WorldWideScience

Sample records for expectorants

  1. Studies on the expectorant, antitussive and antiasthmatic properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 1College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China. 2Scientific and Technological College of Chemistry and Biology, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China. Accepted 30 April, 2009. The aim of this study was to analyze the expectorant, antitussive and antiasthmatic ...

  2. Thoracic lymphangiectasis presenting with chyloptysis and bronchial cast expectoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliaguet, O.; Beauclair, P.; Gavazzi, G.; Winckel, P.; Laporte, F.; Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with recurrent undiagnosed episodes of bronchial cast expectoration and pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography for 15 years is described. The diagnosis of chyloptysis was established by chemical analysis of the bronchial aspiration. We emphasize the radiological findings of this rare observation. The CT-associated lymphangiography showed mediastinal lymphangiectasis with retrograde opacification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as submucosal lymphatic vessels protruding into the lumen of the tracheo-bronchial tree without evidence of thoracic duct obstruction as well as a ''crazy-paving appearance.'' Congenital incompetence of the valves of the lymphatic vessels originating from the thoracic duct is held to be the cause. Chyloptysis and pulmonary lymphatic disorder should be sought in cases of bronchial cast expectoration. (orig.)

  3. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.

  4. Spontaneous expectoration of a Blalock-Taussig shunt a decade after operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An eleven-year-old boy expectorated a foreign body in cough that was identified as the prosthetic graft used for a Blalock-Taussig shunt. The shunt procedure was done 10 years earlier, and a definitive repair for tetralogy of Fallot was done a year later. He had no other symptoms, and a computed tomography (CT angiogram did not reveal any other significant anomaly. The reason for this extremely rare event is unclear.

  5. Investigating the quality of expectorated sputum for tuberculosis diagnosis in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P; Punchak, M; Camacho, M; Hepple, P; McNerney, R

    2015-09-01

    A low-power microscope-based cytological system to assess the quality of expectorated sputum provided for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis was piloted in Bolivia. A total of 3688 samples were subjected to visual and cytological examination in nine laboratories: of these, 591 (16%) were misclassified by visual examination and 294 (8%) were found to be degraded. The degree of discordance varied between locations, and laboratories received a higher number of degraded specimens from isolated health clinics. Cytological assessment of sputum was found to be feasible and identified areas for improvement in the Bolivian diagnostic system for TB.

  6. Antitussive, expectorant and analgesic effects of the ethanol seed extract of Picralima nitida (Stapf) Th. & H. Durand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapaah, Gabriel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2016-01-01

    Picralima nitida is used traditionally for management of cough. This study, therefore, investigated the antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties of the ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida (PNE), and ascertained its safety for use. Presence of secondary metabolites, and safety of PNE (10-2000 mg/kg) were evaluated by preliminary phytochemical screening, and by Irwin's test respectively. Percentage reduction in cough count, percentage increase in latency of cough, and percentage protection offered by PNE were established by the citric acid-induced cough, acetylcholine- and Histamine-induced bronchoconstriction models. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were treated with 100-500 mg/kg PNE or reference drugs, dihydrocodiene, atropine, mepyramine. Expectorant property of PNE (100-1000 mg/kg) was determined using the tracheal phenol red secretion; with ammonium chloride as a reference medication. Percentage maximal possible analgesic effect in the tail immersion test and the total nociceptive score in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, after treatment of BALB/c mice with PNE (100-500 mg/kg), diclofenac, and morphine were also estimated. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. PNEdid not cause any extract-related physical, pharmacological and CNS toxicities or mortality; sedation was observed at doses 1000-2000 mg/kg. It showed significant dose-dependent reduction in cough count, and increased cough latency. PNE (1000 mg/kg) enhanced tracheal phenol red secretion. PNE (100-500 mg/kg) significantly and dose dependently increased tail withdrawal latencies, and nociceptive score. PNE has antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties, with an LD50>2000 mg/kg.

  7. Recommendations for the proper use of nonprescription cough suppressants and expectorants in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Carter, Danielle; Martin, Spencer; Roberts, Keri

    2011-03-01

    To describe the pharmacology and safety of oral over-the-counter cough suppressants and expectorants and to present recommendations for the use of these agents in solid-organ transplant recipients based on the potential for adverse drug reactions or drug-disease interactions. Data from journal articles and other sources describing the pharmacology and safety of over-the-counter cough suppressants and expectorants, drug-drug interactions with immunosuppressive agents, and drug-disease state interactions are reviewed. Potential and documented drug-drug interactions between immunosuppressive agents and over-the-counter cough medications guaifenesin, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, and codeine were evaluated on the basis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles. Interactions between these cough medications and the physiological changes in the body following transplantation also were examined. Diphenhydramine requires additional monitoring when used to treat cough in transplant recipients owing to its anticholinergic properties and the potential for interactions with cyclosporine. Dextromethorphan can be used in most transplant recipients, although greater caution should be exercised if the patient has undergone liver transplant or has liver impairment. Guaifenesin can be used in transplant recipients but should be used with caution in patients receiving kidney or lung transplants and in patients with renal impairment. Codeine combined with guaifenesin is another option for cough and can be used in most transplant patients although those with reduced renal function should be monitored carefully for adverse events.

  8. Using Chest Vibration Nursing Intervention to Improve Expectoration of Airway Secretions and Prevent Lung Collapse in Ventilated ICU Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Chen

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that chest vibration may contribute to expectoration and thus improve lung collapse among ventilated patients in an ICU. Chest vibration nursing intervention is a safe and effective alternative pulmonary clearance method and can be used on patients who are on ventilators in ICUs.

  9. In Vivo Evaluation of the Antiasthmatic, Antitussive, and Expectorant Activities and Chemical Components of Three Elaeagnus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuebin Ge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf of Elaeagnus lanceolata and Elaeagnus henryi as well as Elaeagnus pungens has been documented as an effective herb for the treatment of asthma and chronic bronchitis in traditional clinical medicine. This study was aimed at evaluating the antiasthmatic, antitussive, and expectorant activities of the water extracts from the three plants in vivo and analyzing their chemical components by HPLC-DAD. At the medium and high doses, the water extracts of three Elaeagnus leaves significantly prolonged the preconvulsive time (P < 0.01 in guinea pigs, lengthened the latent period of cough (P < 0.01 and decreased the cough frequency caused by aqueous ammonia in mice (P < 0.01, and enhanced tracheal phenol red output in mice (P < 0.01. There were no significant differences in the pharmacological actions between the three Elaeagnus leaves. Moreover, there was more similarity on overlap peaks in the range of retention time from 10 to 40 min by HPLC and many peaks that belonged to flavonoids compounds. It suggested that the main constituents of the three Elaeagnus leaves were flavonoid for the pharmacological activities. These effects were the important evidence for the traditional use of E. henryi leaf and E. lanceolata leaf as well as E. pungens to treat asthma and chronic bronchitis.

  10. In Vivo Evaluation of the Antiasthmatic, Antitussive, and Expectorant Activities and Chemical Components of Three Elaeagnus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yuebin; Zhang, Fei; Qin, Qin; Shang, Yingying; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-01-01

    The leaf of Elaeagnus lanceolata and Elaeagnus henryi as well as Elaeagnus pungens has been documented as an effective herb for the treatment of asthma and chronic bronchitis in traditional clinical medicine. This study was aimed at evaluating the antiasthmatic, antitussive, and expectorant activities of the water extracts from the three plants in vivo and analyzing their chemical components by HPLC-DAD. At the medium and high doses, the water extracts of three Elaeagnus leaves significantly prolonged the preconvulsive time (P red output in mice (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the pharmacological actions between the three Elaeagnus leaves. Moreover, there was more similarity on overlap peaks in the range of retention time from 10 to 40 min by HPLC and many peaks that belonged to flavonoids compounds. It suggested that the main constituents of the three Elaeagnus leaves were flavonoid for the pharmacological activities. These effects were the important evidence for the traditional use of E. henryi leaf and E. lanceolata leaf as well as E. pungens to treat asthma and chronic bronchitis.

  11. Cannabinoids and metabolites in expectorated oral fluid after 8 days of controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Schwope, David M; Schwilke, Eugene W; Goodwin, Robert S; Kelly, Deana L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-08-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an increasingly accepted matrix for drug testing programs, but questions remain about its usefulness for monitoring cannabinoids. Expectorated OF specimens (n = 360) were obtained from 10 adult daily cannabis smokers before, during, and after 37 20-mg oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses over 9 days to characterize cannabinoid disposition in this matrix. Specimens were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact ionization for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol, and negative chemical ionization for 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Linear ranges for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and cannabidiol were 0.25-50 ng/mL; cannabinol 1-50 ng/mL; and THCCOOH 5-500 pg/mL. THCCOOH was the most prevalent analyte in 344 specimens (96.9%), with concentrations up to 1,390.3 pg/mL. 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol were detected in 1, 1, and 3 specimens, respectively. THC was detected in only 13.8% of specimens. The highest THC concentrations were obtained at admission (median 1.4 ng/mL, range 0.3-113.6) from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. A total of 2.5 and 3.7% of specimens were THC-positive at the recommended Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2 ng/mL) and Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) (1 ng/mL) confirmation cutoffs, respectively. THC is currently the only analyte for monitoring cannabis exposure in OF; however, these data indicate chronic therapeutic oral THC administration and illicit oral THC use are unlikely to be identified with current guidelines. Measurement of THCCOOH may improve the detection and interpretation of OF cannabinoid tests and minimize the possibility of OF contamination from passive inhalation of cannabis smoke.

  12. Extractions of Oil from Descurainia sophia Seed Using Supercritical CO2, Chemical Compositions by GC-MS and Evaluation of the Anti-Tussive, Expectorant and Anti-Asthmatic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Gong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descurainia sophia is widely distributed in China and is one of the most troublesome annual weeds. It has diverse medicinal usage. D. sophia has abundant oil, making it an important oil plant in China. The main goal of this study was to obtain the maximum yield of the oil by an optimal selection of supercritical fluid extraction parameters. According to the central composite design and response surface methodology for supercritical fluid extraction method, a quadratic polynomial model was used to predict the yield of D. sophia seed oil. A series of runs was performed to assess the optimal extraction conditions. The results indicated that the extraction pressure had the greatest impact on oil yield within the range of the operating conditions studied. A total of approximately 67 compounds were separated in D. sophia seed oil by GC-MS, of which 51 compounds represented 98.21% of the total oils, for the first time. This study was also aimed at evaluating the anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive and expectorant activities in vivo of D. sophia seed oil which supplied for further research on bioactive constituents and pharmacological mechanisms.

  13. Evaluation of expectoration using aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Postural drainage and mechanical vibration have been evaluated in 16 patients of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases with copious sputum (daily sputum volume > 50 ml) using aerosol cine-scintigraphy. After inhalation of a 99m Tc-Milli MISA aerosol, the removal of radioactivity from total lung field and selected peripheral lung region was measured during 40 min of (1) resting in the upright position (control), (2) postural drainage (PD), (3) postural drainage with mechanical vibration (PDWV). Compared with the control run, PD significantly improved of mucus clearance on the total lung field (p < 0.001 ∼ 0.01) and peripheral lung region (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between PD and PDWV. Abnormal mucus movement was often recognized, such as stasis at the first carina, main bronchus and trachea, wandering to the lower lung (22.7 %) and regurgitation in the lower lung (50.0 %). The study indicated that postural drainage is an effective form, but mechanical vibration is of no value as an adjunct to postural drainage in the treatment of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and it was suggested that there is an adverse effect of postural drainage in the lower lung portion. (author)

  14. Effects of flutter and PEP mask physiotherapy on symptoms and lung function in children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Winden; A. Visser (Adriaan); P.J. Sterk (Peter); S. Beckers; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRecently, the flutter was introduced as a new device to improve sputum expectoration. Preliminary data suggested a significant improvement in expectoration and lung function during flutter treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the

  15. COUGH PHYTOTHERAPY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Davydova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of acute respiratory infections remains one of the most pressing problems in children. Mucolytic and expectorant therapy aimed at facilitating the expectoration of sputum and improvement of the drainage function of bronchi, is an integral part of this treatment. Expectorant herbal medicine occupies a special niche in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections. This paper presents literature data on the efficacy and safety of herbal expectorants in children, as well as the results of a comparative analysis of single- and multicomponent herbal medications.  

  16. Effects of flutter and PEP mask physiotherapy on symptoms and lung function in children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, C. M.; Visser, A.; Hop, W.; Sterk, P. J.; Beckers, S.; de Jongste, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the flutter was introduced as a new device to improve sputum expectoration. Preliminary data suggested a significant improvement in expectoration and lung function during flutter treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the

  17. Nutritional Value and Utilization of Amaranthus ( Amaranthus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, expectorant, to relieve breathing in acute bronchitis. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, immunomodulatory activity, anti-androgenic activity and anthelmintic properties.

  18. The physiological rationale of heat and moisture exchangers in post-laryngectomy pulmonary rehabilitation: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J. K.; Muller, S. H.; de Jongh, F. H. C.; van Zandwijk, N.; Hilgers, F. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Total laryngectomy results in a permanent disconnection of the upper and lower airways and inevitably leads to chronic pulmonary complaints like frequent involuntary coughing, increased sputum production and repeated daily forced expectoration to clean the airway. Heat and moisture exchangers

  19. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  20. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  1. Base of tongue varices associated with portal hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Jassar, P; Jaramillo, M; Nunez, D

    2000-01-01

    A symptomatic case of tongue base varices in a patient with portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis is presented. There are no previously documented cases in the world literature. Oesophageal varices may not be the only source of expectorated blood in a patient with portal hypertension.


Keywords: portal hypertension; lingual; tongue; varicose vein

  2. Terminalia mjuna (Roxb.ex DC) Wight & Am. of COl11bretaceae is a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... inflorescences. Fruit is ovoid lrvith 5-7 angles or 'wings. Bark is astringent, sweet, acrid, cooling, aphrodisiac, demulcent, cardiotonic, antidysenteric, urinary astringent, expectorant, alexiteric and tollie. It is useful ill ulcers, urethrorrhea, leucorrhoea, diabetes, anaemia, cardiopathy, cirrhosis of the liver and hypertension.

  3. SIMPLE MEASURES ARE AS EFFECTIVE AS INVASIVE TECHNIQUES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN MALAWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David J; Dacombe, Russell; Graham, Stephen M; Hicks, Alexander; Cohen, Danielle; Chikaonda, Tarsizio; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Zijlstra, Ed E; Squire, S Bertel; Gordon, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Setting Detection of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is vital for tuberculosis control. Methods to augment sputum collection are available but their additional benefit is uncertain in resource-limited settings. Objective To compare the diagnostic yields using five methods to obtain sputum from adults diagnosed with smear-negative PTB in Malawi. Design Self-expectorated sputum was collected under supervision for microscopy and mycobacterial culture in the study laboratory. Confirmed smear-negative patients, provided physiotherapy-assisted sputum and induced sputum followed, the next morning, by gastric washing and bronchoalveolar-lavage samples. Results 150 patients, diagnosed with smear-negative PTB by the hospital service, were screened. 39 (26%) were smear-positive from supervised self-expectorated sputum examined in the study laboratory. The remaining 111 confirmed smear-negative patients were enrolled; 89% were HIV positive. Seven additional smear-positive cases were diagnosed using the augmented sputum collection techniques. No differences were observed in the numbers of cases detected using the different methods. 44 (95.6%) of the 46 smear-positive cases could be detected from self-expectorated and physiotherapy-assisted samples Conclusions For countries like Malawi, the best use of limited resources to detect smear-positive PTB cases would be to improve the quality of self-expectorated sputum collection and microscopy. The additional diagnostic yield using bronchoalveolar-lavage after induced sputum is limited. PMID:19105886

  4. Oil-based compositions as saliva substitutes: A pilot study to investigate in-mouth retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara M; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2016-03-30

    This pilot study aimed to compare the in-mouth retention of an oil-based saliva substitute (emulsion, consisting of rice bran oil, soy lecithin and water) with water and a 1% w/v methylcellulose suspension (polymer) in healthy volunteers. Each formulation was tagged with 1 mmol/L lithium and participants (n=30) rinsed their mouth with one randomly assigned formulation (emulsion, polymer or water) for 30s, before expectorating into a cup. Concentration of lithium expectorated was measured and amount of each formulation remaining in the mouth was estimated. Patient acceptability was investigated using questionnaires, and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the presence of oil in expectorated samples. Immediately after rinsing, taste was rated lower in the emulsion group compared to the polymer or water groups (p>0.05), although variability was high. Mean retention was highest in the emulsion group, with a difference of 8.34 ± 2.71% (p=0.003) and 4.57 ± 2.71% (p=0.06) compared with the water and polymer groups, respectively. FTIR confirmed the presence of oil in all expectorated emulsion samples. The emulsion was not inferior to the polymer in terms of retention immediately after rinsing. The next step is to conduct larger clinical studies over longer time periods in participants with salivary hypofunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Okmen et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(5):28 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    have medicinal and cosmetic properties and is widely used in phytotherapy in the Mediterranean region. The storax produced by injuring L. orientalis has good antiseptic properties (Fernandez, 2005; Lee et al., 2009). Also it is used as a topical parasiticide, expectorant and for the treatment of some skin diseases in Turkish ...

  6. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  7. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  8. Choriocarcinoma as cause of pulmonary embolism: Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Rodriguez Reyna, Juan Carlos; Nip Fabero, Olga J

    2009-01-01

    This is the case of a 21 years old, black, female patient admitted at the Teaching Territorial Hospital of Cardenas 'Dr Julio M Aristegui Villamil' presenting breathlessness, dry cough, without expectoration, no fever and affection of the general status. She died a week after the admission in a picture of arrhythmia . The conclusion of the necropsy was pulmonary thromboembolism of tumor origin (choriocarcinoma) in both pulmonary arteries

  9. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  10. Kandungan Saponin Buah, Daun dan Tangkai Daun Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa Bilimbi L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrunnida, Fahrunnida

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, belimbing wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) has been used for traditional medicine, especially to heal stiff, mumps, rheumatism, ulcers, acne, tinea versicolor, high blood pressure, and dental pain and cough. This property is predicted comes from its secondary metabolites. Saponin is a compound group of secondary metabolites which is known to have antitussives and expectorants effect, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity for cancer therapy. However, scientific infor...

  11. A Clinical Trial of Kampo Formulae for the Treatment of Symptoms of Yusho, a Poisoning Caused by Dioxins and Related Organochlorine Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Uchi, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Mitoma, Chikage; Shibata, Satoko; Hamada, Naoki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiwara, Junboku; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) on the symptoms of Yusho. Yusho is a mass food poisoning that was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with dioxins and related organochlorines in 1968. Patients with Yusho suffer from skin symptoms (acneform eruptions, liability to suppuration and pigmentation), respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration of sputum), neurological symptoms (numbness and paresthesia of extremities), ...

  12. OPERCULINA TURPETHUM AS A PANORAMIC HERBAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Sharma

    2012-01-01

    O. turpethum is the source of the drug known as Turpeth or Indian Jalap and it is widely grown throughout India and it is occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornament. It has been used as a traditional medicine in many countries. The root is prescribed in scorpion sting and snake bite. The roots are bitter,acrid, sweet, thermogenic, purgative, carminative, antihelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatic, stimulant and hydragogue. They are useful in colic constipation, dropsy, vitiated c...

  13. Radiological tracking down of pulmonary tuberculosis in France; Investigation concerning 984 declared cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, A.; Le Gales, C.; Lefaure, C.; Vallier, F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to: describe the populations with a pulmonary tuberculosis risk factor, determine the percentage of cases observed by systematic tracking down in a declared tubercular population, compare the populations effectively covered by radiological tracking down to the populations with risk a factor, and compare the medical characteristics (symptomatology and the bacteriological expectoration results) of pulmonary tuberculosis cases discovered by systematic tracking down to the characteristics of cases discovered during hospital consultations or by personal doctors

  14. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry)

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Ghanshyam Das Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show ...

  15. Sensation and perception of sucrose and fat stimuli predict the reinforcing value of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek-Scarborough, Leah M; Dewey, Amber M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2012-03-20

    Chronic overeating can lead to weight gain and obesity. Sensory system function may play a role in the types of foods people select and the amount of food people eat. Several studies have shown that the orosensory components of eating play a strong role in driving food intake and food selection. In addition, previous work has shown that motivation to get food, or the reinforcing value of food, is a predictor of energy intake. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher detection thresholds and lower suprathreshold intensity ratings of sweet and fat stimuli are associated with greater reinforcing value of food. In addition, we sought to determine if the sensory ratings of the stimuli would differ depending on whether they were expectorated or swallowed. The reinforcing value of food was measured by having participants perform operant responses for food on progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. Taste detection thresholds and suprathresholds for solutions containing varied concentrations of sucrose and fat were also measured in two different Experiments. In Experiment 1, we found that sucrose, but not fat, detection predicted the reinforcing value of food with the reinforcing value of food increasing as sucrose detection threshold increased (indicating poorer detection). In Experiment 2, we found that lower suprathreshold ratings of expectorated fat and sucrose predicted greater reinforcing value of food. In addition, higher detection thresholds for fat stimuli (indicating poorer detection) were associated with greater reinforcing value of food. When taken together, these studies suggest that there is a relationship between taste detection and perception and reinforcing value of food and that these relationships vary based on whether the stimulus is swallowed or expectorated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Applications of aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy for, clinical investigations of mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Mikami, Riichiro; Ryujin, Yoshitada; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohnuki, Masahiro; Narita, Nobuhiro

    1984-01-01

    Mucociliary transport and cough effect were studied in 10 healthy controls and 116 patients with respiratory diseases using aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy which permits visualization of the movement of inhaled aerosols. Additionally, the effectiveness of β-adrenergic stimulant on mucociliary transport was evaluated in 8 normal cases by this method. 1. In healthy controls, the aerosol-bolus moved to the cephalad side rapidly and smoothly in the main bronchus and the trachea, but in many cases of respiratory diseases, we recognized various abnormal patterns such as slow movement, spiral movement, regurgitation etc. We consider that the bolus movements can be used as an index of the mucociliary transport. 2. We found low grade abnormality of bolus movement in cases of atopic bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema, silicosis, interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis, but high grade abnormality in cases of bronchiectasis, pulmonary emphysema with chronic bronchitis, mixed or infectious bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and especially acute pulmonary infection and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Normal patterns were observed in atopic asthma patients in remission, but abnormal patterns in cases of attack. With larger daily volumes of sputum, the bolus movements showed higher greater abnormality. 3. Bolus movements by coughing were seen most frequently in patients who had produced moderate volumes of sputum and in whom the bolus had stopped at the first carina. Bolus movements by coughing were classified into three groups: expectoration, cephalad movement that stopped halfway, and regurgitation. When the bolus was in the trachea, especially located on the oral side, we observed that expectoration by coughing was more effective. Patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases had lower effciency of expectoration by coughing. 4. We confirmed that terbutaline (β-adrenergic stimulant) accelerated the mucociliary transport. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment versus antibiotic therapy and placebo for patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis with purulent sputum. The BAAP Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Yvonne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this process is usually viral in origin and the benefits of antibiotic treatment are marginal. On the other hand, in recent years bronchitis has been considered more as an inflammatory than an infectious process. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a schedule of an oral anti-inflammatory compared with an antibiotic regimen and another group assigned to receive a placebo. Methods and design A total of 420 patients from 15 to 70 years of age with no associated comorbidity, presenting respiratory tract infection of at least one week of evolution, with cough as the predominant symptom, the presence of purulent expectoration and at least one other symptom of the respiratory tract (dyspnoea, wheezing, chest discomfort or pain, with no alternative explanation such as pneumonia, will be included in a prospective, randomised and controlled, clinical trial with placebo. The patients will be randomised to receive one of three treatments: ibuprofen, amoxycillin and clavulanic acid or placebo for 10 days. The main outcome measure is the number of days with frequent cough defined by the symptom diary with a score of 1 or more. Discussion This trial is designed to evaluate the number of days with frequent cough with anti-inflammatory treatment compared with antimicrobial treatment and placebo in previously healthy patients with a clinical picture of acute bronchitis and purulent expectoration. It is hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment is more effective than antibiotic treatment to reduce cough, which is the most disturbing symptom for patients with this infection. Trial registration ISRCTN07852892

  18. Pulmonary hydatidosis: An unusual cause of haemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old female patient was referred to us with complaints of massive haemoptysis and cough with expectoration, of two years′ duration. Her chest radiograph, computed tomography scan and video-bronchoscopy revealed a cystic lesion in the right upper and lower zones of the lungs. Aspiration from the cyst fluid was grossly hemorrhagic and full of inflammatory cells. On digestion of the fluid with potassium hydroxide, it showed plenty of hooklets and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus . An intact brood capsule was also seen. Diagnosis of hydatidosis was further confirmed by a positive serological and therapeutic response to albendazole.

  19. A fatal case of empyema thoracis by Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parande M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Empyema thoracis by Nocardia farcinica infection is uncommon. Here we report a rare and fatal infection in a 27-year-old HIV- seropositive male who presented with cough, expectoration, and breathlessness. Nocardia farcinica was isolated from sputum and pus from the pleural cavity. Confirmation of the isolate and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for various antibiotics was done at the Aerobic Actinomycetes Reference Laboratory, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta. Patient was treated with suitable antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs in spite of which he eventually succumbed to the disease.

  20. Epithelioid lung haenangioendiothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finozzi, V.; Andrade, E.; Campos, N.; Pizarrosa, C.

    2000-01-01

    The first national case of epithelioid lung haenangioendiothelioma concerned a 60 years old woman. Clinical picture and TC diagnosis showed a vascularized tumor producing persistent haenoptoic expectoration.It is necessary to be acquainted with it for the purpose of a differentiated diagnosis. It is a tumor with specific immunohistochemical markers against factor V III.Treatment consisted of surgical resection. Concerning its classification it is situated at the limit between benign and malignant, prognosis is usually good, but evolution is slow, extending for over 20 years

  1. New Form of Hypertonic Solution for Nebulization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytic, expectorative and antitussive drugs are traditionally used in acute or chronic respiratory episodes affected by acute respiratory infections. Today, preference is given to drugs in a form of solutions for nebulization therapy. The article presents data on the new dosage form of 7% inhalation hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid used in mucostasis therapy for chronic respiratory diseases. The information on the properties and the favorable effect of hyaluronic acid is provided. We discuss the evidence base of inhalation of the hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid in cystic fibrosis.

  2. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  3. Association of Pulmonary Cysts and Nodules in a Young Female Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Olívia Meira; do Nascimento, Ellen Caroline Toledo; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

    2016-06-01

    A 27-year-old female patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with a 1-year history of shortness of breath when walking fast on level ground or when climbing stairs. Symptoms worsened after a second episode of spontaneous left pneumothorax, when a chest tube was placed in another hospital for complete lung expansion. During this hospitalization, an open lung biopsy was performed. There was no history of rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, hemoptysis, wheezing, or expectoration. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Swyer- James -MacLeod syndrome presenting as hemoptysis in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Swyer-James/MacLeod syndrome is an uncommon disease with characteristic radiological feature of unilateral hyperlucency due to loss of pulmonary vasculature and air trapping. Typically, this disorder is diagnosed in childhood during evaluations for recurrent respiratory infections. Here, we report a case in a 30-year-old adult female who presented with dyspnoea, cough with expectoration and recurrent hemoptysis due to associated bronchiectasis. This case highlights the importance of computed tomography in the diagnostic workup of recurrent hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis epidemic countries like India

  5. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N. [Houilleres Bassin Lorraine, Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  6. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and nitric oxide (NO X ) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (PAir pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  7. IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BRONCHOSOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Michalak, Anna; Kędzia, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bronchosol is a traditional medicinal product in the form of syrup used in cough and impeded expectoration. The active ingredients that it contains include extracts from the herb of thyme, the root of primrose and thymol. It is recommended in disorders of the respiratory tract when expectoration is impeded and secretion of liquid mucus in bronchi is insufficient. Antimicrobial activity of the components of Bronchosol, especially thyme and thymol, has frequently been reported in the literature. To date, there have not been any studies to confirm such activity of Bronchosol, though. The results of our research are the first one to point to the great activity of Bronchosol against microorganisms causing infections of the respiratory tract. It has been demonstrated that this product displayed antimicrobial activity against reference strains as well as strains of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria and fungi isolated from patients. The confirmation of the antimicrobial activity of Bronchosol provides an explanation of its effectiveness in the therapy of the respiratory tract infections.

  8. Assessment of extracellular dehydration using saliva osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Spitz, Marissa G; Heavens, Kristen R; Walsh, Neil P; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    When substantial solute losses accompany body water an isotonic hypovolemia (extracellular dehydration) results. The potential for using blood or urine to assess extracellular dehydration is generally poor, but saliva is not a simple ultra-filtrate of plasma and the autonomic regulation of salivary gland function suggests the possibility that saliva osmolality (Sosm) may afford detection of extracellular dehydration via the influence of volume-mediated factors. This study aimed to evaluate the assessment of extracellular dehydration using Sosm. In addition, two common saliva collection methods and their effects on Sosm were compared. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected in 24 healthy volunteers during paired euhydration and dehydration trials. Furosemide administration and 12 h fluid restriction were used to produce extracellular dehydration. Expectoration and salivette collection methods were compared in a separate group of eight euhydrated volunteers. All comparisons were made using paired t-tests. The diagnostic potential of body fluids was additionally evaluated. Dehydration (3.1 ± 0.5% loss of body mass) decreased PV (-0.49 ± 0.12 L; -15.12 ± 3.94% change), but Sosm changes were marginal ( 0.05). Extracelluar dehydration was not detectable using plasma, urine, or saliva measures. Salivette and expectoration sampling methods produced similar, consistent results for Sosm, suggesting no methodological influence on Sosm.

  9. CT findings of plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Jhang, Won Kyoung; Kim, Young Hwee; Ko, Jae Kon; Park, In Sook [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Park, Jeong-Jun; Yun, Tae-Jin; Seo, Dong-Man [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described. To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation. Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children. CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts. CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  10. Common variable immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Masry

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A male patient 40 years old, non smoker, presented with fever, cough and expectoration of greenish sputum and diarrhea of 1 week duration. The condition started 3 years ago, by cough and expectoration of about ¼ cup/day of greenish sputum, not related to posture, along with fever up to 39 °C with loss of weight about 12 kg in one month and associated with diarrhea and mucus shedding. The patient sought medical advice and received empirical antibiotics and symptomatic treatments with partial clinical improvement. The patient showed multiple relapses of same respiratory and gastro-enterology symptoms every 3–4 weeks with 4 hospital admissions. CT-chest was done and revealed emphysematous changes with basal inflammatory reaction (Fig. 1; sputum workup showed no acid fast bacilli and growth of normal flora, fasting blood glucose was 102 mg/dl. A second CT-chest was done after one year and showed right sided pneumonic consolidation, bilateral pneumonic reaction with multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural thickening and right encysted pleural effusion (Fig. 2.

  11. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease.

  12. Clinical and immunological characteristics associated with the presence of protozoa in sputum smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between protozoa in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples and a range of clinical and immunological variables. Clinical details including age, gender, smoking status, and use of oral or inhaled steroids were recorded for a cohort of 199 patients whose spontaneously expectorated sputum samples were submitted to a Cytology Laboratory in Spain between January 2005 and December 2006. Slides were scanned for protozoa under light microscopy and scanned for monocytes/small macrophages highlighted by immunocytochemistry (CD68 monoclonal antibody). One hundred ninety-one patients provided adequate sputum samples, of whom 70 had protozoa in their sputum. There was a strong relationship between the presence of protozoa and monocytes/small macrophages identified under light microscopy (P protozoa and both smoking status and steroid use. The diagnoses in those with protozoa included infection (including tuberculosis), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung fibrosis, asthma, chronic liver disease, immunosuppression, cancer, pancreatic or renal disease, heart failure, and AIDS. The identified association between protozoa and monocytes/small macrophages in sputum suggests an immune response and warrants further investigation to clarify whether or not these organisms have any pathological significance in this wide range of conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A device for the collection of submandibular saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara; Motoi, Lidia; Medlicott, Natalie; Swindells, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the construction of a non-invasive device for the collection of submandibular saliva. Preliminary tests were carried out on saliva collected from a single donor in order to determine whether the rheological properties of submandibular saliva collected using the device were comparable to whole saliva collected using the expectoration (or 'spit') method. The device collected a lower quantity of saliva than that collected using the expectoration method. Stimulated saliva collected using the device had a pH close to that of unstimulated saliva because the sealed collection unit in the device minimised contamination. Saliva exhibited shear-thinning behaviour regardless of the method of collection, although that collected using the device was more viscous. The viscoelasticity of saliva collected using the two methods was different, probably as a result of differences in composition. This difference was greater with stimulated saliva. Despite the discrepancies between whole saliva and submandibular saliva, the device provides a non-invasive method for the collection of high-quality saliva over extended periods.

  14. The use of lithium as a marker for the retention of liquids in the oral cavity after rinsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara M; Kieser, Jules A; Ferguson, Martin M; Reid, Malcolm; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the use of lithium as a marker to indicate the retention of simple liquids in the oral cavity and use this to determine how much liquid is retained in the oral cavity following 30 s of rinsing. This is a validation study in which saliva was spiked with known concentrations of lithium. Twenty healthy participants then rinsed their mouths with either water or a 1 % w/v carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution for 30 s before expectorating into a collection cup. Total volume and concentration of lithium in the expectorant were then measured, and the percentage of liquid retained was calculated. The mean amount of liquid retained was 10.4 ± 4.7 % following rinsing with water and 15.3 ± 4.1 % following rinsing with 1 % w/v CMC solution. This difference was significant (p < 0.01). Lithium was useful as a marker for the retention of liquids in the oral cavity, and a value for the amount of water and 1 % w/v CMC solution remaining in the oral cavity following a 30-s rinse was established. The present study quantifies the retention of simple fluids in the oral cavity, validating a technique that may be applied to more complex fluids such as mouth rinses. Further, the application of this method to specific population groups such as those with severe xerostomia may assist in developing effective saliva substitutes.

  15. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1(st), 20(th) and 40(th) min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation of

  16. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, B.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1 st , 20 th and 40 th min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation

  17. Review of the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Wang, Zenghui; Huang, Linfang; Zheng, Sihao; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Haitao; Yang, Shihai

    2014-09-01

    Astragalus membranaceus is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines. It is used as immune stimulant, tonic, antioxidant, hepatoprotectant, diuretic, antidiabetic, anticancer, and expectorant. The current paper reviews the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Astragali Radix. Information on Astragali Radix was gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Medline Plus, CNKI, and Web of Science) as well as from libraries and local books. More than 100 compounds, including flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides, and amino acids, have so far been identified, and the various biological activities of the compounds have been reported. As an important traditional Chinese medicine, further studies on Astragali Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapies for various diseases. The improvement of its utilization should be studied further. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Radioimmunoassay for the detection of virus-specific IgA antibodies in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a sensitive and versatile radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of mumps-specific IgA and measles-specific IgA in unconcentrated saliva samples is described. The samples were obtained either by expectoration or by swabbing of the oral cavity, with or without stimulation of secretion, and were inactivated and clarified before testing. Mumps-specific IgA antibodies were detected as early as one day after onset of illness and peaked at 1-2 weeks after onset. Measles-specific salivary IgA antibodies were detected in 15-month old children 2-3 weeks after immunization. These results suggest that the RIA technique may be useful for early diagnosis of viral infections and for confirmation of response to immunization without the need for a blood sample, as well as for the study of the secretory immune response in very young and older subjects. (Auth.)

  19. Clinical Management of Acute Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 51-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of cough and expectoration accompanied with general fatigue and progressive dyspnea. Chest HRCT scan showed areas of ground glass attenuation, consolidation, and traction bronchiectasis in bilateral bases of lungs. BAL fluid test and transbronchial lung biopsy failed to offer insightful evidence for diagnosis. She was clinically diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP. Treatment with mechanical ventilation and intravenous application of methylprednisolone (80 mg/day showed poor clinical response and thus was followed by steroid pulse therapy (500 mg/day, 3 days. However, she died of respiratory dysfunction eventually. Autopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage associated with hyaline membrane formation, pulmonary interstitial, immature collagen edema, and focal type II pneumocyte hyperplasia.

  20. The antitussive activity of polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis l., var. Robusta, Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules, and Prunus persica L., Batsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovska, M; Nosalova, G; Franova, S; Kardosova, A

    2007-01-01

    The therapy of pathological type of cough presents serious medical problem. The aim of experiments was to investigate polysaccacharide influence on experimentally induced cough. The purified and/or modified polysaccharides from the flowers and plants, characterized by chemical composition and molecular properties were subjected to tests for antitussive activity on cough, induced mechanically in conscious cats of both sexes. The results revealed that the tested polysaccharides exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. The most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marsh mallow, containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent. Negative influence of the tested compounds on expectoration was negligible when compared to that of codeine. Antitussive activity of various plant polysaccharides was confirmed. These results allow ranging them among prospective antitussive agents (Tab. 2, Fig. 6, Ref. 15) Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  1. A NEW VARIETY OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. – DENIS, CREATED AT VRDS BACĂU IN ECOLOGIC AGRICULTURE CONDITION, CERTIFIED IN 2007 YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALTICEANU MARCELA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Oregano is a perennial plant of 0,6 – 0,8m high. The flowers are small, coloured in red till lilac-lavender. It blossom from July till September, being pollinated by bees. The utility rate of plants is 3 : 5.In the literature is mentioned as a plants with multiple uses: culinary (as a condiment plant or for the preparation of a aromatised tea, the leaves can be consumed fresh or cooked; ornamental (is decorative through port, bush and flowers: often is cultivated in pots; medicinal (is has an antiseptically and expectorant effects, being used also in affections of respiratory systems, indigestions, arthritis, aromatherapy etc; melliferous (is a good melliferous plant; in biologic agriculture (with repellent effect for insects, is recommended for association with many vegetable species, also because the plants cover very well the soil, thus providing an herbicide effect; cosmetics (perfume, soap, spay industry.

  2. Clinical forms of chronic dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.I.; Blokhina, L.M.

    1984-08-01

    Clinical study of 837 coal miners with chronic dust-induced bronchitis reveals three different forms of the disease: emphysematous, asthmatic and infectious. From development of clinical manifestations different etiologies of the disease are apparent. In early stages, three different types of chronic dust-induced bronchitis (CDB) are clearly distinguishable. With progression of condition differences are obliterated. Formulation of a diagnosis must reflect the form of illness, stage of respiratory insufficiency and status of blood exchange. Discrimination of different varieties of CDB has significant practical value in determining tactics for treating patients. Emphysematous CDB is treated by improvement of draining function of bronchi and elimination of respiratory insufficiency by prescribing respiratory gymnastics, broncholytic preparations and oxygen therapy. Treatment of asthmatic form of CDB is directed at restoring disturbances of bronchial passability by use of broncholytics and expectorants. In inflammatory form of CDB in addition to restoring the draining function of the lungs, active antibacterial therapy is introduced. 5 references.

  3. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis.

  4. Radiological case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyze the case of a patient (65 year-old) masculine, who consults for precordial pain associated to dyspnoea, left scapular pain and in the shoulder of the same side, of 3 days of evolution that it has been permanent and progressive. He also refers, loss of weight the last 6 months and dyspnoea of effort of 1 month of evolution. He denies chill, fever, cough or expectoration. The patient presents gastric ulcer tried for 1 year, smoker of 2 packages of daily cigarettes of the 15 to the 40 years; all its life worked in masonry. X-rays of the thorax and Tac, among other analyses were done and the case is discusses

  5. Death rattle: prevalence, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildiers, Hans; Menten, Johan

    2002-04-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to study the occurrence and treatment of death rattle (DR) in 107 consecutive dying patients on the palliative care unit of the University Hospital Leuven. The incidence of DR (23%) is lower than reported in literature, possibly due to low hydration. We found 2 types of rattle: "Real DR" responds generally very well to anticholinergic therapy, and is probably caused by non-expectorated secretions. "Pseudo DR" is poorly responsive to therapy and is probably caused by bronchial secretions due to pulmonary pathology, such as infection, tumor, fluid retention, or aspiration. Rattle disappeared in >90% for the patients with real DR. Real DR is a strong predictor for death, and 76% (19/25) died within 48h after onset. Administration of subcutaneous hyoscine hydrobromide, as a bolus or continuous infusion, is effective therapy for real DR and is comfortable for the patient and caregivers.

  6. Gingival metastasis from the lung through a needle and a pin: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentati, D.; Chraiet, N.; Kochbati, L.; Maalej, M.

    2007-01-01

    Gingival metastases are very rare. We report the case of a 47 year-old man presenting with a gingival metastasis from a non small cell lung carcinoma. According to the literature, the most probable way of spread of such metastasis is hematogenous. Local implantation of cancer cells, present in patient's expectoration, in a fragile gingival may be an other pathway of lung cancer metastasizing in this region as we will try to describe in this case report. Cytological and/or histological investigation is needed to assess the malignant and the metastatic character of these gingival lesions. A rapid regression is observed after a flash of external beam radiation; nevertheless metastasis prognosis depends on the primary tumour progress. (authors)

  7. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers.

  8. Ethnobotanical value of dry, fallen ovaries of Bombax ceiba L. (Bombacaceae: Malvales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopakumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, the traditional ecological knowledge regarding utilization of diverse Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs available with different human communities remains under-explored. Though not on an organized scale, the collection and sale of various NTFPs, help the members of tropical rural communities to sustain themselves. Bombax ceiba, a tropical moist deciduous tree has various ethnobotanical values. Semul gum is edible and possesses medicinal value. Immature fruits of this tree have value as an expectorant, stimulant and diuretic. Extracts of young roots are used for treating dysentery. Now the dry, fallen ovaries of this tree species have a new commercial value, and are being widely collected and traded by some local herbalists in Thrissur District of Kerala.

  9. Severe Pleuropulmonary Paragonimiasis Caused by Paragonimus mexicanus Treated as Tuberculosis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Macias, Rubén; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2017-01-11

    A 30-year-old male, from a subtropical region of Ecuador, was hospitalized with a 5-year history of persistent cough with rusty brown sputum, chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. The patient underwent thoracic surgery 3 years ago for pleural effusion and subsequently received a 9-month regimen treatment of tuberculosis. However, there was no clinical resolution and symptoms became progressively worse. A chest radiograph and computerized tomography scan showed several small nodules in both lungs. Eggs of Paragonimus spp. were observed in sputum smears, but the smears were negative for acid-fast bacilli. Molecular characterization of eggs by the internal transcribed spacer-2 regions identified them as Paragonimus mexicanus The patient was treated with praziquantel and tested negative parasitologically for 12 months. There was clinical resolution of the cough and expectoration, but dyspnea and chest pain persisted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Primary Pharmacological and Other Important Findings on the Medicinal Plant “Aconitum Heterophyllum” (Aruna

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    Debashish Paramanick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aconitum Heterophyllum (A. Heterophyllum is an indigenous medicinal plant of India and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. A. Heterophyllum is known to possess a number of therapeutic effects. For very ancient times, this plant has been used in some formulations in the traditional healing system of India, i.e., Ayurveda. It is reported to have use in treating patients with urinary infections, diarrhea, and inflammation. It also has been used as an expectorant and for the promotion of hepatoprotective activity. The chemical studies of the plant have revealed that various parts of the plant contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, saponins, glycosides, quinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc. In the present study, a comprehensive phytochemistry and pharmacognosy, as well as the medicinal properties, of A. Heterophyllum are discussed. Abstract: Scientific information on the plant was collected from various sources,

  11. Unstable Simple Volatiles and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Essential Oil from the Roots Bark of Oplopanax Horridus Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

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    Li Shao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E-nerolidol (52.5%, τ-cadinol (21.6% and S-falcarinol (3.6%. Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E-nerolidol (2 g, τ-cadinol (62 mg and S-falcarinol (21 mg, were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of saffron and its active constituents: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marjan Razavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Crocus sativus L. Commonly known as saffron, is a perennial stem less herb of the iridaceae family, widely cultivated in Iran and other countries. It is used as a flavoring and coloring agent for many thousands of years. In traditional medicine, saffron has been used for various purposes including abortion, as a fever reducer, an analgesic, expectorant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, sedative, digestive and a carminative. Various pharmacological studies have been described that saffron and its constituents exhibit different beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiischemic, antigenotoxic, antidote, antiapoptotic, antitussive, antidepressive, sedative and hypnotic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects. Research projects have also revealed that saffron also exhibits protective effects against cardiovascular diseases including cardiac ischemia, arrhythmia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review article, the effects of saffron and its active constituents on cardiovascular system were introduced.

  13. Tuberculosis in Sheltered Homeless Population of Rome: An Integrated Model of Recruitment for Risk Management

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    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors show the results of an integrated model for risk management of tuberculosis in a sample of sheltered homeless in Rome. Tuberculin skin test (TST was used for evaluating the prevalence of latent infection (LTBI. In TST positives, expectorate was collected and chest X-ray was achieved. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate determinants of infection. Out of 288 recruited subjects, 259 returned for the TST reading; 45.56% were positive and referred to a specialized center; 70 accessed the health facility and completed the clinical pathway. The risk factors associated to LTBI were male gender (OR=3.72, age over 60 years (OR=3.59, immigrant status (OR=3.73, and obesity (OR=2.19. This approach, based on an integrated social network, guarantees high adherence to screening (89.93%, allowing patients testing positive for latent tuberculosis infection to be diagnosed and rapidly referred to a specialized center.

  14. Lung aspergillosis in an adult woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano Grave de Peralta, Yanara; Campos IuñozII, Martha; Silveria DigónIII, Serguei

    2016-01-01

    The case report of a 44 years mixed race patient from an urban area is described, with a personal history of alcoholic liver disease who was admitted in the Pneumology Service of 'Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, after being referred from her health area due to expectoration episodes with blood and dry cough. Laboratory studies, sputum culture, thorax X rays, lung computerized axial tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy were carried out that lead to the mycetoma diagnosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus, which facilitated to indicate the appropriate treatment and to carry out the clinical follow up of the affected patient. (author)

  15. [Complications and the management of fully covered retrievable metal stent placement in benign tracheal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-yu; Wang, Yong-li; Chen, Guang-li; Liang, Xi-hong; Wang, Zhen-chang; Ma, Jian-zhong; Wu, Guang-zhong; Zhang, Xiao-ping

    2012-11-01

    To study complications and the management of the use of covered retrievable expandable metallic stents in the treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. Fully covered retrievable metal stents were placed in 21 patients with benign tracheal stenosis. Stent-related complications and the management were reviewed and analysed. Twenty-eight fully covered retrievable metallic stents were successfully placed fluoroscopically in 21 patients. Stents were removed 4 - 12 months [mean (5.5 ± 2.2) mouths] after placement in all patients. Stent-related complications included granulation tissue (n = 18), stent migration (n = 4), stent expectoration (n = 2), halitosis (n = 8), mucous retention (n = 21) and mucus plugging (n = 1). Granulation tissue was removed with a carbon dioxide laser in 2 patients. Stents were replaced for 2 times and 3 times respectively in 2 patients after stent migration and stent expectoration. An additional stent was placed in 2 patients after stent migration. Symptom of halitosis was relieved after prolonged course of systemic antibiotics treatment in 8 patients. Symptom of mucous retention was relieved with nebulized saline and N-acetylcysteine saline inhalation. Mucous plug was expelled after severe coughing after suctioning using an aspirator in one patient. There were statistically significant differences in stricture diameter, rank of tachypnea and pulmonary function (FEV(1)) in all 21 patients before stent insertion and after stents removal. No patient has experienced recurrence during the follow-up period of 1 - 36 months [mean (23.2 ± 8.0) months]. Fully covered retrievable metallic stent may be a safe and effective in benign tracheal stenosis. Stent-related complications may be effectively managed.

  16. [Correlation factors of 127 times pre-crisis state in patients with myasthenia gravis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, C Y; Ran, H; Qiu, L; Huang, Z D; Lin, Z Z; Deng, J; Liu, W B

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of the Pre-Crisis State and analyze the correlated risk factors of Pre-Crisis State of myasthenia crisis. Methods: We included 93 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) who experienced 127 times Pre-Crisis State between October 2007 and July 2016. Those patients were hospitalized in the MG specialize center, Department of Neurological Science, first Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The information of the general situation, the clinical manifestations and the blood gas analysis in those patients were collected using our innovated clinical research form. Statistic methods were applied including descriptive analysis, univariate logistic analysis, multivariate correlation logistic analysis, etc. Results: (1)The typical features of MG Pre-Crisis State included: dyspnea (127 times, 100% not requiring intubation or non-invasive ventilation), bulbar-muscle weakness (121 times, 95.28%), the increased blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO(2)) (94 times, 85.45%), expectoration weakness (99 times, 77.95%), sleep disorders (107 times, 84.25%) and the infection (99 times, 77.95%). The occurrence of dyspnea in combination with bulbar-muscle weakness ( P =0.002) or the increased blood PCO(2) ( P =0.042) often indicated the tendency of crisis. (2) The MG symptoms which were proportion to the occurrence of crisis includes: bulbar-muscle weakness ( P =0.028), fever ( P =0.028), malnutrition ( P =0.066), complications ( P =0.071), excess oropharyngeal secretions ( P =0.005) and the increased blood PCO(2) ( P =0.007). The perioperative period of thymectomy would not increase the risk of crisis. Conclusions: Dyspnea indicates the occurrence of the Pre-Crisis State of MG. In order to significantly reduce the morbidity of myasthenia crisis, the bulbar-muscle weakness, the increased blood PCO(2), expectoration weakness, sleep disorders, infection & fever and excess oropharyngeal secretions should be treated timely.

  17. The effect of dentifrice quantity and toothbrushing behaviour on oral delivery and retention of fluoride in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeth, Jonathan; Zero, Domenick; Mau, Melissa; Bosma, Mary Lynn; Butler, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    While toothpaste F(-) concentration and rinsing regimen have well-characterised impacts on fluoride's effectiveness, other aspects of brushing regimen have much less well-established effects, in particular, dentifrice quantity and brushing duration. An in vivo study (n = 42) of oral fluoride delivery (i.e. oral disposition post-brushing), and retention (i.e. concentration of F(-) in saliva post-brushing, a known efficacy predictor), was performed to compare effects observed with those of dentifrice F(-) concentration and rinsing regimen. Subjects brushed with a NaF-silica dentifrice (Aquafresh Advanced, 1,150 ppm F(-) ) or a control dentifrice (250 ppm F(-) , same base), for 45, 60, 120 or 180 seconds with 0.5 or 1.5 g dentifrice, and rinsed with 15 ml water once or three times in a cross-over design. The F(-) concentration was measured in post-brushing expectorate, rinse and toothbrush washing samples, and in saliva between 5-120 minutes after brushing. Using 1.5 g versus 0.5 g dentifrice increased F(-) in all samples: oral retention of F(-) was almost doubled by this increase. Increasing duration of brushing had more complex effects. The amount of F(-) in the expectorate increased but decreased in both rinse and toothbrush washing samples. Oral F(-) retention increased, but only in the period 30-120 minutes after brushing. Over the ranges investigated, the order of importance on oral F(-) retention was: dentifrice F(-) concentration > quantity > rinsing regimen > brushing duration. Hence, increasing dentifrice quantity and, to a lesser extent, the duration of brushing, can elevate oral fluoride post-brushing. Evidence is accumulating that the importance of these variables to fluoride efficacy may have been underestimated. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Acute effects of combined exercise and oscillatory positive expiratory pressure therapy on sputum properties and lung diffusing capacity in cystic fibrosis: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Böni, Lukas; Bohnacker, Peter; Maggi-Beba, Marion; Fischer, Peter; Kriemler, Susi; Benden, Christian; Dressel, Holger

    2018-06-14

    Regular airway clearance by chest physiotherapy and/or exercise is critical to lung health in cystic fibrosis (CF). Combination of cycling exercise and chest physiotherapy using the Flutter® device on sputum properties has not yet been investigated. This prospective, randomized crossover study compared a single bout of continuous cycling exercise at moderate intensity (experiment A, control condition) vs a combination of interval cycling exercise plus Flutter® (experiment B). Sputum properties (viscoelasticity, yield stress, solids content, spinnability, and ease of sputum expectoration), pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) were assessed at rest, directly and 45 min post-exercise (recovery) at 2 consecutive visits. Primary outcome was change in sputum viscoelasticity (G', storage modulus; G", loss modulus) over a broad frequency range (0.1-100 rad.s - 1 ). 15 adults with CF (FEV 1 range 24-94% predicted) completed all experiments. No consistent differences between experiments were observed for G' and G" and other sputum properties, except for ease of sputum expectoration during recovery favoring experiment A. DLNO, DLCO, alveolar volume (V A ) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (V cap ) increased during experiment A, while DLCO and V cap increased during experiment B (all P < 0.05). We found no differences in absolute changes in pulmonary diffusing capacity and its components between experiments, except a higher V A immediately post-exercise favoring experiment A (P = 0.032). The additional use of the Flutter® to moderate intensity interval cycling exercise has no measurable effect on the viscoelastic properties of sputum compared to moderate intensity continuous cycling alone. Elevations in diffusing capacity represent an acute exercise-induced effect not sustained post-exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02750722 ; URL: clinical.trials.gov; Registration date: April 25th, 2016.

  19. Changes and Clinical Consequences of Smoking Cessation in Patients With COPD: A Prospective Analysis From the CHAIN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Cristina; Casanova, Ciro; de-Torres, Juan P; Marín, José M; de Lucas, Pilar; Fuster, Antonia; Cosío, Borja G; Calle, Myriam; Peces-Barba, Germán; Solanes, Ingrid; Agüero, Ramón; Feu-Collado, Nuria; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Romero Plaza, Amparo; Balcells, Eva; de Diego, Alfredo; Marín Royo, Margarita; Moreno, Amalia; Llunell Casanovas, Antonia; Galdiz, Juan B; Golpe, Rafael; Lacárcel Bautista, Celia; Cabrera, Carlos; Marin, Alicia; Soriano, Joan B; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis

    2018-02-22

    Despite the existing evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, chances of achieving that goal in real life are still low among patients with COPD. We sought to evaluate the clinical consequences of changes in smoking habits in a large cohort of patients with COPD. CHAIN (COPD History Assessment in Spain) is a Spanish multicenter study carried out at pulmonary clinics including active and former smokers with COPD. Smoking status was certified by clinical history and co-oximetry. Clinical presentation and disease impact were recorded via validated questionnaires, including the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). No specific smoking cessation intervention was carried out. Factors associated with and clinical consequences of smoking cessation were analyzed by multivariate regression and decision tree analyses. One thousand and eighty-one patients with COPD were included (male, 80.8%; age, 65.2 [SD 8.9] years; FEV 1 , 60.2 [20.5]%). During the 2-year follow-up time (visit 2, 906 patients; visit 3, 791 patients), the majority of patients maintained the same smoking habit. Decision tree analysis detected chronic expectoration as the most relevant variable to identify persistent quitters in the future, followed by an LCADL questionnaire (cutoff 9 points). Total anxiety HADS score was the most relevant clinical impact associated with giving up tobacco, followed by the LCADL questionnaire with a cutoff value of 10 points. In this real-life prospective COPD cohort with no specific antismoking intervention, the majority of patients did not change their smoking status. Our study also identifies baseline expectoration, anxiety, and dyspnea with daily activities as the major determinants of smoking status in COPD. ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT01122758; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving vector-borne pathogen surveillance: A laboratory-based study exploring the potential to detect dengue virus and malaria parasites in mosquito saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Vanessa R; Jochim, Ryan; Yarnell, Michael; Ferlez, Karen Bingham; Shashikumar, Soumya; Richardson, Jason H

    2017-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogen surveillance programmes typically rely on the collection of large numbers of potential vectors followed by screening protocols focused on detecting pathogens in the arthropods. These processes are laborious, time consuming, expensive, and require screening of large numbers of samples. To streamline the surveillance process, increase sample throughput, and improve cost-effectiveness, a method to detect dengue virus and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) by leveraging the sugar-feeding behaviour of mosquitoes and their habit of expectorating infectious agents in their saliva during feeding was investigated in this study. Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and P. falciparum infected female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were allowed to feed on honey coated Flinders Technical Associates -FTA® cards dyed with blue food colouring. The feeding resulted in deposition of saliva containing either DENV-2 particles or P. falciparum sporozoites onto the FTA card. Nucleic acid was extracted from each card and the appropriate real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was run to detect the pathogen of interest. As little as one plaque forming unit (PFU) of DENV-2 and as few as 60 P. falciparum parasites deposited on FTA cards from infected mosquitoes were detected via qPCR. Hence, their use to collect mosquito saliva for pathogen detection is a relevant technique for vector surveillance. This study provides laboratory confirmation that FTA cards can be used to capture and stabilize expectorated DENV-2 particles and P. falciparum sporozoites from infectious, sugar-feeding mosquitoes in very low numbers. Thus, the FTA card-based mosquito saliva capture method offers promise to overcome current limitations and revolutionize traditional mosquito-based pathogen surveillance programmes. Field testing and further method development are required to optimize this strategy.

  1. Observations on saliva osmolality during progressive dehydration and partial rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Kerry, Pete; McGhee, Sheena; Peoples, Gregory E; Brown, Marc A; Patterson, Mark J

    2012-09-01

    A need exists to identify dehydrated individuals under stressful settings beyond the laboratory. A predictive index based on changes in saliva osmolality has been proposed, and its efficacy and sensitivity was appraised across mass (water) losses from 1 to 7%. Twelve euhydrated males [serum osmolality: 286.1 mOsm kg(-1) H(2)O (SD 4.3)] completed three exercise- and heat-induced dehydration trials (35.6°C, 56% relative humidity): 7% dehydration (6.15 h), 3% dehydration (with 60% fluid replacement: 2.37 h), repeat 7% dehydration (5.27 h). Expectorated saliva osmolality, measured at baseline and at each 1% mass change, was used to predict instantaneous hydration state relative to mass losses of 3 and 6%. Saliva osmolality increased linearly with dehydration, although its basal osmolality and its rate of change varied among and within subjects across trials. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated a good predictive power for saliva osmolality when used with two, single-threshold cutoffs to differentiate between hydrated and dehydrated individuals (area under curve: 3% cutoff = 0.868, 6% cutoff = 0.831). However, when analysed using a double-threshold detection technique (3 and 6%), as might be used in a field-based monitor, <50% of the osmolality data could correctly identify individuals who exceeded 3% dehydration. Indeed, within the 3-6% dehydration range, its sensitivity was 64%, while beyond 6% dehydration, this fell to 42%. Therefore, while expectorated saliva osmolality tracked mass losses within individuals, its large intra- and inter-individual variability limited its predictive power and sensitivity, rendering its utility questionable within a universal dehydration monitor.

  2. The microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage from young children with chronic lung disease includes taxa present in both the oropharynx and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R L; Kaestli, M; Chang, A B; Binks, M J; Pope, C E; Hoffman, L R; Smith-Vaughan, H C

    2016-07-07

    Invasive methods requiring general anaesthesia are needed to sample the lung microbiota in young children who do not expectorate. This poses substantial challenges to longitudinal study of paediatric airway microbiota. Non-invasive upper airway sampling is an alternative method for monitoring airway microbiota; however, there are limited data describing the relationship of such results with lung microbiota in young children. In this study, we compared the upper and lower airway microbiota in young children to determine whether non-invasive upper airway sampling procedures provide a reliable measure of either lung microbiota or clinically defined differences. The microbiota in oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 78 children (median age 2.2 years) with and without lung disease were characterised using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) detected significant differences between the microbiota in BAL and those in both OP swabs (p = 0.0001, Pseudo-F = 12.2, df = 1) and NP swabs (p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 21.9, df = 1) with the NP and BAL microbiota more different than the OP and BAL, as indicated by a higher Pseudo-F value. The microbiota in combined OP and NP data (upper airways) provided a more comprehensive representation of BAL microbiota, but significant differences between the upper airway and BAL microbiota remained, albeit with a considerably smaller Pseudo-F (PERMANOVA p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 4.9, df = 1). Despite this overall difference, paired BAL and upper airway (OP and NP) microbiota were >50 % similar among 69 % of children. Furthermore, canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP analysis) detected significant differences between the microbiota from clinically defined groups when analysing either BAL (eigenvalues >0.8; misclassification rate 26.5 %) or the combined OP and NP data (eigenvalues >0

  3. CLINICAL AND ETIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH LUNG ABSCESS AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung abscess is a type of liquefactive necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities (more than 2 cm containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. This pus - filled cavity is often caused by aspiration, which may occur during altered consciousness. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and etiological profile of lung abscess in patients admitted at a tertiary care centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A prospective study was condu cted on 142 cases with age more than 15 years, who were the suspected cases of lung abscess and the cases with evidence of lung abscess on the X - ray, CT scan presented to the OPD/ IPD clinic, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital (RMCH, Bareilly from January 2013 to December 2014 were included in the study. RESULTS: out of 142 patients enrolled in the study, 47(33.09% belonged to age group of ›60 years followed by 42(29.57% belong to 41 - 60 years of age. 116(81.6% wer e male and 26(18.3% were female. The most frequent symptom was cough (92.95%, followed by expectoration (91.54%, fever (87.32% and hemoptysis (41.5%. CONCLUSION: In our study conducted, data collection shows that lung abscess was more seen in the elderly and male patients 116( 81.6% as compared to female patients 26(18.3%. Majority of the patients had a risk factor of smoking, dental diseases, altered sensorium, comatosed patients, alcohol, diabetes, on steroid therapy and immunocompromised immune status. The following were the major symptoms in our patients : - Cough (92.95%, expectoration (91.54% , Fever(87.32%, Foul smell (66.90% , Chest pain (58.45% , Hemoptysis (41.5%, Impaired consciousness (29.57%. In our study locus of lesion was more pro minently on right side i.e. 101 patients ( 71.12% as compared to 36 ( 25.35%,while lung abscess was seen bilateral in 5 patients ( 3.5%. Primary lung abscess is a common presentation amongst the patients with the periodontal diseases, seizure

  4. [Evaluation and symptomatic treatment of surinfectious exacerbations of COPD: preliminary study of antibiotic treatment combined with fenspiride (Pneumorel 80mg) versus placebo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirsac, B; Benezet, O; Dansin, E; Nouvet, G; Stach, B; Voisin, C

    2000-02-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an inflammatory component in addition to the possible infectious component. The antiinflammatory properties of fenspiride (Pneumorel(R) 80 mg) should be evaluated in this frequent clinical situation. Assess the supplementary therapeutic benefit provided by fenspiride administered in combination with antibiotics in COPD patients presenting an episode of bronchial infection. A preliminary randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study was conduced in 7 centers. Patients under 80 years of age of both sexes were included. All patients had COPD and presented a bronchial infection defined as the presence of at least 2 of the 3 criteria defined by Anthonisen. Patients were randomly assigned to group F or group P. Group F received an antibiotic therapy from day 1 to day 11 plus fenspiride (3 x 80mg/d from day 0 to day 30). Group P received the same antibiotic therapy plus placebo. Amoxicillin 500mg plus clavulanic acid 125, 3 tablets/day, was administered in both groups. Thirty-nine patients were included (group F 19 patients, group P 20 patients; 6 women and 33 men; mean age 61.1 +/- 9.8 years). The 3 Anthonisen criteria were present in 79% and 75% of the patients in group F and P respectively (NS). On day 11, expectoration resolved in 39% and 32% (NS) and cough in 44% and 16% (NS) of the patients in groups F and P respectively. Lung auscultation returned to normal in 83% of the patients in group F compared with 47% in group P (p=0.05). A composite clinical score including expectoration cough and auscultation findings showed that 28% of the patients in group F were symptom-free on day 11 compared with 0% in group P (p=0.04). On day 30, the two groups were comparable. In this preliminary study of patients with COPD presenting a bronchial superinfection, there was a significant improvement in lung auscultation and in the composite clinical score in patients given fenspiride. Fenspiride was thus found to

  5. Use of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in stopping massive hemoptysis at the Lung Center of the Philippines: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Armand Gregorio C; Danguilan, Jose Luis J; Mariano, Zenaida M; Barzaga, Maria Teresa A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of using autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in patients having massive hemoptysis within a period of one week. This is a prospective cohort study involving 20 consecutive patients admitted who met the criteria for massive hemoptysis from July to October 2011. After stabilizing the patient, fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) was performed for localization of bleeding within 6 hours from diagnosis. A 50mL of blood was extracted from the patient whom was to be used for autologous PRP concentrate. After identifying the anatomic site of bleeding, autologous PRP concentrate was instilled on the affected bronchus and was allowed to stay for 5 minutes after instillation. Patients were then monitored from the time the bleeding stopped in the first 24 hours, 2 days and 7 days respectively. Mean age of the study population with massive hemoptysis was 47 years old (SD 17.3). Majority of cases were male 18 out of 20 (90%) and smokers 14 (70%) with a normal BMI (75%). Identification of bleeding site was more commonly seen on the right upper lobe 9 out of 20 (45%). Overall, 14 out of 20 patients (70%) were reported to have stopped bleeding immediately. Subsequent hospital days showed that 8 out of 20 patients (40%) had no hemoptysis. However, one [1] post-tuberculosis (TB) bronchiectatic patient had recurrence of massive hemoptysis, approximately 250 mL per expectorate, expired within the 7 days observation and one patient had lobectomy on the 2nd day. The rest had non-massive hemoptysis wherein their expectorations were only streaks of blood. Moreover, there was one [1] patient who had recurrence of massive hemoptysis 1 week after autologous PRP infusion and was eventually intubated. Majority of the subjects, eleven [11] were diagnosed to have post-TB bronchiectasis. The rest of the patients were worked-up prior to operation. Overall, it was observed that the use of autologous PRP was able to stop bleeding in 40% of the study

  6. [IgG4-related lung disease: analysis of 8 cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, G J; Hu, H; Mao, D; Bai, X; She, D Y; Zhao, S F; Wen, Z L; Gao, J

    2017-03-12

    Objective: To improve the understanding and treatment of IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD). Methods: The clinical characteristics, serum IgG4 levels, pathological features, chest CT, therapy and prognosis of 8 patients with IgG4-RLD were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were admitted to the People's Liberation Army General Hospital and the pathological diagnosis was made between December 2005 and March 2016. Relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: The 8 patients with IgG4-RLD included 4 men and 4 women, with an average age of (59±4) years (range, 37-74). The respiratory symptoms included shortness of breath, cough, and expectoration. Extra-pulmonary symptoms included abdominal pain, facial edema, and fever. Extrapulmonary organs were involved in 7 cases. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated in 8 cases, with an average concentration of(17±6)g/L. Chest CT showed solid lung nodules in 6, alveolar-interstitial infiltration in 5, bronchovascular lesions in 3 and ground glass shadows in 2 cases. PET/CT was performed in 2 cases and it showed multiple organ involvement with higher radioactivity uptake(SUVmax2.9-4.2). The pathological examination found lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration in 7, fibrous tissue hyperplasia in 5, and occlusive vasculitis in 2 cases. On immunohistochemical staining, the ratio of IgG4-positive plasma cells to IgG-positive plasma cells was higher than 40%in 3 cases. The number of IgG4-positive plasma cells was 10-50/HP in 8 cases. The misdiagnosis rate was 100% before the final diagnosis was made. Three cases received glucocorticoids with immunosuppressant therapy, 2 received surgery combined with glucocorticoid therapy, 2 received glucocorticoid therapy alone, and 1 only received surgery. The follow-up time was 4-132 months, with remission in 7 cases, and disease progression in 1 case, but no death. A total of 195 cases of IgG4-RLD were reviewed from the literature, among whom 111 cases were admitted with respiratory symptoms

  7. Effects of Ferula assa-foetida extract on spermatogenesis of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula assa-foetida is an herbaceous perennial plant which belongs to Apiaceae family. It is native to the east and central parts of Iran. This old traditional medicine has been used as antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, sedative, stimulant, emmenagogue and vermifuge. In addition to the several therapeutic effects of the plant, it is known as an aphrodisiac herb traditionally; therefore, the present study has evaluated the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of F. assa-foetida on spermatogenesis of rats. Methods: The seeds of the plant (500 g were identified and extracted by aqueous ethanol 80% using maceration methods (3×48 h.Adult male rats (6 weeks were orally treated with 50 mg/kg body weight of extract for 6 weeks. The extract was dispersed in distilled water. Control group received distilled water for the same duration. Some fertility parameters including sperm count, morphology and mobility of sperms with serum levels of testosterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH were evaluated using immunoassay methods.  Results: Sperm parameters and levels of testosterone and LH were significantly improved in the treated group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results revealed that extract of F. assa-foetida significantly (p

  8. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra

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    Swapna S. Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice has been used since ages as expectorant, antitussive and demulcent. G. glabra has been indicated in Ayurveda as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of respiratory infections and tuberculosis. Aims: To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of G. glabra by in vitro techniques. Methods: The anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity was determined by Resazurin Microtiter Plate Assay (REMA and colony count method. Further, the anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra was determined in human macrophage U937 cell lines and was compared against that of the standard drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: G. glabra extract showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, when evaluated by REMA/colony count methods and in U937 human macrophage cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity of the extract was comparable to those of standard drugs. It was observed that the extract showed time and concentration dependent antimycobacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals that G. glabra extract has promising anti-tubercular activity by preliminary in vitro techniques and in U937 macrophage cell line. Therefore, it has the definite potential to be developed as an affordable, cost-effective drug against tuberculosis.

  9. Two cases of Schizophyllum asthma: is this a new clinical entity or a precursor of ABPM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-10-01

    There is a close link between fungal sensitization and asthma severity. Although Schizophyllum commune (S. commune, "suehirotake" in Japanese), one of the basidiomycetous (BM) fungi, is a fungus that can cause allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) and allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS), whether the fungus causes or sensitizes subjects to asthma is unclear. The bronchial provocation test using S. commune antigen was performed in two asthmatics who had demonstrated positive skin reactions to the S. commune antigen, and low dose of itraconazole (50 mg/day) was prescribed as an adjunctive therapy for 2 weeks. The allergological features and clinical manifestations of these patients are herein evaluated and discussed. Case 1 was a 71-year-old female, and case 2 was a 69-year-old male. Both patients demonstrated positive reactions to the inhalation test. A diagnosis of AFS or ABPM was excluded in both patients because of the lack of a history of pulmonary infiltrates, central bronchiectasis, a history of expectoration of brown plugs or flecks, or sinusoidal findings. Although the efficacy of itraconazole in our cases was unclear, the elevated titer of the specific IgG-for S. commune in case 2 gradually decreased during the period of antifungal therapy. The two patients described herein were diagnosed to have bronchial asthma caused by S. commune; so-called Schizophyllum asthma. S. commune may also be a causative fungal antigen of bronchial asthma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on Chromatographic Fingerprint and Fingerprinting Profile-Efficacy Relationship of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba

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    Li Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygoni Perfoliati Herba is widely used in China with antibacterium, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antitumor, and antivirus activities. To reveal the mechanisms of the activities of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba, the relationship between the fingerprinting profile and its bioactivities was investigated. In the present study, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC fingerprinting method was developed. The established method was applied to analyze 51 batches of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba samples collected from different locations or in different harvesting times in China. Chemometrics, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis, were used to express their similarities. It was found that similarity values of the samples were in the range of 0.432–0.998. The results of analgesic tests indicated that Polygoni Perfoliati Herba could significantly inhibit pain induced by hot plate and acetic acid in mice. The results of anti-inflammatory tests showed that Polygoni Perfoliati Herba had good anti-inflammatory effects (P < 0.01 in two models including dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced peritoneal permeability in mice. Combining the results from chromatographic fingerprints with those from bioactivities, we found that seven peaks from Polygoni Perfoliati Herba were mainly responsible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. What's in and what's out in branding? A novel articulation effect for brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Zürn, Michael; Schneider, Iris K

    2015-01-01

    The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA), or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA). These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards), which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards), which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261), participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1), reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2), and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a-3c, 4, 5), with the price gain amounting to 4-13% of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5).

  12. Microscopic Analysis and Quality Assessment of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia in the PERCH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, David R; Morpeth, Susan C; Hammitt, Laura L; Driscoll, Amanda J; Watson, Nora L; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Feikin, Daniel R; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; O'Brien, Katherine L; Scott, J Anthony G; Thea, Donald M; Ahmed, Dilruba; Awori, Juliet O; DeLuca, Andrea N; Ebruke, Bernard E; Higdon, Melissa M; Jorakate, Possawat; Karron, Ruth A; Kazungu, Sidi; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Hossain, Lokman; Makprasert, Sirirat; Moore, David P; Mudau, Azwifarwi; Mwaba, John; Panchalingam, Sandra; Park, Daniel E; Prosperi, Christine; Salaudeen, Rasheed; Toure, Aliou; Zeger, Scott L; Howie, Stephen R C

    2017-06-15

    It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. We evaluated induced sputum Gram stain smears and cultures from hospitalized children aged 1-59 months enrolled in a large study of community-acquired pneumonia. We hypothesized that a specimen representative of the lower respiratory tract will contain smaller quantities of oropharyngeal flora and be more likely to have a predominance of potential pathogens compared to a specimen containing mainly saliva. The prevalence of potential pathogens cultured from induced sputum specimens and quantity of oropharyngeal flora were compared for different quantities of SECs and PMNs. Of 3772 induced sputum specimens, 2608 (69%) had 25 PMNs per LPF, measures traditionally associated with specimens from the lower respiratory tract in adults. Using isolation of low quantities of oropharyngeal flora and higher prevalence of potential pathogens as markers of higher quality, 25 PMNs per LPF) was the microscopic variable most associated with high quality of induced sputum. Quantity of SECs may be a useful quality measure of induced sputum from young children with pneumonia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Sarcoidosis and multiple myeloma: Concurrent presentation of an unusual association

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    Vidya Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature on concurrent association of sarcoidosis with lymphoproliferative malignancies other than lymphoma e.g. multiple myeloma is meager. The rarity of the situation prompted us to report this patient who was a 51-year-old woman with a 2-years history of breathlessness, cough with expectoration, chest pain and backache. Initial evaluation revealed mild anemia, increased alkaline phosphatase with chest skiagram showing both lower zone non homogenous opacities with calcified hilar lymph nodes. CECT chest showed mediastinal with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, parenchymal fibrosis, traction bronchiectasis, ground glass opacities, septal and peribronchovascular thickening affecting mid and lower lung zones bilaterally. MRI Dorsolumbar spine was suggestive of marrow infiltrative disorder. EBUS FNA of intrathoracic nodes, EBB and TBLB confirmed sarcoidosis. PET CT revealed hyper metabolic activity in lung, multiple lymph nodes and lytic bone lesions. Serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation revealed a monoclonal paraprotein, immunoglobulin IgG kappa type. Bone marrow biopsy revealed an increase in plasma cells (15%, but no granulomas. Diagnosis of Indolent or multiple myeloma with sarcoidosis was established. 12 cases of sarcoidosis and multiple myeloma have been reported in literature, and mostly preceding the onset of multiple myeloma by many years, in our case both were diagnosed concurrently.

  14. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content of wild Alhagi maurorum root plant extracts

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    Fuad AL-RIMAWI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alhagi maurorum, belonging to family Leguminosae, is a highly branched spiny shrub. Roots may reach up to the depth of 15 meters. Alhagi maurorum is used in folk medicine, as a purgative, diaphoretic, expectorant and diuretic used to treat piles, migraine, warts and rheumatism. Samples of the root of Alhagi maurorum plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents; water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity (AA. Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC, while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was highest in the following order: 80% ethanol >100% ethanol >water

  15. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

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    Monika Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient’s symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50% was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17% and C. dubliniensis (12.5%. Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each, and C. kefyr (3%. Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  16. MUCOLYTIC AGENTS IN PEDIATRICS: RATIONAL SELECTION, THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS AND SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT

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    O. I. Simonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cough treatment options with mucolytic agents administration at the first several days of acute respiratory tract infections in children. Efficacy of treatment with secretolytic and secretomotoric drugs significantly depends on certain factors. The article contains the criteria of therapeutic efficacy of expectorants. A special attention is given to N-acetylcysteine — a direct acting mucolytic agent, which effect is caused by presence of free sulfhydryl groups, disrupting disulfide bonds between molecules of acid mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins therefore changing the structure of sputum. Acetylcysteine is active against every type of sputum (mucous, muco-purulent, purulent, that is especially important in treatment of bacterial infections, when it is necessary to quickly decrease sputum thickness, eliminate it from the respiratory tract and prevent dissemination of the infection. High efficacy of acetylcysteine is caused by its unique triple action: mucolytic, antioxidant and antitoxic. Mechanism of action of acetylcysteine is discussed in detail. Timely administered treatment will improve sputum discharge and therefore eliminate one of the main factors of bronchial obstruction and decrease the risk of microbial colonization of the respiratory tract. The article also includes indications, contraindications and dosage regimens of acetylcysteine in children. The most common mistakes and specific aspects of mucolytic drugs in pediatrics are listed in the conclusion. 

  17. Gum chewing improves swallow frequency and latency in Parkinson patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Angela R; Somers, Stephanie M; Jog, Mandar S

    2010-04-13

    Reduced swallowing frequency affects secretion management in Parkinson disease (PD). Gum chewing increases saliva flow and swallow frequency. This study uses chewing gum to modify swallow frequency and latency between swallows in patients with PD. 1) Assess the frequency and latency of swallow at baseline (BL), during gum chewing (GC), and post gum chewing (PGC) for participants with PD (stage 2-4) nonsymptomatic for prandial dysphagia; and 2) assess carryover after gum is expectorated. Twenty participants were studied across 3 tasks, each of 5 minutes in duration: BL, GC, and PGC. Respiratory and laryngeal signals were continuously recorded using PowerLab (version 5.5.5; ADI Instruments, Castle Hill, Australia). Frequency and latency of swallow events were calculated. Differences (analysis of variance) are reported for frequency (p Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that chewing gum increases swallow frequency and decreases latency of swallowing in an experiment in patients with stage 2 to 4 Parkinson disease who are nonsymptomatic for significant prandial dysphagia.

  18. Orange-Pigmented Sputum as a Manifestation of Smoke Grenade Inhalation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzivasiloglou, Fotini; Katsenos, Stamatis; Psara, Anthoula; Tsintiris, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old man presented with scanty hemoptysis, orange-colored expectoration, and mild dyspnea. He was in an enclosed building taking part in a military training exercise inhaling an orange-colored smoke from a smoke grenade ignition. His symptoms developed immediately after the initial exposure but he sought medical assistance 20 hours later because of their persistence. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed revealing diffuse inflammatory tracheobronchial tree with streaky orange-pigmented secretions in the trachea and both main-stem bronchi. Acute tracheobronchitis was diagnosed and the patient was treated with nebulized bronchodilators and intravenous corticosteroids showing complete recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of inhalation injury induced by a smoke bomb explosion including potassium chlorate oxidizer and Sudan I and presenting with orange-pigmented sputum production. Smoke inhalation injury is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The heterogeneity of the smoke and the large variety of the resulting symptoms may be the reason why a definition, specific diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic guidelines are still lacking.

  19. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

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    Charles S. Brennan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

  20. Study on blood supply of lung metastasis with trans-pulmonary arterial lipiodol infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianqin; Dong Weihua; Dong Weihua; Ouyang Chang; Chang Heng; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the blood supply of pulmonary metastases using small volume of lipiodol through pulmonary arterial infusion. Methods: 10 cases of lung metastasis were enroled including the primary tumors of liver cancer (n=5), renal carcinoma (n=3), chordoma (n=1) and malignant neurofibroma (n=1). Plain CT scan was performed to exclude calcification or ossification within metastasis and then pulmonary arterial DSA was undertaken to evaluate tumor vessels or staining. After pulmonary arteriovenous fistula or other anomalous circulation was excluded by lobar arterial DSA, small volume of lipiodol was infused under fluoroscopy (0.5-1.5 ml for each lobar artery, total volume less than 3.0 ml). CT scan was immediately performed. Blood supply of the pulmonary metastases was assessed according to the accumulation of lipiodol on CT scans. Results: No cases but one experienced cough, expectoration, suffocating or dyspnea. No complication of cerebral or visceral embolism occurred. Totally 27 nodules were studied including 6 nodules with cloudy lipiodol accumulation and 6 nodules with tiny granules of lipiodol accumulation. No enlarged tumor vessel or tumor stain was observed within all 27 nodules on pulmonary arterial DSA. Conclusions: Pulmonary artery supplys only parts of pulmonary metastases, especially those sited at the peripheral region of the lung. Infusion of small volume of lipiodol through pulmonary artery is safe, and the increased density of lung field could return normal after several days. (authors)

  1. The spatiotemporal organization of cilia activity drives multiscale circular flows of mucus in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Etienne; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Viallat, Annie

    2017-11-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The bronchial epithelium is the first barrier to protect the respiratory tract via an innate mechanism called mucociliary clearance. It consists in the active transport of a sticky fluid, the mucus, via a myriad of cilia at the epithelial surface of the airways. The mucus traps inhaled pathogens and the protective role of the mucociliary clearance relies on the ability of the cilia to self-organize and coordinate their beating to transport the mucus over the full bronchial tree till its elimination through swallowing or expectoration. Despite a rich corpus of clinical studies, chronic respiratory diseases remain poorly understood and quantitative biophysical studies are still missing. Here we will present the physical mechanisms underlying the mucociliary transport. We will show how the cilia self-organize during the ciliogenesis and how the coordination of their beating direction leads to the formation of fluid flow patterns at the macroscopic scale. Finally, we will discuss the role of long range hydrodynamics interactions in this intricate coupled system. ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 and European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant agreement n. PCOFUND-GA-2013-609102.

  2. [Therapeutic efficacy and general tolerability of 4-carbomethoxythiazolidine chlorohydrate in a double-blind crossover experiment on chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, E

    1990-01-01

    The Authors describe a test performed on 20 hospitalized patients aged between 22 and 80, suffering from obstruent chronic broncho-pneumopathy. The test has been performed according to a double-blind pattern; each patient has been treated according to the 10-day long randomized scheme with one of the two drugs N-acetyl-L-cysteine, 4-carbomethoxythiazolidine. After a 7-day wash-out the patient has been treated with the other drug for a further period of 10 days. All patients have been administered both products at a dosage of 200 mg. three times a day. Every day following values have been registered: arterial pressure, body temperature; subjective and objective symptomatology relieves: cough, cephalea, asthenia, sibiluses, rhoncuses, rales, inspiratory and expiratory dyspnea. Furthermore before and after the treatment the quantity and the quality of the expectorate in order is evaluate the biologic tolerance of the examined drugs, before and after each treatment the following haematochemical and urinary tests have been performed: VES, azotemia, glycemia, SGOT, SGPT, LDH, alkaline phospatase, total and direct bilirubinaemia, prothrombinic activity, complete chemical analysis of urines. As shown in Tab. I-IX, a global analysis of the results proves that 4-carbomethoxythiazolidine is a very well-tolerated drug without any negative side-effect. As far as its therapeutic efficacy is concerned we can say that the mucolitic activity of 4-carbomethoxythiazolidine is the some of that of N-acetyl-L-cysteine.

  3. A neglected problem of developing countries: Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babayigit, Arzu; Olmez Duygu; Uzuner Nevin; Cakmakci, Handan; Tuncel Tuba; Karaman Ozkan

    2009-01-01

    Bronchiectasis has been defined as the abnormal and permanent dilation of the bronchi. It is still an important problem in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the chacteristics and underlying etiology of children followed with the diagnosis of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Children with bronchiectasis confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled into the study. The data of the patients, including symptoms of the disease, age at the onset of symptoms, findings of physical examination, labrotory investigations performed in order to identify the etiology of bronchiectasis, etiology of bronchiectasis if found, radiologic findings and treatment modalities were noted. Sixty-six children between 1 and 17 years were included in the study retrospectively. Forty-four of them were males (66.7%) and 22 (33.3%) were females. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (100%) and sputum expectoration (50%). An underlying etiology was identified in 44 (66.7%) of the study subjects. The four most common underlying causes were found as infections (21.2%), asthma (16.7%), aspiration syndromes and/or gastroesophageal reflux disease (9.1%) and immunodeficiency syndromes (7.6%), respectively. Identifying an underlying etiology will have a significant effect on the management of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Defining the cause of bronchiectasis may also decrease its incidence, progression and complications. (author)

  4. Lung cancer, brucellosis and tuberculosis: remarkable togetherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Emin Akkoyunlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 68 years old male farmer referred with cough, expectorating sputum, intermittant fever, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia persisting for two weeks. There was a history of 80 packs each year of smoking and he was still an active smoker. Pneumonectomy was performed because of pulmonary epidermoid cancer and he received chemotherapy. He was diagnosed lung tuberculosis and using anti-tuberculous treatment for 4 months. He had a weight loss of 8 kg in last month. His body tempereature was 38.5 °C. Heart rate was 100/min. ESR was 51mm/h and CRP was 5.6 mg/ dL. There was no proliferation in blood and sputum cultures. Three sputum specimens were examined and AFB wasn’t detected. Fibronodular infiltration was seen in right lower zone of chest X-ray. In thorax CT, fibronodular densities were seen in lower lobe anterior and posterior segments. Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood culture. Second bronchoscopy was performed with suspect of brucellosis pneumonia. Brucella tube agglutination test was positive at titer 1/320 in the bronchial lavage fluid and 1/640 in concurrent serum sample. In cases with chronic cough or pneumonia which is irresponsive to nonspecific antibiotherapy, respiratory brucellosis must be rememberred in endemic areas.

  5. [Asthma at acute attack stage treated with "Shao's five needling therapy": a multi-central randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Su-Ju; Quan, Chun-Fen; Shao, Su-Xia; Zhou, Miao; Jing, Xin-Jian; Zhao, Yu-Xiao; Ren, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Pei-Yu; Gao, Xi-Yan; Yang, Jie; Ren, Zhong; Kong, Li

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of asthma at acute attack stage treated with "Shao's five needling therapy". The randomized controlled method was applied to divide 210 cases into an observation group and a control group, 105 cases in each one. In the observation group, "Shao's five needling therapy" [Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui (GV 14), Fengmen (BL 12)] and the combined therapy were adopted, including oxygen uptake, aerosol inhalation and oral administration of prednisone. In the control group, the oral administration of theophylline sustained release tablet and the combined therapy were applied. The treatment was continued for 7 days. The clinical symptoms and physical signs such as wheezing, cough, expectoration, chest stuffiness, wheezing rale and shortness of breath, as well as lung function indices such as forced expiratory volume one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were observed before and after treatment in the two groups. In the observation group, 69 cases were cured clinically, 20 cases effective remarkably, 7 cases effective and 0 case failed. In the control group, 49 cases were cured clinically, 31 cases effective remarkably, 15 cases effective and 0 case failed. The difference in the efficacy was significant in comparison of the two groups (P asthma at acute attack stage. It significantly relieves the symptoms and physical signs of the patients and improves lung functions. The effect is better than that of theophylline sustained release tablet.

  6. Is there light at the end of the tunnel; symptoms and chest x-ray help identify patients at high risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toori, K.U.; Nomani, A.Z.; Winson, M.; Rehman, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Late recognition of lung cancer is the major factor contributing towards its unsuccessful treatment. We conducted a prospective study to define any significant relationship of presenting symptoms with the diagnosis of lung cancer with a view to develop a model to identify those at high risk. Methods: A consecutive series of 587 patients referred to our rapid access chest clinic with the suspicion of lung cancer were included. The presenting symptoms, chest x-ray findings and final diagnosis of all the patients were recorded. Chi-square and t-test were used for univariate analysis. A model was generated from logistic regression analysis and the discriminatory power of the model was assessed using area under receiver operator characteristic curve. Results: Univariate analysis demonstrated that smoking, anorexia, weight loss and voice change were significantly more common in patients with lung cancer (p<0.05). Cough, expectoration and hemoptysis were significantly less common (p<0.05). Regression analysis qualified age, weight loss and smoking as significant predictors of lung cancer. Conclusion: Only few of the historically accepted symptoms demonstrated a strong association with lung cancer and the model developed on these can form basis for a scoring tool that can perhaps help identify those at higher risk of cancer. Further refinement of the tool is required to accommodate cases presenting at primary care level. (author)

  7. Impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on chewing efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    BESSADET, Marion; NICOLAS, Emmanuel; SOCHAT, Marine; HENNEQUIN, Martine; VEYRUNE, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Removable partial denture prostheses are still being used for anatomic, medical and economic reasons. However, the impact on chewing parameters is poorly described. Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on masticatory parameters. Material and Methods Nineteen removable partial denture prosthesis (RPDP) wearers participated in the study. Among them, 10 subjects were Kennedy Class III partially edentulous and 9 with posterior edentulism (Class I). All presented a complete and full dentate opposing arch. The subjects chewed samples of carrots and peanuts with and without their prosthesis. The granulometry of the expectorated boluses from carrot and peanuts was characterized by median particle size (D50), determined at the natural point of swallowing. Number of chewing cycles (CC), chewing time (CT) and chewing frequency (CF=CC/CT) were video recorded. Results With RPDP, the mean D50 values for carrot and peanuts were lower [Repeated Model Procedures (RMP), F=15, p<0.001] regardless of the type of Kennedy Class. For each food, mean CC, CT and CF values recorded decreased (RMP, F=18, F=9, and F=20 respectively, p<0.01). With or without RPD, the boluses' granulometry values were above the masticatory normative index (MNI) determined as 4,000 µm. Conclusion RPDP rehabilitation improves the ability to reduce the bolus particle size, but does not reestablish fully the masticatory function. Clinical relevance This study encourages the clinical improvement of oral rehabilitation procedure. PMID:24212983

  8. Effect of Microwave Cured Acrylic Resin on Candidal Growth in Complete denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmy, A.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of heat-cured acrylic resin denture base and microwave-cured acrylic resin denture base on Candidal growth. Seven completely edentulous male patients with no history of denture wearing participated in this study. All the selected patients were re-habilitated by mucosa supported complete dentures. The dentures were constructed from conventional heat-cured acrylic resin denture base following monoplane concept of occlusion. Before dismissing the patients and one month after denture insertion, salivary samples were collected according to oral rinse technique. One month resting period was allowed so as Candidal count can reach to normal. Then dentures were re based using microwave-cured acrylic denture base, before denture insertion and one month after denture insertion, salivary sample were collected before and one month following the same oral rinse technique. In the oral rinse technique, the patients were instructed to rinse their mouths with 10 mL of sterile phosphate buffered saline for 60 seconds. The rinse was then expectorated into a universal container and immediately transported to the laboratory for concentration by centrifugation, then cultured on sabouraud's dextrose agar plates which were incubated at 37 degree C for 48 hours. Microscopic examination and germ tube test were carried out for laboratory investigations. In addition, the morphological features of the isolated Candida from the samples tested in this study, were investigated using the scanning electron microscope(SEM)

  9. Spectroscopic, structural and drug docking studies of carbocysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, M.; Rajeshwaran, K.; Govindhan, R.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2017-09-01

    Carbocysteine or carbocisteine having the empirical formula C5H9NO4S,is one of the most therapeutically prescribed expectorant, sold under the brand name viz., Mucodyne (UK and India), Rhinathiol and Mucolite. In pediatric respiratory pathology, it can relieve the symptoms of obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. On the consideration of its extensive pharmaceutical usage and medicinal value, we have investigated its chemical structure and composition by employing various spectral techniques like 1H, 13C NMR, FT-IR,Raman, UV-Visible spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction method. Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) studies on its electronic structure is also carried out. Drug docking studies were carried out to ascertain the nature of molecular interaction with the biological protein system. Furthermore theoretical Raman spectrum of this molecule has been computed and compared with the experimental Raman spectrum. The forbidden energy gap between its frontier molecular orbitals, viz., HOMO-LUMO is calculated and correlated with its observed λmax value. Atomic orbitals which are mainly contributes to the frontier molecular orbitals were identified. Molecular electrostatic potential diagram has been mapped to explain its chemical activity. Based on the results, a suitable mechanism of its protein binding mode and drug action has been discussed.

  10. Drug resistance detection and mutation patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis strains from children in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Arora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 312 sputum samples from pediatric patients presumptive of multidrug resistant tuberculosis were tested for the detection of drug resistance using the GenoTypeMTBDRplus assay. A total of 193 (61.8% patients were smear positive and 119 (38.1% were smear negative by Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Line probe assay (LPA was performed for 208 samples/cultures (193 smear positive samples and 15 cultures from smear negative samples. Valid results were obtained from 198 tests. Of these, 125/198 (63.1% were sensitive to both rifampicin (RIF and isoniazid (INH. 73/198 (36.9% were resistant to at least INH/RIF, out of which 49 (24.7% were resistant to both INH and RIF (multidrug resistant. Children with tuberculosis are often infected by someone close to them, so strengthening of contact tracing in the program may help in early diagnosis to identify additional cases within the household. There is a need to evaluate newer diagnostic assays which have a high sensitivity in the case of smear negative samples, additional samples other than sputum among young children not able to expectorate, and also to fill the gap between estimated and reported cases under the program.

  11. Influence of Polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Liliaceae on Mechanically Induced Cough in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šutovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants have been reported to be a source of polysaccharides that possess a great variety of biological activities, including cough suppression. The experiments were aimed on the influence of two polysaccharides isolated from the gel (A, HF1-Z and one from the epidermis (SL-1 of Aloe vera leaves, characterized by chemical composition and structural properties, on the cough reflex. The method of mechanically induced cough was used in conscious cats. A nylon fibre directed individually into the mucous area of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial airways via endotracheal cannula elicited the cough reflex. Statistical evaluation registered cough reflex indicators (number of cough efforts - NE, cough frequency - NE min–1 intensity of cough attacks during expiration and inspiration - IA+ and IA-, intensity of maximal inspiratory and expiratory cough efforts - IME- and IME+ showed that gel polysaccharide HF1-Z possessed higher cough-suppressing activity than dropropizine, a nonnarcotic peripheral cough suppressant. Their antitussive activity was accompanied mainly with a decrease of NE, IA+ and IA- from both laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of the airways. Results of the presented study also showed minimal influence of polysaccharide HF1-Z on expectoration predictor, IME- and IME+. New pharmacodynamic property of polysaccharides isolated from Aloe vera was shown during experiments, which could be a base of their possible therapeutic use in this indication in future.

  12. Isolated Unilateral Absent Branch Pulmonary Artery with Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Abhishek B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated Unilateral Absent Pulmonary Artery (UAPA is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually associated with congenital heart defects. A 45 year old male patient presented with complaints of fever with cough and expectoration for 15 days and retrosternal chest discomfort for the previous 2 days. ECG showed diffuse ST segment depression with T wave inversion in the inferior and lateral leads. Coronary Angiogram done through the right femoral approach revealed diffusely diseased Left Anterior Descending (LAD artery that was totally cut off at the mid segment. The Left Circumflex (LCx artery was providing blood supply to the right middle and lower lung areas. There was another collateral arising from the Left Subclavian Artery supplying the right middle and lower lung areas. The left pulmonary artery was normal, but branches supplying the middle and lower lobes of the right lung were absent and the upper lobe branch had pulmonary stenosis. UAPA is a rare clinical entity; collaterals from coronaries are extremely rare in this condition and till now there has not been any case report of unilateral absent branch pulmonary artery with peripheral stenosis of other branches, on the affected side and associated coronary artery disease.

  13. Therapeutic embolization in pulmonary hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author's purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic embolization in pulmonary hemorrage performed with fibrin foam (Spongostan) suspended in sclerosing agents (hidroxy-poliethoxy-dodecano 3%, or natrium morruate 5%), and electrocoagulation (Bitrol, spa) as an alternative to surgery. Twenty patients were embolized: 17 with fibrin foam and sclerosing agents only, 2 with the addition of electrocoagulation and a Gianturco coil respectively, and 1 with electrocoagulation alone. The follow-up ranges from 3 to 42 months (average 22). A patient affected by aspergilloma died a few days after hemoptysis. The patient treated by electrocoagulation alone suffers from periodical hematic expectoration (spitting). The remaining 18 patients have not shown any pathological findings. In 2 cases the arterial occlusion was confirmed by angiography, while in 1 case partial arterial recanalization was observed. Such a finding was due to the vessel dimensions and to hyperflux values. In similar cases, obstruction must be completed different techniques (e.g. Gianturco coils, electrocoagulation, detachable balloons, etc.). The absence of flux resulting from embolization improves electrocoagulation efficiency, which should be considered as the technique of choice. Even though additional trials are needed, the techniques have proven quite reliable and suitable to replace surgery in low-aggression lesions

  14. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barja, P R; Coelho, C C; Paiva, R F [Research and Development Institute, UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M A; Matos, L C; Matos, C C B [Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, L V F, E-mail: barja@univap.b [Rehabilitation Sciences Master' s Program, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called 'secretor' and 'non secretor' phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t{sub 0} (typical interaction time) and {Delta}t (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  15. [Costs estimation of tuberculosis cases detection. La Habana Vieja Municipality, Cuba. 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Pérez, Mariana; Gálvez González, Ana M; González Ochoa, Edilberto

    2007-01-01

    The Cuban Tuberculosis Control Program has been able to significantly reduce the tuberculosis cases incidence in all its forms. La Habana Vieja municipality has maintained the highest incidence in Havana City province during 5 years and one of the highest in the country. To estimate the cost of Tuberculosis cases detection in Habana Vieja municipality, in the year 2002. A descriptive retrospective study to estimate the costs with social perspective was carried out. The costs of cases detection and their departures in health facilities were considered. For patients with cough/expectoration > or =14 days (RS+14) the pocket expense and monetary losses for labour absences were considered. Costs were expressed in equivalent Cuban pesos to American dollars (1 CUC = 1 USD). Information from official records in health institutions and from interviews to workers and RS+14 was obtained. Social cost of tuberculosis cases detection for an RS+14 was in average 24,11 CUC, and institutional cost was 12,55; for clinical investigation 0.37; for sputum smear microscopy 2,25; for culture 7,05; for thorax X-ray 1,67; for notification 3,07; and for registering 0,36. The biggest costs were observed in sputum smear microscopies and cultures performance; salaries and reagents were the issues contributing more in that cost. The results obtained in this study could be extrapolated to other municipalities in the country with social and economic conditions similar to La Habana Vieja.

  16. Impact of multidetector CT-angiography on the emergency management of severe hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalumeau-Lemoine, Ludivine [Service de Pneumologie et Réanimation, Hôpital Tenon, HUEP, APHP, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Khalil, Antoine, E-mail: antoine_khalil@yahoo.fr [Service de Radiologie, Hôpital Tenon, HUEP, APHP, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Pathological Angiogenesis and Vessel Normalization, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, CNRS UMR 7241/INSERM U1050, Collège de France, Paris (France); Prigent, Hélène [Service de Pneumologie et Réanimation, Hôpital Tenon, HUEP, APHP, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Carette, Marie-France [Service de Radiologie, Hôpital Tenon, HUEP, APHP, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI (France); Fartoukh, Muriel [Service de Pneumologie et Réanimation, Hôpital Tenon, HUEP, APHP, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI (France); Parrot, Antoine [Service de Pneumologie et Réanimation, Hôpital Tenon, HUEP, APHP, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France)

    2013-11-01

    Background: Multidetector CT-angiography (MDCTA) is commonly used in patients with severe haemoptysis requiring admission to intensive care unit. However, the impact of MDCTA on the management of severe haemoptysis in emergency setting is poorly evaluated. Methods: We prospectively compared data provided by clinical bedside evaluation (clinical examination, chest-X-ray and fiberoptic bronchoscopy) to MDCTA data in terms of lateralization, location of the bleeding site, etiology as well as impact on the treatment choice. Results: Over a 13-month period, 87 patients (men n = 58, median age = 61 years, median haemoptysis expectorated volume = 180 mL) were included. Etiology was mainly (67%) bronchiectasis, tuberculosis sequelae and tumor. MDCTA and clinical bedside evaluation were equally effective in determining lateralization (87.4% and 93.1%, respectively, p = 0.23) and location (85% and 82.7%, respectively, p = 0.82) of the bleeding site. MDCTA was significantly more accurate than the clinical bedside strategy in determining the haemoptysis cause (86% and 70%, respectively, p = 0.007). Moreover, MDCTA suggested the involvement of systemic arteries as bleeding mechanism in 92% of cases, leading to the modification of the treatment initially considered after bedside evaluation in 21.8% of patients. Conclusion: MDCTA provides useful information for the management of patients with severe haemoptysis, especially in the treatment choice. Thus, in the absence of emergency fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) requirement for airways management, MDCTA should be the first-line procedure performed in emergency clinical setting.

  17. Evaluation of anti-arthritic potential of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Costus speciosus Koen. (Keu, Crape ginger, an ornamental plant, widely distributed in India is traditionally used as astringent, aphrodisiac, purgative, anthelmintic, depurative, febrifuge and expectorant. The plant is also used in rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases and jaundice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus (CS in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: The powdered drug was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity to obtain the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant. CS was evaluated for anti-arthritic action by Freund′s adjuvant induced arthritis test in adult Albino rats (150-200 gm. Rats were injected 0.1 ml of complete Freund′s adjuvant into the planter region of the left hind paw. Statistical analysis was performed using One way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferonni test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results : The methanolic extract of CS in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed 75.50% and 68.33% protection against increase in paw edema, respectively. CS showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models. Conclusion : The present study indicates that CS has significant anti-arthritic properties.

  18. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  19. Dioscin and methylprotodioscin isolated from the root of Asparagus cochinchinensis suppressed the gene expression and production of airway MUC5AC mucin induced by phorbol ester and growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jae; Park, Jin Sung; Yoon, Yong Pill; Shin, Ye Jin; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Hong, Jang-Hee; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Choong Jae

    2015-05-15

    The root of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. has been utilized as mucoregulators and expectorants for controlling the airway inflammatory diseases in folk medicine. We investigated whether dioscin and methylprotodioscin isolated from the root of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. suppress the gene expression and production of airway MUC5AC mucin induced by phorbol ester and growth factor. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with dioscin or methylprotodioscin for 30 min and then stimulated with EGF or PMA for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Production of MUC5AC mucin protein was measured by ELISA. (1) Dioscin and methylprotodioscin suppressed the expression of MUC5AC mucin gene induced by EGF or PMA; (2) dioscin suppressed the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by either EGF at 10(-5) M (p Asparagus cochinchinensis suppress the gene expression and production of MUC5AC mucin, by directly acting on airway epithelial cells, and the results are consistent with the traditional use of Asparagus cochinchinensis as remedy for diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. What's in and what's out in branding? A novel articulation effect for brand names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Zürn, Michael; Schneider, Iris K.

    2015-01-01

    The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA), or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA). These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards), which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards), which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261), participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1), reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2), and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a–3c, 4, 5), with the price gain amounting to 4–13% of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5). PMID:26029136

  1. A new ester coumarin from Ferula Persica wild, indigenous to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Janani, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Ferula persica wild (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran. It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

  2. [Respiratory infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in the adult population: description of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Jordi; López, Carla

    2013-08-17

    Respiratory infections of viral etiology are frequent in the adult population. Those caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are a little known entity. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adult patients with respiratory infection due to RSV. We performed a prospective study from October 2012 to March 2013 on respiratory infections caused by RSV. Viral detection was performed using a technique of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction genomic amplification in real time. We diagnosed 16 patients, 12 (75%) requiring hospitalization. Patients were grouped into immunocompromised (7 [43.7%]) and immunocompetent cases (9 cases 56.3%]). The first group included 3 patients with HIV infection (42.8%) and 4 hematologic patients (57.2%). The second group included those who had a baseline disease, 5 cases (55.5%), and those who lacked it, 4 cases (44.4%), and did not require hospitalization. The main clinical manifestations of patients prompting them to attend the Emergency Department were cough (50%), dyspnea (43.5%), fever (25%), expectoration (25%) and flu symptoms (25%). The most frequent diagnoses at discharge were pneumonia (37.5%) and flu syndrome (31.2%). Respiratory infections caused by RSV represent a rare condition that mainly affects immunocompromised patients. The underlying pathology determines the evolution of the process, which is favorable except in cases of severe immunosuppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro and in silico investigation of electrospun terbinafine hydrochloride-loaded buccal nanofibrous sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter; Daróczi, Tünde Beáta; Tóth, Gergő; Zelkó, Romána

    2016-11-30

    Terbinafine hydrochloride-loaded nanofibrous buccal films were formulated with the aim to improve the solubility and dissolution behavior; thus, the local effectiveness of the antifungal agent. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and chitosan polymer composites were selected as delivery base in order to enhance the mucoadhesion of the fibrous films. The dissolution of terbinafine hydrochloride was carried out applying a stainless steel disc assembly and the terbinafine concentration was determined by HPLC-MS in selective ion monitoring mode. The prediction of the absorption behavior of the prepared fibrous samples in the human oral cavity was modeled using GastroPlus™ software. The result indicates that the fibrous films enabled fast and complete dissolution of the active agent. The drug absorption from the oral cavity could be minimized by the employment of the proper oral transit model. Because of the limited absorption of terbinafine hydrochloride from the oral mucosa the formulation can be beneficial in local administration in the case of hold and expectorate administration mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of multidetector CT-angiography on the emergency management of severe hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalumeau-Lemoine, Ludivine; Khalil, Antoine; Prigent, Hélène; Carette, Marie-France; Fartoukh, Muriel; Parrot, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multidetector CT-angiography (MDCTA) is commonly used in patients with severe haemoptysis requiring admission to intensive care unit. However, the impact of MDCTA on the management of severe haemoptysis in emergency setting is poorly evaluated. Methods: We prospectively compared data provided by clinical bedside evaluation (clinical examination, chest-X-ray and fiberoptic bronchoscopy) to MDCTA data in terms of lateralization, location of the bleeding site, etiology as well as impact on the treatment choice. Results: Over a 13-month period, 87 patients (men n = 58, median age = 61 years, median haemoptysis expectorated volume = 180 mL) were included. Etiology was mainly (67%) bronchiectasis, tuberculosis sequelae and tumor. MDCTA and clinical bedside evaluation were equally effective in determining lateralization (87.4% and 93.1%, respectively, p = 0.23) and location (85% and 82.7%, respectively, p = 0.82) of the bleeding site. MDCTA was significantly more accurate than the clinical bedside strategy in determining the haemoptysis cause (86% and 70%, respectively, p = 0.007). Moreover, MDCTA suggested the involvement of systemic arteries as bleeding mechanism in 92% of cases, leading to the modification of the treatment initially considered after bedside evaluation in 21.8% of patients. Conclusion: MDCTA provides useful information for the management of patients with severe haemoptysis, especially in the treatment choice. Thus, in the absence of emergency fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) requirement for airways management, MDCTA should be the first-line procedure performed in emergency clinical setting

  5. Systematic chemical profiling of Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' by ultra-fast liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan-lin; Liu, Meng-hua; Hu, Jie-hui; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-03-01

    Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa', as the original plant of the traditional Chinese medicine "Huajuhong", has been used as antitussive and expectorant in clinic for thousands of years. The fruit epicarp and whole fruit of this plant were both literarily recorded and commonly used. In the present study, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling method was developed for rapid holistic quality evaluation of C. grandis 'Tomentosa', which laid basis for chemical comparison of two medicinal parts. As a result, forty-eight constituents, mainly belonging to flavonoids and coumarins, were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards and/or tentatively characterized by elucidating UV spectra, quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. Both of the epicarp and whole fruit samples were rich in flavonoids and coumarins, but major flavonoids contents in whole fruit were significantly higher than in epicarp (P<0.5). The proposed method could be useful in quality control and standardization of C. grandis 'Tomentosa' raw materials and its products. Results obtained in this study will provide a basis for quality assessment and further study in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenolics in Primula veris L. and P. elatior (L. Hill Raw Materials

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    Katarzyna Bączek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primula veris L. and Primula elatior (L. Hill represent medicinal plants used for the production of herbal teas and preparations with antioxidant and expectorant activity. Flowers and roots of both species possess the same biological activity. In the presented study, raw materials of wild growing P. veris and P. elatior were compared in terms of the content and composition of phenolic compounds using a fast and simple HPLC-DAD method. The study showed that flowers of both species were rich in flavonoids. However, P. veris flowers were characterized with a distinctly higher content of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, astragalin, and (+-catechin, whereas P. elatior occurred to be a richer source of rutoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Hyperoside was found exclusively in P. elatior flowers. Phenolic glycosides (primverin and primulaverin were identified only in the roots. Their content was about ten times higher in P. veris in comparison with P. elatior underground organs. The obtained results clearly show that both Primula species differ distinctly in terms of the content and composition of phenolic compounds. The compounds differentiating both species to the highest degree (hyperoside, in flowers, as well as primverin and primulaverin, in the roots may be useful chemical markers in the identification and evaluation of both species.

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTITUMOR, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS OF FIELD-GROWN AND IN VITRO-GROWN LYSIMACHIA VULGARIS L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Guner, Birgul; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2017-01-01

    Lysimachia vulgaris L. (Yellow loosestrife) is a medicinal plant in the family Myrsinaceae. It has been used in the treatment of fever, ulcer, diarrhea and wounds in folk medicine. It has also analgesic, expectorant, astringent and anti-inflammatory activities. Two different sources of the plant (field-grown and in vitro -grown) were used to evaluate the biological activities (antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant) of L. vulgaris. In vitro-grown plant materials were collected from L. vulgaris plants that were previously regenerated in our laboratory. Plant materials were extracted with water, ethanol and acetone. For antibacterial test, disc diffusion method and 10 different pathogenic bacteria were used. Antioxidant activity was indicated by using DPPH method. The total phenol amount by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu method and the total flavonoid amount by using aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) colorimetric method were determined. Generally, yellow loosestrife extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes) . Strong antitumor activity of yellow loosestrife was observed via potato disc diffusion bioassay. Nine different phenolics were also determined and compared by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Future investigations should be focused on fractionation of the extracts to identify active components for biological activity.

  8. Successful treatment of Reye's syndrome in a child (сase report

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    Tsymbalista O.L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old child with Reye's syndrome was successfully treated in the Department of Pediatric Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care of the Ivano-Frankivsk Regional Children's Clinical Hospital. At admission to the hospital the child's condition was critical due to cerebral vascular insufficiency (semicoma, psychomotor agitation, endogenous intoxication syndrome, severe anemic syndrome (Hb — 78g/l, and coagulopathy. Due to the progression of type II respiratory failure, hepatic failure, hemorrhagic and anemic syndromes, and cerebral deficit tracheal intubation for the purpose of controlled ventilation was performed. In order to correct anemia, hypoproteinemia and hemorrhagic syndrome washed erythrocytes, a 10% albumin solution and fresh frozen plasma were transfused. Therapeutic bronchoscopy was performed due to the progression of the expectorant component secondary to ventilator!associated pneumonia. Nonspecific detoxification therapy with discrete plasmapheresis was used. On the 3rd day of treatment tracheal extubation was performed, on the 10th day the child was transferred to the gastroenterology department. On the 13th day of hospital stay in the gastroenterology department and on the 24th day of admission the child was discharged home in satisfactory condition.

  9. Assessment of Lung Epithelial Cytological Changes Associated with Air Pollution in Hail Industrial Area in Saudi Arabia

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    Fawaz D. Alshammari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the lung epithelial atypical changes (if any, which might be associated with continuous exposure to air pollution resulting from motor vehicles maintenance. Methodology: This is a case control study, investigated 250 participants by cytological methods. Of the 250 participants, 200 were cases exposed to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution and 50 were controls (non-exposed. Early morning expectorated sputum specimen was obtained and cytologically assessed. Results: Cytological atypia was identified in 7 (3.5% out of the 200 cases and could not be identified in 193 (96.5% cases, whereas, in the control group, cytological atypia was not found. The risk of cytological atypia, which is associated with exposure to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution, the 95% confidence interval (95% CI and relative risk (RR; RR=3.9 (0.2199 to 69.7010, P=0.3529. Metaplasia was identified among 26 (13% cases and 2/50 (4% in the controls. The risk of metaplasia that is associated with exposure to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution, the 95% CI and RR=3.5 (0.8218 to 15.649, P=0.0893. Conclusion: The exposure to vehicle maintenance air pollution increases the risk of lung epithelial atypical changes, which may develop in to precancerous and cancerous changes.

  10. Rapid development of pulmonary cavitation as manifestation of a candida species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, E.; Bickel, R.H.; Baldauf, G.

    1987-01-01

    The roentgenologic pattern of the pulmonary manifestation of candida species, resulting in a rapid development of pulmonary cavitations with mycetoma-like structures, was described in three patients. All patients, undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy because of acute leukemia, presented with fever and expectoration, which were resistant to various antibiotic regimes. Cultures of blood and urine were sterile; but Torulopsis glabrata, a candida species, was found in multiple cultures of the sputum of all patients and also in a bronchoscopic lavage obtained from one patient after reconstitution of the granulopoesis. The roetgenologic appearance of the infiltrates was accompanied by a rise of the Ig-M immunoglobulins against candida. Following intravenous treatment with amphotericin B a reduction of the cavitation and of the infiltrates to small residues was observed. Simultaneously the body temperature and the sputum became normal and a fall in the immunoglobulin titers was found. The diagnostic problems of pulmonary cavitation and especially of pulmonary mycosis in immuosuppressed and therapy-induced granulocytopenic and thrombocytopenic patients with acute leukemia were discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Anomalies of Pulmonary Circulation as a Cause of Hemoptysis: A Series of Unusual Cases and Review of the Literature

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    Kamini Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The expectoration of blood originating from the lower respiratory tract, called hemoptysis, is a common clinical condition with many potential etiologies. Massive hemoptysis is life threatening and needs urgent intervention. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is a useful non-invasive imaging modality for the initial assessment of hemoptysis. Using MDCT with multiplanar reformatted images has improved the diagnosis and management of hemoptysis by providing a more precise depiction of bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries than conventional computed tomography (CT. In 95% of hemoptysis cases, the systemic arterial system is the origin of bleeding and pulmonary vascular anomalies are a rare cause. Among these, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Osler-Weber-Rendu disease are well known entities. However, primary anomalies affecting pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum or diseases secondarily affecting the pulmonary vessels are unusual causes. Here we present three cases where patients had pulmonary vascular anomalies causing hemoptysis. These patients had decreased pulmonary arterial pressures leading to bronchial and systemic arterial hypertrophy and development of bronchopulmonary collaterals. Secondary CT signs in the parenchyma and mediastinum (mosaic attenuation, ground glass haze, subpleural interstitial thickening, and hypertrophied bronchial arteries were similar in all patients. Hence, evaluation of the MDCT images for primary abnormality led to the diagnosis.

  12. Relationship between the amount of rice oil ingested by patients with Yusho and their subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T.; Hayabuchi, H.

    1985-02-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify the subjective symptoms closely related to Yusho by examining the relationship between the amount of PCB-contaminated rice oil ingested by patients and the subjective symptoms recorded on their questionnaires. The amount of PCB-contaminated rice oil consumed by the patients was obtained by interviewing the housewife in each Yusho family. Individual consumption of the oil was estimated by taking into account age, sex and the number of meals at home. In 1970, 46 patients were available for analysis, and in 1971, 33 patients were available. Among 12 subjective symptoms studied, numbness of the limbs, coughing, expectoration, and the sensation of elevated teeth were considered to show a dose-response relationship, which suggests that these subjective symptoms are closely related to Yusho. Consistent high rates of complaints of general fatigue and eye discharge were considered possibly to be connected with Yusho, although no dose-response relationships have been determined. Other subjective symptoms, such as fever, headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, swelling in the joints, changes in menstruation, and loss of hair failed to show consistent dose-response relationships. It should be noted, however, that for these symptoms which failed to show dose-response relationships, it is impossible to deny a causal relationship.

  13. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  14. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  15. Ammonium and arsenic trioxide are potent facilitators of oligonucleotide function when delivered by gymnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Castanotto, Daniela; Liu, Xueli; Shemi, Amotz; Stein, Cy A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Oligonucleotide (ON) concentrations employed for therapeutic applications vary widely, but in general are high enough to raise significant concerns for off target effects and cellular toxicity. However, lowering ON concentrations reduces the chances of a therapeutic response, since typically relatively small amounts of ON are taken up by targeted cells in tissue culture. It is therefore imperative to identify new strategies to improve the concentration dependence of ON function. In this work, we have identified ammonium ion (NH4+) as a non-toxic potent enhancer of ON activity in the nucleus and cytoplasm following delivery by gymnosis. NH4+ is a metabolite that has been extensively employed as diuretic, expectorant, for the treatment of renal calculi and in a variety of other diseases. Enhancement of function can be found in attached and suspension cells, including in difficult-to-transfect Jurkat T and CEM T cells. We have also demonstrated that NH4+ can synergistically interact with arsenic trioxide (arsenite) to further promote ON function without producing any apparent increased cellular toxicity. These small, inexpensive, widely distributed molecules could be useful not only in laboratory experiments but potentially in therapeutic ON-based combinatorial strategy for clinical applications. PMID:29522198

  16. What’s In and What’s Out in Branding? A Novel Articulation Effect for Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA, or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA. These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards, which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards, which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261, participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1, reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2, and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a-3c, 4, 5, with the price gain amounting to 4 % to 13 % of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5.

  17. Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting insertion sequence IS6110 for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among Sudanese children and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed L Osman

    2014-01-01

    All children participating in the study were subjected to the Mantoux test after obtaining appropriate consent injected by 5 tuberculin units of tuberculin purified protein derivative, and the results were recorded after three days. Specimens were decontaminated and inoculated on Lowenstein–Jensen media according to the modified Petroff's method. Two smears were prepared and stained by Ziehl–Neelsen stain and Auramine fluorescent dye; bacterial DNA was extracted from each specimen by using phenol chloroform method, and then the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was adopted to detect Insertion Sequence IS6110 gene of MTB in these specimens. This study showed that the positive results for TST, ZN, Auramine, Culture and PCR were 86 (43.7%, 16 (8.1%, 22 (11.2%, 32 (16.2% and 35(17.8%, respectively. The study concluded that the PCR technique is the most sensitive and specific technique for a quick identification of MTB in gastric lavage and sputum from children who are unable to expectorate a good quality sputum sample or who are diagnosed as negative using conventional diagnostic methods.

  18. Some positive effects of pine oil on brain tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, E.; Keser, S.; Yilmiz, O.

    2016-01-01

    Pine oil has antiseptic, expectorant and antioxidant properties and has been used for treatment of rheumatism, respiratory and urinary system and skin diseases. We aimed to determine protective effects of pine oil (PO) on the lipid-soluble vitamins, cholesterol, GSH, total protein, MDA, fatty acid levels of brain tissue of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control (C), streptozotocin (STZ), streptozotocin+pine oil (PO) groups. Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally single dose (65 mg/kg) to the STZ and PO groups for inducing of diabetes. To the PO group 1 mg/kg dose pine oil was intraperitoneally injected every next day. While the GSH and total protein were significantly decreased in the Streptozotocin (STZ) group, their levels were protected in PO group. MDA level was significantly increased in STZ group, its level significantly decreased in the PO group. Our results showed that PO has a positive effect on the GSH, total protein, and MDA levels in the brain tissue of diabetic rats. The PO and STZ administrations were affected by levels of some important fatty acids. The decrease in the MDA level and observed protecting effects can be attributed to PO extract, because it contains some important phytochemical constituents. (author)

  19. Randomized controlled trial on postoperative pulmonary humidification after total laryngectomy: external humidifier versus heat and moisture exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérol, Jean-Claude; Charpiot, Anne; Langagne, Thibault; Hémar, Patrick; Ackerstaff, Annemieke H; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of immediate postoperative airway humidification after total laryngectomy (TLE), comparing the use of an external humidifier (EH) with humidification through a heat and moisture exchanger (HME). Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Fifty-three patients were randomized into the standard (control) EH (N = 26) or the experimental HME arm (N = 27). Compliance, pulmonary and sleeping problems, patients' and nursing staff satisfaction, nursing time, and cost-effectiveness were assessed with trial-specific structured questionnaires and tally sheets. In the EH arm data were available for all patients, whereas in the HME arm data were incomplete for four patients. The 24/7 compliance rate in the EH arm was 12% and in the HME arm 87% (77% if the four nonevaluable patients are considered noncompliant). Compliance and patients' satisfaction were significantly better, and the number of coughing episodes, mucus expectoration for clearing the trachea, and sleeping disturbances were significantly less in the HME arm (P humidification by means of an HME over the use of an EH after TLE. This study therefore underlines that HMEs presently can be considered the better option for early postoperative airway humidification after TLE. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Cytotoxicity of flavonoid glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic acids from Inula oculus-christi on mammalian cell lines

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    Ralitsa K. Veleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbs of the genus Inula are well known in traditional medicine. Their extracts are used as expectorants, antitussives, bactericides as well as for the treatment of lung inflammation and have shown to possess anti-inflammatory and secretolytic activity. Experimental research findings indicate the anti-tumor effect of certain components of extracts from Inula cappa and Inula britannicа and those from Inula racemosa have antimicrobial and antidiabetic activity. We have directed our efforts on investigating the effects of different extracts from Inula oculus-christi, enriched with certain groups of biologically active substances - flavonoid glycosides (A, phenolic acids (B, flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids (C, flavonoids and phenolic acids (D. The effect of these extracts on normal (MDCK ІІ and RPE1 and carcinoma cell lines (A549 and HepG2 was evaluated. We have performed cytotoxicity study (crystal violet assay as well as morphological analysis of changes induced by the extracts. Among the tumor cell lines HepG2 show greater sensitivity. Surprisingly extract C has no significant influence on both cancer cell lines.

  1. HPTLC methods for the Rapid Determination of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. in a polyherbal formulation (INSTY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Z. A.; Zahoor, A.; Shafiq, K.; Usmanghani, K.; Khan, S. S.; Khan, A.

    2015-01-01

    An Insty Granule is a polyherbal formulation, and it is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. It contains expectorant, anti-inflammatory, mucolytic and anti-pyretic properties. The major active constituents are vasicine, gallic acid, caffeine and glycyrrhizin. Insty a poly herbal formulation of eight herbs were investigated for its phytochemical evaluation. Biomarkers of about four herbs both qualitatively and quantitatively were investigated. Methods: The solvent systems used were ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol, ammonia (6: 3: 1: 1) for vasicin, ethyl acetate, chloroform, formic acid (12: 15: 3) for gallic acid, ethyl acetate, methanol, water (100: 13.5: 10) for caffeine, and methanol, water, acetic acid (70: 30: 0.5) for glycyrrhizin. Results: The methods showed a good linear relationship (r/sup 2/ = 0.999) in the concentration range 25-1500 ng per spot. It was found to be linear, accurate, precise, specific, robust and can be applied for quality control and standardization. Conclusion: In present study rapid and inexpensive qualification methods for the quality control of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. on thin layer chromatography (TLC) were developed and validated on silica gel. HPTLC is most suitable technique because of quantification of number of samples at low operating cost, easy sample preparation, short analysis time and analytical assurance. (author)

  2. The granuloma in tuberculosis: Dynamics of a host-pathogen collusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eEhlers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A granuloma is defined as an inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltrate that, while capable of limiting growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also provides a survival niche from which the bacteria may disseminate. The tuberculosis lesion is highly dynamic and shaped by both, immune response elements and the pathogen. In the granuloma, M. tuberculosis switches to a non-replicating but energy-generating life style whose detailed molecular characterization can identify novel targets for chemotherapy. To secure transmission to a new host, M. tuberculosis has evolved to drive T cell immunity to the point that necrotizing granulomas leak into bronchial cavities to facilitate expectoration of bacilli. From an evolutionary perspective it is therefore questionable whether vaccination and immunity enhancing strategies that merely mimic the natural immune response directed against M. tuberculosis infection can overcome pulmonary tuberculosis in the adult population. Juxtaposition of molecular pathology and immunology with microbial physiology and the use of novel imaging approaches afford an integrative view of the granuloma’s contribution to the life cycle of M. tuberculosis. This review revisits the different input of innate and adaptive immunity in granuloma biogenesis, with a focus on the co-evolutionary forces that redirect immune responses also to the benefit of the pathogen, i.e. its survival, propagation and transmission.

  3. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Lysanne; Kammerer, Dietmar R.; Stintzing, Florian C.; Spring, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MSn) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals. PMID:28098796

  4. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  5. Medical image of the week: collapse of the trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruguri P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 61 year old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD requiring multiple intubations over the past 2 years as well as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA presented with acute dyspnea, cough and difficulty expectorating sputum over the last 24 hours. His physical exam was notable for expiratory and inspiratory wheezing. ABG revealed a pH of 7.24, PaCO2 of 71, PaO2 of 103, and HCO3 of 29 mMol consistent with an acute on chronic respiratory acidosis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was given multiple bronchodilators and eventually placed on BiPAP with gradual improvement. CT of the chest revealed the caliber of the trachea was narrowed greater than 50% during expiration (Figure 1B consistent with dynamic airway collapse of tracheobronchomalacia. This often overlooked condition may be related to past intubations or COPD with chronic bronchitis and is often misdiagnosed as COPD or treatment resistant asthma. Stents are often …

  6. Tracheomalacia associated with Mounier-Kuhn syndrome in the Intensive Care Unit: treatment with Freitag stent. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, S; Benassai, C; Allori, O; Valeri, E; Ferri, L; Dragotto, A

    2004-09-01

    Tracheomalacia is a process characterized by softness of the supporting tracheal cartilages, by the extension of the posterior membranous wall and by reduction of the tracheal antero-posterior diameter. Exceptionally, tracheomalacia can be associated with tracheobronchomegaly or Mounier-Kuhn syndrome. Fibro-bronchoscopy represents the ''gold standard'' for diagnosis. The case of a 79-year-old male observed after hospitalization in a medical ward for chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) decompensation, and with basal left bronchopulmonary focus, is described. During this period, a progressive worsening of clinical conditions occurred, despite cortisone and antibiotic therapy, and the patient was transferred to the ICU for dyspnea, hypoxia, hypocapnia and with a diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchoscopy, performed during spontaneous breathing, revealed tracheomalacia which was responsible for tracheal dynamic complete stenosis during expiration and dynamic subtotal stenosis of the left primary bronchus in the first tract, together with sputum retention. Moreover, this investigation confirmed the diagnosis of tracheobronchomegaly already seen on CT. It was suggested to place a Freitag stent, since the insertion of another model would not have had enough chance of stability, due to the enormous extension of the tracheal lumen and could not have guaranteed good clearance of the secretions. Seven days after this intervention, performed in an outpatients' setting, the patient was dismissed from the ICU, without the help of O2, with good ventilation, saturation in line with his age and good expectoration.

  7. A Rare Case of Idiopathic Plastic Bronchitis

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    Mohammed Raoufi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis is a rare disorder characterized by formation of large, branching bronchial casts, which are often expectorated. We present an interesting case of a 35-year-old woman who presented for evaluation of a chronic cough productive of voluminous secretions. Clinical and radiological examination confirmed a total left lung atelectasis without any pathological mediastinal node. Flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated tenacious, thick, and sticky whitish secretions blocking the left stem bronchus. This material was extracted, and inspection demonstrated a bronchial cast, whose pathological analysis revealed necrotic epithelial cells, some eosinophils, and Charcot-Leyden crystals. Two days after bronchoscopy, the patient rejected more bronchial casts, and dyspnea improved. Control of chest x-ray revealed complete left lung aeration and the diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was obtained. This article shows the interest in clinical practice to evoke the diagnosis of plastic bronchitis in front of a productive chronic cough. Our case illustrates a rare clinical presentation represented by an atelectasis of an entire lung.

  8. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin

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    Antoine Vikkey Hinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH; and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV1 and FVC. The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%. The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin’s economy.

  9. Radiological study of bronchial mucoid impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoyi; Yan Hongzhen; Wang Tongde; Gan Chunlan; Liu Wei; Wang Linhui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiological findings of bronchial mucoid impaction in 28 patients in order to improve diagnostic efficacy. Methods: Standard posteroanterior high voltage radiographs were performed in all 28 cases. Among them CT scans were taken in 14 cases, while 3 patients underwent HRCT examination at the same time. Twenty-two patients had a history of expectoration of mucous plugs; in one case with pulmonary atelectasis, a mucous plug was picked out through bronchoscopy. The other 5 cases experienced a lung operation, and a tumor and bronchial mucoid impaction were discovered. Results: Radiographs showed most mucoid impaction as thick, branching structures resembling branches of tree; others were in the shapes of spherical, small clubs, and cuttle fish. In one patient, pulmonary atelectasis was the only radiographic finding. Similarly on CT, most bronchial mucoid impaction were likened to tree branches; the rest presented as small clubs and bunches of grape. A prominent feature of bronchial mucoid impaction, either on plain radiograph or on CT, was that its axis pointed to the hilum, completely consistent with the branching and distribution of the bronchi, and accompanied by bronchiectasis. Conclusions: It is an optimal approach to exploit plain radiograph combined with CT to find out bronchial mucoid impaction. An awareness of its clinical and radiological features may improve better understanding and recognition of the disease

  10. Approach to pharmacological and clinical applications of Anisi aetheroleum

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    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisi aetheroleum is the oil obtained from Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum by steam distillation. P. anisum seeds were air-dried, and then the dry seeds were crushed, pulverized, and weighed in sequence for anise oil preparation. P. anisum is one of the oldest medicinal plants that belong to family Apiaceae. The fruit of P. anisum is harvested in August and September. P. anisum is widespread in Asia, Africa and Europe. Local names of P. anisum include anise, anisoon, roomy, saunf, sweet cumin and yansoon. The anise oil odour is aromatic while the oil tastes sweet. The average daily dose of Anisi aetheroleum is 0.3 g. trans-Anethole is the major ingredient of the anise oil. Anisi aetheroleum also displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. In addition, Anisi aetheroleum increases glucose absorption and reduces urine output in the rat. The plant oil have pharmacological (antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, estrogenic, expectorant and insecticidal effects and clinical effects on nausea, constipation, menopausal period, virus, diabetes, obesity and sedative action. Owing to the wide application of Anisi aetheroleum in pharmacological and clinical fields, it is recommended for more clinical trails to discover a new medication from the active constituents of the plant oil in the future to treat human diseases especially chronic ones.

  11. Lung cancer, brucellosis and tuberculosis: remarkable togetherness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyunlu, Muhammed Emin; Akkoyunlu, Yasemin; Hakyemez, Ismail Necati; Erboy, Fatma; Arvas, Gulhan; Aslan, Turan

    2013-01-01

    A 68 years old male farmer referred with cough, expectorating sputum, intermittant fever, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia persisting for two weeks. There was a history of 80 packs each year of smoking and he was still an active smoker. Pneumonectomy was performed because of pulmonary epidermoid cancer and he received chemotherapy. He was diagnosed lung tuberculosis and using anti-tuberculous treatment for 4 months. He had a weight loss of 8 kg in last month. His body tempereature was 38.5 °C. Heart rate was 100/min. ESR was 51mm/h and CRP was 5.6 mg/dL. There was no proliferation in blood and sputum cultures. Three sputum specimens were examined and AFB wasn't detected. Fibronodular infiltration was seen in right lower zone of chest X-ray. In thorax CT, fibronodular densities were seen in lower lobe anterior and posterior segments. Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood culture. Second bronchoscopy was performed with suspect of brucellosis pneumonia. Brucella tube agglutination test was positive at titer 1/320 in the bronchial lavage fluid and 1/640 in concurrent serum sample. In cases with chronic cough or pneumonia which is irresponsive to nonspecific antibiotherapy, respiratory brucellosis must be rememberred in endemic areas.

  12. Comparison of Ambient and Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources for Cystic Fibrosis Exhaled Breath Condensate Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoling; Pérez, José J.; Jones, Christina M.; Monge, María Eugenia; McCarty, Nael A.; Stecenko, Arlene A.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The vast majority of the mortality is due to progressive lung disease. Targeted and untargeted CF breath metabolomics investigations via exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analyses have the potential to expose metabolic alterations associated with CF pathology and aid in assessing the effectiveness of CF therapies. Here, transmission-mode direct analysis in real time traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TM-DART-TWIMS-TOF MS) was tested as a high-throughput alternative to conventional direct infusion (DI) electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) methods, and a critical comparison of the three ionization methods was conducted. EBC was chosen as the noninvasive surrogate for airway sampling over expectorated sputum as EBC can be collected in all CF subjects regardless of age and lung disease severity. When using pooled EBC collected from a healthy control, ESI detected the most metabolites, APCI a log order less, and TM-DART the least. TM-DART-TWIMS-TOF MS was used to profile metabolites in EBC samples from five healthy controls and four CF patients, finding that a panel of three discriminant EBC metabolites, some of which had been previously detected by other methods, differentiated these two classes with excellent cross-validated accuracy.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of guaifenesin following administration of multiple doses to exercised Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Stanley, S D; Benson, D; Arthur, R M

    2016-08-01

    Guaifenesin is an expectorant commonly used in performance horses to aid in the clearance of mucus from the airways. Guaifenesin is also a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant and as such is a prohibited drug with withdrawal necessary prior to competition. To the authors' knowledge, there are no reports in the literature describing single or multiple oral administrations of guaifenesin in the horse to determine a regulatory threshold and related withdrawal time. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of guaifenesin following oral administration in order to provide data upon which appropriate regulatory recommendations can be established. Nine exercised Thoroughbred horses were administered 2 g of guaifenesin orally BID for a total of five doses. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to drug administration and at various times postadministration. Serum guaifenesin concentrations were determined and pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. Guaifenesin was rapidly absorbed (Tmax of 15 min) following oral administration. The Cmax was 681.3 ± 323.8 ng/mL and 1080 ± 732.8 following the first and last dose, respectively. The serum elimination half-life was 2.62 ± 1.24 h. Average serum guaifenesin concentrations remained above the LOQ of the assay (0.5 ng/mL) by 48 h postadministration of the final dose in 3 of 9 horses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Euphorbia neriifolia L.: Review on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y; Panchal, Shital S

    2017-05-01

    The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. neriifolia extract and its isolates have been reported scientifically using various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods for anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic, anti-arthritis, anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytotoxic, death-receptor expression enhancing, dermal irritation, diuretic, haemolytic, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, scorpion venom and wound healing properties. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetyl-8-O-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc. Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect that an educational program for cystic fibrosis patients and caregivers has on the contamination of home nebulizers

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    Adriana Della Zuana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathogens found in home nebulizers and in respiratory samples of cystic fibrosis (CF patients, and to evaluate the effect that a standardized instruction regarding cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers has on the frequency of nebulizer contamination. METHODS: We included 40 CF patients (22 males, all of whom used the same model of nebulizer. The median patient age was 11.2 ± 3.74 years. We collected samples from the nebulizer mouthpiece and cup, using a sterile swab moistened with sterile saline. Respiratory samples were collected by asking patients to expectorate into a sterile container or with oropharyngeal swabs after cough stimulation. Cultures were performed on selective media, and bacteria were identified by classical biochemical tests. Patients received oral and written instructions regarding the cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers. All determinations were repeated an average of two months later. RESULTS: Contamination of the nebulizer (any part was detected in 23 cases (57.5%. The nebulizer mouthpiece and cup were found to be contaminated in 16 (40.0% and 19 (47.5%, respectively. After the standardized instruction had been given, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of contaminated nebulizers (43.5%. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample of CF patients, nebulizer contamination was common, indicating the need for improvement in patient practices regarding the cleaning and disinfection of their nebulizers. A one-time educational intervention could have a significant positive impact.

  16. Effects of Multiple Cleaning and Disinfection Interventions on Infectious Diseases in Children: A Group Randomized Trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Hai Qun; Li, Tao; Shen, Jin; Li, Jin; Peng, Pin Zhang; Ye, Heng Ping; Zhang, Liu Bo

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of multiple cleaning and disinfection interventions in the homes and kindergartens, in reducing gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses of children. From October 2010 to September 2011, we performed a prospective, controlled study in China. 408 children under 5 years old were recruited and group randomized into intervention and control groups. Families and kindergartens in the intervention group were provided with antibacterial products for hand hygiene and surface cleaning or disinfection for one year. Each child's illness symptoms and sick leave were recorded every day. A total of 393 children completed the study, with similar baseline demographics in each of the 2 groups. Except for abdominal pain, the odds of symptoms (fever, cough and expectoration, runny nose and nasal congestion, diarrhea), illness (acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal illness), and sick leave per person each month were significantly reduced by interventions. The rates of fever, diarrhea, acute respiratory illness, gastrointestinal illness and sick leave per person per year were significantly decreased as well. Not only the acute respiratory and gastrointestinal illness but the sick leave rate in children were significantly reduced by multiple interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in chronic periodontitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Namita; Gupta, N D; Gupta, Akash; Khan, Saif; Bansal, Neha

    2015-03-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the periodontium. Any imbalance between the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by neutrophils and tissue inhibitors initiates the destruction of collagen in gum tissue, leading to chronic periodontitis. This study aimed to correlate salivary levels of MMP-8 and periodontal parameters of chronic periodontitis to establish MMP-8 as a noninvasive marker for the early diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. The study involved 40 subjects visiting the periodontic OPD of Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad Dental College and Hospital, located in Aligarh, U.P., India, from 2011 to 2012. The subjects were divided into two groups: group I consisted of 20 periodontally healthy subjects (controls) while group II consisted of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis was assessed on the basis of several periodontal parameters, including pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI). Around 3ml of unstimulated and whole expectorated saliva was collected for MMP-8 estimation by ELISA using Quantikine human total MMP-8 immunoassay kits. Data were analyzed using STATISTICA (Windows version 6) software. Salivary MMP-8 levels of groups I and II were 190.91 ± 143.89 ng/ml and 348.26 ± 202.1 ng/ml, respectively. The MMP-8 levels and periodontal status (PPD, CAL, GI, and PI) of groups I and II showed positive and significant correlations (for PPD, r = 0.63, P chronic periodontitis.

  18. Mouth rinsing improves cycling endurance performance during Ramadan fasting in a hot humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muhamed, Ahmad Munir; Mohamed, Nazirah Gulam; Ismail, Norjana; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth rinsing during endurance cycling in a hot humid environment (32 °C and 75% relative humidity) on athletes in the Ramadan fasted state. Nine trained adolescent male cyclists completed 3 trials that consisted of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse (CMR), a placebo mouth-rinse (PMR), and a no-rinse (NOR) trial during the last 2 weeks of Ramadan. Each trial consisted of a preloading cycle at 65% peak rate of oxygen consumption for 30 min followed by a 10-km time trial (TT10 km) under hot humid condition. During the CMR and PMR trials, each cyclist rinsed his mouth with 25 mL of the solution for 5 s before expectorating the solution pre-exercise, after 5, 15, and 25 min of the preloading cycle, and 15 s prior to the start of TT10 km. Time to complete the TT10 km was significantly faster in the CMR and PMR trials compared with the NOR trial (12.9 ± 1.7 and 12.6 ± 1.7 vs. 16.8 ± 1.6 min, respectively; p benefits compared with a no-rinse condition on TT10 km performance in acute Ramadan fasted subjects during endurance cycling in a heat stress environment.

  19. Correlation of Dental Caries Experience with pH, Buffering Capacity and Flow Rate of Saliva among 15-year-old School Children in Mangalore

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    Vijay S Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: To correlate dental caries experience with pH, buffering capacity and flow rate of saliva among 15-year-old-children Materials & Method : Fifteen year old school children from adopted schools of a dental college in Mangalore were considered as study subjects. The study was carried out using a standardized proforma that consisted of questionnaire for recording demographic data. The caries experience was assessed by DMFT Index. Salivary pH was measured by using a pH meter and salivary buffering capacity was measured by using titration method. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all subjects by direct expectoration to calculate the flow rate. Results: The mean DMFT of the study population was 2.85 ± 2.5. The mean salivary pH was found to be 6.88 ± 0.69.About 74.1% were having medium salivary buffering capacities. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate and mean total antioxidant capacity of the study population was 0.41 ± 0.14 ml/min and 94.15 ± 60.72 g/dL respectively. Conclusions: A marked association between the pH, buffering capacity and unstimulated flow rate with dental caries experience suggest that assessment of these salivary parameters can be used as predictors for future dental caries susceptibility in an individual.

  20. Chinese Medicine Amygdalin and β-Glucosidase Combined with Antibody Enzymatic Prodrug System As A Feasible Antitumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Long; Li, Qiao-Xing; Liu, Rui-Jiang; Shen, Xiang-Qian

    2018-03-01

    Amarogentin is an efficacious Chinese herbal medicine and a component of the bitter apricot kernel. It is commonly used as an expectorant and supplementary anti-cancer drug. β-Glucosidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between aryl and saccharide groups to release glucose. Upon their interaction, β-glucosidase catalyzes amarogentin to produce considerable amounts of hydrocyanic acid, which inhibits cytochrome C oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiration chain, and suspends adenosine triphosphate synthesis, resulting in cell death. Hydrocyanic acid is a cell-cycle-stage-nonspecific agent that kills cancer cells. Thus, β-glucosidase can be coupled with a tumor-specific monoclonal antibody. β-Glucosidase can combine with cancer-cell-surface antigens and specifically convert amarogentin to an active drug that acts on cancer cells and the surrounding antibodies to achieve a killing effect. β-Glucosidase is injected intravenously and recognizes cancer-cell-surface antigens with the help of an antibody. The prodrug amarogentin is infused after β-glucosidase has reached the target position. Coupling of cell membrane peptides with β-glucosidase allows the enzyme to penetrate capillary endothelial cells and clear extracellular deep solid tumors to kill the cells therein. The Chinese medicine amarogentin and β-glucosidase will become an important treatment for various tumors when an appropriate monoclonal antibody is developed.

  1. Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

    KAUST Repository

    Dheda, Keertan; Limberis, Jason D; Pietersen, Elize; Phelan, Jody; Esmail, Aliasgar; Lesosky, Maia; Fennelly, Kevin P; te Riele, Julian; Mastrapa, Barbara; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Dolby, Tania; Abdallah, Abdallah; Ben Rached, Fathia; Simpson, John; Smith, Liezel; Gumbo, Tawanda; van Helden, Paul; Sirgel, Frederick A; McNerney, Ruth; Theron, Grant; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G; Warren, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179). Findings: Between Oct 1, 2008, and Oct 31, 2012, we enrolled and followed up 273 patients for a median of 20·3 months (IQR 9·6-27·8). 203 (74%) had programmatically incurable tuberculosis and unfavourable outcomes (treatment failure, relapse, default, or death despite treatment with a regimen based on capreomycin, aminosalicylic acid, or both). 172 (63%) patients were discharged home, of whom 104 (60%) had an unfavourable outcome. 54 (31%) home-discharged patients had failed treatment, with a median time to death after discharge of 9·9 months (IQR 4·2-17·4). 35 (20%) home-discharged cases were smear-positive at discharge. Using CASS, six (23%) of 26 home-discharged cases with data available expectorated infectious culture-positive cough aerosols in the respirable range (<5 μm), and most reported inter-person contact with suboptimal protective mask usage. WGS identified 17 (19%) of the 90 patients (with available sequence data) that were discharged home before the diagnosis of 20 downstream cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis with almost identical sequencing profiles suggestive of community-based transmission (five or fewer single nucleotide polymorphisms different and with identical resistance-encoding mutations for 14 drugs). 11 (55%) of these downstream

  2. DETECCIÓN DE ALTERACIÓN FUNCIONAL RESPIRATORIA EN UN GRUPO DE MINEROS DE CARBÓN DE PAIPA, BOYACÁ (2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Mercedes González Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    environment of 410 workers who were interviewed. On the other hand, we analyzed their parameters of respiratory function by means of spirometry and pulse oximetry. The abundant symptomatology detected (cough, expectoration, dyspnea and thoracic pain suggests an underlying presence of progressive chronic pulmonary disease. Marked prevalence of hypoxemia and of abnormal respiratory patterns related to an elapsed time of work in the mine equal or greater than three years, also shows that illness is work related. According to the findings of this study, we confirm that mining is a high-risk activity for the group analyzed. 

    Key words: Coal mines, respiratory function, dyspnea, cough, expectoration, arterial oxygen saturation.

  3. The wisdom of the deep south of Thailand: Case study on utilization of herbal medicine to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors in Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh-etae A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This survey research was conducted to investigate the wisdom of the Deep South of Thailand: case study on utilization of herbal medicine to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors in Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat. A purposive sampling method was applied in selecting 133 subjects from 33 districts of these provinces. The interview design was checked by experts for content validity index and adjusted after testing on 13 non-target men. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using percentage and groups split by symptoms.The results showed that most traditional doctors (68.4% were males; 52.6% were 41-60 years old and 39.1% were more than 61 years of age. 60.2% of the subjects were Muslims; 73.7% of them were agri- culturalists; 63.2% of them had the income ranging from 3,001-6,000 baht/month. Most of the subjects (77.4% had only primary education, and 15.0% finished high school level. Only 6.0% practised traditional medicine as their main occupation and most of them (94.0% did not practise traditional medicine as their main occupation. Most traditional doctors (91.0% had experience in using medicinal herbs for animal treatment; 30.0% citing that herbal medicine was easy to find in local areas; 26.8% citing that it was cheap. For domestic animal utilization of herbal medicine, cats (54.1%, were first on the list of non-ruminants, chickens (62.9% came first among poultry, cattle (50.7% came first among ruminants and decorative fish e.g. goldfish (50.0% were commonest among aquatic animals. The single herbal medicine used to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors were reported as follows: to chase away insects, citronella grass or tobacco (3.0% was used; to treat diarrhea, Tinospora crispa (2.3% was used; to treat antitussives, lemon grass or Andrographis paniculata (2.3% was used; as an expectorant, curcuma rhizomes (2.3% was used; to treat pus from worms, Phyllanthus reticularud or Cassytha filiformis (2.3% was

  4. Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

    KAUST Repository

    Dheda, Keertan

    2017-01-19

    Background: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179). Findings: Between Oct 1, 2008, and Oct 31, 2012, we enrolled and followed up 273 patients for a median of 20·3 months (IQR 9·6-27·8). 203 (74%) had programmatically incurable tuberculosis and unfavourable outcomes (treatment failure, relapse, default, or death despite treatment with a regimen based on capreomycin, aminosalicylic acid, or both). 172 (63%) patients were discharged home, of whom 104 (60%) had an unfavourable outcome. 54 (31%) home-discharged patients had failed treatment, with a median time to death after discharge of 9·9 months (IQR 4·2-17·4). 35 (20%) home-discharged cases were smear-positive at discharge. Using CASS, six (23%) of 26 home-discharged cases with data available expectorated infectious culture-positive cough aerosols in the respirable range (<5 μm), and most reported inter-person contact with suboptimal protective mask usage. WGS identified 17 (19%) of the 90 patients (with available sequence data) that were discharged home before the diagnosis of 20 downstream cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis with almost identical sequencing profiles suggestive of community-based transmission (five or fewer single nucleotide polymorphisms different and with identical resistance-encoding mutations for 14 drugs). 11 (55%) of these downstream

  5. Acute Pain Perception During Different Sampling Methods for Respiratory Culture in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyns, Hanneke; De Wachter, Elke; Malfroot, Anne; Vaes, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Reliable identification of lower respiratory tract pathogens is crucial in the management of cystic fibrosis (CF). The multitude of treatments and clinical procedures are a considerable burden and are potentially provoking pain. As part of another study (NCT02363764), investigating the bacterial yield of three sampling methods, nasal swabs (NSs), cough swabs (CSs), and (induced) sputum samples ([I]SSs), in both expectorating patients (EPs) and non-expectorating patients (NEPs) with CF, the present study aimed to explore the prevalence of respiratory culture sampling-related pain as assessed by self-report within a cohort of children and adults. Literate patients with CF (aged six years or older) completed a questionnaire on pain perception related to the three aforementioned sampling methods (No/Yes; visual analogue scale for pain [VAS-Pain] [0-10 cm]). In addition, patients were asked to rank these methods by their own preference without taking into account the presumed bacterial yield. In total, 119 questionnaires were returned. In the EPs-group, CS was most frequently (n%; mean VAS-Pain if pain [range]) reported as painful method: overall (n = 101; 12.9%; 1.8 [0.2-4.8]), children (n = 41; 22.0%; 1.4 [0.2-2.7]), and adults (n = 60; 6.7%; 2.5 [0.5-4.8]). Highest pain intensity scores were observed with NS overall (3.0%; 2.4 [0.3-6.2]) and in children (4.9%; 3.3 [0.3-6.2]), but not in adults (1.7%; 0.6 [-]).NEPs-children (n = 17) reported ISS most frequently and as most painful sampling method (17.6%; 2.0 [1.0-4.0]). The only NEP-adult did not perceive pain. NEPs preferred NS > CS > ISS (61.1%, 33.3%, 5.6%, respectively [P = 0.001]) as primary sampling method, whereas EPs preferred SS > NS > CS (65.7%, 26.3%, 8.1%, respectively [P method inversely correlated to pain perception and intensity in EPs (φ = -0.155 [P = 0.007] and ρ = -0.926 [P = 0.008], respectively), but not in NEPs (φ = -0.226 [P = 0.097] and ρ = -0.135 [P = 0

  6. Clinical, virological and immunological features from patients infected with re-emergent avian-origin human H7N9 influenza disease of varying severity in Guangdong province.

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    Zi Feng Yang

    Full Text Available The second wave of avian influenza H7N9 virus outbreak in humans spread to the Guangdong province of China by August of 2013 and this virus is now endemic in poultry in this region.Five patients with H7N9 virus infection admitted to our hospital during August 2013 to February 2014 were intensively investigated. Viral load in the respiratory tract was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR and cytokine levels were measured by bead-based flow cytometery.Four patients survived and one died. Viral load in different clinical specimens was correlated with cytokine levels in plasma and broncho-alveolar fluid (BALF, therapeutic modalities used and clinical outcome. Intravenous zanamivir appeared to be better than peramivir as salvage therapy in patients who failed to respond to oseltamivir. Higher and more prolonged viral load was found in the sputum or endotracheal aspirates compared to throat swabs. Upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, MIP-1α/β, IL-1β and IL-8 was found in the plasma and BALF samples. The levels of cytokines in the plasma and viral load were correlated with disease severity. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1 was found in three out of five patients (60%.Expectorated sputum or endotracheal aspirate specimens are preferable to throat swabs for detecting and monitoring H7N9 virus. Severity of the disease was correlated to the viral load in the respiratory tract as well as the extents of cytokinemia. Reactivation of HSV-1 may contribute to clinical outcome.

  7. A CLINICORADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MIDDLE LOBE SYNDROME DUE TO TUBERCULOSIS

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    Saurabh Karmakar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in India, tuberculosis of right middle lobe is infrequent. Tuberculosis of the right middle lobe leading to chronic collapse is a cause of Right Middle Lobe syndrome. METHODS The patients attended Pulmonary Medicine Outdoor at Era’s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow from April 2015 to March 2016. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinicoradiological features of patients of middle lobe syndrome due to tuberculosis. All patients presented with cough with or without expectoration, fever, chest pain, haemoptysis and constitutional symptoms like loss of appetite and weight. Chest X-ray PA view revealed ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border. HRCT thorax was done in each case. The diagnosis of tuberculous aetiology was based on (1 History of chronic cough and fever, not responding to antibiotic therapy and constitutional symptoms, (2 A positive tuberculin test using 2 TU of PPD RT 23 and (3 Detection of acid fast bacilli by direct smear or Mycobacterium tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction in bronchoalveolar lavage. RESULTS Out of 10 patients, 4 (40% were males and 6 (60% were females. The mean ages of the males were 55.8 years and females were 60.8 years and overall mean age was 59 years. Most of the patients were females and belonged to the middle age and old age group. ATT was started in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS Right middle lobe syndrome predominantly affects the older population and the female gender. Although tuberculosis is a common disease in India, Middle Lobe Syndrome is a very rare presentation of the disease. Due to non-specific symptoms and usually normal chest X-ray PA view in Right Middle Lobe Syndrome, we should keep a high index of suspicion to diagnose the condition.

  8. Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia1234

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    Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Waldron, Keith W; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE

    2015-01-01

    Background: The particle size and structure of masticated almonds have a significant impact on nutrient release (bioaccessibility) and digestion kinetics. Objectives: The goals of this study were to quantify the effects of mastication on the bioaccessibility of intracellular lipid of almond tissue and examine microstructural characteristics of masticated almonds. Design: In a randomized, subject-blind, crossover trial, 17 healthy subjects chewed natural almonds (NAs) or roasted almonds (RAs) in 4 separate mastication sessions. Particle size distributions (PSDs) of the expectorated boluses were measured by using mechanical sieving and laser diffraction (primary outcome). The microstructure of masticated almonds, including the structural integrity of the cell walls (i.e., dietary fiber), was examined with microscopy. Lipid bioaccessibility was predicted by using a theoretical model, based on almond particle size and cell dimensions, and then compared with empirically derived release data. Results: Intersubject variations (n = 15; 2 subjects withdrew) in PSDs of both NA and RA samples were small (e.g., laser diffraction; CV: 12% and 9%, respectively). Significant differences in PSDs were found between these 2 almond forms (P masticated particles, as predicted by using the mathematical model (8.5% and 11.3% for NAs and RAs, respectively). This low percentage of lipid bioaccessibility is attributable to the high proportion (35–40%) of large particles (>500 μm) in masticated almonds. Microstructural examination of the almonds indicated that most intracellular lipid remained undisturbed in intact cells after mastication. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: Following mastication, most of the almond cells remained intact with lipid encapsulated by cell walls. Thus, most of the lipid in masticated almonds is not immediately bioaccessible and remains unavailable for early stages of digestion. The lipid encapsulation mechanism provides a convincing explanation for

  9. Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia.

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    Grundy, Myriam M L; Grassby, Terri; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Waldron, Keith W; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah E E; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The particle size and structure of masticated almonds have a significant impact on nutrient release (bioaccessibility) and digestion kinetics. The goals of this study were to quantify the effects of mastication on the bioaccessibility of intracellular lipid of almond tissue and examine microstructural characteristics of masticated almonds. In a randomized, subject-blind, crossover trial, 17 healthy subjects chewed natural almonds (NAs) or roasted almonds (RAs) in 4 separate mastication sessions. Particle size distributions (PSDs) of the expectorated boluses were measured by using mechanical sieving and laser diffraction (primary outcome). The microstructure of masticated almonds, including the structural integrity of the cell walls (i.e., dietary fiber), was examined with microscopy. Lipid bioaccessibility was predicted by using a theoretical model, based on almond particle size and cell dimensions, and then compared with empirically derived release data. Intersubject variations (n = 15; 2 subjects withdrew) in PSDs of both NA and RA samples were small (e.g., laser diffraction; CV: 12% and 9%, respectively). Significant differences in PSDs were found between these 2 almond forms (P masticated particles, as predicted by using the mathematical model (8.5% and 11.3% for NAs and RAs, respectively). This low percentage of lipid bioaccessibility is attributable to the high proportion (35-40%) of large particles (>500 μm) in masticated almonds. Microstructural examination of the almonds indicated that most intracellular lipid remained undisturbed in intact cells after mastication. No adverse events were recorded. Following mastication, most of the almond cells remained intact with lipid encapsulated by cell walls. Thus, most of the lipid in masticated almonds is not immediately bioaccessible and remains unavailable for early stages of digestion. The lipid encapsulation mechanism provides a convincing explanation for why almonds have a low metabolizable energy content and

  10. Muc5b is required for airway defence

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    Roy, Michelle G.; Livraghi-Butrico, Alessandra; Fletcher, Ashley A.; McElwee, Melissa M.; Evans, Scott E.; Boerner, Ryan M.; Alexander, Samantha N.; Bellinghausen, Lindsey K.; Song, Alfred S.; Petrova, Youlia M.; Tuvim, Michael J.; Adachi, Roberto; Romo, Irlanda; Bordt, Andrea S.; Bowden, M. Gabriela; Sisson, Joseph H.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Thornton, David J.; Rousseau, Karine; de La Garza, Maria M.; Moghaddam, Seyed J.; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Blackburn, Michael R.; Drouin, Scott M.; Davis, C. William; Terrell, Kristy A.; Grubb, Barbara R.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Flores, Sonia C.; Cota-Gomez, Adela; Lozupone, Catherine A.; Donnelly, Jody M.; Watson, Alan M.; Hennessy, Corinne E.; Keith, Rebecca C.; Yang, Ivana V.; Barthel, Lea; Henson, Peter M.; Janssen, William J.; Schwartz, David A.; Boucher, Richard C.; Dickey, Burton F.; Evans, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory surfaces are exposed to billions of particulates and pathogens daily. A protective mucus barrier traps and eliminates them through mucociliary clearance (MCC). However, excessive mucus contributes to transient respiratory infections and to the pathogenesis of numerous respiratory diseases. MUC5AC and MUC5B are evolutionarily conserved genes that encode structurally related mucin glycoproteins, the principal macromolecules in airway mucus. Genetic variants are linked to diverse lung diseases, but specific roles for MUC5AC and MUC5B in MCC, and the lasting effects of their inhibition, are unknown. Here we show that mouse Muc5b (but not Muc5ac) is required for MCC, for controlling infections in the airways and middle ear, and for maintaining immune homeostasis in mouse lungs, whereas Muc5ac is dispensable. Muc5b deficiency caused materials to accumulate in upper and lower airways. This defect led to chronic infection by multiple bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, and to inflammation that failed to resolve normally. Apoptotic macrophages accumulated, phagocytosis was impaired, and interleukin-23 (IL-23) production was reduced in Muc5b-/- mice. By contrast, in mice that transgenically overexpress Muc5b, macrophage functions improved. Existing dogma defines mucous phenotypes in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as driven by increased MUC5AC, with MUC5B levels either unaffected or increased in expectorated sputum. However, in many patients, MUC5B production at airway surfaces decreases by as much as 90%. By distinguishing a specific role for Muc5b in MCC, and by determining its impact on bacterial infections and inflammation in mice, our results provide a refined framework for designing targeted therapies to control mucin secretion and restore MCC.

  11. Clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experiencing frequent acute exacerbations

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    Prem Parkash Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aimed at clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to anticipate future exacerbations. Methods: The study included 80 COPD patients; 40 patients had ≥2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (frequent exacerbation [FECOPD] group and 40 patients had <2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (infrequent exacerbation [I-FECOPD] group. Clinical profile, sputum microbiology, blood gas analysis, spirometric indices, and diffusion capacity (transfer test variables were assessed. Groups' comparison was performed using an independent t-test for numeric scale parameters and Chi-square test for nominal parameters. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were derived for numeric scale parameters and numeric nominal parameters, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: FECOPD group contained younger patients than in I-FECOPD group although the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding smoking pack-years and duration of illness. FECOPD group had significantly more expectoration score and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores. Cough score and wheeze score did not differ significantly between two groups. More patients in FECOPD group (12/40 vs. 4/40 had lower airway bacterial colonization. Arterial blood gas parameters were more deranged in FECOPD group. Spirometric indices (forced expiratory volume during 1st s as well as transfer test (both diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and transfer coefficient of the lung values were significantly reduced in FECOPD group. Conclusions: The patients in FECOPD group had clinical, spirometric, and transfer test profiling suggestive of a severe COPD phenotype, the recognition will help in predicting future exacerbations and a better management.

  12. MDGC-MS analysis of essential oils from Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. and their antifungal activity against Candida specie

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    M. MOBIN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Protium heptaphyllum is found in the Amazon region, and in various Brazilian states and South American countries. Also Known as almecega, it produces an oil resin used in traditional medicine as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cicatrizant and expectorant, it is rich in pentacyclic triterpenes and essential oil. The main objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllumresin (OEPh over different extraction times and to evaluate their antifungal activity against Candida species, obtained from gardeners with onychomycosis, using the disk diffusion method. The OEPh was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Multidimensional Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MDGC / MS. Candida species were obtained from lesions on the nails of horticulturist from a community garden in the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The antifungal activity in concentrations of 1000 µg/L, 500 µg/L and 250 µg/L, PROTOCOL M44-A2 (CLSI 2009 OEPh was tested. The main constituents identified were: l-limonene, α-terpineol, p-cineol, o-cymene and α-phellandrene, however, its composition varies significantly with extraction time. All species, except C. rugosa, were inhibited with halo (≥ 14 mm at 1000 μg / L. C. krusei is naturally resistant to the drug fluconazole, but when tested with OEPh the clinical species (case 9 demonstrated sensitivity in three dilutions (halo ≤ 10 ≥ 14 and the standard strain was inhibited at concentration of 1000 μg/Lg / L (halo 14mm. A similar situation also occurred with the standard strain of C. parapsilosis (halo ≥ 11mm. OEPh has considerable antifungal activity, which merits further investigation for alternative clinical applications, since this species is widely distributed in our community, and it presents good yields, and also has important therapeutic applications.

  13. Associação entre a reversibilidade brônquica e a inflamação das vias aéreas em doentes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica

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    António Bugalho

    2002-11-01

    é mondial. Elle est caractérisée par une obstruction des voies aériennes et une inflammation chronique pulmonaire qui varie significativement entre malades. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer les mécanismes physiopathologiques et de l'inflammation dans un groupe de malades avec et sans réversibilité du volume expiratoire maximal dans la première, seconde (FEV1 aux bronchodilatateurs. Nous avons choisi 24 malades porteurs de BPCO stabilisée, modérée et sévère, ex-fumeurs, 12 sans réversibilité et 12 avec réversibilité des voies aériennes. Tous les malades ont subit des études fonctionnelles respiratoires, des concentrations exhalées de l'oxyde nitrique (NO et des déterminations de cellules et de médiateurs solubles (interleulkine-8, 5 et protéine cationique dérivée des éosinophiles dans la expectoration induite et le sang périphérique.Cette étude a confirmé la présence d'inflammation chronique et persistante des voies aériennes de malades avec BPOC, traduit par une augmentation de neutrophiles et IL-8 dans la expectoration. Le groupe de malades avec réversibilité présentait des niveaux élevés de NO, et des éosinophiles et de l'ECP dans la expectoration qui ne peut être expliqués par une production de IL-5, par une population de cellules T cytotoxiques. Un mécanisme inflammatoire, différent de l'asthme, semble être responsable par la réversibilité des voies aériennes. Ces méthodes peuvent être utiles dans la première évaluation de la maladie et prédire et contrôler la réponse au traitement avec corticostéroïdes. La baisse de 1'index de masse corporel associée à l'augmentation de médiateurs d'inflammation, principalement IL-8, confirme la présence d'inflammation systémique dans la BPOC.REV PORT PNEUMOL VIII (6: 547-580 Palavras-chave: DPOC, inflamação, reversibilidade brônquica óxido nítrico, expectoração induzida, eosinófilos, ECP, IL-5, IL-8, Key-words: COPD, inflammation, bronchial reversibility

  14. Nitrous oxide production in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

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    Mette Kolpen

    Full Text Available Chronic lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major severe complication in cystic fibrosis (CF patients, where P. aeruginosa persists and grows in biofilms in the endobronchial mucus under hypoxic conditions. Numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs surround the biofilms and create local anoxia by consuming the majority of O2 for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa acquires energy for growth in anaerobic endobronchial mucus by denitrification, which can be demonstrated by production of nitrous oxide (N2O, an intermediate in the denitrification pathway. We measured N2O and O2 with electrochemical microsensors in 8 freshly expectorated sputum samples from 7 CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection. The concentrations of NO3(- and NO2(- in sputum were estimated by the Griess reagent. We found a maximum median concentration of 41.8 µM N2O (range 1.4-157.9 µM N2O. The concentration of N2O in the sputum was higher below the oxygenated layers. In 4 samples the N2O concentration increased during the initial 6 h of measurements before decreasing for approximately 6 h. Concomitantly, the concentration of NO3(- decreased in sputum during 24 hours of incubation. We demonstrate for the first time production of N2O in clinical material from infected human airways indicating pathogenic metabolism based on denitrification. Therefore, P. aeruginosa may acquire energy for growth by denitrification in anoxic endobronchial mucus in CF patients. Such ability for anaerobic growth may be a hitherto ignored key aspect of chronic P. aeruginosa infections that can inform new strategies for treatment and prevention.

  15. Nitrous oxide production in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpen, Mette; Kühl, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Hansen, Christine Rønne; Liengaard, Lars; Kharazmi, Arsalan; Pressler, Tanja; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major severe complication in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, where P. aeruginosa persists and grows in biofilms in the endobronchial mucus under hypoxic conditions. Numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surround the biofilms and create local anoxia by consuming the majority of O2 for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa acquires energy for growth in anaerobic endobronchial mucus by denitrification, which can be demonstrated by production of nitrous oxide (N2O), an intermediate in the denitrification pathway. We measured N2O and O2 with electrochemical microsensors in 8 freshly expectorated sputum samples from 7 CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection. The concentrations of NO3(-) and NO2(-) in sputum were estimated by the Griess reagent. We found a maximum median concentration of 41.8 µM N2O (range 1.4-157.9 µM N2O). The concentration of N2O in the sputum was higher below the oxygenated layers. In 4 samples the N2O concentration increased during the initial 6 h of measurements before decreasing for approximately 6 h. Concomitantly, the concentration of NO3(-) decreased in sputum during 24 hours of incubation. We demonstrate for the first time production of N2O in clinical material from infected human airways indicating pathogenic metabolism based on denitrification. Therefore, P. aeruginosa may acquire energy for growth by denitrification in anoxic endobronchial mucus in CF patients. Such ability for anaerobic growth may be a hitherto ignored key aspect of chronic P. aeruginosa infections that can inform new strategies for treatment and prevention.

  16. Minimally invasive lung volume reduction treated with bronchi occlusion emphysema model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dayong; Shen Liming; Shen Junkang; Jin Yiqi; Chen Lei; Huang Xianchen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the coil-and-glue method for the reduction of lung volume in rabbit emphysema model. Methods: Sixteen rabbits of emphysema model were divided into the occlusion group(n=10), in which both anterior bronchi were occluded using the coil-and- glue method, and the control group (n=6). The maximal static pressure of airway (P max ), peak expiratory flow (PEF), end-expiratory volume (EEV) and pressure of oxygen (PO 2 ) were measured at ante- emphysema, post-emphysema, 1 week and 4 week after occlusion respectively. The expectoration (or migration) of coil and collapse of lung were also investigated. Results: P max was (20.0±1.3) and (17.1± 1.4) cm H 2 O (1 cm H 2 O=0.098 kPa) in the occlusion group at ante-emphysema and post-emphysema respectively. P max was (19.2±1.4) cm H 2 O in the occlusion group in the 1 week after the occlusion, while (17.1±1.5)cm H 2 O in the control group (F=6.68, P max was (19.2±1.4) cm H 2 O in the occlusion group, while (16.6±1.2) cm H 2 O in the control group (F=12.10, P max , in the 1 week and 4 week after occlusion were higher than those at post-emphysema (P<0.01, respectively); EEV at post-emphysema was higher than that at ante-emphysema (P<0.01). Conclusion: Coil-and-glue occlusion method for lung volume reduction in rabbit emphysema model can improve the pulmonary function, which can be relatively long lasting. (authors)

  17. A cross-sectional study of sputum handling by and supervision of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated at home in China.

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    Mei, L; Tobe, R G; Geng, H; Ma, Y B; Li, R Y; Wang, W B; Selotlegeng, L; Wang, X Z; Xu, L Z

    2012-12-01

    Disposal of sputum from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) who are treated at home is an important aspect of preventing the spread of TB. However, few studies have examined disposal of sputum by patients with TB who are treated at home. Patients with pulmonary TB who are treated at home were surveyed regarding sputum handling and supervision. A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of patients with pulmonary TB who are treated at home was conducted in Shandong Province. Participants were individuals with TB who had been registered with a local agency responsible for TB control. Participants completed a questionnaire with both qualitative and quantitative questions. How sputum was handled was determined and factors associated with sputum disposal were analyzed using a non-parametric test, logistic regression, and content analysis. Responses were received from 720 participants. Patients expectorated sputum 4.56 ± 10.367 times a day, and 68.6% of patients responded that they correctly disposed of their sputum. Supervision as part of TB control focused on the efforts of health agencies and paid little attention to waste management by patients. A non-parametric test showed that sputum disposal was significantly associated with gender, age, education, sputum smear results, attitudes toward waste management, and attitudes toward supervision (all p definition, details, and methods of supervision of waste management by patients with TB to give them relevant health education and enhance their willingness to be supervised. A financial incentive should be provided to health workers supervising management of TB-related waste.

  18. Comparative Evaluation for Assessing Oratest as a Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Plaque Levels & Gingivitis

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    Mahasweta Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Periodontal disease comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the supporting tissues of the teeth that are caused by bacteria. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Oratest could be used as a sensitive indicator of plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: Hundred caries free patients visiting the out-patient department of A.E.C.S. Maaruti College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Banglore were selected according to predetermined selection criteria. The study consisted of two clinical stages: Stage 1. Recording of Plaque Index (Loe, 1967 and Gingival Index (Loe & Silness 1963 in the subjects. Stage 2. Performance of the Oratest and recording the scores in the same subjects. The Oratest was performed by rinsing the mouth with sterilized UHT (Ultra high temperature milk. About 3 ml of expectorated milk was added to a test tube containing the 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue. The time required for colour change from blue to white attained at the bottom of the tube was recorded. Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores were compared using Student t test. Pearson correlation test was applied to assess correlation between the indices and Oratest scores. Results:The results of the study showed that as age increased plaque and Gingival Indexes also increased whereas Oratest scores decreased. No significant difference between males and females was found in mean values of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores. Negative correlation was seen between Plaque Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.724 and also between Gingival Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.728. Conclusions: The study showed high correlation between the plaque and gingival indices and Oratest scores. This study validates Oratest as a predictable & sensitive test to assess periodontal disease.

  19. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  20. Impact of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on time to exhaustion during Ramadan: A randomized controlled trial in Jordanian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Mo'ath F; Al-Nawaiseh, Ali M; Abu Altaieb, Mohammad H; Bellar, David M; Hindawi, Omar S; Judge, Lawrence W

    2018-04-01

    Mouth rinsing using a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has been suggested to improve physical performance in fasting participants. This study examined the effects of CHO mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting on running time to exhaustion and on peak treadmill speed (V peak ). In a counterbalanced crossover design, 18 sub-elite male runners (Age: 21 ± 2 years, Weight: 68.1 ± 5.7 kg, VO 2max : 55.4 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min) who observed Ramadan completed a familiarization trial and three experimental trials. The three trials included rinsing and expectorating a 25 mL bolus of either a 7.5% sucrose solution (CHO), a flavour and taste matched placebo solution (PLA) for 10 s, or no rinse (CON). The treatments were performed prior to an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Three-day dietary and exercise records were obtained on two occasions and analysed. Anthropometric characteristics were obtained and recorded for all participants. A main effect for mouth rinse on peak velocity (V peak ) (CHO: 17.6 ± 1.5 km/h; PLA: 17.1 ± 1.4 km/h; CON: 16.7 ± 1.2 km/h; P  .05). Energy availability from dietary analysis, body weight, and fat-free mass did not change during the last two weeks of Ramadan (P > .05). This study concludes that carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves running time to exhaustion and peak treadmill speed under Ramadan fasting conditions.

  1. A Clinical Trial of Kampo Formulae for the Treatment of Symptoms of Yusho, a Poisoning Caused by Dioxins and Related Organochlorine Compounds

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    Hiroshi Uchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional herbal medicines (Kampo on the symptoms of Yusho. Yusho is a mass food poisoning that was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with dioxins and related organochlorines in 1968. Patients with Yusho suffer from skin symptoms (acneform eruptions, liability to suppuration and pigmentation, respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration of sputum, neurological symptoms (numbness and paresthesia of extremities, arthralgia and general fatigue, and no effective treatment has yet been developed. In this clinical trial, four Kampo formulae (Bakumondo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosha-jinki-gan and Hochu-ekki-to were administered to four representative Yusho symptoms (respiratory, skin, neurological symptoms and general fatigue, respectively. Twenty-seven Yusho patients were enrolled and two formulae were administered to each patient for half-a-year each. The effectiveness of Kampo formulae was estimated by changes in the intensity of symptoms measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS of 100 mm recorded at baseline and after administration of each formula. The influence of Kampo formulae on patients’ quality of life (QOL was also assessed by the SF-36 (NBS. Twenty-five patients completed the treatment. Bakumondo-to significantly improved respiratory symptoms as well as patients’ QOL in the context of vitality, compared with other formulae. In contrast, Hochu-ekki-to impaired patients’ QOL in the context of physical functioning and vitality, compared with other formulae. This study demonstrated for the first time that a Kampo formula Bakumondo-to is useful for treating respiratory symptoms caused by dioxins.

  2. A clinical trial of kampo formulae for the treatment of symptoms of yusho, a poisoning caused by dioxins and related organochlorine compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchi, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Mitoma, Chikage; Shibata, Satoko; Hamada, Naoki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiwara, Junboku; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) on the symptoms of Yusho. Yusho is a mass food poisoning that was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with dioxins and related organochlorines in 1968. Patients with Yusho suffer from skin symptoms (acneform eruptions, liability to suppuration and pigmentation), respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration of sputum), neurological symptoms (numbness and paresthesia of extremities), arthralgia and general fatigue, and no effective treatment has yet been developed. In this clinical trial, four Kampo formulae (Bakumondo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosha-jinki-gan and Hochu-ekki-to) were administered to four representative Yusho symptoms (respiratory, skin, neurological symptoms and general fatigue), respectively. Twenty-seven Yusho patients were enrolled and two formulae were administered to each patient for half-a-year each. The effectiveness of Kampo formulae was estimated by changes in the intensity of symptoms measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 100 mm recorded at baseline and after administration of each formula. The influence of Kampo formulae on patients' quality of life (QOL) was also assessed by the SF-36 (NBS). Twenty-five patients completed the treatment. Bakumondo-to significantly improved respiratory symptoms as well as patients' QOL in the context of vitality, compared with other formulae. In contrast, Hochu-ekki-to impaired patients' QOL in the context of physical functioning and vitality, compared with other formulae. This study demonstrated for the first time that a Kampo formula Bakumondo-to is useful for treating respiratory symptoms caused by dioxins.

  3. Effects of time after infection, mosquito genotype, and infectious viral dose on the dynamics of Culex tarsalis vector competence for western equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Farida; Chiles, Robert E; Fang, Ying; Green, Emily N; Reisen, William K

    2006-06-01

    The vector competence of Culex tarsalis Coquillett for the BFS 1703 strain of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) changed significantly as a function of time after infection, mosquito genotype, and infectious virus dose. After ingesting a high virus dose (5 log10 plaque-forming units [PFU]/0.1 ml), female of the susceptible high virus producer (HVP) strain rapidly amplified the virus, developed a disseminated infection, and efficiently transmitted WEEV by 4 days postinfection (dpi). The quantity of virus expectorated peaked at 4 dpi (mean 3.4 log10 PFU), and the percentage of females transmitting per os peaked at 7 dpi (80%); both measures of transmission subsequently decreased to low levels throughout the remainder of infected life. HVP females imbibing a low virus dose (3 log10 PFU/0.1 ml) were infected less frequently and took longer to amplify virus to levels recorded for the high virus dose group and did not transmit virus efficiently, thereby indicating midgut infection and escape barriers were dose and time dependent. These data emphasized the importance of elevated avian viremias in Cx. tarsalis vector competence. Females from the WEEV-resistant (WR) strain and two wild-type strains from Kern and Riverside counties were significantly less susceptible to infection at both high and low doses than was the HVP strain. Overall, females with a high virus titer more frequently had a disseminated infection, but there did not seem to be a distinct threshold demarcating this relationship. In marked contrast, all infected females transmitting virus had body titers >4.3 log10 PFU, and most had titers >4.8 log10 PFU. These data indicated that not all females with a disseminated infection transmitted virus because of the presence of one or more salivary gland barriers.

  4. Community Respiratory Viruses as a Cause of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Following Suppressive Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Shalaby, L.; Kandil

    2005-01-01

    Community respiratory viruses are an important cause of respiratory disease in the immunocompromised patients with cancer. To evaluate the occurrence and clinical significance of respiratory virus infections in hospitalized cancer patients at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during anticancer treatment, we studied cases that developed episodes of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with LRTI were studied clinically, radiologically, and microbiologically. Sputum cultures were done and an immunofluorescence search for IgM antibodies of influenza A and B, parainfluenza serotypes 1,2 and 3, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnettii, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were performed on serum samples of patients. The main presenting symptom was cough and expectoration. Hematologic malignancy was the underlying disease in 86.6% of cases. Blood cultures were positive in II patients (36.6%) only. Sputum cultures revealed a bacterial pathogen in [3 cases and fungi in 3; whereas viral and atypical bacterial lgM antibodies were detected in 13 and 4 patients; respectively. Influenza virus was the commonest virus detected, being of type B in 4 cases, type A in one case and mixed A and B in another 5 cases; followed by RSV in 5 patients. Taken together, bacteria were identified as a single cause of LRTI in 10 cases, viruses in 6, fungi in 3 and mixed causes in 7. Still, there were 4 undiagnosed cases. This study showed that respiratory viruses are common in LRTI, either as a single cause or mixed with bacterial pathogens. in hospitalized cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Diagnostic tests for respiratory viruses should be incorporated in the routine diagnostic study of patients with hematologic malignancies. Also, it must be emphasized that early CT chest is crucial as a base-line prior to initiation of anti-fungal or anti-viral therapy. In cancer patients with a

  5. Factors associated with efficacy of an ibuprofen/pseudoephedrine combination drug in pharmacy customers with common cold symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Schumacher, Helmut; Schütt, Tanja; Gräter, Heidemarie; Mueck, Tobias; Michel, Martin C

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore factors affecting efficacy of treatment of common cold symptoms with an over-the-counter ibuprofen/pseudoephedrine combination product. Data from an anonymous survey among 1770 pharmacy customers purchasing the combination product for treatment of own common cold symptoms underwent post-hoc descriptive analysis. Scores of symptoms typically responsive to ibuprofen (headache, pharyngeal pain, joint pain and fever), typically responsive to pseudoephedrine (congested nose, congested sinus and runny nose), considered non-specific (sneezing, fatigue, dry cough, cough with expectoration) and comprising all 11 symptoms were analysed. Multiple regression analysis was applied to explore factors associated with greater reduction in symptom intensity or greater probability of experiencing a symptom reduction of at least 50%. After intake of first dose of medication, typically ibuprofen-sensitive, pseudoephedrine-responsive, non-specific and total symptoms were reduced by 60.0%, 46.3%, 45.4% and 52.8%, respectively. A symptom reduction of at least 50% was reported by 73.6%, 55.1%, 50.9% and 61.6% of participants, respectively. A high baseline score was associated with greater reductions in symptom scores but smaller probability of achieving an improvement of at least 50%. Across both multiple regression approaches, two tablets at first dosing were more effective than one and (except for ibuprofen-sensitive symptoms) starting treatment later than day 2 of the cold was generally less effective. Efficacy of an ibuprofen/pseudoephedrine combination in the treatment of common cold symptoms was dose-dependent and greatest when treatment started within the first 2 days after onset of symptoms. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Face mask sampling for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in expelled aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M L; Cheah, Eddy S G; Malkin, Joanne; Patel, Hemu; Otu, Jacob; Mlaga, Kodjovi; Sutherland, Jayne S; Antonio, Martin; Perera, Nelun; Woltmann, Gerrit; Haldar, Pranabashis; Garton, Natalie J; Barer, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is transmitted by the airborne route, direct information on the natural output of bacilli into air by source cases is very limited. We sought to address this through sampling of expelled aerosols in face masks that were subsequently analyzed for mycobacterial contamination. In series 1, 17 smear microscopy positive patients wore standard surgical face masks once or twice for periods between 10 minutes and 5 hours; mycobacterial contamination was detected using a bacteriophage assay. In series 2, 19 patients with suspected tuberculosis were studied in Leicester UK and 10 patients with at least one positive smear were studied in The Gambia. These subjects wore one FFP30 mask modified to contain a gelatin filter for one hour; this was subsequently analyzed by the Xpert MTB/RIF system. In series 1, the bacteriophage assay detected live mycobacteria in 11/17 patients with wearing times between 10 and 120 minutes. Variation was seen in mask positivity and the level of contamination detected in multiple samples from the same patient. Two patients had non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. In series 2, 13/20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis produced positive masks and 0/9 patients with extrapulmonary or non-tuberculous diagnoses were mask positive. Overall, 65% of patients with confirmed pulmonary mycobacterial infection gave positive masks and this included 3/6 patients who received diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavages. Mask sampling provides a simple means of assessing mycobacterial output in non-sputum expectorant. The approach shows potential for application to the study of airborne transmission and to diagnosis.

  7. Drug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K Hom

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB and describe the resistance patterns in patients commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART in an HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa.Cross-sectional cohort study.Consecutive HIV-infected adults (≥ 18y/o initiating HIV care were enrolled from May 2007-May 2008, regardless of signs or symptoms of active TB. Prior TB history and current TB treatment status were self-reported. Subjects expectorated sputum for culture (MGIT liquid and 7H11 solid medium. Positive cultures were tested for susceptibility to first- and second-line anti-tuberculous drugs. The prevalence of drug-resistant TB, stratified by prior TB history and current TB treatment status, was assessed.1,035 subjects had complete culture results. Median CD4 count was 92/µl (IQR 42-150/µl. 267 subjects (26% reported a prior history of TB and 210 (20% were receiving TB treatment at enrollment; 191 (18% subjects had positive sputum cultures, among whom the estimated prevalence of resistance to any antituberculous drug was 7.4% (95% CI 4.0-12.4. Among those with prior TB, the prevalence of resistance was 15.4% (95% CI 5.9-30.5 compared to 5.2% (95% CI 2.1-8.9 among those with no prior TB. 5.1% (95% CI 2.4-9.5 had rifampin or rifampin plus INH resistance.The prevalence of TB resistance to at least one drug was 7.4% among adults with positive TB cultures initiating ART in Durban, South Africa, with 5.1% having rifampin or rifampin plus INH resistance. Improved tools for diagnosing TB and drug resistance are urgently needed in areas of high HIV/TB prevalence.

  8. The effect of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy on symptoms, quality of life and incidence of re-exacerbation in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadnik, Christian R; McDonald, Christine F; Miller, Belinda R; Hill, Catherine J; Tarrant, Ben; Steward, Ranjana; Chao, Caroline; Stodden, Nicole; Oliveira, Cristino C; Gagliardi, Nadia; Holland, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) is a technique used to enhance sputum clearance during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The impact of PEP therapy during acute exacerbations on clinically important outcomes is not clear. This study sought to determine the effect of PEP therapy on symptoms, quality of life and future exacerbations in patients with AECOPD. 90 inpatients (58 men; mean age 68.6 years, FEV(1) 40.8% predicted) with AECOPD and sputum expectoration were randomised to receive usual care (including physical exercise)±PEP therapy. The Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and BODE index (Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exercise tolerance) were measured at discharge, 8 weeks and 6 months following discharge, and analysed via linear mixed models. Exacerbations and hospitalisations were recorded using home diaries. There were no significant between-group differences over time for BCSS score [mean (SE) at discharge 5.2 (0.4) vs 5.0 (0.4) for PEP and control group, respectively; p=0.978] or SGRQ total score [41.6 (2.6) vs 40.8 (2.8) at 8 weeks, p=0.872]. Dyspnoea improved more rapidly in the PEP group over the first 8 weeks (p=0.006), however these benefits were not observed at 6 months. Exacerbations (p=0.986) and hospitalisations (p=0.359) did not differ between groups. We found no evidence that PEP therapy during AECOPD improves important short-term or long-term outcomes. There does not appear to be a routine role for PEP therapy in the management of such individuals.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Menstruation, Pregnancy and Menopause on Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Gustatory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Hans, Vibha; Madan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are five situations in a women’s life during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems – during puberty, at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle, when using birth control pills, during pregnancy, and at menopause. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause on salivary flow rate, pH and gustatory function. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 120 patients including 30 controls (with normal menstrual cycle of 28 to 30 d) and 90 cases (30 patients within three days of menstruation, 30 pregnant and 30 postmenopausal). Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration to calculate salivary flow rate, pH was measured electrometically and patients were prospectively evaluated for gustatory function. Then, whole mouth taste test was performed in which the quality identification and intensity ratings of taste solutions were measured. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the groups with respect to salivary flow rate but pH values were significantly lower in post menopausal women (pwomen than intensity of taste perception for other tastes (pwomen reported change in their dietary habits as all of them expressed liking for sweeter food. Conclusion: Reduced salivary flow rate and pH in postmen­opausal women may make them more prone to the occurrence of oral health problems. Also, pregnant and postmenopausal women appeared to have a reduced perception of sucrose, which can alter eating habits, such as intake of more sweet foods whereas no significant difference is observed in taste perception of NaCl, citric acid and quinine hydrochloride between the subjects. PMID:25478455

  10. Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Menstruation, Pregnancy and Menopause on Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Gustatory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Pulin; Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Hans, Vibha; Madan, Ajay

    2014-10-01

    There are five situations in a women's life during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems - during puberty, at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle, when using birth control pills, during pregnancy, and at menopause. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause on salivary flow rate, pH and gustatory function. The study was carried out on 120 patients including 30 controls (with normal menstrual cycle of 28 to 30 d) and 90 cases (30 patients within three days of menstruation, 30 pregnant and 30 postmenopausal). Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration to calculate salivary flow rate, pH was measured electrometically and patients were prospectively evaluated for gustatory function. Then, whole mouth taste test was performed in which the quality identification and intensity ratings of taste solutions were measured. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups with respect to salivary flow rate but pH values were significantly lower in post menopausal women (pwomen than intensity of taste perception for other tastes (pwomen reported change in their dietary habits as all of them expressed liking for sweeter food. Reduced salivary flow rate and pH in postmen-opausal women may make them more prone to the occurrence of oral health problems. Also, pregnant and postmenopausal women appeared to have a reduced perception of sucrose, which can alter eating habits, such as intake of more sweet foods whereas no significant difference is observed in taste perception of NaCl, citric acid and quinine hydrochloride between the subjects.

  11. Development of a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in serum with pharmacokinetic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Maja M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambroxol hydrochloride is an expectorant agent, successfully applied in mucolytic therapy for acute and chronic bronchopulmonary diseases. The drug regulates not only mucus secretion but also showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and local anesthetic properties. To supplement the pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies of ambroxol, a rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of ambroxol in rabbit serum was developed. A validation of the method was performed as per the ICH guidelines for the validation of bioanalytical methods. The chromatographic separation was achieved in a submicron Kinetex RP - C18 - column (2.1 mm x 50 mm, 1.3μm using the no buffer mobile phase. The ESI mass spectrometry in the MRM mode was used with a typical transitions m/z 378.9→263.8 for ambroxol and m/z 455.2→165.0 for IS. Linearity was determined with an average coefficient of determination >0.999 over the dynamic range from 0.5 - 200 ng/mL with LOD and LOQ of 0.25 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. The results of the intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy determined in different days were all found to be within the acceptable limits ±15%. The present method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study in the rabbits after a single oral dose administration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175045

  12. PNEUMONIA IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

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    Renato Eržen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in advanced age. Prognosis of the disease depends on premorbid condition and immune competence of the patient, severity of the disease and causative microorganism. In our analysis we wanted to establish clinical, x-ray and microbiological characteristics of pneumonia in nursing home residents, estimate suitability of therapeutic measures and find out risk factors for adverse outcome in this group of patients.Material and methods. This retrospective study includes all nursing home residents hospitalised due to CAP in Hospital Golnik in 2000. Clinical data was/were evaluated according to case history. Microbiological data and laboratory results were gathered from the patients files. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results. 30 patients, 17 women were included, aged 82.5 ± 11.7 years. 60% of patients had at least 2 accompanying diseases, most frequently cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. At admittance 83% of patients presented with severe form of the disease. Dispnea (93%, tachypnea, cough (67% and confusion (47% dominate clinical picture. Patients rarely expectorate, are frequently hypoxemic (93%, have leucocytosis (63%, electrolyte disturbances and elevated urea (67%. According to the microbiologic results most frequent causative agents are Enterobacteriae, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and also some multiresistant bacteria. Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid was the most frequently used antibiotic, followed by macrolides and 3rd generation cephalosporines.9 patients died, mortality rate was 30%. Their average age was 83,4 years, 67% of them had more than 2 accompanying diseases, all of them severe form of the disease, 89% severe respiratory insufficiency and 22% positive hemoculture.Conclusions. Patients are characterised with numerous comorbidities and advanced age. Clinical presentation is unspecific. Mortality is high

  13. Fungal contamination of the respiratory tract and associated respiratory impairment among sawmill workers in India

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    Asit Adhikari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood processing workers are exposed to wood-associated microbiological contaminants, including fungi. Our aim was to study the potential association between sputum fungus and adverse respiratory effects in such workers. In a group of sawmill workers, we administered a respiratory questionnaire, performed lung function testing and quantified the proportions of leukocytes in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples. We identified fungal species by DNA sequencing. Of 54 sawmill workers, 19 yielded fungal positive sputum samples (mean age 42.5±10.4 years and 35 were negative for fungus (mean age 36.9±5.2 years. The fungus was identified as Candida sp. in all samples. Those with fungal-positive sputum, compared to others, reported more cough (26% versus 63% and haemoptysis (6% versus 37% (both p<0.05, manifested reduced forced midexpiratory flow rates (FEF25–75% (82.3±4.5 versus 69.2±9.9% predicted, p<0.001, and had higher sputum eosinophil counts (median 9.25 versus 3.25%, p<0.01. Reduction of FEF25–75% was associated both with fungus detection in sputum (−12.7%, 95% CI−8.5– −16.9% and sputum eosinophils (−2.1% per 1% increase in eosinophils, 95% CI −1.5– −2.8% (both p<0.001. In sawmill workers, Candida sp. detectable in sputum was associated with respiratory symptoms, sputum eosinophilia and reduced FEF25–75%.

  14. Relative effects of bronchial drainage and exercise for in-hospital care of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, F J

    1989-08-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is a standard part of the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Coughing alone promotes sputum expectoration and is probably the primary effective component of standard bronchial hygiene therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether substituting regular exercise, which also promotes coughing, for two of three daily bronchial hygiene treatments would affect the expected improvements in pulmonary function and exercise response in hospitalized patients with CF. Seventeen patients with CF hospitalized (means length of stay = 13.0 +/- 2.6 days) for an acute exacerbation of their pulmonary disease participated in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to either a group that participated in two cycle ergometer exercise sessions and one bronchial hygiene treatment session per day (EX Group [n = 9]) or a group that participated in three bronchial hygiene treatment sessions per day (PD Group [n = 8]). Pulmonary functions and responses to a progressive, incremental cycle ergometer exercise test were measured on admission and before discharge. Bronchial hygiene therapy consisted of postural drainage, in six positions, with chest percussion and vibration. Therapeutic exercise was of moderate intensity and was individually adjusted based on the patient's heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation response to the admission exercise test. Coughing was encouraged during and after all treatments. Pulmonary function and exercise response were significantly improved over the period of hospitalization in both groups; the improvements were the same in the two groups. These results indicate that, in some hospitalized patients with CF, exercise therapy may be substituted for at least part of the standard protocol of bronchial hygiene therapy.

  15. Morusinol extracted from Morus alba inhibits arterial thrombosis and modulates platelet activation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Yang, Hyun; Yoo, Yeong-Min; Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hak-Ju; Myung, Chang-Seon; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-01-01

    Morus alba (white mulberry) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-headache, diuretic, expectorant, and anti-diabetic agent. In previous studies, extracts of Morus alba demonstrated favorable biological properties, such as antioxidant activity, suppression of lipoxygenase (LOX)-1, cytotoxicity against cancer cells, and inhibition of the invasion and migration of cancer cells. This study further evaluated the effects of morusinol, a flavonoid derived from Morus alba root bark, on platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2) formation in vitro and thrombus formation in vivo. The antiplatelet potential of morusinol was measured using in vitro rabbit platelet aggregation and TXB(2) formation assays. Arterial thrombus formation was investigated using an in vivo ferric chloride (FeCl(3)-induced thrombosis model. Morusinol significantly inhibited collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation and TXB(2) formation in cultured platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Thrombus formation was reduced by 32.1, 42.0, and 99.0% for collagen-induced TXB(2) formation, and 8.0, 24.1, and 29.2% for arachadonic acid-induced TXB(2) formation, with 5, 10, and 30 µg/mL morusinol, respectively. Moreover, oral morusinol (20 mg/kg) or aspirin (20 mg/kg) for three days significantly increased the time to occlusion in vivo by 20.3±5.0 or 6.8±2.9 min, respectively, compared with the control (1% CMC, carboxymethyl cellulose). Taken together, these results indicate that morusinol may significantly inhibit arterial thrombosis in vivo due to antiplatelet activity. Thus, morusinol may exert beneficial effects on transient ischemic attacks or stroke via the modulation of platelet activation.

  16. Rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant Burkholderia multivorans strain in a cystic fibrosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokell, Joshua R; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Steck, Todd R

    2013-12-01

    Burkholderia multivorans poses a serious health threat to cystic fibrosis patients due to innate resistance to multiple antibiotics and acquisition of resistance to a range of antibiotics due to the frequent use of antibiotics to treat chronic infections. Monitoring antibiotic susceptibility is crucial to managing patient care. We identified the rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant strain in a single patient within four days during a hospitalization for treatment of an exacerbation. B. multivorans was isolated from expectorated sputum samples using Burkholderia cepacia selective agar. A macrodilution assay was performed on all isolates to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of ceftazidime. Approximately 4000 colonies were scored to identify the percent of ceftazidime-resistant colonies. Extracted DNA was used to determine the total bacterial counts and abundance of B. multivorans using quantitative PCR. An increase from no detectable B. multivorans ceftazidime-resistant colonies to over 75% of all colonies tested occurred within a four-day period. The resistant population remained dominant in 6 of the 8 samples in the following 17 months of the study. qPCR revealed an association between change in the percent of resistant colonies and abundance of B. multivorans, but not of total bacteria. No association was found between the acquisition of resistance to ceftazidime and other antibiotics commonly used to treat B. multivorans infections. The rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant by B. multivorans strain occurred during a hospitalization while under selective pressure of antibiotics. The resistant strain maintained dominance in the B. multivorans population which resulted in an overall decline in a patient health and treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Deaths due to abuse of dextromethorphan sold over-the-counter in Pakistan

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    Humera Shafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dextromethorphan is the most commonly used over-the-counter anti-tussive and expectorant medicine at therapeutic doses. Due to easy availability, euphoric high and hallucinogenic effects at larger doses, dextromethorphan popularity amongst the drug abusers is growing day by day. It is often mixed with alcohol, opiates, cannabinoids or other drugs of abuse for recreational purposes despite their lethal synergistic effects. More than 50 deaths were reported the first time in Pakistan after consuming cough syrups containing dextromethorphan, manufactured by two local pharmaceutical industries. All deceased had the history of drug abuse. We report the deaths of nineteen males, ages ranged from 17 to 45 years, in two major cities of Pakistan who purposefully ingested large doses of dextromethorphan for recreational purposes and died as a result of direct toxic effects of the drug. Toxicological analysis revealed high levels of dextromethorphan ranging from 7.3 to 41.7 mg/L in the peripheral blood, 4.2–92.6 mg/kg in the liver and 9.9–349.6 mg/L in the gastric content by high performance liquid chromatography. The dextromethorphan concentrations in all subjects significantly exceeded the therapeutic range and were consistent with concentrations reported in other cases of dextromethorphan abuse and toxicity. Besides dextromethorphan other drugs of abuse like cannabinoids, opiates, benzodiazepines, ethanol and chlorpheniramine were also detected. The cause of death was determined to be acute dextromethorphan intoxication with lethal synergistic effect of other co-ingested drugs of abuse. The deaths resulted in the prosecution of all individuals involved in manufacturing, distribution or sale of the cough syrup.

  18. AMINOACID COMPOSITION OF SOME SPECIES FROM INULA GENUS

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    A. A. Kruglaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of medicinal plants and medicinal plant raw materials are understudied pharmacgostically. These plants include species from Inula genus, which range in Russia amounts to up to 40 species. Rhizomes and roots of the Inula helenium L. are broadly applied in scientific and traditional medicine. They have expectorate, styptic, and anti-inflammatory properties.The purpose of the study was to determine the amino-acid composition of some species from Inula genus (Inula germanica, Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera, Inula orientalis, which grow in different regions if the North Caucasus.Methods. The studies were carried out using AAA 400 amino acid analyzer, highly specialized automatized liquid chromatographer with computer management. Aboveground parts of the plants, gathered in mass blossom phase from wild-growing plants and then dried out were the objects of the study.Results. For the first time the amino acid composition and raw protein of some species from Inula genus was determined (Inula germanica, Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera, Inula orientalis, 16 amino acids were discovered, 7 of which were essential, and raw proteins which substantival composition amounted to 16.19% in Inula germanica, 10.78% in Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera (11.15%, Inula orientalis (13.94%.Conclusion. The results of the studies conducted broaden the data about amino acids and protein composition and quantitative content in the species from Inula genus and can be used to develop methods of analysis of the drugs, obtained from these plants.

  19. Characteristics of Chinese patients with cough in primary care centre

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    Bai Chunxue

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough is one of the most common respiratory symptoms and is well characterized in specialized cough clinics with high success rates of diagnosis and treatment. However, there is a paucity of data regarding cough in primary care settings. The present study aimed at investigating clinical epidemiology of cough through a national study of two questionnaire surveys sent to primary care physicians in China. Methods Approximately 18,000 subjects recruited were having daytime or night symptoms of cough and diagnoses of respiratory disease from February 2005 to April 2006 as Survey 1 and from June 2007 to December 2007 as Survey 2. Patients suffering from respiratory malignancy, hyperthyroidism, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, severe hypohepatia or renal dysfunction, pregnancy, possible pregnancy or lactation, neutropenia were not eligible. Information regarding demography, history of allergies, symptomatic profile, treatment and curative effects for cough was elicited. Results 8216 questionnaires were collected in Survey 1 and 9711 in Survey 2. The mean values of ages were 25.7 and 22.3 years old, respectively. Symptoms included expectoration (74% and 76%, wheeze (59% and 74%, breathlessness (22% and 26%, chest pain (9% and 13% and fever (15% and 18%. About 15% and 23% patients had hypersusceptibility, of whom 6% to 17% had a family history. More than 50% of the cases had histories of allergic rhinitis, asthma, conjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis. Asthma, COPD, and bronchitis were dominant etiologies of cough. Procaterol or the combination of antibiotics and steroids were used as the treatment. Conclusion Causes and outcomes of cough differed with ages and time in this particular national study, while successful and precise diagnosis and management of cough in primary care settings need to be further improved in China.

  20. Effects of Caffeinated Gum on a Battery of Soccer-Specific Tests in Trained University-Standard Male Soccer Players.

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    Ranchordas, Mayur K; King, George; Russell, Mitchell; Lynn, Anthony; Russell, Mark

    2018-03-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether caffeinated gum influenced performance in a battery of soccer-specific tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players. In a double blind, randomised, cross-over design, ten male university-standard soccer players (age 19 ± 1 y, stature 1.80 ± 0.10 m, body mass 75.5 ± 4.8 kg) masticated a caffeinated (200 mg; caffeine) or control (0 mg; placebo) gum on two separate occasions. After a standardised warm-up, gum was chewed for 5 min and subsequently expectorated 5 min before players performed a maximal countermovement jump, a 20 m sprint test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1). Performance on 20 m sprints were not different between trials (caffeine: 3.2 ± 0.3 s, placebo: 3.1 ± 0.3 s; p = 0.567; small effect size: d = 0.33), but caffeine did allow players to cover 2.0% more distance during Yo-YoIR1 (caffeine: 1754 ± 156 m, placebo: 1719 ± 139 m; p = 0.016; small effect size: d = 0.24) and increase maximal countermovement jump height by 2.2% (caffeine: 47.1 ± 3.4 cm, placebo: 46.1 ± 3.2 cm; p = 0.008; small effect size: d = 0.30). Performance on selected physical tests (Yo-YoIR1 and countermovement jump) was improved by the chewing of caffeinated gum in the immediate period before testing in university-standard soccer players but the sizes of such effects were small. Such findings may have implications for the recommendations made to soccer players about to engage with subsequent exercise performance.

  1. Bacteria isolated from the airways of paediatric patients with bronchiectasis according to HIV status

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    Charl Verwey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of which bacteria are found in the airways of paediatric patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (CF is important in defining empirical antibiotic guidelines for the treatment of acute infective exacerbations. Objective. To describe the bacteria isolated from the airways of children with non-CF bronchiectasis according to their HIV status. Methods. Records of children with non-CF bronchiectasis who attended the paediatric pulmonology clinic at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, from April 2011 to March 2013, or were admitted to the hospital during that period, were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, HIV status, and characteristics of the airway samples and types of bacteria isolated. Results. There were 66 patients with non-CF bronchiectasis over the 2-year study period. The median age was 9.1 years (interquartile range 7.2 - 12.1. The majority of patients (78.8% were HIV-infected. A total of 134 samples was collected (median 1.5 per patient, range 1 - 7, of which 81.3% were expectorated or induced sputum samples. Most bacteria were Gram negatives (72.1%. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common bacterium identified (36.0%, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (12.6%, Moraxella catarrhalis (11.1% and Staphylococcus aureus (10.6%. There were no differences between HIV-infected and uninfected patients in prevalence or type of pathogens isolated. Conclusion. Bacterial isolates from the airways of children with non-CF bronchiectasis were similar to those in other paediatric populations and were not affected by HIV status.

  2. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF SPUTUM POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG HIV SEROPOSITIVE AND HIV SERONEGATIVE PATIENTS- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Amit Govind Kamat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of TB and HIV is one of the major public health challenges. The increasing rate of HIV infection in many countries has had an impact on TB epidemiology. As the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis is increasing among HIV seropositive patients with a wide range of immune status and clinical presentations, the present study was undertaken to assess the clinical and laboratory profile of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present one year cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum on 104 patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the period of January 2009 to December 2009. Routine investigations such as blood group, haemogram that is haemoglobin, total count, differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sputum smears for AFB and chest x-ray were done. RESULTS Seroprevalence of HIV among pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 23.08%. On examination anaemia, undernourishment, lymphadenopathy and the presence of opportunistic infections like oral candidiasis, herpes zoster stain and genital lesions were more predominant among HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives. Mean Hb and TLC were significantly low among HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives. Chest x-ray showed varied presentation. Upper zone infiltration, cavitation and fibrosis were more commonly involved among HIV seronegatives compared to HIV seropositives. CONCLUSION HIV seropositive PTB patients commonly present with fever, weight loss and loss of appetite, while cough with expectoration, haemoptysis, breathlessness were more common with HIV seronegative patients. Cavitation, fibrosis and fibrocavitary lesions were predominantly seen among HIV seronegatives, while infiltration and miliary mottling was

  3. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum identified by transcriptome analysis

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    Chunhua eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable.Principal Findings:A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80% were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant.Conclusion:The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  4. Evidence and Role for Bacterial Mucin Degradation in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Disease

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    Flynn, Jeffrey M.; Niccum, David; Dunitz, Jordan M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are composed of complex microbial communities that incite persistent inflammation and airway damage. Despite the high density of bacteria that colonize the lower airways, nutrient sources that sustain bacterial growth in vivo, and how those nutrients are derived, are not well characterized. In this study, we examined the possibility that mucins serve as an important carbon reservoir for the CF lung microbiota. While Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to efficiently utilize mucins in isolation, we found that anaerobic, mucin-fermenting bacteria could stimulate the robust growth of CF pathogens when provided intact mucins as a sole carbon source. 16S rRNA sequencing and enrichment culturing of sputum also identified that mucin-degrading anaerobes are ubiquitous in the airways of CF patients. The collective fermentative metabolism of these mucin-degrading communities in vitro generated amino acids and short chain fatty acids (propionate and acetate) during growth on mucin, and the same metabolites were also found in abundance within expectorated sputum. The significance of these findings was supported by in vivo P. aeruginosa gene expression, which revealed a heightened expression of genes required for the catabolism of propionate. Given that propionate is exclusively derived from bacterial fermentation, these data provide evidence for an important role of mucin fermenting bacteria in the carbon flux of the lower airways. More specifically, microorganisms typically defined as commensals may contribute to airway disease by degrading mucins, in turn providing nutrients for pathogens otherwise unable to efficiently obtain carbon in the lung. PMID:27548479

  5. High frequency chest wall oscillation for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial

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    Lewis Stephanie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO is used for airway mucus clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of HFCWO early in the treatment of adults hospitalized for acute asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods Randomized, multi-center, double-masked phase II clinical trial of active or sham treatment initiated within 24 hours of hospital admission for acute asthma or COPD at four academic medical centers. Patients received active or sham treatment for 15 minutes three times a day for four treatments. Medical management was standardized across groups. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to therapy after four treatments (minutes used/60 minutes prescribed and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included change in Borg dyspnea score (≥ 1 unit indicates a clinically significant change, spontaneously expectorated sputum volume, and forced expired volume in 1 second. Results Fifty-two participants were randomized to active (n = 25 or sham (n = 27 treatment. Patient adherence was similarly high in both groups (91% vs. 93%; p = 0.70. Patient satisfaction was also similarly high in both groups. After four treatments, a higher proportion of patients in the active treatment group had a clinically significant improvement in dyspnea (70.8% vs. 42.3%, p = 0.04. There were no significant differences in other secondary outcomes. Conclusions HFCWO is well tolerated in adults hospitalized for acute asthma or COPD and significantly improves dyspnea. The high levels of patient satisfaction in both treatment groups justify the need for sham controls when evaluating the use of HFCWO on patient-reported outcomes. Additional studies are needed to more fully evaluate the role of HFCWO in improving in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00181285

  6. Inflammation and airway microbiota during cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations.

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    Edith T Zemanick

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx, frequently associated with airway infection and inflammation, are the leading cause of morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF. Molecular microbiologic approaches detect complex microbiota from CF airway samples taken during PEx. The relationship between airway microbiota, inflammation, and lung function during CF PEx is not well understood.To determine the relationships between airway microbiota, inflammation, and lung function in CF subjects treated for PEx.Expectorated sputum and blood were collected and lung function testing performed in CF subjects during early (0-3d. and late treatment (>7d. for PEx. Sputum was analyzed by culture, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, and quantitative PCR for total and specific bacteria. Sputum IL-8 and neutrophil elastase (NE; and circulating C-reactive protein (CRP were measured.Thirty-seven sputum samples were collected from 21 CF subjects. At early treatment, lower diversity was associated with high relative abundance (RA of Pseudomonas (r = -0.67, p<0.001, decreased FEV(1% predicted (r = 0.49, p = 0.03 and increased CRP (r = -0.58, p = 0.01. In contrast to Pseudomonas, obligate and facultative anaerobic genera were associated with less inflammation and higher FEV₁. With treatment, Pseudomonas RA and P. aeruginosa by qPCR decreased while anaerobic genera showed marked variability in response. Change in RA of Prevotella was associated with more variability in FEV₁ response to treatment than Pseudomonas or Staphylococcus.Anaerobes identified from sputum by sequencing are associated with less inflammation and higher lung function compared to Pseudomonas at early exacerbation. CF PEx treatment results in variable changes of anaerobic genera suggesting the need for larger studies particularly of patients without traditional CF pathogens.

  7. Converting Mosquito Surveillance to Arbovirus Surveillance with Honey-Baited Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards.

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    Flies, Emily J; Toi, Cheryl; Weinstein, Philip; Doggett, Stephen L; Williams, Craig R

    2015-07-01

    Spatially and temporally accurate information about infectious mosquito distribution allows for pre-emptive public health interventions that can reduce the burden of mosquito-borne infections on human populations. However, the labile nature of arboviruses, the low prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, the expensive labor costs for mosquito identification and sorting, and the specialized equipment required for arbovirus testing can obstruct arbovirus surveillance efforts. The recently developed techniques of testing mosquito expectorate using honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards or sugar bait stations allows a sensitive method of testing for infectious, rather than infected, mosquito vectors. Here we report the results from the first large-scale incorporation of honey-baited cards into an existing mosquito surveillance program. During 4 months of the peak virus season (January-April, 2014) for a total of 577 trap nights, we set CO2-baited encephalitis vector survey (EVS) light traps at 88 locations in South Australia. The collection container for the EVS trap was modified to allow for the placement of a honey-baited nucleic acid preservation card (FTA™ card) inside. After collection, mosquitoes were maintained in a humid environment and allowed access to the cards for 1 week. Cards were then analyzed for common endemic Australian arboviruses using a nested RT-PCR. Eighteen virus detections, including 11 Ross River virus, four Barmah Forest virus, and three Stratford virus (not previously reported from South Australia) were obtained. Our findings suggest that adding FTA cards to an existing mosquito surveillance program is a rapid and efficient way of detecting infectious mosquitoes with high spatial resolution.

  8. Staphylococcus warneri meningitis in a patient with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection and lymphoma: first report of a case Staphylococcus warneri meningite em paciente com hiperinfecção com Strongyloides stercoralis e linfoma: primeiro relato de caso

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    Renzo Nino Incani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of meningitis due to Staphylococcus warneri in a patient with a hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis possibly associated with rituximab treatment for mantel cell lymphoma is reported for the first time in the literature. The patient was a 59-year-old woman, with a 3-year history of an apparently well controlled lymphoma after treatment with chemotherapy-immunotherapy and then immunotherapy alone, and diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. Meningitis was diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid culture and tested with an automated plate system. The patient was successfully treated with vancomycin; although fever and productive cough persisted. Severe gastrointestinal symptoms and pneumonia developed three weeks later. Hyperinfection syndrome by S. stercoralis was diagnosed, with abundant larvae in feces and expectoration.Caso de meningite por Staphylococcus warneri em paciente com hiperinfecção com Strongyloides stercoralis, possivelmente associada com tratamento de rituximab para linfoma de células do manto é relatada pela primeira vez na literatura. A paciente, mulher de 59 anos com história de três anos de linfoma aparentemente bem controlado com tratamento com quimioterapia-imunoterapia e, em seguida, somente imunoterapia e diagnóstico de estrongiloidíase. Meningite foi diagnosticada por cultura do líquido cefalorraquidiano e testada com sistema automatizado de placa. A paciente foi tratada com sucesso com vancomicina, embora a febre e a tosse produtiva não tenham desaparecido. Após graves sintomas gastrointestinais a paciente desenvolveu pneumonia três semanas mais tarde. Síndrome de hiperinfecção por S. stercoralis foi diagnosticada, com larvas abundantes nas fezes e expectoração.

  9. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and bioactivity of the genus Turnera (Passifloraceae) with a focus on damiana--Turnera diffusa.

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    Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Zidorn, Christian

    2014-03-28

    Half a dozen of the currently accepted 135 Turnera species are used in traditional medicine, most notably Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. which is one of the most highly appreciated plant aphrodisiacs. Other traditional uses of Turnera L. species include the treatment of anaemia, bronchitis, cough, diabetes, fever, fungal disease, gastrointestinal complaints, pain, pulmonary and respiratory diseases, skin disorders, and women׳s health problems. Additionally, Turnera species are used as abortives, expectorants, and laxatives. Flavonoids (22 different compounds), maltol glucoside, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides (7 different compounds), monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, the polyterpene ficaprenol-11, fatty acids, and caffeine have been found in the genus Turnera. Bioactivities experimentally proven for members of the genus Turnera encompass antianxiety, antiaromatase, antibacterial including antimycobacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, adapatogenic, antiobesity, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and aphrodisiac activities. Most of these activities have so far been investigated only in chemical, cell based, or animal assays. In contrast, the antiobesity activity was also investigated in a study on healthy human subjects and with a herbal preparation containing among other ingredients Turnera diffusa leaves. Moreover, the enhancement of female sexual function was assessed in humans; again the product contained besides Turnera diffusa other potentially bioactive ingredients. However, with only few exceptions, most of the traditional uses and the experimentally verified bioactivities can currently not be related to a particular compound or compound class. A notable exception is the flavonoid apigenin, which was identified animal experiments as the antinociceptive principle of Turnera diffusa. In this review, the current knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of members of the genus Turnera, the secondary metabolites reported from

  10. Benign emptying of the postpneumonectomy space.

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    Merritt, Robert E; Reznik, Scott I; DaSilva, Marcelo C; Sugarbaker, David J; Whyte, Richard I; Donahue, Dean M; Hoang, Chuong D; Smythe, W Roy; Shrager, Joseph B

    2011-09-01

    A fall in the postpneumonectomy fluid level is considered a sign of bronchopleural fistula (BPF) requiring surgical intervention. We have discovered however that in rare asymptomatic patients, this event may not require aggressive surgical treatment. After seeing a case of benign emptying of the postpneumonectomy space (BEPS), we surveyed 28 surgeons to determine its incidence and characteristics. Forty-four cases of BEPS were reported by 23 survey respondents. Among 7 fully documented cases from 4 institutions, we defined the following criteria: the patient must be asymptomatic (no fever, white cell count elevation, or fluid expectoration), negative culture results if fluid sampled (patient not receiving antibiotics), no BPF at bronchoscopy or ventilation scintigraphy scan (or both), and recovery without drainage, or retrospective assessment that the intervention was unnecessary. BEPS occurred between 5 days and 152 days after pneumonectomy (6 cases right pneumonectomy and 1 case left pneumonectomy). Four patients underwent no treatment, 1 patient underwent thoracoscopic exploration (sterile) and closure after antibiotic irrigation, 1 patient underwent thoracoscopic exploration alone, and 1 patient underwent open window thoracostomy (sterile) with eventual closure. In all 7 patients (except the patient who underwent the open window procedure) the space refilled within 8 weeks; no patient experienced a subsequent empyema/BPF. Four patients who met the initial criteria for BEPS went on to experience empyema. The incidence of BEPS appears related to pneumonectomy volume, particularly extrapleural pneumonectomy. Using surgeon volume assumptions, the incidence of BEPS is 0.65%. To our knowledge, BEPS is a previously unreported occurrence. We hypothesize that it results from postoperative intrapleural pressure shifts, with or without a microscopic BPF, that drive fluid out of the pleural space while failing to cause contamination. Awareness of BEPS' existence may allow

  11. STUDY OF 200 CASES OF PLEURAL FLUID

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    Ramakrishna R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We have studied 200 patients of pleural fluid presenting to our tertiary care centre. Presence of cases of pleural fluid is a common presentation both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. We analysed the patients having both exudates and transudates and studied the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected patients above 20 years of age and classified the patients with pleural fluid as having transudates and exudates. We studied the causes of transudates and exudates. A total of 200 patients are studied in this prospective study. Diagnosis of pleural exudates is made on the basis of Light’s criteria, chest x-ray, pleural fluid analysis, CT scan in selected patients, sputum examination, bronchoscopy and bronchial washings. Moribund and non-cooperative patients and HIV positives were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 200 patients, 91% have exudates. 9% have transudates by Light’s criteria. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of effusions (64.83% followed by malignancy (13.73% and sympneumonic or parapneumonic effusions (9.89%. Pleural effusions occurred predominantly in males. Prevalence of diabetes Mellitus among cases of tuberculous pleural effusions is 13.56%. Tuberculous effusions are predominantly right-sided. CONCLUSION Predominant cases of pleural fluid are exudates. Commonest cause of pleural effusion is Tuberculosis followed by malignancy both pulmonary and extrapulmonary and sym. and parapneumonic effusions. Prevalence of Diabetes among Tuberculous pleural effusion cases is more or less same as in general population. Cough, expectoration fever, chest pain and breathlessness are the common symptoms occurring in three fourths of the patients of tuberculous pleural effusion. Most of the cases of Tuberculous effusion are above 30 years of age. In the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, Pleural fluid ADA is very important. Pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy, bronchial washings and sputum

  12. Diagnostic yield of pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion.

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    Devkota, K C; Chokhani, R; Gautam, S

    2014-09-01

    To know the diagnostic role of pleural biopsy in determining underlying etiological causes of exudative pleural effusion. A total of 47 patients, aged 16-104 years with mean age of 47.36 years, of either sex, with exudative pleural effusion underwent closed pleural biopsy with Abram's needle in standard way. Average 4-6 biopsy specimens were obtained from each patient, which were sent for histopathological examination. In this study, 47 cases of exudative pleural effusion were included, among them 26 (55.31%) cases were male and 21 (44.69%) were female with mean age 47.36 years. Cough was reported by 42 (89.36%) cases, expectoration 28 (59.57%), hemoptysis 3 (6.38%), breathlessness 27 (57.44%), wheezing 3 (6.38%), chest pain 38 (80.85%) and fever by 30 (63.82%) cases. Out of 47 cases, 28 (59.57%) cases had a positive yield, whereas in 19 (40.43%) cases the result was nonspecific inflammation. Out of 28 (59.57%) cases with positive yield 21 (44.68%) were found to have granulomatous inflammation and 10 (21.28%) cases were malignant. Among malignant pleural effusion, 4 cases were squamous cell carcinoma; 3 small cell carcinoma; 1 case adenocarcinoma and 1 case found to have mesothelioma. Tuberculosis and malignancy are the two most common causes of exudative pleural effusion in our set up. Pleural biopsy is a safe, simple and well validated diagnostic tool that helps us to differentiate between malignancy and tuberculosis.

  13. Plasma salicylate from methyl salicylate cream compared to oil of wintergreen.

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    Wolowich, William R; Hadley, Carmen M; Kelley, Michael T; Walson, Philip D; Casavant, Marcel J

    2003-01-01

    Poison Control Centers follow the acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment guideline to manage unintentional ingestions of topical methyl salicylate liniments. For example, one teaspoon of 30% methyl salicylate cream such as Ben Gay provides an "ASA equivalent dose" of 180 mg/kg for a 10 kg child. The ASA treatment guideline advises emesis with syrup of Ipecac and 24 h home followup for this dose. Both the ASA conversion factor to yield the ASA equivalent dose and the treatment guideline assume 100% bioavailability of the salicylate. The nature of this topical dosage product led the investigators to expect less than complete absorption of methyl salicylate. To compare plasma concentrations of salicylate from ingested methyl salicylate cream with plasma concentrations of salicylate from ingested oil of wintergreen. Four adult volunteers consented to an open label, four-way crossover design, with randomization to the following treatments: 1 mL Oil of Wintergreen, U.S.P., 6.7 g of Ben Gay 15% and 20 g of Ben Gay 15% and also to hold 5 g of Ben Gay 15% cream in the buccal cavity for 1 minute and then expectorate. Plasma was collected for salicylate determination, and the results analyzed with a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic model. No plasma salicylate was detected after buccal treatment phase. Relative bioavailability for the low-dose treatment was 0.5 compared to oil of wintergreen. Plasma salicylate concentrations from methyl salicylate cream are not equal to those achieved after ingestion of oil of wintergreen. Dosage formulation must be considered when predicting toxicity.

  14. Six-Month Evaluation of a Sodium Bicarbonate-Containing Toothpaste for Reduction of Established Gingivitis: A Randomized USA-Based Clinical Trial.

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    Jose, Anto; Pratten, Jonathan; Bosma, Mary-Lynn; Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Wang, Nan

    2018-03-01

    Short-term use of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)-containing toothpaste reduces plaque and improves clinical measures of gingivitis. To examine this over a longer period, we compared efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily brushing for 24 weeks with 67% or 0% NaHCO3-containing toothpastes in USA-based participants with moderate gingivitis (Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT02207400). This was a six-month, randomized, examiner-blind, parallel-group, clinical trial. Investigators randomized adults with blood in expectorate after brushing and ≥ 20 gingival bleeding sites to 67% NaHCO3 (n = 123; n = 107 completed study) or 0% NaHCO3 (n = 123; n = 109 completed study) toothpastes. Primary efficacy variables included between-treatment differences in number of bleeding sites and Modified Gingival Index (MGI) score at 24 weeks. Secondary efficacy variables included Bleeding Index and Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (overall and interproximal sites) at six, 12, and 24 weeks. A subset of 50 participants underwent sampling to assess plaque microbiology over the course of treatment. Compared with the 0% NaHCO3 toothpaste, the 67% NaHCO3 toothpaste produced statistically significant improvements at Week 24 in number of bleeding sites (46.7% difference) and MGI (33.9% difference), and for all other endpoints (all p < 0.0001). There was no significant between-treatment difference in the proportion of participants harboring opportunistic pathogens. Products were generally well tolerated, with two and five treatment-related adverse events reported in the 67% and 0% NaHCO3 toothpaste groups, respectively. Gingival bleeding, gingivitis, and plaque indices were significantly improved at six, 12, and 24 weeks with twice-daily brushing with 67% NaHCO3-containing toothpaste in participants with moderate gingivitis. Copyright© by the YES Group, Inc.

  15. Ancient human mitochondrial DNA and radiocarbon analysis of archived quids from the Mule Spring Rockshelter, Nevada, USA.

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    Scott D Hamilton-Brehm

    Full Text Available Chewed and expectorated quids, indigestible stringy fibers from the roasted inner pulp of agave or yucca root, have proven resilient over long periods of time in dry cave environments and correspondingly, although little studied, are common in archaeological archives. In the late 1960s, thousands of quids were recovered from Mule Spring Rockshelter (Nevada, USA deposits and stored without consideration to DNA preservation in a museum collection, remaining unstudied for over fifty years. To assess the utility of these materials as repositories for genetic information about past inhabitants of the region and their movements, twenty-one quids were selected from arbitrary excavation depths for detailed analysis. Human mitochondrial DNA sequences from the quids were amplified by PCR and screened for diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Most detected single nucleotide polymorphisms were consistent with recognized Native American haplogroup subclades B2a5, B2i1, C1, C1c, C1c2, and D1; with the majority of the sample set consistent with subclades C1, C1c, and C1c2. In parallel with the DNA analysis, each quid was radiocarbon dated, revealing a time-resolved pattern of occupancy from 347 to 977 calibrated years before present. In particular, this dataset reveals strong evidence for the presence of haplogroup C1/C1c at the Southwestern edge of the US Great Basin from ~670 to 980 cal YBP, which may temporally correspond with the beginnings of the so-called Numic Spread into the region. The research described here demonstrates an approach which combines targeted DNA analysis with radiocarbon age dating; thus enabling the genetic analysis of archaeological materials of uncertain stratigraphic context. Here we present a survey of the maternal genetic profiles from people who used the Mule Spring Rockshelter and the historic timing of their utilization of a key natural resource.

  16. COMPLEX CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL EVALUATION OF LUNG INJURY IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

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    I. I. Nesterovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The damage of the respiratory system is a quite common  extra-articular manifestation  of rheumatoid  arthritis (RA. It is important  to note that its clinical symptoms occur in only 20–30% of patients; however, subclinical forms identified by active screening are observed in 70–80% of patients.Objective: to compare the significance of pulmonary complaints,  the results of physical examination, and the data of instrumental  studies for the detection  of lung injury in patients with RA.Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 70 RA patients (63 women and 7 men aged 24 to 83 years. Only 10% of them had clinically evident lung injury associated with RA. Patients with other pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc., were excluded. Physical examination, radiography/fluoroscopy, high-resolution computed  tomography (HRCT, single-photon emission computed  tomography (SPECT of the lung, and lung function testing (LFT with the determination of lung diffusion capacity.Results and discussion. The data of physical examination  were nonspecific and unconvincing.  Pulmonary  complaints (dyspnea, cough, expectoration were seen in 65% of the patients; an objective assessment revealed changes (vesiculotympanitic resonance,  harsh breathing, and pleural friction rub in 40%. The X-ray films/fluorograms  displayed abnormalities (pulmonary fibrosis, focal changes in only 10% of cases. 92% of the patients had lung HRCT  changes including moderate (bronchial  obstruction (40%, rheumatoid  nodules (10%, ground glass opacities (60%, bronchial thickening (20%, pleural effusion (10%, tree-in-bud opacities (3% and severe (pulmonary hypertension  (10%, bronchiectasis (10%, emphysema (5% and lung tissue fibrotic changes as the honeycomb lung (2% ones. SPECT showed local hypoperfusion in the mantle and mediastinal parts of the lungs in 80% of cases. LFT analysis demonstrated reduced lung diffusion capacity in 41% of

  17. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, Olatunde A; Rahamon, Sheu K; Joseph, Ijeboime O; Arinola, Olatunbosun G

    2012-10-26

    To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P); 24 (40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis (S-P); and 25 (53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P). An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000) and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008) and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL). Similarly, only one smoker (4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers (9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL). Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  18. 健康教育在婴幼儿肺炎排痰护理中的应用体会%Experience of health education in nursing infants with pneumonia in sputum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓贵椰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of parents receiving health care education in nursing infants expectoration of pneumonia.Methods 126 cases of children with pneumonia in infants were randomly divided into two groups,63 cases in each group.The control group received routine care,the observation group implementation of nursing for parents of children with health education,nursing effect of the two groups of children. Results The disappearance time rales,coughing stop time,the psychological pressure of parents and parents nursing satisfaction score than the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion After the parents of children receiving health education,significantly improve the quality of care,shorten the course of treatment,and to establish a harmonious relationship between nurses and patients,should be widely applied.%目的:讨论家长接受健康教育后在婴幼儿肺炎排痰护理中的效果。方法:选择126例肺炎婴幼儿,随机分为对照组与观察组,每组63例。对照组实施常规护理,观察组对患儿家长进行健康教育后实施护理,比较两组患儿的护理效果。结果:观察组啰音消失时间、咳嗽停止时间、家长心理压力评分及家长护理满意度均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:对患儿家长健康教育后,护理质量显著提升,缩短治疗过程,并能建立和谐的护患关系,值得推广应用。

  19. Effects of different antibiotic classes on airway bacteria in stable COPD using culture and molecular techniques: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Simon E; Law, Martin; El-Emir, Ethaar; Allinson, James P; James, Phillip; Maddox, Victoria; Donaldson, Gavin C; McHugh, Timothy D; Cookson, William O; Moffatt, Miriam F; Nazareth, Irwin; Hurst, John R; Calverley, Peter M A; Sweeting, Michael J; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term antibiotic therapy is used to prevent exacerbations of COPD but there is uncertainty over whether this reduces airway bacteria. The optimum antibiotic choice remains unknown. We conducted an exploratory trial in stable patients with COPD comparing three antibiotic regimens against placebo. Methods This was a single-centre, single-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Patients aged ≥45 years with COPD, FEV1<80% predicted and chronic productive cough were randomised to receive either moxifloxacin 400 mg daily for 5 days every 4 weeks, doxycycline 100 mg/day, azithromycin 250 mg 3 times a week or one placebo tablet daily for 13 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in total cultured bacterial load in sputum from baseline; secondary outcomes included bacterial load by 16S quantitative PCR (qPCR), sputum inflammation and antibiotic resistance. Results 99 patients were randomised; 86 completed follow-up, were able to expectorate sputum and were analysed. After adjustment, there was a non-significant reduction in bacterial load of 0.42 log10 cfu/mL (95% CI −0.08 to 0.91, p=0.10) with moxifloxacin, 0.11 (−0.33 to 0.55, p=0.62) with doxycycline and 0.08 (−0.38 to 0.54, p=0.73) with azithromycin from placebo, respectively. There were also no significant changes in bacterial load measured by 16S qPCR or in airway inflammation. More treatment-related adverse events occurred with moxifloxacin. Of note, mean inhibitory concentrations of cultured isolates increased by at least three times over placebo in all treatment arms. Conclusions Total airway bacterial load did not decrease significantly after 3 months of antibiotic therapy. Large increases in antibiotic resistance were seen in all treatment groups and this has important implications for future studies. Trial registration number clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01398072). PMID:26179246

  20. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  1. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein cannot differentiate bacterial or viral infection in COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hao Chang,1 Kuo-Chien Tsao,2,3 Han-Chung Hu,1,4 Chung-Chi Huang,1,4 Kuo-Chin Kao,1,4 Ning-Hung Chen,1,4 Cheng-Ta Yang,1,4 Ying-Huang Tsai,4,5 Meng-Jer Hsieh4,51Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation; 3Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Puzi City, TaiwanBackground: Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Whether serum inflammatory markers can differentiate bacterial from virus infection in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department (ED visits remains controversial.Methods: Viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to identify the viruses in the oropharynx of patients with COPD exacerbations. The bacteria were identified by the semiquantitative culture of the expectorated sputum. The peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and clinical symptoms were compared among patients with different types of infections.Results: Viruses were isolated from 16 (22.2% of the 72 patients enrolled. The most commonly identified viruses were parainfluenza type 3, influenza A, and rhinovirus. A total of 30 (41.7% patients had positive bacterial cultures, with the most commonly found bacteria being Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Five patients (6.9% had both positive sputum cultures and virus identification. The WBC, CRP, and PCT levels of the bacteria-positive and bacteria

  2. Reducing the Indication for Ventilatory Support in the Severely Burned Patient: Results of a New Protocol Approach at a Regional Burn Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Jochen; Bauer, Nicole; Malcharek, Michael J; Dragu, Adrian; Sablotzki, Armin; Taha, Hischam; Czeslick, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Initial management of the severely injured routinely includes sedation and mechanical ventilatory support. However, nonjudiciously applied mechanical ventilatory support can itself lead to poorer patient outcomes. In an attempt to reduce this iatrogenic risk, a standardized, in-house, five-point protocol providing clinical guidance on the use and duration of ventilation was introduced and analyzed, and the impact on patient outcomes was assessed. In 2007, a protocol for early spontaneous breathing was introduced and established in clinical practice. This protocol included: 1) early extubation (≤6 hours after admission) in the absence of absolute ventilatory indication; 2) avoidance of "routine intubation" in spontaneously breathing patients; 3) early postoperative extubation, including patients requiring multiple surgical interventions; 4) intensive chest and respiratory physiotherapy with routine application of expectorants; and 5) early active mobilization. A retrospective clinical study compared patients (group A) over a 2-year period admitted under the new protocol with a historical patient group (group B). Patients in group A (n = 38) had fewer ventilator days over the time-course of treatment (3 [1; 5.8] vs 18.5 days [0.5; 20.5]; P = .0001) with a lower rate of tracheostomies (15.8 vs 54%; P = .0003). Patients on ventilation at admission in group A had shorter ventilation periods after admission (4.75 [4; 22.25] vs 378 hours [8.5; 681.5]; P = .0003), and 66.7% of these patients were extubated within 6 hours of admission (vs 9.1% in group B). No patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria required re- or emergency intubation. In the first 5 days of treatment, significantly lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were recorded in group A. There was also a trend for lower mortality rates (0 [0%] vs 6 [14%]), sepsis rates (24 [63.2%] vs 37 [88.1%]), and cumulative fluid balance on days 3 and 7 in group A. In contrast, group A demonstrated an elevated

  3. Clinical spectrum and outcome of pulmonary nocardiosis: 5-year experience

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    Akashdeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary nocardiosis is a rare but a life-threatening infection caused by Nocardia spp. The diagnosis is often missed and delayed resulting in delay in appropriate treatment and thus higher mortality. Aim: In this study, we aim to evaluate the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis. Methods: A retrospective, 5-year (2009-2014 review of demographic profile, risk factors, clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Results: The median age of the study subjects was 54 years (range, 16-76 and majority of them (75% were males. The risk factors for pulmonary nocardiosis identified in our study were long-term steroid use (55.6%, chronic lung disease (52.8%, diabetes (27.8%, and solid-organ transplantation (22.2%. All the patients were symptomatic, and the most common symptoms were cough (91.7%, fever (78%, and expectoration (72%. Almost two-third of the patients were initially misdiagnosed and the alternative diagnosis included pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 7, community-acquired pneumonia (n = 5, lung abscess (n = 4, invasive fungal infection (n = 3, lung cancer (n = 2, and Wegener′s granulomatosis (n = 2. The most common radiographic features were consolidation (77.8% and nodules (56%. The mortality rate for indoor patients was 33% despite treatment. Higher mortality rate was observed among those who had brain abscess (100.0%, HIV positivity (100%, need for mechanical ventilation (87.5%, solid-organ transplantation (50%, and elderly (age > 60 years patients (43%. Conclusion: The diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is often missed and delayed resulting in delay in appropriate treatment and thus high mortality. A lower threshold for diagnosing pulmonary nocardiosis needs to be exercised, in chest symptomatic patients with underlying chronic lung diseases or systemic immunosuppression, for the early diagnosis, and

  4. Fluconazole Therapy in Febrile Granulocytopenic Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, L.; Al-Shaarawy, I.; Abd Al-Karim, K.; Iskandar, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluconazole oral or IV solution in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Thirty-two febrile granulocytopenic patients with hematologic malignancies were included. They were 21 males (65.6%) and 11 females (34.4%). Their ages ranged between 21.5 to 72 years with a mean age of 44.8 ±13.1 years. Primary diagnosis was Lymphoma in 28 patients (87.5%), Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia in 3 patients (9.4%) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia in 1 patient (3.1%). Duration of fever and neutropenia ranged between 3-20 days and 3-50 days respectively. Fever of unknown origin (FUO)was reported in 25 patients (78.1%). Following initial assessment all patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics. Persistence of fever and neutropenia for 4 days while on broad-spectrum antibiotics necessitated addition of fluconaz-ole. At baseline visit body temperature and leucocyte count measures ranged between 38.2-40.1 degree with a mean of 39.3 degree 110-1800/cm 3 with a mean of 1080/cm 3 respectively. Besides, clinical picture of infection included most commonly cough and expectoration, and moniliasis. Mycological cultures showed positive fungal growth of all collected specimens (100%). All patients were assigned to receive 400-800 mg of fluconazole once daily either orally or parentally. Marked clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of infection was achieved as early as second visit (day-4). Significant reduction in number of growing colonies of fungi was reported by the first follow-up mycological culture (day-8). At final visit (day-14-21) complete clinical cure was achieved in 26 patients (81.3%) and improvement in 4 patients (18.7%). Mycological cultures showed complete eradication of growing colonies in 21 patients (70%) and significant reduction in number of growing colonies in 9 patients (30%). Duration of therapy ranged between 14 and 21 days with a mean of 15 days

  5. Patient presentation and physician management of upper respiratory tract infections: a retrospective review of over 5 million primary clinic consultations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Kenny; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Lam, Augustine; Chan, Christy Ka Yan; Griffiths, Sian; Butler, Chris

    2014-05-13

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) has a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Considerable resources are consumed through health care consultations and prescribed treatment, despite evidence for little or no effect on recovery. Patterns of consultations and care including use of symptomatic medications and antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections are poorly described. We performed a retrospective review of computerized clinical data on patients presenting to all public primary care clinics in Hong Kong with symptoms of respiratory tract infections. International Classification of Primary care (ICPC)codes used to identify patients included otitis media (H71), streptococcal pharyngitis (R72), acute URTI (R74), acute sinusitis (R75), acute tonsillitis (R76), acute laryngitis (R77), and influenza (R80). Sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, chronic illness status, attendance date, type and duration of drug prescribed were also collected. Of the 5,529,755 primary care consultations for respiratory symptoms from 2005 to 2010, 98% resulted in a prescription. Prescription patterns of symptomatic medication were largely similar across the 5 years. In 2010 the mean number of drugs prescribed per consultation was 3.2, of which the commonly prescribed medication were sedating antihistamines (79.9%), analgesia (58.9%), throat lozenges (40.4%) and expectorant cough syrup (33.8%). During the study period, there was an overall decline in antibiotic prescription (8.1% to 5.1%). However, in consultations where the given diagnosis was otitis media (H71), streptococcal pharyngitis (R72), acute sinusitis (R75) or acute laryngitis (R76), over 90% resulted in antibiotic prescription. There was a decline in overall antibiotic prescription over the study period. However, the use of antibiotics was high in some conditions e.g. otitis media and acute laryngitis a. Multiple symptomatic medications were given for upper respiratory tract infections. Further

  6. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Chenpi): Botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Sun, Shuang; Guo, Yuyan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Dayu; Li, Guoyu; Lü, Shaowa

    2018-06-28

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on. Currently, CRP is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The present paper reviews the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and toxicology of CRP. Information on CRP was gathered from various sources including the books on traditional Chinese herbal medicine; scientific databases including Elsevier, PubMed, and ScienceDirect; Baidu Scholar; CNKI; and others and from different professional websites. Approximately 140 chemical compounds have been isolated and identified from CRP. Among them, volatile oils and flavonoids are generally considered as the main bioactive and characteristic ingredients. CRP possesses wide pharmacological effects such as having a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties; and a protective effect on the liver and nerve. Moreover, hesperidin is chosen as an indicator in the quantitative determination of CRP, and the quantity of aflatoxin in CRP must not exceed the standard limit mentioned in the pharmacopoeia. In brief, CRP has a warming nature, and hence, it can be used in harmony with a lot of medicines. CRP not only exhibits its effects individually but also aids other medicines exhibit a better effect. CRP can be consumed with tea, food, alcohol, and medicine. Irrespective of the form it is being consumed, CRP not only shows a synergistic effect but also has strengths on its own. Modern pharmacological

  7. Accidental poisoning in childhood: a multicentre survey. 2. The role of packaging in accidents involving medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, H M; Guest, K; Murray, V S; Volans, G N

    1987-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of child-resistant closures (CRCs) and unit dose packaging in preventing childhood poisoning with medications, a survey by 14 hospitals of accidental suspected poisoning in children under 5-years-old, was compared with a survey of a representative sample of households with children under 5 living in the catchment areas of the hospitals. Nine hundred and thirty-eight medications thought to have been ingested by 877 children were compared with 5827 medications found in households with children. The relationship between availability of packs or medications in the home and their involvement in accidents was quantified by means of an Accident Association Index (AAI). A low AAI indicated that the involvement of a pack or medication was less than expected from availability and therefore safe. A high AAI indicated that involvement was greater than expected and therefore unsafe. Medications involved in suspected poisoning were most frequently packed in containers without CRCs (63%) or transparent blisters (20%); both had high AAIs. CRCs, strips, sachets and opaque blisters had low AAIs. Analgesics, expectorants and gastrointestinal medications, had low AAIs, while oral contraceptives, hypnotics, sedative/tranquillizers, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anti-emetics, and anti-infectives had high AAIs. Prescription medications were more frequently involved in accidents than over-the-counter (OTC) medications and had a higher AAI. Comparison of the AAIs of different kinds of medication in each of their various pack types showed that safe packaging reduced the risk from medications which had a high average AAI. Only 40% of medications were in their normal storage place at the time of the accident. Medicine and bathroom cabinets, and kitchen cupboards and drawers were the safest places to store medications. Handbags, fridges, and shelves or ledges in the bathroom were the most unsafe places. No pack had a low AAI when stored on open shelves

  8. Cough in Children: Current Approaches to the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Rechkina

    2016-03-01

    received other mucolytic agents — in 50 and 30 %, respectively. Discussion. The findings suggest that the use of ACC® (acetylcysteine in the combination treatment of children with bronchopulmonary pathology enables to make dry cough wet and productive. Unlike other expectorants, ACC® (acetylcysteine has a more pronounced and rapid mucolytic effect with good tolerability. Conclusions. Mucolytic agent ACC® can be recommended as a drug of choice in the treatment of acute tracheitis and bronchitis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis from the first days of the disease in children aged 2 years and more both in the hospital and in an outpatient setting. Acetylcysteine should be administered with caution to the patients with bronchial asthma.

  9. Profiling persistent tubercule bacilli from patient sputa during therapy predicts early drug efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyborne, Isobella; McHugh, Timothy D; Kuittinen, Iitu; Cichonska, Anna; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Ronacher, Katharina; van Helden, Paul D; Gillespie, Stephen H; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Walzl, Gerhard; Rousu, Juho; Butcher, Philip D; Waddell, Simon J

    2016-04-07

    New treatment options are needed to maintain and improve therapy for tuberculosis, which caused the death of 1.5 million people in 2013 despite potential for an 86 % treatment success rate. A greater understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) bacilli that persist through drug therapy will aid drug development programs. Predictive biomarkers for treatment efficacy are also a research priority. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling was used to map the mRNA signatures of M.tb from the sputa of 15 patients before and 3, 7 and 14 days after the start of standard regimen drug treatment. The mRNA profiles of bacilli through the first 2 weeks of therapy reflected drug activity at 3 days with transcriptional signatures at days 7 and 14 consistent with reduced M.tb metabolic activity similar to the profile of pre-chemotherapy bacilli. These results suggest that a pre-existing drug-tolerant M.tb population dominates sputum before and after early drug treatment, and that the mRNA signature at day 3 marks the killing of a drug-sensitive sub-population of bacilli. Modelling patient indices of disease severity with bacterial gene expression patterns demonstrated that both microbiological and clinical parameters were reflected in the divergent M.tb responses and provided evidence that factors such as bacterial load and disease pathology influence the host-pathogen interplay and the phenotypic state of bacilli. Transcriptional signatures were also defined that predicted measures of early treatment success (rate of decline in bacterial load over 3 days, TB test positivity at 2 months, and bacterial load at 2 months). This study defines the transcriptional signature of M.tb bacilli that have been expectorated in sputum after two weeks of drug therapy, characterizing the phenotypic state of bacilli that persist through treatment. We demonstrate that variability in clinical manifestations of disease are detectable in bacterial sputa signatures, and that the changing M.tb m

  10. Prevalence of cutipositivity in a sample of homeless shelter population in Rome in the course of Latent Tuberculosis Infection surveillance plan. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in Europe homelessness is a known risk factor both for active and latent tuberculosis (TB. In Rome 409 cases of TB were notified in 2004, but the real occurrence among homeless people is unknown. Tuberculosis surveillance has been organized with the aim to develop an integrated model for the risk evaluation and management of both Latent Tuberculosis infections (LTBI and TB in Rome homeless people.

    Methods: the eligible individuals have been recruited in the homeless’ refuges. The Tuberculin Mantoux test has been used to evaluate the infection prevalence; in case of a positive result, the individual’s expectorate has been collected and the chest X-ray has been performed. A collecting data form has been filled in for evaluating some risk factors. Multiple logistic regression models have been carried out to find statistically significant determinants of infection.

    Results: out of 120 subjects recruited, 108 came back for the evaluation of the skin test; the prevalence of LTBI was 43.5% (47/108 subjects; no active TB cases were found. According to the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated to LTBI are gender (for males OR = 4.94; 95% CI: 1.46 – 16.67, 1st model; OR 5.84; 95% CI: 1.26 – 21.10, 2nd model, birth place (for Europe: OR 3.05; 95% CI: 1.02 – 9.13, 1st model; OR 3.12; 95% CI: 1.10 – 8.88, 2nd model; for East Mediterranean native Region OR = 4.34; 95%CI: 1.15-16.39; Body Mass Index class (for obesity OR = 3.34; 95% CI:1.31-8.51.

    Conclusions: these preliminary results have demonstrated a high prevalence of LTBI among homeless people. Male gender, birth place (Europe and East Mediterranean native Region and obesity were found to be significant risk factors. The surveillance system allowed positive patients for LTBI to be rapidly directed to a specialized centre for the clinical evaluation and the appropriate therapy

  11. Valor del estudio celular del esputo en el seguimiento de las enfermedades inflamatorias de la vía aérea Value of sputum analysis in the management of inflammatory airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Mazzei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El análisis celular del esputo, espontáneo u obtenido mediante la técnica de esputo inducido, se ha transformado en una herramienta ampliamente difundida para la evaluación y orientación del tratamiento de las enfermedades inflamatorias de la vía aérea, principalmente asma, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y bronquitis eosinofílica. Se han aportado evidencias sobre la utilidad de la técnica del esputo inducido, validada y estandarizada, para ser empleada en pacientes con dificultades para expectorar. Numerosas investigaciones dieron cuenta de la efectividad de basar las decisiones terapéuticas en el componente inflamatorio de la vía aérea mediante el recuento de células en el esputo. Varios estudios mostraron que, en pacientes con asma el análisis celular de esputo guía en la determinación de estrategias para disminuir las exacerbaciones y para mejorar la función pulmonar, aun en pacientes con asma grave, para disminuir el remodelamiento; también se ha descrito su utilidad en pacientes con EPOC, para la disminución de las exacerbaciones.Cellular analysis of sputum either spontaneous or by induced sputum technique, has become a widespread tool for the evaluation and guidance of treatment of inflammatory diseases of the airway, primarily asthma, COPD and eosinophilic bronchitis. Induced sputum method is a validated, standardized and non-invasive technique, useful in patients with difficulties to expectorate. Its implementation is simple and cost effective. Numerous investigations have shown the effectiveness of basing treatment decisions on the inflammatory component of the airway by counting cells in sputum. Several studies have demonstrated that in patients with asthma, results of this analysis can guide in defining strategies to reduce exacerbations and to improve lung function even in patients with severe asthma, as well as to decrease the remodeling; in addition, a reduction in exacerbations in COPD patients

  12. Cyclospora cayetanensis in sputum and stool samples Cyclospora cayetanensis em amostra de escarro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Beatriz DI GLIULLO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of acid-fast Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts in a sputum sample. The patient, a 60 year-old, HIV negative man, was successfully treated for pulmonary tuberculosis during 1997. On February 1998, he was admitted to our center due to loss of weight, cough with purulent expectoration, dysphonia and a radiological picture of pulmonary fibrosis. Bacilloscopic study of sputum (negative for acid-fast bacilli stained with Ziehl-Neelsen technique showed large (8-10 µm spherical, acid-fast Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts. No other pathogens were isolated on cultures from this sample or from laryngeal biopsy. Serial parasitologic studies showed C. cayetanensis and also eggs of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana and of Entamoeba coli cysts. The patient lives in the outskirts of Buenos Aires in a brick-made house with potable water and works as builder of sewers. He travelled in several occasions to the rural area of province of Tucumán which has poor sanitary conditions. C. cayetanensis is an emergent agent of diarrhea and as far as we know this is the first time the parasite is observed in respiratory samples.Comunicamos a observação de grandes oocistos (8-10 µm de diâmetro esféricos, ácido-álcool-resistentes de Cyclospora cayetanensis em amostra de escarro corada com a técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen. Na amostra não foram observados nem cultivados outros agentes patogênicos. Trata-se de um paciente do sexo masculino, 60 anos de idade, HIV (-, tratado previamente para tuberculose pulmonar (1997. Em fevereiro de 1998 apresentou-se em nosso hospital com perda de peso, tosse com expectoração purulenta, disfonia e imagens radiológicas de fibrose pulmonar. As culturas das amostras de escarro e da biopsia de laringe foram negativas. O exame parasitológico seriado de fezes mostrou ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana e Trichuris trichiura e cistos de Entamoeba coli. O paciente mora nos

  13. Aspiration pneumonia induces muscle atrophy in the respiratory, skeletal, and swallowing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Riyo; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Ebihara, Satoru; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tsukita, Yoko; Nihei, Mayumi; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Niu, Kaijun; Ebihara, Takae; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2018-05-22

    activated autophagy in the TA and the tongue, whereas weak or little activation was detected in the diaphragm. The aspiration challenge resulted in a greater proportion of smaller myofibers than in controls in the diaphragm, TA, and tongue, suggesting muscle atrophy. CT scans clearly showed that aspiration pneumonia was followed by muscle atrophy in aged patients. Aspiration pneumonia induced muscle atrophy in the respiratory, skeletal, and swallowing systems in a preclinical animal model and in human patients. Diaphragmatic atrophy may weaken the force of cough to expectorate sputum or mis-swallowed contents. Skeletal muscle atrophy may cause secondary sarcopenia. The atrophy of swallowing muscles may weaken the swallowing function. Thus, muscle atrophy could become a new therapeutic target of aspiration pneumonia. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  14. Tumor filodes de mama con metástasis en pulmón Phyllodes tumor of the breast with lung metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Arias Beatón

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso clínico de una paciente de 63 años de edad, quien ingresó en el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba por presentar tos seca persistente, expectoración escasa (en ocasiones amarillenta, astenia y pérdida de peso. En el examen físico se palpó un tumor en la mama derecha, confirmado a través de ecografía y mamografía. Los resultados de la biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina fueron positivos de células neoplásicas, compatibles con carcinoma. La radiografía de tórax y la tomografía axial computarizada revelaron la presencia de imágenes metastásicas pulmonares, por lo cual se realizó la exéresis del tumor con un margen de seguridad de 2 cm. Mediante el estudio histopatológico se confirmó la existencia de un tumor filodes, de manera que fue preciso indicar 3 ciclos de quimioterapia (esquema CISCYVADACT, del que solo se cumplieron 2, pues la anciana evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció 3 meses después.The case report of a 63-year-old patient is described, who was admitted to "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" Teaching General Hospital of Santiago de Cuba due to persistent dry cough, little expectoration (sometimes yellowish, asthenia and loss of weight. On physical examination a tumor was palpated in the right breast, which was confirmed through sonography and mammogram. The results of the fine-needle biopsy were positive for neoplastic cells, consistent with carcinoma. Chest radiography and computerized axial tomography revealed the presence of lung metastatic images, reason why tumor excision with a safety margin of 2 cm was performed. The presence of phyllodes tumor was confirmed by means of the histopathologic study, so that it was necessary to indicate 3 cycles of chemotherapy (CISCYVADACT scheme, of which only two were administered as the old woman had an unfavorable course and she died 3 months later.

  15. Treatment of cuff-related tracheal stenosis with a fully covered retrievable expandable metallic stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, Z.; Liang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Xian, J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical effectiveness, complications, and optimal duration of use of covered retrievable expandable metallic stents in the management of cuff-related tracheal stenosis. Materials and methods: Twenty-one patients with cuff-related tracheal stenosis, Meyer–Cotton grade II (29%) and III (71%), who underwent fluoroscopically guided placement of covered retrievable expandable metallic stents were studied. Sixty-four-section computed tomography (CT) and bronchovideoscopy were performed prior to stent insertion, 1 month after stent insertion, in the case of stent-related complications, and after stent removal. Clinical manifestations, Hugh–Jones classification, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were used to evaluate respiratory function before and after stent insertion and removal. The diameter of the stricture and FEV1 changes before insertion and after removal were analysed using the paired samples t-test. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Twenty-one patients had 27 covered retrievable expandable metallic stents placed. Stents were electively removed from 20 patients. The median duration of stent placement was 5 months (range 4–12 months). One stent was not removed due to mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) with tracheomalacia. After stent removal, airway dimensions increased and airway occlusion was symptomatically relieved in all patients. CT and bronchovideoscopy showed patent lumens with increased dimensions. Stent-related complications occurred in 19 (91%) patients, including granulation tissue formation (n = 18, 86%), stent migration and stent expectoration (n = 2, 10%), mucus plugging (n = 1, 5%), and halitosis (n = 6, 29%). Some patients experienced multiple complications, which were all managed effectively while the stent was still in place. There was a statistically significant difference in the diameter of the stricture and FEV1 between the time of stent

  16. Therapeutic flexible bronchoscopy in child with cystic fibrosis

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    Amina Selimović

    2008-05-01

     bronchoscopy findings:by aspiration of tracheo-bronchal truncus it was found hyperemia and a lot of mucous sticky secretion inside of tracheobronchal tree, especially middle lobe right side, lingual and basals part of the lungs. It was performed broncho-alveolar lavage and given steroids on the place of changed inflamed mucous membrane of the bronchi. It was also given pulmozyme to destroid mucous and make better spontaneously expectorations. Control chest x ray was performed and it was better.

  17. Clinical Application of Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stents in the Treatment of Bronchial Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ming; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tian Xiao; Jiang, Min Zhong; Zang, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Background The study was designed to access the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of fully covered self-expandable metal stents in the treatment of bronchial fistula. Methods Clinical data of nine patients (seven males and two females) who were treated with placement of tracheobronchial or bronchial fully covered self-expandable metal stents from August 2005 to November 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Among these patients, seven were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula, one with tracheopleural fistula, and one with left main bronchoesophageal fistula. Eight had accompanying thoracic empyema. The fistula orifices ranged from 3.5 mm to 25 mm in diameter. All patients received topical anesthesia. L-shaped stents were placed in six patients and I-shaped stents in three under fluoroscopic guidance. After stent placement, patients with empyema were treated with pleural lavage. Results Stent placement in the tracheobronchial tree was successful in all patients, without procedure-related complications. The operating time was 5 to 16 minutes. A small amount of bubble overflowed from the intrathoracic drainage tube of only one patient. In the other patients, the bubble in the intrathoracic drainage tube disappeared immediately or angiography showed no overflow of contrast agent from the fistula orifice. The effective rate of fistula orifice closure after stent placement was 100%, with 88.9% rated as excellent. One patient coughed the stent out 5 days after placement and hence a new stent was placed. Among the patients with empyema, one died of septicemia arising from empyema on day 8 and another died of brain metastases of lung cancer 6 months after stent insertion with persistent empyema. In the other six patients, empyema resolved after 2 to 5 months (cure rate 75%). Seven patients were followed up for 3 to 36 months. During follow-up, one stent was removed 8 months after implantation due to difficult expectoration, without recurrent empyema. The remaining

  18. Treatment of cuff-related tracheal stenosis with a fully covered retrievable expandable metallic stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Wang, Z; Liang, X; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, Z; Xian, J

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the clinical effectiveness, complications, and optimal duration of use of covered retrievable expandable metallic stents in the management of cuff-related tracheal stenosis. Twenty-one patients with cuff-related tracheal stenosis, Meyer-Cotton grade II (29%) and III (71%), who underwent fluoroscopically guided placement of covered retrievable expandable metallic stents were studied. Sixty-four-section computed tomography (CT) and bronchovideoscopy were performed prior to stent insertion, 1 month after stent insertion, in the case of stent-related complications, and after stent removal. Clinical manifestations, Hugh-Jones classification, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were used to evaluate respiratory function before and after stent insertion and removal. The diameter of the stricture and FEV1 changes before insertion and after removal were analysed using the paired samples t-test. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Twenty-one patients had 27 covered retrievable expandable metallic stents placed. Stents were electively removed from 20 patients. The median duration of stent placement was 5 months (range 4-12 months). One stent was not removed due to mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) with tracheomalacia. After stent removal, airway dimensions increased and airway occlusion was symptomatically relieved in all patients. CT and bronchovideoscopy showed patent lumens with increased dimensions. Stent-related complications occurred in 19 (91%) patients, including granulation tissue formation (n = 18, 86%), stent migration and stent expectoration (n = 2, 10%), mucus plugging (n = 1, 5%), and halitosis (n = 6, 29%). Some patients experienced multiple complications, which were all managed effectively while the stent was still in place. There was a statistically significant difference in the diameter of the stricture and FEV1 between the time of stent insertion and removal. An improvement in

  19. [Diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin in identifying the etiology of non-responding community-acquired pneumonia after initial antibiotic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoju; Wu, Jizhen; Zhang, Wenping; Kuang, Hongyan; Li, Xiao; Xuan, Weixia; Wang, Kai; Ma, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    This study was to investigate the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin(PCT) in identifying the etiology of non-responding community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after initial antibiotic therapy. A retrospective analysis was performed for 232 hospitalized CAP patients admitted to the People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University during June 2013 and January 2014. Early treatment failure was defined as the presence of persistent fever (>38 °C) and/or clinical symptoms (malaise, cough, expectoration, dyspnea) or deterioration after at least 72 h of initial antimicrobial treatment, or development of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, or septic shock. Bronchoscopy or transthoracic lung biopsy was performed in case of early treatment failure when indicated. Serum level of PCT was detected by double antibody sandwich method. The differences between 2 or more groups were compared using 2-independent student t test, one-way ANOVA; Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, or χ(2) test. Risk factors and odds ratios for nonresponsiveness were analyzed by setting up a Logistic regression model. The diagnostic values of PCT were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves). Of the 232 CAP patients enrolled, 124 were male and 108 were female, with an average age of (46 ± 20) years. Thirty-six patients failed to respond to the initial antibiotic therapy. As shown by Logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for treatment failure included hypoalbuminemia, type 2 diabetes, previous history of splenectomy , PSI 4-5 grade, and lung infiltration ≥ 3 lobes. The most common causes of non-responsiveness were antimicrobial insufficiency (n = 23), and misdiagnosis of noninfectious mimics of pneumonia (n = 11), with 2 cases of unidentified etiology. The serum PCT level in admission was 0.19 (0.07-0.66) µg/L in the antimicrobial insufficiency subgroup, which was significantly higher than that in the misdiagnosis subgroup [0

  20. Principales características clinicoepidemiológicas de pacientes con fibrosis quística en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba Main clinical-epidemiological characteristics of patients with cystic fibrosis in Santiago de Cuba province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Guzmán Pileta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal durante el 2008 para determinar las principales características clinicoepidemiológicas de los 34 pacientes con fibrosis quística en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, atendidos por el Grupo Provincial de esta especialidad. En la casuística primaron las siguientes variables: sexo masculino, piel amarilla, procedentes del municipio de Santiago de Cuba, bajo peso, con síntomas y diagnóstico de la enfermedad en la primera década de la vida e infección respiratoria; esta última como principal complicación. Entre los síntomas más frecuentes figuraron: tos, expectoración, dolor abdominal, apetito voraz, así como forma mixta según tipo de presentación, que fue además la causante del mayor número de ingresos; entre los resultados de otras pruebas predominaron, por citar algunos: disfunción ventilatoria obstructiva moderada, mutación genética DF 508 homocigótico, así como aislamiento de la Pseudomonas aeuruginosa en el esputo y estreptococo beta hemolítico en el exudado nasofaríngeo.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out during 2008 in order to determine the main clinical-epidemiological characteristics of 34 patients with cystic fibrosis in Santiago de Cuba province assisted by the Provincial Group of this field. In the case material, the following variables: male sex, yellow skin, residents in Santiago de Cuba municipality, low weight, presenting symptoms and the diagnosis of a disease during the first decade of life and respiratory infection, the latter as main complication, were relevant. Among the symptoms, the most frequent were cough, expectoration, abdominal pain, voracious appetite, as well as the mixed form according to the occurrence type which also was the cause of the major number of admissions. Among the results of some other tests, just for quoting some examples, mild obstructive breathing malfunction, homozygotic DF 508 genetic mutation as well as

  1. The world's longest surviving paediatric practices: some themes of Aboriginal medical ethnobotany in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary paediatric practices of Australian Aboriginal men and women, in more than 100 Aboriginal Language Groups, comprise a living discipline whose origins predate Western medicine by tens of millennia. The history of paediatrics acknowledges this surviving continuum of the world's oldest child-care practices. Because of the inextricable nexus between Aboriginal men and women and the land in which they live, medical ethnobotany forms a major part of the medical aspects of Aboriginal child care. Traditional tribal healers, called 'Nungungi' in some language groups of Central Australia, are identified as such whilst still young children and are given special education in the healing arts, especially that of medical ethnobotany, by older healers. Distinct from this specialized role, all Aboriginal men and women (and in particular grandmothers) in traditional communities use a sophisticated botanical materia medica in the treatment of sick and injured children. In cultures in transition, medical ethnobotanical practices may persist long after the local use of flora as sources of traditional food, weaponry, totemic identity and religious rites have disappeared. Some selected botanical 'cures' were adopted by early European settlers and a number of such relict uses have become part of mainstream Western life today, particularly as this applies to self-medication. Drugs and medicaments used in the treatment of children are obtained from leaves, bark, roots and flowers, usually as fresh preparations. They are prepared as infusions, decoctions and macerations and may be enjoined with emollients such as emu or kangaroo fat for topical application. Botanical drugs and medicaments are usually prepared fresh for each administration and are rarely stored. Contemporary Australian ethnobotany exploits the medicinal properties of more than 100 genera - using such extracts as antiseptics, analgesics, astringents, antipyretics, sedatives, hypnotics, expectorants and

  2. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  3. Positive expiratory pressure therapy versus other airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela T; Holland, Anne E

    2017-09-27

    participants, therapists or personnel for outcome measure assessment in most studies. Clinical heterogeneity between studies limited meta-analysis.Daily use of oscillatory PEP therapy for four weeks was associated with improved general health according to the Short-Form 36 questionnaire compared to the active cycle of breathing technique (ACBT). When applied for three sessions over one week, minimal PEP therapy resulted in similar improvement in cough-related quality of life as autogenic drainage (AD) and L'expiration Lente Totale Glotte Ouverte en Decubitus Lateral (ELTGOL). Oscillatory PEP therapy twice daily for four weeks had similar effects on disease-specific HRQOL (MD -0.09, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.19; low-quality evidence). Data were not available to determine the incidence of hospitalisation or rate of exacerbation in clinically stable participants.Two studies of a single session comparison of oscillatory PEP therapy and gravity-assisted drainage (GAD) with ACBT had contrasting findings. One study found a similar sputum weight produced with both techniques (SMD 0.54g (-0.38 to 1.46; 20 participants); the other found greater sputum expectoration with GAD and ACBT (SMD 5.6 g (95% CI 2.91 to 8.29: 36 participants). There was no difference in sputum weight yielded between oscillatory PEP therapy and ACBT with GAD when applied daily for four weeks or during an acute exacerbation. Although a single session of oscillatory PEP therapy was associated with less sputum compared to AD (median difference 3.1 g (95% CI 1.5 to 4.8 g; one study, 31 participants), no difference between oscillatory PEP therapy and seated ACBT was evident. PEP therapy had a similar effect on dynamic and static measures of lung volumes and gas exchange as all other ACTs. A single session of oscillatory PEP therapy (Flutter) generated a similar level of fatigue as ACBT with GAD, but greater fatigue was noted with oscillatory PEP therapy compared to ACBT alone. The degree of breathlessness experienced with PEP

  4. [Analysis of clinical features and allergic status of asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yan; Ye, Ling; Gong, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Jin, Mei-ling

    2013-08-01

    To improve understanding of the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, including clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, pulmonary function tests and chest CT imaging of 95 asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE from January 2010 to September 2012 in Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University. Of the 95 patients, 59 cases met the diagnostic criteria of ABPM. There were 34 males and 25 females, with a mean age of (53 ± 4) years and a duration of asthma for (21 ± 4) years. Thirty-six cases showed mycosis hypersensitivity (MH). There were 10 males and 26 females, with a mean age of (46 ± 6) years and a duration of asthma for (16 ± 5) years. Clinical symptoms such as wheeze (52 vs 21, χ(2) = 11.159, P = 0.001), cough (54 vs 27, χ(2) = 4.859, P = 0.030) and expectoration (43 vs 9, χ(2) = 25.731, P = 0.000) were more common in the ABPM group compared to the MH group.In the ABPM group, 58 were A. fumigatus-specific IgE antibody positive, 34 Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive and 1 only Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive.While in the MH group, 15 were A.fumigatus-specific IgE antibody positive, 24 Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive and 17 only Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive.In the ABPM group, the percentage of positive fumigatus-specific IgE antibody was higher (58 vs 15, χ(2) = 24.500, P = 0.000), while the percentages of dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(21 vs 20, χ(2) = 3.632, P = 0.045) and Dermatophagoides farinae(17 vs 21, χ(2) = 8.118, P = 0.004) were lower. Total serum IgE [(4395 ± 1437) IU/ml vs (276 ± 133) IU/ml, T = 4.384, P = 0.000], peripheral eosinophil percentage[(12.56 ± 1.20)% vs (1.30 ± 0.15)%, t = 8.175, P = 0.000] and count [(2.09 ± 0.43)×10(9)/L vs (0.19 ± 0.04)×10(9)/L, t = 7.032, P = 0.000] were higher in the ABPM group as compared to the MH group.FEV1% slightly declined in the ABPM

  5. Subdiagnóstico de DPOC na atenção primária em Aparecida de Goiânia, Goiás Underdiagnosis of COPD at primary health care clinics in the city of Aparecida de Goiânia, Brazil

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    Maria Conceição de Castro Antonelli Monteiro de Queiroz

    2012-12-01

    seeking medical attention at one of the selected PHCCs. All subjects included in the study underwent spirometry for the diagnosis of COPD. RESULTS: We successfully evaluated 200 individuals, mostly males. The mean age was 65.9 ± 10.5 years. The diagnosis of COPD was confirmed in 63 individuals, only 18 of whom had been previously diagnosed with COPD (underdiagnosis rate, 71.4%. There were no significant differences between the subgroups with and without a previous diagnosis of COPD in relation to demographics and risk factors. However, there were significant differences between these subgroups for the presence of expectoration, wheezing, and dyspnea (p = 0.047; p = 0.005; and p = 0.047, respectively. The FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, expressed as percentages of the predicted values, were significantly lower in the subjects with a previous diagnosis of COPD, which was predominantly mild or moderate in both subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of underdiagnosis of COPD was high at the PHCCs studied. One third of the patients with risk factors for COPD met the clinical and functional criteria for the disease. It seems that spirometry is underutilized at such facilities.

  6. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

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    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02, who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, P<0.001, who considered it very important to report health warning on cigarette packs (OR =1.92, P=0.01, who had chronic expectoration (OR =1.81, P=0.06 and who would change their favorite cigarette pack if they found shocking images on the pack (OR =1.95, P=0.004. Conclusion: Low-dependent smokers and highly motivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms. Keywords: cigarette tobacco smoking, adult smokers, health warnings, cigarette packaging, graphic warning labels, textual warning labels

  7. Intoxicações medicamentosas em crianças menores de cinco anos Drug intoxication among children under five years old

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    Guacira Corrêa de Matos

    2002-08-01

    circumstances. RESULTS: in Brazil, there were 151.000 intoxication cases in the focused period. Almost one third was associated to medication, and about forty thousand occurred among children less than five years old. Analgesics, the decongestants, the bronchodilators, the antiepileptics and oral contraceptives were the therapeutic classes involved, and the decongestants, the antiepileptics, the antihistamines and the expectorants were associated to cause of death. The surveillance system pointed out that individual accidents, medication errors and therapeutic misuse were the main circumstances involved. CONCLUSIONS: drug intoxication is a major public health problem, for which intervention measures are necessary. Educational and regulatory actions could decrease the number of accidents and injuries. The main inadequacies of SINITOX are under-registration, lack of integration with health services and poor data uniformity.

  8. Avaliação biológica de Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae Biological evaluation of Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae

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    O. Araujo R

    2013-01-01

    territory. It is commonly known as fennel or "erva-doce" and has been used in medicine as analgesic, digestive, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, lactigenous, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic agent. Crude ethanolic extract for the verification of biological activities was prepared from seeds bought in the market. For the phytochemical profile, analytical thin-layer chromatography was used; the antimicrobial activity was determined by the paper disc diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; the antinociceptive activity was verified by the method of abdominal writhings in the animals. The tested microorganisms were multiresistant clinical isolates obtained from the Bacteriology Sector of the Clinical Hospital of Pernambuco. The phytochemical study identified the majority of secondary compounds present in the methanolic fraction of seeds, as follows: triterpenes, flavanoid glycosides, smaller terpenes (monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids and reducing sugars. The obtained results showed that the ethanolic extract had greater activity against Micrococcus spp. (MIC=250µg/mL. Results of the evaluation of the antinociceptive activity demonstrated that only the dosage of 298 mg/Kg, compared to the indomethacin pattern, led to a significant reduction in the number of abdominal writhings in the animals. Further studies will be carried out for the identification and isolation of some secondary compounds, as well as other analgesic protocols.

  9. Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)--a review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebaluck, R; Gurib-Fakim, A; Mahomoodally, F

    2015-01-15

    , Acalypha alnifolia and Acalypha fruticosa are used as insecticides and sand fly repellent respectively. Only 2 species (Acalypha fruticosa and Acalypha indica) are used in ethnoveterinary practice and have similar human and veterinary applications. In zoopharmacognosy, only Acalypha ornata has been mentioned. Natives from Africa, Central America, North America, Southern China, India, Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and Mascarenes islands utilize Acalypha species as ethnomedicine. Traditionally used Acalypha species have been reported to possess at least one of the following biological activities: antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, larvidal, pupicidal, hepatoprotective, anticancer, leishmanicidal, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, anti-venom, analgesic, anthelmintic, antiemetic, laxative, expectorant, diuretic, post-coital antifertility effects and wound healing. A total of 167 compounds have been identified from 19 species, with 16 from eight species were reported to be bioactive. The present review represents 32.3% of species from the Acalypha genus and can be considered as the first compilation of ethnopharmacologically useful plants from this genus. There is a great potential to discover new biologically active phytochemicals from the Acalypha genus because only few species have been studied comprehensively. Therefore, the clinical evaluation of species from this genus is warranted in future studies to confirm the ethnomedicinal claims and for the safety approval of therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eficácia antitussígena de duas formulações fitoterápicas Antitussive efficacy of two phytotherapics formulations

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    F.B. Mello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos antitussígenos-expectorantes de duas formulações fitoterápicas utilizando-se três modelos biológicos diferentes. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar no modelo da secreção das vias aéreas, cobaias no modelo de tosse induzido por ácido cítrico e codornas japonesas na determinação da velocidade de transporte mucociliar. Os animais foram distribuídos em grupos e tratados por via oral com as formulações, com doses equivalentes a 10 vezes a terapêutica recomendada, 9ml.kg-1. O grupo-controle negativo de cada espécie foi tratado com solução fisiológica, 10ml.kg-1. O grupo-controle positivo no modelo de tosse induzida pelo ácido cítrico foi tratado com morfina, 1mg.kg-1, por via subcutânea. No modelo em que foram utilizados ratos e codornas, o grupo-controle positivo recebeu erdosteína por via oral, 600mg.kg-1. Os resultados mostraram que as duas formulações fitoterápicas foram eficazes no reflexo da tosse em cobaias, causando 36,4% e 27,3%, respectivamente, de redução. Nos modelos de secreção das vias aéreas e determinação da velocidade de transporte mucociliar, ambas as formulações não apresentaram eficácia significativa.The antitussive-expectorant effects of two phytotherapic formulations available in the Brazilian market were evaluated using three different biological models. Each phytotherapic formulation, with different composition, had the same batch number and fabrication date. The trade names of the phytotherapics were: Gripalplus Solução® and Melagrião®. Wistar rats were used in the airway secretion model, guinea pigs in the citric acid-induced cough model and japanese quails in the mucociliary transport rate determination. The animals (one group/formulation were divided in the two phytotherapic groups and orally treated with the equivalent to ten told the therapeutic recommended dose, which was 9ml.kg-1. Animals of negative control group of each specie were orally treated with 10ml

  11. Effect of ELOM-080 on exacerbations and symptoms in COPD patients with a chronic bronchitis phenotype – a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Beeh KM

    2016-11-01

    mildly symptomatic patients (sputum/expectoration and cough was consistently higher in the ELOM-080 group compared to placebo, with statistical significant differences after 2 and 3 months of treatment (2 months: ELOM-080 25%, placebo 11%, P<0.005; 3 months: ELOM-080 26%, placebo 14%, P<0.05. Likewise the subjective rating of general health status was better in the ELOM-080 group with statistically significant superiority after 2 and 3 months of treatment (2-month treatment: P=0.015; 3-month treatment: P=0.024. Tolerability results were comparable between ELOM-080 and placebo. Conclusion: ELOM-080 is efficacious in patients with COPD and a chronic bronchitis phenotype. Prophylactic use reduces the rate of exacerbations and improves the key symptoms of sputum and cough with a favorable long-term tolerability profile. Keywords: COPD, exacerbations, winter, phytotherapy, myrtol, chronic bronchitis, sputum

  12. Automedicação em crianças de zero a cinco anos: fármacos administrados, conhecimentos, motivos e justificativas La automedicación en niños de cero a cinco años: fármacos administrados, conocimientos, declaraciones y justificativas Self-medication in children from zero to five years: farmacos managed, knowledge, statement and background

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    Paulo Celso Prado Telles Filho

    2013-06-01

    automedicación.We carried out the analysis of drugs administered, knowledge, motives and justifications of parents and/or guardians in relation to self-medication in children. It is a descriptive study, developed in Estratégia de Saúde da Família in a city in the interior of Minas Gerais, which includes parents and/or guardians of children aged zero to five years, in the period one month, reaching the amount of 50 individuals. The highlights were the self administration of drugs Dipyrone, Paracetamol and syrups expectorants, erroneous knowledge 32 (64%, followed by partial 11 (22% and correct 7 (14%, respectively, the symptoms of fever with 29 (58% of the reasons and justification that they are accustomed to administer such drugs and they already have them at home. It is necessary to implement strategies focused in educate parents and/or guardians about the problems arising from self-medication.

  13. Tuberculosis pulmonar y tabaquismo en la Atención Primaria de Salud Pulmonary tuberculosis and Smoking in Primary Health Care

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    Margarita González Tapia

    2012-10-01

    descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2010 to December 2011 in Pinar del Rio municipality. The target group involved the total of patients having the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Pinar del Rio municipality during 2010-2011. The sample was comprised of 45 patients. Clinical charts of patients, epidemiological surveys recorded in the Statistics Department of the "Municipal Hygiene and Epidemiology Unit" in Pinar del Rio were reviewed. A survey that constituted the primary source of information was applied which included qualitative and quantitative variables. Results: the most affected group of ages was from 25-59 years old, prevailing male sex. Predominant symptoms included cough and expectoration for more than 14 days. All of the cases were new, 9 of them smokers; observing a delay in the disappearance of symptoms for these patients. Conclusions: knowledge of tuberculosis behavior and its association with smoking should be increased in Pinar del Rio municipality.

  14. Interventions for primary (intrinsic tracheomalacia in children

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    Vikas Goyal

    .02. The mean change in daytime cough diary scores from baseline was also better in the placebo group compared to those on nebulized rhDNase, but the difference between groups was not statistically significant (MD 0.70; 95% CI -0.19 to 1.59. Other outcomes (dyspnoea, and difficulty in expectorating sputum scores, and lung function tests at two weeks also favoured placebo over nebulized rhDNase but did not reach levels of significance.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONSThere is currently an absence of evidence to support any of the therapies currently utilised for management of intrinsic tracheomalacia. It remains inconclusive whether the use of nebulized rhDNase in children with airway malacia and a respiratory tract infection worsens recovery. It is unlikely that any RCT on surgically based management will ever be available for children with severe life-threatening illness associated with tracheomalacia. For those with less severe disease, RCTs on interventions such as antibiotics and chest physiotherapy are clearly needed. Outcomes of these RCTs should include measurements of the trachea and physiological outcomes in addition to clinical outcomes.

  15. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Goyal

    2013-03-01

    .02. The mean change in daytime cough diary scores from baseline was also better in the placebo group compared to those on nebulized rhDNase, but the difference between groups was not statistically significant (MD 0.70; 95% CI -0.19 to 1.59. Other outcomes (dyspnoea, and difficulty in expectorating sputum scores, and lung function tests at two weeks also favoured placebo over nebulized rhDNase but did not reach levels of significance.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONSThere is currently an absence of evidence to support any of the therapies currently utilised for management of intrinsic tracheomalacia. It remains inconclusive whether the use of nebulized rhDNase in children with airway malacia and a respiratory tract infection worsens recovery. It is unlikely that any RCT on surgically based management will ever be available for children with severe life-threatening illness associated with tracheomalacia. For those with less severe disease, RCTs on interventions such as antibiotics and chest physiotherapy are clearly needed. Outcomes of these RCTs should include measurements of the trachea and physiological outcomes in addition to clinical outcomes.

  16. ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY OF COMMUNITY-ACKUIRED PNEUMONIA: NECESSITY AND SUFFICIENCY

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    L. V. Savchenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: analysis of pathogenetic and  symptomatic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in the prehospital and at the stage  of hospital treatment of disease in hospitals of city Khujand of the Republic of Tajikistan.Materials and  methods: A retrospective analysis of 393 case  histories of  patients treated for  community-acquired pneumonia in  the  hospital Khujand from  2011  to  2015  is conducted. The estimation of the scope  and efficiency of the additional medical support for the treatment of communityacquired pneumonia was conducted, take  into  account the drugs  that  given  to patients in an outpatient setting and  in a hospital. Analyzed purpose rationale, adequacy of dose, duration of treatment and  compliance of the  activities with existing international and  national guidelines for the treatment  of community-acquired pneumonia.Results:  the  study found that  in  clinical  practice, 57% of  patients with  community-acquired pneumonia received funds pathogenetic and  symptomatic therapy. It  is  found that  quite  often  prescribed drugs  with  unproven efficiency. Thus,  75%  of patients received expectorants and  mucolytic drugs,   42.2% of  patients  received anti-allergic medicals. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicals received 37.9% of patients with  community-acquired pneumonia, almost  30% of patients receiving infusion therapy. Quite often  (15.7% patients with   community-acquired  pneumonia  prescribed antifungal drugs  and  antiprotozoal drug  – metronidazole (59%  of cases.  Furthermore, in complex treatment of community-acquired pneumonia include vitamin C (23.1% and vitamin B (65.9%.Conclusion: the  analysis of pharmacotherapy community-acquired pneumonia showed that  in the treatment of this disease occurs  unjustified polypharmacy. Quite often  prescribe drugs with unproven efficacy and, as a consequence of a significant frequency of clinical

  17. Clinical Experience of the Treatment of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules with Da Vinci Surgical System

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    Xiangdong TONG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN is defined as a round intraparenchimal lung lesion less than 3 cm in size, not associated with atelectasis or adenopathy. The aim of this study is to learn clinical experience of the treatment of SPN with Da Vinci Surgical System. Methods A total of 9 patients with solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN less than 3 cm in diameter was treated with Da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, California in thoracic surgery department from General Hospital of Shenyang Militrary Region from November 2011 to March 2014. This group of patients included 3 males and 6 females, and the mean age was 51±9.9 yr (range: 41-74 yr. Most of the patients were no obvious clinical symptoms (7 cases were found by physical examination, others were with cough and expectoration. Their median medical history was 12 mo (range: 4 d-3 yr. All the lesions of patients were peripheral pulmonary nodules and the mean diameter of those was (1.4±0.6 cm(range: 0.8-2.8 cm. Wedge-shaped resection or lobectomy was performed depending on the result of rapid pathology and systemic lymph node dissection was done for malignant leision. We used general anesthesis with double lumens trachea cannula. We set the patients in lateral decubitus position with jackknife. The patient cart enter from top of the patient. The position of trocars would be set according to the position of lesion. A 12 mm incision was positioned at the 8th intercostal space in the posterior axillary line as vision port, and two 8 mm incisions were positioned at the 5th intercostal space between the anterior axillary line and midclavicular line, and the 8th infrascapular line as robotic instrument ports about 10 cm apart from the vision port. One additional auxiliary small incision for instrument without retracting ribs was set at the 7th intercostal space in the middle axillary line. Results There were 4 benign leisions and 5 malignancies identified. Wedge

  18. Efeitos da ELTGOL e do Flutter® nos volumes pulmonares dinâmicos e estáticos e na remoção de secreção de pacientes com bronquiectasia Effects of ELTGOL and Flutter VRP1® on the dynamic and static pulmonary volumes and on the secretion clearance of patients with bronchiectasis

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    Fernando S. Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    with clinical and radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis were included. Patients underwent three interventions in a randomized order and with a one-week washout interval between them. Before all interventions patients inhaled two puffs of 100 mcg of salbutamol. There was a cough period of five minutes before and after the control protocol and the interventions (ELTGOL and Flutter VRP1®. After each cough series patients underwent assessments of dynamic and static lung volumes by spirometry and plethysmography. The expectorated secretions were collected during the interventions and during the second cough series, and quantified by its dry weight. Results: We studied 10 patients, two males and eight females (mean age: 55.9±18.1 years. After using Flutter VRP1®and ELTGOL there was a significant decrease in residual volume (RV, functional residual capacity (FRC and total lung capacity (TLC (p<0.05. There was a higher sputum production during ELTGOL compared with Control and Flutter VRP1® (p<0.05. Conclusion: The ELTGOL and Flutter VRP1® techniques acutely reduced lung hyperinflation, but only the ELTGOL increased the removal of pulmonary secretions from patients with bronchiectasis.

  19. Deve-se extrapolar o tratamento de bronquiectasias em pacientes com fibrose cística para aqueles com bronquiectasias de outras etiologias? Should the bronchiectasis treatment given to cystic fibrosis patients be extrapolated to those with bronchiectasis from other causes?

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    Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio

    2010-08-01

    age at diagnosis was lower in the patients with CF than in those without (14.2 vs. 24.2 years; p < 0.05. The prevalence of symptoms (cough, expectoration, hemoptysis, and wheezing was similar between the groups. Colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus was more common in the CF patients (82.4 vs. 29.7% and 64.7 vs. 5.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The causes and clinical manifestations of bronchiectasis are heterogeneous, and it is important to identify the differences. It is crucial that these differences be recognized so that new strategies for the management of patients with bronchiectasis can be developed.

  20. Bronquiectasia e fisioterapia desobstrutiva: ênfase em drenagem postural e percussão Bronchiectasis and clearence physiotherapy: emphasis in postural drainage and percussion

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    Neuseli Marino Lamari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bronquiectasia consiste em dilatação anormal, permanente e irreversível de brônquios e bronquíolos, com infecções recorrentes, inflamações, hipersecreção e redução da limpeza mucociliar. Acomete predominantemente o sexo feminino, entre 28 e 48 anos de idade e afeta com maior freqüência os lobos inferiores bilateralmente. Manifestações clínicas da doença são a tosse crônica, febre e expectoração volumosa, purulenta, com odor fétido. Etiologia é inespecífica e representada pelo estádio final de diversos processos patológicos. Pode ser classificada em cilíndrica, varicosa e sacular, e ainda, em localizada e multissegmentar. Drenagem postural e percussão são técnicas desobstrutivas usuais na prática clínica diária, no entanto, há escassez de estudos comparativos enfatizando-as com amostras populacionais e recursos metodológicos. Tomando por base as considerações, teve-se como objetivo verificar a eficácia da drenagem postural e da percussão na higiene brônquica de pacientes bronquiectásicos, bem como seus efeitos e associação com outras técnicas apontadas pela literatura atual. Os principais achados comprovaram que a drenagem postural e a percussão são efetivas na mobilização da secreção pulmonar, uma vez que aumentam a velocidade do muco transportado, melhoram a função pulmonar e as trocas gasosas. A efetividade requer ajuda de um profissional, o que pode dificultar a prática clínica diária. Por esta razão, fisioterapeutas têm selecionado técnicas que propiciem independência ao paciente.Bronchiectasis consists of abnormal, permanent and irreversible dilation of bronchi and bronchia, with recurrent infections, inflammation, hypersecretion and reduction of mucus clearance. It predominantly affects women of between 28 and 48 years old and more frequently affects the inferior lobes. Clinical manifestations are chronic cough, fever and voluminous expectoration, with a fetid odor. The etiology

  1. Bronquiectasias: aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos Estudo de 170 pacientes Bronchiectasis: diagnostic and therapeutic features A study of 170 patients

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    José da Silva Moreira

    2003-10-01

    the affected individuals. OBJECTIVES: To study diagnostic and therapeutic aspects in a series of hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis in a department of pulmonary diseases. METHOD: Signs, symptoms, microbiological and radiographic data, and therapeutic results were studied in 170 hospitalized patients between 1978 and 2001 - females 62.4%, males 37.6%, and aged from 12 to 88 years (mean age 36.8 yrs. Previous history of pneumonia in childhood was detected in 52.5% of the patients, tuberculosis in 19.8%; 8.8% had bronchial asthma, and 2 had Kartagener's syndrome. RESULTS: The most common symptoms were cough (100.0%, expectoration (96.0% and pulmonary rales (66.0%. The pulmonary lesions were unilateral in 46.5% of the cases. Pneumococcus, H. influenzae or mixed flora were found in 85.0% of the examined sputa. All 170 patients received antibiotics and postural drainage, and 88 of them (younger and with a higher functional reserve were also submitted to pulmonary resections (82 unilateral and 6 bilateral. Two deaths occurred, and repetitive hospitalizations were more frequent among the clinically treated patients. The follow up showed that most of the surgically treated patients had significant symptoms improvement and rarely needed to be re-hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of the patients, lung resection surgery improved permanently the prolonged bronchopulmonary symptoms of patients with bronchiectasis, differently from the patients who received only clinical treatment.

  2. Utilização de medicamentos e fatores associados entre crianças residentes em áreas pobres Utilización de medicamentos y factores asociados entre niños residentes en áreas pobres Drug use and associated factors in children living in poor areas

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    Djanilson Barbosa Santos

    2009-10-01

    medicamentos superior al sexo masculino, 50,9% y 45,4%, respectivamente (p=0,004. La prevalencia de uso de medicamentos disminuyó significativamente con la edad (OBJECTIVE: To describe drug use profile in children living in poor areas and associated factors. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional study, including 1,382 children aged between four and 11 years. These children were selected by random sampling of 24 micro-areas, representative of the poorest segments of the population living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, in 2006. The dependent variable was drug use in the 15 days preceding the surveys. A total of three groups of explanatory variables were considered: socioeconomic variables, child health status, and use of health services. Adjusted analysis used Poisson regression, following a hierarchical conceptual model. RESULTS: Drug use prevalence in children was 48%. Female children showed higher drug use prevalence than males, 50.9% and 45.4%, respectively (p=0.004. Drug use prevalence decreased significantly with age (p<0.001 in both sexes. Most used pharmacological groups were: analgesics/antipyretics (25.5%, systemic antibiotics (6.5%, and anti-cough /expectorant drugs (6.2%. In the multivariate analysis, factors determining greater drug use were: age (four to five, six, seven to eight years; female sex; white mother; poorer health perception; interruption of activities due to health problems and health care, whether ill or not, in the last 15 days; drug spending in the last month; and medical visits in the last three months. CONCLUSIONS: Drug use prevalence in the poor children studied was below that observed in other population-based studies in Brazil, yet similar to that of adults. The identification of groups most subject to excessive drug use may serve as the basis for strategies to promote their rational use.

  3. Abscesso pulmonar de aspiração: análise de 252 casos consecutivos estudados de 1968 a 2004 Lung abscess: analysis of 252 consecutive cases diagnosed between 1968 and 2004

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    José da Silva Moreira

    2006-04-01

    and therapeutic results of 252 consecutive cases of lung abscess seen in patients hospitalized between 1968 and 2004. RESULTS: Of the 252 patients, 209 were male, and 43 were female. The mean age was 41.4 years, and 70.2% were alcoholic. Cough, expectoration, fever and overall poor health were seen over 97% of patients. Chest pain was reported by 64%, 30.2% presented digital clubbing, 82.5% had dental disease, 78.6% reported having lost consciousness at least once, and 67.5% presented foul smelling sputum. In 85.3% of the patients, the lung lesions were located either in the posterior segments of the upper lobe or in the superior segments of the lower lobe, and 96.8% were unilateral. Concomitant pleural empyema was seen in 24 (9.5% of the patients. Mixed flora was identified in the bronchopulmonary or pleural secretions of 182 patients (72.2%. All patients were initially treated with antibiotics (mainly penicillin or clindamycin, and postural drainage was performed in 98.4% of cases. Surgical procedures were performed in 52 (20.6% of the patients (drainage of empyema in 24, pulmonary resection in 22 and drainage of the abscess in 6. Cure was obtained in 242 patients (96.0%, and 10 (4.0% died. CONCLUSION: Lung abscess occurred predominantly in male adults presenting dental disease and having a history of loss of consciousness (especially as a result of alcohol abuse. Most of the patients were treated clinically with antibiotics and postural drainage, although some surgical procedure was required in one-fifth of the study sample.

  4. 支气管结核误诊为肺癌七例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 7 Patients with Bronchial Tuberculosis Misdiagnosed as Having Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤; 胥进

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨支气管结核误诊为肺癌的原因及防范措施.方法 对2013年3月-2015年12月凉山彝族自治州第二人民医院呼吸内科收治的25例支气管结核中曾误诊为支气管肺癌7例的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 本组误诊率为28.00%.出现咳嗽6例,咳痰5例,痰中带血或少量咯血4例,持续发热时间>2周4例,胸闷3例,胸痛2例,乏力、盗汗3例,食欲不振、体重下降2例.就诊初期6例误诊为支气管肺癌,1例误诊为支气管肺癌合并肺结核.误诊时间为1~12个月.按误诊疾病予相应处理患者病情变化不明显,后经电子支气管镜检查及反复多次纤维支气管镜下支气管黏膜活组织病理检查、刷检涂片查找抗酸杆菌确诊为支气管结核.7例均予规范抗结核等治疗,其中行手术切除治疗1例,支架安置术1例.7例治疗1个月后症状均有所缓解,复查胸部X线或CT示病灶较前吸收;住院治疗1~5个月后出院,院外继续行抗结核治疗.结论 支气管结核因临床表现不典型,胸部X线及CT征象类似于肺癌,易误诊为肺癌.临床接诊类似本文患者时应及时行电子支气管镜检查及反复多次行纤维支气管镜下支气管黏膜活组织病理检查、刷检涂片查找抗酸杆菌,以尽早确诊.%Objective To investigate causes and preventative measures of bronchial tuberculosis misdiagnosed as lung cancer.Methods Clinical data of 7 patients misdiagnosed as having bronchial lung cancer, among whom 25 patients had bronchial tuberculosis admitted during march 2013 and December 2015, was retrospectively analyzed.Results The misdiagnosis rate was 28.00%.There were 6 patients with cough, 5 with expectoration, 4 with blood in phlegm or a little of haemoptysis, 4 with sustained fever for longer than 2 weeks, 3 with dyspnea, 2 with chest pain, 3 with fatigue and night sweats and 2 patients with poor appetite and weight loss.In primary diagnosis, 6 patients were misdiagnosed as

  5. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

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    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    of acute respiratory viral infections the medicinal plants of several pharmacological groups mainly used are: plants with a tonic effect (plants containing vitamins and minerals — rose hips, black currant, sea buckthorn, citrus fruits, adaptogens and immune modulators should be used in pediatric practice with caution (Ginseng, Rhodiola Rosea, Aralia Manchurian, plants containing biogenic stimulators — the aloe latex, kalanchoe, plant with bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect (sage leaves drug, eucalyptus switchgrass, plants with anti-inflammatory effect, containing tannins — oak bark, Potentilla rhizome, rhizome of Polygonum snake, burnet, alder cones, etc; plants containing essential oils, azulene derivatives — Chamomile flowers; plants containing mucus — Farfara leaves, Plantain; Linden flowers; plants with antipyretic and diaphoretic action — plants containing vitamins (fruits of raspberry, black currant fruit, cranberry; plants containing salicylic acid derivatives — Viola tricolor, raspberry fruit; plants with protective, emollient, expectorant action containing mucus — Farfara leaves; Linden flowers, plantain leaves are large; containing alkaloids, with antitussive effect —codeine phosphate; glaucine hydrochloride grass of Thermopsis lancet; bronchodilators plants; plants with anti-allergic effect, containing flavonoids — herb of Viola tricolor, the roots of Licorice. The article presents the re­commendation of professor O.D. Barnaulov, a pediatric phytotherapist O.A. Daniluk on herbal medicine using in children, the rules of the certain medicinal plants use by Y.I. Korshikova, dosage regimen for herbal remedies for children, proposed by N.P. Menshikova, as well as practical advice on drafting phytospecies for the treatment and prophylaxis of acute respiratory viral infections and prescribing proposed by phytotherapist O.V. Kostareva.

  6. Complicações cardiovasculares em usuário de cocaína: relato de caso Cardiovascular complications related to cocaine use: case report

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    Fernanda Martins Gazoni

    2006-12-01

    : Cocaine is the most commonly used illicit drug and its acute and chronic effects are related to a variety of physiological changes, mainly in the cardiovascular system. This study is a case report of a patient with cardiomyopathy related to cocaine use. CASE REPORT: A 19 year old men, who has been using cocaine and crack since 15 years old, was admitted to the emergency department (ED in February 2006 with progressive dyspnea during minimal efforts and bloody expectoration. During the physical exam it was observed legs edema, jugular stasis and dyspnea at rest. The echocardiogram demonstrated left ventricular hypocinesia, a 17 mm ventricular thrombus and a 12% ejection fraction. A bleeding from the left upper lobe was identified during a pulmonary bronchoscopy which was treated with arterial embolization. After 48h of the procedure, the patient was asymptomatic and an antithrombotic treatment with warfarin and enoxaparin was started. No obstruction was found at the cineangiography and the patient was discharged after clinical improvement. The patient was admitted again to the intensive care unit in July with intense chest pain and dyspnea at rest. A new cineangiography was performed and it was observed occlusion in the anterior descendent coronary artery. CONCLUSIONS: The cocaine acute effects are commonly seen at the ED but the chronic effects, as the cardiovascular manifestations, can take longer to be correlated as a side effect of cocaine use. Its prolonged use is related to left ventricular systolic dysfunction due to hypertrophy or myocardial dilation, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias, myocyte apoptosis and sympathetic damage.

  7. The genus Inula and their metabolites: from ethnopharmacological to medicinal uses.

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    Seca, Ana M L; Grigore, Alice; Pinto, Diana C G A; Silva, Artur M S

    2014-06-11

    The genus Inula comprises more than one hundred species widespread in temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Uses of this genus as herbal medicines have been first recorded by the Greek and Roman ancient physicians. In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, from the 20 Inula spp. distributed in China, three are used as Traditional Chinese medicines, named Tumuxiang, Xuanfuhua and Jinfeicao. These medicines are used as expectorants, antitussives, diaphoretics, antiemetics, and bactericides. Moreover, Inula helenium L. which is mentioned in Minoan, Mycenaean, Egyptian/Assyrian pharmacotherapy and Chilandar Medical Codex, is good to treat neoplasm, wound, freckles and dandruff. Many other Inula spp. are used in Ayurvedic and Tibetan traditional medicinal systems for the treatment of diseases such as bronchitis, diabetes, fever, hypertension and several types of inflammation. This review is a critical evaluation of the published data on the more relevant ethnopharmacological and medicinal uses of Inula spp. and on their metabolites biological activities. This study allows the identification of the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this genus and will provide insight into the emerging pharmacological applications of Inula spp. facilitating the prioritirization of future investigations. The corroboration of the ethnopharmacological applications described in the literature with proved biological activities of Inula spp. secondary metabolites will also be explored. The major scientific databases including ScienceDirect, Medline, Scopus and Web of Science were queried for information on the genus Inula using various keyword combinations, more than 180 papers and patents related to the genus Inula were consulted. The International Plant Name Index was also used to confirm the species names. Although the benefits of Inula spp. are known for centuries, there are insufficient scientific studies to certify it. Most of the patents are registered by Chinese researchers, proving the traditional

  8. Alcohol and drug use disorders, HIV status and drug resistance in a sample of Russian TB patients

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    Fleming, M. F.; Krupitsky, E.; Tsoy, M.; Zvartau, E.; Brazhenko, N.; Jakubowiak, W.; E. McCaul, M.

    2006-01-01

    emploi d’une combinaison du cliché thoracique, de la bacilloscopie et des cultures d’expectoration. Chez 62% des patients, les critères DSM-IV pour utilisation courante d’alcool ou pour dépendance étaient présents. L’utilisation de drogues est inhabituelle: deux patients seulement ont signalé une utilisation récente de l’héroïne par voie intraveineuse. Il n’y avait qu’un seul cas d’infection VIH. Le score total moyen de la batterie d’évaluation des risques a été de 3,4. Il y avait de la dépression chez 60% de 1’échantillon, dont 17% étaient en dépression sévère. L’utilisation ou la dépendance à l’égard de l’alcool étaient associées avec une multiplication par huit de la résistance aux médicaments (OR 8,58 ; IC95% 2,09-35,32). Les patients atteints de rechute de TB ou de TB chronique sont plus susceptibles de répondre aux critérés d’abus ou de dépendance de l’alcool (OR 2,56; IC95% 1,0-6,54). CONCLUSION: Les maladies liées à l’utilisation d’alcool sont fréquentes chez les patients traités pour TB active et sont associées à une morbidité significative. Des enquêtes complémentaires sont nécessaires pour examiner les relations entre les maladies liées à l’utilisation d’alcool et la résistance à l’égard des médicaments antituberculeux. MARCO DE REFERENCIA: El consumo de alcohol, la tuberculosis (TB) farmacorresistente y los comportamientos de riesgo para la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) constituyen una preocupación creciente en los pacientes con TB en la Fedéración de Rusia. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio de prevalencia del consumo de alcohol y del comportamiento de riesgo para la infección por el VIH en una muestra de 200 adultos, hombres y mujeres, ingresados por TB en dos hospitales de San Petersburgo e Ivanovo en la Federación de Rusia. RESULTADOS: El 72% de los individuos fueron de sexo masculino. La media de la edad fue 41 años. El diagn