wider impacts, and the complexities involved. Methods We built on the Payback Framework and expanded its application through conducting co-ordinated case studies on the payback from cardiovascular and stroke research in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. We selected a stratified random sample of projects from leading medical research funders. We devised a series of innovative steps to: minimize the effect of researcher bias; rate the level of impacts identified in the case studies; and interrogate case study narratives to identify factors that correlated with achieving high or low levels of impact. Results Twenty-nine detailed case studies produced many and diverse impacts. Over the 15 to 20 years examined, basic biomedical research has a greater impact than clinical research in terms of academic impacts such as knowledge production and research capacity building. Clinical research has greater levels of wider impact on health policies, practice, and generating health gains. There was no correlation between knowledge production and wider impacts. We identified various factors associated with high impact. Interaction between researchers and practitioners and the public is associated with achieving high academic impact and translation into wider impacts, as is basic research conducted with a clinical focus. Strategic thinking by clinical researchers, in terms of thinking through pathways by which research could potentially be translated into practice, is associated with high wider impact. Finally, we identified the complexity of
aroused strong interest in recent years, is reported to be a highly successful therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. These studies support novel research ideas that are no longer focused solely on the host, but rather on the intimacy of the host-microbiota relationship. Considering the relative ease of regulating the gut microbiota, targeting these organisms through diet, prebiotics, probiotics, or other methods may become a useful strategy for curing diseases. To date, a large number of studies have been devoted to uncovering the relationship between microbial metabolites and human diseases, and it is highly likely that more bacterial or related pathways involved in human disease will be identified. In the future, targeting the microbiome may represent an effective and complementary strategy to current approaches for preventing and treating diseases.
Toche-Manley, L; Grissom, G; Dietzen, L; Sangsland, S
Converting the findings from addictions studies into information actionable by (non-research) treatment programs is important to improving program outcomes. This paper describes the translation of the findings of studies on Patient-Services matching, prediction of patient response to treatment (Expected Treatment Response) and prediction of dropout to provide evidence-based decision support in routine treatment. The findings of the studies and their application to the development of an outcomes management system are described. Implementation issues in a network of addictions treatment programs are discussed. The work illustrates how outcomes management systems can play an important role in translating research into practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lonergan, Daniel F; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M
SUMMARY Information systems assist in documentation and clinical decision support in settings ranging from an outpatient clinical encounter to the monitoring in an operating room. Such information, if stored and categorized well in a centralized database, offers a treasure trove of information for translational researchers. At Vanderbilt University Medical Center (TN, USA), there is an ongoing effort to advance information systems in all areas and couple this data with a robust genetic repository. It is hoped that such an effort will achieve improvements in quality of care and decreases in costs, while simultaneously providing a fertile ground for translational research.
Muhamad Nurhalim Shahib
Full Text Available An emphasize on herbal medicine in cancer therapy is also included as an example of translational research implementation. A translational research in Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjajaran, has been conducted to develop a novel genomic approach (herbal genomic on herbal crude extracts. This study focuses on the effects of the extracts on specific gene expressions. In this aspect, the concept of molecular targets is slightly different from pharmaceutical approaches that aim to find compounds that interact with a specific molecule or macromolecule with known function. In this research strategy, the herbal genomic approaches involve screening of herbal extracts that affect particular gene expression related to cell responses rather than a single proteins. The determination of herbal concentration is based on differential gene expression before and after treatment which is analyzed by real time PCR. The results are being compared to the existing small molecule (active molecule on the gene expressions. All these academic activities require biomedical research workforce to implement the translational research which, in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, is fulfilled by involving the postgraduate students. New crude extract formulation plus specific gene expression profile is a concept required for developing chemotherapeutic agent in Indonesia. Hopefully, this review can support increased cooperation between hospital and academic institutions in implementing translational research in Indonesia.
McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y
The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon
Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.
Clark, Lauren; Birkhead, Ana Sanchez; Fernandez, Cecilia; Egger, Marlene J
Assurance of transcript accuracy and quality in interview-based qualitative research is foundational for data accuracy and study validity. Based on our experience in a cross-cultural ethnographic study of women's pelvic organ prolapse, we provide practical guidance to set up step-by-step interview transcription and translation protocols for team-based research on sensitive topics. Beginning with team decisions about level of detail in transcription, completeness, and accuracy, we operationalize the process of securing vendors to deliver the required quality of transcription and translation. We also share rubrics for assessing transcript quality and the team protocol for managing transcripts (assuring consistency of format, insertion of metadata, anonymization, and file labeling conventions) and procuring an acceptable initial translation of Spanish-language interviews. Accurate, complete, and systematically constructed transcripts in both source and target languages respond to the call for more transparency and reproducibility of scientific methods.
Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Semon, Natalie L; Flowers, Artensie; Errett, Nicole A; Links, Jonathan M
Translation strategies are critical for sharing research with public health practitioners. To disseminate our analyses of legal issues that arise relative to mental and behavioral health during emergencies, we created 10 brief translational tools for members of the public health workforce. In consultation with an interdisciplinary project advisory group (PAG), we identified each tool's topic and format. PAG members reviewed draft and final versions of the tools. We then worked with local health departments throughout the country to distribute the tools along with a brief survey to determine practitioners' perceived utility of the tools. Through survey responses, we learned that practitioners believed the tools provided information that would be useful during the planning, response, and recovery phases of an emergency. This article describes the creation of the PAG, the development of the tools, and lessons learned for those seeking to translate legal and ethical research findings for practitioner audiences.
Marantz, Paul R; Strelnick, A Hal; Currie, Brian; Bhalla, Rohit; Blank, Arthur E; Meissner, Paul; Selwyn, Peter A; Walker, Elizabeth A; Hsu, Daphne T; Shamoon, Harry
The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) were initiated to improve the conduct and impact of the National Institutes of Health's research portfolio, transforming training programs and research infrastructure at academic institutions and creating a nationwide consortium. They provide a model for translating research across disciplines and offer an efficient and powerful platform for comparative effectiveness research (CER), an effort that has long struggled but enjoys renewed hope under health care reform. CTSAs include study design and methods expertise, informatics, and regulatory support; programs in education, training, and career development in domains central to CER; and programs in community engagement.Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center have entered a formal partnership that places their CTSA at a critical intersection for clinical and translational research. Their CTSA leaders were asked to develop a strategy for enhancing CER activities, and in 2010 they developed a model that encompasses four broadly defined "compartments" of research strength that must be coordinated for this enterprise to succeed: evaluation and health services research, biobehavioral research and prevention, efficacy studies and clinical trials, and social science and implementation research.This article provides historical context for CER, elucidates Einstein-Montefiore's CER model and strategic planning efforts, and illustrates how a CTSA can provide vision, leadership, coordination, and services to support an academic health center's collaborative efforts to develop a robust CER portfolio and thus contribute to the national effort to improve health and health care.
Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan
Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur translation was to occur translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.
Comeau, Dawn L; Escoffery, Cam; Freedman, Ariela; Ziegler, Thomas R; Blumberg, Henry M
A major impediment to improving the health of communities is the lack of qualified clinical and translational research (CTR) investigators. To address this workforce shortage, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) developed mechanisms to enhance the career development of CTR physician, PhD, and other doctoral junior faculty scientists including the CTR-focused K12 program and, subsequently, the KL2-mentored CTR career development program supported through the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs). Our evaluation explores the impact of the K12/KL2 program embedded within the Atlanta Clinical and Translational Science Institute (ACTSI), a consortium linking Emory University, Morehouse School of Medicine and the Georgia Institute of Technology. We conducted qualitative interviews with program participants to evaluate the impact of the program on career development and collected data on traditional metrics (number of grants, publications). 46 combined K12/KL2 scholars were supported between 2002 and 2016. 30 (65%) of the 46 K12/KL2 scholars are women; 24 (52%) of the trainees are minorities, including 10 (22%) scholars who are members of an underrepresented minority group. Scholars reported increased research skills, strong mentorship experiences, and positive impact on their career trajectory. Among the 43 scholars who have completed the program, 39 (91%) remain engaged in CTR and received over $89 000 000 as principal investigators on federally funded awards. The K12/KL2 funding provided the training and protected time for successful career development of CTR scientists. These data highlight the need for continued support for CTR training programs for junior faculty. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.
Mason, Michael J.; Posner, Michael A.
The purpose of this translational research study was to test a brief, manualized adolescent substance abuse treatment protocol's effects in an urban community setting compared to a sample in an experimental study from which the treatment was first employed. One hundred two adolescents who were treated with a manualized protocol of five sessions of…
Acosta, Joie; Ebener, Patricia; Driver, Jennifer; Keith, Jamie; Peebles, Dana
Abstract Translational research is expanding, in part, because Evidence‐Based Programs or Practices (EBPs) are not adopted in many medical domains. However, little translational research exists on EBPs that are prevention programs delivered in nonclinical, community‐based settings. These organizations often have low capacity, which undermines implementation quality and outcomes. Rigorous translational research is needed in these settings so within a single study, capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes are measured and links between them tested. This paper overviews the study Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS), which tests how well a community‐based setting (Boys & Girls Clubs) conducts an EBP called Making Proud Choices that aims to prevent teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, with and without an implementation support intervention called Getting To Outcomes. The study design is novel as it assesses: Getting To Outcomes’ impact on capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes simultaneously and in both study conditions; will assess sustainability by measuring capacity and fidelity a year after the Getting To Outcomes support ends; and will operate on a large scale similar to many national initiatives. Many studies have not incorporated all these elements and thus EQUIPS could serve as a model for translational research in many domains. PMID:23751031
Dobrolecki, Lacey E.; Airhart, Susie D.; Alferez, Denis G.; Aparicio, Samuel; Behbod, Fariba; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Brisken, Cathrin; Bult, Carol J.; Cai, Shirong; Clarke, Robert B.; Dowst, Heidi; Ellis, Matthew J.; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Iggo, Richard D.; Kabos, Peter; Li, Shunqiang; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Marangoni, Elisabetta; McCoy, Aaron; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Poupon, Marie-France; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Sartorius, Carol A.; Scabia, Valentina; Sflomos, George; Tu, Yizheng; Vaillant, François; Visvader, Jane E.; Welm, Alana; Wicha, Max S.
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of a growing spectrum of cancers are rapidly supplanting long-established traditional cell lines as preferred models for conducting basic and translational pre-clinical research. In breast cancer, to complement the now curated collection of approximately 45 long-established human breast cancer cell lines, a newly formed consortium of academic laboratories, currently from Europe, Australia, and North America, herein summarizes data on over 500 stably transplantable PDX models representing all three clinical subtypes of breast cancer (ER+, HER2+, and “Triple-negative” (TNBC)). Many of these models are well-characterized with respect to genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic features, metastatic behavior, and treatment response to a variety of standard-of-care and experimental therapeutics. These stably transplantable PDX lines are generally available for dissemination to laboratories conducting translational research, and contact information for each collection is provided. This review summarizes current experiences related to PDX generation across participating groups, efforts to develop data standards for annotation and dissemination of patient clinical information that does not compromise patient privacy, efforts to develop complementary data standards for annotation of PDX characteristics and biology, and progress toward “credentialing” of PDX models as surrogates to represent individual patients for use in pre-clinical and co-clinical translational research. In addition, this review highlights important unresolved questions, as well as current limitations, that have hampered more efficient generation of PDX lines and more rapid adoption of PDX use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:28025748
Rajan, A.; Berns, A.; Ringborg, U.; Celis, J.; Ponder, B.; Caldas, C.; Livingston, D.; Bristow, R.G.; Hecht, T.T.; Tursz, T.; van Luenen, H.; Bono, P.; Helander, T.; Seamon, K.; Smyth, J.K.; Louvard, D.; Eggermont, A.; van Harten, Willem H.
Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCCs) serve as critical drivers for improving cancer survival. In Europe, we have developed an Excellence Designation System (EDS) consisting of criteria to assess "excellence" of CCCs in translational research (bench to bedside and back), with the expectation that many
Reed, Derek D.
In recent years, school psychology has become increasingly grounded in data-based decision making and intervention design, based upon behavior analytic principles. This paradigm shift has occurred in part by recent federal legislation, as well as through advances in experimental research replicating laboratory based studies. Translating basic…
Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…
This paper begins with a description of four generations of research in machine translation: the original efforts of 1957 to 1965 and three types of surviving and sometimes competing present projects. The three types of present projects include those relying on "brute force" methods involving larger and faster computers; those based on a…
Lenz, A. Stephen; Gómez Soler, Inmaculada; Dell'Aquilla, Julia; Uribe, Patricia Martinez
This article describes a 6-step process for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of counseling assessments from source document into a target language. An illustrative example is provided using the Brief Resilience Scale (Smith et al., 2008) and considerations for counseling researchers are discussed.
Glasgow, Russell E.
Background: One of the reasons for the slow and uncertain translation of research into practice is likely due to the emphasis in science on explanatory models and efficacy designs rather than more pragmatic approaches. Methods: Following a brief definition of what constitutes a pragmatic approach, I provide examples of pragmatic methods, measures,…
Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina
. Here we describe the essence of a long-term initiative undertaken by The Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research and currently underway for cancer biomarker discovery using fresh tissue biopsies and bio-fluids. The Centre is a virtual hub that brings together scientists working...
Rajan, A; Berns, A; Ringborg, U; Celis, J; Ponder, B; Caldas, C; Livingston, D; Bristow, R G; Hecht, T T; Tursz, T; van Luenen, H; Bono, P; Helander, T; Seamon, K; Smyth, J F; Louvard, D; Eggermont, A; van Harten, W H
Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCCs) serve as critical drivers for improving cancer survival. In Europe, we have developed an Excellence Designation System (EDS) consisting of criteria to assess "excellence" of CCCs in translational research (bench to bedside and back), with the expectation that many European CCCs will aspire to this status. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chan, Dorothy N S; So, Winnie K W
A discussion of the challenges encountered during instrument translation and validation while researching cervical cancer screening among ethnic minorities and the strategies used to overcome them. Given the increasing ethnic and cultural diversity of populations in different countries, culturally sensitive instruments are needed to evaluate people's attitudes, perceptions, and health practices. Often, such instruments are lacking in the study population's language. Discussion paper. The discussion is based on our previous experience including the challenges encountered in the translation process and in the semantic and content validation and the strategies used to overcome them. Seeking help from community centres or translation agencies to use translators with a health care background and of the same cultural origins as the target participants is effective. Actively contacting potential experts through email addresses obtained from published research articles is another effective way to find suitable experts. Field testing of the study questionnaire is important in validation, as it uncovers difficulties that go beyond translation. Good planning and preparation before the translation and validation work begins is always required. Working closely with translators and experts through discussion is the key to success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text......The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...
O'Connor, Thomas G; Cameron, Judy L
Recent studies provide a wealth of findings on the mechanisms by which early stress exposure, particularly within the early child-parent attachment relationship, may influence long-term adaptation. Translating these findings to clinical practice and social policy is now underway. In this review, some key considerations in this translational task are examined, specifically, the conceptual bases underlying the research designs, the putative mechanisms involved, and the degree to which currently available findings might shape interventions. Although the primary focus is on depression, a broader range of phenotypes associated with poor early caregiving environments is also considered.
Sara L. Ackerman
Full Text Available Biomedical research is increasingly informed by expectations of “translation,” which call for the production of scientific knowledge that can be used to create services and products that improve health outcomes. In this paper, we ask how translation, in particular the idea of social responsibility, is understood and enacted in the post-genomic life sciences. Drawing on theories examining what constitutes “good science,” and interviews with 35 investigators who study the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, we describe the dynamic and unsettled ethics of translational science through which the expected social value of scientific knowledge about complex disease causation is negotiated. To describe how this ethics is formed, we first discuss the politics of knowledge production in interdisciplinary research collectives. Researchers described a commitment to working across disciplines to examine a wide range of possible causes of disease, but they also pointed to persistent disciplinary and ontological divisions that rest on the dominance of molecular conceptions of disease risk. The privileging of molecular-level causation shapes and constrains the kinds of knowledge that can be created about gene-environment interactions. We then turn to scientists’ ideas about how this knowledge should be used, including personalized prevention strategies, targeted therapeutics, and public policy interventions. Consensus about the relative value of these anticipated translations was elusive, and many scientists agreed that gene-environment interaction research is part of a shift in biomedical research away from considering important social, economic, political and historical causes of disease and disease disparities. We conclude by urging more explicit engagement with questions about the ethics of translational science in the post-genomic life sciences. This would include a consideration
Galanopoulou, Aristea S; French, Jacqueline A; O'Brien, Terence; Simonato, Michele
Among the priority next steps outlined during the first translational epilepsy research workshop in London, United Kingdom (2012), jointly organized by the American Epilepsy Society (AES) and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), are the harmonization of research practices used in preclinical studies and the development of infrastructure that facilitates multicenter preclinical studies. The AES/ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE has been pursuing initiatives that advance these goals. In this supplement, we present the first reports of the working groups of the Task Force that aim to improve practices of performing rodent video-electroencephalography (vEEG) studies in experimental controls, generate systematic reviews of preclinical research data, and develop preclinical common data elements (CDEs) for epilepsy research in animals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
Mace, F Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S
"Pure basic" science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. "Pure applied" work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both.
Full Text Available Abstract Personalized treatments have become a primary goal in translational psychiatric research. They include the identification of neural circuits associated with psychiatric disorders and definition of treatment according to individual characteristics. Many new tools and technologies have been developed but further efforts are required to provide clues on how these scientific advances in psychiatry may be translated into more effective therapeutic approaches. Obstacles to the progress of translational psychiatry also involve numerous scientific, financial, ethical, logistics and regulatory aspects. Also, the goal of DSM-5 to expand “signs and symptoms” classification to incorporate biological measures may help the development of new multifactorial and dimensional models able to better understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and develop improved treatments. Finally, a better understanding on the significant response variability, cognitive functioning, role of comorbidities and treatment-resistant cases are critical for the development of prevention and intervention strategies that are more effective.
Personalized treatments have become a primary goal in translational psychiatric research. They include the identification of neural circuits associated with psychiatric disorders and definition of treatment according to individual characteristics. Many new tools and technologies have been developed but further efforts are required to provide clues on how these scientific advances in psychiatry may be translated into more effective therapeutic approaches. Obstacles to the progress of translational psychiatry also involve numerous scientific, financial, ethical, logistics and regulatory aspects. Also, the goal of DSM-5 to expand “signs and symptoms” classification to incorporate biological measures may help the development of new multifactorial and dimensional models able to better understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and develop improved treatments. Finally, a better understanding on the significant response variability, cognitive functioning, role of comorbidities and treatment-resistant cases are critical for the development of prevention and intervention strategies that are more effective. PMID:22929586
Goodwin, Thomas J.; Cohrs, Randall; Crucian, Brian A,; Levine Benjamin; Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Schneider, Lori; Shackelford, Linda C.
The Space Environment provides many challenges to the human physiology and therefore to extended habitation and exploration. Translational research and medical strategies are meeting these challenges by combining Earth based medical solutions with innovative and developmental engineering approaches. Translational methodologies are current applied to spaceflight related dysregulations in the areas of: (1) cardiovascular fluid shifts, intracranial hypertension and neuro-ocular impairment 2) immune insufficiency and suppression/viral re-expression, 3) bone loss and fragility (osteopenia/osteoporosis) and muscle wasting, and finally 4) radiation sensitivity and advanced ageing. Over 40 years of research into these areas have met with limited success due to lack of tools and basic understanding of central issues that cause physiologic maladaptaion and distrupt homeostatis. I will discuss the effects of living in space (reduced gravity, increased radiation and varying atmospheric conditions [EVA]) during long-duration, exploration-class missions and how translational research has benefited not only space exploration but also Earth based medicine. Modern tools such as telemedicine advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics (Omicssciences) has helped address syndromes, at the systemic level by enlisting a global approach to assessing spaceflight physiology and to develop countermeasures thereby permitting our experience in space to be translated to the Earth's medical community.
Full Text Available Despite continuous efforts to improve the process of drug discovery and development, achieving success at the clinical stage remains challenging because of a persistent translational gap between the preclinical and clinical settings. Under these circumstances, the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells has brought new hope to the drug discovery field because they enable scientists to humanize a variety of pharmacological and toxicological models in vitro. The availability of human iPS cell-derived cells, particularly as an alternative for difficult-to-access tissues and organs, is increasing steadily; however, their use in the field of translational medicine remains challenging. Biomarkers are an essential part of the translational effort to shift new discoveries from bench to bedside as they provide a measurable indicator with which to evaluate pharmacological and toxicological effects in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In general, during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, in vitro models that are established to recapitulate human diseases are validated by using a set of biomarkers; however, their translatability to a clinical setting remains problematic. This review provides an overview of current strategies for human iPS cell-based drug discovery from the perspective of translational research, and discusses the importance of early consideration of clinically relevant biomarkers.
Hosoya, Masaki; Czysz, Katherine
Despite continuous efforts to improve the process of drug discovery and development, achieving success at the clinical stage remains challenging because of a persistent translational gap between the preclinical and clinical settings. Under these circumstances, the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has brought new hope to the drug discovery field because they enable scientists to humanize a variety of pharmacological and toxicological models in vitro. The availability of human iPS cell-derived cells, particularly as an alternative for difficult-to-access tissues and organs, is increasing steadily; however, their use in the field of translational medicine remains challenging. Biomarkers are an essential part of the translational effort to shift new discoveries from bench to bedside as they provide a measurable indicator with which to evaluate pharmacological and toxicological effects in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In general, during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, in vitro models that are established to recapitulate human diseases are validated by using a set of biomarkers; however, their translatability to a clinical setting remains problematic. This review provides an overview of current strategies for human iPS cell-based drug discovery from the perspective of translational research, and discusses the importance of early consideration of clinically relevant biomarkers.
Lopez-Patton, M R; Weiss, S M; Tobin, J N; Jones, D L; Diaz-Gloster, M
Despite the increasing popularity of translation research, few studies have described the process and challenges involved in implementing a translation study. The main objective was to determine whether a multi-component group behavioral intervention could be successfully translated from an academic setting into the community health system of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) in Miami, NY, and NJ. Key challenges and "lessons learned" from the dissemination and implementation process for the SMART/EST (Stress Management And Relaxation Training/Emotional Supportive Therapy) Women's Project (SWP) III in low-resource primary care settings are described. The Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) model served as the theoretical framework for the translation of the study. This study outlines several essential factors related to Glasgow's RE-AIM model that need to be considered in order to accomplish successful translation of evidence-based interventions from traditional academia to "real-world" community health center settings.
Hosoya, Masaki; Czysz, Katherine
Despite continuous efforts to improve the process of drug discovery and development, achieving success at the clinical stage remains challenging because of a persistent translational gap between the preclinical and clinical settings. Under these circumstances, the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has brought new hope to the drug discovery field because they enable scientists to humanize a variety of pharmacological and toxicological models in vitro. The availability of human iPS cell-derived cells, particularly as an alternative for difficult-to-access tissues and organs, is increasing steadily; however, their use in the field of translational medicine remains challenging. Biomarkers are an essential part of the translational effort to shift new discoveries from bench to bedside as they provide a measurable indicator with which to evaluate pharmacological and toxicological effects in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In general, during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, in vitro models that are established to recapitulate human diseases are validated by using a set of biomarkers; however, their translatability to a clinical setting remains problematic. This review provides an overview of current strategies for human iPS cell-based drug discovery from the perspective of translational research, and discusses the importance of early consideration of clinically relevant biomarkers. PMID:28009813
Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre
Limited health research capacity in one of the factors that prevents developing countries from attaining optimal health outcomes and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. We report here, the details of a workshop on pragmatic knowledge translation trials for Cameroonian researchers, the material covered and additional resources to support capacity development. At the end of this workshop, knowledge gains were noted and participants were able to initiate proposals for funding. These proposals were aimed at improving the clinical management of diabetes, hypertension and malaria.
Estape, Estela; Laurido, Lourdes E Soto de; Shaheen, Magda; Quarshie, Alexander; Frontera, Walter; Mays, Mary Helen; Harrigan, Rosanne; White, Richard
Health disparities may affect any person in any community in the world, resulting from a multitude of factors including socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, environment, and genetics. The impact of health disparities is felt by affected individuals, their families, communities, and the greater health care system. There is a critical need to increase health disparities research activities. This may be achieved by expanding and strengthening the training, education and career development of motivated clinicians, physicians and basic scientists, engaging them in clinical and translational research. Translational research relies on collaboration across disciplines, facilitating the dissemination and transfer of knowledge to populations for the overall improvement of health while decreasing the economic burden of health care. The University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC), Schools of Health Professions and Medicine joint initiatives, Clinical Research Education and Career Development (CRECD) and Hispanics in Research Capability (HiREC) programs, convened health disparities experts, faculty and scholars from multiple disciplines, cultural backgrounds and institutions. Together, they created a model for teaching translational research in health disparities that spans disciplines without boundaries. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
María Teresa Sánchez Nieto
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36nesp1p121 This paper describes the design of a small action research project conducted in a course on translation of general texts from German into Spanish. The project methodology combines creative writing techniques with those of data-driven learning put forward by Johns (1991 for foreign language learning and applied by Laviosa (2014, in press to translator training, as well as with the methods of corpus use for learning to translate proposed by Marco and Van Lawick (2009. The aim of the project is threefold: (i raising the students’ awareness on the possibility of interference between German and Spanish past tenses when translating narrative sequences; (ii allowing the students practicing data-driven learning about translation issues, and (iii observing if these interventions bring about a qualitative change in their translation performance, specifically in the decrease of interference when translating narrative sequences with past tenses from German into Spanish. In the paper, special attention will be paid to the theoretical basis of the project, as well as to the methodological decisions involved in its design.
María Teresa Sánchez Nieto
Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a small action research project conducted in a course on translation of general texts from German into Spanish. The project methodology combines creative writing techniques with those of data-driven learning put forward by Johns (1991 for foreign language learning and applied by Laviosa (2014, in press to translator training, as well as with the methods of corpus use for learning to translate proposed by Marco and Van Lawick (2009. The aim of the project is threefold: (i raising the students’ awareness on the possibility of interference between German and Spanish past tenses when translating narrative sequences; (ii allowing the students practicing data-driven learning about translation issues, and (iii observing if these interventions bring about a qualitative change in their translation performance, specifically in the decrease of interference when translating narrative sequences with past tenses from German into Spanish. In the paper, special attention will be paid to the theoretical basis of the project, as well as to the methodological decisions involved in its design.
Forsythe, Katherine H.
Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.
Reinlib, Leslie; Friedberg, Errol C
On September 28-29, 2006, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences led a team from the National Institutes of Health in hosting a Working Group on Integrated Translational Research in DNA Repair, in Berkeley, CA. In recognition of the far-reaching goals for this area of investigation, the Working Group was charged with conceiving a vision to facilitate projects that would apply the lessons of DNA Repair research to clinical application and public health. The participants included basic and physician scientists working in the various areas of DNA Repair and genome stability, as well as agency representatives of the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. In constructing this vision of practical research recommendations, the Working Group was asked to identify roadblocks to progress, suggest enabling technologies, and to consider areas that are ripe for translation. This report summarizes the rationale for this initiative and the recommendations that emerged.
George Q. Daley
Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.
Tabak, Rachel G; Sinclair, Kàimi A; Baumann, Ana A; Racette, Susan B; Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D; Brownson, Ross C
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) has been shown to prevent type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modification. The purpose of this study was to describe the literature on DPP translation, synthesizing studies using cultural adaptation and implementation research. A systematic search was conducted. Original studies evaluating DPP implementation and/or cultural adaptation were included. Data about cultural adaptation, implementation outcomes, and translation strategies was abstracted. A total of 44 were included, of which 15 reported cultural adaptations and 38 explored implementation. Many studies shortened the program length and reported a group format. The most commonly reported cultural adaptation (13 of 15) was with content. At the individual level, the most frequently assessed implementation outcome (n = 30) was adoption. Feasibility was most common (n = 32) at the organization level. The DPP is being tested in a variety of settings and populations, using numerous translational strategies and cultural adaptations. Implementation research that identifies, evaluates, and reports efforts to translate the DPP into practice is crucial.
Birdsell Judy M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. AIM: The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. DISCUSSION: Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.
Skolariki, Konstantina; Avramouli, Antigoni
The rise of precision medicine combined with the variety of biomedical data sources and their heterogeneous nature make the integration and exploration of information that they retain more complicated. In light of these issues, translational research platforms were developed as a promising solution. Research centers have used translational tools for the study of integrated data for hypothesis development and validation, cohort discovery and data-exploration. For this article, we reviewed the literature in order to determine the use of translational research platforms in precision medicine. These tools are used to support scientists in various domains regarding precision medicine research. We identified eight platforms: BRISK, iCOD, iDASH, tranSMART, the recently developed OncDRS, as well as caTRIP, cBio Cancer Portal and G-DOC. The last four platforms explore multidimensional data specifically for cancer research. We focused on tranSMART, for it is the most broadly used platform, since its development in 2012.
Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by
Kost, Rhonda G; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Evering, Teresa H; Holt, Peter R; Neville-Williams, Maija; Vasquez, Kimberly S; Coller, Barry S; Tobin, Jonathan N
Engaging basic scientists in community-based translational research is challenging but has great potential for improving health. In 2009, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science partnered with Clinical Directors Network, a practice-based research network (PBRN), to create a community-engaged research navigation (CEnR-Nav) program to foster research pairing basic science and community-driven scientific aims. The program is led by an academic navigator and a PBRN navigator. Through meetings and joint activities, the program facilitates basic science-community partnerships and the development and conduct of joint research protocols. From 2009-2014, 39 investigators pursued 44 preliminary projects through the CEnR-Nav program; 25 of those became 23 approved protocols and 2 substudies. They involved clinical scholar trainees, early-career physician-scientists, faculty, students, postdoctoral fellows, and others. Nineteen (of 25; 76%) identified community partners, of which 9 (47%) named them as coinvestigators. Nine (of 25; 36%) included T3-T4 translational aims. Seven (of 25; 28%) secured external funding, 11 (of 25; 44%) disseminated results through presentations or publications, and 5 (71%) of 7 projects publishing results included a community partner as a coauthor. Of projects with long-term navigator participation, 9 (of 19; 47%) incorporated T3-T4 aims and 7 (of 19; 37%) secured external funding. The CEnR-Nav program provides a model for successfully engaging basic scientists with communities to advance and accelerate translational science. This model's durability and generalizability have not been determined, but it achieves valuable short-term goals and facilitates scientifically meaningful community-academic partnerships.
Caballero, C; Jantus-Lewintre, E; Carrato, A; García-Foncillas, J; Gascón, P; Blasco, A; Moreno-Nogueira, J A; Guillem, V; López, R; Codes, M; Antón, A; Díaz-Rubio, E; Camps, C
Under the auspices of the Foundation for Excellence and Quality in Oncology (ECO), the Translational Research in Oncology Medical Services Study (INTRO) was conducted with the aim of describing the current state of, and future expectations for translational cancer research in Spanish medical centres. The first step in the investigation was intended to analyse the current condition of the national Medical Oncology Services network by examining different aspects of the oncology research field. A descriptive and observational multicentre study was performed at a statewide level; information was collected by surveying a cross-section of all those responsible for Medical Oncology Services in Spain. The survey was completed by key informants, who were selected independently by each service, between September 2010 and April 2011. We were able to gather comprehensive data from a total of 27 Spanish hospitals. These data enabled us to describe the allocation of human and material resources devoted to clinical and translational research across the Medical Oncology Services and to describe the organisational and functional components of these services and units. These data included information pertaining to the activities developed, their funding sources, and their functional dependence on other internal or external bodies. Finally, we explored the degree of dissemination and use of some specific techniques used for the genetic diagnosis of cancer, which have recently been introduced in Medical Oncology within the Spanish healthcare system. A wide range of variability exists between different oncology services in Spanish hospitals. Time should be spent reflecting on the need and opportunities for improvement in the development of translational research within the field of oncology.
Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.
Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Siminerio, Linda; L'Heveder, Ronan; Narayan, K M Venkat
Efficacious interventions for prevention of diabetes and its complications exist; however, their implementation is woefully inadequate. The purpose of this project is to qualitatively assess the early lessons learnt from implementing translational research from eleven projects supported by BRIDGES, an International Diabetes Federation program. Semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with 10 researchers, seeking their views on factors relating to success and barriers to implementation. Data were collected from June to September 2010 by a trained interviewer; information was recorded, transcribed and further analyzed with MAXQDA. Patient recruitment and retention were reported as challenges. Lack of availability of local multidisciplinary teams was highlighted as having a negative effect on the project. Grassroots and community participation were emphasized to have beneficial effects. Flexibility was recognized as a key for successful execution of the projects. Recommendations include: feedback from previous grantees, in the form of pre-submission workshops, and mentoring from experienced investigators with emphasis on the differences between traditional and translational researches. This evaluation underscores the main contingencies to be considered for successful implementation of translational research. It emphasizes the importance of having the three stakeholders: patients, providers, and health systems, acting together in a flexible environment within real life settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martínez, Giovanni; Sardiñas, Lili M.; Acosta-Perez, Edna; Medina, Lizbeth; Rivera, Mirza; Pattatucci, Angela
Background In an effort to form and sustain community–academic partnerships (CAPs) to enhance clinical and translational research, an assessment of needs for selecting and implementing evidence-based programs (EBPs) was conducted among a group of community-based organizations (CBOs) throughout Puerto Rico. Methods The survey was based on an instrument developed by the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network. It assessed specific service information, program selection/implementation processes, knowledge and perception of EBPs, funding venues, evaluation processes, and capacity and training needs. Recruitment consisted of contacting 100 nonprofit organizations in Puerto Rico that work or address specific health areas, namely, cancer, neurological disorders, HIV, and cardiovascular health. Results The survey revealed wide variability in understanding what constitutes an EBP. Training needs for building a productive translational research process also were identified. Prominent among these were securing funding for ongoing operations, utilizing data for decision making, developing collaborations, managing information, conducting community needs assessments, and program evaluation. Conclusions These findings point to important implications for promoting community–campus partnerships for advancing clinical and translational research. PMID:24859102
A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...
Full Text Available The integration and analysis of large datasets in translational research has become an increasingly challenging problem. We propose a collaborative approach to integrate established data management platforms with existing analytical systems to fill the hole in the value chain between data collection and data exploitation. Our proposal in particular ensures data security and provides support for widely distributed teams of researchers. As a successful example for such an approach, we describe the implementation of a unified single platform that combines capabilities of the knowledge management platform tranSMART and the data analysis system Genedata Analyst™. The combined end-to-end platform helps to quickly find, enter, integrate, analyze, extract, and share patient- and drug-related data in the context of translational R&D projects.
Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina
The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedside....... Here we describe the essence of a long-term initiative undertaken by The Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research and currently underway for cancer biomarker discovery using fresh tissue biopsies and bio-fluids. The Centre is a virtual hub that brings together scientists working...... cancer progression and ultimately of improving patient survival and quality of life. The unifying concept behind our approach is the use of various experimental paradigms for the prospective analysis of clinically relevant samples obtained from the same patient, along with the systematic integration...
Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A
In spite of high prevalence and disease burden, scientific consensus on the etiology and treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has yet to be reached. The development and utilization of experimental psychopathology paradigms in the human laboratory represents a cornerstone of AUD research. In this review, we describe and critically evaluate the major experimental psychopathology paradigms developed for AUD, with an emphasis on their implications, strengths, weaknesses, and methodological considerations. Specifically we review alcohol administration, self-administration, cue-reactivity, and stress-reactivity paradigms. We also provide an introduction to the application of experimental psychopathology methods to translational research including genetics, neuroimaging, pharmacological and behavioral treatment development, and translational science. Through refining and manipulating key phenotypes of interest, these experimental paradigms have the potential to elucidate AUD etiological factors, improve the efficiency of treatment developments, and refine treatment targets thus advancing precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steffens, Michael; Husmann, Gabriele; Koca, Mithat; Lablans, Martin; Komor, Martina; Zeissig, Sylke; Emrich, Katharina; Brandts, Christian; Serve, Hubert; Blettner, Maria; Uckert, Frank
The German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK) and the Rhine-Main Translational Cancer Research Network (RM-TCRN) are designed to exploit large population cohorts of cancer patients for the purpose of bio-banking, clinical trials, and clinical cancer registration. Hence, the success of these platforms is heavily dependent on the close interlinking of clinical data from cancer patients, information from study registries, and data from bio-banking systems of different laboratories and scientific institutions. This article referring to the poster discusses the main challenges of the platforms from an information technology point of view, legal and data security issues, and outlines an integrative IT-concept concerning a decentralized, distributed search approach where data management and search is in compliance with existing legislative rules.
Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon
In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.
Finney Rutten, L J; Alexander, A; Embi, P J; Flores, G; Friedman, C; Haller, I V; Haug, P; Jensen, D; Khosla, S; Runger, G; Shah, N D; Winden, T; Roger, V L
The Learning Health System Network clinical data research network includes academic medical centers, health-care systems, public health departments, and health plans, and is designed to facilitate outcomes research, pragmatic trials, comparative effectiveness research, and evaluation of population health interventions. The Learning Health System Network is 1 of 13 clinical data research networks assembled to create, in partnership with 20 patient-powered research networks, a National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. Herein, we describe the Learning Health System Network as an emerging resource for translational research, providing details on the governance and organizational structure of the network, the key milestones of the current funding period, and challenges and opportunities for collaborative science leveraging the network.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs. Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB. TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. Methods TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. Conclusion TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the
Hanbury, Andria; Thompson, Carl; Wilson, Paul M; Farley, Kate; Chambers, Duncan; Warren, Erica; Bibby, John; Mannion, Russell; Watt, Ian S; Gilbody, Simon
The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs). Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs) and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB). TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the interaction between context and adoption behaviour in health
Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Delgado, Julio C.; Jackson, Brian R.; Tricot, Guido J.; Hill, Harry R.
Clinical laboratories are a strong and integral partner in personalized health care. Laboratory information systems hold a vast amount of data representing human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “...
Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D
Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garst, J; L'Heveder, R; Siminerio, L M; Motala, A A; Gabbay, R A; Chaney, D; Cavan, D
This study identifies the barriers and enablers for sustainability of interventions in primary and secondary prevention of diabetes. In the context of translational research, sustainability is defined as the continued use of program components and activities for the continued achievement of desirable program and population outcomes. In this study, eleven translational research projects, supported by the BRIDGES program of the International Diabetes Federation, were investigated. By theoretically-informed semi-structured interviews and analyses of project reports, qualitative data was collected on the sustainability outcomes and the barriers and enablers. The sustainability outcomes can be grouped in three main areas: (1) sustainability at the intervention site(s); (2) diffusion to the wider community; and (3) replication of the intervention at other site(s). Each of the outcomes has their own set of enablers and barriers, and thus requires consideration for a different sustainability strategy. This study is the first international study that relates the sustainability outcomes of translational research project to specific barriers and enablers, and develops an evidence-based framework which provides practical advice on how to ensure the sustainability of health interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Anne Kjaergaard Danielsen
Full Text Available There is growing awareness of the need to explore patient reported outcomes in clinical trials. In the Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group we are conducting several clinical trials in cooperation between Danish and Swedish surgical researchers, and we use questionnaires aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects.The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting translation of questionnaires. Furthermore, we wanted to make some methodological suggestions for clinical researchers who are faced with having to translate a questionnaire.We designed a research study based on a survey of the literature and extracted data from published studies reporting the methodological process when translating questionnaires on health related quality of life for different diseases.We retrieved 187 studies and out of theses we included 52 studies. The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus was on internal validity (96%, reliability (67% criterion validity (81%, and construct validity (62%. For internal validity Cronbach's alpha was used in 94% of the studies.This study shows that there seems to be a consensus regarding the translation process (especially for internal validity although most researchers did not use a translation guide. Moreover, we recommended that clinical researchers should consider three steps covering the process of translation, the qualitative validation as well as the quantitative validation.
Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Angenete, Eva; Rosenberg, Jacob
Introduction There is growing awareness of the need to explore patient reported outcomes in clinical trials. In the Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group we are conducting several clinical trials in cooperation between Danish and Swedish surgical researchers, and we use questionnaires aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects. Main Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting translation of questionnaires. Furthermore, we wanted to make some methodological suggestions for clinical researchers who are faced with having to translate a questionnaire. Material and Methods We designed a research study based on a survey of the literature and extracted data from published studies reporting the methodological process when translating questionnaires on health related quality of life for different diseases. Results We retrieved 187 studies and out of theses we included 52 studies. The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus was on internal validity (96%), reliability (67%) criterion validity (81%), and construct validity (62%). For internal validity Cronbach's alpha was used in 94% of the studies. Conclusions This study shows that there seems to be a consensus regarding the translation process (especially for internal validity) although most researchers did not use a translation guide. Moreover, we recommended that clinical researchers should consider three steps covering the process of translation, the qualitative validation as well as the quantitative validation. PMID:25965447
Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V; Schmandt, Linda; Mohanty, Sambit K; Farhat, Ghada; Pople, Andrew K; Winters, Sharon B; Whelan, Nancy B; Schneider, Althea M; Milnes, John T; Valdivieso, Federico A; Feldman, Michael; Pass, Harvey I; Dhir, Rajiv; Melamed, Jonathan; Becich, Michael J
Advances in translational research have led to the need for well characterized biospecimens for research. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is an initiative which collects annotated datasets relevant to human mesothelioma to develop an enterprising biospecimen resource to fulfill researchers' need. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank architecture is based on three major components: (a) common data elements (based on College of American Pathologists protocol and National North American Association of Central Cancer Registries standards), (b) clinical and epidemiologic data annotation, and (c) data query tools. These tools work interoperably to standardize the entire process of annotation. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank tool is based upon the caTISSUE Clinical Annotation Engine, developed by the University of Pittsburgh in cooperation with the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG, see http://cabig.nci.nih.gov). This application provides a web-based system for annotating, importing and searching mesothelioma cases. The underlying information model is constructed utilizing Unified Modeling Language class diagrams, hierarchical relationships and Enterprise Architect software. The database provides researchers real-time access to richly annotated specimens and integral information related to mesothelioma. The data disclosed is tightly regulated depending upon users' authorization and depending on the participating institute that is amenable to the local Institutional Review Board and regulation committee reviews. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank currently has over 600 annotated cases available for researchers that include paraffin embedded tissues, tissue microarrays, serum and genomic DNA. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is a virtual biospecimen registry with robust translational biomedical informatics support to facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. Furthermore, it protects patient privacy by disclosing only
Valdivieso Federico A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in translational research have led to the need for well characterized biospecimens for research. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is an initiative which collects annotated datasets relevant to human mesothelioma to develop an enterprising biospecimen resource to fulfill researchers' need. Methods The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank architecture is based on three major components: (a common data elements (based on College of American Pathologists protocol and National North American Association of Central Cancer Registries standards, (b clinical and epidemiologic data annotation, and (c data query tools. These tools work interoperably to standardize the entire process of annotation. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank tool is based upon the caTISSUE Clinical Annotation Engine, developed by the University of Pittsburgh in cooperation with the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™, see http://cabig.nci.nih.gov. This application provides a web-based system for annotating, importing and searching mesothelioma cases. The underlying information model is constructed utilizing Unified Modeling Language class diagrams, hierarchical relationships and Enterprise Architect software. Result The database provides researchers real-time access to richly annotated specimens and integral information related to mesothelioma. The data disclosed is tightly regulated depending upon users' authorization and depending on the participating institute that is amenable to the local Institutional Review Board and regulation committee reviews. Conclusion The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank currently has over 600 annotated cases available for researchers that include paraffin embedded tissues, tissue microarrays, serum and genomic DNA. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is a virtual biospecimen registry with robust translational biomedical informatics support to facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational
Majdzadeh, Reza; Sadighi, Jila; Nejat, Saharnaz; Mahani, Ali Shahidzade; Gholami, Jaleh
Introduction: The present study aimed to generate a model that would provide a conceptual framework for linking disparate components of knowledge translation. A theoretical model of such would enable the organization and evaluation of attempts to analyze current conditions and to design interventions on the transfer and utilization of research…
Dankwa-Mullan, Irene; Rhee, Kyu B; Stoff, David M; Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Sy, Francisco S; Stinson, Nathaniel; Ruffin, John
Translational, transdisciplinary, and transformational research stands to become a paradigm-shifting mantra for research in health disparities. A windfall of research discoveries using these 3 approaches has increased our understanding of the health disparities in racial, ethnic, and low socioeconomic status groups. These distinct but related research spheres possess unique environments, which, when integrated, can lead to innovation in health disparities science. In this article, we review these approaches and propose integrating them to advance health disparities research through a change in philosophical position and an increased emphasis on community engagement. We argue that a balanced combination of these research approaches is needed to inform evidence-based practice, social action, and effective policy change to improve health in disparity communities.
Rhee, Kyu B.; Stoff, David M.; Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Sy, Francisco S.; Stinson, Nathaniel; Ruffin, John
Translational, transdisciplinary, and transformational research stands to become a paradigm-shifting mantra for research in health disparities. A windfall of research discoveries using these 3 approaches has increased our understanding of the health disparities in racial, ethnic, and low socioeconomic status groups. These distinct but related research spheres possess unique environments, which, when integrated, can lead to innovation in health disparities science. In this article, we review these approaches and propose integrating them to advance health disparities research through a change in philosophical position and an increased emphasis on community engagement. We argue that a balanced combination of these research approaches is needed to inform evidence-based practice, social action, and effective policy change to improve health in disparity communities. PMID:20147662
Archibald, M; Kitson, A; Frewin, D; Visvanathan, R
Transforming care for frail older adults requires more than rigorous research. While preventing, identifying and managing frailty are critical to reducing the personal and health systems impact of frailty worldwide, collaborative approaches to research and research application that reflect stakeholder perspectives and priorities are necessary to create meaningful solutions to frailty-related challenges. In South Australia, a new Centre for Research Excellence in Frailty was recently launched with funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. Comprised of a national team with international partnerships and expertise spanning geriatric medicine, nursing, general practice, health economics, pharmacy and rehabilitation medicine, the team is working across traditional disciplinary silos to achieve system level improvements. Drawing from this exemplar, we discuss how a co-design approach to knowledge translation underpins this transdisciplinary research, and how successfully restructuring health services to meet the physical, emotional and social needs of older adults hinges upon such collaboration.
Collisson, Beverly A; Benzies, Karen; Mosher, Andrea A; Rainey, Kelly J; Tanaka, Satomi; Tracey, Curtis; Xu, Chen; Olson, David M
Within a dynamic health research environment with trends toward increasing accountability, governments and funding agencies have placed increased emphasis on knowledge translation (KT) as a way to optimize the impact of research investments on health outcomes, research products and health service delivery. As a result, there is an increasing need for familiarity with the principles of KT frameworks and components of KT strategies. Accordingly, health research trainees (graduate students and post-doctoral fellows) must be supported to enhance their capacity to understand KT principles and the practicalities of implementing effective KT practices.In this paper, the unique opportunities and challenges that trainees within an interdisciplinary research team encounter when they begin to understand and apply constructive and relevant KT practices are considered. Our commentary is based on trainee experiences within the Preterm Birth and Healthy Outcomes Team (PreHOT), an interdisciplinary research team.
Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Jule, Allyson
This article explores the use of public cafés as a model for knowledge translation and community engagement. We base our discussion on a public café series organized around the theme of access to health care and held in three neighborhoods in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. The cafés were part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Café Scientifique program. Our purposes for this series of cafés were threefold: (a) to provide a site of communication to connect research with members of the public, (b) to build a network among participants based on common connections to the local community, and (c) to explore through discussion how gendered and raced perspectives concerning access to health care may influence the lived experiences of Canadians today. We intended to promote an intergroup conversation, based on the assumption that people of First Nations descent, newcomers to Canada (whether through immigration or resettlement), and settlers (such as Euro-Canadians) would all benefit from hearing each other's perspectives on access to health care, as well as presentations by invited academics about their research on access to health care. A form of "crosstalk" emerged in the cafés, mediated by gender and ethnicity, where social differences and geographical distances between various groups were not easily bridged, and yet where opportunity was created for inclusive dialogic spaces. We conclude that knowledge translation is not easily accomplished with the café format, at least not with the type of critical knowledge we were aiming to translate and the depth of engagement we were hoping for. Our experiences highlighted three strategies that facilitate knowledge translation: relationships and shared goals; involvement of policymakers and decision makers; and tending to social relations of power.
Deo, Sarang; Crea, Lindy; Quevedo, Jorge; Lehe, Jonathan; Vojnov, Lara; Peter, Trevor; Jani, Ilesh
The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of a new technology to communicate the results of an infant HIV diagnostic test on test turnaround time and to quantify the association between late delivery of test results and patient loss to follow-up. We used data collected during a pilot implementation of Global Package Radio Service (GPRS) printers for communicating results in the early infant diagnosis program in Mozambique from 2008 through 2010. Our dataset comprised 1757 patient records, of which 767 were from before implementation and 990 from after implementation of expedited results delivery system. We used multivariate logistic regression model to determine the association between late result delivery (more than 30 days between sample collection and result delivery to the health facility) and the probability of result collection by the infant's caregiver. We used a sample selection model to determine the association between late result delivery to the facility and further delay in collection of results by the caregiver. The mean test turnaround time reduced from 68.13 to 41.05 days post-expedited results delivery system. Caregivers collected only 665 (37.8%) of the 1757 results. After controlling for confounders, the late delivery of results was associated with a reduction of approximately 18% (0.44 vs. 0.36; P GPRS printers) that reduce delays.
Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Baker, M.; Lindgren, C.; Mailhot, M.
Classroom teachers are challenged with engaging and preparing today s students for the future. Activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and high-stakes testing. Providing educators with standards-aligned, inquiry-based activities that will help them engage their students in student-led research in the classroom will help them teach required standards, essential skills, and help inspire their students to become motivated learners. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, classroom educators, and ARES scientists at the NASA Johnson Space Center created the Expedition Earth and Beyond education program to help teachers promote student-led research in their classrooms (grades 5-14) by using NASA data, providing access to scientists, and using integrated educational strategies.
Master, Zubin; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy
Stem cell tourism is a growing industry in which patients pursue unproven stem cell therapies for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. It is a challenging market to regulate due to a number of factors including its international, online, direct-to-consumer approach. Calls to provide education and information to patients, their families, physicians, and the general public about the risks associated with stem cell tourism are mounting. Initial studies examining the perceptions of patients who have pursued stem cell tourism indicate many are highly critical of the research and regulatory systems in their home countries and believe them to be stagnant and unresponsive to patient needs. We suggest that educational material should include an explanation of the translational research process, in addition to other aspects of stem cell tourism, as one means to help promote greater understanding and, ideally, curb patient demand for unproven stem cell interventions. The material provided must stress that strong scientific research is required in order for therapies to be safe and have a greater chance at being effective. Through an analysis of educational material on stem cell tourism and translational stem cell research from patient groups and scientific societies, we describe essential elements that should be conveyed in educational material provided to patients. Although we support the broad dissemination of educational material on stem cell translational research, we also acknowledge that education may simply not be enough to engender patient and public trust in domestic research and regulatory systems. However, promoting patient autonomy by providing good quality information to patients so they can make better informed decisions is valuable in itself, irrespective of whether it serves as an effective deterrent of stem cell tourism. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiology research may converge in practise. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of pharmacotherapy and risk management in patient groups. For many drugs, adverse reaction(s) that were not seen and/or clarified during research and development stages have been reported in the real world. Pharmacoepidemiology can detect and verify adverse drug reactions as reverse translational research. Recently, development and effective use of medical information databases (MID) have been conducted in Japan and elsewhere for the purpose of post-marketing safety of drugs. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan has been promoting the development of 10-million scale database in 10 hospitals and hospital groups as "the infrastructure project of medical information database (MID-NET)". This project enables estimation of the frequency of adverse reactions, the distinction between drug-induced reactions and basal health-condition changes, and usefulness verification of administrative measures of drug safety. However, because the database information is different from detailed medical records, construction of methodologies for the detection and evaluation of adverse reactions is required. We have been performing database research using medical information system in some hospitals to establish and demonstrate useful methods for post-marketing safety. In this symposium, we aim to discuss the possibility of reverse translational research from clinical settings and provide an introduction to our research.
Lillehagen, Ida; Vøllestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind
In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations.
Ashish, Naveen; Bamman, Marcas M.; Cerny, Frank J.; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Eisenmann, Joey C.; Ericson, Dawn; Fahey, John; Falk, Bareket; Gabriel, Davera; Kahn, Michael G.; Kemper, Han C.G.; Leu, Szu‐Yun; Liem, Robert I.; McMurray, Robert; Nixon, Patricia A.; Olin, J. Tod; Pianosi, Paolo T.; Purucker, Mary; Radom‐Aizik, Shlomit; Taylor, Amy
Abstract In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response that is hidden when the child is at rest. Yet the growth of clinical trials utilizing CPET in pediatrics remains stunted despite the current emphasis on preventative medicine and the growing recognition that therapies used in children should be clinically tested in children. There exists a translational gap between basic discovery and clinical application in this essential component of child health. To address this gap, the NIH provided funding through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program to convene a panel of experts. This report summarizes our major findings and outlines next steps necessary to enhance child health exercise medicine translational research. We present specific plans to bolster data interoperability, improve child health CPET reference values, stimulate formal training in exercise medicine for child health care professionals, and outline innovative approaches through which exercise medicine can become more accessible and advance therapeutics across the broad spectrum of child health. PMID:25109386
Ashish, Naveen; Bamman, Marcas M; Cerny, Frank J; Cooper, Dan M; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ericson, Dawn; Fahey, John; Falk, Bareket; Gabriel, Davera; Kahn, Michael G; Kemper, Han C G; Leu, Szu-Yun; Liem, Robert I; McMurray, Robert; Nixon, Patricia A; Olin, J Tod; Pianosi, Paolo T; Purucker, Mary; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Taylor, Amy
In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response that is hidden when the child is at rest. Yet the growth of clinical trials utilizing CPET in pediatrics remains stunted despite the current emphasis on preventative medicine and the growing recognition that therapies used in children should be clinically tested in children. There exists a translational gap between basic discovery and clinical application in this essential component of child health. To address this gap, the NIH provided funding through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program to convene a panel of experts. This report summarizes our major findings and outlines next steps necessary to enhance child health exercise medicine translational research. We present specific plans to bolster data interoperability, improve child health CPET reference values, stimulate formal training in exercise medicine for child health care professionals, and outline innovative approaches through which exercise medicine can become more accessible and advance therapeutics across the broad spectrum of child health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Hong; Xing, Xiaobin; Ding, Guohui; Li, Qingrun; Wang, Chuan; Xie, Lu; Zeng, Rong; Li, Yixue
With the rapid expansion of protein post-translational modification (PTM) research based on large-scale proteomic work, there is an increasing demand for a suitable repository to analyze PTM data. Here we present a curated, web-accessible PTM data base, SysPTM. SysPTM provides a systematic and sophisticated platform for proteomic PTM research equipped not only with a knowledge base of manually curated multi-type modification data but also with four fully developed, in-depth data mining tools....
Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa
We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions
Full Text Available Translational medicine is becoming increasingly dependent upon data generated from health care, clinical research, and molecular investigations. This increasing rate of production and diversity in data has brought about several challenges, including the need to integrate fragmented databases, enable secondary use of patient clinical data from health care in clinical research, and to create information systems that clinicians and biomedical researchers can readily use. Our case study effectively integrates requirements from the clinical and biomedical researcher perspectives in a translational medicine setting. Our three principal achievements are (a a design of a user-friendly web-based system for management and integration of clinical and molecular databases, while adhering to proper de-identification and security measures; (b providing a real-world test of the system functionalities using clinical cohorts; and (c system integration with a clinical decision support system to demonstrate system interoperability. We engaged two active clinical cohorts, 747 psoriasis patients and 2001 rheumatoid arthritis patients, to demonstrate efficient query possibilities across the data sources, enable cohort stratification, extract variation in antibody patterns, study biomarker predictors of treatment response in RA patients, and to explore metabolic profiles of psoriasis patients. Finally, we demonstrated system interoperability by enabling integration with an established clinical decision support system in health care. To assure the usefulness and usability of the system, we followed two approaches. First, we created a graphical user interface supporting all user interactions. Secondly we carried out a system performance evaluation study where we measured the average response time in seconds for active users, http errors, and kilobits per second received and sent. The maximum response time was found to be 0.12 seconds; no server or client errors of any
Steiner, John F
Despite consensus that mentorship is a critical determinant of career success, many academic health centers (AHCs) do not provide formal training for their mentors. In part, this problem arises from a lack of evidence-based mentorship training curricula. In this issue of Academic Medicine, Pfund and colleagues from 16 AHCs, including 15 Clinical Translational Science Award institutions report the results of a randomized, controlled trial that addressed this research gap. In their study, mentors randomized to undertake a formal mentoring curriculum reported significant gains in self-assessed competencies. These improvements were corroborated by the most critical and objective observers of mentorship skills: their own mentees.Evidence-based curricula will not transform research mentorship in isolation. An organization-wide culture of mentorship is necessary to meet the mentorship needs of all research trainees and faculty. The development of a culture of mentorship requires attention to structural issues such as the provision of protected time, physical resources, and targeted funding in addition to evidence-based curricula. Organizations must monitor the implementation of these structures in the day-to-day process of mentorship. Finally, institutions must develop measures to track outcomes for both mentors and mentees, and create incentives to achieve those outcomes. In the current environment of constrained research funding and competing demands from clinical and educational programs, a substantive organizational commitment to mentorship is necessary to ensure that the next generation of mentees achieves success in translational research.
Pati, Debajyoti; Pietrzak, Michael P; Harvey, Thomas E; Armstrong, Walter B; Clarke, Robert; Weissman, Neil J; Rapp, Paul E; Smith, Mark S; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Collins, Jeffreyg M
This article aims to explore the future of translational research and its physical design implications for community hospitals and hospitals not attached to large centralized research platforms. With a shift in medical services delivery focus to community wellness, continuum of care, and comparative effectiveness research, healthcare research will witness increasing pressure to include community-based practitioners. The roundtable discussion group, comprising 14 invited experts from 10 institutions representing the fields of biomedical research, research administration, facility planning and design, facility management, finance, and environmental design research, examined the issue in a structured manner. The discussion was conducted at the Washington Hospital Center, MedStar Health, Washington, D.C. Institutions outside the AMCs will be increasingly targeted for future research. Three factors are crucial for successful research in non-AMC hospitals: operational culture, financial culture, and information culture. An operating culture geared towards creation, preservation, and protection of spaces needed for research; creative management of spaces for financial accountability; and a flexible information infrastructure at the system level that enables complete link of key programmatic areas to academic IT research infrastructure are critical to success of research endeavors. Hospital, interdisciplinary, leadership, planning, work environment.
Williamson, M.; Pollard, W. H.; McKay, C. M.; Coe, L.; Steinberg, M.; Clement, J.
From July 20 to August 2, 2008, joint activities sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA - Space Learning) and NASA (Spaceward Bound) were carried out at the McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS) in the Canadian High Arctic. Established in 1960, MARS consists of two sites located on western Axel Heiberg Island along the shore of Expedition Fiord (lower camp), and 8 km inland, at Colour Lake (upper camp). The MARS upper camp is one of the longest-operating seasonal field research facilities in polar regions. The lower camp was established in 2007 through infrastructure support provided by the CSA. The station is located in a mountainous area dominated by ice caps, outlet and valley glaciers, polar desert, arctic tundra, and permafrost, and is internationally recognized for research on cold, perennial springs associated with the presence of evaporite domes. Six educators from the U.S. and Canada participated in field surveys and hands-on demonstrations with the following objectives: (1) join a team of scientists and engineers to explore the topics of Physical Geography, Geoscience, Astrobiology, and Robotics through experiential learning; (2) discover how remote and extreme polar environments on Earth are used by planetary scientists to better understand the evolution of the Moon and Mars, and to potentially train future planetary explorers; (3) bring that experience back to their classrooms, and assist in the development of space curriculum related to science, technology, and engineering projects carried out at planetary analogue sites. In this paper, we present a summary of operational planning and field surveys that led to successful scientific experiments by 16 participants during the Expedition. Research topics explored prior to, and during the arctic mission include Physical Geography, Geomorphology, Geology, Seismology, Earth Observation, Astrobiology, and Terrain Characterization with implications for future human and robotic exploration missions to the
Kasonde Joseph M
Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.
Nelson, Jessica W; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M
Translating research to make it more understandable and effective (research translation) has been declared a priority in environmental health but does not always include communication to the public or residents of communities affected by environmental hazards. Their unique perspectives are also commonly missing from discussions about science and technology policy. The consensus conference process, developed in Denmark, offers a way to address this gap. The Boston Consensus Conference on Human Biomonitoring, held in Boston, Massachusetts, in the fall of 2006, was designed to educate and elicit input from 15 Boston-area residents on the scientifically complex topic of human biomonitoring for environmental chemicals. This lay panel considered the many ethical, legal, and scientific issues surrounding biomonitoring and prepared a report expressing their views. The lay panel's findings provide a distinct and important voice on the expanding use of biomonitoring. In some cases, such as a call for opt-in reporting of biomonitoring results to study participants, they mirror recommendations raised elsewhere. Other conclusions have not been heard previously, including the recommendation that an individual's results should be statutorily exempted from the medical record unless permission is granted, and the opportunity to use biomonitoring data to stimulate green chemistry. The consensus conference model addresses both aspects of a broader conception of research translation: engaging the public in scientific questions, and bringing their unique perspectives to bear on public health research, practice, and policy. In this specific application, a lay panel's recommendations on biomonitoring surveillance, communication, and ethics have practical implications for the conduct of biomonitoring studies and surveillance programs.
Harris, Paul A; Taylor, Robert; Thielke, Robert; Payne, Jonathon; Gonzalez, Nathaniel; Conde, Jose G
Research electronic data capture (REDCap) is a novel workflow methodology and software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools to support clinical and translational research. We present: (1...
Kohan, Romina; Pesaola, Favio; Guelbert, Norberto; Pons, Patricia; Oller-Ramírez, Ana María; Rautenberg, Gisela; Becerra, Adriana; Sims, Katherine; Xin, Winnie; Cismondi, Inés Adriana; Noher de Halac, Inés
The Argentinean program was initiated more than a decade ago as the first experience of systematic translational research focused on NCL in Latin America. The aim was to overcome misdiagnoses and underdiagnoses in the region. 216 NCL suspected individuals from 8 different countries and their direct family members. Clinical assessment, enzyme testing, electron microscopy, and DNA screening. 1) The study confirmed NCL disease in 122 subjects. Phenotypic studies comprised epileptic seizures and movement disorders, ophthalmology, neurophysiology, image analysis, rating scales, enzyme testing, and electron microscopy, carried out under a consensus algorithm; 2) DNA screening and validation of mutations in genes PPT1 (CLN1), TPP1 (CLN2), CLN3, CLN5, CLN6, MFSD8 (CLN7), and CLN8: characterization of variant types, novel/known mutations and polymorphisms; 3) Progress of the epidemiological picture in Latin America; and 4) NCL-like pathology studies in progress. The Translational Research Program was highly efficient in addressing the misdiagnosis/underdiagnosis in the NCL disorders. The study of "orphan diseases" in a public administrated hospital should be adopted by the health systems, as it positively impacts upon the family's quality of life, the collection of epidemiological data, and triggers research advances. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Landrigan, Philip J; Wright, Robert O; Cordero, Jose F; Eaton, David L; Goldstein, Bernard D; Hennig, Bernhard; Maier, Raina M; Ozonoff, David M; Smith, Martyn T; Tukey, Robert H
.... SRP is coordinated by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). It supports multi-project grants, undergraduate and postdoctoral training programs, individual research grants, and Small Business Innovation Research...
Valentin, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Alkærsig, Lars
The importance of interdisciplinary research in accelerating the progress and commercialization of science is widely recognized, yet little is known about how academic research self-organizes towards interdisciplinarity. In this paper, we therefore explore the micro-level behavior of researchers...
Sibonga, Jean D.
This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.
Galvin, Kathleen T; Todres, Les
We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve the communicative concern to express phenomena relevant to caring practice in ways that appeal to the 'head, hand and heart'. The paper first offers some thoughts about the complex kind of knowledge relevant to caring that is not only technical or propositional, but actionable and aesthetically moving as well. We call this kind of knowledge 'embodied relational understanding'. Further, the paper outlines the development of one way of serving a more aesthetic phenomenology whereby research findings can be faithfully and evocatively translated into more empathically impactful expressions. We call this process 'embodied interpretation'. It is guided by an epistemological framework grounded in the philosophies of Gadamer and Gendlin. We finally illustrate the process with reference to the experience of living after Stroke, and consider the value of this translational process for nursing education and practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Men can be hard to reach with face-to-face health-related information, while increasingly, research shows that they are seeking health information from online sources. Recognizing this trend, there is merit in developing innovative online knowledge translation (KT) strategies capable of translating research on men’s health into engaging health promotion materials. While the concept of KT has become a new mantra for researchers wishing to bridge the gap between research evidence and improved health outcomes, little is written about the process, necessary skills, and best practices by which researchers can develop online knowledge translation. Objective Our aim was to illustrate some of the processes and challenges involved in, and potential value of, developing research knowledge online to promote men’s health. Methods We present experiences of KT across two case studies of men’s health. First, we describe a study that uses interactive Web apps to translate knowledge relating to Canadian men’s depression. Through a range of mechanisms, study findings were repackaged with the explicit aim of raising awareness and reducing the stigma associated with men’s depression and/or help-seeking. Second, we describe an educational resource for teenage men about unintended pregnancy, developed for delivery in the formal Relationship and Sexuality Education school curricula of Ireland, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), and South Australia. The intervention is based around a Web-based interactive film drama entitled “If I Were Jack”. Results For each case study, we describe the KT process and strategies that aided development of credible and well-received online content focused on men’s health promotion. In both case studies, the original research generated the inspiration for the interactive online content and the core development strategy was working with a multidisciplinary team to develop this material through arts-based approaches. In both cases
Lohan, Maria; Aventin, Áine; Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Bottorff, Joan L
Men can be hard to reach with face-to-face health-related information, while increasingly, research shows that they are seeking health information from online sources. Recognizing this trend, there is merit in developing innovative online knowledge translation (KT) strategies capable of translating research on men's health into engaging health promotion materials. While the concept of KT has become a new mantra for researchers wishing to bridge the gap between research evidence and improved health outcomes, little is written about the process, necessary skills, and best practices by which researchers can develop online knowledge translation. Our aim was to illustrate some of the processes and challenges involved in, and potential value of, developing research knowledge online to promote men's health. We present experiences of KT across two case studies of men's health. First, we describe a study that uses interactive Web apps to translate knowledge relating to Canadian men's depression. Through a range of mechanisms, study findings were repackaged with the explicit aim of raising awareness and reducing the stigma associated with men's depression and/or help-seeking. Second, we describe an educational resource for teenage men about unintended pregnancy, developed for delivery in the formal Relationship and Sexuality Education school curricula of Ireland, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), and South Australia. The intervention is based around a Web-based interactive film drama entitled "If I Were Jack". For each case study, we describe the KT process and strategies that aided development of credible and well-received online content focused on men's health promotion. In both case studies, the original research generated the inspiration for the interactive online content and the core development strategy was working with a multidisciplinary team to develop this material through arts-based approaches. In both cases also, there is an acknowledgment of the need for gender
Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument
Hoben, Matthias; Mahler, Cornelia; Bär, Marion; Berger, Sarah; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A; Behrens, Johann
Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons' unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument equivalence. Essential components were
Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin
The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.
Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Pany, Maximilian; Seymour, Jane; Goss, Adeline; Kilaru, Austin; Meisel, Zachary
As the United States moves forward with health reform, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers will need to be narrowed to promote policies informed by evidence. Social media represent an expanding channel for communication. Academic journals, public health agencies, and health care organizations are increasingly using social media to communicate health information. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now regularly tweets to 290,000 followers. We conducted a survey of health policy researchers about using social media and two traditional channels (traditional media and direct outreach) to disseminate research findings to policy makers. Researchers rated the efficacy of the three dissemination methods similarly but rated social media lower than the other two in three domains: researchers' confidence in their ability to use the method, peers' respect for its use, and how it is perceived in academic promotion. Just 14 percent of our participants reported tweeting, and 21 percent reported blogging about their research or related health policy in the past year. Researchers described social media as being incompatible with research, of high risk professionally, of uncertain efficacy, and an unfamiliar technology that they did not know how to use. Researchers will need evidence-based strategies, training, and institutional resources to use social media to communicate evidence. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Our understanding of the causes of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and harms has expanded in the past 20 years. In particular, aetiological theories have become substantially more complex, incorporating research on human development and social determinants of health. In this paper, factors that present challenges to the AOD sector translating this research into policy are considered. These include a) the complexity of social determinants, b) community attitudes, and c) governance and funding structures. It is concluded that the challenges are substantial, but not insurmountable. Research on social determinants of AOD use and harms is building an evidence base to inform policy. However, leadership is needed to transform funding priorities from single-issue, short-term projects focusing on individual-level changes to broader, longer-term approaches.
Opal, Steven M; Patrozou, Eleni
The successful translation of promising research findings from basic research laboratories into useful clinical products for the management of septic patients has proven to be a daunting challenge. The complexity and variability of the clinical entity referred to as sepsis makes it intrinsically difficult to model preclinical systems and predict efficacy of potentially useful, experimental, therapeutic agents. Technological innovations in microarrays, microfluidics, and nanotechnology make it feasible to study the evolution of sepsis in small animal models in considerable detail. The recognized limitations of standard preclinical platforms used to study sepsis have lead to innovative approaches to study sepsis in silico, and in more complex and clinically more valid ex vivo tissue perfusion models and animal systems. It is abundantly clear that sepsis researchers need to do a better job informing clinicians about the possible benefits and potential risks of new treatment interventions as they traverse the gap between the bench and the bedside.
Michalak, Erin E; McBride, Sally; Barnes, Steven J; Wood, Chanel S; Khatri, Nasreen; Balram Elliott, Nusha; Parikh, Sagar V
Current Web technologies offer bipolar disorder (BD) researchers many untapped opportunities for conducting research and for promoting knowledge exchange. In the present paper, we document our experiences with a variety of Web 2.0 technologies in the context of an international BD research network: The Collaborative RESearch Team to Study psychosocial issues in BD (CREST.BD). Three technologies were used as tools for enabling research within CREST.BD and for encouraging the dissemination of the results of our research: (1) the crestbd.ca website, (2) social networking tools (ie, Facebook, Twitter), and (3) several sorts of file sharing (ie YouTube, FileShare). For each Web technology, we collected quantitative assessments of their effectiveness (in reach, exposure, and engagement) over a 6-year timeframe (2010-2016). In general, many of our strategies were deemed successful for promoting knowledge exchange and other network goals. We discuss how we applied our Web analytics to inform adaptations and refinements of our Web 2.0 platforms to maximise knowledge exchange with people with BD, their supporters, and health care providers. We conclude with some general recommendations for other mental health researchers and research networks interested in pursuing Web 2.0 strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wolf, Susan M; Burke, Wylie; Koenig, Barbara A
Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a "layered" approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Full Text Available The latest research achievements in the field of stem cells led in 2016 to the publication of “Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation” by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR. Updating the topics covered in previous publications, the new recommendations offer interesting ethical and scientific insights. Under the common principles of research integrity, protection of patient’s welfare, respect for the research subjects, transparency and social justice, the centrality of good clinical practice, and informed consent in research and translational medicine is supported. The guidelines implement the abovementioned publications, requiring rigor in all areas of research, promoting the validity of the scientific activity results and emphasizing the need for an accurate and efficient public communication. This paper aims to analyze the aforementioned guidelines in order to provide a valid interpretive tool for experts. In particular, a research activity focused on the bioethical, scientific, and social implications of the new recommendations is carried out in order to provide food for thought. Finally, as an emerging issue of potential impact of current guidelines, an overview on implications of compensation for egg donation is offered.
Cofiel, Luciana; Bassi, Débora U; Ray, Ryan Kumar; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Brentani, Helena
The interplay between the workflow for clinical tasks and research data collection is often overlooked, ultimately making it ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have developed standards that allow for the comparison of workflow models derived from clinical and research tasks toward the improvement of data collection processes. In this study we used the term dissonance for the occurrences where there was a discord between clinical and research workflows. We developed workflow models for a translational research study in psychiatry and the clinic where its data collection was carried out. After identifying points of dissonance between clinical and research models we derived a corresponding classification system that ultimately enabled us to re-engineer the data collection workflow. We considered (1) the number of patients approached for enrollment and (2) the number of patients enrolled in the study as indicators of efficiency in research workflow. We also recorded the number of dissonances before and after the workflow modification. We identified 22 episodes of dissonance across 6 dissonance categories: actor, communication, information, artifact, time, and space. We were able to eliminate 18 episodes of dissonance and increase the number of patients approached and enrolled in research study trough workflow modification. The classification developed in this study is useful for guiding the identification of dissonances and reveal modifications required to align the workflow of data collection and the clinical setting. The methodology described in this study can be used by researchers to standardize data collection process.
Ehret, Totta; Torelli, Francesca; Klotz, Christian; Pedersen, Amy B.; Seeber, Frank
Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents) that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models. PMID:28638807
Full Text Available Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.
Jenine K Harris
Full Text Available Transdisciplinary collaboration is essential in addressing the translation gap between scientific discovery and delivery of evidence-based interventions to prevent and treat diabetes. We examined patterns of collaboration among scientists at the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research.Members (n = 56 of the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research were surveyed about collaboration overall and on publications, presentations, and grants; 87.5% responded (n = 49. We used traditional and network descriptive statistics and visualization to examine the networks and exponential random graph modeling to identify predictors of collaboration.The 56 network members represented nine disciplines. On average, network members had been affiliated with the center for 3.86 years (s.d. = 1.41. The director was by far the most central in all networks. The overall and publication networks were the densest, while the overall and grant networks were the most centralized. The grant network was the most transdisciplinary. The presentation network was the least dense, least centralized, and least transdisciplinary. For every year of center affiliation, network members were 10% more likely to collaborate (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00-1.21 and 13% more likely to write a paper together (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.25. Network members in the same discipline were over twice as likely to collaborate in the overall network (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40-3.15; however, discipline was not associated with collaboration in the other networks. Rank was not associated with collaboration in any network.As transdisciplinary centers become more common, it is important to identify structural features, such as a central leader and ongoing collaboration over time, associated with scholarly productivity and, ultimately, with advancing science and practice.
Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration
Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A
Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.
Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna
To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately
Nitzsche, Björn; Lobsien, Donald; Seeger, Johannes; Schneider, Holm; Boltze, Johannes
Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of the cerebral angioarchitecture. The present study was intended to provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the intracranial venous system in sheep as a reliable basis for the interpretation of experimental results in such ovine models. We used corrosion casts as well as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography to scrutinize blood drainage from the brain. This combined approach yielded detailed and, to some extent, novel findings. In particular, we provide evidence for chordae Willisii and lateral venous lacunae, and report on connections between the dorsal and ventral sinuses in this species. For the first time, we also describe venous confluences in the deep cerebral venous system and an ‘anterior condylar confluent’ as seen in humans. This report provides a detailed reference for the interpretation of venous diagnostic imaging findings in sheep, including an assessment of structure detectability by in vivo (imaging) versus ex vivo (corrosion cast) visualization methods. Moreover, it features a comprehensive interspecies-comparison of the venous cerebral angioarchitecture in man, rodents, canines and sheep as a relevant large animal model species, and describes possible implications for translational cerebrovascular research. PMID:24736654
Glez-Peña, D; Reboiro-Jato, M; Maia, P; Rocha, M; Díaz, F; Fdez-Riverola, F
Applied research in both biomedical discovery and translational medicine today often requires the rapid development of fully featured applications containing both advanced and specific functionalities, for real use in practice. In this context, new tools are demanded that allow for efficient generation, deployment and reutilization of such biomedical applications as well as their associated functionalities. In this context this paper presents AIBench, an open-source Java desktop application framework for scientific software development with the goal of providing support to both fundamental and applied research in the domain of translational biomedicine. AIBench incorporates a powerful plug-in engine, a flexible scripting platform and takes advantage of Java annotations, reflection and various design principles in order to make it easy to use, lightweight and non-intrusive. By following a basic input-processing-output life cycle, it is possible to fully develop multiplatform applications using only three types of concepts: operations, data-types and views. The framework automatically provides functionalities that are present in a typical scientific application including user parameter definition, logging facilities, multi-threading execution, experiment repeatability and user interface workflow management, among others. The proposed framework architecture defines a reusable component model which also allows assembling new applications by the reuse of libraries from past projects or third-party software. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale
The awareness of factors causing obesity and associated disorders has grown up in the last years from genome to a more complicated concept (developmental programming) in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions markedly modify the phenotype and homeostasis of the individuals and determine juvenile growth, life-time fitness/obesity and disease risks. Experimentation in human beings is impeded by ethical issues plus inherent high variability and confounding factors (genetics, lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity) and preclinical studies in adequate translational animal models are therefore decisive. Most of the studies have been performed in rodents, whilst the use of large animals is scarce. Having in mind body-size, handlingeasiness and cost-efficiency, the main large animal species for use in biomedical research are rabbits, sheep and swine. The choice of the model depends on the research objectives. To outline the main features of the use of rabbits, sheep and swine and their contributions as translational models in prenatal programming of obesity and associated disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743
Genetic association studies of transplantation outcomes have been hampered by small samples and highly complex multifactorial phenotypes, hindering investigations of the genetic architecture of a range of comorbidities which significantly impact graft and recipient life expectancy. We describe here the rationale and design of the International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network. The network comprises 22 studies to date, including 16494 transplant recipients and 11669 donors, of whom more than 5000 are of non-European ancestry, all of whom have existing genomewide genotype data sets. We describe the rich genetic and phenotypic information available in this consortium comprising heart, kidney, liver, and lung transplant cohorts. We demonstrate significant power in International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network to detect main effect association signals across regions such as the MHC region as well as genomewide for transplant outcomes that span all solid organs, such as graft survival, acute rejection, new onset of diabetes after transplantation, and for delayed graft function in kidney only. This consortium is designed and statistically powered to deliver pioneering insights into the genetic architecture of transplant-related outcomes across a range of different solid-organ transplant studies. The study design allows a spectrum of analyses to be performed including recipient-only analyses, donor-recipient HLA mismatches with focus on loss-of-function variants and nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of the cerebral angioarchitecture. The present study was intended to provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the intracranial venous system in sheep as a reliable basis for the interpretation of experimental results in such ovine models. We used corrosion casts as well as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography to scrutinize blood drainage from the brain. This combined approach yielded detailed and, to some extent, novel findings. In particular, we provide evidence for chordae Willisii and lateral venous lacunae, and report on connections between the dorsal and ventral sinuses in this species. For the first time, we also describe venous confluences in the deep cerebral venous system and an 'anterior condylar confluent' as seen in humans. This report provides a detailed reference for the interpretation of venous diagnostic imaging findings in sheep, including an assessment of structure detectability by in vivo (imaging versus ex vivo (corrosion cast visualization methods. Moreover, it features a comprehensive interspecies-comparison of the venous cerebral angioarchitecture in man, rodents, canines and sheep as a relevant large animal model species, and describes possible implications for translational cerebrovascular research.
Full Text Available Abstract Translational Research (TR provides a set of tools and communication context for scientists and clinicians to optimize the drug discovery and development process. In the proceedings of a Princeton conference on this timely topic, the strengths and needs of this developing field were debated. Outcomes and key points from these discussions are summarized in this article which covers the topics of defining what we mean by translational research (both theoretically and in operational terms, ways in which to engender the TR mindset and embed it in organizations such as the pharmaceutical industry in order to optimize the impact of available technologies (including imaging methods, the scientific basis and under-pinnings of TR including genomics knowledge, information sharing, as well as examples of application to drug discovery and development. Importantly, it should be noted that collaborations and communications between the stakeholders in this field, namely academia, industry and regulatory authorities, must be strengthened in order for the promise of TR to be delivered as better therapies to patients.
Ayati, Bruce P; Kapitanov, Georgi I; Coleman, Mitchell C; Anderson, Donald D; Martin, James A
Biomathematical models offer a powerful method of clarifying complex temporal interactions and the relationships among multiple variables in a system. We present a coupled in silico biomathematical model of articular cartilage degeneration in response to impact and/or aberrant loading such as would be associated with injury to an articular joint. The model incorporates fundamental biological and mechanical information obtained from explant and small animal studies to predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) progression, with an eye toward eventual application in human patients. In this sense, we refer to the mathematics as a "conduit of translation." The new in silico framework presented in this paper involves a biomathematical model for the cellular and biochemical response to strains computed using finite element analysis. The model predicts qualitative responses presently, utilizing system parameter values largely taken from the literature. To contribute to accurate predictions, models need to be accurately parameterized with values that are based on solid science. We discuss a parameter identification protocol that will enable us to make increasingly accurate predictions of PTOA progression using additional data from smaller scale explant and small animal assays as they become available. By distilling the data from the explant and animal assays into parameters for biomathematical models, mathematics can translate experimental data to clinically relevant knowledge. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:566-572, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yin, Helen L; Gabrilove, Janice; Jackson, Rebecca; Sweeney, Carol; Fair, Alecia M; Toto, Robert
There is mounting concern that clinician-scientists are a vanishing species and that the pipeline for clinical and translational research (CTR) investigators is in jeopardy. For the majority of current junior CTR investigators, the career path involves first obtaining a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded K-type career development award, particularly K08 and K23, and subsequently an NIH R01. This transition, popularly referred to as K2R, is a major hurdle with a low success rate and gaps in funding. In this Perspective, the authors identify factors that facilitate K2R transition and important aspects of increasing and sustaining the pipeline of CTR investigators. They also highlight significant differences in success rates of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. Early career exposure to research methodology, protected time, multidisciplinary mentoring, and institutional "culture shift" are important for fostering and rewarding team science. Mentoring is the single most important contributor to K2R success, and emerging evidence suggests that formal mentor training and team mentoring are effective. Leadership training can empower junior investigators to thrive as independent CTR investigators. Future research should focus on delineating the difference between essential and supplemental factors to achieve this transition, and mentoring methods that foster success, including those that promote K2R transition of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards National Consortium is well positioned to test existing models aimed at shortening the time frame, increasing the rate of K2R transition, and identifying strategies that improve success.
Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen
Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Zhang, Joy Y
Despite China's regulatory initiatives to promote its research accountability, it still needs to prove itself as a trusted player in life science research. In addition, in contrast to its huge investment, China is losing the race in delivering quality application of stem cells. The trial implementation of the 2015 ministerial regulations seemed to offer hope in ending this dual 'lost-in-translation'. Yet skepticism remains. By examining China's regulatory trajectory in the last 15 years, this paper illustrates that it is a post hoc pragmatic policy rationale and a soft centralization regulatory approach that have hampered China's governance. To improve China's governance of accountability, policy-makers need to get beyond an 'act-in-response' regulatory ethos and to engage with diverse stakeholders.
Full Text Available A serious worldwide effort to strengthen research based knowledge translation (KT has begun in recent years and some countries, particularly developed ones, are trying to incorporate KT in their health and health research systems. Keeping in mind the recent economic depression and the need to perform more efficient research, we aimed to assess and compare the KT status of selected health research institutes in the Eastern Mediterranean Regions' countries, and to identify their strengths and weaknesses in the field.After finding the focal points that would steer the focus group discussions (FGDs and help complete the 'Self Assessment Tool for Research Institutes' (SATORI tool, each focal point held two FGDs in which researchers, research authorities and other individuals specified in detail further in the study were held. The scores obtained by each institute were evaluated quantitatively, and the transcriptions were analyzed qualitatively with OpenCode software.For ease of analysis the 50 items of the SATORI were classified into 7 main domains: 'priority setting', 'research quality and timeliness', 'researchers' KT capacities', 'facilities and pre-requisites of KT', 'processes and regulations supporting KT', 'interaction with research users', and 'promoting and evaluating the use of knowledge'. Based on the scoring system, the strongest domain was 'research quality and timeliness'. 'Priority setting' was the weakest domain of all. The remaining domains were more or less equal in strength and were not in a favorable state. The qualitative findings confirmed the quantitative findings.The main problem, it seems, is that a KT climate does not exist in the region. And despite the difference in the contexts, there are many similarities in the region's institutes included in this study. Collaborative efforts can play a role in creating this climate by steering countries towards KT and suggesting regional strategic directions according to their needs.
Full Text Available Background and context: Implementation of current research in practice is challenging for ward-based nursing staff. However, university-based nursing academics are seen as the research experts and are perhaps well placed to support clinical nursing research. The problem lies with the divide between practice and academia; universities often use the clinical environment as the place to conduct research but this is often not translated effectively into practice. The development of a nursing professorial unit for acute and critical care was undertaken to meet this challenge. The unit’s key aim is to develop, mentor and support a nursing research culture that is wholly situated within and driven by the requirements of the clinical environment. Aim: The aim of this article is to offer some insights as to how staff set about engaging with and developing the nursing professorial unit to support nursing research in our local hospital. Conclusions: The article highlights how an effective and coordinated approach to supporting clinical nursing research is possible. The nursing professorial unit has been successful in bridging the divide between academia and practice by using a non-university approach to supporting nursing research. Instead we have adopted the philosophy that practice is the sole driver for research and as academics our role is to support that position. Implications for practice: The adoption of the nursing professorial unit model for supporting clinical nursing research is beneficial in closing the divide between clinical practice and the university The continual presence of the academics in the clinical environment has had a positive impact on research development and implementation in practice The nursing professorial unit has become an integral part of the nursing culture in the hospital environment
Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J
The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Romeiser-Logan, Lynne; Slaughter, Rebecca; Hickman, Robbin
Knowledge translation may be particularly challenging in pediatric rehabilitation, where study findings are often ambiguous owing to low statistical power or inconsistent responses to intervention. Disconnection between research protocols and clinical practicality, as well as variability of responsiveness in heterogeneous pediatric populations, may further impede integration of research findings into everyday practice. Use of single-subject research designs (SSRDs) may bridge the gap between research and practice, with robust design options that better identify and preserve patterns of responsiveness to specific interventions and offer protocols that are more readily implemented in practice settings than can be done in traditional randomized controlled trials. This review defines SSRD, provides examples of research questions that can be answered using SSRD, details the experimental designs that can be used and the level of evidence of each design, and describes statistical analysis approaches and clinical application. This analysis will aid researchers, reviewers, clinicians, and others in better understanding SSRD methodology and its application in everyday practice. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
Social media is a powerful, rapid, and popular way of communication amongst people around the world. How can health professionals and patients use this strategy to achieve optimal disease management and prevention and attainment of wellness? An interdisciplinary group at University of British Columbia, supported by a grant from UBC Peter Wall Institute of Advanced Studies, conducted a research workshop in February 2013 to explore what is known and yet to be researched in using social media for nurturing the growth of virtual communities of people for health and wellness. This two and a half day workshop brought together a group of 30 multidisciplinary experts in closed discussions to reflect on five research themes in detail: (1) individual information acquisition and application, (2) community genesis and sustainability, (3) technological design issues, (4) knowledge management, dissemination, and renewal, and (5) research designs. In addition, a public forum for the general public, which attracted over 195 live participants, over 100 participants via Web casting, 1004 tweets, and 1,124,886 impressions following the #HCSMForum hash tag on Twitter, demonstrated the keen interest of the general public in this topic. Key concepts were captured in JMIR publications in this issue, and future directions, including research, knowledge translation approaches, and strategic partnerships of interdisciplinary researchers with policy makers and industries emerged from the workshop proceedings.
Sibley, Kathryn M; Roche, Patricia L; Bell, Courtney P; Temple, Beverley; Wittmeier, Kristy D M
The importance of effective translation of health research findings into action has been well recognized, but there is evidence to suggest that the practice of knowledge translation (KT) among health researchers is still evolving. Compared to research user stakeholders, researchers (knowledge producers) have been under-studied in this context. The goals of this study were to understand the experiences of health researchers in practicing KT in Manitoba, Canada, and identify their support needs to sustain and increase their participation in KT. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 researchers studying in biomedical; clinical; health systems and services; and social, cultural, environmental and population health research. Interview questions were open-ended and probed participants' understanding of KT, their experiences in practicing KT, barriers and facilitators to practicing KT, and their needs for KT practice support. KT was broadly conceptualized across participants. Participants described a range of KT practice experiences, most of which related to dissemination. Participants also expressed a number of negative emotions associated with the practice of KT. Many individual, logistical, and systemic or organizational barriers to practicing KT were identified, which included a lack of institutional support for KT in both academic and non-academic systems. Participants described the presence of good relationships with stakeholders as a critical facilitator for practicing KT. The most commonly identified needs for supporting KT practice were access to education and training, and access to resources to increase awareness and promotion of KT. While there were few major variations in response trends across most areas of health research, the responses of biomedical researchers suggested a unique KT context, reflected by distinct conceptualizations of KT (such as commercialization as a core component), experiences (including frustration and lack of
Yager, P. L.; Sherrell, R. M.; Stammerjohn, S. E.
The Amundsen Sea hosts the most productive polynya in all of coastal Antarctica, with its vibrant green waters exceeding 20 µg Chl a per liter. It is also one of the global regions most vulnerable to climate change, experiencing rapid losses in both sea ice cover and nearby ice sheets. During the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE) in austral summer 2010-11, we aimed to determine mechanisms driving the production and fate of this extraordinary algal bloom, with an eye towards predicting how this system will respond to further change. Here we summarize and synthesize results from the expedition, highlight results now being published in a special ASPIRE feature in the journal Elementa, and present an effort to balance the carbon budget for the region. We collected water column profiles for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic matter, chlorophyll a, macrozooplankton, and microbial biomass. We also measured primary and secondary production, community respiration rates, vertical particle flux and fecal pellet production and grazing. With observations arranged along a gradient of increasing integrated nitrate depletion, changes in DIC in the upper water column (ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 mol C m-2) and gas exchange are compared to nutrient and organic matter inventories to estimate export. Comparisons to short-term (days) drifting traps and a year-long moored sediment trap capturing the downward flux confirmed that a high fraction (up to 60%) of the net community production was exported to sub-euphotic depths during the early part of the bloom in this productive region. The ultimate fate of this carbon is also estimated. We discuss the importance of this carbon sequestration, particularly in light of changing climate conditions in this region, informed by ongoing data synthesis and modeling efforts (INSPIRE).
Kirchhof, Paulus; Goette, Andreas; Näbauer, Michael; Schotten, Ulrich
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" (Aristotle).Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and affects 1-2 % of the population in developed countries, especially the elderly. We expect that the prevalence of AF will double in the next few decades. The last decades have seen important improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, but many questions remain regarding the optimal diagnosis and management of the condition. The German Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET) was one of three cardiovascular competence networks in medicine funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research between 2003-2014. AFNET has contributed to the understanding of atrial fibrillation, and AFNET-led studies have led to improved clinical practices and practice guidelines in Germany and in Europe. This work has been expanded and is continuing in the AFNET association (AFNET e. V.). The AFNET association, founded in 2010 and continuing to this day, has developed into a small but fully formed academic research organisation that conducts investigator-initiated clinical trials as the responsible sponsor in Germany, Europe, and beyond. The AFNET association currently cooperates with EHRA (The European Heart Rhythm Association), ESC (The European Society of Cardiology) and DZHK (The German Centre for Cardiovascular Research) and receives funding from the European Union to generate evidence that can in the future lead to better prevention and management of AF.
Holub, P; Greplova, K; Knoflickova, D; Nenutil, R; Valik, D
We introduce the national research biobanking infrastructure, BBMRI_CZ. The infrastructure has been founded by the Ministry of Education and became a partner of the European biobanking infrastructure BBMRI.eu. It is designed as a network of individual biobanks where each biobank stores samples obtained from associated healthcare providers. The biobanks comprise long term storage (various types of tissues classified by diagnosis, serum at surgery, genomic DNA and RNA) and short term storage (longitudinally sampled patient sera). We discuss the operation workflow of the infrastructure that needs to be the distributed system: transfer of the samples to the biobank needs to be accompanied by extraction of data from the hospital information systems and this data must be stored in a central index serving mainly for sample lookup. Since BBMRI_CZ is designed solely for research purposes, the data is anonymised prior to their integration into the central BBMRI_CZ index. The index is then available for registered researchers to seek for samples of interest and to request the samples from biobank managers. The paper provides an overview of the structure of data stored in the index. We also discuss monitoring system for the biobanks, incorporated to ensure quality of the stored samples.
Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Egloff, Matthieu; Snykers, Sarah; Salinas, Gabriella Franco; Thomas, Robert; Girling, Alan; Lilford, Richard; Clermont, Gaelle; Kemp, Paul
The Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society-Europe (TERMIS-EU) Industry Committee as well as its TERMIS-Americas (AM) counterpart intend to address the specific challenges and needs facing the industry in translating academic research into commercial products. Over the last 3 years, the TERMIS-EU Industry Committee has worked with commercial bodies to deliver programs that encourage academics to liaise with industry in proactive collaborations. The TERMIS-EU 2013 Industry Symposium aimed to build on this commercial agenda by focusing on two topics: Operations Management (How to move a process into the good manufacturing practice [GMP] environment) and Clinical Translation (Moving a GMP process into robust trials). These topics were introduced by providing the synergistic business perspective of partnering between the multiple regenerative medicine stakeholders, throughout the life cycle of product development. Seven industry leaders were invited to share their experience, expertise, and strategies. Due to the complex nature of regenerative medicine products, partnering for their successful commercial development seems inevitable to overcome all obstacles by sharing experiences and expertise of all stakeholders. When ideally implemented, the "innovation quotient" of a virtual team resulting from the combination of internal and external project teams can be maximized through maximizing the three main dimensions: core competences, technology portfolio, and alliance management.
Miller, Rosalie J.; Shotwell, Mary P.
Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2–19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes. Semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE), a single-subject statistical and small data science model, is used to derive a “change point” indicating where the participant adapts to treatment, from which predictions are made. Data analyzed here is from an institutional review board approved pilot study using the Hippotherapy Evaluation and Assessment Tool measure, where outcomes are given separately for each of four measured domains and the total scores of each participant. Analysis with SPRE, using statistical methods to predict a “change point” and data science graphical interpretations of data, shows the translational comparisons between results from larger mean values and the very different results from smaller values for each HEAT domain in terms of relationships and statistical probabilities. PMID:29097962
Full Text Available Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2–19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes. Semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE, a single-subject statistical and small data science model, is used to derive a “change point” indicating where the participant adapts to treatment, from which predictions are made. Data analyzed here is from an institutional review board approved pilot study using the Hippotherapy Evaluation and Assessment Tool measure, where outcomes are given separately for each of four measured domains and the total scores of each participant. Analysis with SPRE, using statistical methods to predict a “change point” and data science graphical interpretations of data, shows the translational comparisons between results from larger mean values and the very different results from smaller values for each HEAT domain in terms of relationships and statistical probabilities.
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine.
Yarborough, Mark; Edwards, Kelly; Espinoza, Paula; Geller, Gail; Sarwal, Alok; Sharp, Richard; Spicer, Paul
Good relationships between research institutions and communities are an essential, but often neglected, part of the infrastructure of translational science. In an effort to create greater interest among translational science researchers in cultivating relationships with community members, we report the results of a workshop we convened to learn how relationships vital to research are best created and sustained. We highlight common barriers and challenges that hinder relationships. We also provide recommendations that individual research institutions and teams can use to expand and strengthen their relationships with community members. The improved relationships between universities and communities that could result from their implementation should build greater public trust in biomedical research, lead to a stronger commitment to see it succeed, and engender shared values and commitments that will give rise to new rewards, recognition and admonishment to sustain those values and commitments over time, all of which would facilitate translational science.
Eccles, Suzanne A; Aboagye, Eric O; Ali, Simak; Anderson, Annie S; Armes, Jo; Berditchevski, Fedor; Blaydes, Jeremy P; Brennan, Keith; Brown, Nicola J; Bryant, Helen E; Bundred, Nigel J; Burchell, Joy M; Campbell, Anna M; Carroll, Jason S; Clarke, Robert B; Coles, Charlotte E; Cook, Gary J R; Cox, Angela; Curtin, Nicola J; Dekker, Lodewijk V; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Duffy, Stephen W; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Dylan R; Edwards, Joanne; Evans, D; Fenlon, Deborah F; Flanagan, James M; Foster, Claire; Gallagher, William M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gee, Julia M W; Gescher, Andy J; Goh, Vicky; Groves, Ashley M; Harvey, Amanda J; Harvie, Michelle; Hennessy, Bryan T; Hiscox, Stephen; Holen, Ingunn; Howell, Sacha J; Howell, Anthony; Hubbard, Gill; Hulbert-Williams, Nick; Hunter, Myra S; Jasani, Bharat; Jones, Louise J; Key, Timothy J; Kirwan, Cliona C; Kong, Anthony; Kunkler, Ian H; Langdon, Simon P; Leach, Martin O; Mann, David J; Marshall, John F; Martin, Lesley; Martin, Stewart G; Macdougall, Jennifer E; Miles, David W; Miller, William R; Morris, Joanna R; Moss, Sue M; Mullan, Paul; Natrajan, Rachel; O'Connor, James P B; O'Connor, Rosemary; Palmieri, Carlo; Pharoah, Paul D P; Rakha, Emad A; Reed, Elizabeth; Robinson, Simon P; Sahai, Erik; Saxton, John M; Schmid, Peter; Smalley, Matthew J; Speirs, Valerie; Stein, Robert; Stingl, John; Streuli, Charles H; Tutt, Andrew N J; Velikova, Galina; Walker, Rosemary A; Watson, Christine J; Williams, Kaye J; Young, Leonie S; Thompson, Alastair M
Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer 'stem' cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease; (9) developing interventions and
Introduction Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease
I still manage to surprise a few scholars from other fields when they hear that there is such a thing as research of gender issues within the field of translation studies. It may seem as such a narrow niche – but only deceivingly so. It is language, linguistics, pragmatics, culture, history, literature, anthropology, gender metaphorics, communication, interpreting, cultural politics, social studies and politics, psychology and I can go on and on. History seems to be a very appropriate startin...
Lilian Hoffecker, PhD, MLS
Conclusions: Language translation can be a difficult and time-consuming task. However, translation of a conference slide presentation with limited text is an achievable activity and engages an international audience for information that is often not noticed or lost. Although English is by far the primary language of science and other disciplines, it is not necessarily the first or preferred language of global researchers. By offering appropriate language versions, the authors of presentations can expand the reach of their work.
Daniel, C; Choquet, R
To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook's section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their daily practice. All the recent research and
Stroud, Cheryl; Dmitriev, Igor; Kashentseva, Elena; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Curiel, David T; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol; Henry, Carolyn J; Bergman, Philip J; Mason, Nicola J; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Engiles, Julie B; Gray, Falon; Laughlin, Danielle; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Wallecha, Anu; Huebner, Margie; Paterson, Yvonne; O'Connor, Daniel; Treml, Laura S; Stannard, James P; Cook, James L; Jacobs, Marc; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Likins, Lee; Sabbagh, Ubadah; Skaff, Andrew; Guloy, Amado S; Hays, Harlen D; LeBlanc, Amy K; Coates, Joan R; Katz, Martin L; Lyons, Leslie A; Johnson, Gayle C; Johnson, Gary S; O'Brien, Dennis P; Duan, Dongsheng; Calvet, James P; Gandolfi, Barbara; Baron, David A; Weiss, Mark L; Webster, Debra A; Karanu, Francis N; Robb, Edward J; Harman, Robert J
A1 One health advances and successes in comparative medicine and translational researchCheryl StroudA2 Dendritic cell-targeted gorilla adenoviral vector for cancer vaccination for canine melanomaIgor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N. Bryan, David T. CurielA3 Viroimmunotherapy for malignant melanoma in the companion dog modelJeffrey N. Bryan, David Curiel, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J. HenryA4 Of mice and men (and dogs!): development of a commercially licensed xenogeneic DNA vaccine for companion animals with malignant melanomaPhilip J. BergmanA5 Successful immunotherapy with a recombinant HER2-expressing Listeria monocytogenes in dogs with spontaneous osteosarcoma paves the way for advances in pediatric osteosarcomaNicola J. Mason, Josephine S. Gnanandarajah, Julie B. Engiles, Falon Gray, Danielle Laughlin, Anita Gaurnier-Hausser, Anu Wallecha, Margie Huebner, Yvonne PatersonA6 Human clinical development of ADXS-HER2Daniel O'ConnorA7 Leveraging use of data for both human and veterinary benefitLaura S. TremlA8 Biologic replacement of the knee: innovations and early clinical resultsJames P. StannardA9 Mizzou BioJoint Center: a translational success storyJames L. CookA10 University and industry translational partnership: from the lab to commercializationMarc JacobsA11 Beyond docking: an evolutionarily guided OneHealth approach to drug discoveryGerald J. Wyckoff, Lee Likins, Ubadah Sabbagh, Andrew SkaffA12 Challenges and opportunities for data applications in animal health: from precision medicine to precision husbandryAmado S. GuloyA13 A cloud-based programmable platform for healthHarlen D. HaysA14 Comparative oncology: One Health in actionAmy K. LeBlancA15 Companion animal diseases bridge the translational gap for human neurodegenerative diseaseJoan R. Coates, Martin L. Katz, Leslie A. Lyons, Gayle C. Johnson, Gary S. Johnson, Dennis P. O'BrienA16 Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapyDongsheng DuanA17 Polycystic
Cofiel, Luciana; Bassi, Débora U.; Ray, Ryan Kumar; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Brentani, Helena
Background The interplay between the workflow for clinical tasks and research data collection is often overlooked, ultimately making it ineffective. Questions/purposes To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have developed standards that allow for the comparison of workflow models derived from clinical and research tasks toward the improvement of data collection processes Methods In this study we used the term dissonance for the occurrences where there was a discord between clinical and research workflows. We developed workflow models for a translational research study in psychiatry and the clinic where its data collection was carried out. After identifying points of dissonance between clinical and research models we derived a corresponding classification system that ultimately enabled us to re-engineer the data collection workflow. We considered (1) the number of patients approached for enrollment and (2) the number of patients enrolled in the study as indicators of efficiency in research workflow. We also recorded the number of dissonances before and after the workflow modification. Results We identified 22 episodes of dissonance across 6 dissonance categories: actor, communication, information, artifact, time, and space. We were able to eliminate 18 episodes of dissonance and increase the number of patients approached and enrolled in research study trough workflow modification. Conclusion The classification developed in this study is useful for guiding the identification of dissonances and reveal modifications required to align the workflow of data collection and the clinical setting. The methodology described in this study can be used by researchers to standardize data collection process. PMID:24073246
Schwartz, John; Macomber, Christopher
Translational research for new drugs, medical devices, and diagnostics encompasses aspects of both basic science and clinical research, requiring multidisciplinary skills and resources that are not all readily available in either a basic laboratory or clinical setting alone. We propose that, to be successful, "translational" research ought to be understood as a defined process from basic science through manufacturing, regulatory, clinical testing all the way to market. The authors outline a process which has worked well for them to identify and commercialize academic innovation. The academic environment places a high value on novelty and less value on whether, among other things, data are reproducible, scalable, reimbursable, or have commercial freedom to operate. In other words, when investors, strategic companies, or other later stage stakeholders evaluate academic efforts at translational research the relative lack of attention to clinical, regulatory, reimbursement, and manufacturing and intellectual property freedom to operate almost universally results in more questions and doubts about the potential of the proposed product, thereby inhibiting further interest. This contrasts with industry-based R&D, which often emphasizes manufacturing, regulatory and commercial factors. Academics do not so much choose to ignore those necessary and standard elements of translation development, but rather, they are not built into the culture or incentive structure of the university environment. Acknowledging and addressing this mismatch of approach and lack of common language in a systematic way facilitates a more effective "translation" handoffs of academic project concepts into meaningful clinical solutions help translational researchers more efficiently develop and progress new and better medical products which address validated needs. The authors provide an overview and framework for academic researchers to use which will help them define the elements of a market
Gilliland, C. Taylor; Sittampalam, G. Sitta; Wang, Philip Y.; Ryan, Philip E.
Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with…
Bossert, Jennifer M; Marchant, Nathan J; Calu, Donna J; Shaham, Yavin
Results from many clinical studies suggest that drug relapse and craving are often provoked by acute exposure to the self-administered drug or related drugs, drug-associated cues or contexts, or certain stressors. During the last two decades, this clinical scenario has been studied in laboratory animals by using the reinstatement model. In this model, reinstatement of drug seeking by drug priming, drug cues or contexts, or certain stressors is assessed following drug self-administration training and subsequent extinction of the drug-reinforced responding. In this review, we first summarize recent (2009-present) neurobiological findings from studies using the reinstatement model. We then discuss emerging research topics, including the impact of interfering with putative reconsolidation processes on cue- and context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, and similarities and differences in mechanisms of reinstatement across drug classes. We conclude by discussing results from recent human studies that were inspired by results from rat studies using the reinstatement model. Main conclusions from the studies reviewed highlight: (1) the ventral subiculum and lateral hypothalamus as emerging brain areas important for reinstatement of drug seeking, (2) the existence of differences in brain mechanisms controlling reinstatement of drug seeking across drug classes, (3) the utility of the reinstatement model for assessing the effect of reconsolidation-related manipulations on cue-induced drug seeking, and (4) the encouraging pharmacological concordance between results from rat studies using the reinstatement model and human laboratory studies on cue- and stress-induced drug craving.
Corregano, Lauren M.; Rainer, Tyler‐Lauren; Melendez, Caroline; Coller, Barry S.
Abstract Background Underenrollment of clinical studies wastes resources and delays assessment of research discoveries. We describe the organization and impact of a centralized recruitment core delivering comprehensive recruitment support to investigators. Methods The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science supports a centralized recruitment core, call center, Research Volunteer Repository, data infrastructure, and staff who provide expert recruitment services to investigators. During protocol development, consultations aim to optimize enrollment feasibility, develop recruitment strategy, budget, and advertising. Services during study conduct include advertising placement, repository queries, call management, prescreening, referral, and visit scheduling. Utilization and recruitment outcomes are tracked using dedicated software. Results For protocols receiving recruitment services during 2009–2013: median time from initiation of recruitment to the first enrolled participant was 10 days; of 4,047 first‐time callers to the call center, 92% (n = 3,722) enrolled in the Research Volunteer Repository, with 99% retention; 23% of Repository enrollees subsequently enrolled in ≥1 research studies, with 89% retention. Of volunteers referred by repository queries, 49% (280/537) enrolled into the study, with 92% retained. Conclusions Provision of robust recruitment infrastructure including expertise, a volunteer repository, data capture and real‐time analysis accelerates protocol accrual. Application of recruitment science improves the quality of clinical investigation. PMID:25381717
Michele P Hamm
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A research-practice gap exists between what is known about conducting methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs and what is done. Evidence consistently shows that pediatric RCTs are susceptible to high risk of bias; therefore novel methods of influencing the design and conduct of trials are required. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a wiki designed to educate pediatric trialists and trainees in the principles involved in minimizing risk of bias in RCTs. The focus was on preliminary usability testing of the wiki. METHODS: The wiki was developed through adaptation of existing knowledge translation strategies and through tailoring the site to the identified needs of the end-users. The wiki was evaluated for usability and user preferences regarding the content and formatting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 trialists and systematic reviewers, representing varying levels of experience with risk of bias or the conduct of trials. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Participants found the wiki to be well organized, easy to use, and straightforward to navigate. Suggestions for improvement tended to focus on clarification of the text or on esthetics, rather than on the content or format. Participants liked the additional features of the site that were supplementary to the text, such as the interactive examples, and the components that focused on practical applications, adding relevance to the theory presented. While the site could be used by both trialists and systematic reviewers, the lack of a clearly defined target audience caused some confusion among participants. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were supportive of using a wiki as a novel educational tool. The results of this pilot test will be used to refine the risk of bias wiki, which holds promise as a knowledge translation intervention for education in medical research methodology.
Davi, N. K.; Wattenberg, F.; Pringle, P. T.; Tanenbaum, J.; O'Brien, A.; Greidanus, I.; Perry, M.
Tree-ring research provides an engaging, intuitive, and relevant entryway into understanding both climate-change and environmental research, as well as the process of science from inspiration, to fieldwork, to analysis, to publishing and communicating. The basic premise of dendrochronology is that annual rings reflect environmental conditions year-by-year and that by studying long-lived trees we can learn about past environments and climates for hundreds-to-thousands of years in the past. Conceptually, this makes tree-ring studies accessible to students and faculty for a number of reasons. First, in order to collect their data, dendrochronologists often launch expeditions to stunningly picturesque and remote places in search of long-lived, climate sensitive trees. Scientist exciting stories and images from the field can be leveraged to connect students to the study and the data. Second, tree-rings can be more easily explained as a proxy for climate than other methods (ice cores, carbon-isotope ratios, etc.), and most people have prior-knowledge about trees and annual growth rings. It is even possible, for example, for non-expert audiences to see climate variability through time with the naked eye by looking at climate sensitive tree cores. Third, tree-rings are interdisciplinary and illustrate the interplay between the mathematical sciences, the biological sciences, and the geosciences—that is, they show that the biosphere is a fundamental component of the Earth system. Here, we will present several projects have been initiated for a range of audiences, including; elementary school, where 5th graders visited a local forest to collect samples and apply their samples and what they learned to math and science classes. 5th grade students also leaned how to use Climate Explorer (KNMI), an online tool that allows scientist and students the opportunity to access and visualize global climate data within a few clicks. Geared to 2 and 4 year colleges, we are also
Slaughter, Susan E; Zimmermann, Gabrielle L; Nuspl, Megan; Hanson, Heather M; Albrecht, Lauren; Esmail, Rosmin; Sauro, Khara; Newton, Amanda S; Donald, Maoliosa; Dyson, Michele P; Thomson, Denise; Hartling, Lisa
As implementation science advances, the number of interventions to promote the translation of evidence into healthcare, health systems, or health policy is growing. Accordingly, classification schemes for these knowledge translation (KT) interventions have emerged. A recent scoping review identified 51 classification schemes of KT interventions to integrate evidence into healthcare practice; however, the review did not evaluate the quality of the classification schemes or provide detailed information to assist researchers in selecting a scheme for their context and purpose. This study aimed to further examine and assess the quality of these classification schemes of KT interventions, and provide information to aid researchers when selecting a classification scheme. We abstracted the following information from each of the original 51 classification scheme articles: authors' objectives; purpose of the scheme and field of application; socioecologic level (individual, organizational, community, system); adaptability (broad versus specific); target group (patients, providers, policy-makers), intent (policy, education, practice), and purpose (dissemination versus implementation). Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the development of each classification scheme using an adapted version of the AGREE II tool. Based on these assessments, two independent reviewers reached consensus about whether to recommend each scheme for researcher use, or not. Of the 51 original classification schemes, we excluded seven that were not specific classification schemes, not accessible or duplicates. Of the remaining 44 classification schemes, nine were not recommended. Of the 35 recommended classification schemes, ten focused on behaviour change and six focused on population health. Many schemes (n = 29) addressed practice considerations. Fewer schemes addressed educational or policy objectives. Twenty-five classification schemes had broad applicability
Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I
Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East.During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar.WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.
Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.
Pittens, C.A.C.M.; Elberse, J.E.; Visse, M.A.; Abma, T.A.; Broerse, J.E.W.
Patients are increasingly involved in agenda setting in health research policy, but little is known about whether or not patients' topics are translated into a funding programme and taken up by researchers. A qualitative evaluation of nine multi-stakeholder agenda-setting projects in the Netherlands
Brown, Amanda; Shiramizu, Bruce; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie
Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled "Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)" at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by developing mentoring programs for (1) doctoral and postdoctoral candidates and junior faculty from racial and ethnic minorities and (2) non-minority individuals at the same levels, whose research focuses on NeuroAIDS disparity issues such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This web-based interactive course overcomes the limitations of traditional education such as access to expert faculty and financial burden of scientists from racial and ethnic minority groups in the field of NeuroAIDS research and NIP and identifies rich nurturing environments for investigators to support their careers. The TR-NAMH program identifies a cadre of talented students and investigators eager to commit to innovative educational and training sessions in NeuroAIDS and NIP. The interplay between NIP changes precipitated by HIV infection in the brain makes the study of HAND an outstanding way to integrate important concepts from these two fields. The course includes activities besides those related to didactic learning such as research training and long-term mentoring; hence, the newly learned topics in NIP are continually reinforced and implemented in real-time experiences. We describe how NIP is integrated in the TR-NAMH program in the context of HAND.
Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Piculo, Fernanda; Marini, Gabriela; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Barbosa, Angélica Pascon
Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavorable environment for fetal-placental and embryonic development. It is has important repercussion in modern obstetrics, since it is associated to an increased risk of neonatal and maternal morbidity, and it still is a significant medical challenge. The increased occurrence of diabetes worldwide, the increase in diabetes type 2 in women at reproductive age and the crossed generation of intrauterine programming for diabetes type 2 are the bases for the growing interest in utilization of diabetic experimental samples, with the aim to acquire knowledge about the mechanisms that induce development alterations in gestational diabetes. Several studies have shown the benefits of diabetes prevention, with interventions in lifestyle, metabolic improvement and control of cardiovascular risk factors to substantially prevent the complications of this devastating disease. Despite these findings, the recent revolution in the scientific knowledge, and the infinite number of new therapies for diabetes, there is still a large gap between what was learned through research and what is really done in public, clinical and community health. The negative economic impact of this complacency in people, families, and national economies is alarming. It is expected that translational research in the binomial diabetes and pregnancy are implemented in centers of excellence, in both basic and applied research, and complemented by multicenter clinical studies, conducted in a pragmatic way to increase the level of scientific evidence with more reliable diagnostic and propaedeutic resources.