WorldWideScience

Sample records for expected system cost

  1. On Time with Minimal Expected Cost!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Jensen, Peter Gjøl; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    (Priced) timed games are two-player quantitative games involving an environment assumed to be completely antogonistic. Classical analysis consists in the synthesis of strategies ensuring safety, time-bounded or cost-bounded reachability objectives. Assuming a randomized environment, the (priced......) timed game essentially defines an infinite-state Markov (reward) decision proces. In this setting the objective is classically to find a strategy that will minimize the expected reachability cost, but with no guarantees on worst-case behaviour. In this paper, we provide efficient methods for computing...... reachability strategies that will both ensure worst case time-bounds as well as provide (near-) minimal expected cost. Our method extends the synthesis algorithms of the synthesis tool Uppaal-Tiga with suitable adapted reinforcement learning techniques, that exhibits several orders of magnitude improvements w...

  2. Health insurance, cost expectations, and adverse job turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To

    2011-01-01

    Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impacts of rainfall variability and expected rainfall changes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, T D; van Ierland, E C; Gabbert, S; Weikard, H-P; Hendrix, E M T

    2015-05-01

    Stormwater drainage and other water systems are vulnerable to changes in rainfall and runoff and need to be adapted to climate change. This paper studies impacts of rainfall variability and changing return periods of rainfall extremes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change given a predefined system performance target, for example a flood risk standard. Rainfall variability causes system performance estimates to be volatile. These estimates may be used to recurrently evaluate system performance. This paper presents a model for this setting, and develops a solution method to identify cost-effective investments in stormwater drainage adaptations. Runoff and water levels are simulated with rainfall from stationary rainfall distributions, and time series of annual rainfall maxima are simulated for a climate scenario. Cost-effective investment strategies are determined by dynamic programming. The method is applied to study the choice of volume for a storage basin in a Dutch polder. We find that 'white noise', i.e. trend-free variability of rainfall, might cause earlier re-investment than expected under projected changes in rainfall. The risk of early re-investment may be reduced by increasing initial investment. This can be cost-effective if the investment involves fixed costs. Increasing initial investments, therefore, not only increases water system robustness to structural changes in rainfall, but could also offer insurance against additional costs that would occur if system performance is underestimated and re-investment becomes inevitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  5. Expected value analysis for integrated supplier selection and inventory control of multi-product inventory system with fuzzy cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Widowati, Tjahjana, R. Heru

    2017-12-01

    The future cost in many industrial problem is obviously uncertain. Then a mathematical analysis for a problem with uncertain cost is needed. In this article, we deals with the fuzzy expected value analysis to solve an integrated supplier selection and supplier selection problem with uncertain cost where the costs uncertainty is approached by a fuzzy variable. We formulate the mathematical model of the problems fuzzy expected value based quadratic optimization with total cost objective function and solve it by using expected value based fuzzy programming. From the numerical examples result performed by the authors, the supplier selection problem was solved i.e. the optimal supplier was selected for each time period where the optimal product volume of all product that should be purchased from each supplier for each time period was determined and the product stock level was controlled as decided by the authors i.e. it was followed the given reference level.

  6. Cost Perception and the Expectancy-Value Model of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia N.

    The expectancy-value model of achievement motivation, first described by J. Atkinson (1957) and refined by J. Eccles and her colleagues (1983, 1992, 1994) predicts achievement motivation based on expectancy for success and perceived task value. Cost has been explored very little. To explore the possibility that cost is different from expectancy…

  7. Development of cost-benefit analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Tetsuya; Yuyama, Tomonori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    In order to promote the FDR development, it is necessary to see various benefits brought by introduction of FBR from multiple perspectives and have a good grasp of such benefits quantitatively and an adequate R and D investment scale which corresponds with them. In this study, the structured prototype in the previous study was improved to be able to perform cost-benefit analysis. An example of improvement made in the system is addition of subroutine used for comparison between new energy and benefits brought by introduction of FBR with special emphasis on addition of logic for analyzing externality about the new energy. Other improvement examples are modification of the Conventional Year Expense Ratio method of power generation cost to Average Durable Year Cost method, addition of database function and turning input data into database, and reviewing idea on cost by the type of waste material and price of uranium. The cost-benefit analysis system was also restructured utilizing Microsoft ACCESS so that it should have a data base function. As the result of the improvement mentioned above, we expect that the improved cost-benefit analysis system will have higher generality than the system before; therefore, great deal of benefits brought by application of the system in the future is expected. (author)

  8. Children's perceived cost for exercise: application of an expectancy-value paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Byrd, Sandra P; Molin, Ashley J

    2011-04-01

    Expectancy-value models of motivation have been applied to understanding children's choices in areas such as academics and sports. Here, an expectancy-value paradigm is applied to exercising (defined as engaging in physical activity). The notion of perceived cost is highlighted in particular. Two hundred twenty children in third, fourth, and fifth grades were surveyed on their competence beliefs, perceived importance, interest, and perceived cost of being physically active. Results indicated that perceived cost is empirically distinct from competence beliefs and other types of value, that perceived cost is marginally related to children's self-reported level of physical activity, and children's beliefs and other values are related to their self-reported level of physical activity. Children's perceptions of cost vary depending on grade and gender. Interventions based on these findings are proposed.

  9. Controlling health costs: physician responses to patient expectations for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Tilburt, Jon C; Campbell, Eric G; Sheeler, Robert D; Egginton, Jason S; Goold, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Physicians have dual responsibilities to make medical decisions that serve their patients' best interests but also utilize health care resources wisely. Their ability to practice cost-consciously is particularly challenged when faced with patient expectations or requests for medical services that may be unnecessary. To understand how physicians consider health care resources and the strategies they use to exercise cost-consciousness in response to patient expectations and requests for medical care. Exploratory, qualitative focus groups of practicing physicians were conducted. Participants were encouraged to discuss their perceptions of resource constraints, and experiences with redundant, unnecessary and marginally beneficial services, and were asked about patient requests or expectations for particular services. Sixty-two physicians representing a variety of specialties and practice types participated in nine focus groups in Michigan, Ohio, and Minnesota in 2012 MEASUREMENTS: Iterative thematic content analysis of focus group transcripts Physicians reported making trade-offs between a variety of financial and nonfinancial resources, considering not only the relative cost of medical decisions and alternative services, but the time and convenience of patients, their own time constraints, as well as the logistics of maintaining a successful practice. They described strategies and techniques to educate patients, build trust, or substitute less costly alternatives when appropriate, often adapting their management to the individual patient and clinical environment. Physicians often make nuanced trade-offs in clinical practice aimed at efficient resource use within a complex flow of clinical work and patient expectations. Understanding the challenges faced by physicians and the strategies they use to exercise cost-consciousness provides insight into policy measures that will address physician's roles in health care resource use.

  10. Effect of patient's life expectancy on the cost-effectiveness of treatment for ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Plotzke, Michael R; Kass, Michael A; Boland, Michael V; Gordon, Mae O

    2010-05-01

    To assess the influence of expected life span on the cost-effectiveness of treating ocular hypertension to prevent primary open-angle glaucoma. We used a Markov simulation model to estimate the cost and benefit of ocular hypertension treatment over a person's remaining life. We examined the influence of age on the cost-effectiveness decision in 2 ways: (1) by evaluating specific age cohorts to assess the influence of age at the initiation of treatment; and (2) by evaluating the influence of a specific life span. At a willingness to pay $50,000/quality-adjusted life year to $100,000/quality-adjusted life year, treatment of people with a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma was cost-effective for people aged 45 years with a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years. However, to be cost-effective, a person aged 55 years must have a life expectancy of 21 remaining years and someone aged 65 years must have a life expectancy of 23 remaining years. A person with ocular hypertension must have a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years to justify treatment at a threshold of a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma. Persons at higher levels of risk require a life expectancy of 7 to 10 additional years to justify treatment.

  11. Consumer Dispersion and Logistics Costs in Various Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Klose, Andreas

    We address the relationship between the geographical dispersion of a set of demand points and the expected logistics costs. This is relevant in the strategic marketing decision which groups of consumers to target. We devise quickly computable measures for the logistics costs. In our experiments......, dispersed sets of demand points are created. For various types of distribution systems, expected logistics costs are computed using continuous approximation, location and routing methodologies. We find that the average distance between locations is an effective estimate of the logistics costs....

  12. Long-term cost and life-expectancy consequences of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskinen, U; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P; Aromaa, A

    1998-08-01

    To estimate hypertension's long-term cost and impact on life expectancy. A 19-year individual follow-up study. Subjects were categorized according to their baseline (1972) diastolic blood pressure (DBP) level into three groups: normotensive (DBP 104 mmHg). By using their social security identification numbers, we linked the subjects to a set of national registers covering hospital admissions, use of major drugs, absence due to sickness, disability pensions, and deaths. A random population sample of 10 284 men and women aged 25-59 years from the provinces of Kuopio and North Karelia in eastern Finland. The numbers of years of life and years of work lost, the cost of drugs and hospitalization, and the value of productivity lost due to disability and premature mortality. The difference in life expectancy between normotensive and severely hypertensive men was 2.7 years, of which 2.0 years was due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among women the corresponding differences were 2.0 and 1.5 years. Severely hypertensive men lost 2.6 years of work more than did normotensive men, of which 1.7 years was due to CVD. Among women the differences were 2.2 and 1.3 years. The mean undiscounted total costs (USA dollars at 1992 prices) were $132 500 among normotensive, $146 500 among mildly hypertensive, and $219 300 among severely hypertensive men, of which CVD accounted for 28, 39, and 43%, respectively. More than 90% of the total costs were indirect productivity losses. Among women the total costs were lower for all DBP categories, as were the shares of CVD-related costs. The proportional increase in costs on going from the lowest to the highest DBP category was, however, somewhat larger among women. On the population level, severe hypertension leads to considerable losses in terms of years of life lost, years of work lost, and costs. However, the overall impact of mild hypertension is much more limited.

  13. Children's Perceived Cost for Exercise: Application of an Expectancy-Value Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S.; Byrd, Sandra P.; Molin, Ashley J.

    2011-01-01

    Expectancy-value models of motivation have been applied to understanding children's choices in areas such as academics and sports. Here, an expectancy-value paradigm is applied to exercising (defined as engaging in physical activity). The notion of perceived cost is highlighted in particular. Two hundred twenty children in third, fourth, and fifth…

  14. Expected and Realized Costs and Benefits from Implementing Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Product configuration systems (PCS) are a technology well suited for mass customization and support the task of configuring the product to the individual customer’s needs. PCS are at the same time complex software systems that may be tailored to solve a variety of problems for a firm, e.......g. supporting the quotation process or validating the structure of a product. This paper reports findings from a study of 12 Danish firms, which at the time of the study have implemented or are in the process of implementing product configuration systems. 12 costs and 12 benefits are identified in literature...... organization. It is observed that product configuration projects are treated as simple technical projects although they should be regarded as organizational change projects....

  15. Economics of human performance and systems total ownership cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkham, Wilawan; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Financial costs of investing in people is associated with training, acquisition, recruiting, and resolving human errors have a significant impact on increased total ownership costs. These costs can also affect the exaggerate budgets and delayed schedules. The study of human performance economical assessment in the system acquisition process enhances the visibility of hidden cost drivers which support program management informed decisions. This paper presents the literature review of human total ownership cost (HTOC) and cost impacts on overall system performance. Economic value assessment models such as cost benefit analysis, risk-cost tradeoff analysis, expected value of utility function analysis (EV), growth readiness matrix, multi-attribute utility technique, and multi-regressions model were introduced to reflect the HTOC and human performance-technology tradeoffs in terms of the dollar value. The human total ownership regression model introduces to address the influencing human performance cost component measurement. Results from this study will increase understanding of relevant cost drivers in the system acquisition process over the long term.

  16. Long-term medical costs and life expectancy of acute myeloid leukemia: a probabilistic decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-I; Aas, Eline; Howell, Debra; Roman, Eve; Patmore, Russell; Jack, Andrew; Smith, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be diagnosed at any age and treatment, which can be given with supportive and/or curative intent, is considered expensive compared with that for other cancers. Despite this, no long-term predictive models have been developed for AML, mainly because of the complexities associated with this disease. The objective of the current study was to develop a model (based on a UK cohort) to predict cost and life expectancy at a population level. The model developed in this study combined a decision tree with several Markov models to reflect the complexity of the prognostic factors and treatments of AML. The model was simulated with a cycle length of 1 month for a time period of 5 years and further simulated until age 100 years or death. Results were compared for two age groups and five different initial treatment intents and responses. Transition probabilities, life expectancies, and costs were derived from a UK population-based specialist registry-the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (www.hmrn.org). Overall, expected 5-year medical costs and life expectancy ranged from £8,170 to £81,636 and 3.03 to 34.74 months, respectively. The economic and health outcomes varied with initial treatment intent, age at diagnosis, trial participation, and study time horizon. The model was validated by using face, internal, and external validation methods. The results show that the model captured more than 90% of the empirical costs, and it demonstrated good fit with the empirical overall survival. Costs and life expectancy of AML varied with patient characteristics and initial treatment intent. The robust AML model developed in this study could be used to evaluate new diagnostic tools/treatments, as well as enable policy makers to make informed decisions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wind power costs expected to decrease due to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Eric; Hittinger, Eric; Carvalho, Rexon; Williams, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The potential for future cost reductions in wind power affects adoption and support policies. Prior analyses of cost reductions give inconsistent results. The learning rate, or fractional cost reduction per doubling of production, ranges from −3% to +33% depending on the study. This lack of consensus has, we believe, contributed to high variability in forecasts of future costs of wind power. We find that learning rate can be very sensitive to the starting and ending years of datasets and the geographical scope of the study. Based on a single factor experience curve that accounts for capacity factor gains, wind quality decline, and exogenous shifts in capital costs, we develop an improved model with reduced temporal variability. Using a global adoption model, the wind-learning rate is between 7.7% and 11%, with a preferred estimate of 9.8%. Using global scenarios for future wind deployment, this learning rate range implies that the cost of wind power will decline from 5.5 cents/kWh in 2015 to 4.1–4.5 cents/kWh in 2030, lower than a number of other forecasts. If attained, wind power may be the cheapest form of new electricity generation by 2030, suggesting that support and investment in wind should be maintained or expanded. - Highlights: • Expectations for cost reductions in wind power is important for policy. • Wind learning rates are sensitive to data time period and regional choice. • We develop improved wind cost model with much reduced variability. • New model gives global wind learning rates between 7.7%-11%.

  18. A Practical Measure of Student Motivation: Establishing Validity Evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…

  19. Intelligent transport systems deployment in Thessaloniki: Assessment of costs and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsakis Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation projects often require large initial investments and are expected to generate benefits extending far into the future. Thus, there is a need to compare benefits and costs that occur at different periods over time. Since money has a time value, the same amount of money at different time periods does not have the same value. Therefore, it is important to convert costs and benefits into equivalent values when conducting a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA. A special category of transportation projects is that of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS. ITS comprise innovative solutions for travel demand and traffic management, and it is expected to play a key role in future sustainable urban development plans. Compared to other transportation projects, ITS have a lower initial investment. In this paper a framework based on a CBA is presented, assessing costs and benefits of three ITS projects implemented in Thessaloniki, Greece. The paper refers to future developments of ITS in the city of Thessaloniki. The examined systems have already been developed as demonstration systems in various regions throughout Europe. The benefits of the systems have been transferred and scaled up, so as to be in line with the specific characteristics of the Greek environment.

  20. A construction of empiric model of dependence of cost of the dried agricultural earths is from the cost of the reclamative system

    OpenAIRE

    VELESIK T.A.

    2011-01-01

    An empiric model which represents dependence between the cost of the dried agricultural earths and cost of the reclamative systems is offered. The coefficient of correlation is expected and determination, the values of which testify that between factors there is close connection.

  1. A cost-benefit analysis for materials management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapak-Iacobelli, L; Wilde, A H

    1993-02-01

    The cost-benefit analysis provided the system planners with valuable information that served many purposes. It answered the following questions: Why was the CCF undertaking this project? What were the alternatives? How much was it going to cost? And what was the expected outcome? The process of developing cost-benefit the document kept the project team focused. It also motivated them to involve additional individuals from materials management and accounts payable in its development. A byproduct of this involvement was buy-in and commitment to the project by everyone in these areas. Consequently, the project became a team effort championed by many and not just one. We were also able to introduce two new information system processes: 1) a management review process with goals and anticipated results, and 2) a quality assurance process that ensured the CCF had a better product in the end. The cost-benefit analysis provided a planning tool that assisted in successful implementation of an integrated materials management information system.

  2. Cost Engineering Techniques and Their Applicability for Cost Estimation of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Lemmens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems is acknowledged by both considerable research and development efforts and an increasing number of applications. Most research aims at improving ORC systems through technical performance optimization of various cycle architectures and working fluids. The assessment and optimization of technical feasibility is at the core of ORC development. Nonetheless, economic feasibility is often decisive when it comes down to considering practical instalments, and therefore an increasing number of publications include an estimate of the costs of the designed ORC system. Various methods are used to estimate ORC costs but the resulting values are rarely discussed with respect to accuracy and validity. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the methods used to estimate these costs and open the discussion about the interpretation of these results. A review of cost engineering practices shows there has been a long tradition of industrial cost estimation. Several techniques have been developed, but the expected accuracy range of the best techniques used in research varies between 10% and 30%. The quality of the estimates could be improved by establishing up-to-date correlations for the ORC industry in particular. Secondly, the rapidly growing ORC cost literature is briefly reviewed. A graph summarizing the estimated ORC investment costs displays a pattern of decreasing costs for increasing power output. Knowledge on the actual costs of real ORC modules and projects remains scarce. Finally, the investment costs of a known heat recovery ORC system are discussed and the methodologies and accuracies of several approaches are demonstrated using this case as benchmark. The best results are obtained with factorial estimation techniques such as the module costing technique, but the accuracies may diverge by up to +30%. Development of correlations and multiplication factors for ORC technology in particular is

  3. Minimising the expectation value of the procurement cost in electricity markets based on the prediction error of energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hori, Maiya; Ideguchi, Yoshinari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate a method for minimising the expectation value of the procurement cost of electricity in two popular spot markets: {\\it day-ahead} and {\\it intra-day}, under the assumption that expectation value of unit prices and the distributions of prediction errors for the electricity demand traded in two markets are known. The expectation value of the total electricity cost is minimised over two parameters that change the amounts of electricity. Two parameters depend only on t...

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of preimplantation genetic screening and in vitro fertilization versus expectant management in patients with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugappan, Gayathree; Ohno, Mika S; Lathi, Ruth B

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening (IVF/PGS) is cost effective compared with expectant management in achieving live birth for patients with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Decision analytic model comparing costs and clinical outcomes. Academic recurrent pregnancy loss programs. Women with unexplained RPL. IVF/PGS with 24-chromosome screening and expectant management. Cost per live birth. The IVF/PGS strategy had a live-birth rate of 53% and a clinical miscarriage rate of 7%. Expectant management had a live-birth rate of 67% and clinical miscarriage rate of 24%. The IVF/PGS strategy was 100-fold more expensive, costing $45,300 per live birth compared with $418 per live birth with expectant management. In this model, IVF/PGS was not a cost-effective strategy for increasing live birth. Furthermore, the live-birth rate with IVF/PGS needs to be 91% to be cost effective compared with expectant management. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Japanese Cost Accounting Systems - analysis of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Winter

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight into Japanese cost accounting. Firstly, the development of cost accounting in Japan is delineated. Subsequently, the cost accounting systems codified in the Japanese cost accounting standard are analysed based on the classification according to Hoitsch/Schmitz. Lastly, a critical appraisal of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard as well as a comparison to German and American cost accounting systems are conducted.

  6. Cost Optimal System Identification Experiment Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    A structural system identification experiment design method is formulated in the light of decision theory, structural reliability theory and optimization theory. The experiment design is based on a preposterior analysis, well-known from the classical decision theory. I.e. the decisions concerning...... reflecting the cost of the experiment and the value of obtained additional information. An example concerning design of an experiment for parametric identification of a single degree of freedom structural system shows the applicability of the experiment design method....... the experiment design are not based on obtained experimental data. Instead the decisions are based on the expected experimental data assumed to be obtained from the measurements, estimated based on prior information and engineering judgement. The design method provides a system identification experiment design...

  7. Cost/benefit assessment in electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteng-Adjei, J.

    1990-01-01

    The basic function of a modern power system is to satisfy the system load requirements as economically as possible and with a reasonable assurance of continuity and quality. The question of what is reasonable can be examined in terms of the costs and the worth to the consumer associated with providing an adequate supply. The process of preparing reliability worth estimates based on customer cost-of-interruption data is presented. These data can be derived for a particular utility service area and are used to determine appropriate customer damage functions. These indicators can be used with the basic loss of energy expectation (LOEE) index to obtain a factor that can be utilized to relate the customer losses to the worth of electric service reliability. This factor is designated as the interrupted energy assessment rate (IEAR). The developed IEAR values can be utilized in both generating capacity and composite generation and transmission system assessment. Methods for using these estimates in power system optimization at the planning stages are described and examples are used to illustrate the procedures. 106 refs., 77 figs., 64 tabs

  8. The hand surgery fellowship application process: expectations, logistics, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Osterman, Meredith

    2015-04-01

    To investigate expectations, logistics, and costs relevant to the hand surgery fellowship application process. We sought to discover (1) what both applicants and program directors are seeking, (2) what both parties have to offer, (3) how both parties collect information about each other, and (4) the costs incurred in arranging each match. We conducted on-line surveys of hand surgery fellowship applicants for appointment in 2015 and of current fellowship program directors. Sixty-two applicants and 41 program directors completed the survey. Results revealed applicants' demographic characteristics, qualifications, method of ranking hand fellowship programs, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, ultimate match status, and suggestions for change. Results also revealed program directors' program demographics, rationale for offering interviews and favorably ranking applicants, application-related logistical details, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, and suggestions for change. Applicants for hand surgery fellowship training are primarily interested in a potential program's academic reputation, emphasis on orthopedic surgery, and location. The typical, successfully matched applicant was a 30-year-old male orthopedic resident with 3 publications to his credit. Applicants rely on peers and Web sites for information about fellowships. Fellowship directors are primarily seeking applicants recommended by other experienced surgeons and with positive personality traits. The typical fellowship director offers a single year of orthopedic-based fellowship training to 2 fellows per year and relies on a common application and in-person interviews to collect information about applicants. Applicants appear to be more concerned than directors about the current state of the match process. Applicants and directors alike incur heavy costs, in both dollars and opportunity, to arrange each match. A nuanced

  9. Effects of tunnel and station size on the costs and service of subway transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayman, B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of less spacious, less costly underground rail mass transit system designs is studied. The major cost saving expected from alternative tunnel designs results from using precast concrete segment liners in place of steel. The saying expected for a two-foot decrease in the diameter of twin, single track tunnels is about two million dollars per route mile from 13 million dollars for precast concrete segment liners (a saving of about 16%). The cost per route-mile of a double track tunnel appears to be 15 to 25% higher than for the twin, single track tunnels. The effective cost saving expected from stations with four-car train capability instead of the usual eight-car trains is nearly 25% or seven million dollars per route mile. The saving in station costs can be obtained while improving service to the user (lower transit time and less waiting for trains) up to a capacity of 36,000 riders per hour in each direction.

  10. Systems/cost summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Spiro, J.; Sutter, D.; Cole, F.; Hoyer, E.; Freytag, K.; Burke, R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop cost-estimating methods for heavy-ion fusion accelerator systems. The group did not consider that its purpose was to make technical judgements on proposed systems, but to develop methods for making reasonable cost estimates of these systems. Such estimates will, it is hoped, provide material for systems studies, will help in guiding research and development efforts by identifying ''high-leverage'' subsystems (areas that account for a significant part of total system cost and that might be reduced in cost by further technical development) and to begin to provide data to aid in an eventual decision on the optimum type of accelerator for heavy-ion fusion

  11. Impacts of Rainfall Variability and Expected Rainfall Changes on Cost-Effective Adaptation of Water Systems to Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Ierland, van E.C.; Gabbert, S.G.M.; Weikard, H.P.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater drainage and other water systems are vulnerable to changes in rainfall and runoff and need to be adapted to climate change. This paper studies impacts of rainfall variability and changing return periods of rainfall extremes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change

  12. Systems/cost: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Spiro, J.; Sutter, D.; Cole, F.; Hoyer, E.; Freytag, K.; Burke, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop cost-estimating methods for heavy-ion fusion accelerator systems. The group did not consider that its purpose was to make technical judgments on proposed systems, but to develop methods for making reasonable cost estimates of these systems. Such estimates will, it is hoped, provide material for systems studies, will help in guiding research and development efforts by identifying high-leverage subsystems (areas that account for a significant part of total system cost and that might be reduced in cost by further technical development) and to begin to provide data to aid in an eventual decision on the optimum type of accelerator for heavy-ion fusion. The systems considered as examples are: (1) injection system; (2) Wideroe linac; (3) Alvarez linac; (4) induction linac; (5) superconducting accumulator ring; (6) synchrotron; (7) final rf bunching; and (8) final beam transport to target

  13. Costs and expected gain in lifetime health from intensive care versus general ward care of 30,712 individual patients: a distribution-weighted cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemark, Frode; Haaland, Øystein A; Kvåle, Reidar; Flaatten, Hans; Norheim, Ole F; Johansson, Kjell A

    2017-08-21

    Clinicians, hospital managers, policy makers, and researchers are concerned about high costs, increased demand, and variation in priorities in the intensive care unit (ICU). The objectives of this modelling study are to describe the extra costs and expected health gains associated with admission to the ICU versus the general ward for 30,712 patients and the variation in cost-effectiveness estimates among subgroups and individuals, and to perform a distribution-weighted economic evaluation incorporating extra weighting to patients with high severity of disease. We used a decision-analytic model that estimates the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained (ICER) from ICU admission compared with general ward care using Norwegian registry data from 2008 to 2010. We assigned increasing weights to health gains for those with higher severity of disease, defined as less expected lifetime health if not admitted. The study has inherent uncertainty of findings because a randomized clinical trial comparing patients admitted or rejected to the ICU has never been performed. Uncertainty is explored in probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost-effectiveness of ICU admission versus ward care was €11,600/QALY, with 1.6 QALYs gained and an incremental cost of €18,700 per patient. The probability (p) of cost-effectiveness was 95% at a threshold of €22,000/QALY. The mean ICER for medical admissions was €10,700/QALY (p = 97%), €12,300/QALY (p = 93%) for admissions after acute surgery, and €14,700/QALY (p = 84%) after planned surgery. For individualized ICERs, there was a 50% probability that ICU admission was cost-effective for 85% of the patients at a threshold of €64,000/QALY, leaving 15% of the admissions not cost-effective. In the distributional evaluation, 8% of all patients had distribution-weighted ICERs (higher weights to gains for more severe conditions) above €64,000/QALY. High-severity admissions gained the most, and were more

  14. (Value Stream Costing As A New Costing System)

    OpenAIRE

    Karcıoğlu, Reşar; Nuray, Meral

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the number of lean company which use lean manufacturing system is rising. This companies use the standard costing while appropriate for traditional bathch manufacturing. But standard costing system fails to support the goals of lean manufacturing system. A different method of costing based upon the characteristics of the value stream is needed to fulfill the needs of the lean company. This systemis Value Stream Costing. When a lean company moves to value stream management, th...

  15. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  16. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: an integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of a Cost-Accounting System for Visibility of Weapon Systems Life-Cycle Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary

    2001-01-01

    ... costs through activity-based costing and management. The system must deliver timely, integrated data for management purposes to permit understanding of total weapon costs, provide a basis for estimating costs of future systems, and feed other tools for life-cycle cost management.

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of electronic medical record system at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Soo; Lee, Woo Baik; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2013-09-01

    Although Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems provide various benefits, there are both advantages and disadvantages regarding its cost-effectiveness. This study analyzed the economic effects of EMR systems using a cost-benefit analysis based on the differential costs of managerial accounting. Samsung Medical Center (SMC) is a general hospital in Korea that developed an EMR system for outpatients from 2006 to 2008. This study measured the total costs and benefits during an 8-year period after EMR adoption. The costs include the system costs of building the EMR and the costs incurred in smoothing its adoption. The benefits included cost reductions after its adoption and additional revenues from both remodeling of paper-chart storage areas and medical transcriptionists' contribution. The measured amounts were discounted by SMC's expected interest rate to calculate the net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and discounted payback period (DPP). During the analysis period, the cumulative NPV and the BCR were US$3,617 thousand and 1.23, respectively. The DPP was about 6.18 years. Although the adoption of an EMR resulted in overall growth in administrative costs, it is cost-effective since the cumulative NPV was positive. The positive NPV was attributed to both cost reductions and additional revenues. EMR adoption is not so attractive to management in that the DPP is longer than 5 years at 6.18 and the BCR is near 1 at 1.23. However, an EMR is a worthwhile investment, seeing that this study did not include any qualitative benefits and that the paper-chart system was cost-centric.

  19. Probabilistic prediction of expected ground condition and construction time and costs in road tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoodzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground condition and construction (excavation and support time and costs are the key factors in decision-making during planning and design phases of a tunnel project. An innovative methodology for probabilistic estimation of ground condition and construction time and costs is proposed, which is an integration of the ground prediction approach based on Markov process, and the time and cost variance analysis based on Monte-Carlo (MC simulation. The former provides the probabilistic description of ground classification along tunnel alignment according to the geological information revealed from geological profile and boreholes. The latter provides the probabilistic description of the expected construction time and costs for each operation according to the survey feedbacks from experts. Then an engineering application to Hamro tunnel is presented to demonstrate how the ground condition and the construction time and costs are estimated in a probabilistic way. In most items, in order to estimate the data needed for this methodology, a number of questionnaires are distributed among the tunneling experts and finally the mean values of the respondents are applied. These facilitate both the owners and the contractors to be aware of the risk that they should carry before construction, and are useful for both tendering and bidding.

  20. The no-cost radwaste resource: Utilizing the system engineer to help achieve optimum radwaste system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.; Michalski, M.

    1995-01-01

    All of us in the nuclear power business today know and often use words like - de-regulation, downsize, manpower reduction, cost savings, budget cuts, cost per kilowatt and probably 25 other terms, all relating to you doing a better job with less money and fewer resources. Maybe I have a suggestion that will help you find a resource that can help you - a no-cost resource that you may already have and may not be using. I don't know what you believe, but I believe that a nuclear power station can only be as good as the people who work there, and I believe that system performance and reliability can be improved on virtually any system by merely directing focus and attention to that system. In other words, systems are like children, if you neglect them, they go bad... And they go bad when you're not expecting it. This paper looks at what a system engineer can do for you toward a goal of optimum Radwaste system performance and reviews some of the tools we are using at Grand Gulf to reach our goals

  1. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Barton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental

  2. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  3. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  4. Compilation and review of methodologies for estimating the comparative electric power system costs for renewable energy systems. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Working Material provides a review of methodologies for estimating the costs of renewable energy systems and the state of art knowledge on stochastic features and economic evaluation methodologies of renewable energy systems for electricity generation in a grid integrated system. It is expected that this material facilitates the wider access by interested persons to sources for relevant comparative assessment activities which are progressing in the IAEA. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. A systems engineering cost analysis capability for use in assessing nuclear waste management system cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    The System Engineering Cost Analysis (SECA) capability has been developed by the System Integration Branch of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for use in assessing the cost performance of alternative waste management system configurations. The SECA capability is designed to provide rapid cost estimates of the waste management system for a given operational scenario and to permit aggregate or detailed cost comparisons for alternative waste system configurations. This capability may be used as an integral part of the System Integration Modeling System (SIMS) or, with appropriate input defining a scenario, as a separate cost analysis model

  6. Cost and primary energy efficiency of small-scale district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    combined technologies are less sensitive to fluctuations in fuel prices, specifically the SWH system, compared to technologies based on conventional fuels. Furthermore, increased market penetration of SWH will reduce the investment costs of such systems and, along with expected fuel price increases, SWH may be cost-efficient in DHSs

  7. Deflationary Expectations and Real Cost of Capital -Micro-Level Estimates of Investment Function in the1990s (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Shimizutani; Terai Akira

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese economy in the 1990s experienced a substantial decrease in the nominal interest rate. The positive effect on the business investment, however, should have been canceled out, since deflationary expectations raised the real cost of capital. In this study, we address this unexplored issue by taking advantage of firm-level micro data. First, we calculate firm-level real cost of capital in the 1990s. Our estimates demonstrate that the speed of reduction in the real cost of capital was...

  8. Quality upgrading and cost reducing effects of using an operation control system for performance of maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramler, K.

    1996-01-01

    According to available results, the use of an operation control system has come up to expections with respect to a quality enhancement of maintenance work. The tasks are performed more safely and there is more insight into the processes. so that, as indirect results, cost savings and rationalisation effects are to be expected. However, the cost savings achieved through the operation control system for maintenance tasks will remain modest. The truly cost-effective optimisation potentials in the maintenance area primarily consist in a reduction of preventive measures to the required scope, i.e reduction of the envisaged quantity of processes for maintenance and recurrent inspection. In order to extend savings to the organisational level, with respect to personnel expenditure, by DP supported maintenance planning, a suitable optimisation of the organisational structure and personnel employment is inevitable, because otherwise the rationalisation potentials will remain utopia. (orig.) [de

  9. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program

  10. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  11. Cost-volume-profit analysis and expected benefit of health services: a study of cardiac catheterization services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Jabr, Samer; Smith, Pamela C; Al-Hajeri, Maha; Hartmann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Academic research investigating health care costs in the Palestinian region is limited. Therefore, this study examines the costs of the cardiac catheterization unit of one of the largest hospitals in Palestine. We focus on costs of a cardiac catheterization unit and the increasing number of deaths over the past decade in the region due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We employ cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis to determine the unit's break-even point (BEP), and investigate expected benefits (EBs) of Palestinian government subsidies to the unit. Findings indicate variable costs represent 56 percent of the hospital's total costs. Based on the three functions of the cardiac catheterization unit, results also indicate that the number of patients receiving services exceed the break-even point in each function, despite the unit receiving a government subsidy. Our findings, although based on one hospital, will permit hospital management to realize the importance of unit costs in order to make informed financial decisions. The use of break-even analysis will allow area managers to plan minimum production capacity for the organization. The economic benefits for patients and the government from the unit may encourage government officials to focus efforts on increasing future subsidies to the hospital.

  12. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The relationship between cost system complexity, purposes of use, and cost system effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses survey data from 133 Dutch, medium-sized manufacturing firms to examine the associations between cost system complexity (in terms of the applied overhead absorption procedures), purposes of use, and cost system effectiveness. First, factor analysis identifies two underlying

  14. Quality cost system in electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denzer, H.O.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a formal cost of quality system used in an electronic manufacturing facility. The system elements and reports are illustrated. Examples of the use of a quality cost system to measure quality performance and to improve product quality are included. A comparison to industry averages for quality costs is made. The paper attempts to show that the collection and use of quality costs are an aid to management and can be accompanied by improved product quality

  15. Management of leg and pressure ulcer in hospitalized patients: direct costs are lower than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, Ojan; Oswald, Joseph S; Leisten, Rainer; Hinz, Peter; Daeschlein, Georg; Kramer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    saving might be lower than expected. Our results, however, do not serve as basis for making any conclusions on cost-benefit analysis for both, the affected individual, as well as for the society.

  16. ON A COURNOT DUOPOLY GAME WITH DIFFERENTIATED GOODS, HETEROGENEOUS EXPECTATIONS AND A COST FUNCTION INCLUDING EMISSION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges SARAFOPOULOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the dynamics of a nonlinear Cournot- type duopoly game with differentiated goods, linear demand and a cost function that includes emission costs. The game is modeled with a system of two difference equations. Existence and stability of equilibria of this system are studied. We show that the model gives more complex chaotic and unpredictable trajectories as a consequence of change in the parameter of horizontal product differentiation and a higher (lower degree of product differentiation (weaker or fiercer competition destabilize (stabilize the economy. The chaotic features are justified numerically via computing Lyapunov numbers and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Also, we show that in this case there are stable trajectories and a higher (lower degree of product differentiation does not tend to destabilize the economy.

  17. Is the system really the solution? Operating costs in hospital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton Robert; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Wholey, Douglas R; Kruse, Gregory; Kralovec, Peter; Muller, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Hospital system formation has recently accelerated. Executives emphasize scale economies that lower operating costs, a claim unsupported in academic research. Do systems achieve lower costs than freestanding facilities, and, if so, which system types? We test hypotheses about the relationship of cost with membership in systems, larger systems, and centralized and local hub-and-spoke systems. We also test whether these relationships have changed over time. Examining 4,000 U.S. hospitals during 1998 to 2010, we find no evidence that system members exhibit lower costs. However, members of smaller systems are lower cost than larger systems, and hospitals in centralized systems are lower cost than everyone else. There is no evidence that the system's spatial configuration is associated with cost, although national system hospitals exhibit higher costs. Finally, these results hold over time. We conclude that while systems in general may not be the solution to lower costs, some types of systems are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Cost system design and cost management in the Spanish public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Boned, Josep Lluís; Bagur, Llorenç; Tayles, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Cost systems have been shown to have developed considerably in recent years and activity-based costing (ABC) has been shown to be a contribution to cost management, particularly in service businesses. The public sector is composed to a very great extent of service functions, yet considerably less has been reported of the use of ABC to support cost management in this sector. In Spain, cost systems are essential for city councils as they are obliged to calculate the cost of the services subject...

  19. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sase Yuji

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. Methods We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views, knee (three views, wrist (two views, and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. Results The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. Conclusions The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.

  20. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hiroshi; Tani, Yuji; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Yokooka, Yuki; Abe, Tamotsu; Sase, Yuji; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2011-09-30

    Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC) method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views), knee (three views), wrist (two views), and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.

  1. FORMATION OF THE ENTERPRISE COSTS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borysiuk Iryna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper deals with the actual issues of formation of the enterprise management system costs, because in the conditions of an unstable market environment the financial performance depends on the efficiency of the cost management system, competitiveness, financial sustainability and investment attractiveness of any subject of economic activity. Purpose of the article is consolidation of approaches to cost management, theoretical substantiation and development of recommendations regarding the formation of the enterprise cost management system. Results. Development of an enterprise cost management system based on research on the essence and cost management approaches. The goals, tasks, principles, methods, tools, functions and main elements of the cost management system were determined, factors of the external and internal environment of the enterprise, that affect the system of its costs management. Conclusions. Formation of integrated cost management system ensures the successful company operation on the market, production of competitive products based on costs and prices optimization and making a profit, increase of the reasonableness of making managerial decisions.

  2. Maintenance cost models in deregulated power systems under opportunity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, K.; Dahal, K.; Azaiez, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    In a centralized power system, the operator is responsible for scheduling maintenance. There are different types of maintenance, including corrective maintenance; predictive maintenance; preventive maintenance; and reliability-centred maintenance. The main cause of power failures is poor maintenance. As such, maintenance costs play a significant role in deregulated power systems. They include direct costs associated with material and labor costs as well as indirect costs associated with spare parts inventory, shipment, test equipment, indirect labor, opportunity costs and cost of failure. In maintenance scheduling and planning, the cost function is the only component of the objective function. This paper presented the results of a study in which different components of maintenance costs were modeled. The maintenance models were formulated as an optimization problem with single and multiple objectives and a set of constraints. The maintenance costs models could be used to schedule the maintenance activities of power generators more accurately and to identify the best maintenance strategies over a period of time as they consider failure and opportunity costs in a deregulated environment. 32 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  3. A new costing model in hospital management: time-driven activity-based costing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öker, Figen; Özyapıcı, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cost systems cause cost distortions because they cannot meet the requirements of today's businesses. Therefore, a new and more effective cost system is needed. Consequently, time-driven activity-based costing system has emerged. The unit cost of supplying capacity and the time needed to perform an activity are the only 2 factors considered by the system. Furthermore, this system determines unused capacity by considering practical capacity. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the efficiency of the time-driven activity-based costing system and to display how it can be applied in a health care institution. A case study was conducted in a private hospital in Cyprus. Interviews and direct observations were used to collect the data. The case study revealed that the cost of unused capacity is allocated to both open and laparoscopic (closed) surgeries. Thus, by using the time-driven activity-based costing system, managers should eliminate the cost of unused capacity so as to obtain better results. Based on the results of the study, hospital management is better able to understand the costs of different surgeries. In addition, managers can easily notice the cost of unused capacity and decide how many employees to be dismissed or directed to other productive areas.

  4. Distribution system costs associated with the deployment of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.; Palmintier, Bryan; Mather, Barry; Denholm, Paul

    2018-07-01

    The broadening of our energy system to include increasing amounts of wind and solar has led to significant debate about the total costs and benefits associated with different types of generators - with potentially far-reaching policy implications. This has included debate about the cost associated with integrating these generators onto the electric grid. For photovoltaics (PV), this encompasses costs incurred on both the bulk power and distribution systems, as well as the value provided to them. These costs and benefits, in particular those associated with integrating PV onto the distribution system, are not well understood. We seek to advance the state of understanding of 'grid integration costs' for the distribution system by reviewing prior literature and outlining a transparent, bottom-up approach that can be used to calculate these costs. We provide a clear delineation of costs to integrate PV in to the distribution system within the larger context of total costs and benefits associated with PV generators. We emphasize that these costs are situationally dependent, and that a single 'cost of integration' cannot be obtained. We additionally emphasize that benefits must be considered when evaluating the competitiveness of the technology in a given situation.

  5. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  6. Distributed computing environment monitoring and user expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Logg, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the growing needs for distributed system monitoring and compares it to current practices. It then goes to identify the components of distributed system monitoring and shows how they are implemented and successfully used at one site today to address the Local area Network (WAN), and host monitoring. It shows how this monitoring can be used to develop realistic service level expectations and also identifies the costs. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the future challenges in network monitoring. (author)

  7. Integrated waste management system costs in a MPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The impact on system costs of including a centralized interim storage facility as part of an integrated waste management system based on multi-purpose canister (MPC) technology was assessed in analyses by Energy Resources International, Inc. A system cost savings of $1 to $2 billion occurs if the Department of Energy begins spent fuel acceptance in 1998 at a centralized interim storage facility. That is, the savings associated with decreased utility spent fuel management costs will be greater than the cost of constructing and operating a centralized interim storage facility

  8. A comparative cost analysis of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS versus conventional radiology in the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indres Moodley

    2015-03-01

    Aim: To undertake an incremental cost analysis of PACS compared with conventional radiology to determine productivity gains, if any, at two private hospitals in Durban. Method: An incremental cost analysis for chest radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging brain scans with and without contrast were performed. The overall incremental cost for PACS in comparison with a conventional radiology site was determined. The net present value was also determined to evaluate the capital budgeting requirements for both systems. Results: The incremental cost of both capital and the radiology information system for installing PACS shows an expected increase. The incremental PACS image cost shows a reduction. Conclusion: The study provides a benchmark for the cost incurred when implementing PACS. It also provides a decision framework for radiology departments that plan to introduce PACS and helps to determine the feasibility of its introduction.

  9. Cost reduction through system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsing, P.

    1994-01-01

    In resent years cost reduction has been a key issue in the petroleum industry. Several findings are not economically attractive at the current cost level, and for this and other reasons some of the major oil companies require the suppliers to have implemented a cost reduction programme to prequalify for projects. The present paper addresses cost reduction through system design and integration in both product development and working methods. This is to be obtained by the combination of contracts by reducing unnecessary coordination and allow re-use of proven interface designs, improve subsystem integration by ''top down'' system design, and improve communication and exchange of experience. 3 figs

  10. New transmission interconnection reduces consumer costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    The Central American electric interconnection system (SIEPAC) project will involve the construction of a 1830 km 230 kV transmission system that will link Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. The system is expected to alleviate the region's power shortages and reduce electricity costs for consumers. Costs for the SIEPAC project have been estimated at $370 million. The system will serve approximately 37 million customers, and will include 15 substations. The contract for building the electrical equipment has been awarded to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) who plan to manufacture components at a plant in Mexico. The equipment will include high speed line protection, automation, and control systems. Line current differential systems and satellite-synchronized clocks will also be used. The new transmission system is expected to be fully operational by 2009. 1 fig.

  11. Cost comparison of individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems for rural electrification; Comparacao de custos entre sistemas fotovoltaicos individuais e minicentrais fotovoltaicas para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Vieira, Leonardo dos Santos Reis; Galdino, Marco Antonio Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: fleury@cepel.br, lsrv@cepel.br, marcoag@cepel.br; Olivieri, Marta Maria de Almeida; Borges, Eduardo Luis de Paula; Carvalho, Claudio Monteiro de; Lima, Alex Artigiani Neves [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: martaolivieri@eletrobras.com, eduardo_borges@eletrobras.com, claudio.carvalho@eletrobras.com, alex.lima@eletrobras.com

    2010-07-01

    A cost comparison for individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems is made regarding the use of these systems for rural electrification in Northern Brazil. The estimates for maintenance costs were based on existing experience for individual systems already operating in the region. A comparison was also made between modified automotive lead acid batteries commonly used in photovoltaic systems in Brazil and the much more expensive OPzS tubular types. The results of these evaluations show that the maintenance costs are expected to be lower in the case of the mini grids than in individual systems. This is because for a given number of houses to be supplied with electrical energy, they use a smaller number of components subject to failures, like inverters and charge controllers. OPzS batteries are expected to compensate for their higher prices if their predicted operating lifetime can be confirmed under the practical conditions envisaged. (author)

  12. The Launch Systems Operations Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Frank A.; Hamaker, Joseph W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of NASA's primary missions is to reduce the cost of access to space while simultaneously increasing safety. A key component, and one of the least understood, is the recurring operations and support cost for reusable launch systems. In order to predict these costs, NASA, under the leadership of the Independent Program Assessment Office (IPAO), has commissioned the development of a Launch Systems Operations Cost Model (LSOCM). LSOCM is a tool to predict the operations & support (O&S) cost of new and modified reusable (and partially reusable) launch systems. The requirements are to predict the non-recurring cost for the ground infrastructure and the recurring cost of maintaining that infrastructure, performing vehicle logistics, and performing the O&S actions to return the vehicle to flight. In addition, the model must estimate the time required to cycle the vehicle through all of the ground processing activities. The current version of LSOCM is an amalgamation of existing tools, leveraging our understanding of shuttle operations cost with a means of predicting how the maintenance burden will change as the vehicle becomes more aircraft like. The use of the Conceptual Operations Manpower Estimating Tool/Operations Cost Model (COMET/OCM) provides a solid point of departure based on shuttle and expendable launch vehicle (ELV) experience. The incorporation of the Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) as expressed by a set of response surface model equations gives a method for estimating how changing launch system characteristics affects cost and cycle time as compared to today's shuttle system. Plans are being made to improve the model. The development team will be spending the next few months devising a structured methodology that will enable verified and validated algorithms to give accurate cost estimates. To assist in this endeavor the LSOCM team is part of an Agency wide effort to combine resources with other cost and operations professionals to

  13. Risk aversion and uncertainty in cost-effectiveness analysis: the expected-utility, moment-generating function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasha, Elamin H

    2005-05-01

    The availability of patient-level data from clinical trials has spurred a lot of interest in developing methods for quantifying and presenting uncertainty in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). Although the majority has focused on developing methods for using sample data to estimate a confidence interval for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), a small strand of the literature has emphasized the importance of incorporating risk preferences and the trade-off between the mean and the variance of returns to investment in health and medicine (mean-variance analysis). This paper shows how the exponential utility-moment-generating function approach is a natural extension to this branch of the literature for modelling choices from healthcare interventions with uncertain costs and effects. The paper assumes an exponential utility function, which implies constant absolute risk aversion, and is based on the fact that the expected value of this function results in a convenient expression that depends only on the moment-generating function of the random variables. The mean-variance approach is shown to be a special case of this more general framework. The paper characterizes the solution to the resource allocation problem using standard optimization techniques and derives the summary measure researchers need to estimate for each programme, when the assumption of risk neutrality does not hold, and compares it to the standard incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The importance of choosing the correct distribution of costs and effects and the issues related to estimation of the parameters of the distribution are also discussed. An empirical example to illustrate the methods and concepts is provided. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  14. Nonlinear Impairment Compensation Using Expectation Maximization for PDM 16-QAM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Winther, Ole; Franceschi, Niccolo

    2012-01-01

    We show experimentally that by using non-linear signal processing based algorithm, expectation maximization, nonlinear system tolerance can be increased by 2 dB. Expectation maximization is also effective in combating I/Q modulator nonlinearities and laser linewidth....

  15. Distributed computing environment monitoring and user expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Logg, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the growing needs for distributed system monitoring and compares it to current practices. It then goes on to identify the components of distributed system monitoring and shows how they are implemented and successfully used at one site today to address the Local Area Network (LAN), network services and applications, the Wide Area Network (WAN), and host monitoring. It shows how this monitoring can be used to develop realistic service level expectations and also identifies the costs. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the future challenges in network monitoring

  16. Cost Estimation and Control for Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Vanhook, Michael E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good program management practices, cost analysis, cost estimation, and cost control for aerospace flight systems are interrelated and depend upon each other. The best cost control process cannot overcome poor design or poor systems trades that lead to the wrong approach. The project needs robust Technical, Schedule, Cost, Risk, and Cost Risk practices before it can incorporate adequate Cost Control. Cost analysis both precedes and follows cost estimation -- the two are closely coupled with each other and with Risk analysis. Parametric cost estimating relationships and computerized models are most often used. NASA has learned some valuable lessons in controlling cost problems, and recommends use of a summary Project Manager's checklist as shown here.

  17. Costs and epidemiological changes of chronic diseases: implications and challenges for health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Aviles, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The need to integrate economic and epidemiological aspects in the clinical perspective leads to a proposal for the analysis of health disparities and to an evaluation of the health services and of the new challenges which are now being faced by health system reforms in middle income countries. To identify the epidemiological changes, the demand for health services and economic burden from chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension) in a middle income county. We conducted longitudinal analyses of costs and epidemiological changes for diabetes and hypertension in the Mexican health system. The study population included both the insured and uninsured populations. The cost-evaluation method was used, based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2014-2016, six models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique, using confidence intervals of 95%, and the Box-Pierce test. Regarding epidemiological changes expected in both diseases for 2014 vs. 2016, an increase is expected, although results predict a greater increase for diabetes, 8-12% in all three studied institutions, (p management per patient in the case of diabetes, and from $485 to $622 in patients with hypertension. Comparing financial consequences of health services required by insured and uninsured populations, the greater increase (23%) will be for the insured population (p financial requirements of both diseases will amount to 19.5% of the total budget for the uninsured and 12.5% for the insured population. If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are, the economic impact of expected epidemiological changes on the social security system will be particularly strong. Another relevant challenge is the appearance of internal competition in the use and allocation of financial resources with programs for other chronic and infectious diseases.

  18. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Progrram is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report is an input into the third evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference waste-management program in this analysis is estimated to be 24 to 30 billion (1984) dollars. For the sensitivity cases studied in this report, the costs could be as high as 35 billion dollars and as low as 21 billion dollars. Because factors like repository location, the quantity of waste generated, transportation-cask technology, and repository startup dates exert substantial impacts on total-system costs, there are several tradeoffs between these factors, and these tradeoffs can greatly influence the total cost of the program. The total-system cost for the reference program described in this report is higher by 3 to 5 billion dollars, or 15 to 20%, than the cost for the reference program of the TSLCC analysis of April 1984. More than two-thirds of this increase is in the cost of repository construction and operation. These repository costs have increased because of changing design concepts, different assumptions about the effort required to perform the necessary activities, and a change in the source data on which the earlier analysis was based. Development and evaluation costs have similarly increased because of a net addition to the work content. Transportation costs have increased because of different assumptions about repository locations and several characteristics of the transportation system. It is expected that the estimates of total-system costs will continue to change in response to both an evolving program strategy and better definition of the work required to achieve the program objectives

  19. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  20. Cost benefit analysis of reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost/benefit analysis of reactor safety systems is a possibility appropriate to deal with reactor safety. The Commission of the European Communities supported a study on the cost-benefit or cost effectiveness of safety systems installed in modern PWR nuclear power plants. The following systems and their cooperation in emergency cases were in particular investigated in this study: the containment system (double containment), the leakage exhaust and control system, the annulus release exhaust system and the containment spray system. The benefit of a safety system is defined according to its contribution to the reduction of the radiological consequences for the environment after a LOCA. The analysis is so far performed in two different steps: the emergency core cooling system is considered to function properly, failure of the emergency core cooling system is assumed (with the possible consequence of core melt-down) and the results may demonstrate the evidence that striving for cost-effectiveness can produce a safer end result than the philosophy of safety at any cost. (orig.)

  1. Tracking environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahutova, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Tracking Environmental Costs and Investments in SAP will provide us with a managerial tool that will help us understand better the magnitude of the financial resources we are dedicating to environmental protection activities and investments. Environmental Cost Accounting is a new project in Slovenske Elektrarne that will be particularly valuable for the Company's environmental management initiatives, such as waste monitoring, cleaner production, eco-design and environmental management systems; its launch is expected in September. (author)

  2. Incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems under random conditions: The effect on the maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This note investigates the effect of the incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems that operates under random environmental conditions on the costs of a periodic replacement maintenance. The motivation of this paper is given by a recently published paper, where a wrong formulation of the expected cost for unit time under a periodic replacement policy is obtained. This wrong formulation is due to the incorrect assumption that the intensity function of minimally repaired systems that operate under random conditions has the same functional form as the failure rate of the first failure time. This produced an incorrect optimization of the replacement maintenance. Thus, in this note the conceptual differences between the intensity function and the failure rate of the first failure time are first highlighted. Then, the correct expressions of the expected cost and of the optimal replacement period are provided. Finally, a real application is used to measure how severe can be the economical consequences caused by the incorrect modeling of the failure process.

  3. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  4. A Modern Costing System: Activity Based Costing and An Application On A Textile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Titiz, İsmet; Altunay, Mehmet Akif

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is understanding Activity Based Costing which is one of the systems of modern cost approaches. Main concepts about activity based costing is defined and development of the system is identified. In the last part, an application about the activity based costing system in a textile company is explained and the results are analyzed.

  5. Costs and epidemiological changes of chronic diseases: implications and challenges for health systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    Full Text Available The need to integrate economic and epidemiological aspects in the clinical perspective leads to a proposal for the analysis of health disparities and to an evaluation of the health services and of the new challenges which are now being faced by health system reforms in middle income countries.To identify the epidemiological changes, the demand for health services and economic burden from chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension in a middle income county.We conducted longitudinal analyses of costs and epidemiological changes for diabetes and hypertension in the Mexican health system. The study population included both the insured and uninsured populations. The cost-evaluation method was used, based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2014-2016, six models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique, using confidence intervals of 95%, and the Box-Pierce test.Regarding epidemiological changes expected in both diseases for 2014 vs. 2016, an increase is expected, although results predict a greater increase for diabetes, 8-12% in all three studied institutions, (p < .05. Indeed, in the case of diabetes, the increase was 41469 cases for uninsured population (SSA and 65737 for the insured population (IMSS and ISSSTE. On hypertension cases the increase was 38109 for uninsured vs 62895 for insured. Costs in US$ ranged from $699 to $748 for annual case management per patient in the case of diabetes, and from $485 to $622 in patients with hypertension. Comparing financial consequences of health services required by insured and uninsured populations, the greater increase (23% will be for the insured population (p < .05. The financial requirements of both diseases will amount to 19.5% of the total budget for the uninsured and 12.5% for the insured population.If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are, the economic

  6. From design of activity-based costing systems to their regular use From design of activity-based costing systems to their regular use Del diseño de modelos de costes basados en las actividades a su uso normalizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angels Fito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand why many companies that develop activity-based costing (ABC systems do not use them on a regular basis.Design/methodology/approach: We review the existing literature on the process of ABC implementation, concentrating specifically on the step from the acceptance of an ABC model to its routine use. We identify key factors for successful uptake of ABC systems as a regular management tool and use these factors to interpret the experience of two companies that illustrate, respectively, a success and a failure.Findings: Sixteen factors are identified that positively or negatively influence the actual use of ABC costing systems. These factors can be grouped into six categories: strategic, individual, organizational, technological, operational and external factors.Originality/value: This paper sheds some light on the paradoxical situation that regular usage of ABC systems is not as common as might be expected given their widespread acceptance on a conceptual level.Purpose: To understand why many companies that develop activity-based costing (ABC systems do not use them on a regular basis.Design/methodology/approach: We review the existing literature on the process of ABC implementation, concentrating specifically on the step from the acceptance of an ABC model to its routine use. We identify key factors for successful uptake of ABC systems as a regular management tool and use these factors to interpret the experience of two companies that illustrate, respectively, a success and a failure.Findings: Sixteen factors are identified that positively or negatively influence the actual use of ABC costing systems. These factors can be grouped into six categories: strategic, individual, organizational, technological, operational and external factors.Originality/value: This paper sheds some light on the paradoxical situation that regular usage of ABC systems is not as common as might be expected given their widespread acceptance on a

  7. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports.

  8. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  9. Using a Hybrid Cost-FMEA Analysis for Wind Turbine Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacef Tazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA has been proven to be an effective methodology to improve system design reliability. However, the standard approach reveals some weaknesses when applied to wind turbine systems. The conventional criticality assessment method has been criticized as having many limitations such as the weighting of severity and detection factors. In this paper, we aim to overcome these drawbacks and develop a hybrid cost-FMEA by integrating cost factors to assess the criticality, these costs vary from replacement costs to expected failure costs. Then, a quantitative comparative study is carried out to point out average failure rate, main cause of failure, expected failure costs and failure detection techniques. A special reliability analysis of gearbox and rotor-blades are presented.

  10. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns.

  11. Costing improvement of remanufacturing crankshaft by integrating Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and Activity based Costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, M. Y.; Nor, E. E. Mohd; Rahman, M. S. Abd

    2018-04-01

    Integration between quality and costing system is very crucial in order to achieve an accurate product cost and profit. Current practice by most of remanufacturers, there are still lacking on optimization during the remanufacturing process which contributed to incorrect variables consideration to the costing system. Meanwhile, traditional costing accounting being practice has distortion in the cost unit which lead to inaccurate cost of product. The aim of this work is to identify the critical and non-critical variables during remanufacturing process using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and simultaneously estimate the cost using Activity Based Costing method. The orthogonal array was applied to indicate the contribution of variables in the factorial effect graph and the critical variables were considered with overhead costs that are actually demanding the activities. This work improved the quality inspection together with costing system to produce an accurate profitability information. As a result, the cost per unit of remanufactured crankshaft of MAN engine model with 5 critical crankpins is MYR609.50 while Detroit engine model with 4 critical crankpins is MYR1254.80. The significant of output demonstrated through promoting green by reducing re-melting process of damaged parts to ensure consistent benefit of return cores.

  12. Hybrid 21 MW wind-solar system to limit energy costs at an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, C.

    2016-01-01

    Ereda has undertaken a project that aims to analyse the possibility of limiting the cost of the energy supply to a medium-sized industrial plant, with an installed capacity of over 26 MW, located in the south-west of Kazakhstan. The cost of electricity for its processes accounts for an important part of its production cost, achieving values in excess of 40%. The price of electricity in the country is expected to rise over the coming years. In addition, the plant is now required to reduce CO2 emissions from its industrial activity, which is why a further cost arising from the acquisition of emissions rights is expected in future. (Author)

  13. Costing the OMNIUM-G system 7500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    A complete OMNIUM-G System 7500 was cost analyzed for annual production quantities ranging from 25 to 10,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to in-depth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes, coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. When production quantities increase both labor and material costs reduce substantially. A redesign of the system that was analyzed could result in lower costs when annual production runs approach 100,000 units/year. Material and labor costs for producing 25, 100, 25,000 and 100,00 units are given for 17 subassembly units.

  14. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    CPA - Cost and Performance Analysis - is a prototype integration of existing PC-based cost and performance analysis tools: ACEIT (Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools) and ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security). ACE is an existing DOD PC-based tool that supports cost analysis over the full life cycle of a system; that is, the cost to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. ASSESS is an existing DOE PC-based tool for analysis of performance of physical protection systems. Through CPA, the cost and performance data are collected into Excel workbooks, making the data readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and subsystem levels. The structure of the cost spreadsheets incorporates an activity-based approach to cost estimation. Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting philosophy used by industry to trace direct and indirect costs to the products or services of a business unit. By tracing costs through security sensors and procedures and then mapping the contributions of the various sensors and procedures to system effectiveness, the CPA architecture can provide security managers with information critical for both operational and strategic decisions. The architecture, features and applications of the CPA prototype are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  16. PLACE OF PRODUCTION COSTS SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia CHEREDNYCHENKO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current economic conditions require the development and implementation of an adequate system of production costs, which would ensure a steady profit growth and production volumes in a highly competitive, constantly increasing input prices and tariffs. This management system must be based on an integrated production costs system analysis (PCSA, which would provide all operating costs management subsystems necessary information to design and make better management decisions. It provides a systematic analysis of more opportunities in knowledge, creating conditions of integrity mechanism knowledge object consisting of elements that show intersystem connections, each of which has its own defined and limited objectives, relationship with the environment.

  17. The costs of inequality: whole-population modelling study of lifetime inpatient hospital costs in the English National Health Service by level of neighbourhood deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Tim; Cookson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background There are substantial socioeconomic inequalities in both life expectancy and healthcare use in England. In this study, we describe how these two sets of inequalities interact by estimating the social gradient in hospital costs across the life course. Methods Hospital episode statistics, population and index of multiple deprivation data were combined at lower-layer super output area level to estimate inpatient hospital costs for 2011/2012 by age, sex and deprivation quintile. Survival curves were estimated for each of the deprivation groups and used to estimate expected annual costs and cumulative lifetime costs. Results A steep social gradient was observed in overall inpatient hospital admissions, with rates ranging from 31 298/100 000 population in the most affluent fifth of areas to 43 385 in the most deprived fifth. This gradient was steeper for emergency than for elective admissions. The total cost associated with this inequality in 2011/2012 was £4.8 billion. A social gradient was also observed in the modelled lifetime costs where the lower life expectancy was not sufficient to outweigh the higher average costs in the more deprived populations. Lifetime costs for women were 14% greater than for men, due to higher costs in the reproductive years and greater life expectancy. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities result in increased morbidity and decreased life expectancy. Interventions to reduce inequality and improve health in more deprived neighbourhoods have the potential to save money for health systems not only within years but across peoples’ entire lifetimes, despite increased costs due to longer life expectancies. PMID:27189975

  18. Incremental cost analysis of advanced concept CAES systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutsen, C.A.

    1979-09-01

    The costs of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems using thermal energy storage (TES) are compared to the costs of CAES systems without TES and simple cycle gas turbine systems. Comparisons are made in terms of the system energy costs levelized over the operating life of the systems. These are in 1985 price levels which is the assumed first year of operation for the systems.

  19. Implementation of a Cost-Accounting System for Visibility of Weapon Systems Life-Cycle Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary

    2001-01-01

    .... The DoD Acquisition Reform Goal 10 required DoD to define requirements and establish an implementation plan for a cost-accounting system that provides routine visibility into weapon system life-cycle...

  20. External costs and taxes in heat supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Aasa; Gustavsson, Leif

    2003-01-01

    A systems approach was used to compare different heating systems from a consumer perspective. The whole energy system was considered from natural resources to the required energy services. District heating, electric heat pumps, electric boilers, natural-gas-, oil- or pellet-fired local boilers were considered when supplying heat to a detached house. The district heat production included wood-chip-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants. Electricity other than cogenerated electricity was produced in wood-chip- and natural-gas-fired stand-alone power plants. The analysis includes four tax scenarios, as well as the external cost of environmental and health damage arising from energy conversion emission based on the ExternE study of the European Commission. The most cost-efficient systems were the natural-gas and oil boiler systems, followed by the heat pump and district heating systems, when the external cost and taxes were excluded. When including the external costs of CO 2 emission, the wood-fuel-based systems were much more cost efficient than the fossil-fuel-based systems, also when CO 2 capture and storage were applied. The external costs are, however, highly uncertain. Taxes steer towards lowering energy use and lowering CO 2 emission if they are levied solely on all the fossil-fuel-related emission and fuel use in the systems. If consumer electricity and heat taxes are used, the taxes have an impact on the total cost, regardless of the fuel used, thereby benefiting fuel-based local heating systems. The heat pump systems were the least affected by taxes, due to their high energy efficiency. The electric boiler systems were the least cost-efficient systems, also when the external cost and taxes were included

  1. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  2. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  3. [Cost of therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. Applying an activity-based costing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rebull, María-Victoria; Terceño Gómez, Antonio; Travé Bautista, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    To apply the activity based costing (ABC) model to calculate the cost of therapy for neurodegenerative disorders in order to improve hospital management and allocate resources more efficiently. We used the case study method in the Francolí long-term care day center. We applied all phases of an ABC system to quantify the cost of the activities developed in the center. We identified 60 activities; the information was collected in June 2009. The ABC system allowed us to calculate the average cost per patient with respect to the therapies received. The most costly and commonly applied technique was psycho-stimulation therapy. Focusing on this therapy and on others related to the admissions process could lead to significant cost savings. ABC costing is a viable method for costing activities and therapies in long-term day care centers because it can be adapted to their structure and standard practice. This type of costing allows the costs of each activity and therapy, or combination of therapies, to be determined and aids measures to improve management. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of transport- and transaction-cost reductions on food markets in developing countries: evidence for tempered expectations for Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Schweigman, C.; Lutz, C.

    2004-01-01

    Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For Burkina Faso, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium

  5. The impact of transport- and transaction-cost reductions on food markets in developing countries : evidence for tempered expectations for Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Schweigman, C.; Lutz, C.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For Burkina Faso, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium

  6. A multigene prognostic assay for selection of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T3, stage II colon cancer: impact on quality-adjusted life expectancy and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, John; Lyman, Gary H; Chien, Rebecca; Meropol, Neal J

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding appropriate and affordable use of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer (T3, proficient DNA mismatch repair). This study aimed to estimate the effectiveness and costs from a US societal perspective of a multigene recurrence score (RS) assay for patients recently diagnosed with stage II colon cancer (T3, proficient DNA mismatch repair) eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy. RS was compared with guideline-recommended clinicopathological factors (tumor stage, lymph nodes examined, tumor grade, and lymphovascular invasion) by using a state-transition (Markov) lifetime model. Data were obtained from published literature, a randomized controlled trial (QUick And Simple And Reliable) of adjuvant chemotherapy, and rates of chemotherapy use from the National Cooperative Cancer Network Colon/Rectum Cancer Outcomes study. Life-years, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and lifetime costs were examined. The RS is projected to reduce adjuvant chemotherapy use by 17% compared with current treatment patterns and to increase quality-adjusted life expectancy by an average of 0.035 years. Direct medical costs are expected to decrease by an average of $2971 per patient. The assay was cost saving for all subgroups of patients stratified by clinicopathologic factors. The most influential variables affecting treatment decisions were projected years of life remaining, recurrence score, and patients' disutilities associated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Use of the multigene RS to assess recurrence risk after surgery in stage II colon cancer (T3, proficient DNA mismatch repair) may reduce the use of adjuvant chemotherapy without decreasing quality-adjusted life expectancy and be cost saving from a societal perspective. These findings need to be validated in additional cohorts, including studies of clinical practice as assay use diffuses into nonacademic settings. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR

  7. Integrating cost management and work management concepts for operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanditmars, C.

    1995-01-01

    Development of B C Gas Utility Limited's integrated work and cost management system was described, with emphasis on cost management without reliance on the financial systems, and standard costing and operational side benefits. The objectives of the system were identified as dynamic monitoring and control, and local empowerment. The concept underlying the two systems was explained in detail. In the case of the work management system the ability to manage all work in operations areas was stressed, along with its universal availability. Other benefits expected included improved resource utilization, improved productivity, better control of cost, improved revenue generation, superior customer service, a simplified financial system, and improved employee motivation through empowerment

  8. The cost-effectiveness of household photovoltaic systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Linking subsidies with emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, D.; Dargusch, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Payback period for Australian household PV fell to four years in 2011 and 2012. • PV became attractive due to high feed-in tariffs and declining PV costs. • Cost was AU$200/t CO 2 e in 2010, expected to be AU$65 to AU$100/t CO 2 e by 2020. • PV resulted in greenhouse gas emissions reducing by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013. • PV expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8 million t CO 2 e in 2020. - Abstract: This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of subsidies (feed-in tariffs and renewable energy credits) paid for by electricity consumers to support the uptake of roof top photovoltaic (PV) systems by households in Australia. We estimate annual payback periods, and then regress these against the actual uptake of household PV and associated emission reductions, creating a relationship not apparent in other research. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the declining cost of PV panels had most impact on PV uptake followed by feed-in tariffs, renewable energy credits and the increasing cost of household electricity tariffs. Our modelling shows that feed-in tariffs were higher than necessary to achieve the resultant levels of PV uptake and that the low cost of PV panels and comparatively high electricity tariffs are likely to result in a continuing strong uptake of household PV in Australia. Our modelling shows that subsidies peaked in 2011 and 2012, with payback periods of three to four years, having since increased to five to six years. Emission reduction costs are expected to reduce from over AU$200 per t CO 2 e in 2013 to between AU$65 and AU$100 per t CO 2 e in 2020. Household PV reduced Australia’s emissions by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013 (1.7% of Australia’s total emissions) and is expected to reach eight million tonnes (3.7% of Australia’s total emissions) by 2020

  9. Parents' Expectations about Childrearing after Divorce: Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children's economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher economic costs than fathers, whereas fathers expect…

  10. Risk-Cost Estimation of On-Site Wastewater Treatment System Failures Using Extreme Value Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Laura E; Silverstein, JoAnn; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    2017-05-01

      Owner resistance to increasing regulation of on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), including obligatory inspections and upgrades, moratoriums and cease-and-desist orders in communities around the U.S. demonstrate the challenges associated with managing risks of inadequate performance of owner-operated wastewater treatment systems. As a result, determining appropriate and enforceable performance measures in an industry with little history of these requirements is challenging. To better support such measures, we develop a statistical method to predict lifetime failure risks, expressed as costs, in order to identify operational factors associated with costly repairs and replacement. A binomial logistic regression is used to fit data from public records of reported OWTS failures, in Boulder County, Colorado, which has 14 300 OWTS to determine the probability that an OWTS will be in a low- or high-risk category for lifetime repair and replacement costs. High-performing or low risk OWTS with repairs and replacements below the threshold of $9000 over a 40-year life are associated with more frequent inspections and upgrades following home additions. OWTS with a high risk of exceeding the repair cost threshold of $18 000 are further analyzed in a variation of extreme value analysis (EVA), Points Over Threshold (POT) where the distribution of risk-cost exceedance values are represented by a generalized Pareto distribution. The resulting threshold cost exceedance estimates for OWTS in the high-risk category over a 40-year expected life ranged from $18 000 to $44 000.

  11. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  12. The cost of systemic therapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma in Slovenia: discrepancy analysis between cost and reimbursement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesti, Tanja; Boshkoska, Biljana Mileva; Kos, Mitja; Tekavčič, Metka; Ocvirk, Janja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the direct medical costs of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana and to question the healthcare payment system in Slovenia. Using an internal patient database, the costs of mCRC patients were estimated in 2009 by examining (1) mCRC direct medical related costs, and (2) the cost difference between payment received by Slovenian health insurance and actual mCRC costs. Costs were analysed in the treatment phase of the disease by assessing the direct medical costs of hospital treatment with systemic therapy together with hospital treatment of side effects, without assessing radiotherapy or surgical treatment. Follow-up costs, indirect medical costs, and nonmedical costs were not included. A total of 209 mCRC patients met all eligibility criteria. The direct medical costs of mCRC hospitalization with systemic therapy in Slovenia for 2009 were estimated as the cost of medications (cost of systemic therapy + cost of drugs for premedication) + labor cost (the cost of carrying out systemic treatment) + cost of lab tests + cost of imaging tests + KRAS testing cost + cost of hospital treatment due to side effects of mCRC treatment, and amounted to €3,914,697. The difference between the cost paid by health insurance and actual costs, estimated as direct medical costs of hospitalization of mCRC patients treated with systemic therapy at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in 2009, was €1,900,757.80. The costs paid to the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana by health insurance for treating mCRC with systemic therapy do not match the actual cost of treatment. In fact, the difference between the payment and the actual cost estimated as direct medical costs of hospitalization of mCRC patients treated with systemic therapy at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in 2009 was €1,900,757.80. The model Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (AR-DRG) for cost assessment in oncology being currently used

  13. Rate-cost tradeoffs in control

    KAUST Repository

    Kostina, Victoria

    2017-02-13

    Consider a distributed control problem with a communication channel connecting the observer of a linear stochastic system to the controller. The goal of the controller is minimize a quadratic cost function. The most basic special case of that cost function is the mean-square deviation of the system state from the desired state. We study the fundamental tradeoff between the communication rate r bits/sec and the limsup of the expected cost b, and show a lower bound on the rate necessary to attain b. The bound applies as long as the system noise has a probability density function. If target cost b is not too large, that bound can be closely approached by a simple lattice quantization scheme that only quantizes the innovation, that is, the difference between the controller\\'s belief about the current state and the true state.

  14. Video distribution system cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkoff, I.; Haspert, J. K.; Morgenstern, B.

    1980-01-01

    A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink (studio to satellite), downlink (satellite to audience), and voice talkback (between audience and studio) segments of the network. The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure.

  15. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  16. Strategy for determining life expectancy in mechanical components in an overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenckhoff, E.; Erve, M.

    1990-01-01

    The safety standard at a nuclear power station achieved at the time of commissioning on the basis of the state of the art during the design and construction stage has to be maintained over the entire working life of the unit. Original design life expectancy is under review in the light of new safety experience and developments. The results of such analysis can serve not only preventive maintenance purposes but also as the basis for supporting and extending the planned or approved working life; they help increase availability. A comprehensive analysis strategy to establish the actual condition and residual life expectancy of components, systems and complete units has been developed by Siemens/KWU. The results of this analysis can lead to action to extend the life expectancy of components and systems and improvements in systems and subsystems. This report quotes a number of examples. 6 figs

  17. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  18. The advanced launch system: Application of total quality management principles to low-cost space transportation system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, M. G.; Rothwell, T. G.; Rosenberg, D. A.; Oliver, M. B.

    Recognizing that a major inhibitor of man's rapid expansion of the use of space is the high cost (direct and induced) of space transportation, the U.S. has embarked on a major national program to radically reduce the cost of placing payloads into orbit while, at the same time, making equally radical improvements inlaunch system operability. The program is entitled "The Advanced Launch System" (ALS) and is a joint Department of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (DoD/NASA) program which will provide launch capability in the post 2000 timeframe. It is currently in Phase II (System Definition), which began in January 1989, and will serve as a major source of U.S. launch system technology over the next several years. The ALS is characterized by a new approach to space system design, development, and operation. The practices that are being implemented by the ALS are expected to affect the management and technical operation of all future launch systems. In this regard, the two most significant initiatives being implemented on the ALS program are the practices of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the Unified Information System (Unis). TQM is a DoD initiative to improve the quality of the DoD acquisition system, contractor management systems, and the technical disciplines associated with the design, development, and operation of major systems. TQM has been mandated for all new programs and affects the way every group within the system currently does business. In order to implement the practices of TQM, new methods are needed. A program on the scale of the ALS generates vast amounts of information which must be used effectively to make sound decisions. Unis is an information network that will connect all ALS participants throughout all phases of the ALS development. Unis is providing support for project management and system design, and in following phases will provide decision support for launch operations, computer integrated manufacturing, automated

  19. Predicting Document Retrieval System Performance: An Expected Precision Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losee, Robert M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an expected precision (EP) measure designed to predict document retrieval performance. Highlights include decision theoretic models; precision and recall as measures of system performance; EP graphs; relevance feedback; and computing the retrieval status value of a document for two models, the Binary Independent Model and the Two Poisson…

  20. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...

  1. Clinical information systems end user satisfaction: the expectations and needs congruencies effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Faezeh; Poo, Danny C C; Tan, Yung Ming

    2015-02-01

    Prior research on information systems (IS) shows that users' attitudes and continuance intentions are associated with their satisfaction with information systems. As such, the increasing amount of investments in clinical information systems (CIS) signifies the importance of understanding CIS end users' (i.e., clinicians) satisfaction. In this study, we develop a conceptual framework to identify the cognitive determinants of clinicians' satisfaction formation. The disconfirmation paradigm serves as the core of the framework. The expectations and needs congruency models are the two models of this paradigm, and perceived performance is the basis of the comparisons in the models. The needs and expectations associated with the models are also specified. The survey methodology is adopted in this study to empirically validate the proposed research model. The survey is conducted at a public hospital and results in 112 and 203 valid responses (56% and 98% response rates) from doctors and nurses respectively. The partial least squares (PLS) method is used to analyze the data. The results of the study show that perceived CIS performance is the most influential factor on clinicians' (i.e., doctors and nurses) satisfaction. Doctors' expectations congruency is the next significant determinant of their satisfaction. Contrary to most previous findings, nurses' expectations and expectations congruency do not show a significant effect on their satisfaction. However, the needs congruency is found to significantly affect nurses' satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SCATS: SRB Cost Accounting and Tracking System handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorv, R. B.; Stewart, R. D.; Coley, G.; Higginbotham, M.

    1978-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Cost Accounting and Tracking System (SCATS) which is an automatic data processing system designed to keep a running account of the number, description, and estimated cost of Level 2, 3, and 4 changes is described. Although designed specifically for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Program, the ADP system can be used for any other program that has a similar structure for recording, reporting, and summing numbers and costs of changes. The program stores the alpha-numeric designators for changes, government estimated costs, proposed costs, and negotiated value in a MIRADS (Marshall Information Retrieval and Display System) format which permits rapid access, manipulation, and reporting of current change status. Output reports listing all changes, totals of each level, and totals of all levels, can be derived for any calendar interval period.

  3. Analysis of costs-benefits tradeoffs of complex security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Essential to a systems approach to design of security systems is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of alternative designs. While the concept of analysis of costs and benefits is straightforward, implementation can be at the least tedious and, for complex designs and alternatives, can become nearly intractable without the help of structured analysis tools. PACAIT--Performance and Cost Analysis Integrated Tools--is a prototype tool. The performance side of the analysis collates and reduces data from ASSESS, and existing DOE PC-based security systems performance analysis tool. The costs side of the analysis uses ACE, an existing DOD PC-based costs analysis tool. Costs are reported over the full life-cycle of the system, that is, the costs to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. Results are collected in Microsoft reg-sign Excel workbooks and are readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and path-element levels

  4. No Cost – Low Cost Compressed Air System Optimization in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma, A.; Budiarsa, N.; Watiniasih, N.; Antara, N. G.

    2018-04-01

    Energy conservation is a systematic, integrated of effort, in order to preserve energy sources and improve energy utilization efficiency. Utilization of energy in efficient manner without reducing the energy usage it must. Energy conservation efforts are applied at all stages of utilization, from utilization of energy resources to final, using efficient technology, and cultivating an energy-efficient lifestyle. The most common way is to promote energy efficiency in the industry on end use and overcome barriers to achieve such efficiency by using system energy optimization programs. The facts show that energy saving efforts in the process usually only focus on replacing tools and not an overall system improvement effort. In this research, a framework of sustainable energy reduction work in companies that have or have not implemented energy management system (EnMS) will be conducted a systematic technical approach in evaluating accurately a compressed-air system and potential optimization through observation, measurement and verification environmental conditions and processes, then processing the physical quantities of systems such as air flow, pressure and electrical power energy at any given time measured using comparative analysis methods in this industry, to provide the potential savings of energy saving is greater than the component approach, with no cost to the lowest cost (no cost - low cost). The process of evaluating energy utilization and energy saving opportunities will provide recommendations for increasing efficiency in the industry and reducing CO2 emissions and improving environmental quality.

  5. The Software Cost Estimation Method Based on Fuzzy Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plecka Przemysław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of sales process of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP Systems, it turns out that the standard system must be extended or changed (modified according to specific customer’s requirements. Therefore, suppliers face the problem of determining the cost of additional works. Most methods of cost estimation bring satisfactory results only at the stage of pre-implementation analysis. However, suppliers need to know the estimated cost as early as at the stage of trade talks. During contract negotiations, they expect not only the information about the costs of works, but also about the risk of exceeding these costs or about the margin of safety. One method that gives more accurate results at the stage of trade talks is the method based on the ontology of implementation costs. This paper proposes modification of the method involving the use of fuzzy attributes, classes, instances and relations in the ontology. The result provides not only the information about the value of work, but also about the minimum and maximum expected cost, and the most likely range of costs. This solution allows suppliers to effectively negotiate the contract and increase the chances of successful completion of the project.

  6. Cost optimization for buildings with hybrid ventilation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kun; Lu, Yan

    2018-02-13

    A method including: computing a total cost for a first zone in a building, wherein the total cost is equal to an actual energy cost of the first zone plus a thermal discomfort cost of the first zone; and heuristically optimizing the total cost to identify temperature setpoints for a mechanical heating/cooling system and a start time and an end time of the mechanical heating/cooling system, based on external weather data and occupancy data of the first zone.

  7. Need for Cost Optimization of Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Anderson, Grant

    2017-01-01

    As the nation plans manned missions that go far beyond Earth orbit to Mars, there is an urgent need for a robust, disciplined systems engineering methodology that can identify an optimized Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS) architecture for long duration deep space missions. But unlike the previously used Equivalent System Mass (ESM), the method must be inclusive of all driving parameters and emphasize the economic analysis of life support system design. The key parameter for this analysis is Life Cycle Cost (LCC). LCC takes into account the cost for development and qualification of the system, launch costs, operational costs, maintenance costs and all other relevant and associated costs. Additionally, an effective methodology must consider system technical performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, crew time, and other factors that could affect the overall merit of the life support system.

  8. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The EVA systems cost model presented is based on proposed EVA equipment for the space shuttle program. General information on EVA crewman requirements in a weightless environment and an EVA capabilities overview are provided.

  9. Impacts of intermittent renewable generation on electricity system costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalla-Bejerano, Joan; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    A successful deployment of power generation coming from variable renewable sources, such as wind and solar photovoltaic, strongly depends on the economic cost of system integration. This paper, in seeking to look beyond the impact of renewable generation on the evolution of the total economic costs associated with the operation of the electricity system, aims to estimate the sensitivity of balancing market requirements and costs to the variable and non-fully predictable nature of intermittent renewable generation. The estimations reported in this paper for the Spanish electricity system stress the importance of both attributes as well as power system flexibility when accounting for the cost of balancing services. - Highlights: •A successful deployment of VRES-E strongly depends on the economic cost of its integration. •We estimate the sensitivity of balancing market requirements and costs to VRES-E. •Integration costs depend on variability, predictability and system flexibility.

  10. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.; Phillips, A.W.

    1998-04-01

    Analysis of cost and performance of physical security systems can be a complex, multi-dimensional problem. There are a number of point tools that address various aspects of cost and performance analysis. Increased interest in cost tradeoffs of physical security alternatives has motivated development of an architecture called Cost and Performance Analysis (CPA), which takes a top-down approach to aligning cost and performance metrics. CPA incorporates results generated by existing physical security system performance analysis tools, and utilizes an existing cost analysis tool. The objective of this architecture is to offer comprehensive visualization of complex data to security analysts and decision-makers

  11. Treatment cost and life expectancy of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): a discrete event simulation model on a UK population-based observational cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-I; Smith, Alexandra; Aas, Eline; Roman, Eve; Crouch, Simon; Burton, Cathy; Patmore, Russell

    2017-03-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the commonest non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Previous studies examining the cost of treating DLBCL have generally focused on a specific first-line therapy alone; meaning that their findings can neither be extrapolated to the general patient population nor to other points along the treatment pathway. Based on empirical data from a representative population-based patient cohort, the objective of this study was to develop a simulation model that could predict costs and life expectancy of treating DLBCL. All patients newly diagnosed with DLBCL in the UK's population-based Haematological Malignancy Research Network ( www.hmrn.org ) in 2007 were followed until 2013 (n = 271). Mapped treatment pathways, alongside cost information derived from the National Tariff 2013/14, were incorporated into a patient-level simulation model in order to reflect the heterogeneities of patient characteristics and treatment options. The NHS and social services perspective was adopted, and all outcomes were discounted at 3.5 % per annum. Overall, the expected total medical costs were £22,122 for those treated with curative intent, and £2930 for those managed palliatively. For curative chemotherapy, the predicted medical costs were £14,966, £23,449 and £7376 for first-, second- and third-line treatments, respectively. The estimated annual cost for treating DLBCL across the UK was around £88-92 million. This is the first cost modelling study using empirical data to provide 'real world' evidence throughout the DLBCL treatment pathway. Future application of the model could include evaluation of new technologies/treatments to support healthcare decision makers, especially in the era of personalised medicine.

  12. Low Cost Integrated Navigation System for Unmanned Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changsong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large errors of low-cost MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU lead to huge navigation errors, even wrong navigation information. An integrated navigation system for unmanned vessel is proposed. It consists of a low-cost MIMU and Doppler velocity sonar (DVS. This paper presents an integrated navigation method, to improve the performance of navigation system. The integrated navigation system is tested using simulation and semi-physical simulation experiments, whose results show that attitude, velocity and position accuracy has improved awfully, giving exactly accurate navigation results. By means of the combination of low-cost MIMU and DVS, the proposed system is able to overcome fast drift problems of the low cost IMU.

  13. Least cost analysis of Belarus electricity generation system with focus on nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.; Yakushau, A.

    2004-01-01

    A basic feature of the Belarus electricity system is that about 50% of the installed power capacity is used to produce heat for the central heating supply system. The Republic has one of the most developed districts heating system in Europe. The installation started in 1930, and developed very fast after 1945. Co-generation of electricity and thermal energy in central power plants has played a fundamental role in the local economy. Presently, Belarus electricity generation system includes: Total installed capacities of condensing turbines 3665 MW; Total installed capacities of co-generation turbines 3889 MW. It is expected that in 2020 in accordance with electricity demand forecast peak load demand will be equaled approximately 9500 MW. Taking into account that operation time of 60 % existent co-generation turbine and 70 % of condensing turbine can be extended up to 2020 during the period 2005 - 2020 it is necessity to install about 1500 MW of new co-generation units and about 2000 MW of condensing turbines. To select the least cost scenario for electricity generation system expansion improved computer code WASP-IV for Windows had been used. As far code WASP-IV do not allow finding out optimal solution for electricity generation system with high share of co-generation directly the methodology of application of this program for this case had been developed. Methodology is based on utilization of code WASP-IV for simulation condensing turbines and module BALANCE for modeling co-generation part of the system. The scenarios for the electricity system expansion plan included only conventional technologies. Presently, the works connected with the preparedness for NPP construction in the Republic including site survey for NPP are being carried out. The first stage of siting process according to the IAEA classification has been completed. It was based on a set of criteria answered to A Safety Guide of the IAEA Site Survey for Nuclear Power Plants and requirements to be

  14. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  15. Reliability and Cost Impacts for Attritable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    on reliability and cost: a probabilistic model. Electric Power Systems Research, 72(3), 213-224. Kalbfleisch, J.D. & Prentice, R.L. (1980). The...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-17-M-172 RELIABILITY AND COST IMPACTS FOR ATTRITABLE SYSTEMS THESIS Presented to... power of discrete time Markov chains, whether homogeneous or non-homogeneous, to model the reliability and dependability of repairable systems should

  16. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  17. Integrated Cost and Schedule Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Leveraging Strategic Advantages to Owners and EPC Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the owners expect that the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction would decrease with new entrants into the market, there will be severer competition in the nuclear industry. In order to achieve performance improvement and to attain competitive advantages under the globalized competition, practitioners and researchers in the nuclear industry have recently exerted efforts to develop an advanced and efficient management methodology for the nuclear mega-projects. Among several candidates, integrated cost and schedule control system is of great concern because it can effectively manage the three most important project performances including cost, time, and quality. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to develop a project numbering system (PNS of integrated cost and schedule control system for nuclear power plant construction. Distinct attributes of nuclear power plant construction were investigated first in order to identify influencing variables that characterize real-world implementation of advanced cost and schedule controls. A scenario was then developed and analysed to simulate a case-project. By using this case-project, proposed management requirements, management methods, measurement techniques, data structure, and data collection methods for integrated cost and schedule PNS were illustrated. Finally, findings and implications are outlined, and recommendations for further research are presented.

  18. Parents’ Expectations About Childrearing After Divorce : Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children’s economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N ¼ 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher

  19. Customer experiences and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    Customer experiences and expectations from competition and cogeneration in the power industry were reviewed by Charles Morton, Director of Energy at CPC International, by describing Casco's decision to get into cogeneration in the early 1990s in three small corn milling plants in Cardinal, London and Port Colborne, Ontario, mainly as result of the threat of a 40 per cent increase in power prices. He stressed that cost competitiveness of cogeneration is entirely site-specific, but it is generally more attractive in larger facilities that operate 24 hours a day, where grid power is expensive or unreliable. Because it is reliable, cogeneration holds out the prospect of increased production-up time, as well as offering a hedge against higher energy costs, reducing the company's variable costs when incoming revenues fall short of costs, and providing an additional tool in head-to-head competition

  20. Determination of cost effective waste management system receipt rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Huber, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive logistics and cost analysis has been carried out to determine if there are potential benefits to the high-level waste management system for receipt rates other than the current 3000 MTU/yr design-basis. The analysis includes both a Repository-Only System and a Storage-Only System. Repository startup dates of 2010 and 2015 and MRS startup dates of 1988 and three years prior to the repository have been evaluated. Receipt rates ranging from 1,500 to 6, 000 MTU/yr have been considered. Higher receipt rates appear to be economically justified, for either system, minimum costs are found at a repository receipt rate of 6000 MTU/yr. However, the MRS receipt rate for minimum system costs depends on the MRS startup date. With a 1988 MRS and a 2010 repository, the added cost of providing the MRS is offset by at-reactor storage cost reductions and the total system cost of $10.0 billion is virtually the same as for the repository- only system. 9 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Expectancy Theory as a Predictor of Faculty Motivation to Use a Course Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcan, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the elements of the Expectancy theory and faculty motivation to use a course management system. Specifically it analyzed if the elements of the Expectancy theory (Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy) were useful in predicting faculty motivation when using Blackboard tools in…

  2. Italian regional health system structure and expected cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Marina; Lillini, Roberto; Quaglia, Alberto; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Few studies deal with the association of socioeconomic and health system resource variables with cancer survival at the Italian regional level, where the greatest number of decisions about social and health policies and resource allocations are taken. The present study aimed to describe the causal relationships between socioeconomic and health system resource factors and regional cancer survival and to compute the expected cancer survival at provincial, regional and area levels. Age-standardized relative survival at 5 years from diagnosis of cases incident in 1995-1998 and followed up to 2004 were derived by gender for 11 sites from the Italian Association of Cancer Registries data bank. The socioeconomic and health system resource variables, describing at a regional level the macro-economy, demography, labor market, and health resources for 1995-2005, came from the Health for All database. A principal components factor analysis was applied to the socioeconomic and health system resource variables. For every site, linear regression models were computed considering the relative survival at 5 years as a dependent variable and the principal components factor analysis factors as independent variables. The factors described the socioeconomic and health-related features of the regional systems and were causally related to the characteristics of the patient taken in charge. The models built by the factors allowed computation of the expected relative survival at 5 years with very good concordance with those observed at regional, macro-regional and national levels. In the regions without any cancer registry, survival was coherent with that of neighboring regions with similar socioeconomic and health system resources characteristics. The models highlighted the causal correlations between socioeconomic and health system resources and cancer survival, suggesting that they could be good evaluation tools for the efficiency of the resources allocation and use.

  3. Rate-cost tradeoffs in control

    KAUST Repository

    Kostina, Victoria; Hassibi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    function is the mean-square deviation of the system state from the desired state. We study the fundamental tradeoff between the communication rate r bits/sec and the limsup of the expected cost b, and show a lower bound on the rate necessary to attain b

  4. The System Cost Model: A tool for life cycle cost and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Lundeen, A.; Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

    1996-01-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors began development of the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new TSD facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation's generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction, operations and maintenance, and decommissioning these waste management facilities. The SCM also provides transportation costs for DOE wastes. Transportation costs are provided for truck and rail and include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. A complement to the SCM is the System Cost Model-Risk (SCM-R) model, which provides relative Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) risk information. A relative ES and H risk basis has been developed and applied by LITCO at the INEL. The risk basis is now being automated in the SCM-R to facilitate rapid risk analysis of system alternatives. The added risk functionality will allow combined cost and risk evaluation of EM alternatives

  5. Cost and effectiveness of radon barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-12-01

    Earthen, asphalt, and multilayer radon barrier systems can all provide reduction in the amount of radon gas released from uranium mill tailings. Pacific Northwest Laboratory field tested all three types of covers at Grand Junction, Colorado during the summer of 1981. All nine individual radon barrier systems tested currently meet the EPA standard for radon flux of 20 pCi m - 2 s - 1 . The cost of the asphalt and 3m earthen covers were about the same at the field test. Multilayer covers were significantly more costly. Cost estimates for three high priority western sites indicate 3m of earthen cover is the least costly radon barrier when earthen material is available at or near the disposal site. If earthen material must be imported more than 8 to 10 km asphalt and possibly multilayer radon barriers can be cost effective

  6. Patient-centredness in integrated healthcare delivery systems - needs, expectations and priorities for organised healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Christin; Mühlbacher, Axel C

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centred healthcare is becoming a more significant success factor in the design of integrated healthcare systems. The objective of this study is to structure a patient-relevant hierarchy of needs and expectations for the design of organised healthcare delivery systems. A questionnaire with 84 items was conducted with N = 254 healthcare experts and N = 670 patients. Factor analyses were performed using SPSS©18. The number of factors retained was controlled by Kaiser's criterion, validation of screeplots and interpretability of the items. Cronbach's α was used to assess the internal consistency of the subscales. Exploratory factor analysis led to 24 factors in the expert sample and 20 in the patient sample. After analysing the screeplots, confirmatory factor analyses were computed for 7-factor solutions accounting for 42.963% of the total variance and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin of 0.914 for the patients (experts: 38.427%, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = 0.797). Cronbach's α ranged between 0.899 and 0.756. Based on the analysis, coordinated care could be differentiated into seven dimensions: access, data and information, service and infrastructure, professional care, interpersonal care, individualised care, continuity and coordination. The study provides insight into patient and experts expectations towards the organisation of integrated healthcare delivery systems. If providers and payers can take into account patient needs and expectations while implementing innovative healthcare delivery systems, greater acceptance and satisfaction will be achieved. In the best case, this will lead to better adherence resulting in better clinical outcomes.

  7. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  8. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Lowder, Travis; Feldman, David; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2016-07-19

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  9. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Ischemic Stroke Increases Disability-Free Survival, Quality of Life, and Life Expectancy and Reduces Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. V. Campbell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEndovascular thrombectomy improves functional outcome in large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke. We examined disability, quality of life, survival and acute care costs in the EXTEND-IA trial, which used CT-perfusion imaging selection.MethodsLarge vessel ischemic stroke patients with favorable CT-perfusion were randomized to endovascular thrombectomy after alteplase versus alteplase-only. Clinical outcome was prospectively measured using 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS. Individual patient expected survival and net difference in Disability/Quality-adjusted life years (DALY/QALY up to 15 years from stroke were modeled using age, sex, 90-day mRS, and utility scores. Level of care within the first 90 days was prospectively measured and used to estimate procedure and inpatient care costs (US$ reference year 2014.ResultsThere were 70 patients, 35 in each arm, mean age 69, median NIHSS 15 (IQR 12–19. The median (IQR disability-weighted utility score at 90 days was 0.65 (0.00–0.91 in the alteplase-only versus 0.91 (0.65–1.00 in the endovascular group (p = 0.005. Modeled life expectancy was greater in the endovascular versus alteplase-only group (median 15.6 versus 11.2 years, p = 0.02. The endovascular thrombectomy group had fewer simulated DALYs lost over 15 years [median (IQR 5.5 (3.2–8.7 versus 8.9 (4.7–13.8, p = 0.02] and more QALY gained [median (IQR 9.3 (4.2–13.1 versus 4.9 (0.3–8.5, p = 0.03]. Endovascular patients spent less time in hospital [median (IQR 5 (3–11 days versus 8 (5–14 days, p = 0.04] and rehabilitation [median (IQR 0 (0–28 versus 27 (0–65 days, p = 0.03]. The estimated inpatient costs in the first 90 days were less in the thrombectomy group (average US$15,689 versus US$30,569, p = 0.008 offsetting the costs of interhospital transport and the thrombectomy procedure (average US$10,515. The average saving per patient treated with thrombectomy was US$4

  10. Determination of cost effective waste management system receipt rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Huber, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive logistics and cost analysis has been carried out to determine if there are potential benefits to the high-level waste management system for receipt rates other than the current 3,000 MTU/yr design-basis receipt rate. The scope of the analysis includes both a Repository-Only System and a Storage-Only or Basic MRS System. To allow for current uncertainties in facility startup scheduling, cases considering repository startup dates of 2010 and 2015 and MRS startup dates of 1998 and three years prior to the repository have been evaluated. Receipt rates ranging from 1,500 to 6,000 MTU/yr have been considered for both the MRS and the repository. Higher receipt rates appear to be economically justified for both the repository and an MRS. For a repository-only system, minimum costs are found at a repository receipt rate of 6,000 MTU/yr. When a storage-only MRS is included in the system, minimum system costs are also achieved at a repository receipt rate of 6,000 MTU/yr. However, the MRS receipt rate for minimum system costs depends on the MRS startup date and ranges from 3,500 to 6,000 MTU/yr. With a 1998 MRS and a 2010 repository, the added cost of providing the MRS is offset by at-reactor storage cost reductions and the total system cost of $10.0 billion is virtually the same as for the repository-only system

  11. Linear collider systems and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the systems and sub-systems involved in so-called ''conventional'' e + e - linear colliders and to study how their design affects the overall cost of these machines. There are presently a total of at least six 500 GeV c. of m. linear collider projects under study in the world. Aside from TESLA (superconducting linac at 1.3 GHz) and CLIC (two-beam accelerator with main linac at 30GHz), the other four proposed e + e - linear colliders can be considered ''conventional'' in that their main linacs use the proven technique of driving room temperature accelerator sections with pulsed klystrons and modulators. The centrally distinguishing feature between these projects is their main linac rf frequency: 3 GHz for the DESY machine, 11.424 GHz for the SLAC and JLC machines, and 14 GHz for the VLEPP machine. The other systems, namely the electron and positron sources, preaccelerators, compressors, damping rings and final foci, are fairly similar from project to project. Probably more than 80% of the cost of these linear colliders will be incurred in the two main linacs facing each other and it is therefore in their design and construction that major savings or extra costs may be found

  12. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles in European countries using integrated modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seixas, J.; Simões, S.; Dias, L.; Kanudia, A.; Fortes, P.; Gargiulo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered alternatives to internal combustion engines due to their energy efficiency and contribution to CO 2 mitigation. The adoption of EVs depends on consumer preferences, including cost, social status and driving habits, although it is agreed that current and expected costs play a major role. We use a partial equilibrium model that minimizes total energy system costs to assess whether EVs can be a cost-effective option for the consumers of each EU27 member state up to 2050, focusing on the impact of different vehicle investment costs and CO 2 mitigation targets. We found that for an EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction cap of 40% and 70% by 2050 vis-à-vis 1990 emissions, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are cost-effective in the EU only by 2030 and only if their costs are 30% lower than currently expected. At the EU level, vehicle costs and the capability to deliver both short- and long-distance mobility are the main drivers of BEV deployment. Other drivers include each state’s national mobility patterns and the cost-effectiveness of alternative mitigation options, both in the transport sector, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or biofuels, and in other sectors, such as renewable electricity. - Highlights: • Electric vehicles were assessed through the minimization of the total energy systems costs. • EU climate policy targets could act as a major driver for PHEV adoption. • Battery EV is an option before 2030 if costs will drop by 30% from expected costs. • EV deployment varies per country depending on each energy system configuration. • Incentives at the country level should consider specific cost-effectiveness factors

  13. ORSIM, Nuclear Fuel, Fossil Fuel Hydroelectric Power Plant Cost and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, B.E.; Turnage, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORSIM is an electric power generating system integration model which simulates the multi-year operation of a mixed power system consisting of fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric, and pumped-storage units. For any specified refueling schedule for nuclear units and future load forecast, the model determines a plan of operation for the system which attempts to minimize the total discounted operating cost over a specified study period. The analysis considers the effects of forced outages, spinning reserve operating constraints, and scheduled introduction and retirement of generating stations. The model determines a maintenance schedule for the non-nuclear stations (nuclear stations are maintained during refueling outages) and the optimum allocation of energy-fixed nuclear and hydroelectric resources. It calculates the expected energy generated by each station in the system, by period over the planning horizon, based on input or calculated incremental operating cost. It also calculates the expected loss-of- load probability and un-served energy demand for each period in the planning horizon. An optimum operating plan, designed to minimize the discounted total production cost, is then calculated, as are the costs of operating each station in the system and the discounted total production cost for the derived plan of operation. 2 - Method of solution: ORSIM searches for a particular mode of operation which, over a multi-year planning horizon, will minimize the total system operating cost of a particular electric power generation system discounted to the beginning of the planning horizon. It does this by: (a) calculating the planned maintenance outages for all units; (b) estimating the incremental discounted cost of energy produced by each station in the system for every subinterval of the planning horizon; (c) utilizing the incremental discounted costs of energy generation to calculate, via probabilistic simulation, the economic optimum

  14. Estimates of cost-effectiveness of prehospital continuous positive airway pressure in the management of acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Michael W; Richards, Michael E; Wilfong, Denise A

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in managing prehospital acute pulmonary edema in an urban EMS system. Using estimates from published reports on prehospital and emergency department CPAP, a cost-effectiveness model of implementing CPAP in a typical urban EMS system was derived from the societal perspective as well as the perspective of the implementing EMS system. To assess the robustness of the model, a series of univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses was performed on the input variables. The cost of consumables, equipment, and training yielded a total cost of $89 per CPAP application. The theoretical system would be expected to use CPAP 4 times per 1000 EMS patients and is expected to save 0.75 additional lives per 1000 EMS patients at a cost of $490 per life saved. CPAP is also expected to result in approximately one less intubation per 6 CPAP applications and reduce hospitalization costs by $4075 per year for each CPAP application. Through sensitivity analyses the model was verified to be robust across a wide range of input variable assumptions. Previous studies have demonstrated the clinical effectiveness of CPAP in the management of acute pulmonary edema. Through a theoretical analysis which modeled the costs and clinical benefits of implementing CPAP in an urban EMS system, prehospital CPAP appears to be a cost-effective treatment.

  15. Historical Cost Growth of Completed Weapon System Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arena, Mark V; Leonard, Robert S; Murray, Sheila E; Younossi, Obaid

    2006-01-01

    ...: Cost Risk Analysis for Air Force Systems," and includes a literature review of cost growth studies and a more extensive analysis of the historical cost growth in acquisition programs than appears...

  16. Perceived Traceability Costs and Benefits in the Italian Fisheries Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Asioli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a model in which it is hypothesized that firm characteristics influence both costs and benefits of traceability. The proposed model differentiates between aggregate measures and specific categories, as well as between expected costs and benefits on the one hand and perceived actual outcomes on the other, and is tested in a series of regression analyses based on a survey sample of 60 Italian fish processors. The findings indicate that firm characteristics are not strongly associated with any specific cost or benefit measure. However, expected overall benefits are highly significantly impacted by firm size and the number of quality management systems certified, while actual overall benefits only by firm size. Finally, the study also finds considerable discrepancies between expected and actual costs and benefits. The managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  18. Increased accuracy of cost-estimation using product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Bredahl; Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    This article describes an approach for utilizing Product Configuration Systems (PCS) for quantifying project costs in project-based companies. It presents a case study demonstrating a method of quantifying costs in a way that makes it possible to configure cost- and time estimates. Piecework costs......, material costs and sub-supplier costs are used as principle cost elements and linked to structural and process elements to facilitate configuration. The cost data are used by the PCS to generate fast and accurate cost-estimates, quotations, time estimates and cost summaries. The described cost...... quantification principles have been used in a Scandinavian SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise) since the 90’s, but have since 2011 been adopted to be used in a configuration system. A longitudinal case study was conducted to compare cost and time-estimation accuracy before and after implementation. We...

  19. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....

  20. Mental health services costs within the Alberta criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Philip; Moffatt, Jessica; Dewa, Carolyn S; Nguyen, Thanh; Zhang, Ting; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness has been widely cited as a driver of costs in the criminal justice system. The objective of this paper is to estimate the additional mental health service costs incurred within the criminal justice system that are incurred because of people with mental illnesses who go through the system. Our focus is on costs in Alberta. We set up a model of the flow of all persons through the criminal justice system, including police, court, and corrections components, and for mental health diversion, review, and forensic services. We estimate the transitional probabilities and costs that accrue as persons who have been charged move through the system. Costs are estimated for the Alberta criminal justice system as a whole, and for the mental illness component. Public expenditures for each person diverted or charged in Alberta in the criminal justice system, including mental health costs, were $16,138. The 95% range of this estimate was from $14,530 to $19,580. Of these costs, 87% were for criminal justice services and 13% were for mental illness-related services. Hospitalization for people with mental illness who were reviewed represented the greatest additional cost associated with mental illnesses. Treatment costs stemming from mental illnesses directly add about 13% onto those in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost/benefit analyses of reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The study presents a methodology for quantitative assessment of the benefit yielded by the various engineered safety systems of a nuclear reactor containment from the standpoint of their capacity to protect the environment compared to their construction costs. The benefit is derived from an estimate of the possible damage from which the environment is protected, taking account of the probabilities of occurrence of malfunctions and accidents. For demonstration purposes, the methodology was applied to a 1 300-MWe PWR nuclear power station. The accident sequence considered was that of a major loss-of-coolant accident as investigated in detail in the German risk study. After determination of the benefits and cost/benefit ratio for the power plant and the containment systems as designed, the performance characteristics of three subsystems, the leakoff system, annulus exhaust air handling system and spray system, were varied. For this purpose, the parameters which describe these systems in the activity release programme were altered. The costs were simultaneously altered in order to take account of the performance divergences. By varying the performance of the individual sub-systems an optimization in design of these systems can be arrived at

  2. Cost/benefit comparison of thermal solar energy systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    A comparison is made between thermal solar energy systems of different size for five different applications in the three main climatic zones in Switzerland. Conventional ways of energy conservation are also included in the comparison. A cost/benefit ratio is calculated for each system. The investment is used as a cost indicator whereas the useful solar heat or the conventional energy saving is chosen as benefit. It is shown that the most systems sold today in Switzerland - combined hot water and space heating systems for single family houses - have the poorest cost/benefit ratio among all systems considered in the analysis. Four applications with more favourable cost/benefit ratio are identified. Large systems have generally a better cost/benefit ratio than smaller ones, although the total investment is higher. Photovoltaics is even less favourable than all thermal systems considered. The large scale penetration of technologies with good cost/benefit ratio lies in the public interest. Supporting activities should consider the priority set by the cost/benefit ratio. (author) 1 fig., 14 refs

  3. Patient-centeredness in Integrated healthcare delivery systems - Needs, expectations and priorities for organized healthcare systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Juhnke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient-centred healthcare is becoming a more significant success factor in the design of integrated healthcare systems. The objective of this study is to structure a patient-relevant hierarchy of needs and expectations for the design of organised healthcare delivery systems. Methods: A questionnaire with 84 items was conducted with N = 254 healthcare experts and N = 670 patients. Factor analyses were performed using SPSS©18. The number of factors retained was controlled by Kaiser's criterion, validation of screeplots and interpretability of the items. Cronbach's α was used to assess the internal consistency of the subscales. Results: Exploratory factor analysis led to 24 factors in the expert sample and 20 in the patient sample. After analysing the screeplots, confirmatory factor analyses were computed for 7-factor solutions accounting for 42.963% of the total variance and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkinof 0.914 for the patients (experts: 38.427%, Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin = 0.797. Cronbach's α ranged between 0.899 and 0.756. Based on the analysis, coordinated care could be differentiated into seven dimensions: access, data and information, service and infrastructure, professional care, interpersonal care, individualised care, continuity and coordination. Conclusion and Discussion: The study provides insight into patient and experts expectations towards the organisation of integrated healthcare delivery systems. If providers and payers can take into account patient needs and expectations while implementing innovative healthcare delivery systems, greater acceptance and satisfaction will be achieved. In the best case, this will lead to better adherence resulting in better clinical outcomes.

  4. Patient-centeredness in Integrated healthcare delivery systems - Needs, expectations and priorities for organized healthcare systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Juhnke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient-centred healthcare is becoming a more significant success factor in the design of integrated healthcare systems. The objective of this study is to structure a patient-relevant hierarchy of needs and expectations for the design of organised healthcare delivery systems.Methods: A questionnaire with 84 items was conducted with N = 254 healthcare experts and N = 670 patients. Factor analyses were performed using SPSS©18. The number of factors retained was controlled by Kaiser's criterion, validation of screeplots and interpretability of the items. Cronbach's α was used to assess the internal consistency of the subscales.Results: Exploratory factor analysis led to 24 factors in the expert sample and 20 in the patient sample. After analysing the screeplots, confirmatory factor analyses were computed for 7-factor solutions accounting for 42.963% of the total variance and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkinof 0.914 for the patients (experts: 38.427%, Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin = 0.797. Cronbach's α ranged between 0.899 and 0.756. Based on the analysis, coordinated care could be differentiated into seven dimensions: access, data and information, service and infrastructure, professional care, interpersonal care, individualised care, continuity and coordination.Conclusion and Discussion: The study provides insight into patient and experts expectations towards the organisation of integrated healthcare delivery systems. If providers and payers can take into account patient needs and expectations while implementing innovative healthcare delivery systems, greater acceptance and satisfaction will be achieved. In the best case, this will lead to better adherence resulting in better clinical outcomes.

  5. Changing World, Unchanging Accounting? Cost Systems for Hungarian Agricultural Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Musinszki

    2011-01-01

    The literature of agricultural cost accounting has defined the definition of cost centres and cost bearers, the contents of the accounts, the procedures and methods for cost accounting and unit cost calculation without any significant changes for decades now. Do the agricultural companies set up and operate their own cost allocation and unit cost calculation systems on procedures made for state owned farms and cooperatives, or do they align their cost system with the challenges of our times? ...

  6. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies of telemedicine, electronic, and mobile health systems in the literature: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Vaca, Cesar; Aguado, Jesús Saez; de Castro, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    A systematic review of cost-utility and cost-effectiveness research works of telemedicine, electronic health (e-health), and mobile health (m-health) systems in the literature is presented. Academic databases and systems such as PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore were searched, using different combinations of terms such as "cost-utility" OR "cost utility" AND "telemedicine," "cost-effectiveness" OR "cost effectiveness" AND "mobile health," etc. In the articles searched, there were no limitations in the publication date. The search identified 35 relevant works. Many of the articles were reviews of different studies. Seventy-nine percent concerned the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine systems in different specialties such as teleophthalmology, telecardiology, teledermatology, etc. More articles were found between 2000 and 2013. Cost-utility studies were done only for telemedicine systems. There are few cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies for e-health and m-health systems in the literature. Some cost-effectiveness studies demonstrate that telemedicine can reduce the costs, but not all. Among the main limitations of the economic evaluations of telemedicine systems are the lack of randomized control trials, small sample sizes, and the absence of quality data and appropriate measures.

  7. Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m 2 . The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m 2 . The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m 2 . The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m 2 , but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m 2 . Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m 2 for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m 2 and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m 2 . The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers

  8. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Ulrich [Alencon LLC; Fishman, Oleg [Alencon LLC

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  9. Distribution costs -- the cost of local delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winger, N.; Zarnett, P.; Carr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the power transmission system in the province of Ontario is owned and operated as a regulated monopoly by Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC). Local distribution systems deliver to end-users from bulk supply points within a service territory. OHSC distributes to approximately one million, mostly rural customers, while the approximately 250 municipal utilities together serve about two million, mostly urban customers. Under the Energy Competition Act of 1998 local distribution companies will face some new challenges, including unbundled billing systems, a broader range of distribution costs, increased costs, made up of corporate taxes or payments in lieu of taxes and added costs for regulatory affairs. The consultants provide a detailed discussion of the components of distribution costs, the three components of the typical budget process (capital expenditures, (CAPEX), operating and maintenance (O and M) and administration and corporate (GA and C), a summary of some typical distribution costs in Ontario, and the estimated impacts of the Energy Competition Act (ECA) compliance on charges and rates. Various mitigation strategies are also reviewed. Among these are joint ventures by local distribution companies to reduce ECA compliance costs, re-examination of controllable costs, temporary reduction of the allowable return on equity (ROE) by 50 per cent, and/or reducing the competitive transition charge (CTC). It is estimated that either one of these two reductions could eliminate the full amount of the five to seven per cent uplift in delivered energy service costs. The conclusion of the consultants is that local distribution delivery charges will make up a greater proportion of end-user cost in the future than it has in the past. An increase to customers of about five per cent is expected when the competitive electricity market opens and unbundled billing begins. The cost increase could be mitigated by a combination of actions that would be needed for about

  10. Computerized management report system for monitoring manpower and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullington, V.R.; Stephenson, R.L.; Cardwell, R.G.

    1980-04-01

    Although most cost systems offer complete detail and traceability, not all provide timely detail in a concise form useful to senior management. This system was developed for a multifunction research organization funded from many sources. It extracts cost and manpower data from the general cost systems, summarizes it, compares it by program with previous cost periods, and presents it with minimum detail yet with maximum overview. The system monitors the basic manpower distribution of effort at the source, that is, the division time-card input. Cost data are taken from the central computer ahead of the print-out and report-distribution steps; thus, the summary information is available several days ahead of the detailed reports. This procedure has been regularly used for several months, and has proven to be a valuable tool in management action and planning. 9 figures

  11. Value and cost analyses for solar thermal-storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.; Copeland, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a standard lifetime methodology with the storage capacity as a parameter. Both value and costs are functions of storage capacity. However, the value function depends on the application. Value/cost analyses for first-generation storage concepts for five central receiver systems (molten salt, water/steam, organic fluid, air, and liquid metal) established the reference against which new systems were compared. Some promising second-generation energy storage concepts have been identified, and some more advanced concepts have also been evaluated.

  12. A non-stationary cost-benefit analysis approach for extreme flood estimation to explore the nexus of 'Risk, Cost and Non-stationarity'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is commonly used for engineering planning and design problems in practice. However, previous cost-benefit based design flood estimation is based on stationary assumption. This study develops a non-stationary cost-benefit based design flood estimation approach. This approach integrates a non-stationary probability distribution function into cost-benefit analysis, and influence of non-stationarity on expected total cost (including flood damage and construction costs) and design flood estimation can be quantified. To facilitate design flood selections, a 'Risk-Cost' analysis approach is developed, which reveals the nexus of extreme flood risk, expected total cost and design life periods. Two basins, with 54-year and 104-year flood data respectively, are utilized to illustrate the application. It is found that the developed approach can effectively reveal changes of expected total cost and extreme floods in different design life periods. In addition, trade-offs are found between extreme flood risk and expected total cost, which reflect increases in cost to mitigate risk. Comparing with stationary approaches which generate only one expected total cost curve and therefore only one design flood estimation, the proposed new approach generate design flood estimation intervals and the 'Risk-Cost' approach selects a design flood value from the intervals based on the trade-offs between extreme flood risk and expected total cost. This study provides a new approach towards a better understanding of the influence of non-stationarity on expected total cost and design floods, and could be beneficial to cost-benefit based non-stationary design flood estimation across the world.

  13. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  14. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  15. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin

  16. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L.; Cooley, C.R.; Biagi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies' results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%

  17. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W A; Sumner, D A

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  18. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  19. Integrated modeling of software cost and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rone, K.Y.; Olson, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    In modeling the cost and quality of software systems, the relationship between cost and quality must be considered. This explicit relationship is dictated by the criticality of the software being developed. The balance between cost and quality is a viable software engineering trade-off throughout the life cycle. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate the cost and quality of software systems is essential to providing reliable software on time and within budget. Software cost models relate the product error rate to the percent of the project labor that is required for independent verification and validation. The criticality of the software determines which cost model is used to estimate the labor required to develop the software. Software quality models yield an expected error discovery rate based on the software size, criticality, software development environment, and the level of competence of the project and the developers with respect to the processes being employed

  20. Balancing the benefits and costs of antibiotic drugs: the TREAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, L; Paul, M; Andreassen, S

    2010-12-01

    TREAT is a computerized decision support system aimed at improving empirical antibiotic treatment of inpatients with suspected bacterial infections. It contains a model that balances, for each antibiotic choice (including 'no antibiotics'), expected benefit and expected costs. The main benefit afforded by appropriate, empirical, early antibiotic treatment in moderate to severe infections is a better chance of survival. Each antibiotic drug was consigned three cost components: cost of the drug and administration; cost of side effects; and costs of future resistance. 'No treatment' incurs no costs. The model worked well for decision support. Its analysis showed, yet again, that for moderate to severe infections, a model that does not include costs of resistance to future patients will always return maximum antibiotic treatment. Two major moral decisions are hidden in the model: how to take into account the limited life-expectancy and limited quality of life of old or very sick patients; and how to assign a value for a life-year of a future, unnamed patient vs. the present, individual patient. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassler, Morris E.

    2005-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material for fabrication into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past few years, Y-12 has continued to improve its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear nonproliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and helping to disposition former U.S. weapons material. It is clearly understood that the research reactor community must keep fuel costs as low as possible and Y-12 is making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. These production cost reductions allows for the U.S. to keep the LEU product price low even with the dramatic increase in the uranium enrichment and feed component market prices in the last few years. This paper will discuss a new standard specification that has been proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product and eliminates two steps of the production process. This new product is expected to decrease fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  2. Impacts of nuclear fuel cycle costs on nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Naudet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Fuel cycle costs are one of the main parameters to evaluate the competitiveness of various nuclear strategies. The historical analysis based on the French case shows the good performances yet achieved in mastering elementary costs in order to limit global fuel cycle cost escalation. Two contrasted theoretical scenarios of costs evolution in the middle and long term have been determined, based upon market analysis and technological improvements expected. They are used to calculate the global fuel cycle costs for various fuel management options and for three strategies of nuclear deployment. The results illustrate the stability of the expected fuel cycle costs over the long term, to be compared to the high incertainty prevailing for fossil fueled plants. The economic advantages of advanced technologies such as MOX fueled PWRs are underlined

  3. Optimal redundant systems for works with random processing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal redundant policies for a manufacturing system processing jobs with random working times. The redundant units of the parallel systems and standby systems are subject to stochastic failures during the continuous production process. First, a job consisting of only one work is considered for both redundant systems and the expected cost functions are obtained. Next, each redundant system with a random number of units is assumed for a single work. The expected cost functions and the optimal expected numbers of units are derived for redundant systems. Subsequently, the production processes of N tandem works are introduced for parallel and standby systems, and the expected cost functions are also summarized. Finally, the number of works is estimated by a Poisson distribution for the parallel and standby systems. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the optimization problems of redundant systems

  4. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions.

  5. A cost-benefit analysis of alternative device configurations for aviation-checked baggage security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Karnani, Tamana; Kobza, John E; Ritchie, Lynsey

    2006-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 have resulted in dramatic changes in aviation security. As of early 2003, an estimated 1,100 explosive detection systems (EDS) and 6,000 explosive trace detection machines (ETD) have been deployed to ensure 100% checked baggage screening at all commercial airports throughout the United States. The prohibitive costs associated with deploying and operating such devices is a serious issue for the Transportation Security Administration. This article evaluates the cost effectiveness of the explosive detection technologies currently deployed to screen checked baggage as well as new technologies that could be used in the future. Both single-device and two-device systems are considered. In particular, the expected annual direct cost of using these devices for 100% checked baggage screening under various scenarios is obtained and the tradeoffs between using single- and two-device strategies are studied. The expected number of successful threats under the different checked baggage screening scenarios with 100% checked baggage screening is also obtained. Lastly, a risk-based screening strategy proposed in the literature is analyzed. The results reported suggest that for the existing security setup, with current device costs and probability parameters, single-device systems are less costly and have fewer expected number of successful threats than two-device systems due to the way the second device affects the alarm or clear decision. The risk-based approach is found to have the potential to significantly improve security. The cost model introduced provides an effective tool for the execution of cost-benefit analyses of alternative device configurations for aviation-checked baggage security screening.

  6. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesban Kihuba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design: We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results: Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion: To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  7. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context. PMID:27357072

  8. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  9. Subsystem cost data for the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Rexroth, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Details of subsystem costs are among the questions most frequently asked about the $14.4 million Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper presents a breakdown of cost components for each of the 20 major subsystems of TSTA. Also included are details to aid in adjusting the costs to other years, contracting conditions, or system sizes

  10. Political versus managerial use of cost and performance accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Reto; Schedler, Kuno

    2006-01-01

    This article explains why it is impossible to use cost and performance accounting in public administration purely as an instrument for internal management. The authors report on a survey in Switzerland which highlighted the different expectations that politicians and managers have for cost and performance accounting. The authors warn that politicians and managers need to be aware of the conflicts arising from their different information needs. New cost and performance accounting systems need ...

  11. Harvesting systems and costs for southern pine in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; James E. Granskog

    1981-01-01

    Timber harvesting systems and their costs are a major concern for the forest products industries. In this paper, harvest costs per cord are estimated, using computer simulation, for current southern pine harvesting systems. The estimations represent a range of mechanization levels. The sensitivity of systems to factors affecting harvest costs - machine costs, fuel...

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of sustainable energy development using life-cycle co-benefits assessment and the system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy policy was assessed using the system dynamics approach. • A life table approach was presented to estimate averted loss of life expectancy. • The mortality benefits estimated by VSL and VSLY are found to be similar. • Economic feasibility of the energy policy for climate change mitigation was presented. - Abstract: A novel Air Resource Co-benefits model was developed to estimate the social benefits of a Sustainable Energy Policy, involving both renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency improvements (EEI). The costs and benefits of the policy during 2010–2030 were quantified. A system dynamics model was constructed to simulate the amount of energy saving under the scenario of promoting both RE and EEI. The life-cycle co-reductions of five criteria pollutants (PM 10 , SO 2 , NOx, CO, and ozone) and greenhouse gas are estimated by assuming coal fired as marginal electricity suppliers. Moreover, a concise life table approach was developed to estimate averted years of life lost (YOLL). The results showed that YOLL totaling 0.11–0.21 years (41–78 days) per capita, or premature deaths totaling 126,507–251,169, is expected to be averted during 2010–2030 under the RE plus EEI scenario. Specifically, because of the higher investment cost, the benefit-cost ratio of 1.9–2.1 under the EEI scenario is lower than the 7.2–7.9 under the RE scenario. This difference reveals that RE is more socially beneficial than EEI. The net benefit of the RE and EEI scenarios during 2010–2030 totaled approximately US$ 5,972–6,893 per person or US$ 170–190 per MW h. To summarize, this study presents a new approach to estimate averted YOLL, and finds that the health benefits can justify the compliance costs associated with the Sustainable Energy Policy

  13. Recent evolutions in costing systems: A literature review of Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Siguenza Guzman, Lorena; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra; Vandewalle, Joos; Verhaaren, Henry; Cattrysse, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive literature review of Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC), a relatively new tool to improve the cost allocation to products and services. After a brief overview of traditional costing and activity based costing systems (ABC), a detailed description of the TDABC model is given and a comparison made between this methodology and its predecessor ABC. Thirty-six empirical contributions using TDABC over the period 2004-2012 were reviewed. The results and ...

  14. Waste management facilities cost information: System cost model product description. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, A.S.; Hsu, K.M.; Shropshire, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for DOE wastes. Transportation costs are provided for truck and rail and include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation's generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities

  15. NASA Electronic Publishing System: Cost/benefit Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office was assigned the responsibility to examine the benefits of the utilization of electronic printing and duplicating systems throughout NASA Installations and Headquarters. The subject of this report is the documentation of the methodology used in justifying the acquisition of the most cost beneficial solution for the printing and duplicating requirements of a duplicating facility that is contemplating the acquisition of an electronic printing and duplicating system. Four alternatives are presented with each alternative costed out with its associated benefits. The methodology goes a step further than just a cost benefit analysis through its comparison of risks associated with each alternative, sensitivity to number of impressions and productivity gains on the selected alternative and finally the return on investment for the selected alternative. The report can be used in conjunction with the two earlier reports, NASA-TM-106242 and TM-106510 in guiding others in determining the cost effective duplicating alternative.

  16. VIABILITY OF SOME APPLIED COST SYSTEMS IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: EGYPT'S CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mamdouh ABBAS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze viability of some applied cost systems. The population of the study is some Egyptian manufacturing firms. The number of received questionnaires was 385. The results indicated that , according to the application extent indicator, the currently cost systems in Egyptian manufacturing firms may be descendingly arranged as follows: Activity Based Costing (ABC system, Target Costing (TC system , Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA system, Activity Based Management (ABM ,Other systems, Theory of Constraints (TOC and Value Chain (VC analysis.

  17. Cost analysis of reliability investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1981-01-01

    Taking Epsteins testing theory as a basis, premisses are formulated for the selection of cost-optimized reliability inspection plans. Using an example, the expected testing costs and inspection time periods of various inspection plan types, standardized on the basis of the exponential distribution, are compared. It can be shown that sequential reliability tests usually involve lower costs than failure or time-fixed tests. The most 'costly' test is to be expected with the inspection plan type NOt. (orig.) [de

  18. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonflue, F. W.; Cooper, W.

    1980-01-01

    Cost and programmatic elements of the space construction systems analysis study are discussed. The programmatic aspects of the ETVP program define a comprehensive plan for the development of a space platform, the construction system, and the space shuttle operations/logistics requirements. The cost analysis identified significant items of cost on ETVP development, ground, and flight segments, and detailed the items of space construction equipment and operations.

  19. 2016 Alabama PV soft cost and workforce development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Southeastern US has the largest potential for growth in the solar industry. However, currently they languish behind the rest of the US. There are several bright spots including the large number of utility scale installations in North Carolina and the recent successes in South Carolina under Act 236. In order to better understand the impacts of state legislation on the growth of the solar industry in the SE US, the Savannah River National Laboratory has undertaken a study to look at the growth in each state in order to develop recommendations to help reduce the cost of solar and to spur the industry. This is the second report in the series. The first focused on developing cost metrics for South Carolina under Act 236. This report focuses on Alabama, the 49th ranked state for solar business, which has very similar population and median income to South Carolina. For this survey, the ten known in-state installers were contacted. Responses were received from seven, representing 70% of the installers, a majority of which provide both residential and commercial installations. Interestingly, none of the respondents serve the utility scale sector. Overall, costs for Alabama are on track with the rest of the country with a reported average cost of $3.29/W-DC for residential systems and $2.44/W-DC for commercial systems. 60% of this cost is attributed to hardware only. Of the remaining costs, installation contributed to the largest percentage of soft costs followed by overhead, marketing and sales, and permitting, respectively. This also closely mirrors results seen in South Carolina. Job growth in the industry is expected to proceed well. An expected 34-42 additional full time equivalent jobs were expected to be added in Alabama within the six month window following the survey period. During the three years following the survey, this number was expected to double with 89-97 additional jobs being added to the market. In both cases, a vast majority of these jobs were for

  20. The costs and cost-effectiveness of an integrated sepsis treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmor, Daniel; Greenberg, Dan; Howell, Michael D; Lisbon, Alan; Novack, Victor; Shapiro, Nathan

    2008-04-01

    Sepsis is associated with high mortality and treatment costs. International guidelines recommend the implementation of integrated sepsis protocols; however, the true cost and cost-effectiveness of these are unknown. To assess the cost-effectiveness of an integrated sepsis protocol, as compared with conventional care. Prospective cohort study of consecutive patients presenting with septic shock and enrolled in the institution's integrated sepsis protocol. Clinical and economic outcomes were compared with a historical control cohort. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Overall, 79 patients presenting to the emergency department with septic shock in the treatment cohort and 51 patients in the control group. An integrated sepsis treatment protocol incorporating empirical antibiotics, early goal-directed therapy, intensive insulin therapy, lung-protective ventilation, and consideration for drotrecogin alfa and steroid therapy. In-hospital treatment costs were collected using the hospital's detailed accounting system. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the healthcare system using a lifetime horizon. The primary end point for the cost-effectiveness analysis was the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Mortality in the treatment group was 20.3% vs. 29.4% in the control group (p = .23). Implementing an integrated sepsis protocol resulted in a mean increase in cost of approximately $8,800 per patient, largely driven by increased intensive care unit length of stay. Life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years were higher in the treatment group; 0.78 and 0.54, respectively. The protocol was associated with an incremental cost of $11,274 per life-year saved and a cost of $16,309 per quality-adjusted life year gained. In patients with septic shock, an integrated sepsis protocol, although not cost-saving, appears to be cost-effective and compares very favorably to other commonly delivered acute care interventions.

  1. Dynamic cost control information system for nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongqing; Liu Wei

    1998-01-01

    The authors first introduce the cost control functions of some overseas popular project management software at present and the specific ways of cost control of nuclear power plant construction in China. Then the authors stress the necessity of cost and schedule control integration and present the concept of dynamic cost control, the design scheme of dynamic cost control information system and the data structure modeling. Based on the above, the authors can develop the system which has the functions of dynamic estimate, cash flow management and cost optimization for nuclear engineering

  2. A Generic Framework for the Evaluation of the Benefits Expected from the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis G. Cottis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid has the potential to bring significant value to the various stakeholders of the electricity market. A methodology for the evaluation of the smart grid benefits is required to facilitate the decision making by quantifying the benefits expected from a smart grid project. The present paper proposes a generic framework to assess these expected benefits taking into account the regulatory, business and technical challenges focusing particularly on Distributed Systems Operators (DSOs and end users. An indicative study case is presented where the proposed cost-benefit approach assesses the expected value of DSOs from the Smart Grid and determines whether and under what conditions such an investment should be initiated.

  3. Development of geological disposal system; localization of element cost data and cost evaluation on the HLW repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik; Kim, Kil Jung; Yang, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Chun [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    To estimate Total Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) for Korea HLW Repository through localization of element cost data, we review and re-organize each basic element cost data for reference repository system, localize various element cost and finally estimate TSLCC considering economic parameters. As results of the study, TSLCC is estimated as 17,167,689 million won, which includes costs for site preparation, surface facilities, underground facilities and management/integration. Since HLW repository Project is an early stage of pre-conceptual design at present, the information of design and project information are not enough to perform cost estimate and cost localization for the Project. However, project cost structure is re-organized based on the local condition and Total System Life Cycle Cost is estimated using the previous cost data gathered from construction experience of the local nuclear power plant. Project results can be used as basic reference data to assume total construction cost for the local HLW repository and should be revised to more reliable cost data with incorporating detail project design information into the cost estimate in a future. 20 refs. (Author)

  4. Life cycle cost estimation and systems analysis of Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Feizollahi, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents general conclusions from application of a system cost analysis method developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Waste Management Division (WM), Waste Management Facilities Costs Information (WMFCI) program. The WMFCI method has been used to assess the DOE complex-wide management of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory, along with its subcontractor Morrison Knudsen Corporation, has been responsible for developing and applying the WMFCI cost analysis method. The cost analyses are based on system planning level life-cycle costs. The costs for life-cycle waste management activities estimated by WMFCI range from bench-scale testing and developmental work needed to design and construct a facility, facility permitting and startup, operation and maintenance, to the final decontamination, decommissioning, and closure of the facility. For DOE complex-wide assessments, cost estimates have been developed at the treatment, storage, and disposal module level and rolled up for each DOE installation. Discussions include conclusions reached by studies covering complex-wide consolidation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, system cost modeling, system costs sensitivity, system cost optimization, and the integration of WM waste with the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning secondary wastes

  5. Development of low-cost digital subtraction angiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imai, Yutaka; Yagishita, Akira; Kunieda, Etsuo.

    1983-01-01

    We developed a simple and low-cost DSA system. This system consists of a conventional fluoroscopic equipment for the GI tract and a mini-computer (GAMMA-11) which are connected each other with a video-disc recorder. The uniqueness of our system are 1. low-cost, 2. low-radiation dose, 3. off-line processing, 4. flexibility of software. The analysis of the time-density curve and image processing will bring us a more usefull information than DSA alone. (author)

  6. Incremental cost-effectiveness of percutaneous versus surgical closure of atrial septal defects in children under a public health system perspective in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rodrigo; Pedra, Carlos A C; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Pedra, Simone; Ferreira-Da-Silva, André Luis; Polanczyk, Carisi; Berwanger, Otávio; Biasi, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Rodrigo

    2014-11-01

    Cost-effectiveness (CE) studies of percutaneous (PC) versus surgical (SC) atrial septal defect closure are lacking. A systematic literature review in children and a CE analysis based on a model of long-term outcomes were performed. Direct costs of PC and SC were US$8700 (defined arbitrarily) and US$5700 (actually paid), respectively. Three-times the Brazilian GDI (US$28,700) per year of life saved (with a discount rate of 5%) was used as a limit for willingness-to-pay. PC had a high (US$104,500) incremental CE ratio despite lower complication rates, shorter hospital stay and better (nonsignificant) adjusted life expectancy. PC would be cost-effective if it cost US$6400 or SC had an 8% loss of utility or its indirect costs were US$2250. Costs of PC should be reduced to be cost-effective in the Brazilian public health system. Indirect costs and impact on quality of life should be further assessed.

  7. Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Graham

    For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

  8. The system of account and control of logistics costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    Full Text Available The process of organization of civil engineering provides the delivery of construction materials, equipment to the civil engineering objects in the required quantities at the specified time. Effective tool for solving this problem is logistics. The basic components of logistics costs, which occupy the largest share in the sum of all logistics costs, are transportation costs and storage costs. The civil engineering industry is very promising for the use of outsourcing. The main part of works on providing material and technical resources in most cases is transferred to the outsourcing of other companies, including the group of companies forming the holding. In large holding companies the chain of movement of materials, goods and productions: purchase of materials and goods, completion materials, production structures, storage, movement, transportation, etc. may include several companies belonging in holding. The goods can be moved from one warehouse to another, with or without change of the owner of goods. Each company is obliged to show each movement of goods in their financial accounting. During the goods’ movement within a group of companies from one storage to another, from one owner to another, the total costs of the goods rise. Sales within a group of companies lead, as a rule, to a gain by one of the companies and the logistic expenses of another company. Selling to a consumer provides a profit to the seller company. Therefore, the problem of adequate allocation of logistics expenses and profits between separate legal entity and the task of continuous accounting and control of logistics costs and earnings in large companies, is vital. The automated system for accounting and controlling of logistics costs is suggested. The developed system allows controlling logistics costs of refining, storage and transportation for each ton, pieces, linear or square meters of the shipped cargoes. The System is based on complex algorithms of distribution

  9. Attributes of system testing which promote cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    A brief overview of conventional EMP testing activity examines attributes of overall systems tests which promote cost-effectiveness. The general framework represents an EMP-oriented systems test as a portion of a planned program to design, produce, and field system elements. As such, all so-called system tests should play appropriate cost-effective roles in this program, and the objective here is to disclose such roles. The intrinsic worth of such tests depends not only upon placing proper values on the outcomes, but also upon the possible eventual consequences of not doing tests. A relative worth measure is required. Attributes of EMP system testing over the range of potential activity which encompasses research and development, production, field handling, verification, evaluation, and others are reviewed and examined. Thus, the relative worth, in a cost-effective sense, is provided by relating such attributes to the overall program objectives so that values can be placed on the outcomes for tradeoff purposes

  10. Family size and expectations about housing in the later nineteenth century: three Yorkshire towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how cultural history can deepen the understanding of demographic change, presenting evidence about ways in which rising working-class expectations about appropriate living standards may have created additional pressures on the perceived costs of child-rearing. Among the key areas of family consumption, housing costs are selected for examination. It is shown that higher expectations about appropriate housing quality put pressure on family budgets, augmented by the rising cost of like-for-like housing. The discussion considers expectations about the size of the dwelling and attitudes to furnishing the home, and suggests that these rising expectations helped encourage family limitation. Existing accounts of the fertility decline which stress the role of rising expectations are often too generalised: this article illustrates what can be gained by adding detail and geographical variation.

  11. LCP- LIFETIME COST AND PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Lifetime Cost and Performance (LCP) Model was developed to assist in the assessment of Photovoltaic (PV) system design options. LCP is a simulation of the performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with distributed PV power systems. LCP provides the user with substantial flexibility in specifying the technical and economic environment of the PV application. User-specified input parameters are available to describe PV system characteristics, site climatic conditions, utility purchase and sellback rate structures, discount and escalation rates, construction timing, and lifetime of the system. Such details as PV array orientation and tilt angle, PV module and balance-of-system performance attributes, and the mode of utility interconnection are user-specified. LCP assumes that the distributed PV system is utility grid interactive without dedicated electrical storage. In combination with a suitable economic model, LCP can provide an estimate of the expected net present worth of a PV system to the owner, as compared to electricity purchased from a utility grid. Similarly, LCP might be used to perform sensitivity analyses to identify those PV system parameters having significant impact on net worth. The user describes the PV system configuration to LCP via the basic electrical components. The module is the smallest entity in the PV system which is modeled. A PV module is defined in the simulation by its short circuit current, which varies over the system lifetime due to degradation and failure. Modules are wired in series to form a branch circuit. Bypass diodes are allowed between modules in the branch circuits. Branch circuits are then connected in parallel to form a bus. A collection of buses is connected in parallel to form an increment to capacity of the system. By choosing the appropriate series-parallel wiring design, the user can specify the current, voltage, and reliability characteristics of the system. LCP simulation of system performance is site

  12. Prototyping low-cost and flexible vehicle diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GARCÍA-VALLS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic systems are software and hardware-based equipment that interoperate with an external monitored system. Traditionally, they have been expensive equipment running test algorithms to monitor physical properties of, e.g., vehicles, or civil infrastructure equipment, among others. As computer hardware is increasingly powerful (whereas its cost and size is decreasing and communication software becomes easier to program and more run-time efficient, new scenarios are enabled that yield to lower cost monitoring solutions. This paper presents a low cost approach towards the development of a diagnostic systems relying on a modular component-based approach and running on a resource limited embedded computer. Results on a prototype implementation are shown that validate the presented design, its flexibility, performance, and communication latency.

  13. Regulatory and cost barriers are likely to limit biosimilar development and expected savings in the near future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Henry G; Guha, Rahul; Salgado, Maria

    2014-06-01

    In March 2010 Congress established an abbreviated Food and Drug Administration approval pathway for biosimilars-drugs that are very similar but not identical to a reference biological product and cost less. Because bringing biosimilars to the market currently requires large investments of money, fewer biosimilars are expected to enter the biologics market than has been the case with generic drugs entering the small-molecule drug market. Additionally, given the high regulatory hurdles to obtaining interchangeability-which would allow pharmacists to substitute a biosimilar for its reference product, subject to evolving state substitution laws-most biosimilars will likely compete as therapeutic alternatives instead of as therapeutic equivalents. In other words, biosimilars will need to compete with their reference product on the basis of quality; price; and manufacturer's reputation with physicians, insurers, and patient groups. Biosimilars also will face dynamic competition from new biologics in the same therapeutic class-including "biobetters," which offer incremental improvements on reference products, such as extended duration of action. The prospects for significant cost savings from the use of biosimilars appear to be limited for the next several years, but their use should increase over time because of both demand- and supply-side factors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, D; Yamagami, Y; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. A Low Cost and High Speed Electrical Capacitance Tomography System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzairi ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical capacitance tomography system is a system which can be used for imaging industrial multi-component processes involving non-conducting fluids in pipelines. In order to make an ECT system applicable in all kinds of industries, the cost factor of building an ECT system is essential. In this research, we focus on reducing the cost of the system while not affecting the quality of the results. In the past, most of the researches in tomography system have concentrated more on the design of the sensor, and use DAS card as the interface to the PC. This will increase the cost of the system. In this case, the cost of the data acquisition system will be needed to be taken into consideration. To develop a low cost and fast data acquisition system, a Universal Serial Bus (USB is found to be the most ideal technology. In order to further reduce the cost of the ECT system, a very low cost material, aluminium plates are used as the electrodes of the system. The information obtained in the PC will be reconstructed using iterative algorithm in order to obtain a precise image of the flow in the pipeline. The information obtained from the system will be useful for the purpose of controlling the flow in the pipeline.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of strategies introducing FDG-PET into the mediastinal staging of non-small-cell lung cancer from the French healthcare system perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzahouri, K.; Lejeune, C.; Woronoff-Lemsi, M.-C.; Arveux, P.; Guillemin, F.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the most cost-effective strategy using PET for mediastinal staging of potentially operable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Four decision strategies based on French NSCLC work-up practices for the selection of potential surgical candidates were compared, comprising CT only, PET for negative CT, PET for all with anatomical CT, and CT and PET for all cases. The medical literature was surveyed to obtain values for all variables of interest. Costs were assessed with reimbursements from the French healthcare insurance for the year 1999. Expected cost and life expectancy were calculated for all possible outcomes of each strategy. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing variables on the expected cost and life expectancy. RESULTS: Compared with the CT only strategy, CT and PET for all resulted in a relative reduction of 70% of surgery for persons with mediastinal lymph node metastasis. PET for all with anatomical CT was shown to be a cost-effective alternative to the CT only, with life expectancy increased by 0.10 years and expected cost savings of 61 euros. This strategy was more favourable than PET for negative CT. Overall, sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results. CONCLUSION: The introduction of thoracic PET for NSCLC staging is potentially cost-effective in France. Further clinical investigation might help to validate this result

  17. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W. A.; Sumner, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. PMID:25480736

  18. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.V.F.; Gorenstin, B.G.; Alvarenga Filho, S.

    1989-01-01

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

  19. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  20. Logistics Cost Calculation of Implementation Warehouse Management System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse management system can take full advantage of the resources and provide efficient warehousing services. The paper aims to show advantages and disadvantages of the warehouse management system in a chosen enterprise, which is focused on logistics services and transportation. The paper can bring new innovative approach for warehousing and presents how logistics enterprise can reduce logistics costs. This approach includes cost reduction of the establishment, operation and savings in the overall assessment of the implementation of the warehouse management system. The innovative warehouse management system will be demonstrated as the case study, which is classified as a qualitative scientific method, in the chosen logistics enterprise. The paper is based on the research of the world literature, analyses of the internal logistics processes, data and finally enterprise documents. The paper discovers costs related to personnel costs, handling equipment costs and costs for material identification. Implementation of the warehouse management system will reduce overall logistics costs of warehousing and extend the warehouse management system to other parts of the logistics chain.

  1. Modifying alcohol expectancies of Hispanic children: examining the effects of expectancy-targeted, developmentally congruous prevention videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Allison; Lisman, Stephen A; Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-03-01

    Children's expectations about the effects of alcohol consumption are known to predict the amount of alcohol they consume as adults. Previous research has used videotaped interventions to modify children's alcohol expectancies and found that puppet actors had the expected effect of decreasing children's positive alcohol expectancies, whereas adult actors did not. The current study sought to enhance the methods and outcomes of previous research by developing brief prevention videos that focus on pre-selected negative and sedating alcohol expectancies and include youth actors and age-relevant scenarios. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design (actor's age [youth or adult] × scenario relevance [youth or adult]), we examined the alcohol expectancies of 183 Hispanic third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (50% girls) in a public school setting. Expectancies were assessed before, immediately following the intervention, and 1 month later. The intervention consisted of four 8-minute videos based on beliefs associated with expectancies related to low alcohol consumption and a control group video about school bus safety. Positive alcohol expectancies were significantly lower directly after the intervention than at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, this effect decreased but was still significant. The current study adds to existing findings that expectancies can be modified in children, using interventions that are extremely brief, low-cost, and linked to research in children's cognitive and social development. In addition, it appears that children of different ages and genders respond differently to varying components of prevention media.

  2. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  3. Power Supply Interruption Costs: Models and Methods Incorporating Time Dependent Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoelle, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    This doctoral thesis develops models and methods for estimation of annual interruption costs for delivery points, emphasizing the handling of time dependent patterns and uncertainties in the variables determining the annual costs. It presents an analytical method for calculation of annual expected interruption costs for delivery points in radial systems, based on a radial reliability model, with time dependent variables. And a similar method for meshed systems, based on a list of outage events, assuming that these events are found in advance from load flow and contingency analyses. A Monte Carlo simulation model is given which handles both time variations and stochastic variations in the input variables and is based on the same list of outage events. This general procedure for radial and meshed systems provides expectation values and probability distributions for interruption costs from delivery points. There is also a procedure for handling uncertainties in input variables by a fuzzy description, giving annual interruption costs as a fuzzy membership function. The methods are developed for practical applications in radial and meshed systems, based on available data from failure statistics, load registrations and customer surveys. Traditional reliability indices such as annual interruption time, power- and energy not supplied, are calculated as by-products. The methods are presented as algorithms and/or procedures which are available as prototypes. 97 refs., 114 figs., 62 tabs

  4. Power Supply Interruption Costs: Models and Methods Incorporating Time Dependent Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoelle, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    This doctoral thesis develops models and methods for estimation of annual interruption costs for delivery points, emphasizing the handling of time dependent patterns and uncertainties in the variables determining the annual costs. It presents an analytical method for calculation of annual expected interruption costs for delivery points in radial systems, based on a radial reliability model, with time dependent variables. And a similar method for meshed systems, based on a list of outage events, assuming that these events are found in advance from load flow and contingency analyses. A Monte Carlo simulation model is given which handles both time variations and stochastic variations in the input variables and is based on the same list of outage events. This general procedure for radial and meshed systems provides expectation values and probability distributions for interruption costs from delivery points. There is also a procedure for handling uncertainties in input variables by a fuzzy description, giving annual interruption costs as a fuzzy membership function. The methods are developed for practical applications in radial and meshed systems, based on available data from failure statistics, load registrations and customer surveys. Traditional reliability indices such as annual interruption time, power- and energy not supplied, are calculated as by-products. The methods are presented as algorithms and/or procedures which are available as prototypes. 97 refs., 114 figs., 62 tabs.

  5. An Analysis of the Authorities' Expected Costs Related to the Decommissioning Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskog, Staffan; Borg, Lorens; Lichtenberg, Steen

    2002-05-01

    The analysis serves two general aims. These are: (1) To establish a neutral value of the authorities' total expected future costs arising from the decommissioning programme and identify the related uncertainties and their primary sources. The result is measured as a Net Present Value figure (NPV). (2) To test the suggested procedure under development. The analysis procedure follows the basics of the suggested estimate procedure 1. This analysis deals with a programme of an unusually long duration. The timing itself is highly uncertain. In addition, R and D is still to be finished. (I) Costs from January 1 2003 arising from all necessary activities of SKI and SSI and which directly or indirectly relate to the decommissioning programme: They include activities at the power plants after the operating period and until the end of the decommissioning period, and similar activities at CLAB and other communal or shared facilities, as well as related administration, R and D, etc. (II) Any future 'wage inflation'. (III) Events not known today, as well as effects on the programme of minor and medium-scale unplanned events. (IV) Effects of major force majeure events are excluded, for example, a serious nuclear accident in Sweden or elsewhere. (V) Activities and obligations related to nuclear power plants in operation as well as other applications of nuclear materials (e.g. at hospitals) are excluded from the study. (VI) The price level is SEK as at 2002-01-01. (VII) The discount factor as recommended by KAFS and used in the present decommissioning funding is also used here. Hence, it operates at an annual rate of 4% until 2020, and 2.5% thereafter. (VIII) This analysis is limited to the AUB scenario. The parallel GB estimate can be derived from the results of this estimate, subject to minor adjustments. Our basic findings: The total Net Present Value is calculated at Mean Value(M): 2,912 MSEK Standard Deviation (S): 980 MSEK 1. An estimate procedure for the decommissioning

  6. 18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average System Cost... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION UNDER NORTHWEST POWER...

  7. Improving patient-level costing in the English and the German 'DRG' system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop ways to improve patient-level cost apportioning (PLCA) in the English and German inpatient 'DRG' cost accounting systems, to support regulators in improving costing schemes, and to give clinicians and hospital management sophisticated tools to measure and link their management. The paper analyzes and evaluates the PLCA step in the cost accounting schemes of both countries according to the impact on the key aspects of DRG introduction: transparency and efficiency. The goal is to generate a best available PLCA standard with enhanced accuracy and managerial relevance, the main requirements of cost accounting. A best available PLCA standard in 'DRG' cost accounting uses: (1) the cost-matrix from the German system; (2) a third axis in this matrix, representing service-lines or clinical pathways; (3) a scoring system for key cost drivers with the long-term objective of time-driven activity-based costing and (4) a point of delivery separation. Both systems have elements that the other system can learn from. By combining their strengths, regulators are supported in enhancing PLCA systems, improving the accuracy of national reimbursement and the managerial relevance of inpatient cost accounting systems, in order to reduce costs in health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Associated with Photovoltaic System Costs (Topical Issues Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.

    2001-06-12

    A variety of factors can affect the cost of photovoltaic systems. This report analyses the relationship among such factors by using information entered into a voluntary registry of PV systems and performing regression analyses. The results showed statistically significant relationships between photovoltaic system cost and (a) grid connection, (b) installation year, (c) areas where the utility had entered into volume purchasing agreements.

  9. 48 CFR 5252.215-9000 - Submission of cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pricing data. 5252.215-9000 Section 5252.215-9000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Clauses 5252.215-9000 Submission of cost or pricing data. As prescribed at 5215.407, insert the following provision: Submission of Cost or Pricing Data (NOV 1987) (a) It is expected that this contract will be...

  10. Imbalance costs in the Swedish system with large amounts of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Neimane, Viktoria [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The well-known concerns about wind power are related to its intermittent nature and difficulty to make exact forecasts. The expected increase in balancing and reserve requirements due to wind power has been investigated in several studies. This paper takes the next step in studying integration of large amounts of wind power in Sweden. Several wind power producers' and corresponding balance providers' perspective is taken and their imbalance costs modeled. Larger producers having wind power spread over larger geographical areas will have lower relative costs than producers having their units concentrated within limited geographical area. Possibilities of the wind power producers to reduce the imbalance costs by acting on after sales market are exposed and compared. (orig.)

  11. Least-cost failure diagnosis in uncertain reliability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Louis Anthony; Chiu, Steve Y.; Sun Xiaorong

    1996-01-01

    In many textbook solutions, for systems failure diagnosis problems studied using reliability theory and artificial intelligence, the prior probabilities of different failure states can be estimated and used to guide the sequential search for failed components after the whole system fails. In practice, however, both the component failure probabilities and the structure function of the system being examined--i.e., the mapping between the states of its components and the state of the system--may not be known with certainty. At best:, the probabilities of different hypothesized system descriptions, each specifying the component failure probabilities and the system's structure function, may be known to a useful approximation, perhaps based on sample data and previous experience. Cost-effective diagnosis of the system's failure state is then a challenging problem. Although the probabilities of component failures are aleatory, uncertainties about these probabilities and about the system structure function are epistemic. This paper examines how to make best use of both epistemic prior probabilities for system descriptions and the information gleaned from costly inspections of component states after the system fails, to minimize the average cost of identifying the failure state. Two approaches are introduced for systems dominated by aleatory uncertainties, one motivated by information theory and the other based on the idea of trying to prove a hypothesis about the identity of the failure state as efficiently as possible. While the general problem of cost-effective failure diagnosis is computationally intractable (NP-hard), both heuristics provide useful approximations on small to moderate sized problems and optimal results for certain common types of reliability systems, including series, parallel, parallel-series, and k-out-of-n systems. A hybrid heuristic that adaptively chooses which heuristic to apply next after any sequence of observations (component test results

  12. Risk management of energy system for identifying optimal power mix with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, S.; Li, Y.P.; Liu, J.; Huang, Charley Z.

    2017-01-01

    An interval-stochastic risk management (ISRM) method is launched to control the variability of the recourse cost as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The ISRM method can examine various policy scenarios that are associated with economic penalties under uncertainties presented as probability distributions and interval values. An ISRM model is then formulated to identify the optimal power mix for the Beijing's energy system. Tradeoffs between risk and cost are evaluated, indicating any change in targeted cost and risk level would yield different expected costs. Results reveal that the inherent uncertainty of system components and risk attitude of decision makers have significant effects on the city's energy-supply and electricity-generation schemes as well as system cost and probabilistic penalty. Results also disclose that import electricity as a recourse action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced. The import electricity would increase with a reduced risk level; under every risk level, more electricity would be imported with an increased demand. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired strategies for the city's energy planning and management in association with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation. - Highlights: • Interval-stochastic risk management method is launched to identify optimal power mix. • It is advantageous in capturing the notion of risk in stochastic programming. • Results reveal that risk attitudes can affect optimal power mix and financial cost. • Developing renewable energies would enhance the sustainability of energy management. • Import electricity as an action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced.

  13. (Dysfunctionality of accounting cost systems in manufacturing companies of Tuzla canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado Puškarević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the conducted primary survey on functionality of cost systems in manufacturing companies of Tuzla Canton (hereinafter “TC”. This paper assesses their adequacy to the needs of these companies: the present needs, and the ones that will be brought by the changes in the environment. These systems have to be up-to-date, as they influence the process of cost management, which is the key factor of companies’ adaptation to the conditions of a modern market. Cost management, which is based on the information of a cost system, enables the company to take the adequate stand towards customers on markets and toward their competition. Also, the quality cost information is a precondition for effective and efficient allocation of limited resources in a transitional period of society development. Therefore, only quality designed cost system in transitional economy will enable recovery, and then, growth and development of a company. This emphasizes the importance of research of the stated issues for transitional countries. The research results should also help to persuade the management about the need to modernize the operation organization, primarily the accounting function, mainly in the part of cost system organization. The determined defects, as well as deviances in relation to current needs for information about costs, are guidelines for an adequate process of redesigning cost systems in companies of transitional economy.

  14. Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...

  15. Physical Protection System Upgrades - Optimizing for Performance and Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Mary Jane; Bouchard, Ann M.

    1999-01-01

    CPA--Cost and Performance Analysis--is an architecture that supports analysis of physical protection systems and upgrade options. ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Security Systems), a tool for evaluating performance of physical protection systems, currently forms the cornerstone for evaluating detection probabilities and delay times of the system. Cost and performance data are offered to the decision-maker at the systems level and to technologists at the path-element level. A new optimization engine has been attached to the CPA methodology to automate analyses of many combinations (portfolios) of technologies. That engine controls a new analysis sequencer that automatically modifies ASSESS PPS files (facility descriptions), automatically invokes ASSESS Outsider analysis and then saves results for post-processing. Users can constrain the search to an upper bound on total cost, to a lower bound on level of performance, or to include specific technologies or technology types. This process has been applied to a set of technology development proposals to identify those portfolios that provide the most improvement in physical security for the lowest cost to install, operate and maintain at a baseline facility

  16. The impact of CO2-costs on biogas usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has set a target of being fossil fuel independent by 2050 implying that a high degree of inflexible renewable energy will be included in the energy system; biogas can add flexibility and potentially has a negative CO2-emission. In this paper, we investigate the socioeconomic...... system costs of reaching a Danish biogas target of 3.8 PJ in the energy system, and how CO2 costs affect the system costs and biogas usage. We perform our analysis using the energy systems model, Balmorel, and expand the model with a common target for raw biogas and upgraded biogas (biomethane). Raw...... biogas can be used directly in heat and power production, while biomethane has the same properties as natural gas. Balmorel is altered such that natural gas and biomethane can be used in the same technologies. Several CO2-cost estimates are investigated; hereunder a high estimate for the expected CO2...

  17. Analysis on PV system sales price and subsidy through buy-back which make photovoltaics cost-competitive by 2030 in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, E.; Ichinohe, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze PV system sales price and subsidy through buy-back which make photovoltaics cost-competitive against other energy technologies and make the target for PV capacity achievable by 2030 in Japan under expected carbon tax. For the analysis energy system of Japan is modeled by using MARKAL. According to the results of analysis, under 6000 JPY/t-C carbon tax, photovoltaics needs subsidy for a while even if we taking both fuel savings and Green Credit into account. For attaining the national target for PV capacity in 2010, photovoltaics needs more expensive buy-back than that in present, but after 2010 necessary buy-back decreases gradually. If 120 JPY/W PV system sales price is attained by 2030, photovoltaics becomes cost-competitive without any supports. Subsidy through buy-back becomes almost need not in 2030, if we can reduce it less than 170 JPY/W. The total subsidy meets peak in 2025. It is much more than ongoing subsidy to capital cost of PV systems, but annual revenue of the assumed carbon tax can afford enough the annual total subsidy. This means if photovoltaics can attain the PV system sales price, we should support it for a while by spending carbon tax revenue effectively and efficiently. (authors)

  18. A “Cookbook” Cost Analysis Procedure for Medical Information Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Janice L.; Torrance, George W.; Covvey, H. Dominic

    1983-01-01

    A costing procedure for medical information systems is described. The procedure incorporates state-of-the-art costing methods in an easy to follow “cookbook” format. Application of the procedure consists of filling out a series of Mac-Tor EZ-Cost forms. The procedure and forms have been field tested by application to a cardiovascular database system. This article describes the major features of the costing procedure. The forms and other details are available upon request.

  19. A framework for assessing cost management system changes: the case of activity-based costing implementation at food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Faraji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity to investigate the technical and organizational effect of management accounting system changes has appeared with companies' adoption of activity-based costing (ABC. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ABC system for case study from food industry in Iran. From this case, the paper develops a framework for assessing ABC implementation and hypotheses about factors that influence implementation. The study detects five cost centers and for each cost center, it determines different cost drivers. The results of our survey has detected that implementation of ABC system not only helps precise allocation of overhead costs but also helps internal management companies for better planning and control of production, making better decisions for company's profits.

  20. Ethics, rhetoric, and expectations: responsibilities and obligations of health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Health care organization foundations and other fund-raising departments often function at an arm's length from the system at large. As such, operations related to their mandate to raise funds and market the organization do not receive the same level of ethical scrutiny brought to bear on other arms within the organization. An area that could benefit from a more focused ethics lens is the use of language and rhetoric employed in order to raise funds and market the organization. Such departments and divisions often utilize overblown promises of miracles and extraordinary advances to convince donors to contribute and to persuade the general public. The result can be a heightened sense of expectation on the part of patients, their families, and the general public as to what can realistically be achieved by the health care system, leading to disappointment and conflict when these expectations are not or cannot be met. This article suggests that such advertising and marketing be subject to the same advertising standards as other businesses.

  1. Survey on the cost of the photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden cost chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Comparisons were made of the power generation cost in Indonesia and Thailand between the photovoltaic power system and other power systems. From the difference in technical standards with Japan, trially calculated were the amount of the potential introduction and the possibly reduced cost. In Indonesia, a plan has started for the introduction of a 50W system to 1 million houses in the unelecrified area, but the introduction has not been so promoted as planned. In Thailand, a plan is being carried out for the introduction of the battery charge station system, but the introduction has remained small-scaled. Comparisons were made among the solar home system in Indonesia, the battery charge station system in Thailand, the diesel engine power generation, and the grid connection with the existing power distribution system. The result concluded that the solar home system is low-priced though it depends on the distance from the existing distribution line and the power consumption amount. Moreover, it was found that the system would be more economical than in the case of Japan if obeying international standards for the photovoltaic power system. 6 refs., 15 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and...

  3. Impact of Capital and Current Costs Changes of the Incineration Process of the Medical Waste on System Management Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanta Walery, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The article describes optimization studies aimed at analysing the impact of capital and current costs changes of medical waste incineration on the cost of the system management and its structure. The study was conducted on the example of an analysis of the system of medical waste management in the Podlaskie Province, in north-eastern Poland. The scope of operational research carried out under the optimization study was divided into two stages of optimization calculations with assumed technical and economic parameters of the system. In the first stage, the lowest cost of functioning of the analysed system was generated, whereas in the second one the influence of the input parameter of the system, i.e. capital and current costs of medical waste incineration on economic efficiency index (E) and the spatial structure of the system was determined. Optimization studies were conducted for the following cases: with a 25% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process, followed by 50%, 75% and 100% increase. As a result of the calculations, the highest cost of system operation was achieved at the level of 3143.70 PLN/t with the assumption of 100% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process. There was an increase in the economic efficiency index (E) by about 97% in relation to run 1.

  4. Systems and methods for energy cost optimization in a building system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, Robert D.; Wenzel, Michael J.

    2016-09-06

    Methods and systems to minimize energy cost in response to time-varying energy prices are presented for a variety of different pricing scenarios. A cascaded model predictive control system is disclosed comprising an inner controller and an outer controller. The inner controller controls power use using a derivative of a temperature setpoint and the outer controller controls temperature via a power setpoint or power deferral. An optimization procedure is used to minimize a cost function within a time horizon subject to temperature constraints, equality constraints, and demand charge constraints. Equality constraints are formulated using system model information and system state information whereas demand charge constraints are formulated using system state information and pricing information. A masking procedure is used to invalidate demand charge constraints for inactive pricing periods including peak, partial-peak, off-peak, critical-peak, and real-time.

  5. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  6. Development of LLW and VLLW disposal business cost estimation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koibuchi, Hiroko; Ishiguro, Hideharu; Matsuda, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    In order to undertake the LLW and VLLW disposal business, various examinations are carried out in RANDEC. Since it is important in undertaking this business to secure funds, a disposal cost must be calculated by way of trial. However, at present, there are many unknown factors such as the amount of wastes, a disposal schedule, the location of a disposal site, and so on, and the cost cannot be determined. Meanwhile, the cost depends on complicated relations among these factors. Then, a 'LLW and VLLW disposal business cost estimation system' has been developed to calculate the disposal cost easily. This system can calculate an annual balance of payments by using a construction and operation cost of disposal facilities, considering economic parameters of tax, inflation rate, interest rate and so on. And the system can calculate internal reserves to assign to next-stage upkeep of the disposal facilities after the disposal operation. A model of disposal site was designed based on assumption of some preconditions and a study was carried out to make a trial calculation by using the system. Moreover, it will be required to reduce construction cost by rationalizing the facility and to make flat an annual business spending by examining the business schedule. (author)

  7. Is the Venner-PneuX Endotracheal Tube System A Cost-Effective Option For Post Cardiac Surgery Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronis, Lazaros; Oppong, Raymond A; Manga, Na'ngono; Senanayake, Eshan; Gopal, Shameer; Charman, Susan; Giri, Ramesh; Luckraz, Heyman

    2018-04-27

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common and costly. In a recent randomized controlled trial, the Venner-PneuX (VPX) endotracheal tube system was found to be superior to standard endotracheal tubes (SET) in preventing VAP. However, VPX is considerably more expensive. We evaluated the costs and benefits of VPX to determine whether replacing SET with VPX is a cost-effective option for intensive care units. We developed a decision analytic model to compare intubation with VPX or SET for patients requiring mechanical ventilation post cardiac surgery. The model was populated with existing evidence on costs, effectiveness and quality of life. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses were conducted from an NHS hospital perspective. Uncertainty was assessed through deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Compared to SET, VPX is associated with an expected cost saving of £738 per patient. VPX led to a small increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), indicating that the device is overall less costly and more effective than SET. The probability of VPX being cost-effective at £30,000 per QALY is 97%. VPX would cease to be cost-effective if (i) it led to a risk reduction smaller than 0.02 compared to SET, (ii) the acquisition cost of VPX was as high as £890 or, (iii) the cost of treating a case of VAP was lower than £1,450. VPX resulted in improved outcomes and savings which far offset the cost of the device, suggesting that replacing SET with VPX is overall beneficial. Findings were robust to extreme values of key parameters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Preliminary Tests of a New Low-Cost Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santise, M.; Thoeni, K.; Roncella, R.; Sloan, S. W.; Giacomini, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B) single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP) and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  9. PRELIMINARY TESTS OF A NEW LOW-COST PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santise

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  10. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  11. Effects of category-specific costs on neural systems for perceptual decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Hulme, Oliver James

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual judgments are often biased by prospective losses, leading to changes in decision criteria. Little is known about how and where sensory evidence and cost information interact in the brain to influence perceptual categorization. Here we show that prospective losses systematically bias...... functions enact a particular task set that is communicated to visual regions. Across subjects, greater shifts in decision criteria were associated with greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our results support a hypothesis that costs bias an intermediate representation between...... perception and action, expressed via general effects on frontal cortex, and selective effects on extrastriate cortex. These findings indicate that asymmetric costs may affect a neural implementation of perceptual decision making in a similar manner to changes in category expectation, constituting a step...

  12. Final Report - Stationary and Emerging Market Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Vince [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); George, Paul [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Eubanks, Fritz [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jansen, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Valluri, Manoj [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Mansouri, Mahan [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Swickrath, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-04-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is focused on providing a portfolio of technology solutions to meet energy security challenges of the future. Fuel cells are a part of this portfolio of technology offerings. To help meet these challenges and supplement the understanding of the current research, Battelle has executed a five-year program that evaluated the total system costs and total ownership costs of two technologies: (1) an ~80 °C polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and (2) a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, operating with hydrogen or reformate for different applications. Previous research conducted by Battelle, and more recently by other research institutes, suggests that fuel cells can offer customers significant fuel and emission savings along with other benefits compared to incumbent alternatives. For this project, Battelle has applied a proven cost assessment approach to assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program in making decisions regarding research and development, scale-up, and deployment of fuel cell technology. The cost studies and subsequent reports provide accurate projections of current system costs and the cost impact of state-of-the-art technologies in manufacturing, increases in production volume, and changes to system design on system cost and life cycle cost for several near-term and emerging fuel cell markets. The studies also provide information on types of manufacturing processes that must be developed to commercialize fuel cells and also provide insights into the optimization needed for use of off-the-shelf components in fuel cell systems. Battelle’s analysis is intended to help DOE prioritize investments in research and development of components to reduce the costs of fuel cell systems while considering systems optimization.

  13. Systemic cost-effectiveness analysis of food hazard reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    stage are considered. Cost analyses are conducted for different risk reduction targets and for three alternative scenarios concerning the acceptable range of interventions. Results demonstrate that using a system-wide policy approach to risk reduction can be more cost-effective than a policy focusing...

  14. A project management quality cost information system for the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Love, PED; Irani, Z

    2003-01-01

    A prototype Project Management Quality Cost System (PROMQACS) was developed to determine quality costs in construction projects. The structure and information requirements that are needed to provide a classification system of quality costs were identified and discussed. The developed system was tested and implemented in two case study construction projects to determine the information and management issues needed to develop PROMQACS into a software program. In addition, the system was used to...

  15. Comparison of cost determination of both resource consumption accounting and time-driven activity-based costing systems in a healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyapıcı, Hasan; Tanış, Veyis Naci

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between resource consumption accounting (RCA) and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) systems in determining the costs of services of a healthcare setting. Methods A case study was conducted to calculate the unit costs of open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries using TDABC and RCA. Results The RCA system assigns a higher cost both to open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries than TDABC. The total cost of unused capacity under the TDABC system is also double that in RCA. Conclusion Unlike TDABC, RCA calculates lower costs for unused capacities but higher costs for products or services in a healthcare setting in which fixed costs make up a high proportion of total costs. What is known about the topic? TDABC is a revision of the activity-based costing (ABC) system. RCA is also a new costing system that includes both the theoretical advantages of ABC and the practical advantages of German costing. However, little is known about the differences arising from application of TDABC and RCA. What does this paper add? There is no study comparing both TDABC and RCA in a single case study based on a real-world healthcare setting. Thus, the present study fills this gap in the literature and it is unique in the sense that it is the first case study comparing TDABC and RCA for open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries in a healthcare setting. What are the implications for practitioners? This study provides several interesting results for managers and cost accounting researchers. Thus, it will contribute to the spread of RCA studies in healthcare settings. It will also help the implementers of TDABC to revise data concerning the cost of unused capacity. In addition, by separating costs into fixed and variable, the paper will help managers to create a blended (combined) system that can improve both short- and long-term decisions.

  16. The total lifetime costs of smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.R.; Prescott, E.; Sørensen, T.I.A.

    2004-01-01

    Net costs of smoking in a lifetime perspective and, hence, the economic interests in antismoking policies have been questioned. It has been proposed that the health-related costs of smoking are balanced by smaller expenditure due to shorter life expectancy.......Net costs of smoking in a lifetime perspective and, hence, the economic interests in antismoking policies have been questioned. It has been proposed that the health-related costs of smoking are balanced by smaller expenditure due to shorter life expectancy....

  17. System cuts radwaste-disposal cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Pilot-plant and full-scale prototype-system test data on a new volume-reduction system for low-level radioactive wastes, of the type generated by nuclear plants, indicate that total present costs for radwaste disposal can be reduced by more than 50%. In 1975, Newport News Industrial Corp. and Energy Inc. decided to develop cooperatively a fluidized-bed process that would combine the features of a calciner and an incinerator. The new radwaste-volume-reduction system, designated RWR-1, can reduce the volume of concentrated liquids, ion-exchange resin beads, filter sludges, and various combustible solids, such as protective clothing, rags, paper, wood, and plastics

  18. Effect of prospective reimbursement on nursing home costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, A F; Fortinsky, R; McGuire, C; McDonald, T P

    1993-04-01

    This study evaluates the effect of Maine's Medicaid nursing home prospective payment system on nursing home costs and access to care for public patients. The implementation of a facility-specific prospective payment system for nursing homes provided the opportunity for longitudinal study of the effect of that system. Data sources included audited Medicaid nursing home cost reports, quality-of-care data from state facility survey and licensure files, and facility case-mix information from random, stratified samples of homes and residents. Data were obtained for six years (1979-1985) covering the three-year period before and after implementation of the prospective payment system. This study used a pre-post, longitudinal analytical design in which interrupted, time-series regression models were estimated to test the effects of prospective payment and other factors, e.g., facility characteristics, nursing home market factors, facility case mix, and quality of care, on nursing home costs. Prospective payment contributed to an estimated $3.03 decrease in total variable costs in the third year from what would have been expected under the previous retrospective cost-based payment system. Responsiveness to payment system efficiency incentives declined over the study period, however, indicating a growing problem in achieving further cost reductions. Some evidence suggested that cost reductions might have reduced access for public patients. Study findings are consistent with the results of other studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of prospective payment systems in restraining nursing home costs. Potential policy trade-offs among cost containment, access, and quality assurance deserve further consideration, particularly by researchers and policymakers designing the new generation of case mix-based and other nursing home payment systems.

  19. Networks of Gratitude: Structures of Thanks and User Expectations in Workplace Appreciation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Spiro, Emma S.; Matias, J. Nathan; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation systems--platforms for users to exchange thanks and praise--are becoming common in the workplace, where employees share appreciation, managers are notified, and aggregate scores are sometimes made visible. Who do people thank on these systems, and what do they expect from each other and their managers? After introducing the design affordances of 13 appreciation systems, we discuss a system we call Gratia, in use at a large multinational company for over four years. Using logs of ...

  20. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  1. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  2. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project

  3. A complete low cost radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrak, A.; Barlas, E.; Emirhan, E.; Kutlu, Ç.; Ozben, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the 222 Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. - Author-Highlights: • Low cost radon detection. • Integrated GSM modem for early warning of radon anomalies. • Radon detection in environment

  4. Is the uncertainty about climate change too large for expected cost-benefit analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is only applicable if the variances of both costs and benefits are finite. In the case of climate change, the variances of the net present marginal costs and benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction need to be finite. Finiteness is hard, if not impossible to prove. The

  5. Cost analysis of Navy acquisition alternatives for the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, T. F.; Smith, G. P.

    1982-12-01

    This research analyzes the life cycle cost (LCC) of the Navy's current and two hypothetical procurement alternatives for NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment. Costs are derived by the ARINC Research Corporation ACBEN cost estimating system. Data presentation is in a comparative format describing individual alternative LCC and differential costs between alternatives. Sensitivity analysis explores the impact receiver-processor unit (RPU) first unit production cost has on individual alternative LCC, as well as cost differentials between each alternative. Several benefits are discussed that might provide sufficient cost savings and/or system effectiveness improvements to warrant a procurement strategy other than the existing proposal.

  6. Promoting a Culture of Tailoring for Systems Engineering Policy Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Van A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed an integrated systems engineering approach to promote a culture of tailoring for program and project policy requirements. MSFC's culture encourages and supports tailoring, with an emphasis on risk-based decision making, for enhanced affordability and efficiency. MSFC's policy structure integrates the various Agency requirements into a single, streamlined implementation approach which serves as a "one-stop-shop" for our programs and projects to follow. The engineers gain an enhanced understanding of policy and technical expectations, as well as lesson's learned from MSFC's history of spaceflight and science missions, to enable them to make appropriate, risk-based tailoring recommendations. The tailoring approach utilizes a standard methodology to classify projects into predefined levels using selected mission and programmatic scaling factors related to risk tolerance. Policy requirements are then selectively applied and tailored, with appropriate rationale, and approved by the governing authorities, to support risk-informed decisions to achieve the desired cost and schedule efficiencies. The policy is further augmented by implementation tools and lifecycle planning aids which help promote and support the cultural shift toward more tailoring. The MSFC Customization Tool is an integrated spreadsheet that ties together everything that projects need to understand, navigate, and tailor the policy. It helps them classify their project, understand the intent of the requirements, determine their tailoring approach, and document the necessary governance approvals. It also helps them plan for and conduct technical reviews throughout the lifecycle. Policy tailoring is thus established as a normal part of project execution, with the tools provided to facilitate and enable the tailoring process. MSFC's approach to changing the culture emphasizes risk-based tailoring of policy to achieve increased flexibility, efficiency

  7. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  8. Cost Benefit and Alternatives Analysis of Distribution Systems with Energy Storage Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tom; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Baggu, Murali; Bialek, Tom

    2017-06-27

    This paper explores monetized and non-monetized benefits from storage interconnected to distribution system through use cases illustrating potential applications for energy storage in California's electric utility system. This work supports SDG&E in its efforts to quantify, summarize, and compare the cost and benefit streams related to implementation and operation of energy storage on its distribution feeders. This effort develops the cost benefit and alternatives analysis platform, integrated with QSTS feeder simulation capability, and analyzed use cases to explore the cost-benefit of implementation and operation of energy storage for feeder support and market participation.

  9. Antibiotic expected effectiveness and cost under real life microbiology: evaluation of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia for elderly patients in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Santiago; Lozano, Virginia; Valladares, Amparo; Cavanillas, Rafael; Xie, Yang; Nocea, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical efficacy of antibiotics may be affected by changes in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study is to assess how these changes could affect the initial efficacy of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in elderly patients and the potential consequences this may have in health care costs. Methods Initial efficacy in elderly was obtained from a combined analysis of two multicenter, randomized studies. An alternative scenario was carried out using initial efficacy data according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI). Country-specific pathogens distribution was obtained from a national epidemiological study, and microbiological susceptibilities to first- and second-line therapies were obtained from Spanish or European surveillance studies. A decision analytic model was used to compare ertapenem versus ceftriaxone for CAP inpatient treatment. Inputs of the model were the expected effectiveness previously estimated and resource use considering a Spanish national health system perspective. Outcomes include difference in proportion of successfully treated patients and difference in total costs between ertapenem and ceftriaxone. The model performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results First-line treatment of CAP with ertapenem led to a higher proportion of successfully treated patients compared with ceftriaxone in Spain. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that length of stay was the key parameter of the model. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that ertapenem can be a cost-saving strategy compared with ceftriaxone, with a 59% probability of being dominant (lower costs with additional health benefits) for both, elderly patients (>65 years) and patients with PSI >3. Conclusion The incorporation of the current antimicrobial susceptibility into the initial clinical efficacy has a significant impact in outcomes and costs in CAP treatment. The

  10. Performance and cost evaluation of health information systems using micro-costing and discrete-event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeb, Olfa; Pilet, Claire; Hamana, Sabri; Xie, Xiaolan; Durand, Thierry; Aloui, Saber; Doly, Anne; Biron, Pierre; Perrier, Lionel; Augusto, Vincent

    2018-06-01

    Innovation and health-care funding reforms have contributed to the deployment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve patient care. Many health-care organizations considered the application of ICT as a crucial key to enhance health-care management. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to assess the organizational impact of high-level Health Information System (HIS) on patient pathway. We propose an integrated performance evaluation of HIS approach through the combination of formal modeling using the Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) models, a micro-costing approach for cost evaluation, and a Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) approach. The methodology is applied to the consultation for cancer treatment process. Simulation scenarios are established to conclude about the impact of HIS on patient pathway. We demonstrated that although high level HIS lengthen the consultation, occupation rate of oncologists are lower and quality of service is higher (through the number of available information accessed during the consultation to formulate the diagnostic). The provided method allows also to determine the most cost-effective ICT elements to improve the care process quality while minimizing costs. The methodology is flexible enough to be applied to other health-care systems.

  11. A utility/cost analysis of breast cancer risk prediction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Wunderlich, Adam; Samuelson, Frank W.; Boone, John M.

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer risk prediction algorithms are used to identify subpopulations that are at increased risk for developing breast cancer. They can be based on many different sources of data such as demographics, relatives with cancer, gene expression, and various phenotypic features such as breast density. Women who are identified as high risk may undergo a more extensive (and expensive) screening process that includes MRI or ultrasound imaging in addition to the standard full-field digital mammography (FFDM) exam. Given that there are many ways that risk prediction may be accomplished, it is of interest to evaluate them in terms of expected cost, which includes the costs of diagnostic outcomes. In this work we perform an expected-cost analysis of risk prediction algorithms that is based on a published model that includes the costs associated with diagnostic outcomes (true-positive, false-positive, etc.). We assume the existence of a standard screening method and an enhanced screening method with higher scan cost, higher sensitivity, and lower specificity. We then assess expected cost of using a risk prediction algorithm to determine who gets the enhanced screening method under the strong assumption that risk and diagnostic performance are independent. We find that if risk prediction leads to a high enough positive predictive value, it will be cost-effective regardless of the size of the subpopulation. Furthermore, in terms of the hit-rate and false-alarm rate of the of the risk prediction algorithm, iso-cost contours are lines with slope determined by properties of the available diagnostic systems for screening.

  12. Comparing systems for costing hospital treatments. The case of stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jytte; Skjoldborg, Ulla Slothuus

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the basic properties in the systems most commonly considered for costing treatments in the Danish hospitals. The differences between the traditional charge system, the DRG system and the ABC system are analysed, and difficulties encountered in comparing these systems are discussed. A sample of patients diagnosed with stable angina pectoris (SAP) at Odense University Hospital was used to compare the three systems when costing an entire treatment path, costing single hospitalisations and studying the effects of length of stay. Furthermore, it is illustrated that the main idea behind each system is reflected in how the systems over- or underestimate costs. Implications when managing the hospitals, particularly reimbursement, are discussed.

  13. A dynamic simulation model for assessing the overall impact of incentive policies on power system reliability, costs and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Lopez, A.S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Moratilla-Soria, B.Y.

    2017-01-01

    The liberalization of power markets has entailed dramatic changes in power system planning worldwide. The inception of new alternative technologies, smart grids and distributed generation and storage is expected to make system planning even more challenging. Government policies still play a major role in the evolution of a country's power generation mix, even in those countries with liberalized markets. This paper presents a System Dynamics model aimed at assessing the overall technical, economic and environmental impact of renewable energy incentives and capacity payment policies. The model has been used to simulate Spain's power industry in order to assess the impact of electric power policies with the goal of getting insights regarding how to achieve an optimum power generation mix. The main conclusions of the present paper are (i) the necessity of specific regulatory actions in Spain in order to keep adequate reliability levels, avoid price spikes and boom and bust investment cycles as well as to deploy specific technologies, (ii) the fact that capacity payments are a better instrument for keeping adequate reserve margins and avoiding power price spikes than renewable energy incentives and (iii) the evidence that both instruments entail additional system costs over the base case scenario. - Highlights: • A System Dynamics model of Spain's power generation mix is proposed. • The overall policy impact on system costs, environment and reliability is assessed. • Current policies are not enough to keep adequate reliability levels. • Capacity payments are an adequate instrument for guaranteeing system reliability. • RES incentives do not solve reliability issues and entail greater system costs.

  14. Evaluating Expected Costs and Benefits of Granting Access to New Treatments on the Basis of Progression-Free Survival in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius N; Chou, Jacquelyn W; Linthicum, Mark T; MacEwan, Joanna P; Zhang, Jie; Goldman, Dana P

    2015-05-01

    Surrogate end points may be used as proxy for more robust clinical end points. One prominent example is the use of progression-free survival (PFS) as a surrogate for overall survival (OS) in trials for oncologic treatments. Decisions based on surrogate end points may expedite regulatory approval but may not accurately reflect drug efficacy. Payers and clinicians must balance the potential benefits of earlier treatment access based on surrogate end points against the risks of clinical uncertainty. To present a framework for evaluating the expected net benefit or cost of providing early access to new treatments on the basis of evidence of PFS benefits before OS results are available, using non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as an example. A probabilistic decision model was used to estimate expected incremental social value of the decision to grant access to a new treatment on the basis of PFS evidence. The model analyzed a hypothetical population of patients with NSCLC who could be treated during the period between PFS and OS evidence publication. Estimates for delay in publication of OS evidence following publication of PFS evidence, expected OS benefit given PFS benefit, incremental cost of new treatment, and other parameters were drawn from the literature on treatment of NSCLC. Incremental social value of early access for each additional patient per month (in 2014 US dollars). For "medium-value" model parameters, early reimbursement of drugs with any PFS benefit yields an incremental social cost of more than $170,000 per newly treated patient per month. In contrast, granting early access on the basis of PFS benefit between 1 and 3.5 months produces more than $73,000 in incremental social value. Across the full range of model parameter values, granting access for drugs with PFS benefit between 3 and 3.5 months is robustly beneficial, generating incremental social value ranging from $38,000 to more than $1 million per newly treated patient per month, whereas access

  15. An Introduction to Cost-of-Living Adjustments in Public Retirement Plans: Details Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Penelope R.; Jennings, William P.; Phillips, G. Michael

    2016-01-01

    While financial planning students are expected to be able to understand client retirement plans, subtle differences in cost-of-living adjustments can have major impact on the success of client retirement plans. This teaching note compares the cost-of-living adjustments in the largest government sponsored retirement systems and a hypothetical…

  16. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVITY BASED ANALYSIS METHOD COSTING SYSTEM IN PRICING COST OF ROOMS IN HOTEL DYNASTY MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Nur Hatta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to fulfill one of the final project now where Thesis research was held in April to June, 2016. This study aims to know the differences in the calculation of the cost of the room by using a conventional system using activity-based costing (ABC system. method analysis is using descriptive method of analysis of the cost of the hotel this time, set the conventional method and then comparing the cost of a hotel room based activity based result costing. study showed that of calculating the cost of a hotel room by using activity based costing, when compared with the cost of hotel rooms used by the activity based costing Dynasty then give the results in standard rooms, deluxe, suites and family give results the calculation of which is smaller than the cost of the rooms which have been determined by the hotel management. That is, with the difference in price for a Standard room IDR. 58024.84. For a Deluxe room IDR. 175,411.58. For room Suite IDR. 99. 034,88. Family rooms and for IDR. 100,045.60. While in the room Executive Suite / Pent House Activity Based Costing calculation result is greater than the cost of the rooms which have been determined by the hotel management. That is, with the difference amounting to IDR. 368,096.17. The difference in price is due to the method of Activity Based Costing,The overhead on each product is charged to a lot of cost driver. Thus, in the Activity Based Costing method is able to allocate activity costs to each room is right by the consumption of each activity.

  18. Investigation of Cost and Energy Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Gordon, Matthew; Bunn, Simon; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-11-17

    Holistic management of water and energy resources through energy and water quality management systems (EWQMSs) have traditionally aimed at energy cost reduction with limited or no emphasis on energy efficiency or greenhouse gas minimization. This study expanded the existing EWQMS framework and determined the impact of different management strategies for energy cost and energy consumption (e.g., carbon footprint) reduction on system performance at two drinking water utilities in California (United States). The results showed that optimizing for cost led to cost reductions of 4% (Utility B, summer) to 48% (Utility A, winter). The energy optimization strategy was successfully able to find the lowest energy use operation and achieved energy usage reductions of 3% (Utility B, summer) to 10% (Utility A, winter). The findings of this study revealed that there may be a trade-off between cost optimization (dollars) and energy use (kilowatt-hours), particularly in the summer, when optimizing the system for the reduction of energy use to a minimum incurred cost increases of 64% and 184% compared with the cost optimization scenario. Water age simulations through hydraulic modeling did not reveal any adverse effects on the water quality in the distribution system or in tanks from pump schedule optimization targeting either cost or energy minimization.

  19. Expected Enhancement of the Ship Monitoring and Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intemational legislation places strict requirements onthe safety of navigation and the marine environment. One ofthe solutions to the problem is to enhance the ship navigationcontrol and maintenance with extensive use of informationtechnology, which has largely contributed to the growth of communicationtechnology. On the basis of an analysis of ship systemsautomation in the past, this paper deals with the developmentsand improvements to be expected ill the near future.Four generations of shipboard automation are presented, includingthe characteristics and requirements that the automationof ship control and monitming systems must fulflll in orderto be classified under a particular generation. Fields of furtherenhancement are considered as these will be decisive in increasingthe efficiency of business operations and ship safety.For the pwpose of supporting the claims above, actual trends inthe development of standards, equipment and systems havebeen analysed as well as their impact Oil the ship owner and thecrew.

  20. A cost modelling system for cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeh, Daniel; Ellman, Jeremy; Keogh, Shelagh

    2014-01-01

    An advance in technology unlocks new opportunities for organizations to increase their productivity, efficiency and process automation while reducing the cost of doing business as well. The emergence of cloud computing addresses these prospects through the provision of agile systems that are scalable, flexible and reliable as well as cost effective. Cloud computing has made hosting and deployment of computing resources cheaper and easier with no up-front charges but pay per-use flexible payme...

  1. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report benchmarks U.S. solar photovoltaic (PV) system installed costs as of the first quarter of 2017 (Q1 2017). We use a bottom-up methodology, accounting for all system and projectdevelopment costs incurred during the installation to model the costs for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems. In general, we attempt to model the typical installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. Costs are represented from the perspective of the developer/installer; thus, all hardware costs represent the price at which components are purchased by the developer/installer, not accounting for preexisting supply agreements or other contracts. Importantly, the benchmark also represents the sales price paid to the installer; therefore, it includes profit in the cost of the hardware, 1 along with the profit the installer/developer receives, as a separate cost category. However, it does not include any additional net profit, such as a developer fee or price gross-up, which is common in the marketplace. We adopt this approach owing to the wide variation in developer profits in all three sectors, where project pricing is highly dependent on region and project specifics such as local retail electricity rate structures, local rebate and incentive structures, competitive environment, and overall project or deal structures. Finally, our benchmarks are national averages weighted by state installed capacities.

  2. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  3. [Relationship between cost systems and hospital expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cornejo, Beatriz; Pérez-Méndez, José A

    To analyze the relationship between the degree of development of hospital cost systems (CS) implemented by the regional health services (RHS) and the variation in unit cost of hospitals in Spanish National Health Service (NHS) between 2010 and 2013 and to identify other explanatory factors of this variation. A database of NHS hospitals was constructed from exclusively public sources. Using a multilevel regression model, explaining factors of the variation in unit cost (cost per weighted unit of activity [WAU]) of a sample of 170 hospitals were analyzed. The variables representative of the degree of development of CS are associated in a negative and significant way with the variation of the cost per WAU. It is observed that if a high-level development CS is used the cost variation per WAU would be reduced by close to 3.2%. There is also a negative and significant relationship between the variation in the cost per WAU and the variations in the percentage of high technology and the hospital occupancy rate. On the other hand, the variations in the average cost of personnel and in the number of workers per 100 beds are associated in a positive and significant way with the variation of the cost per WAU. In the period analysed, during which the main health expenditure adjustment was made, the control in hospital unit cost is associated not only with spending cuts but also with aspects related to their management, such as the implementation of more developed CS. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. On the effect of downtime costs and budget constraint on preventive and replacement policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, R.; Meruane, V.; Rey, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This work proposes a general approach to study and improve the effectiveness of the system with respect to its expected life-cycle cost rate. The model we propose considers a production system which is protected against demand fluctuations and failure occurrences with elements like stock piles, line and equipment redundancy, and the use of alternative production methods. These design policies allow to keep or minimize the effect on the nominal throughput, while corrective measures are taken. The system is also subject to an aging process which depends on the frequency and quality of preventive actions. Making decisions is difficult because of discontinuities in intervention and downtime costs and the limited budget. We present a non-linear mixed integer formulation that minimizes the expected overall cost rate with respect to repair, overhaul and replacement times and the overhaul improvement factor proposed in the literature. The model is deterministic and considers minimal repairs and imperfect overhauls. We illustrate its application with a case based on a known benchmark example

  5. Expect With Me: development and evaluation design for an innovative model of group prenatal care to improve perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shayna D; Lewis, Jessica B; Thomas, Jordan L; Grilo, Stephanie A; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-05-18

    Despite biomedical advances and intervention efforts, rates of preterm birth and other adverse outcomes in the United States have remained relatively intransigent. Evidence suggests that group prenatal care can reduce these risks, with implications for maternal and child health as well as substantial cost savings. However, widespread dissemination presents challenges, in part because training and health systems have not been designed to deliver care in a group setting. This manuscript describes the design and evaluation of Expect With Me, an innovative model of group prenatal care with a strong integrated information technology (IT) platform designed to be scalable nationally. Expect With Me follows clinical guidelines from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Expect With Me incorporates the best evidence-based features of existing models of group care with a novel integrated IT platform designed to improve patient engagement and support, enhance health behaviors and decision making, connect providers and patients, and improve health service delivery. A multisite prospective longitudinal cohort study is being conducted to examine the impact of Expect With Me on perinatal and postpartum outcomes, and to identify and address barriers to national scalability. Process and outcome evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative data collection at patient, provider, and organizational levels. Mixed-method data collection includes patient surveys, medical record reviews, patient focus groups; provider surveys, session evaluations, provider focus groups and in-depth interviews; an online tracking system; and clinical site visits. A two-to-one matched cohort of women receiving individual care from each site will provide a comparison group (n = 1,000 Expect With Me patients; n = 2,000 individual care patients) for outcome and cost analyses. By bundling prevention and care services into a high-touch, high-tech group prenatal care model

  6. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a condition...

  7. Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

  8. Levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis for the hydrogen-bromine flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirala; McFarland, Eric W.

    2015-08-01

    The technoeconomics of the hydrogen-bromine flow battery are investigated. Using existing performance data the operating conditions were optimized to minimize the levelized cost of electricity using individual component costs for the flow battery stack and other system units. Several different configurations were evaluated including use of a bromine complexing agent to reduce membrane requirements. Sensitivity analysis of cost is used to identify the system elements most strongly influencing the economics. The stack lifetime and round-trip efficiency of the cell are identified as major factors on the levelized cost of electricity, along with capital components related to hydrogen storage, the bipolar plate, and the membrane. Assuming that an electrocatalyst and membrane with a lifetime of 2000 cycles can be identified, the lowest cost market entry system capital is 220 kWh-1 for a 4 h discharge system and for a charging energy cost of 0.04 kWh-1 the levelized cost of the electricity delivered is 0.40 kWh-1. With systems manufactured at large scales these costs are expected to be lower.

  9. Positron emission tomographic images and expectation maximization: A VLSI architecture for multiple iterations per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.F.; Byars, L.G.; Casey, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    A digital electronic architecture for parallel processing of the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for Positron Emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction is proposed. Rapid (0.2 second) EM iterations on high resolution (256 x 256) images are supported. Arrays of two very large scale integration (VLSI) chips perform forward and back projection calculations. A description of the architecture is given, including data flow and partitioning relevant to EM and parallel processing. EM images shown are produced with software simulating the proposed hardware reconstruction algorithm. Projected cost of the system is estimated to be small in comparison to the cost of current PET scanners

  10. The cost system of GSI - heavy ion facility in Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The paper gives an overview about the organization and the research program of the GSI (Heavy Ion Facility in Darmstadt). The cost accounting system is discussed in detail, financing, cost center accounting and cost unit accounting are described. (A.N.)

  11. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  12. Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...

  13. A comparison of the efficiency of health systems in providing life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenart, Adam; Zarulli, Virginia

    The role of the national health systems is to provide health for their citizens but each country achieves it up to a different degree. The health systems are heterogeneous not only in their efficiency but in their funding, organization and management too. As it is difficult to measure...... their efficiency in absolute terms, the countries can be compared with each other. The relative efficiency of health systems can be measured by the life expectancy that they provide by taking education level and their funding structure into account. Based on data coming from the HMD, GGS, OECD and WHO, data...

  14. The health system cost of post-abortion care in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassoff, Michael; Musange, Sabine F; Kalisa, Ina R; Ngabo, Fidele; Sayinzoga, Felix; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Based on research conducted in 2012, we estimate the cost to the Rwandan health-care system of providing post-abortion care (PAC) due to unsafe abortions, a subject of policy importance not studied before at the national level. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities representing three levels of health care were randomly selected for data collection from key care providers and administrators for all five regions. Using an ingredients approach to costing, data were gathered on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and hospitalization. Additionally, direct non-medical costs such as overhead and capital costs were also measured. We found that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $93. The total cost of PAC nationally was estimated to be $1.7 million per year, 49% of which was expended on direct non-medical costs. Satisfying all demands for PAC would raise the national cost to $2.5 million per year. PAC comprises a significant share of total expenditure in reproductive health in Rwanda. Investing more resources in provision of contraceptive services to prevent unwanted or mistimed pregnancies would likely reduce health systems costs. PMID:24548846

  15. On Modeling and Analyzing Cost Factors in Information Systems Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    Introducing enterprise information systems (EIS) is usually associated with high costs. It is therefore crucial to understand those factors that determine or influence these costs. Though software cost estimation has received considerable attention during the last decades, it is difficult to apply

  16. Choice of Hemodialysis Access in Older Adults: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rasheeda K; Myers, Evan R; Rosas, Sylvia E; O'Hare, Ann M; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S

    2017-06-07

    Although arteriovenous fistulas have been found to be the most cost-effective form of hemodialysis access, the relative benefits of placing an arteriovenous fistula versus an arteriovenous graft seem to be least certain for older adults and when placed preemptively. However, older adults' life expectancy is heterogeneous, and most patients do not undergo permanent access creation until after dialysis initiation. We evaluated cost-effectiveness of arteriovenous fistula placement after dialysis initiation in older adults as a function of age and life expectancy. Using a hypothetical cohort of patients on incident hemodialysis with central venous catheters, we constructed Markov models of three treatment options: ( 1 ) arteriovenous fistula placement, ( 2 ) arteriovenous graft placement, or ( 3 ) continued catheter use. Costs, utilities, and transitional probabilities were derived from existing literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed by age group (65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and 85-89 years old) and quartile of life expectancy. Costs, quality-adjusted life-months, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were evaluated for up to 5 years. The arteriovenous fistula option was cost effective compared with continued catheter use for all age and life expectancy groups, except for 85-89 year olds in the lowest life expectancy quartile. The arteriovenous fistula option was more cost effective than the arteriovenous graft option for all quartiles of life expectancy among the 65- to 69-year-old age group. For older age groups, differences in cost-effectiveness between the strategies were attenuated, and the arteriovenous fistula option tended to only be cost effective in patients with life expectancy >2 years. For groups for which the arteriovenous fistula option was not cost saving, the cost to gain one quality-adjusted life-month ranged from $2294 to $14,042. Among older adults, the cost-effectiveness of an arteriovenous fistula placed within the first

  17. Costs and Benefits of a Shared Digital Long-Term Preservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa-Pekka Keskitalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the cost-benefit analysis of digital long-term preservation (LTP that was carried out in the context of the Finnish National Digital Library Project (NDL in 2010. The analysis was based on the assumption that as many as 200 archives, libraries, and museums will share an LTP system. The term ‘system’ shall be understood as encompassing not only information technology, but also human resources, organizational structures, policies and funding mechanisms. The cost analysis shows that an LTP system will incur, over the first 12 years, cumulative costs of €42 million, i.e. an average of €3.5 million per annum. Human resources and investments in information technology are the major cost factors. After the initial stages, the analysis predicts annual costs of circa €4 million. The analysis compared scenarios with and without a shared LTP system. The results indicate that a shared system will have remarkable benefits. At the development and implementation stages, a shared system shows an advantage of €30 million against the alternative scenario consisting of five independent LTP solutions. During the later stages, the advantage is estimated at €10 million per annum. The cumulative cost benefit over the first 12 years would amount to circa €100 million.

  18. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '96. Technical session: Energy costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The two papers of this session deal with the costs of two different energy generation systems, one is based on photovoltaic energy conversion, and the other is the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy generation. The author shows that the costs of these two energy systems in Germany are much more governed by decisions taken in the political domain than is the case in other countries. Although German science and technology in these two engineering fields hold a top rank worldwide, the high costs that seem inevitable in Germany are expected to be a major reason why the photovoltaic industry will have to leave the country and go abroad to exploit the better chances there. (DG) [de

  19. An Evaluation of the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools (ACEIT) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    C~4p DTIC S ELECTE fl JAN12 19 .1R ~OF S%. B -U AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) SYSTEM THESIS Caroline L...Ohio go 91 022 AFIT/GCA/LSQ/89S-5 AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) SYSTEM THESIS Caroline L. Hanson Major, USAF...Department of Defense. AFIT/GCA/LSQ/89S-5 AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) SYSTEM THESIS Presented to the

  20. Management information system for cost-schedule integration control for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Wang Yongqing; Tian Li

    2001-01-01

    Based on the project management experience abroad and at home, a cost-schedule integration control model was developed to improve nuclear power project management. The model integrates cost data with the scheduling data by unity coding to efficiently implement cost-schedule integration control on line. The software system architecture and database is designed and implemented. The system functions include estimating and forecasting dynamically cash flow, scheduling and evaluating deviation from the cost-schedule plan, etc. The research and development of the system should improve the architecture of computer integrated management information systems for nuclear power projects in China

  1. Analysis of All Inclusive System Applied by the Accommodation Businesses in Turkey in the Context of Target Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Durmus Acar; Hasan Senol

    2014-01-01

    That the accommodation managements could sustain their existences operating in a competition in which the sale price of services they provide is ascertained show parallelism with controls of their costs. In this context, accommodation managements should provide demands and expectations of customers with low cost, short time and high quality targets by realizing at the same time and level. That’s why, they have focused on target cost (TC) method which aims to present on cost level that actuali...

  2. Economical evaluation of large-scale photovoltaic systems using Universal Generating Function techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Shen, Weixiang; Levitin, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    . The reliability models of solar panel arrays, PV inverters and energy production units (EPUs) are represented as the corresponding UGFs. The expected energy production models for different PV system configurations have also been developed. The expected unit cost of electricity has been calculated to provide......Solar energy plays an important role in the global energy framework for future. Comparing with conventional generation systems using fossil fuels, the cost structure of photovoltaic (PV) systems is different: the capital cost is higher while the operation cost is negligible. Reliabilities of the PV...

  3. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.; Barth, R.

    2009-01-01

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and partial predictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production, the expectation is that the specific operational costs (fuel costs, start......-up costs, variable operation and maintenance costs, costs of consuming CO2 emission permits) of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing...... the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative wind production having properties such as conventional production, that is, being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straightforward...

  4. Expectations of millennial nurse graduates transitioning into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Diane Randall

    2013-01-01

    Identified as Millennials, nurses born after 1980 are anticipated to redefine the employer-employee relationship as one based on the employee's wants and needs. The purpose of this study is to portray the expectations of Millennial student nurses immediately before graduation. Understanding these expectations may provide insight for leaders who are responsible for crafting a successful transition experience. Successful transition and decreased turnover are important elements of cost management for the nursing enterprise. A qualitative descriptive design was used to collect data from 14 students enrolled in a traditional BSN academic nursing program approximately 2 months prior to graduation. Upon completion of private, confidential semistructured interviews, data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed. Demographic data were compiled and interview data summarized according to identified themes. Three overarching themes emerged: the expectation that transition would be stressful, the expectation that there would be a safety net of support, and the expectation to be valued and respected as a professional. Revealing was the expectation of supportive relationships and a collaborative approach to patient care. Failure to meet those expectations may result in turnover as Millennials seek opportunities that meet their expectations.

  5. A cost-benefit analysis of preventative management for zebra and quagga mussels in the Colorado-Big Thompson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    net benefits of preventative management strategies. This study builds a bioeconomic simulation model to predict and compare the expected economic costs of the CDOW boat inspection program ot the benefits of reduced expected control costs to water conveyance systems, hydropower generation stations, and minicipal water treatment facilities. The model is based on a case study water delivery and storage system, the Colorado-Big Thompson system. The Colorado-Big Thomspon system is an excellent example of water systems in the Rocky Mountain West. The system is nearly entirely man-made, with all of its reservoirs and delivery points connected via pipelines, tunnels, and canals. The structures and hydropower systems of the Colorado-Big Thompson system are common to other western storage and delivery systems, making the methods and insight developed from this case study transferal to other western systems. The model developed in this study contributes to the bioeconomic literature in several ways. Foremost, the model predicts the spread of dreissena mussels and associated damage costs for a connected water system in the Rocky Mountain West. Very few zebra mussel studies have focused on western water systems. Another distinguishing factor is the simultaneous consideration of spread from propagules introduced by boats and by flows. Most zebra mussel dispersal models consider boater movement patterns combined with limnological characteristics as predictors of spread. A separate set of studies have addressed mussel spread via downstream flows. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study that builds a zebra mussel spread model that specifically accounts for propagule pressure from boat introductions and from downstream flow introductions. By modeling an entire connected system, the study highlights how the spatial layout of a system, and the risk of invasion within a system affect the benefits of preventative management. This report is presented in five chapters. The first

  6. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  7. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  8. Cost recovery in geographic information systems and conflicts with copyright law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jon L.

    1993-10-01

    The ability to recover cost by the sale of geographic information is dependent upon the ownership of the copyright in and to that information. The ownership of the copyright turns upon whether one entity is an employee of the other or whether the copyrightable work falls within certain statutorily defined categories in the copyright law. Absent the specific requirements being fulfilled the ownership of the data may not be exactly as the parties expect.

  9. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  10. Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model Version 3.0 (LFGcost-Web V3 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help stakeholders estimate the costs of a landfill gas (LFG) energy project, in 2002, LMOP developed a cost tool (LFGcost). Since then, LMOP has routinely updated the tool to reflect changes in the LFG energy industry. Initially the model was designed for EPA to assist landfills in evaluating the economic and financial feasibility of LFG energy project development. In 2014, LMOP developed a public version of the model, LFGcost-Web (Version 3.0), to allow landfill and industry stakeholders to evaluate project feasibility on their own. LFGcost-Web can analyze costs for 12 energy recovery project types. These project costs can be estimated with or without the costs of a gas collection and control system (GCCS). The EPA used select equations from LFGcost-Web to estimate costs of the regulatory options in the 2015 proposed revisions to the MSW Landfills Standards of Performance (also known as New Source Performance Standards) and the Emission Guidelines (herein thereafter referred to collectively as the Landfill Rules). More specifically, equations derived from LFGcost-Web were applied to each landfill expected to be impacted by the Landfill Rules to estimate annualized installed capital costs and annual O&M costs of a gas collection and control system. In addition, after applying the LFGcost-Web equations to the list of landfills expected to require a GCCS in year 2025 as a result of the proposed Landfill Rules, the regulatory analysis evaluated whether electr

  11. Avoided operating costs in thermal generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, N.; Billinton, R.; Gupta, R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and straightforward technique was developed to assess avoided system operating costs associated with non-utility generation (NUG). The technique was based on optimum loading configurations of the committed units both before and after the inclusion of NUG energy. The salient features of the technique were presented in this paper. Assessment of avoided operating cost with deterministic and probabilistic criteria were explained. A time differentiated price system was adopted in the algorithms to reflect the different value placed on purchased price by a utility at different times of the day. The algorithms show the utility effects of dispatchable and non-dispatchable NUG energies. The IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS) was utilized for numerical analysis. Results were illustrated. It was found that sensitivity studies similar to those performed on the IEEE-RTS could be utilized to determine the amount of energy and the time period during which utilities and NUGs can maximize their economic benefits. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Cost analysis of lasers for a laser isotope separation system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mail, R.A.; Markovich, F.J.; Carr, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    To be of practical significance, laser isotope separation (LIS) for separation of 235 U from 238 U must exhibit attributes which make it preferable to expansion of the present facilities. Clearly the most attractive such attribute is the prospect of significant cost reductions, which preliminary studies at LLL suggest will amount to a factor of three and perhaps as much as ten. From these preliminary studies, it appears that the lasers themselves account for a very substantial portion of the capital cost of a LIS system, and a significant portion of the equipment replacement costs. Since the laser costs are so pivotal to the system cost, and the system cost is so pivotal to the choice of separation techniques, it is clear that a more detailed investigation of laser costs is required. Results are presented of a study performed by General Research Corporation (GRC) to assess the cost of lasers in a production laser isotope separation (LIS) plant

  13. Construction of VLCC marine oil storage cost index system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Yule; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhu, Faxin; Chen, Tian; Qin, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    VLCC as the research object, the basic knowledge of VLCC is summarized. According to the phenomenon that VLCC is applied to offshore oil storage gradually, this paper applies the theoretical analysis method to analyze the excess capacity from VLCC, the drop of oil price, the aging VLCC is more suitable for offshore storage The paper analyzes the reason of VLCC offshore oil storage from three aspects, analyzes the cost of VLCC offshore storage from the aspects of manpower cost and shipping cost, and constructs the cost index system of VLCC offshore oil storage.

  14. Planning and costing agricultural adaptation to climate change in small-scale maize production system of Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matiya, George; Lunduka, Rodney; Sikwese, Margaret

    2011-09-15

    Malawi has recently experienced an increased incidence of climate change-related hazards. More droughts and floods have occurred in the last decade (2000 - 2010) than in the past three decades before (1970 - 2000). Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors and consequently has suffered from the negative impacts of climate change. As a result, communities, NGOs and the government of Malawi are adapting (adjusting to continue deriving benefits) to the changing conditions in order for Malawian farmers and their families to survive, since their livelihoods are dependent on agriculture. This adaptation is inevitable and will add a cost to the national economy and households. To successfully calculate this there is a need for proper planning and costing of adaptation strategies at household, community and national level. Currently, the exact costs of adaptation are not yet known; hence, this study was undertaken to investigate what adaptation measures are currently available in the maize subsector in Chikhwawa District in the Lower Shire Valley of Malawi and how much it will cost at household, community and national level to continue to carry out such activities. The calculation is based on climate projections that are likely to happen in Chikhwawa in the next 50 years. The study revealed that communities are already coping with climate change through a number of strategies including: use of early and drought-resistant varieties, irrigation systems, selling of assets, winter cropping and diversification. Regarding climate projections, it is expected that the temperatures in Chikhwawa will increase by 3 deg C by 2065, which will translate into having more days in a month with a mean temperature of above 32 deg C. It is also expected that drier conditions will prevail in the future (2046 - 2065). In terms of costs, Chikhwawa will require about US$55,034,932 (over five years) in the maize subsector to adapt to climate change. The results of the study suggest that

  15. Antibiotic expected effectiveness and cost under real life microbiology: evaluation of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia for elderly patients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Grau,1 Virginia Lozano,2 Amparo Valladares,3 Rafael Cavanillas,4 Yang Xie,5 Gonzalo Nocea3 1Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; 2Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Iberia, Madrid, Spain; 3Outcomes Research Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Affairs, Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Madrid, Spain; 5Global Health Outcomes, Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Clinical efficacy of antibiotics may be affected by changes in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study is to assess how these changes could affect the initial efficacy of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in elderly patients and the potential consequences this may have in health care costs. Methods: Initial efficacy in elderly was obtained from a combined analysis of two multicenter, randomized studies. An alternative scenario was carried out using initial efficacy data according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI. Country-specific pathogens distribution was obtained from a national epidemiological study, and microbiological susceptibilities to first- and second-line therapies were obtained from Spanish or European surveillance studies. A decision analytic model was used to compare ertapenem versus ceftriaxone for CAP inpatient treatment. Inputs of the model were the expected effectiveness previously estimated and resource use considering a Spanish national health system perspective. Outcomes include difference in proportion of successfully treated patients and difference in total costs between ertapenem and ceftriaxone. The model performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: First-line treatment of CAP with ertapenem led to a higher proportion of successfully treated patients compared with ceftriaxone in Spain. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that length of stay was the key parameter of the model. Probabilistic

  16. Empirical study of ERP systems implementation costs in Swiss SMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equey, C.; Kusters, R.J.; Varone, S.; Montandon, N.; Cordeiro, J.; Felipe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on sparse literature investigating the cost of ERP systems implementation, our research uses data from a survey of Swiss SMEs having implemented ERP in order to test cost drivers. The main innovation is the proposition of a new classification of cost drivers that depend on the enterprise

  17. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Accelerator Driven Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlen, D.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper estimates the economical costs and benefits associated with a nuclear waste transmutation strategy. An 800 MWth, fast neutron spectrum, subcritical core design has been used in the study (the so called Sing-Sing Core). Three different fuel cycle scenarios have been compared. The main purpose of the paper has been to identify the cost drivers of a partitioning and transmutation strategy, and to estimate the cost of electricity generated in a nuclear park with operating accelerator driven systems. It has been found that directing all transuranic discharges from spent light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide (UOX) fuel to accelerator driven systems leads to a cost increase for nuclear power of 50±15%, while introduction of a mixed oxide (MOX) burning step in the LWRs diminishes the cost penalty to 35±10%. (authors)

  18. Effects of category-specific costs on neural systems for perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Whiteley, Louise; Hulme, Oliver J; Sahani, Maneesh; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-06-01

    Perceptual judgments are often biased by prospective losses, leading to changes in decision criteria. Little is known about how and where sensory evidence and cost information interact in the brain to influence perceptual categorization. Here we show that prospective losses systematically bias the perception of noisy face-house images. Asymmetries in category-specific cost were associated with enhanced blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in a frontoparietal network. We observed selective activation of parahippocampal gyrus for changes in category-specific cost in keeping with the hypothesis that loss functions enact a particular task set that is communicated to visual regions. Across subjects, greater shifts in decision criteria were associated with greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our results support a hypothesis that costs bias an intermediate representation between perception and action, expressed via general effects on frontal cortex, and selective effects on extrastriate cortex. These findings indicate that asymmetric costs may affect a neural implementation of perceptual decision making in a similar manner to changes in category expectation, constituting a step toward accounting for how prospective losses are flexibly integrated with sensory evidence in the brain.

  19. Cost and economic benefit of clinical decision support systems for cardiovascular disease prevention: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Njie, Gibril J; Proia, Krista K; Hopkins, David P; Ross, Murray N; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Clymer, John M

    2017-05-01

    This review evaluates costs and benefits associated with acquiring, implementing, and operating clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods developed for the Community Guide were used to review CDSS literature covering the period from January 1976 to October 2015. Twenty-one studies were identified for inclusion. It was difficult to draw a meaningful estimate for the cost of acquiring and operating CDSSs to prevent CVD from the available studies ( n  = 12) due to considerable heterogeneity. Several studies ( n  = 11) indicated that health care costs were averted by using CDSSs but many were partial assessments that did not consider all components of health care. Four cost-benefit studies reached conflicting conclusions about the net benefit of CDSSs based on incomplete assessments of costs and benefits. Three cost-utility studies indicated inconsistent conclusions regarding cost-effectiveness based on a conservative $50,000 threshold. Intervention costs were not negligible, but specific estimates were not derived because of the heterogeneity of implementation and reporting metrics. Expected economic benefits from averted health care cost could not be determined with confidence because many studies did not fully account for all components of health care. We were unable to conclude whether CDSSs for CVD prevention is either cost-beneficial or cost-effective. Several evidence gaps are identified, most prominently a lack of information about major drivers of cost and benefit, a lack of standard metrics for the cost of CDSSs, and not allowing for useful life of a CDSS that generally extends beyond one accounting period. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Costs and benefits with public and investor-owned electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronner, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the analysis of the costs and benefits associated with public ownership of major utility projects and systems as opposed to private ownership. The topics discussed include the alleged benefits of public power systems, principles of cost benefit analysis, tax-exempt debt, state and local taxes and federal income taxes, benefit of 100 percent debt financing

  1. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  2. Load control services in the management of power system security costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayantilal, A.; Strbac, G.

    1999-01-01

    The new climate of deregulation in the electricity industry is creating a need for a more transparent cost structure and within this framework the cost of system security has been a subject of considerable interest. Traditionally power system security has been supplied by out-of-merit generation, in the short term, and transmission reinforcement, in the long term. This paper presents a method of analysing the role of load-demand in the management of power system security costs by utilising load control services (LCS). It also proposes a competitive market to enable bidding from various participants within the electricity industry to supply system security. (author)

  3. Clinical benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of neonatal intensive care in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Profit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal intensive care improves survival, but is associated with high costs and disability amongst survivors. Recent health reform in Mexico launched a new subsidized insurance program, necessitating informed choices on the different interventions that might be covered by the program, including neonatal intensive care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness of neonatal intensive care in Mexico.A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a decision analytic model of health and economic outcomes following preterm birth. Model parameters governing health outcomes were estimated from Mexican vital registration and hospital discharge databases, supplemented with meta-analyses and systematic reviews from the published literature. Costs were estimated on the basis of data provided by the Ministry of Health in Mexico and World Health Organization price lists, supplemented with published studies from other countries as needed. The model estimated changes in clinical outcomes, life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, lifetime costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for neonatal intensive care compared to no intensive care. Uncertainty around the results was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. In the base-case analysis, neonatal intensive care for infants born at 24-26, 27-29, and 30-33 weeks gestational age prolonged life expectancy by 28, 43, and 34 years and averted 9, 15, and 12 DALYs, at incremental costs per infant of US$11,400, US$9,500, and US$3,000, respectively, compared to an alternative of no intensive care. The ICERs of neonatal intensive care at 24-26, 27-29, and 30-33 weeks were US$1,200, US$650, and US$240, per DALY averted, respectively. The findings were robust to variation in parameter values over wide ranges in sensitivity analyses

  4. Impact of air pollution control costs on the cost and spatial arrangement of cellulosic biofuel production in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colin W; Parker, Nathan C

    2014-02-18

    Air pollution emissions regulation can affect the location, size, and technology choice of potential biofuel production facilities. Difficulty in obtaining air pollutant emission permits and the cost of air pollution control devices have been cited by some fuel producers as barriers to development. This paper expands on the Geospatial Bioenergy Systems Model (GBSM) to evaluate the effect of air pollution control costs on the availability, cost, and distribution of U.S. biofuel production by subjecting potential facility locations within U.S. Clean Air Act nonattainment areas, which exceed thresholds for healthy air quality, to additional costs. This paper compares three scenarios: one with air quality costs included, one without air quality costs, and one in which conversion facilities were prohibited in Clean Air Act nonattainment areas. While air quality regulation may substantially affect local decisions regarding siting or technology choices, their effect on the system as a whole is small. Most biofuel facilities are expected to be sited near to feedstock supplies, which are seldom in nonattainment areas. The average cost per unit of produced energy is less than 1% higher in the scenarios with air quality compliance costs than in scenarios without such costs. When facility construction is prohibited in nonattainment areas, the costs increase by slightly over 1%, due to increases in the distance feedstock is transported to facilities in attainment areas.

  5. Comprehensive low-cost reliability centered maintenance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotton, S.J.; Dozier, I.J.; Thow, R.

    1995-09-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance optimization approach that all electric utilities can apply to power plant systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and PECO Energy Company jointly sponsored this Comprehensive Low-Cost Reliability Centered Maintenance project to demonstrate that the standard RCM methodology could be streamlined to reduce the cost of analysis while maintaining a high quality product. EPRI's previous investigation of streamlined RCM methods being pioneered in the nuclear industry indicated that PECO Energy could expect to optimize its maintenance program at reduced cost by carefully controlling the scope without sacrificing documentation or technical quality. Using the insights obtained from these previous studies, three methods were defined in this project and were demonstrated in a large scale application to 60 systems at both the Limerick Generating Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

  6. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism. Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education. Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region. Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting South Africa.

  7. Measuring the Cost of Obsolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has provided the capability for irradiation testing of nuclear fuels and materials since 1967, and is expected to operate for several more years. Within the scope of extending the life of a nuclear plant is dealing with aging and obsolescence issues. A component can be considered obsolete if the manufacturer no longer supports the component, or if the manufacturer does not even exist anymore. Though these components can be considered obsolete, the cost of obsolescence may or may not be significant; it may be more cost-effective to leave and/or repair the component rather than to replace it. The project at hand is to develop a tool that will not only identify these components, series of components, or entire systems that are obsolete, but to quantify the cost of obsolescence. This engineering tool will be based on empirical formulas created from data collected from factors that deal with obsolescence. These factors are primarily, the cost of item replacement, current cost of maintenance, cost of maintenance of the replacement, cost of failure, risk of failure, safety, increase in performance/efficiency, length of manufacturer's support, and so forth. The objective is to be able to look at the outcome of this engineering tool and clearly see what needs to be replaced, be it a component, series of components, or an entire system. If there are several such replacements needed, which one(s) have the greatest priority for replacement. Therefore the engineering tool will identify, quantify, and prioritize the cost of obsolescence in the plant. An engineering tool of this type should find application in a number of nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. While the engineering tool is being developed, the first stage of development will be on system components. Once the foundation is set it will be used to evaluate other systems and eventually expand and develop the engineering tool for the entire plant

  8. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of

  9. Cost-effective implementation of intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.; Heer, Ewald

    1990-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in knowledge-based engineering research and knowledge-based system (KBS) demonstrations and evaluations using integrated intelligent system technologies. Performance and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent system technologies can be realized. In this paper the rationale and potential benefits for typical examples of application projects that demonstrate an increase in productivity through the use of intelligent system technologies are discussed. These demonstration projects have provided an insight into additional technology needs and cultural barriers which are currently impeding the transition of the technology into operational environments. Proposed methods which addresses technology evolution and implementation are also discussed.

  10. Internal Logistics System Selection with Total Cost of Ownership Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Inês; Pimentel, Carina; Godina, Radu; Matias, João C. O.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a methodology was followed in order to support the decision-making of one industrial unit regarding its internal logistics system. The addressed factory was facing issues with their internal logistics approach. Some alternatives were pointed out and a proper total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis was developed. This analysis was taken in order to demonstrate the more cost-effective solution for the internal logistics system. This tool is more and more valued by the companies, due to their willing to reduce the costs that are associated with the way of doing business. Despite the proposal of the best choice for the internal logistics system of the enterprise, this study also intends to present some conclusions about the match between the nature of the industrial unit and the logistics systems that best fit the requirements of those.

  11. Resilient guaranteed cost control of a power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hisham M; Soliman, Mostafa H; Hassan, Mohammad F

    2014-05-01

    With the development of power system interconnection, the low-frequency oscillation is becoming more and more prominent which may cause system separation and loss of energy to consumers. This paper presents an innovative robust control for power systems in which the operating conditions are changing continuously due to load changes. However, practical implementation of robust control can be fragile due to controller inaccuracies (tolerance of resistors used with operational amplifiers). A new design of resilient (non-fragile) robust control is given that takes into consideration both model and controller uncertainties by an iterative solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Both uncertainties are cast into a norm-bounded structure. A sufficient condition is derived to achieve the desired settling time for damping power system oscillations in face of plant and controller uncertainties. Furthermore, an improved controller design, resilient guaranteed cost controller, is derived to achieve oscillations damping in a guaranteed cost manner. The effectiveness of the algorithm is shown for a single machine infinite bus system, and then, it is extended to multi-area power system.

  12. Hybrid 21 MW wind-solar system to limit energy costs at an industrial plant; Sistema híbrido eólico-solar de 21 MW para contención del coste energético en una planta industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, C.

    2016-07-01

    Ereda has undertaken a project that aims to analyse the possibility of limiting the cost of the energy supply to a medium-sized industrial plant, with an installed capacity of over 26 MW, located in the south-west of Kazakhstan. The cost of electricity for its processes accounts for an important part of its production cost, achieving values in excess of 40%. The price of electricity in the country is expected to rise over the coming years. In addition, the plant is now required to reduce CO2 emissions from its industrial activity, which is why a further cost arising from the acquisition of emissions rights is expected in future. (Author)

  13. PENERAPAN ACTIVITY BASED COSTING SYSTEM DALAM PERHITUNGAN PROFITABILITAS PRODUK PADA UD. NIAGA BAKTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fena Ulfa Aulia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Charge imposition of factory overhead based on traditional systems often cause distorted costs. One of efforts to overcome these distortions fees is with charging the costs  factory overhead  by the activity based costing. The use of activity based costing can also help companies that produce many products  in determining the level of profitability. Profitability indicates whether an enterprise has good prospects in the future for the company's survival. This research is a quantitative descriptive research conducted at UD NIAGA BAKTI engaged in the processing of tuna fish PETIS in Pamekasan located in the village of Konang, Subdistrict of Galis, Regency of Pamekasan. The type of data  used in this research is quantitative data obtained by direct observation and Interview. This techniques of research analysis calculates and compares the products profitability of PETIS by using traditional cost systems and costing system based activity. The results of this research indicates that there are differences in the principal cost of production and profitability UD NIAGA BAKTI by using activity based costing compared  Traditional Cost Systems.

  14. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of computerized ECG interpretation system in an ambulatory health care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, R S

    1982-04-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a computerized ECG interpretation system in an ambulatory health care organization has been evaluated in comparison with a conventional (manual) system. The automated system was shown to be more cost-effective at a minimum load of 2,500 patients/month. At larger monthly loads an even greater cost-effectiveness was found, the average cost/ECG being about $2. In the manual system the cost/unit is practically independent of patient load. This is primarily due to the fact that 87% of the cost/ECG is attributable to wages and fees of highly trained personnel. In the automated system, on the other hand, the cost/ECG is heavily dependent on examinee load. This is due to the relatively large impact of equipment depreciation on fixed (and total) cost. Utilization of a computer-assisted system leads to marked reduction in cardiologists' interpretation time, substantially shorter turnaround time (of unconfirmed reports), and potential provision of simultaneous service at several remotely located "heart stations."

  16. An Evaluation of Clinical Economics and Cases of Cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takura, Tomoyuki

    2018-05-01

    In order to maintain and develop a universal health insurance system, it is crucial to utilize limited medical resources effectively. In this context, considerations are underway to introduce health technology assessments (HTAs), such as cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs), into the medical treatment fee system. CEAs, which is the general term for these methods, are classified into four categories, such as cost-effectiveness analyses based on performance indicators, and in the comparison of health technologies, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is also applied. When I comprehensively consider several Japanese studies based on these concepts, I find that, in the results of the analysis of the economic performance of healthcare systems, Japan shows the most promising trend in the world. In addition, there is research indicating the superior cost-effectiveness of Rituximab against refractory nephrotic syndrome, and it is expected that health economics will be actively applied to the valuation of technical innovations such as drug discovery.

  17. System-wide impacts of environmental cost factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.; Kennedy, T.; Finnell, J.; Hoelscher, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a continuum of approaches to considering environmental externalities in the utility resource selection process. While photovoltaic (PV) technologies can play a role in reducing emissions, they are generally not cost-competitive with conventional technologies, even when cost estimates for environmental damages are introduced. Several approaches are explored to determine whether PV becomes more competitive when emission reduction strategies are considered on a regional basis. Finally, preliminary analysis was performed with the Midas utility planning model to develop emission credits based on PV's ability to displace emissions on a net system basis

  18. Is it Worth the Effort? Novel Insights into Obesity-Associated Alterations in Cost-Benefit Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Mathar, David; Horstmann, Annette; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno; Neumann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Cost-benefit decision-making entails the process of evaluating potential actions according to the trade-off between the expected reward (benefit) and the anticipated effort (costs). Recent research revealed that dopaminergic transmission within the fronto-striatal circuitry strongly modulates cost-benefit decision-making. Alterations within the dopaminergic fronto-striatal system have been associated with obesity, but little is known about cost-benefit decision-making differences in obese com...

  19. Cost evaluation of clinical laboratory in Taiwan's National Health System by using activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin-Guang; Chen, Shao-Fen; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Shih, Po-Wen; Lin, Ching-Chiang

    2016-11-01

    To cope with the government's policies to reduce medical costs, Taiwan's healthcare service providers are striving to survive by pursuing profit maximization through cost control. This article aimed to present the results of cost evaluation using activity-based costing performed in the laboratory in order to throw light on the differences between costs and the payment system of National Health Insurance (NHI). This study analyzed the data of costs and income of the clinical laboratory. Direct costs belong to their respective sections of the department. The department's shared costs, including public expenses and administrative assigned costs, were allocated to the department's respective sections. A simple regression equation was created to predict profit and loss, and evaluate the department's break-even point, fixed cost, and contribution margin ratio. In clinical chemistry and seroimmunology sections, the cost per test was lower than the NHI payment and their major laboratory tests had revenues with the profitability ratio of 8.7%, while the other sections had a higher cost per test than the NHI payment and their major tests were in deficit. The study found a simple linear regression model as follows: "Balance=-84,995+0.543×income (R2=0.544)". In order to avoid deficit, laboratories are suggested to increase test volumes, enhance laboratory test specialization, and become marginal scale. A hospital could integrate with regional medical institutions through alliances or OEM methods to increase volumes to reach marginal scale and reduce laboratory costs, enhancing the level and quality of laboratory medicine.

  20. Case drilling - an innovative approach to reducing drilling costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Tessari, R. M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Warren, T. [Tesco Drilling Technology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Casing drilling is introduced as a new drilling technique that uses standard oil field casing to simultaneously drill and case the well. The technology includes both rig and downhole equipment, customized to function effectively as an integrated drilling system. This paper describes the testing program designed to identify and overcome technical challenges. Although not fully optimized, it appears that the system is functional. Test results indicate the need for improvements in the pump down cement float equipment and the tools and procedures for drilling up the cement plugs. The pump down latch and retrieval system also needs to be further developed and tested for high angle directional applications. Cost savings in the range of 10 to 15 per cent are expected for trouble-free wells. By eliminating the cost of unscheduled events encountered in troublesome wells, cost savings may reach as high as 30 per cent. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Business Processes Modeling Recommender Systems: User Expectations and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fellmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are in widespread use in many areas, especially electronic commerce solutions. In this contribution, we apply recommender functionalities to business process modeling and investigate their potential for supporting process modeling. To do so, we have implemented two prototypes, demonstrated them at a major fair and collected user feedback. After analysis of the feedback, we have confronted the findings with the results of the experiment. Our results indicate that fairgoers expect increased modeling speed as the key advantage and completeness of models as the most unlikely advantage. This stands in contrast to an initial experiment revealing that modelers, in fact, increase the completeness of their models when adequate knowledge is presented while time consumption is not necessarily reduced. We explain possible causes of this mismatch and finally hypothesize on two “sweet spots” of process modeling recommender systems.

  2. Managing the Cost of Plant Piping System Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenco, John M.; Keck, Donna R.; Johnson, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the average annual cost impact of external piping system leakage on commercial nuclear plant operations and maintenance can easily range into the millions of dollars for each reactor unit. Evidence suggests that this significant O and M cost reduction opportunity has largely been overlooked, due to the number of diverse line items and budget areas affected. Results released last year from an EPRI pilot study of more than a dozen reactor units at seven plant sites operated by multiple utilities found that the average annual cost impact was indeed around $1.6 million per year per unit. Subsequent field experience has also demonstrated that an effective fluid leak management program can substantially reduce these costs within the first three years of implementation. This paper presents the general cost impact research results from various studies, outlines key elements of an effective plant fluid leak management program, discusses important implementation issues, and presents results from case studies covering different utility approaches to developing and implementing an effective fluid leak management program. Actual cost data will be included where appropriate. (authors)

  3. Cost and optimal feed-in tariff for small scale photovoltaic systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigter, Jasper; Vidican, Georgeta

    2010-01-01

    China has recently become a dominant player in the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry, producing more than one-third of the global supply of solar cells in 2008. However, as of 2008, less than 1% of global installations were based in China. Recently, the government has stated its grand ambitions of expanding the share of electricity derived from solar power. As part of this initiative, policy makers are currently in the process of drafting a feed-in tariff policy to support the development of the solar energy market. In this paper, we aim to calculate what the level of such a tariff should be. We develop a closed form equation for the cost of PV, and use forecasts on prices of solar systems to derive an optimal feed-in tariff, including a digression rate. The focus is on the potential of residential and small scale commercial solar PV installations. We show that the cost of small scale PV in China has decreased rapidly during the period 2005-2009. Our analysis also shows that optimal feed-in tariffs vary widely between regions within China, and that grid parity could be reached in large parts of the country depending on the expected escalation in electricity prices. (author)

  4. Systems principles of planning the net cost of oil and gas extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryazanova, N I

    1979-01-01

    The automated system of calculation of ASPC ''oil extraction'' is developed in order to improve the existing system of planning of the oil extracting sector. The most complete expression of the systems construction of the plan is found in the section ''net cost and profit.'' Unity of the production process advances definite requirements for construction of the plan for net cost of oil and gas extraction as the model of this unified process. According to these requirements, the plan for net cost must be developed on the basis of interrelationship of the indicators of the plan for net cost within the section and with indicators of other sections of the plan, methodological unity and continuity of the methods of planning net cost by elements of outlays, articles of calculation and technical-economic factors, methodological continuity of regimes and stages of planning, as well as based on methodological continuity of the control levels. The listed requirements are principles for systems planning of the net cost of oil and gas extraction. These principles guarantee improvement in planning of net cost of oil and gas extraction according to the requirements made for the national economic planning.

  5. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Concentrated Solar Power in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the first batch of concentrated solar power (CSP demonstration projects of China was formally approved. Due to the important impact of the cost-benefit on the investment decisions and policy-making, this paper adopted the static payback period (SP, net present value (NPV, net present value rate (NPVR, and internal rate of return (IRR to analyze and discuss the cost-benefit of CSP demonstration plants. The results showed the following. (1 The SP of CSP systems is relatively longer, due to high initial investment; but the cost-benefit of CSP demonstration plants as a whole is better, because of good expected incomes. (2 Vast majority of CSP projects could gain excess returns, on the basis of meeting the profitability required by the benchmark yield of 10%. (3 The cost-benefit of solar tower CSP technology (IRR of 12.33% is better than that of parabolic trough CSP technology (IRR of 11.72% and linear Fresnel CSP technology (IRR of 11.43%. (4 The annual electricity production and initial costs have significant impacts on the cost-benefit of CSP systems; the effects of operation and maintenance costs and loan interest rate on the cost-benefit of CSP systems are relatively smaller but cannot be ignored.

  7. Deflation Expectation Financial System and Decline in Money Multiplier(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    IIDA Yasuyuki

    2005-01-01

    The money multiplier is in a continuous downward trend now since the bubble burst, and, in addition, the trend has accelerated after 2000. It is said that the monetary policy is difficult because the money multiplier has declined. To think about the monetary policy for the future, we should think about the cause of the decline of the money multiplier. I want to verify two typical hypotheses "Deflation Expectation Hypothesis" and "Financial System Hypothesis" for the decision of the money mult...

  8. Performance expectation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  9. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  10. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  11. Forecasting overhaul or replacement intervals based on estimated system failure intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, James M.

    1994-12-01

    System reliability can be expressed in terms of the pattern of failure events over time. Assuming a nonhomogeneous Poisson process and Weibull intensity function for complex repairable system failures, the degree of system deterioration can be approximated. Maximum likelihood estimators (MLE's) for the system Rate of Occurrence of Failure (ROCOF) function are presented. Evaluating the integral of the ROCOF over annual usage intervals yields the expected number of annual system failures. By associating a cost of failure with the expected number of failures, budget and program policy decisions can be made based on expected future maintenance costs. Monte Carlo simulation is used to estimate the range and the distribution of the net present value and internal rate of return of alternative cash flows based on the distributions of the cost inputs and confidence intervals of the MLE's.

  12. A low-cost EDXRF analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahdeman, J.E.; Watson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with an EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) system, the Spectrace (sup TM) 4020 (Tractor X-ray). The Spectra analysis software is both powerful and flexible enough to handle a wide variety of applications. The instrument was designed to be economical by integrating the major system components into a single unit. This practical approach to hardware has cut the cost per unit. The software structure of the Spectra 4020 is presented in a flow chart. The article also contains a diagram of the hardware configuration of the instrument

  13. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorw, Larry M.

    2000-01-01

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs

  14. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  15. Preliminary cost analysis of a universal package concept in the spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary cost assessment of a universal spent fuel package concept as it applies to the backend of the once through nuclear fuel cycle; i.e., a package that would be qualified for spent fuel storage, transportation, and disposal. To provide this preliminary cost assessment, costs for each element of the spent fuel management system have been compiled for system scenarios employing the universal package, and these costs are compared against system costs for scenarios employing the universal package, and these costs are compared against system costs for scenarios employing other types of storage, transportation, and disposal packages. The system elements considered in this study are storage at the nuclear power plant, spent fuel transportation, a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and a geologic repository. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, most of these system elements and associated functions will be the responsibility of the Department of Energy. 10 refs., 25 figs., 22 tabs

  16. Industrial cost assessment for ITER tritium plant system (water distillation, VPCE and ISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Fong, C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Industrial Cost Assessment Task for ITER Tritium Plant System consists of providing and order of magnitude cost estimate for the following major subsystems, as outlined in the Scope of Task Agreement and Work Program: water distillation (WD) system, vapour phase catalytic exchange (VPCE) system and the isotope separation system (ISS). The methodology adopted in preparing the order of magnitude cost estimate for the above three subsystems of the ITER tritium plant system is based on building the estimate from the ground up, starting with equipment cost estimates, and adding labour activities separately for engineering, fabrication, assembly, testing installation commissioning, etc. The estimate has been developed assuming that the systems are to be engineered, fabricated and constructed in Canada, (to comply with the Codes, Standards, QA and Seismic Classification applicable in Canada) since information on ITER siting is not currently available. The estimate is based on Ontario Hydro in house cost data on similar systems and equipment, such as the heavy water upgrading plants. The cost estimates are not based on quotations from suppliers for specific ITER components, since this would require completion of detailed design and specifications. 4 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs

  17. LOW COST SMART SOLAR POWERED AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsermu Alemayehu*, Kena Likassa

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries Photovoltaic energy can find many applications in agriculture, providing electrical energy in various cases, particularly OFF grid and desert area. Today Modern irrigation methods in developing country are needed to fulfill the food demands. Although in these countries Ethiopia, there are many diesel engine operated and rare solar operated water pumps for irrigation; but due to the running cost of diesel and capital cost of photovoltaic irrigation system. So Photovolta...

  18. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  19. Cost benefit analysis of instrumentation, supervision and control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, P.

    1973-08-01

    A cost benefit analysis is carried out on a BWR type reactor power plant in which an on-line computer performs plant supervision, reporting, logging, calibration and control functions, using display devices and plotters, while an off-line computer is available for bigger jobs such as fuel management calculations. All on-line functions are briefly described and specified. Three types of computer system are considered, a simplex system, a dual computer system and a multi-processor system. These systems are analysed with respect to reliability, back-up instrumentation requirements and costs. While the multiprocessor system gave in all cases the lowest annual failure costs, the margin to the duplex system was so small that hardware, maintenance and software costs would play an important role in making a decision. (JIW)

  20. System Approach of Logistic Costs Optimization Solution in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Majerčák, Peter; Masárová, Gabriela; Buc, Daniel; Majerčáková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on the possibility of using the costs simulation in supply chain, which are on relative high level. Our goal is to determine the costs using logistic costs optimization which must necessarily be used in business activities in the supply chain management. The paper emphasizes the need to perform not isolated optimization in the whole supply chain. Our goal is to compare classic approach, when every part tracks its costs isolated, a try to minimize them, with the system (l...

  1. The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries.

  2. Computer software to estimate timber harvesting system production, cost, and revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. John E. Baumgras; Dr. Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    Large variations in timber harvesting cost and revenue can result from the differences between harvesting systems, the variable attributes of harvesting sites and timber stands, or changing product markets. Consequently, system and site specific estimates of production rates and costs are required to improve estimates of harvesting revenue. This paper describes...

  3. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  4. A Stochastic Market Design With Revenue Adequacy and Cost Recovery by Scenario: Benefits and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2018-01-01

    Two desirable properties of electricity market mechanisms include: i) revenue adequacy for the market, and ii) cost recovery for all generators. Previously proposed stochastic market-clearing mechanisms satisfy both properties in expectation only, or satisfy one property by scenario and another...... scheme that ensures both properties by scenario. However, this approach is cost-inefficient in general and may sacrifice other desirable market attributes. Undesirable consequences include: one group of participants will have to pay more to ensure that all other participants have their costs covered......, and thus their prices will not be equilibrium supporting; and day-ahead and real-time prices are not arbitraged in expectation, although this can be fixed by allowing virtual bidders to arbitrage but at the potential cost of increased market inefficiency. Considering these pros and cons, we propose our...

  5. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  6. System cost model user's manual, version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.

    1995-06-01

    The System Cost Model (SCM) was developed by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies in Idaho Falls, Idaho and MK-Environmental Services in San Francisco, California to support the Baseline Environmental Management Report sensitivity analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The SCM serves the needs of the entire DOE complex for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. The model can be used to evaluate total complex costs based on various configuration options or to evaluate site-specific options. The site-specific cost estimates are based on generic assumptions such as waste loads and densities, treatment processing schemes, existing facilities capacities and functions, storage and disposal requirements, schedules, and cost factors. The SCM allows customization of the data for detailed site-specific estimates. There are approximately forty TSD module designs that have been further customized to account for design differences for nonalpha, alpha, remote-handled, and transuranic wastes. The SCM generates cost profiles based on the model default parameters or customized user-defined input and also generates costs for transporting waste from generators to TSD sites

  7. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This year, our report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2017 (Q1 2017). Costs are represented from the perspective of the developer/installer, thus all hardware costs represent the price at which components are purchased by the developer/installer, not accounting for preexisting supply agreements or other contracts. Importantly, the benchmark this year (2017) also represents the sales price paid to the installer; therefore, it includes profit in the cost of the hardware, along with the profit the installer/developer receives, as a separate cost category. However, it does not include any additional net profit, such as a developer fee or price gross-up, which are common in the marketplace. We adopt this approach owing to the wide variation in developer profits in all three sectors, where project pricing is highly dependent on region and project specifics such as local retail electricity rate structures, local rebate and incentive structures, competitive environment, and overall project or deal structures.

  8. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chick, Lawrence A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  9. Cost estimation of a standalone photovoltaic power system in remote areas of Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhrani, A.Q.; Othman, A.K.; Rigit, A.R.H.; Samo, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the anticipated costs incurred from a standalone solar photovoltaic power system for the supply of electricity to the rural community in Sarawak, Malaysia. The life cycle cost analysis with net present value technique was employed for the evaluation of cost system. It was found that purchasing of solar photovoltaic components and the system installation cost will contribute 63% of the total investment and future anticipated costs will add to the remaining. Recurring cost will make 25% and components replacements 75% of future anticipated costs. It was discovered that the power generated from the solar photovoltaic system would be 38 times more expensive than electricity produced from the conventional sources. However, its installation in remote areas could be favourable where the grid-connected power supply is not accessible. (author)

  10. The System 80+ standard plant design reduces operations and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chari, D.R.; Robertson, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To be cost-competitive, nuclear power plants must maximize plant availability and minimize operations and maintenance (O and M) costs. A plant whose design supports these goals will generate more power at less cost and thereby have a lower unit generating cost. The ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) System 80+ Standard Nuclear Power Plant, rated at 1400 megawatts electric (MWe), is designed for high availability at reduced cost. To demonstrate that the duration of refueling outages, the major contributor to plant unavailability, can be shortened, ABB-CE developed a detailed plan that shows a System 80+ plant can safely perform a refueling and maintenance outage in 18 days. This is a significant reduction from the average current U.S. plant outages of 45 days, and is possible due to a two-part outage strategy: use System 80+ advanced system design features and relaxed technical specification (TS) time limits to shift some maintenance from outages to operating periods: and, use System 80+ structural, system, and component features, such as the larger operating floor, permanent pool seal, integral reactor head area cable tray system and missile shield, and longer life reactor coolant pump seals, to reduce the scope and duration of outage maintenance activities. Plant staffing level is the major variable, or controllable contributor to operations costs. ABB-CE worked with the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) to perform detailed staffing analyses that show a System 80+ plant can be operated reliably with 30 percent less staff than currently operating nuclear plants of similar size. Safety was not sacrificed when ABB-CE developed the System 80+ refueling outage plan and staffing level. The outage plan was developed utilizing a defense-in-depth concept for shutdown safety. The defense in-depth concept is implemented via systematic control of outage risk evaluation (SCORE) cards. The SCORE cards identify primary and alternate means of

  11. Preventive health screenings and health consultations in primary care increase life expectancy without increasing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne R; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Kilsmark, Janni

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The intention was to investigate whether preventive health checks and health discussions are cost effective. METHODS: In a randomized trial the authors compared two intervention groups (A and B) and one control group. In 1991 2,000 30- to 49-year-old persons were invited and those who...... were given fixed appointments for health consultations. The follow-up period was six years. Analysis was carried out on the "intention to treat" principle. Outcome parameters were life years gained, and direct and total health costs (including productivity costs), discounted by 3% annually. Costs were...... in average direct (3,255 euro (3,703 euro) versus 4,186 euro) and total costs (10,409 euro (9,399 euro) versus 10,667 euro). The effect in group B is, however, better than in group A with no significant differences in costs. The results are insensitive to a range of assumptions regarding costs, effects...

  12. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  13. Impacts of Transportation Cost on Distribution-Free Newsboy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A distribution-free newsboy problem (DFNP has been launched for a vendor to decide a product’s stock quantity in a single-period inventory system to sustain its least maximum-expected profits when combating fierce and diverse market circumstances. Nowadays, impacts of transportation cost on determination of optimal inventory quantity have become attentive, where its influence on the DFNP has not been fully investigated. By borrowing an economic theory from transportation disciplines, in this paper the DFNP is tackled in consideration of the transportation cost formulated as a function of shipping quantity and modeled as a nonlinear regression form from UPS’s on-site shipping-rate data. An optimal solution of the order quantity is computed on the basis of Newton’s approach to ameliorating its complexity of computation. As a result of comparative studies, lower bounds of the maximal expected profit of our proposed methodologies surpass those of existing work. Finally, we extend the analysis to several practical inventory cases including fixed ordering cost, random yield, and a multiproduct condition.

  14. Cost Allocation of Transmission Losses in Electric Market Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Dermawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to calculate cost allocation of transmission losses (losses, based on a certain price of energy (i.e. a marginal price of system. Here is developed a mathematic model through manipulating of the network equation to separate losses. This model uses complex power injection and, does not use approximations and assumptions in determining the cost allocation of losses. Its calculation begins from the results of load flow calculation and then is continued to calculate power distribution from a generator to every load and every line. Finally, to be calculated separating of losses and cost allocation of losses. The proposed method is easy to be understood and applied. An illustration results on IEEE 14-bus system show that the method is always consistent with expectancies and somewhat different with a few reference methods.

  15. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Elaine; Hassler, Morris

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Y-12 National Security Complex supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material that is then fabricated into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past two to three years, Y-12 has learned a great deal about its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts that have been declared as surplus. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear non-proliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and by helping to disposition former weapons material. We clearly understand that our customers want to keep fuel costs as low as possible. We at Y-12 are making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. This paper will discuss the new standard specification that we have proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product that is less expensive to produce. This new product is expected to decrease overall fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  16. [Financing, organization, costs and services performance of the Argentinean health sub-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavich, Natalia; Báscolo, Ernesto Pablo; Haggerty, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between health system financing and services organization models with costs and health services performance in each of Rosario's health sub-systems. The financing and organization models were characterized using secondary data. Costs were calculated using the WHO/SHA methodology. Healthcare quality was measured by a household survey (n=822). Public subsystem:Vertically integrated funding and primary healthcare as a leading strategy to provide services produced low costs and individual-oriented healthcare but with weak accessibility conditions and comprehensiveness. Private subsystem: Contractual integration and weak regulatory and coordination mechanisms produced effects opposed to those of the public sub-system. Social security: Contractual integration and strong regulatory and coordination mechanisms contributed to intermediate costs and overall high performance. Each subsystem financing and services organization model had a strong and heterogeneous influence on costs and health services performance.

  17. Cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts and radwaste system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, K.N.; Yook, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    During operation of nuclear power plant, radioactive material is inevitably formed. This radioactive material must be safely processed by radwaste system so that essentially zero activity is released to the environment. However zero released activity is not really practicable and population doses resulted from released activity are proportional to total annual cost for the radwaste system. In this study, cost-benefit analysis for the radwaste system of the Korean Nuclear Units 5 and 6 is performed to evaluate the optimization between the total annual cost for the radwaste system and population doses within 80 km from the plants. From the analysis, the following results are obtained; 1. the total population dose is estimated 4.04 x 10 3 man-rem/year, 2. total annual cost for the radwaste system is required $ 1.74 x 10 6 , 3. cost-benefit ratio is estimated $ 429/man-rem. (Author)

  18. Performance and cost assessment of solar driven humidification dehumidification desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M. Ifras; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Antar, M.A.; Al-Dini, Salem A.; Ibrahim, Nasiru I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of a new HDH system integrated solar evacuated tubes collectors was conducted. • The mathematical models developed for the collector and the HDH system were validated. • A multi-location analysis was then performed for six locations in Saudi Arabia. • Sharurah was found to have the highest annual output and Dhahran the lowest at 19,445 and 16,430 L. • The cost per liter of water produced varies from $0.032 to $0.038, depends on the location. - Abstract: A humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with solar evacuated tubes was optimized. Then, the optimized system was assessed for the operation in different geographical locations, and the rate of freshwater production and cost per liter were determined in each location. The system design proposed in this paper uses a heat pipe design evacuated tube collector, which performs significantly better based on cost. An HDH desalination system with a closed-air/open-water loop, connected to the collector, was evaluated to determine the optimum operating parameters and the system performance during daytime (from 8 am to 3 pm), as well as the average day of each month for an entire year. The impact of the effectiveness of the humidifier and the dehumidifier, as well as, the number of collectors, were also studied. The analyses were performed for Dhahran, Jeddah, Riyadh, Sharurah, Qassim, and Tabuk to determine the effects of varying the geographical location. Sharurah has the highest calculated productivity of freshwater and Dhahran has the lowest at 19,445 and 16,430 L, respectively. To have a comprehensive study of the system proposed, a cost analysis was also performed to determine the feasibility of the system and the cost of water production. Results show that the price varied from $0.032 to $0.038 per liter for the locations evaluated.

  19. Highly integrated image sensors enable low-cost imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Paul K.; Lake, Don; Chalmers, David; Hurwitz, J. E. D.

    1997-09-01

    The highest barriers to wide scale implementation of vision systems have been cost. This is closely followed by the level of difficulty of putting a complete imaging system together. As anyone who has every been in the position of creating a vision system knows, the various bits and pieces supplied by the many vendors are not under any type of standardization control. In short, unless you are an expert in imaging, electrical interfacing, computers, digital signal processing, and high speed storage techniques, you will likely spend more money trying to do it yourself rather than to buy the exceedingly expensive systems available. Another alternative is making headway into the imaging market however. The growing investment in highly integrated CMOS based imagers is addressing both the cost and the system integration difficulties. This paper discusses the benefits gained from CMOS based imaging, and how these benefits are already being applied.

  20. Determinants of use and non-use of a web-based communication system in cerebral palsy care: evaluating the association between professionals' system use and their a priori expectancies and background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Harten Wim H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we described parents' and professionals' experiences with a web-based communication system in a 6-month pilot in three Dutch cerebral palsy care settings. We found that half of the participating professionals had not used the system, and of those who had used the system one third had used it only once. The present study aimed to evaluate whether professionals' system use was associated with their a priori expectancies and background. Methods Professionals who had not used the system (n = 54 were compared with professionals who had used the system more than once (n = 46 on the basis of their questionnaire responses before the pilot, their affiliation and the number of patients which they represented in the study. The questionnaire items comprised professionals' expectancies regarding the system's performance and ease of use, as well as the expected time availability and integration into daily care practice. Results Overall, users had higher a priori expectancies than non-users. System use was associated with expected ease of use (p = .046 and time availability (p = .005: 50% of the users (vs. 31% of the non-users expected that the system would be easy to use and 93% of the users (vs. 72% of the non-users expected that they would be able to reserve a time slot each week for responding to submitted questions. With respect to professionals' affiliation, system use was associated with professionals' institution (p = .003 and discipline (p = .001, with more (para- medical professionals among users (93% vs. 63% among non-users, and more education professionals among non-users (37% vs. 7% among users. In addition, users represented more patients (mean 2, range 1-8 than non-users (mean 1.1, range 1-2 (p = .000. Conclusions Professionals' system use was associated with expected ease of use and time availability, professionals' affiliation and the number of represented patients, while no association was found with expected

  1. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  2. A Transparent Framework for Evaluating the Effects of DGPV on Distribution System Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ding, Fei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Assessing the costs and benefits of distributed photovoltaic generators (DGPV) to the power system and electricity consumers is key to determining appropriate policies, tariff designs, and power system upgrades for the modern grid. We advance understanding of this topic by providing a transparent framework, terminology, and data set for evaluating distribution system upgrade costs, line losses, and interconnection costs as a function of DGPV penetration level.

  3. COST ACCOUNTING AS THE KEY INFORMATION CORE OF THE COMPANY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Jablan STEFANOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The management is expected to lead the company towards the achievement of set objectives which, in the contemporary settings of marked external and internal complexity, inevitably requires sophisticated expert knowledge and skills, as well as quality information support. Cost accounting generates cost and performance information with the goal of qualitatively meeting information needs of, above all, internal users. It represents the essential part of the company’s accounting information system as a whole and it is often stressed as the key information core and a reliable information support for the company’s management in performing their managerial activities. The contemporary business environment inevitably requires the restructuring of cost accounting and new approaches to costing and cost management, in the attempt to improve the quality of cost information that has always been the object of particular interest. Moreover, only a flexibly designed cost accounting information system can qualitatively respond to the increasingly numerous and various information requirements. In this paper we discuss the role cost accounting has in offering adequate information support to managers at all managerial levels. We emphasize some of the new tools, techniques, concepts and approaches to costing and cost management

  4. Transmission expansion cost allocation based on cooperative game theory for congestion relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erli, Ge; Takahasi, Kazuhiro; Kurihara, Ikuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Luonan Chen [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    In conventional power systems, upstream and downstream of power were distinct. However, due to the competition, power injection and sink can appear at unexpected locations, and cost sharing for such a new power system configuration must be considered. This paper proposes a scheme for transmission expansion cost allocation among electric market participants by using Core and Nucleolus concepts of game theory, which are developed particularly for the transmission users. A solution of the n-person cooperative game is adopted to distribute the line transmission expansion cost among the players. Congestion is assumed to be the transmission constraint, and expansion of transmission line is expected to relieve transmission congestion. A case study is illustrated to demonstrate the proposed method. (Author)

  5. FlexSAR, a high quality, flexible, cost effective, prototype SAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark; Knight, Chad; Haslem, Brent

    2016-05-01

    The FlexSAR radar system was designed to be a high quality, low-cost, flexible research prototype instrument. Radar researchers and practitioners often desire the ability to prototype new or advanced configurations, yet the ability to enhance or upgrade existing radar systems can be cost prohibitive. FlexSAR answers the need for a flexible radar system that can be extended easily, with minimal cost and time expenditures. The design approach focuses on reducing the resources required for developing and validating new advanced radar modalities. Such an approach fosters innovation and provides risk reduction since actual radar data can be collected in the appropriate mode, processed, and analyzed early in the development process. This allows for an accurate, detailed understanding of the corresponding trade space. This paper is a follow-on to last years paper and discusses the advancements that have been made to the FlexSAR system. The overall system architecture is discussed and presented along with several examples illustrating the system utility.

  6. Coercion, prohibition and great expectations: The continuing failure of the Common European Asylum System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.; Rijpma, J.; Spijkerboer, T.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution explains the European asylum policy crisis from three structural weaknesses of the Common European Asylum System: its reliance on coercion within the EU, its unrealistic expectations of what borders can achieve and the premise of prohibition of refugee movement in its external

  7. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs: Cost of Capital, Trading Volume, and Investor Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show that public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. In a model with exponential utility investors and an asset with a normally distributed dividend...... information system. In an effectively complete market setting, in which investors do not need to trade dynamically in order to take full advantage of their differences in beliefs, the ex ante cost of capital and the investor welfare are both higher than in the incomplete market setting......, the Pareto efficient public information system is the system which enjoys the maximum ex ante cost of capital, and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. The public information system facilitates improved dynamic trading opportunities based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs in order to take...

  8. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs: Cost of Capital, Trading Volume, and Investor Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    information system. In an effectively complete market setting, in which investors do not need to trade dynamically in order to take full advantage of their differences in beliefs, the ex ante cost of capital and the investor welfare are both higher than in the incomplete market setting......In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show that public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. In a model with exponential utility investors and an asset with a normally distributed dividend......, the Pareto efficient public information system is the system which enjoys the maximum ex ante cost of capital, and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. The public information system facilitates improved dynamic trading opportunities based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs in order to take...

  9. Direct costs of emergency medical care: a diagnosis-based case-mix classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraff, L J; Cameron, J M; Sekhon, R

    1991-01-01

    To develop a diagnosis-based case mix classification system for emergency department patient visits based on direct costs of care designed for an outpatient setting. Prospective provider time study with collection of financial data from each hospital's accounts receivable system and medical information, including discharge diagnosis, from hospital medical records. Three community hospital EDs in Los Angeles County during selected times in 1984. Only direct costs of care were included: health care provider time, ED management and clerical personnel excluding registration, nonlabor ED expense including supplies, and ancillary hospital services. Indirect costs for hospitals and physicians, including depreciation and amortization, debt service, utilities, malpractice insurance, administration, billing, registration, and medical records were not included. Costs were derived by valuing provider time based on a formula using annual income or salary and fringe benefits, productivity and direct care factors, and using hospital direct cost to charge ratios. Physician costs were based on a national study of emergency physician income and excluded practice costs. Patients were classified into one of 216 emergency department groups (EDGs) on the basis of the discharge diagnosis, patient disposition, age, and the presence of a limited number of physician procedures. Total mean direct costs ranged from $23 for follow-up visit to $936 for trauma, admitted, with critical care procedure. The mean total direct costs for the 16,771 nonadmitted patients was $69. Of this, 34% was for ED costs, 45% was for ancillary service costs, and 21% was for physician costs. The mean total direct costs for the 1,955 admitted patients was $259. Of this, 23% was for ED costs, 63% was for ancillary service costs, and 14% was for physician costs. Laboratory and radiographic services accounted for approximately 85% of all ancillary service costs and 38% of total direct costs for nonadmitted patients

  10. Cost Estimates for the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Eight ORNL Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains a number of buildings that are antiquated and no longer used. These buildings historically were used for the production of atomic weapons and often remain contaminated with radioactive materials. Certain costs and risks are associated with the long-term stewardship of the buildings. One way to reduce these liabilities is to eliminate the buildings that are no longer in use and are not expected to be used in the future. Some of these buildings at ORNL are located in an area known as 'Isotope Circle'. From this area, eight buildings that are expected to be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) in the next five to ten years were chosen to have cost estimates completed. The specific facilities are Buildings 3030, 3031, 3118, 3032, 3033, 3033 Annex, 3034, and 3093. There are many challenges for estimating the costs to D and D buildings potentially contaminated with radionuclides. Each building is unique, has various types and levels of contamination, and (as in this case) often lacks up-to-date information. Because of these limitations, order-of- magnitude cost estimates for each of the eight ORNL buildings were completed using parametric cost modeling software known as RACER TM (Remedial Action Cost Engineering and Requirements System). This type of cost estimate is useful for screening technical concepts and is used for budgetary planning. For the eight buildings evaluated in this study, the total cost to D and D was estimated to be nearly $6 M. This value includes the direct cost of approximately $3.5 M to complete D and D and $2.5 M in cost markups. Also, assuming the actual project does not begin until the year 2010, this total cost is escalated to almost $6.7 M, which accounts for expected inflation. Although the cost estimates in this study were expected to have a wide range in accuracy, there are various factors that could impact these estimates in a negative or positive fashion

  11. Analysis of the equilibrium trip cost accounting for the fuel cost in a single-lane traffic system without late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the fuel cost into each commuter's trip cost, define a new trip cost without late arrival and its corresponding equilibrium state, and use a car-following model to explore the impacts of the fuel cost on each commuter's departure time, departure interval, arrival time, arrival interval, traveling time, early arrival time and trip cost at the above equilibrium state. The numerical results show that considering the fuel cost in each commuter's trip cost has positive impacts on his trip cost and fuel cost, and the traffic situation in the system without late arrival, i.e., each commuter should explicitly consider the fuel cost in his trip cost.

  12. A HEDONIC APPROACH TO ESTIMATING OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS FOR NEW YORK MUNICIPAL WATER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Todd M.; Boisvert, Richard N.

    1997-01-01

    A hedonic cost function is used to isolate the operation and maintenance costs for water treatments. For small systems, costs are substantial for some technologies, but not for others. When regional differences in input costs are accounted for, small systems located in rural areas may have a cost advantage over similar systems closer to urban centers; however, costs of water treatment to meet Safe Drinking Water Act amendments may still be substantial.

  13. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A DG INTEGRATED SYSTEM: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. V. S. S. SAILAJA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation is capable of meeting the load of the consumers partially or completely. Depending on the type of DG involved it can be operated in interconnected mode and islanded mode. The availability of numerous alternatives present for the DG technologies and large initial investments necessitates a detailed cost benefit analysis for the implementation of DG technologies. In this work an attempt has been made to study the costs involved in implementing the DG technologies. A practical system having two kinds of distributed generation i.e., Diesel Generator and solar photovoltaic system for its back up purpose is considered. A detailed cost analysis of the two DG technologies is carried out.

  14. Are tradable green certificates a cost-efficient policy driving technical change or a rent-generating machine? Lessons from Sweden 2003-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergek, Anna; Jacobsson, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    In the European policy debate, tradable green certificates (TGC) have been suggested to be a superior regulatory framework for promoting the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies. The purpose of this paper is to assess the performance of the Swedish TGC system, contributing to the European debate on the suitability of different types of frameworks. The expectations of the TGC system were that it would: (a) be effective in terms of increasing the supply of 'green' electricity; (b) do this in a cost effective manner (from both a social and a consumer perspective); (c) generate an equitable distribution of costs and benefits and (d) drive technical change. So far, it has performed adequately in terms of effectiveness and social cost effectiveness. However, consumer costs have been substantially higher than expected, very large rents are generated and, at best, it contributes marginally to technical change. Thus, a TGC framework should be selected if the overriding concern is to minimize short term social costs of reaching a certain goal with a high degree of predictability. However, it cannot be expected to also drive technical change, keep consumer costs down and be equitable. Such trade-offs need to be revealed and not obscured by analysts.

  15. BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Archibald, Sandra O.

    1998-01-01

    As the number and cost of environmental regulations have increased over the last thirty years, the regulated community, taxpayers, and policy makers have begun to demand that the benefits of regulations justify their costs. The use of benefit-cost analysis as an integral part of developing new regulations is increasing and the demands and expectations being placed on the method have expanded. Although benefit-cost analysis is expected to play an even greater role in environmental decision mak...

  16. Diversification of fuel costs accounting for load variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangpattana, Suriya; Preckel, Paul V.; Gotham, Douglas J.; Muthuraman, Kumar; Velástegui, Marco; Morin, Thomas L.; Uhan, Nelson A.

    2012-01-01

    A practical mathematical programming model for the strategic fuel diversification problem is presented. The model is designed to consider the tradeoffs between the expected costs of investments in capacity, operating and maintenance costs, average fuel costs, and the variability of fuel costs. In addition, the model is designed to take the load curve into account at a high degree of resolution, while keeping the computational burden at a practical level. The model is illustrated with a case study for Indiana's power generation system. The model reveals that an effective means of reducing the volatility of the system-level fuel costs is through the reduction of dependence on coal-fired generation with an attendant shift towards nuclear generation. Model results indicate that about a 25% reduction in the standard deviation of the generation costs can be achieved with about a 20–25% increase in average fuel costs. Scenarios that incorporate costs for carbon dioxide emissions or a moratorium on nuclear capacity additions are also presented. Highlights: ► We propose a fuel price risk management model for generation investments accounting for load shape. ► The formulation incorporates a highly refined load curve while maintaining tractability. ► We demonstrate the model for planning generation investments in the state of Indiana for 2025. ► Scenarios reflect charges for CO 2 emissions and a moratorium on new nuclear power.

  17. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Coates, K.S.; Birkhofer, K.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investig......The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system...... to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly...... and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival...

  18. Cost/schedule performance measurement system utilized on the Fast Flux Test Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.K.; Frost, R.A.; Zimmerman, F.M.

    1976-01-01

    An Earned Value-Integrated Cost/Schedule Performance Measurement System has been applied to a major nonmilitary nuclear design and construction project. This system is similar to the Department of Defense Cost/Schedule Performance Measurement System. The project is the Fast Flux Test Facility (a Fuels and Materials test reactor for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program) being built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, Washington, by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Because the project was well into the construction phase when the Earned Value System was being considered, it was decided that the principles of DOD's Cost/Schedule Control System Criteria would be applied to the extent possible but no major changes in accounting practices or management systems were imposed. Implementation of this system enabled the following questions to be answered: For work performed, how do actual costs compare with the budget for that work. What is the impact of cost and schedule variances at an overall project level composed of different kinds of activities. Without the Earned Value system, these questions could be answered in a qualitative, subjective manner at best

  19. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  20. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica, E-mail: vems@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kromann, Mikkel A. [COWI A/S, Parallelvej 2, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  1. AES, Automated Construction Cost Estimation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: AES (Automated Estimating System) enters and updates the detailed cost, schedule, contingency, and escalation information contained in a typical construction or other project cost estimates. It combines this information to calculate both un-escalated and escalated and cash flow values for the project. These costs can be reported at varying levels of detail. AES differs from previous versions in at least the following ways: The schedule is entered at the WBS-Participant, Activity level - multiple activities can be assigned to each WBS-Participant combination; the spending curve is defined at the schedule activity level and a weighing factor is defined which determines percentage of cost for the WBS-Participant applied to the schedule activity; Schedule by days instead of Fiscal Year/Quarter; Sales Tax is applied at the Line Item Level- a sales tax codes is selected to indicate Material, Large Single Item, or Professional Services; a 'data filter' has been added to allow user to define data the report is to be generated for. B - Method of solution: Average Escalation Rate: The average escalation for a Bill of is calculated in three steps. 1. A table of quarterly escalation factors is calculated based on the base fiscal year and quarter of the project entered in the estimate record and the annual escalation rates entered in the Standard Value File. 2. The percentage distribution of costs by quarter for the Bill of Material is calculated based on the schedule entered and the curve type. 3. The percent in each fiscal year and quarter in the distribution is multiplied by the escalation factor for the fiscal year and quarter. The sum of these results is the average escalation rate for that Bill of Material. Schedule by curve: The allocation of costs to specific time periods is dependent on three inputs, starting schedule date, ending schedule date, and the percentage of costs allocated to each quarter. Contingency Analysis: The

  2. Development of low-cost high-performance multispectral camera system at Banpil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Olah, Robert; Dutta, Achyut K.

    2014-05-01

    Banpil Photonics (Banpil) has developed a low-cost high-performance multispectral camera system for Visible to Short- Wave Infrared (VIS-SWIR) imaging for the most demanding high-sensitivity and high-speed military, commercial and industrial applications. The 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled camera system is designed to provide a compact, smallform factor to within a cubic inch, high sensitivity needing less than 100 electrons, high dynamic range exceeding 190 dB, high-frame rates greater than 1000 frames per second (FPS) at full resolution, and low power consumption below 1W. This is practically all the feature benefits highly desirable in military imaging applications to expand deployment to every warfighter, while also maintaining a low-cost structure demanded for scaling into commercial markets. This paper describes Banpil's development of the camera system including the features of the image sensor with an innovation integrating advanced digital electronics functionality, which has made the confluence of high-performance capabilities on the same imaging platform practical at low cost. It discusses the strategies employed including innovations of the key components (e.g. focal plane array (FPA) and Read-Out Integrated Circuitry (ROIC)) within our control while maintaining a fabless model, and strategic collaboration with partners to attain additional cost reductions on optics, electronics, and packaging. We highlight the challenges and potential opportunities for further cost reductions to achieve a goal of a sub-$1000 uncooled high-performance camera system. Finally, a brief overview of emerging military, commercial and industrial applications that will benefit from this high performance imaging system and their forecast cost structure is presented.

  3. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  4. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  5. Cost-effective control policies for multi-echelon distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, E.B.; Kok, de A.G.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider a divergent multi-echelon inventory system, e.g., a distribution system or a production system. At every stockpoint orders are placed periodically. The order arrives after a fixed lead time. At the end of each period linear costs may be incurred at each stockpoint for

  6. Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (≅ 10 GeV) heavy (A ≅ 200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments is amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules are described. Large cost leverage items are identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency

  7. Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

    1985-11-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (approx. =10 GeV) heavy (CAapprox.200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules will be described. Large cost leverage items will be identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. 13 refs., 2 figs

  8. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  9. Activity-based costing for pathology examinations and comparison with the current pricing system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Ferda A K; Ağirbaş, Ismail; Kuzu, Işınsu

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the real cost data of the pathology examinations by using the activity-based costing method and to contribute to the financial planning of the departments, health managers and also the social security institution. Forty-four examinations selected from the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list and performed at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Pathology Department during September 2010 were studied. The analysis and the real cost calculations were done according to the duration of the procedures. Calculated costs were compared with the Healthcare Implementation Notification system and Medicare price lists. The costs of the pathology tests listed within the same pricing levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list showed great differences. The minimum and maximum costs in level 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 15,98-80,15 TL, 15,95-258,59 TL, 42,38- 236,87 TL, and 124,42-406,76 TL, respectively. Medicare price levels were more consistent with the real costs of the examinations compared to the Healthcare Implementation Notification system price list. The prices of the pathology examination listed at different levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system lists do not cover the real costs of the work done. The principal parameters of Activity-Based Costing system are more suitable for making the most realistic cost categorization. Although the prices could differ between countries, the Medicare system categories are more realistic than the Healthcare Implementation Notification system. The Healthcare Implementation Notification system list needs to be revised in order to reflect the real costs of the pathology examinations.

  10. A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2008-10-01

    System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.

  11. Implementation of a low-cost, commercial orbit determination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Traditional satellite and launch control systems have consisted of custom solutions requiring significant development and maintenance costs. These systems have typically been designed to support specific program requirements and are expensive to modify and augment after delivery. The expanding role of space in today's marketplace combined with the increased sophistication and capabilities of modern satellites has created a need for more efficient, lower cost solutions to complete command and control systems. Recent technical advances have resulted in commercial-off-the-shelf products which greatly reduce the complete life-cycle costs associated with satellite launch and control system procurements. System integrators and spacecraft operators have, however, been slow to integrate these commercial based solutions into a comprehensive command and control system. This is due, in part, to a resistance to change and the fact that many available products are unable to effectively communicate with other commercial products. The United States Air Force, responsible for the health and safety of over 84 satellites via its Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), has embarked on an initiative to prove that commercial products can be used effectively to form a comprehensive command and control system. The initial version of this system is being installed at the Air Force's Center for Research Support (CERES) located at the National Test Facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The first stage of this initiative involved the identification of commercial products capable of satisfying each functional element of a command and control system. A significant requirement in this product selection criteria was flexibility and ability to integrate with other available commercial products. This paper discusses the functions and capabilities of the product selected to provide orbit determination functions for this comprehensive command and control system.

  12. Breast cancer screening; cost-effective in practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, Harry J. de

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of national breast screening is a reduction in breast cancer mortality. The data on the reduction in breast cancer mortality from three (of the five) Swedish trials in particular gave rise to the expectation that the Dutch programme of 2-yearly screening for women aged 50-70 would produce a 16% reduction in the total population. In all likelihood, many of the years of life gained as a result of screening are enjoyed in good health. According to its critics the actual benefit that can be achieved from the national breast cancer screening programmes is overstated. Considerable benefits have recently been demonstrated in England and Wales. However, the fall was so considerable in such a relatively short space of time that screening (started in 1987) was thought to only have played a small part. As far as the Dutch screening programme is concerned it is still too early to reach any conclusions about a possible reduction in mortality. The first short-term results of the screening are favourable and as good as (or better than) expectations. In Swedish regions where mammographic screening was introduced, a 19% reduction in breast cancer mortality can be estimated at population level, and recently a 20% reduction was presented in the UK. In countries where women are expected to make appointments for screening themselves, the attendance figures are significantly lower and the quality of the process as a whole is sometimes poorer. The benefits of breast cancer screening need to be carefully balanced against the burden to women and to the health care system. Mass breast screening requires many resources and will be a costly service. Cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme can be estimated using a computer model. Published cost-effectiveness ratios may differ tremendously, but are often the result of different types of calculation, time periods considered, including or excluding downstream cost. The approach of simulation and estimation is here

  13. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  14. Design aspects of the Alpha Repository. V. Suite selection and cost analysis of excavation/hauling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, T.J.; Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The various types of haulage and excavation equipment that may be suitable for use in the development and excavation of the Alpha repository are described with discussion of the advantages, disadvantages, expected costs, availability, and special features of each. The various equipment suites are delineated, and the costs of mining and transportation of the salt are presented and discussed. Individual manufacturers contacted and equipment considered are listed. Most of the equipment is ''off-the-shelf''; however, some manufactuers were contacted that do custom work because of their expertise in salt mining equipment. The costs of custom equipment are comparable to those for standard equipment

  15. Estimating the Effects of Module Area on Thin-Film Photovoltaic System Costs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Xingshu [Purdue University; Alam, Muhammad A [Purdue University

    2018-03-29

    We investigate the potential effects of module area on the cost and performance of photovoltaic systems. Applying a bottom-up methodology, we analyzed the costs associated with thin-film modules and systems as a function of module area. We calculate a potential for savings of up to 0.10 dollars/W and 0.13 dollars/W in module manufacturing costs for CdTe and CIGS respectively, with large area modules. We also find that an additional 0.04 dollars/W savings in balance-of-systems costs may be achieved. Sensitivity of the dollar/W cost savings to module efficiency, manufacturing yield, and other parameters is presented. Lifetime energy yield must also be maintained to realize reductions in the levelized cost of energy; the effects of module size on energy yield for monolithic thin-film modules are not yet well understood. Finally, we discuss possible non-cost barriers to adoption of large area modules.

  16. HTGR molten salt sensible energy transmission and storage system design and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report, which was prepared for Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates by United Engineers and Constructors under Contract No. GCRA/UE and C 81-203, presents the design and cost for a molten salt Sensible Energy Transmission and Storage (SETS) System. Although the reference system for this study is sized to be compatible with an 1170 MW(t) HTGR Nuclear Heat Source, the results and conclusions should be generally applicable to most large scale molten salt energy transmission system applications. A preliminary conceptual design is presented and alternative configurations are discussed. The sensitivity of system costs to variations in important system parameters are also presented. Costs for a reference case conceptual design are reported in constant 1980 dollars and inflated 1995 dollars

  17. Sub-Saharan African Students’ Experiences, Perceptions, and Expectations with American Health Services: An Intercultural Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia L. McCalman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding patients‟ cultural expectations could contribute to better health outcomes and decrease cultural health disparities. This qualitative pilot study objective was to explore experiences, perceptions, and expectations of males and females Angolan students as patients in America. Eighteen face-to-face interviews were conducted at a Midwestern university. Burgoon‟s expectancy violation theory (1991 was the theoretical background. Results revealed as positive expectation violations an advanced technology, quality of services, medicine availability, and emphasis on preventive care. Negative expectation violations included high service costs, complicated insurance system, short medical encounters, and difficulty in building relational history with providers. The study also revealed that culturally related communication barriers as well as negative violations of expectations hinder the quality of intercultural clinical encounters and can affect health outcomes. Participants emphasized the importance of these interpersonal relations and their connection with perceptions of caregivers‟ professional competence. International patients/students revealed that they believe friendliness on the part of the caregiver is a signal that they are dealing with a “good” doctor or nurse. Intercultural competence is an important asset of caregivers who work in multicultural clinics and in college health. Practical implications emerged in international advising and clinician‟s education.

  18. Information system technologies' role in augmenting dermatologists' knowledge of prescription medication costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Sebastian S; Paul, Ravi; Kilpatrick, Russell J

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent rising costs of once affordable dermatologic prescription medications, a survey measuring dermatologists' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of the cost of drugs they commonly prescribe has not been conducted. Awareness of drug costs is hindered by a lack of access to data about the prices of medicines. No surveys of physicians have addressed this issue by proposing new information system technologies that augment prescription medication price transparency and measuring how receptive physicians are to using these novel solutions in their daily clinical practice. Our research aims to investigate these topics with a survey of physicians in dermatology. Members of the North Carolina Dermatology Association were contacted through their electronic mailing list and asked to take an online survey. The survey asked several questions about dermatologists' attitudes and beliefs about drug costs. To measure their knowledge of prescription medications, the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost was used as an authoritative price that was compared to the survey takers' price estimates of drugs commonly used in dermatology. Physicians' willingness to use four distinct information system technologies that increase drug price transparency was also assessed. Dermatologists believe drug costs are an important factor in patient care and believe access to price information would allow them to provide a higher quality of care. Dermatologists' knowledge of the costs of medicines they commonly prescribe is poor, but they want to utilize information system technologies that increase access to drug pricing information. There is an unmet demand for information system technologies which increase price transparency of medications in dermatology. Physicians and IT professionals have the opportunity to create novel information systems that can be utilized to help guide cost conscious clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Costing for decommissioning: Continuing NEA engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillogly, Mari; Weber, Inge; ); Siemann, Michael; )

    2017-01-01

    On 20-21 September 2016, the International Conference on Financing of Decommissioning of nuclear power plants was held in Stockholm, Sweden. The conference focused on the exchange and sharing of information on current and emerging issues in the financing of nuclear power plant decommissioning and the underlying costs of decommissioning. It aimed at providing a good picture of the variety of financing systems in place to cover the costs of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As an increasing number of nuclear reactors are expected to be permanently shut-down and enter into the decommissioning phase, the conference highlighted challenges for financing and delivering these decommissioning activities and explored the ways in which they were being addressed. This also included consideration of the implications of potentially under-funded or uncertain decommissioning liabilities. The insights gained in the course of the conference informed future development of work on these issues. The conference addressed a variety of issues from a range of perspectives under three main themes: financing systems - the variety of financing systems in place to provide the financial resources needed for decommissioning, including the arrangements for collecting and developing financial resources during operation and drawing down the assets during decommissioning activities, as well as oversight and reporting issues; decommissioning costing - understanding the cost estimates, quality and interpretation issues in decommissioning costing, the challenges of assurance, comparisons of estimates and actual costs, exploring ways to remedy the current lack of comparable actual cost data, possible benchmarking, etc.; [financial] risk management - effective management of financial assets, risk management strategies, the changing of markets and investment strategies for financial assets, balancing the rates of return and the reduction of risk, implications of the major changes in the energy and

  20. Centralising and optimising decentralised stroke care systems: a simulation study on short-term costs and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten M. H. Lahr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centralisation of thrombolysis may offer substantial benefits. The aim of this study was to assess short term costs and effects of centralisation of thrombolysis and optimised care in a decentralised system. Methods Using simulation modelling, three scenarios to improve decentralised settings in the North of Netherlands were compared from the perspective of the policy maker and compared to current decentralised care: (1 improving stroke care at nine separate hospitals, (2 centralising and improving thrombolysis treatment to four, and (3 two hospitals. Outcomes were annual mean and incremental costs per patient up to the treatment with thrombolysis, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (iCER per 1% increase in thrombolysis rate, and the proportion treated with thrombolysis. Results Compared to current decentralised care, improving stroke care at individual community hospitals led to mean annual costs per patient of $US 1,834 (95% CI, 1,823–1,843 whereas centralising to four and two hospitals led to $US 1,462 (95% CI, 1,451–1,473 and $US 1,317 (95% CI, 1,306–1,328, respectively (P < 0.001. The iCER of improving community hospitals was $US 113 (95% CI, 91–150 and $US 71 (95% CI, 59–94, $US 56 (95% CI, 44–74 when centralising to four and two hospitals, respectively. Thrombolysis rates decreased from 22.4 to 21.8% and 21.2% (P = 0.120 and P = 0.001 in case of increasing centralisation. Conclusions Centralising thrombolysis substantially lowers mean annual costs per patient compared to raising stroke care at community hospitals simultaneously. Small, but negative effects on thrombolysis rates may be expected.

  1. The importance of fixed costs in animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C A; Adamson, D

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the authors detail the structure and optimal management of health systems as influenced by the presence and level of fixed costs. Unlike variable costs, fixed costs cannot be altered, and are thus independent of the level of veterinary activity in the short run. Their importance is illustrated by using both single-period and multi-period models. It is shown that multi-stage veterinary decision-making can often be envisaged as a sequence of fixed-cost problems. In general, it becomes clear that, the higher the fixed costs, the greater the net benefit of veterinary activity must be, if such activity is to be economic. The authors also assess the extent to which it pays to reduce fixed costs and to try to compensate for this by increasing variable costs. Fixed costs have major implications for the industrial structure of the animal health products industry and for the structure of the private veterinary services industry. In the former, they favour market concentration and specialisation in the supply of products. In the latter, they foster increased specialisation. While cooperation by individual farmers may help to reduce their individual fixed costs, the organisational difficulties and costs involved in achieving this cooperation can be formidable. In such cases, the only solution is government provision of veterinary services. Moreover, international cooperation may be called for. Fixed costs also influence the nature of the provision of veterinary education.

  2. The "toxic dose" of system problems: why some injured workers don't return to work as expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachen, Ellen; Kosny, Agnieszka; Ferrier, Sue; Chambers, Lori

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Most workers who incur an injury on the job follow a relatively straightforward path through a workers' compensation claim, recovery and return to work. However, a minority of compensation claims is prolonged and can be disproportionately costly. We conducted this qualitative study in order to gain an understanding of systemic, process-related problems affecting injured workers who had failed to return to work as expected. Method A total of 69 in-depth interviews were conducted with injured workers with complex and extended workers' compensation claims and with return-to-work (RTW) providers such as health care providers, insurers, legal advisors, and workplaces. The study was based in Ontario, Canada. A modified grounded theory analysis led to the identification of common mechanisms in RTW problems. Results We identify problems with return to work and extended workers' compensation claims in dysfunctions in organizational dynamics across RTW systems including the workplace, healthcare, vocational rehabilitation and workers' compensation. These system problems are difficult to identify because they appear as relatively mundane and bureaucratic. These appeared to have damaging effects on workers in the form of a 'toxic dose' affecting the worker beyond the initial injury. Conclusions Worker's problems with extended claims were linked to RTW policies that did not easily accommodate conflict or power imbalances among RTW parties and by social relations and processes that impeded communication about RTW situations and problems. Avenues for intervention are located in a shift to a critical lens to RTW process that addresses differences of knowledge, resources, and interests among different parties.

  3. Cost-effectiveness in the management of Dupuytren's contracture. A Canadian cost-utility analysis of current and future management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, H; Binhammer, P A

    2013-08-01

    In Canada, Dupuytren's contracture is managed with partial fasciectomy or percutaneous needle aponeurotomy (PNA). Injectable collagenase will soon be available. The optimal management of Dupuytren's contracture is controversial and trade-offs exist between the different methods. Using a cost-utility analysis approach, our aim was to identify the most cost-effective form of treatment for managing Dupuytren's contracture it and the threshold at which collagenase is cost-effective. We developed an expected-value decision analysis model for Dupuytren's contracture affecting a single finger, comparing the cost-effectiveness of fasciectomy, aponeurotomy and collagenase from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness, one-way sensitivity and variability analyses were performed using standard thresholds for cost effective treatment ($50 000 to $100 000/QALY gained). Percutaneous needle aponeurotomy was the preferred strategy for managing contractures affecting a single finger. The cost-effectiveness of primary aponeurotomy improved when repeated to treat recurrence. Fasciectomy was not cost-effective. Collagenase was cost-effective relative to and preferred over aponeurotomy at $875 and $470 per course of treatment, respectively. In summary, our model supports the trend towards non-surgical interventions for managing Dupuytren's contracture affecting a single finger. Injectable collagenase will only be feasible in our publicly funded healthcare system if it costs significantly less than current United States pricing.

  4. Cost and performance analysis of physical protection systems - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.; Snell, M.S.; Sandoval, J.S.; Potter, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Design and analysis of physical protection systems requires (1) identification of mission critical assets; (2) identification of potential threats that might undermine mission capability; (3) identification of the consequences of loss of mission-critical assets (e.g., time and cost to recover required capability and impact on operational readiness); and (4) analysis of the effectiveness of physical protection elements. CPA -- Cost and Performance Analysis -- addresses the fourth of these four issues. CPA is a methodology that joins Activity Based Cost estimation with performance-based analysis of physical protection systems. CPA offers system managers an approach that supports both tactical decision making and strategic planning. Current exploratory applications of the CPA methodology address analysis of alternative conceptual designs. Hypothetical data is used to illustrate this process

  5. Low-cost storage options for solar hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaib Muhammad Ali; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Equipment for storing hydrogen gas under pressure typically accounts for a significant proportion of the total capital cost of solar-hydrogen systems for remote area power supply (RAPS). RAPS remain a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. In the present paper the storage requirements of PV-based solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing PEM electrolysers and fuel cells to meet a range of typical remote area daily and annual demand profiles are investigated using a spread sheet-based simulation model. It is found that as the costs of storage are lowered the requirement for longer-term storage from summer to winter is increased with consequent potential gains in the overall economics of the solar-hydrogen system. In many remote applications, there is ample space for hydrogen storages with relatively large volumes. Hence it may be most cost-effective to store hydrogen at low to medium pressures achievable by using PEM electrolysers directly to generate the hydrogen at the pressures required, without a requirement for separate electrically-driven compressors. The latter add to system costs while requiring significant parasitic electricity consumption. Experimental investigations into a number of low-cost storage options including plastic tanks and low-to-medium pressure metal and composite cylinders are reported. On the basis of these findings, the economics of solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing large-volume low-cost storage are investigated. (authors)

  6. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  7. Managerial accounting of costs in the system of management of enterprise logistics activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Medvid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of scientific researches about the reflection of the logistics activity costs of a production enterprise in the system of analytical accounting. Practice shows that it is difficult to separate the reflection of logistics costs in primary documents in the system of financial accounting, and, as a result, the reflection in managerial reporting and the possibility of control and optimization. The research allows to determine the components of the organizational and methodical model of accounting of logistics costs according to the responsibility centers of production enterprises, namely, the system of responsibility centers according to the enterprise logistics activity, regulated documents, the system of budgetary logistics costs and internal managerial reporting according to the responsibility centers of the second level. This allowed to develop the methodological and organizational bases of managerial accounting of logistics activity costs of a productive enterprise.

  8. 42 CFR 412.6 - Cost reporting periods subject to the prospective payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment systems. 412.6 Section 412.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... prospective payment system for inpatient operating costs, the reasonable costs of services furnished before...

  9. Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D

    1978-03-01

    The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

  10. System of Indicators of the Level of Costs of Financing an Economic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laktionova Aleksandra A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a system of indicators of the level of costs of financing economic subjects, in the basis of which there is a function of formation of recommendations or identification of directions and priorities in the part of selection of one or another source of financing, its urgency and specific features of attraction of resources, on the basis of information on the level of agent’s costs, information asymmetry costs, financial instability, transaction and market indicators of cost of financial resources. The article pays a special attention to a significant structure forming factor of the ownership structure, which identifies the volume and logic of interconnection of all costs of financing and determining incentives and risks in the system of management of financial activity of an economic subject from the point of view of all participants. It exerts especially big influence upon formation of such implicit costs of financing as agent’s costs and information asymmetry costs. The system of factors of stimulants and de-stimulants of costs of financing includes factors of external environment (macro-economic and market indicators of cost and institutional provision and internal environment (ownership structure, characteristic of investment activity and financing an economic subject, organisation of business and corporate management.

  11. Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Fractional-Order Positive Switched Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leipo Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost finite-time control of fractional-order positive switched systems (FOPSS is considered in this paper. Firstly, a new cost function is defined. Then, by constructing linear copositive Lyapunov functions and using the average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller and a static output feedback controller are constructed, respectively, and sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop systems are guaranteed cost finite-time stable (GCFTS. Such conditions can be easily solved by linear programming. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Integrated Cost Allocation of Transmission Usage under Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermagasantos Zein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost allocation of transmission usage on the power networks is an important issue especially in the modern electricity market mechanism. In this context, all costs that have been embedded in the transmission, embedded cost, should be covered by the transmission users. This paper follows general methods, where generators are fullyresponsible to cover the embedded cost. It proposes a method to determine the cost allocation of transmission usage based on decomposition through the superposition techinique to determine power flow contributions from an integrated base case of the results of the power flow calculations of all transactions, bilateral and nonbilateral contracts. Mathematically, the applied formulations are illustrated clearly in this paper. The proposed method has been tested with 5-bus system and the results are much different compared to a few of the published methods. This is shown by the test results on the 5 bus system. The published methods produce total power flow contributions in each line is greater than the actual. And they earn total revenues approximately 11.6% greater than the embedded cost. While on the proposed method, the power flow contribu tions are equal to the actual and the revenues are equal to the embedded cost. It shows also that the proposed method gives results as expected.

  13. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A. B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA's main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA's key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  14. Cost benefit risk - a concept for management of integrated urban wastewater systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Mikkel B.; Rauch, W.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Urban wastewater systems should be evaluated and analysed from an integrated point of view, taking all parts of the system, that is sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving waters into consideration. Risk and parameter uncertainties are aspects that hardly ever have been addressed...... in the evaluation and design of urban wastewater systems. In this paper we present and discuss a probabilistic approach for evaluation of the performance of urban wastewater systems. Risk analysis together with the traditional cost-benefit analysis is a special variant of multi-criteria analysis that seeks to find...... the most feasible improvement alternative for an urban wastewater system. The most feasible alternative in this context is the alternative that has the best performance, meaning that the alternative has the lowest sum of costs, benefits and risks. The sum is expressed as the Net Present Cost (NPC). To use...

  15. Nuclear and conventional baseload electricity generation cost experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The experienced costs of electricity generation by nuclear and conventional plants and the expected costs of future plants are important for evaluating the economic attractiveness of various power projects and for planning the expansion of electrical generating systems. The main objective of this report is to shed some light on recent cost experience, based on well authenticated information made available by the IAEA Member States participating in this study. Cost information was provided by Canada (Ontario Hydro), Czechoslovakia, Hungary, India, the Republic of Korea and Spain. Reference is also made to information received from Brazil, China, France, Russia and the United States of America. The part of the report that deals with cost experience is Section 2, where the costs of both nuclear and fossil fired plants are reviewed. Other sections give emphasis to the analysis of the major issues and relevant cost elements influencing the costs of nuclear power plants and to a discussion of cost projections. Many of the conclusions can also be applied to conventional plants, although they are usually less important than in the case of nuclear plants. 1 ref., figs and tabs

  16. The Impact of Shale Gas on the Cost and Feasibility of Meeting Climate Targets—A Global Energy System Model Analysis and an Exploration of Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Few

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists considerable uncertainty over both shale and conventional gas resource availability and extraction costs, as well as the fugitive methane emissions associated with shale gas extraction and its possible role in mitigating climate change. This study uses a multi-region energy system model, TIAM (TIMES integrated assessment model, to consider the impact of a range of conventional and shale gas cost and availability assessments on mitigation scenarios aimed at achieving a limit to global warming of below 2 °C in 2100, with a 50% likelihood. When adding shale gas to the global energy mix, the reduction to the global energy system cost is relatively small (up to 0.4%, and the mitigation cost increases by 1%–3% under all cost assumptions. The impact of a “dash for shale gas”, of unavailability of carbon capture and storage, of increased barriers to investment in low carbon technologies, and of higher than expected leakage rates, are also considered; and are each found to have the potential to increase the cost and reduce feasibility of meeting global temperature goals. We conclude that the extraction of shale gas is not likely to significantly reduce the effort required to mitigate climate change under globally coordinated action, but could increase required mitigation effort if not handled sufficiently carefully.

  17. Laser fusion systems for industrial process heat. Third semiannual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, F.J.; Denning, R.S.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; Goldthwaite, W.H.; Kok, K.D.; Skelton, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    This report concentrates not only on the design of the laser fusion system but also on the cost of this system and the costs of alternative sources of energy that are expected to be in competition with the laser fusion system. The absolute values of the cost of the laser fusion system are limited by the estimates of the cost of the components and subsystems making up the laser fusion energy station. The method used in calculating costs of the laser fusion and alternative systems are laid out in detail

  18. Waste Management facilities cost information: System Cost Model Software Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, B.L.; Lundeen, A.S.

    1996-02-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for truck and rail, which include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation's generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities. For the product to be effective and useful the SCM users must have a high level of confidence in the data generated by the software model. The SCM Software Quality Assurance Plan is part of the overall SCM project management effort to ensure that the SCM is maintained as a quality product and can be relied on to produce viable planning data. This document defines tasks and deliverables to ensure continued product integrity, provide increased confidence in the accuracy of the data generated, and meet the LITCO's quality standards during the software maintenance phase. 8 refs., 1 tab

  19. Waste Management facilities cost information: System Cost Model Software Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B.L.; Lundeen, A.S.

    1996-02-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for truck and rail, which include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation`s generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities. For the product to be effective and useful the SCM users must have a high level of confidence in the data generated by the software model. The SCM Software Quality Assurance Plan is part of the overall SCM project management effort to ensure that the SCM is maintained as a quality product and can be relied on to produce viable planning data. This document defines tasks and deliverables to ensure continued product integrity, provide increased confidence in the accuracy of the data generated, and meet the LITCO`s quality standards during the software maintenance phase. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Picture archiving and communication system developments expected in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Philip G.; Lorah, Lawrence D.; Lydon, Michael J.; Novak, Elliott D.

    1993-01-01

    Among the applications for high-bandwidth systems are medical picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Viewed in the light of developments anticipated ten years ago when these systems were first discussed, progress has been disappointingly slow. However, with the recognition that teleradiology, digital archives, and computed radiography can be regarded as PAC subsystems, and that systems confined to a single modality can be regarded as mini-PACS, it becomes clear that development of PAC systems has made remarkable progress. Growing from modest size today, the markets for PAC systems and subsystems in the U.S. is likely to exceed $600 million by the end of the decade, a market of the same magnitude as those for CT, MRI, and catheterization lab equipment. This paper discusses the forces that have stimulated growth of PAC systems - among them, the opportunity to provide better service to patients and referring physicians, a chance to expand effective service area, and a possible solution to the ubiquitous problems of lost films - as well as the impediments that have retarded growth - among them, technical limitations, especially of the radiologists' workstations, and cost. A review of these forces allows prediction of likely developments in the 1990s.

  1. Use of the Decision Support System for VA cost-effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, P G; Rodgers, J H

    1999-04-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs is adopting the Decision Support System (DSS), computer software and databases which include a cost-accounting system which determines the cost of health care products and patient encounters. A system for providing cost data for cost-effectiveness analysis should be provide valid, detailed, and comprehensive data that can be aggregated. The design of DSS is described and compared with those criteria. Utilization data from DSS was compared with other VA utilization data. Aggregate DSS cost data from 35 medical centers was compared with relative resource weights developed for the Medicare program. Data on hospital stays at 3 facilities found that 3.7% of the stays in DSS were not in the VA discharge database, whereas 7.6% of the stays in the discharge data were not in DSS. DSS reported between 68.8% and 97.1% of the outpatient encounters reported by six facilities in the ambulatory care data base. Relative weights for each Diagnosis Related Group based on DSS data from 35 VA facilities correlated with Medicare weights (correlation coefficient of .853). DSS will be useful for research if certain problems are overcome. It is difficult to distinguish long-term from acute hospital care. VA does not have a complete database of all inpatient procedures, so DSS has not assigned them a specific cost. The authority to access encounter-level DSS data needs to be centralized. Researchers can provide the feedback needed to improve DSS cost estimates. A comprehensive encounter-level extract would facilitate use of DSS for research.

  2. Expectancies for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and nicotine replacement therapies among e-cigarette users (aka vapers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Marquinez, Nicole S; Correa, John B; Meltzer, Lauren R; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K; Simmons, Vani N; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  3. Low-Cost Monitoring System of Sensors for Evaluating Dynamic Solicitations of Semitrailer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Luque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the fatigue life of a semitrailer structure necessitates identification of the loads and dynamic solicitations in the structure. These forces can be introduced in computer simulation software (multibody + finite element for analysing the response of different design solutions to them. These numerical models must be validated and some parameters need to be measured directly in a field test with real vehicles under various driving conditions. In this study, a low-cost monitoring system is developed for application to a real fleet of semitrailers. According to the definition of the numerical model, the guidance of a virtual vehicle is defined by the three-dimensional kinematics of the kingpin. For characterisation of these movements, a monitoring system having a low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU and global positioning system (GPS antennas is developed with different configurations to enable analysis of the best cost-benefit (result accuracy solution, and an extended Kalman filter (EKF that characterises the kinematic guidance of the kingpin is proposed. A semitrailer was equipped with the experimental low-cost monitoring system and high-precision sensors (IMU, GPS in order to validate the results obtained by the experimental low-cost monitoring system and the inertial-extended Kalman filter developed. The validated system has applicability in the low-cost monitoring of a fleet of real vehicles.

  4. Life cycle cost analysis of solar heating and DHW systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, R.; Gilliaert, D.

    1992-01-01

    Economic Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) is an easy and friendly computer program, IBM compatible for economic evaluation of solar energy system which involves comparison of the capital and operating costs of a conventional system. In this section we would like to suggest the ELCCA-PC program as a new tools using life cycle cost analysis for annual and cumulative cash flow methodology that take into account all future expenses. ELCCA-PC program considers fixed and changeable items that are involved in installing the equipment such as interest of money borrowed, property and income taxes, current energy cost for electricity operating system, maintenance, insurance and fuel costs and other economic operating expenses. Moreover fraction of annual heating load supplied from solar system is considered in this analysis. ECC-PC program determines the yearly outflow of money over the period of an economic analysis that can be converted to a series of equal payments in today's money

  5. Renaissance: A revolutionary approach for providing low-cost ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA is changing its attention from large missions to a greater number of smaller missions with reduced development schedules and budgets. In relation to this, the Renaissance Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate systems engineering process is presented. The aim of the Renaissance approach is to improve system performance, reduce cost and schedules and meet specific customer needs. The approach includes: the early involvement of the users to define the mission requirements and system architectures; the streamlining of management processes; the development of a flexible cost estimation capability, and the ability to insert technology. Renaissance-based systems demonstrate significant reuse of commercial off-the-shelf building blocks in an integrated system architecture.

  6. Cost Implications of an Interim Storage Facility in the Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Rob L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petersen, Gordon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cotton, Thomas [Complex Systems Group, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the cost implications of incorporating a consolidated interim storage facility (ISF) into the waste management system (WMS). Specifically, the impacts of the timing of opening an ISF relative to opening a repository were analyzed to understand the potential effects on total system costs.

  7. Expectation formation in dynamic market experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemeijer, P.

    2009-01-01

    People often make mistakes when predicting economic variables such as prices. It is important to understand how these predictions are formed, since people's expectations have a large impact on the development and stability of economic systems. In this thesis the expectation formation of individuals

  8. Cost accounting in ECN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wout, E.L.; Bever Donker, J.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department

  9. Beyond cost-effectiveness: Using systems analysis for infectious disease preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Charles; Madhavan, Guruprasad; Rappuoli, Rino; Colwell, Rita; Fineberg, Harvey

    2017-01-20

    Until the recent outbreaks, Ebola vaccines ranked low in decision makers' priority lists based on cost-effectiveness analysis and (or) corporate profitability. Despite a relatively small number of Ebola-related cases and deaths (compared to other causes), Ebola vaccines suddenly leapt to highest priority among international health agencies and vaccine developers. Clearly, earlier cost-effectiveness analyses badly missed some factors affecting real world decisions. Multi-criteria systems analysis can improve evaluation and prioritization of vaccine development and also of many other health policy and investment decisions. Neither cost-effectiveness nor cost-benefit analysis can capture important aspects of problems such as Ebola or the emerging threat of Zika, especially issues of inequality and disparity-issues that dominate the planning of many global health and economic organizations. Cost-benefit analysis requires assumptions about the specific value of life-an idea objectionable to many analysts and policy makers. Additionally, standard cost-effectiveness calculations cannot generally capture effects on people uninfected with Ebola for example, but nevertheless affected through such factors as contagion, herd immunity, and fear of dread disease, reduction of travel and commerce, and even the hope of disease eradication. Using SMART Vaccines, we demonstrate how systems analysis can visibly include important "other factors" and more usefully guide decision making and beneficially alter priority setting processes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Olazagoitia, José Luis; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-27

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in <80 Hz data acquisition in vehicle dynamics, using low-cost accelerometers. In addition to this, a comparative study is carried out of professional vibration acquisition technologies and low-cost systems, obtaining optimum results for low- and medium-frequency operations with an error of 2.19% on road tests. It is therefore concluded that these technologies are applicable to the automobile industry, thereby allowing the project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources.

  11. Expectation values of the e+PsH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Mitroy, J.

    2007-01-01

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for e + PsH are computed using a ground-state wave function consisting of 1500 explicitly correlated Gaussians. The best estimate of the e + PsH ∞ energy was -0.810 254 hartrees, which has a binding energy of 0.021 057 hartrees against dissociation into e + +PsH. The 2γ annihilation rate was 2.7508x10 9 s -1 . Binding energies and annihilation rates are also given for the different finite-mass variants of e + PsH. Comparisons between expectation values for e + PsH and PsH provide compelling evidence that the e + PsH ground state can be regarded as consisting of a weakly bound positron orbiting the PsH ground state

  12. Chapter 17. Engineering cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbee, Charles V.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, life cycle costing (LCC) was adopted by the federal government. LCC is a method of evaluating all the costs associated with acquisition, construction and operation of a project. LCC was designed to minimize costs of major projects, not only in consideration of acquisition and construction, but especially to emphasize the reduction of operation and maintenance costs during the project life. Authors of engineering economics texts have been very reluctant and painfully slow to explain and deal with LCC. Many authors devote less than one page to the subject. The reason for this is that LCC has several major drawbacks. The first of these is that costs over the life of the project must be estimated based on some forecast, and forecasts have proven to be highly variable and frequently inaccurate. The second problem with LCC is that some life span must be selected over which to evaluate the project, and many projects, especially renewable energy projects, are expected to have an unlimited life (they are expected to live for ever). The longer the life cycle, the more inaccurate annual costs become because of the inability to forecast accurately.

  13. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  14. Administration and transaction cost estimates for a greenhouse gas offset system : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Canada's Climate Change Plan provides large final emitters (LFEs) with the option to meet their emission targets through the purchase of domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) offset credits. This paper presents the results of a study which identified and estimated transaction costs associated with an offset system. The cost to both proponents and governments were identified. The study also suggested ways to reduce administration and transaction costs through design options. The study considered projects involving agriculture, forests, landfill gas capture, renewable energy and energy efficiency within a potential domestic offset system. It was determined that average transaction costs per tonne range from $19 per tonne to $0.05 depending on the design choice and project type. Total administration costs did not vary more than 5 per cent between different design choices. The total system costs, which are the combination of all transaction and administration costs, are the best indicator for the potential of a project. Eight case studies were examined and costs per tonne were presented. According to the results, the best opportunities to reduce both transaction and administration costs are to choose a broad approach to baselines, boundaries and quantification; and, to allow pooling in the forestry and agriculture sectors. Transaction costs can be lowered further by reducing the frequency of monitoring and verification and allowing pre-2008 crediting. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Survey of Integration Cost-Adoption between Digital Library Systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alipour-Hafezi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article was identifying cost elements in syntactic integrating digital library systems in Iran. The levels of integration are content, technical, and organizational. It is obvious we could access some sub goals such as identifying current situation of information systems from the view points of data storage, needed standard outputs, and the current situation of interoperability in Iran, and suitable integration model in Iranian digital libraries. The analytical survey method was used in this research. Research population included 11 digital library systems that were used in Iranian digital libraries. In order to gather information, a researcher made questionnaire was used because of not existing standard collecting data tool. Findings demonstrated that we should search on three levels of interoperability: content, technical, and organizational level in order to identifying cost-adoption elements in syntactic interoperability. Also, findings showed that the elements of organizational level were too important level in cost-adoption elements. Also this research demonstrated that the high cost of adoption was related to libraries and their organizations.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of computer-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Loewenberger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for more cost-effective and pedagogically acceptable combinations of teaching and learning methods to sustain increasing student numbers means that the use of innovative methods, using technology, is accelerating. There is an expectation that economies of scale might provide greater cost-effectiveness whilst also enhancing student learning. The difficulties and complexities of these expectations are considered in this paper, which explores the challenges faced by those wishing to evaluate the costeffectiveness of computer-based assessment (CBA. The paper outlines the outcomes of a survey which attempted to gather information about the costs and benefits of CBA.

  17. Organization and Information: Firms' Governance Choices in Rational-Expectations Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Gibbons; Richard Holden; Michael Powell

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a rational-expectations model of price formation in an intermediate-good market under uncertainty. There is a continuum of firms, each consisting of a party who can reduce production cost and a party who can discover information about demand. Both parties can make specific investments at private cost, and there is a machine that either party can control. As in incomplete-contracting models, different governance structures (i.e., different allocations of control of the machine) crea...

  18. Expectancies as core features of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Glombiewski, Julia A; Gollwitzer, Mario; Schubö, Anna; Schwarting, Rainer; Thorwart, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Expectancies are core features of mental disorders, and change in expectations is therefore one of the core mechanisms of treatment in psychiatry. We aim to improve our understanding of expectancies by summarizing factors that contribute to their development, persistence, and modification. We pay particular attention to the issue of persistence of expectancies despite experiences that contradict them. Based on recent research findings, we propose a new model for expectation persistence and expectation change. When expectations are established, effects are evident in neural and other biological systems, for example, via anticipatory reactions, different biological reactions to expected versus unexpected stimuli, etc. Psychological 'immunization' and 'assimilation', implicit self-confirming processes, and stability of biological processes help us to better understand why expectancies persist even in the presence of expectation violations. Learning theory, attentional processes, social influences, and biological determinants contribute to the development, persistence, and modification of expectancies. Psychological interventions should focus on optimizing expectation violation to achieve optimal treatment outcome and to avoid treatment failures.

  19. Reprocessing costs more stable soon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    The period of steep rises in costs of the fuel circuit seems to be ending. The prospects for a stabilization of the market in the next few years are favourable. This favourable expectation is supported by the analysis of the nuclear fuel circuit costs. (orig.) [de

  20. Development of a low cost unmanned aircraft system for atmospheric carbon dioxide leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Taylor Austin

    Carbon sequestration, the storage of carbon dioxide gas underground, has the potential to reduce global warming by removing a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. These storage sites, however, must first be monitored to detect if carbon dioxide is leaking back out to the atmosphere. As an alternative to traditional large ground-based sensor networks to monitor CO2 levels for leaks, unmanned aircraft offer the potential to perform in-situ atmospheric leak detection over large areas for a fraction of the cost. This project developed a proof-of-concept sensor system to map relative carbon dioxide levels to detect potential leaks. The sensor system included a Sensair K-30 FR CO2 sensor, GPS, and altimeter connected an Arduino microcontroller which logged data to an onboard SD card. Ground tests were performed to verify and calibrate the system including wind tunnel tests to determine the optimal configuration of the system for the quickest response time (4-8 seconds based upon flowrate). Tests were then conducted over a controlled release of CO 2 in addition to over controlled rangeland fires which released carbon dioxide over a large area as would be expected from a carbon sequestration source. 3D maps of carbon dioxide were developed from the system telemetry that clearly illustrated increased CO2 levels from the fires. These tests demonstrated the system's ability to detect increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.

  1. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Different Automated Medication Systems Implemented in a Danish Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Automated medication systems have been found to reduce errors in the medication process, but little is known about the cost-effectiveness of such systems. The objective of this study was to perform a model-based indirect cost-effectiveness comparison of three different, real-world automated medication systems compared with current standard practice. The considered automated medication systems were a patient-specific automated medication system (psAMS), a non-patient-specific automated medication system (npsAMS), and a complex automated medication system (cAMS). The economic evaluation used original effect and cost data from prospective, controlled, before-and-after studies of medication systems implemented at a Danish hematological ward and an acute medical unit. Effectiveness was described as the proportion of clinical and procedural error opportunities that were associated with one or more errors. An error was defined as a deviation from the electronic prescription, from standard hospital policy, or from written procedures. The cost assessment was based on 6-month standardization of observed cost data. The model-based comparative cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted with system-specific assumptions of the effect size and costs in scenarios with consumptions of 15,000, 30,000, and 45,000 doses per 6-month period. With 30,000 doses the cost-effectiveness model showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as the cost per avoided clinical error was €24 for the psAMS, €26 for the npsAMS, and €386 for the cAMS. Comparison of the cost-effectiveness of the three systems in relation to different valuations of an avoided error showed that the psAMS was the most cost-effective system regardless of error type or valuation. The model-based indirect comparison against the conventional practice showed that psAMS and npsAMS were more cost-effective than the cAMS alternative, and that psAMS was more cost-effective than npsAMS.

  2. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within...... regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding...

  3. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  4. Pathways toward a low cost evacuated collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.; Ogallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    The goal of widespread use of solar thermal collectors will only be achieved when they are proven to be economically superior to competing energy sources. Evacuated tubular collectors appear to have the potential to achieve this goal. An advanced evacuated collector using nonimaging concentration under development at the University of Chicago and Argonne can achieve a 50% seasonal efficiency at heat delivery temperatures in excess of 170C. The same collector has an optical efficiency so that low temperature performance is also excellent. In this advanced collector design all of the critical components are enclosed in the vacuum, and the collector has an inherently long lifetime. The current cost of evacuated systems is too high, mainly because the volume of production has been too low to realize economies of mass production. It appears that certain design features of evacuated collectors can be changed (e.g., use of heat pipe absorbers) so as to introduce new system design and market strategy options that can reduce the balance of system cost.

  5. System Dynamics Modeling of Households' Electricity Consumption and Cost-Income Ratio: a Case Study of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariss, Uldis; Bazbauers, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-11-01

    Increased energy efficiency of the building sector is high on the list of priorities for energy policy since better energy efficiency would help to reduce impact on climate change and increase security of energy supply. One aim of the present study was to find a relative effect of growth of demand for energy services due to changes in income, energy consumption per unit of demand due to technological development, changes in electricity price and household income on household electricity consumption in Latvia. The method applied included system dynamics modeling and data from a household survey regarding the relationship between electricity saving activities and the electricity cost-income ratio. The results revealed that, in direct contrast to the expected, a potential reduction of the electricity consumption is rather insensitive to electricity price and electricity cost-income ratio, and that the efficiency of technologies could be the main drivers for future electricity savings. The results suggest that support to advancement of technologies and faster replacement of inefficient ones rather than influencing the energy price could be effective energy policy measures. The model, developed in the study could be used in similar assessments in other countries.

  6. A model for calculating expected performance of the Apollo unified S-band (USB) communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, N. W.

    1971-01-01

    A model for calculating the expected performance of the Apollo unified S-band (USB) communication system is presented. The general organization of the Apollo USB is described. The mathematical model is reviewed and the computer program for implementation of the calculations is included.

  7. Smartfactory, a modular, low cost productivity monitoring system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available lack of objectivity and plain incorrect data entries. In aid of the SMMEs the Smartfactory system offers a low-cost modular monitoring solution capable of implementation in a step by step fashion with little training required in installation...

  8. Low-cost real-time automatic wheel classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Wedding, Victoria

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low-cost machine vision system for identifying various types of automotive wheels which are manufactured in several styles and sizes. In this application, a variety of wheels travel on a conveyor in random order through a number of processing steps. One of these processes requires the identification of the wheel type which was performed manually by an operator. A vision system was designed to provide the required identification. The system consisted of an annular illumination source, a CCD TV camera, frame grabber, and 386-compatible computer. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were used to provide robust classification as well as a simple means for adding new wheel designs to the system. Maintenance of the system can be performed by plant personnel with minimal training. The basic steps for identification include image acquisition, segmentation of the regions of interest, extraction of selected features, and classification. The vision system has been installed in a plant and has proven to be extremely effective. The system properly identifies the wheels correctly up to 30 wheels per minute regardless of rotational orientation in the camera's field of view. Correct classification can even be achieved if a portion of the wheel is blocked off from the camera. Significant cost savings have been achieved by a reduction in scrap associated with incorrect manual classification as well as a reduction of labor in a tedious task.

  9. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  10. Cost of Tuberculosis Treatment: Evidence from Iran's Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Vahid; Tabarsi, Payam; Rezapour, Aziz; Marzban, Sima; Zarei, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the cost of smear-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) treatment of the patients in the Azadshahr district, Golestan Province, Iran. In this retrospective study, all new smear positive pulmonary TB patients who had been registered at the district's health network between April, 2013 and December, 2015 and had successfully completed their treatment were entered into the study (45 patients). Treatment costs were estimated from the provider's perspective using an activity-based costing (ABC) method. The cost of treating a new smear-positive pulmonary TB patient was US dollar (USD) 1,409.00 (Iranian Rial, 39,438,260), which can be divided into direct and indirect costs (USD 1,226.00 [87%] and USD 183.00 [13%], respectively). The highest cost (58.1%) was related to care and management of TB patients (including 46.1% human resources costs and 12% directly-observed treatment, short course implementation) and then respectively related to hospitalization (12.1%), supportive activity centers (11.4%), transportation (6.5%), medicines (5.3%), and laboratory tests and radiography (3.2%). Using disease-specific cost studies can help the healthcare system management to have correct insight into the financial burden created by the disease. This can subsequently be used in prioritization, planning, operational budgeting, economic evaluation of programs, interventions, and ultimately in disease management.

  11. Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-05-01

    There is an immense need for scaling-up neuropsychiatric care in low-income countries. Contextualized cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide relevant information for local policies. The aim of this study is to perform a contextualized CEA of neuropsychiatric interventions in Ethiopia and to illustrate expected population health and budget impacts across neuropsychiatric disorders. A mathematical population model (PopMod) was used to estimate intervention costs and effectiveness. Existing variables from a previous WHO-CHOICE regional CEA model were substantially revised. Treatments for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy were analysed. The best available local data on epidemiology, intervention efficacy, current and target coverage, resource prices and salaries were used. Data were obtained from expert opinion, local hospital information systems, the Ministry of Health and literature reviews. Treatment of epilepsy with a first generation antiepileptic drug is the most cost-effective treatment (US$ 321 per DALY adverted). Treatments for depression have mid-range values compared with other interventions (US$ 457-1026 per DALY adverted). Treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are least cost-effective (US$ 1168-3739 per DALY adverted). This analysis gives the Ethiopian government a comprehensive overview of the expected costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing basic neuropsychiatric interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  12. Operational strategy and marginal costs in simple trigeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, M.A.; Carvalho, M.; Serra, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    As a direct result of economic pressures to cut expenses, as well as the legal obligation to reduce emissions, companies and businesses are seeking ways to use energy more efficiently. Trigeneration systems (CHCP: Combined Heating, Cooling and Power generation) allow greater operational flexibility at sites with a variable demand for energy in the form of heating and cooling. This is particularly relevant in buildings where the need for heating is restricted to a few winter months. In summer, the absorption chillers make use of the cogenerated heat to produce chilled water, avoiding waste heat discharge. The operation of a simple trigeneration system is analyzed in this paper. The system is interconnected to the electric utility grid, both to receive electricity and to deliver surplus electricity. For any given demand required by the users, a great number of operating conditions are possible. A linear programming model provides the operational mode with the lowest variable cost. A thermoeconomic analysis, based on marginal production costs, is used to obtain unit costs for internal energy flows and final products as well as to explain the best operational strategy as a function of the demand for energy services and the prices of the resources consumed. (author)

  13. On the relation between cost and service models for general inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic overview of possible relations between cost and service models for fairly general single- and multi-stage inventory systems. In particular, we relate various types of penalty costs in pure cost models to equivalent types of service measures in service models.

  14. Expected cost effectiveness of high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine in US seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Ayman; Roiz, Julie; Briquet, Benjamin; Greenberg, David P

    2015-01-29

    Seniors are particularly vulnerable to complications resulting from influenza infection. Numerous influenza vaccines are available to immunize US seniors, and practitioners must decide which product to use. Options include trivalent and quadrivalent standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3 and IIV4 respectively), as well as a high-dose IIV3 (HD). Our research examines the public health impact, budget impact, and cost-utility of HD versus IIV3 and IIV4 for immunization of US seniors 65 years of age and older. Our model was based on US influenza-related health outcome data. Health care costs and vaccine prices were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Efficacies of IIV3 and IIV4 were estimated from various meta-analyses of IIV3 efficacy. The results of a head-to-head randomized controlled trial of HD vs. IIV3 were used to estimate relative efficacy of HD. Conservatively, herd protection was not considered. Compared to IIV3, HD would avert 195,958 cases of influenza, 22,567 influenza-related hospitalizations, and 5423 influenza-related deaths among US seniors. HD generates 29,023 more Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and a net societal budget impact of $154 million. The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for this comparison is $5299/QALY. 71% of the probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) simulations were seniors. Our conclusions were robust in the face of sensitivity analyses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Cost reduction improvement for power generation system integrating WECS using harmony search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngonkham, S. [Khonkaen Univ., Amphur Muang (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Buasri, P. [Khonkaen Univ., Amphur Muang (Thailand). Embed System Research Group

    2009-03-11

    A harmony search (HS) algorithm was used to optimize economic dispatch (ED) in a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for power system integration. The HS algorithm was based on a stochastic random search method. System costs for the WECS system were estimated in relation to average wind speeds. The HS algorithm was implemented to optimize the ED with a simple programming procedure. The study showed that the initial parameters must be carefully selected to ensure the accuracy of the HS algorithm. The algorithm demonstrated that total costs of the WECS system were higher than costs associated with energy efficiency procedures that reduced the same amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 7 refs,. 10 tabs., 16 figs.

  16. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    Based on individual expectations from the Survey of Professional Forecasters, we construct a realtime proxy for expected term premium changes on long-term bonds. We empirically investigate the relation of these bond term premium expectations with expectations about key macroeconomic variables as ...

  17. Low cost photomultiplier high-voltage readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Kunz, P.F.

    1976-10-01

    The Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires monitoring over 300 voltages. This data is recorded on magnetic tapes along with the event data. It must also be displayed so that operators can easily monitor and adjust the voltages. A low-cost high-voltage readout system has been implemented to offer stand-alone digital readout capability as well as fast data transfer to a host computer. The system is flexible enough to permit use of a DVM or ADC and commercially available analogue multiplexers

  18. Low-cost modular array-field designs for flat-panel and concentrator photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, H. N.; Carmichael, D. C.; Alexander, G.; Castle, J. A.

    1982-09-01

    Described are the design and development of low-cost, modular array fields for flat-panel and concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems. The objective of the work was to reduce substantially the cost of the array-field Balance-of-System (BOS) subsystems and site-specific design costs as compared to previous PV installations. These subsystems include site preparation, foundations, support structures, electrical writing, grounding, lightning protection, electromagnetic interference considerations, and controls. To reduce these BOS and design costs, standardized modular (building-block) designs for flat-panel and concentrator array fields have been developed that are fully integrated and optimized for lowest life-cycle costs. Using drawings and specifications now available, these building-block designs can be used in multiples to install various size array fields. The developed designs are immediately applicable (1982) and reduce the array-field BOS costs to a fraction of previous costs.

  19. Low-Cost SCADA System Using Arduino and Reliance SCADA for a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Allafi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition systems are currently employed in many applications, such as home automation, greenhouse automation, and hybrid power systems. Commercial SCADA systems are costly to set up and maintain; therefore those are not used for small renewable energy systems. This paper demonstrates applying Reliance SCADA and Arduino Uno on a small photovoltaic (PV power system to monitor the PV current, voltage, and battery, as well as efficiency. The designed system uses low-cost sensors, an Arduino Uno microcontroller, and free Reliance SCADA software. The Arduino Uno microcontroller collects data from sensors and communicates with a computer through a USB cable. Uno has been programmed to transmit data to Reliance SCADA on PC. In addition, Modbus library has been uploaded on Arduino to allow communication between the Arduino and our SCADA system by using MODBUS RTU protocol. The results of the experiments demonstrate that SCADA works in real time and can be effectively used in monitoring a solar energy system.

  20. User Delay Cost Model and Facilities Maintenance Cost Model for a Terminal Control Area : Volume 3. User's Manual and Program Documentation for the Facilities Maintenance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The Facilities Maintenance Cost Model (FMCM) is an analytic model designed to calculate expected annual labor costs of maintenance within a given FAA maintenance sector. The model is programmed in FORTRAN IV and has been demonstrated on the CDC Krono...

  1. Computation of spot prices and congestion costs in large interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerji, R.; Jordan, G.A.; Clayton, R.; Haringa, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Foremost among the new paradigms for the US utility industry is the ''poolco'' concept proposed by Prof. William W. Hogan of Harvard University. This concept uses a central pool or power exchange in which physical power is traded based on spot prices or market clearing prices. The rapid and accurate calculation of these ''spot'' prices and associated congestion costs for large interconnected power systems is the central tenet upon which the poolco concept is based. The market clearing price would be the same throughout the system if there were no system losses and transmission limitations did not exist. System losses cause small differences in market clearing prices as the cost of supplying a MW at various load buses includes the cost of losses. Transmission limits may cause large differences in market clearing prices between regions as low cost generation is blocked by the transmission constraints from serving certain loads. In models currently in use in the electric power industry spot price calculations range from ''bubble diagram'' type contract path models to full electrical representation such as GE-MAPS. The modeling aspects of the full electrical representation are included in the Appendix. The problem with the bubble diagram representation is that these models are liable to produce unacceptably large errors in the calculation of spot prices and congestion costs. The subtleties of the calculation of spot prices and congestion costs are illustrated in this paper

  2. Evaluation of a handling system for ley crop used in biogas production. Capacities and costs for a centralised system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagstroem, Lena

    2005-07-01

    Within the Vaextkraft project in Vaesteraas, Sweden, biogas is to be produced out of ley crop and organic waste. The aim of this study has been to estimate the capacities within the handling system used for the ley crop harvest, and the resources needed. For this purpose a model in the form of a calculation program in Excel was built. The model makes it possible to vary parameters such as transport system design, distance from fields to storage, dry matter content and yield. The results showed that it is essential to match the capacities between chopper and transport to minimise the time and cost connected to the harvest. To avoid creating costly bottlenecks in the Vaextkraft case the transport system has to consist of at least two trucks with trailers. The estimates made with the model suggests that the distance to storage is strongly linked to the dimensioning of the transport system, whereas the number of fields and their size has a lesser impact on harvest time and cost. Variation of the dry matter yield from a base scenario had an impact on the cost for harvesting, but not on the choice of transport system. The model couldn't detect any reliable differences in total costs due to the variation of dry matter content between 25-45%. The choice of chopping machinery in the Vaextkraft project leads to small timeliness costs. Together with a reasonable choice of transport system they will only constitute a few percent of the total costs for harvesting.

  3. Productivity Losses and Costs in the Less-Common Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Natalie; Marra, Carlo A; Aviña-Zubieta, J Antonio

    2017-10-30

    We synthesised the literature on productivity losses and costs in the less-common systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases: Sjogren's syndrome (SjS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), poly/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and systemic vasculitides (SV). Of 29 studies located, 12 were published 2012 onwards (SSc = 6, SjS = 2, PM/DM = 2, SV = 2). In these, 25% of PM/DM, and 21-26% of SV, were work disabled, 22% of SSc stopped work within 3 years of diagnosis, and annual costs of absenteeism in SSc averaged $12,024 2017 USD. Very few studies reported on costs, presenteeism (working at reduced levels), or unpaid productivity loss. Across multiple systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs), major drivers of lost productivity were generalised items like pain, depression, and fatigue, rather than disease-specific factors. Evidence suggests that work disability is common in SSc and strikes quickly. However, in SSc and other SARDs, more comprehensive estimates are needed, which include absenteeism and presenteeism from paid and unpaid work, costs, and drivers of productivity loss.

  4. Better informing decision making with multiple outcomes cost-effectiveness analysis under uncertainty in cost-disutility space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Agar, Meera; Harlum, Janeane; Karnon, Jonathon; Currow, David; Eckermann, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Comparing multiple, diverse outcomes with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is important, yet challenging in areas like palliative care where domains are unamenable to integration with survival. Generic multi-attribute utility values exclude important domains and non-health outcomes, while partial analyses-where outcomes are considered separately, with their joint relationship under uncertainty ignored-lead to incorrect inference regarding preferred strategies. The objective of this paper is to consider whether such decision making can be better informed with alternative presentation and summary measures, extending methods previously shown to have advantages in multiple strategy comparison. Multiple outcomes CEA of a home-based palliative care model (PEACH) relative to usual care is undertaken in cost disutility (CDU) space and compared with analysis on the cost-effectiveness plane. Summary measures developed for comparing strategies across potential threshold values for multiple outcomes include: expected net loss (ENL) planes quantifying differences in expected net benefit; the ENL contour identifying preferred strategies minimising ENL and their expected value of perfect information; and cost-effectiveness acceptability planes showing probability of strategies minimising ENL. Conventional analysis suggests PEACH is cost-effective when the threshold value per additional day at home (1) exceeds $1,068 or