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  1. Pretest expectations strongly influence interpretation of abnormal laboratory results and further management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkens Ron AG

    2010-02-01

    normal were much lower when the physician estimated a high pretest disease probability, compared to a low pretest probability estimate (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.07-0.52, p Conclusions Interpretation and management of abnormal test results were strongly influenced by physicians' estimation of pretest disease probability and by the reason for ordering the test. By relating abnormal laboratory results to their pretest expectations, physicians may seek a balance between over- and under-reacting to laboratory test results.

  2. Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Husain

    Full Text Available Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008 and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005 are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.

  3. Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.

  4. Contextual influences on alcohol expectancy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J

    2007-09-01

    Context may differentially influence expectancy dimensions, in turn affecting drinking behavior. The present study examined alcohol cue and mood contextual influences on expectancy activation, controlling for more stable self-reported expectancy endorsement. We were particularly interested in the specific effects of negative mood on affect-relevant (tension reduction) expectancies. Regularly drinking undergraduates (N = 140; 64 female) underwent a mood (stress or neutral) induction procedure and then were presented with alcohol or nonalcohol beverage cues. Participants next completed a computerized expectancy response time task (ETASK), and self-report measures of drinking variables. Individual difference analyses generally replicated previous reports on the inverse relationship between alcohol involvement and ETASK response time. However, examination of contextual effects revealed a different pattern of ETASK responding. Participants exposed to alcohol cues were slower to respond to expectancy items than those in the nonalcohol cue condition. Mood and expectancy type moderated this effect; response time after alcohol cues slowed selectively for those in the stress mood condition and only for tension-reduction expectancy items. These data highlight the dimensionality of expectancies that comes into relief when contextual factors are considered. Expectancy response times index both facilitation, when examined in the context of drinking expertise, and interference, in response to motivationally relevant stimuli. Our data also support the specificity of contextual effects on those expectancies that are context relevant (i.e., mood). Further consideration of these contextual effects on dynamic expectancy processes may improve prediction of drinking behavior in real-world settings.

  5. An integrative review of the influence of expectancies on pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya J. Peerdeman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Expectancies can shape pain experiences. Attention for the influence of expectancies on pain has increased particularly due to research on placebo effects, of which expectancy is believed to be the core mechanism. In the current review, we provide a brief overview of the literature on the influence of expectancies on pain. We first discuss the central role of expectancy in the major psychological learning theories. Based on these theories, different kinds of expectancies can be distinguished. Pain experiences are influenced particularly by response expectancies directly pertaining to the pain experience itself, but can also be affected by self-efficacy expectancies regarding one’s ability to cope with pain, and possibly by stimulus expectancies regarding external events. These different kinds of expectancies might interact with each other, and related emotions and cognitions, as reflected by various multifaceted constructs in which expectancies are incorporated. Optimism and pain catastrophizing, in particular, but also hope, trust, worry, and neuroticism have been found to be associated with pain outcomes. We conclude with recommendations for further advancing research on the influence of expectancies on pain and for harnessing expectancy effects in clinical practice.

  6. Vroom's Expectancy Theory. An Empirical Study: Civil Servant's Performance Appraisal Influencing Expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonina Emilia SUCIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of performance evaluation from the perspective of work motivation. The research is based on the expectancy theory developed by Victor Vroom and is meant to show that performance evaluation influences one of the factors from the VIE model, the expectancy. The empirical part of the research aims to show the above mentioned in the context of local public administration, namely in the case of the Romanian civil servants from the North-West Region. We have presented the particularities of civil servants performance evaluation in the Romanian local public administration, and its connection to their expectancy and work motivation. The results have shown that civil servants performance appraisal influences civil servants expectancy and this in its turn influences their work motivation.

  7. Vroom's Expectancy Theory. An Empirical Study: Civil Servant's Performance Appraisal Influencing Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Leonina Emilia SUCIU; Mortan, Maria; Lucreţia LAZĂR

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to highlight the importance of performance evaluation from the perspective of work motivation. The research is based on the expectancy theory developed by Victor Vroom and is meant to show that performance evaluation influences one of the factors from the VIE model, the expectancy. The empirical part of the research aims to show the above mentioned in the context of local public administration, namely in the case of the Romanian civil servants from the North-West Region. We ha...

  8. Participation in Advanced Mathematics: Do Expectation and Influence of Students, Peers, Teachers, and Parents Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2001-01-01

    Using six waves of data (Grades 7 through 12) from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), this study investigated the effects of expectation and influence of students, peers, teachers, and parents on participation in advanced mathematics. Results of survival analysis indicated a significant decline in participation rate in the transition from Grades 11 to 12. Students with higher future expectation were more likely to participate in advanced mathematics. Peer influence and teacher expectation did not have strong effects, and the effect of student future expectation was independent of peer and teacher effects. The effect of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were strong, and in their presence, the effect of student future expectation declined. Mathematics achievement and attitude toward mathematics were the most important factors affecting participation in advanced mathematics. With control over achievement and attitude, (a) the effect of student future expectation declined, (b) the effects of peer influence and teacher expectation disappeared, and (c) the effects of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were reduced. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. [Life expectancy and influence on disease in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Zhou, M G; Li, X H; Liu, Y N; Wu, R X; Xue, M

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of life expectancy and influencing factors in Chinese population in different areas and provide scientific evidence for policy-making on disease managements, medical care and risk factor intervention. Methods: Based on the national census data from National Bureau of Statistics and the death registration data from the National Health and Family Planning Commission, we used exponential model, under-report adjustment model and abbreviated life tables to estimate the life expectancy and influence on disease in Chinese population in 2013. Results: The Chinese life expectancy was 75.8 years in 2013, 1 year higher than that in 2010. The life expectancy in urban area was 77.4 years, while it was 75.1 years that in rural area with the gap between the rural area and urban area was 2.3 years. The life expectancy was 77.2 years in the eastern area, 75.8 years in middle area and 73.5 years in western area, the gap between the east and west was 3.6 years. In 2013, the first 10 leading diseases causing the life expectancy lost were cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, road injury, liver cancer, stomach cancer, hypertensive heart disease, lower respiratory infection, esophagus cancer, resulting in 7.97 years of life expectancy lost. Conclusion: The life expectancy in Chinese has already reached a relative high level, while the gap between different areas still exists. Different policies on disease management, medical care and risk factor interventions targeting different areas are needed to increase the life expectancy and improve the quality of life.

  10. Do placebo expectations influence perceived exertion during physical exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Hendrik; Leukel, Christian; Seelig, Harald; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a) the effects of exercise and b) the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE) measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment) would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels) in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.

  11. [Influencing factors on healthy life expectancy in adults in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Li, G; Gao, Y L; Wei, Z H; Wang, J; Su, J T; Liu, Q P; Wang, P

    2016-08-10

    To understand the main influencing factors related to healthy life expectancy (HALE) among adults in Beijing. The calculation on health-adjusted life expectancy was performed by Sullivan METHODS. Data from the self-reported health survey program on adults in Beijing 2012 was gathered. Hierarchical ordered probit model was used to estimate the severity-weighted prevalence of disability and then combined with the period life table to obtain the HALE. Factors associated with the severity-adjusted prevalence of the disabled were analyzed under the generalized additive models (GAM). The main influencing factors of HALE would include age (t=40.351, P<0.001), sex (t=9.689, P<0.001), levels of education (t=5.021, P< 0.001), exercise (t=5.487, P<0.001) and alcohol intake (t=-2.380, P=0.017) etc. The influence of per capita monthly income (χ(2) =3.949, P=0.044) showed as non-linear. Levels of income would directly influence the severity-weighted prevalence of the disability, which also affecting the HALE. Programs on improving healthy life style and health care in women should be promoted.

  12. Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...

  13. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners’ consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., ‘jury/gi’raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress, and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate on-line probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  14. WHAT INFLUENCES STUDENTS' EXPECTATIONS IN WHAT REGARDS GRADES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Codruta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available After a period of studying a certain subject, students form an opinion about it and begin having certain expectations. These expectations and the degree in which, in the end, they fulfil, contribute to the reputation of the university. Consequently, a continuous evaluation of the quality of the educational process is needed. The present research presents a part of a more complex study made on a sample of master students in Audit and Financial Management in Romania. The goal was to evidence the main factors that affect students' expectations in what regards the grades they will obtain at the end of the semester. For this, a questionnaire of 20 questions was applied to 250 such students. After factor reduction procedures were applied, six most significant variables were kept in the analysis: the proportion of knowledge acquired, the perceived level of utility of the discipline in the professional career of the student, the proportion in which the subject could contribute to getting employed in the field it belongs to, the evaluation method and two variables evaluating through grades the didactic performance during the course and the overall performance of the tenure professor. The influence of these variables upon the grade expected by the student was assessed with the help of the OLS regression, both in the simple and multiple forms. Out of the six hypotheses formulated, only one proved to be false based on the simple regression analysis. When individually assessed, the evaluation method announced by the teacher at the beginning of the semester turned out to have no statistically significant influence upon students' expectations. For the rest of the variables, results were according to the assumptions made, i.e. all determine in a significant positive manner the students' opinion about the grade they will get. We have also constructed the multiple regression models. When putting all variables together, the significance changes. The level of

  15. Strong biotic influences on regional patterns of climate regulation services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Chavez, H. M.; Swenson, N. G.; Weiser, M. D.; van Loon, E. E.; Bouten, W.; Davidson, M. D.; van Bodegom, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    Climate regulation services from forests are an important leverage in global-change mitigation treaties. Like most ecosystem services, climate regulation is the product of various ecological phenomena with unique spatial features. Elucidating which abiotic and biotic factors relate to spatial patterns of climate regulation services advances our understanding of what underlies climate-mitigation potential and its variation within and across ecosystems. Here we quantify and contrast the statistical relations between climate regulation services (albedo and evapotranspiration, primary productivity, and soil carbon) and abiotic and biotic factors. We focus on 16,955 forest plots in a regional extent across the eastern United States. We find the statistical effects of forest litter and understory carbon on climate regulation services to be as strong as those of temperature-precipitation interactions. These biotic factors likely influence climate regulation through changes in vegetation and canopy density, radiance scattering, and decomposition rates. We also find a moderate relation between leaf nitrogen traits and primary productivity at this regional scale. The statistical relation between climate regulation and temperature-precipitation ranges, seasonality, and climatic thresholds highlights a strong feedback with global climate change. Our assessment suggests the expression of strong biotic influences on climate regulation services at a regional, temperate extent. Biotic homogenization and management practices manipulating forest structure and succession will likely strongly impact climate-mitigation potential. The identity, strength, and direction of primary influences differed for each process involved in climate regulation. Hence, different abiotic and biotic factors are needed to monitor and quantify the full climate-mitigation potential of temperate forest ecosystems.

  16. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  17. Can Sex-Undifferentiated Teacher Expectations Mask an Influence of Sex Stereotypes? Alternative Forms of Sex Bias in Teacher Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Chalabaev, Aïna; Sarrazin, Philippe; Trouilloud, David; Jussim, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Manuscript "in press" to the Journal of Applied Social Psychology; This research investigated different forms of sex bias in teacher expectations relative to gymnastics performance. First, a laboratory experiment including 163 physical education teachers confirmed that stereotypes favorable to boys may influence teacher expectations in gymnastics. Next, a naturalistic study involving 15 teachers and 422 students showed that teachers expected no sex differences even though girls performed high...

  18. Location, vocation, procreation: how choice influences life expectancy in doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleyman, R; Vann Jones, S

    2016-06-01

    Stress and mortality are negatively correlated and it is generally accepted that certain professions are more stressful than others. Medical graduates begin as a relatively homogenous population who then choose vastly different career options making doctors an ideal population in which to try to assess whether job stress is likely to be causal to increased mortality. To establish the influence of various modifiable risk factors on the life expectancy of UK doctors. We analysed a decade of obituaries from the British Medical Journal published between January 2003 and December 2012. Data included age at death (AAD), specialty, region (deanery), marriage status and children. A total of 3068 obituaries were eligible for inclusion. Mean AAD was 78.5 years. Male sex was associated with a significantly increased AAD by an additional 3.8 years (95% CI 2.4-5.2 years, P < 0.001). Public health, obstetrics and gynaecology and laboratory medicine specialties were all associated with significantly increased AAD (P < 0.05). London and Northern Ireland deaneries were both associated with significantly increased AAD (P < 0.05). Each additional child was associated with a relative increase in AAD of +1.1 years (95% CI 0.7-1.4 years, P < 0.001). Our results show that location and career choices may affect life expectancy. While this does not necessarily reflect quality of life, the additional years of life gained from having extra children have a positive effect on your quantity of life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. When do we communicate stereotypes? Influence of the social context on the linguistic expectancy bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Spears, R.; Semin, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    The linguistic expectancy bias (LEB) refers to the tendency to describe expectancy consistent information at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent information. Two experiments examined the influence of the social communicative context on the production of this

  20. When do we communicate stereotypes? Influence of the social context on the linguistic expectancy bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, DHJ; Spears, R; Semin, GR

    The linguistic expectancy bias (LEB) refers to the tendency to describe expectancy consistent information at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent information. Two experiments examined the influence of the social communicative context on the production of this

  1. When do we Communicate Stereotypes? Influence of the Social Context on the Linguistic Expectancy Bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, D.; Spears, R.; Semin, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    The linguistic expectancy bias (LEB) refers to the tendency to describe expectancy consistent information at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent information. Two experiments examined the influence of the social communicative context on the production of this

  2. Caffeine expectancies influence the subjective and behavioral effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Juliano, Laura M

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the independent and interactive effects of caffeine pharmacology and expected effects of caffeine on performance and subjective outcomes. Abstinent coffee drinkers (n = 60) consumed decaffeinated coffee with either 280 mg or 0 mg added caffeine. Caffeine dose was crossed with varying instructions that the coffee would either enhance or impair performance in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Performance, mood, caffeine withdrawal, and negative somatic effects were assessed. Relative to placebo, caffeine improved reaction time and accuracy on the rapid visual information processing task, a measure of vigilance. However, there was a significant dose by expectancy interaction that revealed that among participants given placebo coffee, "impair" instructions produced better performance than "enhance" instructions. Caffeine also improved psychomotor performance as indicated by a finger tapping task with no main effects of expectancy or interactions. Impair instructions produced greater reports of negative somatic effects than enhance instructions, but only when caffeine was administered. Manipulating the expected effects of caffeine altered the behavioral and subjective effects of caffeine. A significant dose by expectancy interaction revealed a somewhat paradoxical outcome in the placebo conditions whereby those told "impair" performed better than those told "enhance." This may reflect compensatory responding as has been observed in similar studies using alcohol (Fillmore et al. Psychopharmacology 115:383-388, 1994). Impair instructions led to greater negative somatic effects only when caffeine was administered supporting the active placebo hypothesis.

  3. The power of positive and negative expectations to influence reported symptoms and mood during exposure to wind farm sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Gamble, Greg; Cundy, Tim; Petrie, Keith J

    2014-12-01

    Wind farm developments have been hampered by claims that sound from wind turbines causes symptoms and negative health reports in nearby residents. As scientific reviews have failed to identify a plausible link between wind turbine sound and health effects, psychological expectations have been proposed as an explanation for health complaints. Building on recent work showing negative expectations can create symptoms from wind turbines, we investigated whether positive expectations can produce the opposite effect, in terms of a reduction in symptoms and improvements in reported health. 60 participants were randomized to either positive or negative expectation groups and subsequently exposed to audible wind farm sound and infrasound. Prior to exposure, negative expectation participants watched a DVD incorporating TV footage about health effects said to be caused by infrasound produced by wind turbines. In contrast, positive expectation participants viewed a DVD that outlined the possible therapeutic effects of infrasound exposure. During exposure to audible windfarm sound and infrasound, symptoms and mood were strongly influenced by the type of expectations. Negative expectation participants experienced a significant increase in symptoms and a significant deterioration in mood, while positive expectation participants reported a significant decrease in symptoms and a significant improvement in mood. The study demonstrates that expectations can influence symptom and mood reports in both positive and negative directions. The results suggest that if expectations about infrasound are framed in more neutral or benign ways, then it is likely reports of symptoms or negative effects could be nullified.

  4. Diet strongly influences the gut microbiota of surgeonfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Sou; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    Intestinal tracts are among the most densely populated microbial ecosystems. Gut microbiota and their influence on the host have been well characterized in terrestrial vertebrates but much less so in fish. This is especially true for coral reef fishes, which are among the most abundant groups of vertebrates on earth. Surgeonfishes (family: Acanthuridae) are part of a large and diverse family of reef fish that display a wide range of feeding behaviours, which in turn has a strong impact on the reef ecology. Here, we studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea. High-throughput pyrosequencing results showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes, especially of the genus Epulopiscium, were dominant in the gut microbiota of seven surgeonfishes. Even so, there were large inter- and intraspecies differences in the diversity of surgeonfish microbiota. Replicates of the same host species shared only a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), although these accounted for most of the sequences. There was a statistically significant correlation between the phylogeny of the host and their gut microbiota, but the two were not completely congruent. Notably, the gut microbiota of three nonsurgeonfish species clustered with some surgeonfish species. The microbiota of the macro- and microalgavores was distinct, while the microbiota of the others (carnivores, omnivores and detritivores) seemed to be transient and dynamic. Despite some anomalies, both host phylogeny and diet were important drivers for the intestinal microbial community structure of surgeonfishes from the Red Sea. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diet strongly influences the gut microbiota of surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Miyake, Sou

    2015-01-20

    Intestinal tracts are among the most densely populated microbial ecosystems. Gut microbiota and their influence on the host have been well characterized in terrestrial vertebrates but much less so in fish. This is especially true for coral reef fishes, which are among the most abundant groups of vertebrates on earth. Surgeonfishes (family: Acanthuridae) are part of a large and diverse family of reef fish that display a wide range of feeding behaviours, which in turn has a strong impact on the reef ecology. Here, we studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea. High-throughput pyrosequencing results showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes, especially of the genus Epulopiscium, were dominant in the gut microbiota of seven surgeonfishes. Even so, there were large inter- and intraspecies differences in the diversity of surgeonfish microbiota. Replicates of the same host species shared only a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), although these accounted for most of the sequences. There was a statistically significant correlation between the phylogeny of the host and their gut microbiota, but the two were not completely congruent. Notably, the gut microbiota of three nonsurgeonfish species clustered with some surgeonfish species. The microbiota of the macro- and microalgavores was distinct, while the microbiota of the others (carnivores, omnivores and detritivores) seemed to be transient and dynamic. Despite some anomalies, both host phylogeny and diet were important drivers for the intestinal microbial community structure of surgeonfishes from the Red Sea. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Visual continuity across saccades is influenced by expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hrishikesh M; Abzug, Zachary M; Sommer, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    As we make saccades, the image on each retina is displaced, yet our visual perception is uninterrupted. This is commonly referred to as transsaccadic perceptual stability, but such a description is inadequate. Some visual objects are stable (e.g., rocks) and should be perceived as such across saccades, but other objects may move at any time (e.g., birds). Stability is probabilistic in natural scenes. Here we extend the common notion of transsaccadic visual stability to a more general, ecologically based hypothesis of transsaccadic visual continuity in which postsaccadic percepts of objects depend on expectations about their probability of movement. Subjects made a saccade to a target and reported whether it seemed displaced after the saccade. Targets had varying probabilities of movement (ranging from 0.1-0.9) that corresponded to their color (spectrum from blue to red). Performance was compared before and after subjects were told about the color-probability pairings ("uninformed" vs. "informed" conditions). Analyses focused on signal detection and psychometric threshold measures. We found that in the uninformed condition, performance was similar across color-probability pairings, but in the informed condition, response biases varied with probability of movement, and movement-detection sensitivities were higher for rarely moving targets. We conclude that subjects incorporate priors about object movement into their judgments of visual continuity across saccades.

  7. Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507

  8. Influence of strong perturbations on wall-bounded flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, O. R. H.; Ewenz Rocher, M.; Rodríguez-López, E.

    2018-01-01

    Single-point hot-wire measurements are made downstream of a series of spanwise repeating obstacles that are used to generate an artificially thick turbulent boundary layer. The measurements are made in the near field, in which the turbulent boundary layer is beginning to develop from the wall-bounded wakes of the obstacles. The recent paper of Rodríguez-López et al. [E. Rodríguez-López et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 074401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.074401] broadly categorized the mechanisms by which canonical turbulent boundary layers eventually develop from wall-bounded wakes into two distinct mechanisms, the wall-driven and wake-driven mechanisms. In the present work we attempt to identify the geometric parameters of tripping arrays that trigger these two mechanisms by examining the spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the intermittent outer region of the flow. Using a definition reliant upon the magnitude of the velocity fluctuations, an intermittency function is devised that can discriminate between turbulent and nonturbulent flow. These results are presented along with the spectra in order to try to ascertain which aspects of a trip's geometry are more likely to favor the wall-driven or wake-driven mechanism. The geometrical aspects of the trips tested are the aspect ratio, the total blockage, and the blockage at the wall. The results indicate that the presence, or not, of perforations is the most significant factor in affecting the flow downstream. The bleed of fluid through the perforations reenergizes the mean recirculation and leads to a narrower intermittent region with a more regular turbulent-nonturbulent interface. The near-wall turbulent motions are found to recover quickly downstream of all of the trips with a wall blockage of 50%, but a clear influence of the outer fluctuations, generated by the tip vortices of the trips, is observed in the near-wall region for the high total blockage trips. The trip with 100% wall blockage is

  9. Expectations of Achievement and Perceptions of Talent: Child and Parent Influence on Academic Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The influences of parental expectations, self-expectations and academic achievement on eventual educational attainment were investigated in a longitudinal study utilising twin pairs from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS). Expectations and current school performance were recorded by twins and their parents at twins’ age 11, 14 and 17. Level of education attained by age 24 was used as the key outcome variable. Parents also rated their self-perceived talents at the intake assessment. ...

  10. Pretest expectations strongly influence interpretation of abnormal laboratory results and further management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, P.H.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Winkens, B.; Winkens, R.A.G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormal results of diagnostic laboratory tests can be difficult to interpret when disease probability is very low. Although most physicians generally do not use Bayesian calculations to interpret abnormal results, their estimates of pretest disease probability and reasons for ordering

  11. Collegiate Schemas: The Influence of Institutional Met Expectations on Tenure-Track Faculty Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, Jason Lewis

    2012-01-01

    "Met expectations" research into job satisfaction (Locke, 1976; Porter & Steers, 1973) has shown that the expectations employees bring to their jobs influence their overall job satisfaction. At colleges and universities, faculty job satisfaction is important because it can provide a measure of overall institutional effectiveness…

  12. Nonoffending Parent Expectations of Sexually Abused Children: Predictive Factors and Influence on Children's Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…

  13. Influence of Expectation and Campus Racial Climate on Undergraduates' Interracial Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar; Idris, Fazilah; Tien, Wendy Yee Mei; Ahmad, Mona Alkauthar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of interracial interaction expectation and campus racial climate perception on attitudes toward interracial interaction which, in turn, influences the levels of interracial interaction among students at a multicultural university in Malaysia. Interaction across race is fundamental to students'…

  14. Peer influences on alcohol expectancies in early adolescence: a study of concurrent and prospective predictors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Wei J; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Lin, Yun-Chen; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of peers on three domains of alcohol expectancies through early adolescence were prospectively examined over 2 years. Information on pubertal development, parental drinking, peer characteristics, network structure, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol consumption was assessed in a three-wave longitudinal study of 779 6th graders (~12 years of age) randomly selected from northern Taiwan. Complex survey regression analyses, stratified by drinking experience in 6th grade, were performed to identify predictors of two positive (i.e., enhanced social behaviors and relaxation/tension reduction) and one negative alcohol expectancies (i.e., cognitive/behavioral deterioration) in 7th grade. The results showed that the effects of peer influence on adolescents' alcohol expectancies varied by prior drinking experiences and by expectancy domains. For the alcohol naive, recent exposure to peer drinking was significantly associated with positive and negative alcohol expectancies in grade 7, and this association was moderated by advanced pubertal development (ESBlate puberty: ßwt=0.55; ESBearly puberty: ßwt=-0.40; PRTRlate puberty: ßwt=0.01; PRTRearly puberty: ßwt=1.22; CBD late puberty: ßwt=-0.84; CBDearly puberty: ßwt=0.56). For the alcohol experienced, neither peer drinking nor pubertal development showed any significant links with alcohol expectancies. Occupying a bridge position was slightly linked with negative expectancy (ßwt=0.25). Concurrent drinking serves as a strong predictor for the endorsed alcohol expectancy in both groups, particularly for the domain of enhanced social behaviors. If these effects are confirmed, knowledge of the effect of interplay between peer factors and pubertal development on alcohol expectancies in early adolescence can provide effective targets in prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of alcohol expectancy priming and mood manipulation on subsequent alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K D; Goldman, M S; Del Boca, F K

    2000-02-01

    Studies showing that verbal priming can implicitly affect alcohol consumption have been used to support cognitive models of expectancies. However, because expectancy words reflect affective states as well as drinking outcomes, mediation through an affective pathway remains theoretically plausible (i.e., such words inadvertently may affect mood, which in turn influences drinking). The primary pathway was identified (and expectancy theory was tested) by comparing memory priming (using alcohol expectancy or neutral words) with mood induction (using positive or neutral music); an unrelated experiment paradigm allowed the priming manipulation to implicitly affect drinking. Men in the alcohol priming group drank significantly more than men in each of the other conditions, and, consistent with theory, men with histories of heavier drinking drank the most when primed with alcohol expectancies, indicating that expectancies can function as automatic memory processes.

  16. The influence of prior experience and expected timing on vibrotactile discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Muhsin; Harris, Justin A.; Langdon, Angela; Breakspear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Vibrotactile discrimination tasks involve perceptual judgements on stimulus pairs separated by a brief interstimulus interval (ISI). Despite their apparent simplicity, decision making during these tasks is biased by prior experience in a manner that is not well understood. A striking example is when participants perform well on trials where the first stimulus is closer to the mean of the stimulus-set than the second stimulus, and perform comparatively poorly when the first stimulus is further from the stimulus mean. This “time-order effect” suggests that participants implicitly encode the mean of the stimulus-set and use this internal standard to bias decisions on any given trial. For relatively short ISIs, the magnitude of the time-order effect typically increases with the distance of the first stimulus from the global mean. Working from the premise that the time-order effect reflects the loss of precision in working memory representations, we predicted that the influence of the time-order effect, and this superimposed “distance” effect, would monotonically increase for trials with longer ISIs. However, by varying the ISI across four intervals (300, 600, 1200, and 2400 ms) we instead found a complex, non-linear dependence of the time-order effect on both the ISI and the distance, with the time-order effect being paradoxically stronger at short ISIs. We also found that this relationship depended strongly on participants' prior experience of the ISI (from previous task titration). The time-order effect not only depends on participants' expectations concerning the distribution of stimuli, but also on the expected timing of the trials. PMID:24399927

  17. Perceiver self-presentational goals as moderators of expectancy influences: ingratiation and the disconfirmation of negative expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L; Judice, T N; Virdin, L M; Carrillo, M A

    1993-03-01

    Self-fulfilling prophecy processes enable people to confirm their negative expectancies for others. The perceiver goal of ingratiation was hypothesized to alter this behavioral dynamic and thus lead perceivers to disconfirm their negative expectancies. In an interview setting, we manipulated interviewer Ss' expectancies and interaction goals. As anticipated, "no goal" interviewers were relatively cold and challenging toward their negative-expectancy applicants; as a result, these applicants performed somewhat less favorably, consistent with interviewer expectancies. In contrast, "liking goal" interviewers were relatively warm and unthreatening toward their negative-expectancy applicants; as a result, these applicants performed favorably, disconfirming interviewer expectancies. These data support a framework in which perceiver self-presentation goals are conceptualized to moderate the expectancy-confirmation process.

  18. Perceptions of national wealth and skill influence pay expectations: replicating global hierarchy on a microscale

    OpenAIRE

    Maitner, Angela T.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In highly multicultural societies, the economic status hierarchy may come to mimic the hierarchy of global wealth, reinforcing social inequality by tying pay scales to national wealth. We investigated how nationality influences expectations of payment in the UAE. Participants reported how much they expected people to be paid and how much skill they were perceived to have by nationality. They also reported their perceptions of the national wealth of different countries. Participants generally ...

  19. The Influence of Alcohol Expectancies and Intoxication on Men’s Aggressive Unprotected Sexual Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue

    2010-01-01

    An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their post-incident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol’s influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work. PMID:20939645

  20. The influence of alcohol expectancies and intoxication on men's aggressive unprotected sexual intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue

    2010-10-01

    An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men's self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their postincident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol's influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work.

  1. Perceptions of national wealth and skill influence pay expectations: replicating global hierarchy on a microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitner, Angela T; DeCoster, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In highly multicultural societies, the economic status hierarchy may come to mimic the hierarchy of global wealth, reinforcing social inequality by tying pay scales to national wealth. We investigated how nationality influences expectations of payment in the UAE. Participants reported how much they expected people to be paid and how much skill they were perceived to have by nationality. They also reported their perceptions of the national wealth of different countries. Participants generally expected Westerners to be paid more than Arabs, who would be paid more than Sub-Saharan Africans and Asians. Expectations about payment in private sector employment were driven by both actual and stereotyped differences in national wealth and skill, with non-Gulf Cooperation Council Arabs most likely to see national wealth as a factor explaining the economic hierarchy. These results suggest that people expect payment to be tied to national wealth, reflecting the global hierarchy on a microscale.

  2. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: an experimental study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosky, Joel E; Bishop, Mark D; Robinson, Michael E; Barabas, Josh A; George, Steven Z

    2008-02-11

    The mechanisms thorough which spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) exerts clinical effects are not established. A prior study has suggested a dorsal horn modulated effect; however, the role of subject expectation was not considered. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of subject expectation on hypoalgesia associated with SMT. Sixty healthy subjects agreed to participate and underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) to their leg and low back. Next, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, negative, or neutral expectation instructional set regarding the effects of a specific SMT technique on pain perception. Following the instructional set, all subjects received SMT and underwent repeat QST. No interaction (p = 0.38) between group assignment and pain response was present in the lower extremity following SMT; however, a main effect (p influence of expectation on SMT induced hypoalgesia in the body area to which the expectation is directed.

  3. Nonoffending parent expectations of sexually abused children: predictive factors and influence on children's recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R; Hansen, David J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment, while parental expectations of children's overall future functioning were not predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact their children and about their children's overall future functioning were not predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at posttreatment. Results highlight the influential role the sexual abuse label has in shaping parental expectations about children's functioning. Recommendations for research and intervention are discussed.

  4. Influence of involvement and motivation to correction on product evaluation: Asymmetry for strong and weak brands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Małgorzata A. Styśko-Kunkowska; Katarzyna Żbikowska

    2014-01-01

    .... This experimental study with 246 participants examined how the motivation to correct the impact of brand knowledge influences the product evaluation of actual strong and weak brands in low and high...

  5. What Can You Expect? The Influence of Gender Diversity in Dyads on Work Goal Expectancies and Subsequent Work Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Rink, Floor; Ellemers, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In an experimental study (N = 60) we showed that gender differences play an important role in the extent to which people expect work goal differences between themselves and their collaborating partner. Participants who interact with a same-sex partner expect this person to pursue the same work goal as the self, whereas those who interact with an opposite-sex partner expect this p...

  6. School transitions, peer influence, and educational expectation formation: Girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Megan; Flashman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    School transitions are a regular feature of the educational career. While they are of general interest as instances of academic change, they also represent instances of peer environment and influence change. Previous theoretical and empirical work suggests peer influence is important for students' academic and educational outcomes, especially for the complex decision-making processes leading up to those outcomes. In this manuscript, we study the impact of peers on educational expectation formation at the 8th-to-9th-grade school transition. In doing so, we test a theoretical model that links institutional settings, social influence, and individual decision-making. We find the 9th grade transition likely represents a negative shock for students' college attendance expectations. Independent of this transition, however, stable peer environments further depress expectations. A more equal mixture of new and old peers in the 9th grade likely increases students' educational expectations in contrast. These effects of peer perturbations and the re-organization of social ties they imply mainly apply to female students. But, both male and female students revise their educational expectations in light of changing peer intelligence comparisons, albeit in countervailing ways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Hispanic women's health care provider control expectations: the influence of fatalism and acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Berenson, Abbey B

    2011-05-01

    In order to understand how culture influences Hispanic women's views about their health care provider (HCP), we examined the relationship between acculturation and fatalism in the HCP control expectations of Hispanic women. (A HCP control expectation is the extent to which an individual believes that her HCP has control over her health.) We predicted that acculturation would be negatively associated with HCP control expectations, and fatalism would be positively associated with HCP control expectations. A group of 1,027 young Hispanic women (mean age 21.24 years; SD=2.46) who were University of Texas Medical Branch clinic patients completed a comprehensive survey. Structural equation modeling was employed and, as predicted, acculturation was negatively associated with HCP control expectations (pfatalism was positively associated (pfatalism, acculturation, and their influence on HCP control expectations will help us understand this population's perceptions of their HCPs. This knowledge will assist HCPs in providing culturally competent care which will increase adherence to medical treatment and screening guidelines.

  8. Influence of Middle School Pupils' Acculturation on Their Readings of and Expectations for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Meredith L.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of middle school pupils' acculturation on their readings of and expectations for physical education. Participants were 94 pupils attending one public middle school. Data were collected using five qualitative techniques. They were analysed by employing analytic induction and constant…

  9. Baccalaureate Expectations of Community College Students: Socio-Demographic, Motivational, and Contextual Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Although much research has dealt with the factors that influence educational expectations, few studies have addressed recent high school graduates who attend community colleges as their first postsecondary institutions. As the costs associated with attending a four-year institution keep rising, community colleges increasingly…

  10. Social Influences, School Motivation and Gender Differences: An Application of the Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the structural relations of social influences, task values, ability beliefs, educational expectation and academic engagement for both boys and girls. The structural equation modelling analyses provided nationally representative evidence of gender differences in: (1) the links from teacher-student relationship and peer…

  11. The Study of the Entrepreneur’s Values and Knowledge: Influence in Growth Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Campos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how entrepreneur’s values and knowledge can influence growth expectations in new technology-ventures. The study analyses six Spanish cases with different level of growth expectations in their first years and with different characteristics in the entrepreneurial team. Our research reveals that entrepreneur’s knowledge is not a factor that helps to differentiate the level of growth in this specific sector. However, we found certain values present in those new ventures with a higher growth expectations, mainly independence and wealth. The values that were not related are the need of exploitation and security. Finally, we draw a model to understand the relationship between entrepreneur’s values and knowledge and their impact on new technology venture growth expectations.

  12. Influence of involvement and motivation to correction on product evaluation: Asymmetry for strong and weak brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styśko-Kunkowska Małgorzata A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous research, studies on motivated correction in the evaluation of branded products are rare. This experimental study with 246 participants examined how the motivation to correct the impact of brand knowledge influences the product evaluation of actual strong and weak brands in low and high involvement situations. As predicted, asymmetry between the strong and weak brands was observed. After the induction of the motivation to correction, the smaller brand effect occurred only in the cases of low involvement and the weak (negative brand. The effect of motivated correction was smaller than the effect of high involvement; therefore, the overall results suggest that conscious explicit motivation to correction evokes correction only in cases of weak brands under certain circumstances. However, this impact is not as strong as the influence of high motivation or a strong brand, even though explicit instructions are given to avoid the negative influence of the brand.

  13. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: An experimental study in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabas Josh A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms thorough which spinal manipulative therapy (SMT exerts clinical effects are not established. A prior study has suggested a dorsal horn modulated effect; however, the role of subject expectation was not considered. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of subject expectation on hypoalgesia associated with SMT. Methods Sixty healthy subjects agreed to participate and underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST to their leg and low back. Next, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, negative, or neutral expectation instructional set regarding the effects of a specific SMT technique on pain perception. Following the instructional set, all subjects received SMT and underwent repeat QST. Results No interaction (p = 0.38 between group assignment and pain response was present in the lower extremity following SMT; however, a main effect (p Conclusion The current study replicates prior findings of c- fiber mediated hypoalgesia in the lower extremity following SMT and this occurred regardless of expectation. A significant increase in pain perception occurred following SMT in the low back of participants receiving negative expectation suggesting a potential influence of expectation on SMT induced hypoalgesia in the body area to which the expectation is directed.

  14. Factors Influencing the Earnings Expectations among Macedonian Students: A Comparative Perspective with the EU Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Andonova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the earnings expectations of Macedonian students and the main factors that shape their expectations. Previous research has shown that earnings expectation is a major determinant that influences a decision on schooling (Williams and Gordon, 1981; Betts, 1996; Wolter and Zbinden, 2001. Given that the main pathway to developing individual human capital is schooling, learning about factors that affect individual’s decision on whether to acquire more education can contribute towards better educational policy. We employ similar empirical approach as Brunello et al. (2001, 2004. We use available information to regress: i expected future earnings right after university graduation and ii expected future earnings 10 years after graduation, on a set of variables: characteristics of the individual, socio-economic background, field of study, year of study, academic performance, sources of information for future earnings, etc. Our findings show that expected earnings are significantly correlated with the education of the father, year of study, sources of information on earnings in the labor market, gender, ethnicity, having a regular job during studies, perceived employability, field of study, and the country of future employment. In other words, Macedonian students form their earnings expectations in a similar vein as their European counterparts.

  15. Hope and optimism: latent structures and influences on grade expectancy and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kevin L

    2009-02-01

    A synthesized model of trait hope (Snyder 1994, 2002) and trait optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1985) is proposed. In this model hope and optimism are conceptualized as facets of an overarching trait called goal attitude. Structural equation modeling is used to test the plausibility of the proposed model in a sample of 345 students in a university psychology course who completed the Adult Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and the Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994). The proposed model shows acceptable fit to the observed data. The synthesized model is used to examine the unique and common influences of hope and optimism on grade expectancy and academic performance in 312 students who completed the course. The results show that hope uniquely influenced students' grade expectancies, whereas optimism did not. In turn, grade expectancies influenced academic performance. Neither hope nor optimism had a unique, direct influence on academic performance. In contrast, the shared aspect of hope and optimism (i.e., goal attitude) had a direct influence on academic performance.

  16. When expectations predict experience: the influence of psychological factors on chemotherapy toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Hayley S; Olver, Ian N

    2012-06-01

    Patients with cancer undergoing similar treatments experience variable severity and frequency of side effects not adequately explained by pharmacological mechanisms, suggesting psychological influence. First, this study aimed to further examine the relationship between patients' expectations of multiple chemotherapy-related toxicities and experiences. Second, this study aimed to explore the impact of anxiety and cancer coping styles to aid in informing interventions to lessen such expectations. A total of 59 eligible, consenting patients with cancer rated their expectations of 20 chemotherapy toxicities on 100-point linear analogue self-assessment indicators before treatment and completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory and the Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale. Patients then rated their experience of side effects after one chemotherapy session. Regressions controlling primary treating nurse influence and patient performance status showed toxicity experience was significantly predicted by patient expectations of mood changes, bleeding, skin itchiness, hair loss, feeling tired, and sleep disturbance (β=0.30-0.55). Anxiety was significantly related to expectations of nervousness and mood changes; the coping style Fighting Spirit showed no significant associations, whereas conversely, Anxious Preoccupation showed some degree of association with all 20 toxicities (r=0.11-0.34). Findings support the growing contention that patient expectations influence experience, negatively impacting quality of life. As it is unethical to withhold treatment information, research into screening for at-risk patients and offering brief interventions to minimize Anxious Preoccupation could be one way to reduce overall side effect burden, perhaps in the case of many medical interventions. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expectant parents' views of factors influencing infant feeding decisions in the antenatal period: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Coralie L; Cheater, Francine

    2016-08-01

    To explore the factors that influence expectant parents' infant feeding decisions in the antenatal period. Mixed method systematic review focussing on participant views data. CINAHL, Medline, Embase and PsychInfo databases were interrogated using initial keywords and then refined terms to elicit relevant studies. Reference lists were checked and hand-searching was undertaken for 2 journals ('Midwifery' and 'Social Science and Medicine') covering a 3 year time period (January 2011-March 2014). Key inclusion criteria: studies reflecting expectant parents' views of the factors influencing their infant feeding decisions in the antenatal period; Studies in the English language published after 1990, from developed countries and of qualitative, quantitative or mixed method design. A narrative interpretive synthesis of the views data from studies of qualitative, quantitative and mixed method design. Data were extracted on study characteristics and parents' views, using the Social Ecological Model to support data extraction and thematic synthesis. Synthesis was influenced by the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-Ordinating Centre approach to mixed method reviews. Of the 409 studies identified through search methods, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Thematic synthesis identified 9 themes: Bonding/Attachment; Body Image; Self Esteem/Confidence; Female Role Models; Family and Support Network; Lifestyle; Formal Information Sources; Knowledge; and Feeding in front of others/Public. The review identified a significant bias in the data towards negative factors relating to the breastfeeding decision, suggesting that infant feeding was not a choice between two feeding options, but rather a process of weighing reasons for and against breastfeeding. Findings reflected the perception of the maternal role as intrinsic to the expectant mothers' infant feeding decisions. Cultural perceptions permeated personal, familial and social influences on the

  18. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  19. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries’ data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks’ Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at pcorrupt practices and promoting good governance should be embraced to eradicate malnutrition in developing countries. PMID:26090058

  20. Strong influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on flood risk around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip J.; Jongman, B; Kummu, M.; Dettinger, Mike; Sperna Weiland, F.C; Winsemius, H.C

    2014-01-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most dominant interannual signal of climate variability and has a strong influence on climate over large parts of the world. In turn, it strongly influences many natural hazards (such as hurricanes and droughts) and their resulting socioeconomic impacts, including economic damage and loss of life. However, although ENSO is known to influence hydrology in many regions of the world, little is known about its influence on the socioeconomic impacts of floods (i.e., flood risk). To address this, we developed a modeling framework to assess ENSO’s influence on flood risk at the global scale, expressed in terms of affected population and gross domestic product and economic damages. We show that ENSO exerts strong and widespread influences on both flood hazard and risk. Reliable anomalies of flood risk exist during El Niño or La Niña years, or both, in basins spanning almost half (44%) of Earth’s land surface. Our results show that climate variability, especially from ENSO, should be incorporated into disaster-risk analyses and policies. Because ENSO has some predictive skill with lead times of several seasons, the findings suggest the possibility to develop probabilistic flood-risk projections, which could be used for improved disaster planning. The findings are also relevant in the context of climate change. If the frequency and/or magnitude of ENSO events were to change in the future, this finding could imply changes in flood-risk variations across almost half of the world’s terrestrial regions.

  1. Influence of equation of state on interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements in strongly coupled tungsten plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachenko, S. I.; Levashov, P. R.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2006-01-01

    We study the influence of equation-of-state (EOS) model on the interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements in strongly coupled plasma of tungsten by Korobenko et al. (2002 Plasma Physics Reports 28(12) 1008--1016). Three different semiempirical EOS models for tungsten are used. Discrepancies in obtained thermodynamic parameters and specific resistivity values as compared with calculation results of Korobenko et al. are analysed.

  2. The Influence of Emotion Upregulation on the Expectation of Sexual Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Trimbos, Baptist; Both, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation research has shown successful altering of unwanted aversive emotional reactions. Cognitive strategies can also downregulate expectations of reward arising from conditioned stimuli, including sexual stimuli. However, little is known about whether such strategies can also efficiently upregulate expectations of sexual reward arising from conditioned stimuli, and possible gender differences therein. The present study examined whether a cognitive upregulatory strategy could successfully upregulate sexual arousal elicited by sexual reward-conditioned cues in men and women. Men (n = 40) and women (n = 53) participated in a study using a differential conditioning paradigm, with genital vibrostimulation as unconditioned stimulus (US) and sexually relevant pictures as conditional stimuli. Penile circumference and vaginal pulse amplitude were assessed and ratings of US expectancy, affective value, and sexual arousal value were obtained. Also a stimulus response compatibility task was included to assess automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Evidence was found for emotion upregulation to increase genital arousal response in the acquisition phase in both sexes, and to enhance resistance to extinction of conditioned genital responding in women. In men, the emotion upregulatory strategy resulted in increased conditioned positive affect. The findings support that top-down modulation may indeed influence conditioned sexual responses. This knowledge may have implications for treating disturbances in sexual appetitive responses, such as low sexual arousal and desire. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant and bird presence strongly influences the microbial communities in soils of Admiralty Bay, Maritime Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia C R S Teixeira

    Full Text Available Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing relatively large changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies, Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific.

  4. Influence of subjective intoxication, breath alcohol concentration, and expectancies on the alcohol-aggression relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancola, Peter R

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of subjective intoxication, alcohol-aggression expectancies, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) on intoxicated aggression in men and women while controlling for dispositional aggressivity. Subjects were 328 (163 men and 165 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or an active placebo beverage, subjects were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Levels of subjective intoxication and BrAC were measured immediately before subjects began the aggression task. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Subjective intoxication ratings were not related to aggressive behavior for either men or women. Alcohol-aggression expectancies were related to aggression for men, but this effect was rendered nonsignificant when controlling for dispositional aggressivity, which in turn, was significantly related to the dependent variables for both men and women. Finally, BrAC was also related to aggression above and beyond the effects of dispositional aggressivity, yet only for men. Taken as a whole, this study suggests that intoxicated aggression is primarily the result of alcohol's pharmacological properties in conjunction with an aggressive disposition.

  5. Expectations in Culturally Unfamiliar Music: Influences of Proximal and Distal Cues and Timbral Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Stevens

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeners’ musical perception is influenced by cues that can be stored in short-term memory (e.g. within the same musical piece or long-term memory (e.g. based on one’s own musical culture. The present study tested how these cues (referred to as respectively proximal and distal cues influence the perception of music from an unfamiliar culture. Western listeners who were naïve to Gamelan music judged completeness and coherence for newly constructed melodies in the Balinese gamelan tradition. In these melodies, we manipulated the final tone with three possibilities: the original gong tone, an in-scale tone replacement or an out-of-scale tone replacement. We also manipulated the musical timbre employed in Gamelan pieces. We hypothesized that novice listeners are sensitive to out-of-scale changes, but not in-scale changes, and that this might be influenced by the more unfamiliar timbre created by Gamelan sister instruments whose harmonics beat with the harmonics of the other instrument, creating a timbrally shimmering sound. The results showed: 1 out-of-scale endings were judged less complete than original gong and in-scale endings; 2 for melodies played with sister instruments, in-scale endings were judged as less complete than original endings. Furthermore, melodies using the original scale tones were judged more coherent than melodies containing few or multiple tone replacements; melodies played on single instruments were judged more coherent than the same melodies played on sister instruments. Additionally, there is some indication of within-session statistical learning, with expectations for the initially-novel materials developing during the course of the experiment. The data suggest the influence of both distal cues (e.g. previously unfamiliar timbres and proximal cues (within the same sequence and over the experimental session on the perception of melodies from other cultural systems based on unfamiliar tunings and scale systems.

  6. Expectations in culturally unfamiliar music: influences of proximal and distal cues and timbral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine J; Tardieu, Julien; Dunbar-Hall, Peter; Best, Catherine T; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Listeners' musical perception is influenced by cues that can be stored in short-term memory (e.g., within the same musical piece) or long-term memory (e.g., based on one's own musical culture). The present study tested how these cues (referred to as, respectively, proximal and distal cues) influence the perception of music from an unfamiliar culture. Western listeners who were naïve to Gamelan music judged completeness and coherence for newly constructed melodies in the Balinese gamelan tradition. In these melodies, we manipulated the final tone with three possibilities: the original gong tone, an in-scale tone replacement or an out-of-scale tone replacement. We also manipulated the musical timbre employed in Gamelan pieces. We hypothesized that novice listeners are sensitive to out-of-scale changes, but not in-scale changes, and that this might be influenced by the more unfamiliar timbre created by Gamelan "sister" instruments whose harmonics beat with the harmonics of the other instrument, creating a timbrally "shimmering" sound. The results showed: (1) out-of-scale endings were judged less complete than original gong and in-scale endings; (2) for melodies played with "sister" instruments, in-scale endings were judged as less complete than original endings. Furthermore, melodies using the original scale tones were judged more coherent than melodies containing few or multiple tone replacements; melodies played on single instruments were judged more coherent than the same melodies played on sister instruments. Additionally, there is some indication of within-session statistical learning, with expectations for the initially-novel materials developing during the course of the experiment. The data suggest the influence of both distal cues (e.g., previously unfamiliar timbres) and proximal cues (within the same sequence and over the experimental session) on the perception of melodies from other cultural systems based on unfamiliar tunings and scale systems.

  7. Influence of polarization force on Jeans Self Gravitational Instability of Strongly Coupled dusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prerana

    In the present work, we investigate the influence of dust polarization force on the Jeans instability of self-gravitating strongly coupled dusty fluids. We consider dusty plasma containing strongly correlated negatively charged dust grains and weakly correlated Maxwellian electrons and ions. The formulation of the present work is done using the general hydrodynamic model and it is based on the assumption that dust polarization force is aroused due to the electrostatic interactions between thermal ions and highly negatively charged dust grains. In deriving dispersion relation the plane wave solutions are used on the linearized perturbation equations. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory. The dispersion relation is analyzed to obtain Jeans instability criterion of instability. Numerical results are presented to show the effect of polarization parameter and strong correlation effects of dust. The polarization force and strong coupling effects of dust are shown to affect the growth rate of gravitational mode of propagation. The growth rates are further compared in kinetic and hydrodynamic regime of propagation. It is found that the decay in the growth rate is faster in the kinetic mode of propagation in comparison to the hydrodynamic mode. The present investigation is relevant to the collapse of ultra-cold astrophysical objects like inner core of white dwarf and neutron star.

  8. Social-Contextual Influences on Expectancies for Managing Anger and Sadness: The Transition from Middle Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Janice; Shipman, Kimberly

    1997-01-01

    Examined the influence of emotion, audience, gender, and age on fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders' reported emotion management, emotional self-efficacy, and expectancies. Found that eighth graders regulated emotion most and expected the least maternal support. Children expressed greater self-efficacy and regulation for sadness than for anger.…

  9. Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

  10. Changing Avatars, Changing Selves? The Influence of Social and Contextual Expectations on Digital Rendition of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triberti, Stefano; Durosini, Ilaria; Aschieri, Filippo; Villani, Daniela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Avatar creation is an interesting topic for both video game and social network studies. Research has shown that the creation of avatars is influenced by individual, contextual, and cultural features. Avatars are used to represent aspects of users' personality, but multiple avatars are used in different virtual contexts, as self-presentation strategies may vary according to the different "audiences" to be met online (say: friends, or strangers). Moreover, avatar creation is also influenced by cultural variables, such as gender, as avatars embody stereotypical aspects of being a woman or a man. This research tested whether avatars, as digital self-representations, may change depending on the above-mentioned variables. Ninety-four participants created two avatars to be used in different contexts (video game and job-themed social network). Moreover, two groups of participants were told that they would have met friends or total strangers within the two virtual contexts. Results showed that avatars changed from the game to the job context. Changes involved avatars' transient features (Clothes) more than physical (Body) and symbolic (Accessories) ones, and females changed accessories more than males. Moreover, females who expected to meet friends changed their avatars' bodies significantly more than males in both virtual contexts. The findings are discussed based on literature about computer-mediated communication and online self-disclosure. In conclusion, possible implications of the results for avatar-based interventions and the field of video games and social network design are reviewed.

  11. Experimental evidence that density dependence strongly influences plant invasions through fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M

    2018-01-20

    Populations of range expanding species encounter patches of both favorable and unfavorable habitat as they spread across landscapes. Theory shows that increasing patchiness slows the spread of populations modeled with continuously varying population density when dispersal is not influence by the environment or individual behavior. However, as is found in uniformly favorable landscapes, spread remains driven by fecundity and dispersal from low density individuals at the invasion front. In contrast, when modeled populations are composed of discrete individuals, patchiness causes populations to build up to high density before dispersing past unsuitable habitat, introducing an important influence of density dependence on spread velocity. To test the hypothesized interaction between habitat patchiness and density dependence, we simultaneously manipulated these factors in a greenhouse system of annual plants spreading through replicated experimental landscapes. We found that increasing the size of gaps and amplifying the strength of density dependence both slowed spread velocity, but contrary to predictions, the effect of amplified density dependence was similar across all landscape types. Our results demonstrate that the discrete nature of individuals in spreading populations has a strong influence on how both landscape patchiness and density dependence influence spread through demographic and dispersal stochasticity. Both finiteness and landscape structure should be critical components to theoretical predictions of future spread for range expanding native species or invasive species colonizing new habitat. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. OPA1-related dominant optic atrophy is not strongly influenced by mitochondrial DNA background

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    Amati-Bonneau Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA are the most frequent forms of hereditary optic neuropathies. LHON is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations whereas ADOA is mainly due to mutations in the OPA1 gene that encodes a mitochondrial protein involved in the mitochondrial inner membrane remodeling. A striking influence of mtDNA haplogroup J on LHON expression has been demonstrated and it has been recently suggested that this haplogroup could also influence ADOA expression. In this study, we have tested the influence of mtDNA backgrounds on OPA1 mutations. Methods To define the relationships between OPA1 mutations and mtDNA backgrounds, we determined the haplogroup affiliation of 41 French patients affected by OPA1-related ADOA by control-region sequencing and RFLP survey of their mtDNAs. Results The comparison between patient and reference populations did not revealed any significant difference. Conclusion Our results argue against a strong influence of mtDNA background on ADOA expression. These data allow to conclude that OPA1 could be considered as a "severe mutation", directly responsible of the optic atrophy, whereas OPA1-negative ADOA and LHON mutations need an external factor(s to express the pathology (i.e. synergistic interaction with mitochondrial background.

  13. How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers’ Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product’s package on consumers’ flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment (N = 123 compared the effects of visual metaphor of strength (an image of a lion located either on top or on the bottom of the package of coffee beans and the direct textual claim (“extra strong” on consumers’ responses to coffee, including product expectation, flavor evaluation, strength perception and purchase intention. The results demonstrate that both the textual claim and the visual metaphor can be efficient in communicating the product attribute of strength. The presence of the image positively influenced consumers’ product expectations before tasting. The textual claim increased the perception of strength of coffee and the purchase intention of the product. The location of the image also played an important role in flavor perception and purchase intention. The image located on the bottom of the package increased the perceived strength of coffee and purchase intention of the product compared to the image on top of the package. This result could be interpreted from the perspective of the grounded cognition theory, which suggests that a picture in the lower part of the package would automatically activate the “strong is heavy” metaphor. As heavy objects are usually associated with a position on the ground, this would explain why perceiving a visually heavy package would lead to the experience of a strong coffee. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships between a metaphorical image and its spatial position in food packaging design.

  14. On Social and Cognitive Influences: Relating Adolescent Networks, Generalized Expectancies, and Adolescent Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakon, Cynthia M.; Hipp, John R.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths’ friends smoking behavior and youths’ own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths’ friends and youths’ own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends’ generalized expectancies and youths’ expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses. PMID:25536039

  15. Influence of Clinical Communication on Parents’ Antibiotic Expectations for Children With Respiratory Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Christie; Ingram, Jenny; Lucas, Patricia J.; Redmond, Niamh M.; Kai, Joe; Hay, Alastair D.; Horwood, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to understand clinicians’ and parents’ perceptions of communication within consultations for respiratory tract infections (RTI) in children and what influence clinician communication had on parents’ understanding of antibiotic treatment. METHODS We video recorded 60 primary care consultations for children aged 3 months to 12 years who presented with RTI and cough in 6 primary care practices in England. We then used purposive sampling to select 27 parents and 13 clinicians for semistructured video-elicitation interviews. The videos were used as prompts to investigate participants’ understanding and views of communication within the consultations. We analyzed the interview data thematically. RESULTS While clinicians commonly told parents that antibiotics are not effective against viruses, this did not have much impact on parents’ beliefs about the need to consult or on their expectations concerning antibiotics. Parents believed that antibiotics were needed to treat more severe illnesses, a belief that was supported by the way clinicians accompanied viral diagnoses with problem-minimizing language and antibiotic prescriptions with more problem-oriented language. Antibiotic prescriptions tended to confirm parents’ beliefs about what indicated illness severity, which often took into account the wider impact on a child’s life. While parents understood antimicrobial resistance poorly, most held beliefs that supported reduced antibiotic prescribing. A minority attributed it to resource rationing, however. CONCLUSIONS Clinician communication and prescribing behavior confirm parents’ beliefs that antibiotics are needed to treat more severe illnesses. Interventions to reduce antibiotic expectations need to address communication within the consultation, prescribing behavior, and lay beliefs. PMID:26951589

  16. Influence of Clinical Communication on Parents' Antibiotic Expectations for Children With Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Christie; Ingram, Jenny; Lucas, Patricia J; Redmond, Niamh M; Kai, Joe; Hay, Alastair D; Horwood, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand clinicians' and parents' perceptions of communication within consultations for respiratory tract infections (RTI) in children and what influence clinician communication had on parents' understanding of antibiotic treatment. We video recorded 60 primary care consultations for children aged 3 months to 12 years who presented with RTI and cough in 6 primary care practices in England. We then used purposive sampling to select 27 parents and 13 clinicians for semistructured video-elicitation interviews. The videos were used as prompts to investigate participants' understanding and views of communication within the consultations. We analyzed the interview data thematically. While clinicians commonly told parents that antibiotics are not effective against viruses, this did not have much impact on parents' beliefs about the need to consult or on their expectations concerning antibiotics. Parents believed that antibiotics were needed to treat more severe illnesses, a belief that was supported by the way clinicians accompanied viral diagnoses with problem-minimizing language and antibiotic prescriptions with more problem-oriented language. Antibiotic prescriptions tended to confirm parents' beliefs about what indicated illness severity, which often took into account the wider impact on a child's life. While parents understood antimicrobial resistance poorly, most held beliefs that supported reduced antibiotic prescribing. A minority attributed it to resource rationing, however. Clinician communication and prescribing behavior confirm parents' beliefs that antibiotics are needed to treat more severe illnesses. Interventions to reduce antibiotic expectations need to address communication within the consultation, prescribing behavior, and lay beliefs. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  17. Shared Management Information in Buyer/Supplier Relationships: Its Usefulness and its Influence on Continuity Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ramón Jerónimo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the effect that the exchange of management information has on client and/or supplier relationships. Moreover, this study extends the concept of the usefulness of management control information to inter-organizational relationships, analysing how the scope of such information affects continuity expectations, and how these in turn influence opportunistic behaviour and the mutual adaptation of production systems. The data was gathered from 104 purchasing and 90 sales managers of equipment manufacturers on the nature of their respective relationships with their suppliers/ clients. The results confirm that the use of broad-scope management control information sharing in buyer-supplier relationships increases continuity expectations and reduces opportunistic behaviour.El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el efecto que ejerce el intercambio de información de gestión sobre las relaciones con clientes y/o proveedores. Para ello, se extiende el concepto de la utilidad de información de control de gestión a las relaciones ínter-organizativas, analizando cómo su contenido afecta a las expectativas de continuidad y éstas a su vez influyen en el comportamiento oportunista y en la adaptación mutua de sistemas de producción. Los datos analizados se han obtenido de las relaciones entre 104 directores de compras y 90 directores de ventas de empresas industriales con sus proveedores y clientes. Los resultados confirman que utilizar información compartida de control de gestión con un contenido más amplio en las relaciones compredor/proveedor favorece la creación de expectativas de continuidad y reduce comportamientos oportunistas.

  18. Contamination and Harm Relevant UCS-Expectancy Bias in Spider Phobic Individuals : Influence of Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J.; Huijding, Jorg; Peters, Madelon L.

    2010-01-01

    Phobic individuals expect aversive UCS's following encounters with phobic stimuli. Previous research using a thought-experiment procedure showed that contamination rather than harm-related outcome expectancies differentiated best between high and low spider fearful undergraduates. This study

  19. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived…

  20. Pathways of Influence: Chinese Parents' Expectations, Parenting Styles, and Child Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2015-01-01

    This study examines relations among Chinese parents' expectations for children's development of social-emotional skills, parenting styles, and child social competence. A total of 154 parents with preschool-aged children from mainland China completed questionnaires measuring their timing of expectations for children's mastery of social-emotional…

  1. African American Adolescent Mothers' Vocational Aspiration-Expectation Gap: Individual, Social and Environmental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellenga, Kate; Aber, Mark S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the vocational aspirations and expectations of African American adolescent mothers living in urban poverty. Data on girls from an alternative school for pregnant/parenting teens indicated that depressive and anxious symptoms along with childcare provided by relatives were associated with a gap between aspirations and expectations.…

  2. Fitness is strongly influenced by rare mutations of large effect in a microbial mutation accumulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Karl; Toll-Riera, Macarena; Kojadinovic, Mila; MacLean, R Craig

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary consequences of mutation relies heavily on estimates of the rate and fitness effect of spontaneous mutations generated by mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. We performed a classic MA experiment in which frequent sampling of MA lines was combined with whole genome resequencing to develop a high-resolution picture of the effect of spontaneous mutations in a hypermutator (ΔmutS) strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After ∼644 generations of mutation accumulation, MA lines had accumulated an average of 118 mutations, and we found that average fitness across all lines decayed linearly over time. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of fitness change in individual lines revealed that a large fraction of the total decay in fitness (42.3%) was attributable to the fixation of rare, highly deleterious mutations (comprising only 0.5% of fixed mutations). Furthermore, we found that at least 0.64% of mutations were beneficial and probably fixed due to positive selection. The majority of mutations that fixed (82.4%) were base substitutions and we failed to find any signatures of selection on nonsynonymous or intergenic mutations. Short indels made up a much smaller fraction of the mutations that were fixed (17.4%), but we found evidence of strong selection against indels that caused frameshift mutations in coding regions. These results help to quantify the amount of natural selection present in microbial MA experiments and demonstrate that changes in fitness are strongly influenced by rare mutations of large effect. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E.; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang,Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multist...

  4. Sclerosant foam structure and stability is strongly influenced by liquid air fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E; Chen, T; Connor, D E; Behnia, M; Parsi, K

    2013-10-01

    To determine the effects of sclerosant foam preparation and composition on foam structure, the time course of liquid drainage, and foam coarsening. Sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS) and polidocanol (POL) foams were investigated in a range of concentrations (0.5-3%) and liquid-plus-air fractions (LAF; 1 + 2 to 1 + 8). Foam was injected into a vein simulation model (polyvinyl chloride tubing, inner diameter 3 mm, constant pressure 5-7 mmHg) filled with saline or blood. Liquid drainage, bubble count, and diameter were measured and documented by serial photography. Liquid drainage was faster in the vertical position than the horizontal one. In all variations, very small bubbles (diameter foams (foams (>250 μm) and by 7.5 minutes macro-foams (>500 μm) were formed. Following injection, the upper regions of foam coarsened faster as liquid drained to the bottom of the vessel. Wet preparations produced significantly smaller bubbles. Low concentration POL foam produced significantly higher bubble counts and coarsened slower than STS. Foam structure is strongly influenced by the LAF. Despite the initial formation of micro-bubbles in the syringe, mini- and macro-bubbles are formed in target vessels with time post-injection. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of liquid metal droplets and jets influenced by a strong axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, D.; Karcher, Ch

    2017-07-01

    Non-contact electromagnetic control and shaping of liquid metal free surfaces is crucial in a number of high-temperature metallurgical processes like levitation melting and electromagnetic sealing, among others. Other examples are the electromagnetic bending or stabilization of liquid metal jets that frequently occur in casting or fusion applications. Within this context, we experimentally study the influence of strong axial magnetic fields on the dynamics of falling metal droplets and liquid metal jets. GaInSn in eutectic composition is used as test melt being liquid at room temperature. In the experiments, we use a cryogen-free superconducting magnet (CFM) providing steady homogeneous fields of up to 5 T and allowing a tilt angle between the falling melt and the magnet axis. We vary the magnetic flux density, the tilt angle, the liquid metal flow rate, and the diameter and material of the nozzle (electrically conducting/insulating). Hence, the experiments cover a parameter range of Hartmann numbers Ha, Reynolds numbers Re, and Weber numbers We within 0 magnetic field, droplet rotation ceases and the droplets are stretched in the field direction. Moreover, we observe that the jet breakup into droplets (spheroidization) is suppressed, and in the case of electrically conducting nozzles and tilt, the jets are bent towards the field axis.

  6. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael J; Murdoch, Andrew R; Hughes, Michael S; Seamons, Todd R; LaHood, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26-93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24-54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River.

  7. The Influence of Emotion Upregulation on the Expectation of Sexual Reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.; Trimbos, B.; Both, S.

    INTRODUCTION: Emotion regulation research has shown successful altering of unwanted aversive emotional reactions. Cognitive strategies can also downregulate expectations of reward arising from conditioned stimuli, including sexual stimuli. However, little is known about whether such strategies can

  8. Why did Danish women's life expectancy stagnate? The influence of interwar generations' smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Oeppen, Jim; Rizzi, Silvia; Möller, Sören; Zarulli, Virginia; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2016-12-01

    The general health status of a population changes over time, generally in a positive direction. Some generations experience more unfavourable conditions than others. The health of Danish women in the interwar generations is an example of such a phenomenon. The stagnation in their life expectancy between 1977 and 1995 is thought to be related to their smoking behaviour. So far, no study has measured the absolute effect of smoking on the mortality of the interwar generations of Danish women and thus the stagnation in Danish women's life expectancy. We applied a method to estimate age-specific smoking-attributable number of deaths to examine the effect of smoking on the trends in partial life expectancy of Danish women between age 50 and 85 from 1950 to 2012. We compared these trends to those for women in Sweden, where there was no similar stagnation in life expectancy. When smoking-attributable mortality was excluded, the gap in partial life expectancy at age 50 between Swedish and Danish women diminished substantially. The effect was most pronounced in the interwar generations. The major reason for the stagnation in Danish women's partial life expectancy at age 50 was found to be smoking-related mortality in the interwar generations.

  9. The Influence of Perceived Parental Expectations and Pressures on Women's Academic Achievement during the First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furry, Allyson N.; Sy, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has examined the relationship between parental expectations and student academic performance. However, less attention has been given to the role of different parental pressures in students' achievement during their first semester of college. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of perceived parental expectations…

  10. The Influence of the Usage of e-Learning on the Students’ Expectations about m-Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Eugeniya; Trifonova, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Georgieva, E., & Trifonova, A. (2006). The Influence of the Usage of e-Learning on the Students’ Expectations about m-Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st,

  11. Foiled Aspirations: The Influence of Unauthorized Status on the Educational Expectations of Latino Immigrant Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreira, Krista; Spees, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    Latino immigrant adolescents have the highest high school dropout rates of any race-ethnic or nativity group in the United States. One potential reason for high dropout rates among Latino immigrant youth is that many are unauthorized entrants. These unauthorized Latino immigrant youth have few opportunities to attend college, and, as they become aware of barriers to their educational progress and employment, they may lower their educational expectations. Using data from the Latino Adolescent Migration, Health, and Adaptation Project (N=275), we examine the association of unauthorized entry into the U.S. with the educational expectations of Latino immigrant youth. We find that adolescents entering the U.S. without authorization have lower educational expectations than those who enter with authorization. These differences in their expectations persist after controlling for differences in their pre-migration, migration, and post-migration experiences. Policies and programs that reduce barriers to higher education and labor market opportunities can potentially help to foster higher educational expectations among unauthorized immigrant youth and may promote their high school completion.

  12. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: Influence of stress and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandra, A.; Ryu, J.J.; Karra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy...... views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given...... mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient...

  13. Consumer-pharmacist interactions around complementary medicines: agreement between pharmacist and consumer expectations, satisfaction and pharmacist influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Sophia; Calabretto, Jean-Pierre; Sorich, Michael

    2013-12-01

    To explore pharmacist-consumer interactions around the use of complementary medicines (CMs), with specific focus on consumer expectations, perceptions and satisfaction. Twenty pharmacists and 20 healthcare consumers were recruited across 16 metropolitan community pharmacies in Adelaide, Australia, from June to August 2011. Semi-structured interviews containing comparable questions for both study groups were used. Data was transcribed and analysed with the aid of AutoMap®. There was high consumer satisfaction with pharmacists as CM providers, which was in agreement with pharmacist's perceptions of consumer satisfaction. However, this was against a background of low consumer expectations and pharmacists' dissatisfaction with their own role in the interaction. Consumers often perceived pharmacy-stocked CMs to be more effective and safer compared to those in supermarkets or health food shops, but this perception was not shared by pharmacists. Pharmacists believed they had significant influence around recommendation and use of CMs, whereas consumers perceived a more limited influence. Both pharmacists and consumers shared similar perceptions of CM safety and similar expectations regarding business influence and professional pressures on information provision. Behind a perception of high satisfaction, consumers have low expectations of pharmacists around provision of CM-related information. Further work is required to improve pharmacists' knowledge and confidence around CM use and to address barriers such as the tension between potentially competing business pressures and professional responsibilities. © 2013 The Authors. IJPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Influences on the Intention to Enter Higher Education: The Importance of Expected Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou; Markadjis, Elias; Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos; Socratous, Michalis

    2017-01-01

    Research points to several determinants of the private demand for higher education, which include individual, social, economic, and institutional variables. Of these variables, economic factors are considered to be highly relevant, especially in the current financial crisis. The paper investigates the link between expected rates of return to…

  15. Learning More than Expected: The Influence of Teachers' Attitudes on Children's Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Minjong

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the concept of teachers' sense of responsibility for students' learning to examine the extent to which the gap in math learning growth is reduced and whether such attitudes can improve children's learning outcomes to a degree that is above and beyond their expected achievement relative to their initial academic skills. Analysis…

  16. Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting…

  17. A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

  18. The Influence of Subjective Life Expectancy on Retirement Transition and Planning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl; Loh, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the construct of subjective life expectancy (SLE), or the estimation of one's probable age of death. Drawing on the tenets of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), we propose that SLE provides individuals with their own unique mental model of remaining time that is likely to affect their…

  19. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...... strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...

  20. Germa-closo-dodecaborate: a new ligand in transition-metal chemistry with a strong trans influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, Jörg-Alexander; Schubert, Hartmut; Wesemann, Lars

    2009-10-12

    The strong nucleophilic character of germa-closo-dodecaborate towards late transition metal centres is described. The synthesis and characterisation of the first germa-closo-dodecaborate complexes are presented, and the solid state structures of the germaborate transition metal complexes were determined by X-ray crystal structure analyses. The strong trans influence of the new germaborate ligand was determined by IR spectroscopy and NMR coupling constants.

  1. A Game of Hide and Seek: Expectations of Clumpy Resources Influence Hiding and Searching Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilke

    Full Text Available Resources are often distributed in clumps or patches in space, unless an agent is trying to protect them from discovery and theft using a dispersed distribution. We uncover human expectations of such spatial resource patterns in collaborative and competitive settings via a sequential multi-person game in which participants hid resources for the next participant to seek. When collaborating, resources were mostly hidden in clumpy distributions, but when competing, resources were hidden in more dispersed (random or hyperdispersed patterns to increase the searching difficulty for the other player. More dispersed resource distributions came at the cost of higher overall hiding (as well as searching times, decreased payoffs, and an increased difficulty when the hider had to recall earlier hiding locations at the end of the experiment. Participants' search strategies were also affected by their underlying expectations, using a win-stay lose-shift strategy appropriate for clumpy resources when searching for collaboratively-hidden items, but moving equally far after finding or not finding an item in competitive settings, as appropriate for dispersed resources. Thus participants showed expectations for clumpy versus dispersed spatial resources that matched the distributions commonly found in collaborative versus competitive foraging settings.

  2. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  3. Unexpected and just missed: the separate influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Evelien; Moors, Agnes; De Houwer, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that a goal-incongruent outcome leads to more intense negative emotions when it is unexpected and close to a goal-congruent outcome. Until now, however, no studies have disentangled the influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on emotions. We experimentally manipulated each of these variables in 3 slot machine experiments and measured emotions via differences in motivation (i.e., the tendency to repair the goal incongruence) and feelings (i.e., disappointment, frustration, and anger). The experiments consisted of a series of trials that each started with the sequential presentation of 3 symbols. In case of a win trial, all symbols were equal (e.g., AAA) and the participant gained 10 cents; in case of a loss trial, one or more of the symbols differed and the participant gained 0 cents. Three different loss trials were compared: unexpected proximal ones (e.g., AAB), expected proximal ones (e.g., ABA), and expected distal ones (e.g., ABC). The tendency to repair was measured online via behavior as well as retrospectively via self-reports; feelings were measured retrospectively (Experiments 1 and 2) or online (Experiment 3). Unexpected losses seemed to increase the tendency to repair as well as feelings of disappointment (in all experiments) and feelings of frustration and anger (in Experiments 1 and 3). Proximal losses increased only the tendency to repair (in all experiments). This suggests that the appraisals of expectancy and proximity have a distinct influence on emotions.

  4. Influence of the least-squares phase on optical vortices in strongly scintillated beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available on optical vortices in strongly scintillated beams Mingzhou Chen⁄ Applied Optics, School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland Filippus S. Rouxy National Laser Centre, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Dated... dipoles in strongly scintillated beams. The sim- ulations are conceptually represented by the diagram in Fig. 1. 1 km 10 km d System aperture Phase screens Least squares phase removersScintillated beam Observation plane FIG. 1: (Color online...

  5. Racial/ethnic differences in the influence of cultural values, alcohol resistance self-efficacy, and alcohol expectancies on risk for alcohol initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Regina A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; Zhou, Annie J; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    Prior research has reported racial/ethnic differences in the early initiation of alcohol use, suggesting that cultural values that are central to specific racial/ethnic groups may be influencing these differences. This 1-year longitudinal study examines associations between two types of cultural values, parental respect (honor for one's parents) and familism (connectedness with family), both measured at baseline, and subsequent alcohol initiation in a sample of 6,054 (approximately 49% male, 57% Hispanic, 22% Asian, 18% non-Hispanic White, and 4% non-Hispanic Black) middle school students in Southern California. We tested whether the associations of cultural values with alcohol initiation could be explained by baseline measures of alcohol resistance self-efficacy (RSE) and alcohol expectancies. We also explored whether these pathways differed by race/ethnicity. In the full sample, adolescents with higher parental respect were less likely to initiate alcohol use, an association that was partially explained by higher RSE and fewer positive alcohol expectancies. Familism was not significantly related to alcohol initiation. Comparing racial/ethnic groups, higher parental respect was protective against alcohol initiation for Whites and Asians, but not Blacks or Hispanics. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between familism and alcohol initiation. Results suggest that cultural values are important factors in the decision to use alcohol and these values appear to operate in part, by influencing alcohol positive expectancies and RSE. Interventions that focus on maintaining strong cultural values and building strong bonds between adolescents and their families may help reduce the risk of alcohol initiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Aspirations, Expectations, and Influences on the Post-Secondary Plans of Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corra, Jennifer Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the influences that high school seniors considered when making their plans for after graduation. Bourdieu's theory of habitus and Coleman's social capital theory inform the conceptual framework. Qualitative interviews were conducted with students and school counselors from four rural Kentucky school districts. Family, peers and…

  7. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...... stratification, I argue that students facing significant educational transitions form their educational expectations by taking into account the foreseeable, yet inherently uncertain, consequences of potential educational pathways. This process of expectation formation, I posit, involves evaluations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...

  8. Modeling the Etiology of Individual Differences in Early Reading Development: Evidence for Strong Genetic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Micaela E; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M; Pennington, Bruce; Defries, John C; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K

    2013-01-01

    We explored the etiology of individual differences in reading development from post-kindergarten to post-4th grade by analyzing data from 487 twin pairs tested in Colorado. Data from three reading measures and one spelling measure were fit to biometric latent growth curve models, allowing us to extend previous behavioral genetic studies of the etiology of early reading development at specific time points. We found primarily genetic influences on individual differences at post-1st grade for all measures. Genetic influences on variance in growth rates were also found, with evidence of small, nonsignificant, shared environmental influences for two measures. We discuss our results, including their implications for educational policy.

  9. Acceptance of speech recognition by physicians: A survey of expectations, experiences, and social influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Andersen, Henning Boje; Hertzum, Morten

    2009-01-01

    secretarial transcription for all physicians in clinical departments. The aim of the survey was (i) to identify how attitudes and perceptions among physicians affected the acceptance and success of the speech-recognition system and the new work procedures associated with it; and (ii) to assess the degree...... to which physicians’ attitudes and expectations to the use of speech technology changed after actually using it. The survey was based on two questionnaires—one administered when the physicians were about to begin training with the speech-recognition system and another, asking similar questions, when...... they had had some experience with the system. The survey data were supplemented with performance data from the speech-recognition system. The results show that the surveyed physicians tended to report a more negative view of the system after having used it for some months than before. When judging...

  10. The influence of smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity on cognitive impairment-free life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin Jane; Kingston, Andrew; Kiely, Kim Matthew; Luszcz, Mary Alice; Mitchell, Paul; Jagger, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity are risk factors for mortality and dementia. However, their impact on cognitive impairment-free life expectancy (CIFLE)has not previously been estimated. Data were drawn from the DYNOPTA dataset which was derived by harmonizing and pooling common measures from five longitudinal ageing studies. Participants for whom the Mini-Mental State Examination was available were included (N¼8111,48.6% men). Data on education, sex, body mass index, smoking and sedentary lifestyle were collected and mortality data were obtained from Government Records via data linkage.Total life expectancy (LE), CIFLE and years spent with cognitive impairment (CILE)were estimated for each risk factor and total burden of risk factors. CILE was approximately 2 years for men and 3 years for women, regardless of age. For men and women respectively, reduced LE associated with smoking was 3.82and 5.88 years, associated with obesity was 0.62 and 1.72 years and associated with being sedentary was 2.50 and 2.89 years. Absence of each risk factor was associated with longer LE and CIFLE, but also longer CILE for smoking in women and being sedentary in both sexes. Compared with participants with no risk factors, those with 2þ had shorter CIFLE of up to 3.5 years depending on gender and education level. Population level reductions in smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity increase longevity and number of years lived without cognitive impairment. Years lived with cognitive impairment may also increase.

  11. Core-substituted naphthalene diimides: influence of\\ud substituent conformation on strong visible absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Samuel; Davies, E. Stephen; Pfeiffer, Constance R.; Lewis, William; McMaster, Jonathan; Champness, Neil R.

    2017-01-01

    Substitution of the aromatic core of naphthalene diimide (NDI) chromophores by morpholine leads to molecules with strong absorbance in the visible spectrum. The shift of absorption maxima to lower energy is determined not only by the degree of substitution but also by the relative conformation and orientation of the tertiary amine with respect to the plane of the NDI.

  12. Expectations and Influencing Factors of IS Graduates and Education in Thailand: A Perspective of the Students, Academics and Business Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teay Shawyun Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As academic we have always been entrusted with developing the knowledge, skills, and capability of our IS students. In the strive for excellence in education, there is always the question of what has been implemented is appropriate and finally achieves its ultimate goals of delivering quality, capable and intellectual students as workforce for the business. To this end, this exploratory research tries to discover what knowledge, skills and capability are expected of an IS graduate, the facilities expected to develop these qualities and what influencing factors make the students go for an IS education. The research will be based on the perspectives of the student, academic and business community. The major findings highlight the overall tendency of higher mean expectation of the business community in most of the fundamental expectations of the type of knowledge, skills and capability and the facilities essential to the development of these attributes. The academics are normally supportive of the business community’s perspectives except in the dimensions of skill expectation and attitudinal factors. Overall, it also appears that the students show a lower average means on most attributes as compared to the academics and business community. Based on this research, there appears to be distinctive expectations of an IS graduate. Based on the balanced technology approach of looking at the development of the IS graduate from degree of sophistication of the Technoware (T, Humaware (H, Inforware (I and Orgaware (O, it is hoped that the following can be achieved: 1. A newly revised and revamped IS curriculum, 2. A linkage of the THIO to develop the IS graduate and 3. A linkage of the academia-industry THIO linkage to develop the IS graduate.

  13. The influence of plastic surgery "reality TV" on cosmetic surgery patient expectations and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Richard J; Pruzinsky, Thomas; Persing, John A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to survey first-time patients seeking cosmetic surgery and examine what role "reality TV" played in their perception of the risks and benefits of surgery and their overall decision-making process. Information on demographics, television viewing patterns, and patients' self-assessed plastic surgery knowledge was collected from 42 patients. They were asked how similar they believed the shows were to real life and what degree of influence the shows had on their decision to pursue cosmetic surgery. Patients were then divided into groups by program viewing intensity. Fifty-seven percent of patients were "high-intensity" viewers of plastic surgery reality television shows. When compared with low-intensity viewers, high-intensity viewers believed themselves to be more knowledgeable about plastic surgery (p reality television plays a significant role in cosmetic surgery patient perceptions and decision making. Patients who regularly watched one or more reality television show reported a greater influence from television and media to pursue cosmetic surgery, felt more knowledgeable about cosmetic surgery in general, and felt that plastic surgery reality television was more similar to real life than did low-intensity viewers.

  14. Great expectations: Specific lexical anticipation influences the processing of spoken language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwland Mante S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently several studies have shown that people use contextual information to make predictions about the rest of the sentence or story as the text unfolds. Using event related potentials (ERPs we tested whether these on-line predictions are based on a message-level representation of the discourse or on simple automatic activation by individual words. Subjects heard short stories that were highly constraining for one specific noun, or stories that were not specifically predictive but contained the same prime words as the predictive stories. To test whether listeners make specific predictions critical nouns were preceded by an adjective that was inflected according to, or in contrast with, the gender of the expected noun. Results When the message of the preceding discourse was predictive, adjectives with an unexpected gender inflection evoked a negative deflection over right-frontal electrodes between 300 and 600 ms. This effect was not present in the prime control context, indicating that the prediction mismatch does not hinge on word-based priming but is based on the actual message of the discourse. Conclusion When listening to a constraining discourse people rapidly make very specific predictions about the remainder of the story, as the story unfolds. These predictions are not simply based on word-based automatic activation, but take into account the actual message of the discourse.

  15. Influences of dipole–quadrupole strong interactions in optical properties of plasmonic nanodimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrinkhat, F.; Fazel Najafabadi, A.; Pakizeh, T.

    2017-12-01

    An extended analytical method based on the dipole-quadrupole electromagnetic interaction is proposed to investigate the optical properties of strongly interacting plasmonic nanoparticles for which the known coupled dipoles approximation (CDA) is inaccurate. The introduced simple and novel method used here, namely coupled dipole-quadrupole approximation (CDQA), is used to elaborate on the optical interactions of individual modes including dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole. A simple and versatile formula is presented for the modified dipole-polarizability by considering an adjacent quadrupole effect, leading to accurate prediction of remarkable features in the optical properties of nanoparticle clusters in simple or complex forms. Interestingly, in a nanodimer configuration, it is shown that the quadrupole strongly affects the dipolar resonance energy, though the dipole impact on quadrupole properties are negligible. The findings are verified by the approximated methods, numerical computations and generalized Mie theory.

  16. Fingering dynamics on the adsorbed solute with influence of less viscous and strong sample solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Chinar; Mishra, Manoranjan

    2014-12-07

    Viscous fingering is a hydrodynamic instability that sets in when a low viscous fluid displaces a high viscous fluid and creates complex patterns in porous media flows. Fundamental facets of the displacement process, such as the solute concentration distribution, spreading length, and the solute mixing, depend strongly on the type of pattern created by the unstable interface of the underlying fluids. In the present study, the frontal interface of the sample shows viscous fingering and the strong solvent causes the retention of the solute to depend on the solvent concentration. This work presents a computational investigation to explore the effect of the underlying physico-chemical phenomena, (i.e., the combined effects of solvent strength, retention, and viscous fingering) on the dynamics of the adsorbed solute. A linear adsorption isotherm has been assumed between the mobile and stationary phases of the solute. We carried out the numerical simulations by considering a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell as an analog to 2D-porous media containing a three component system (displacing fluid, sample solvent, solute) to map out the evolution of the solute concentration. We observed that viscous fingering at the frontal interface of the strong sample solvent intensifies the band broadening of the solute zone. Also notable increase in the spreading dynamics of the solute has been observed for less viscous and strong sample solvent as compared to the high viscous sample slices or in the pure dispersive case. On the contrary, the solute gets intensively mixed at early times for more viscous sample in comparison to less viscous one. The results of the simulations are in qualitative agreement with the behavior observed in the liquid chromatography column experiments.

  17. Perceptions, Expectations, and Informal Supports Influence Exercise Activity in Frail Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Broderick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore frail older adults’ perceptions of what influences their exercise behaviors. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 29 frail older adults. Thematic content analysis established the findings. Frail older adults perceive exercise as a by-product of other purposeful activities such as manual work or social activities. Progression into frailty appears to be associated with a decline in non-family support, changing traditional roles within family support networks, and lower baseline activity levels. Frail older adults perceive exercise as incidental to more purposeful activities rather than an endpoint in itself. Therefore, exercise programs concentrating on functional outcomes may be more relevant for this population. Strategies that educate and promote social support networks may also benefit frail older adults.

  18. Does multimorbidity influence the occurrence rates of chronic conditions? A claims data based comparison of expected and observed prevalence rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon with an almost endless number of possible disease combinations with unclear implications. One important aspect in analyzing the clustering of diseases is to distinguish between random coexistence and statistical dependency. We developed a model to account for random coexistence based on stochastic distribution. We analyzed if the number of diseases of the patients influences the occurrence rates of chronic conditions. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of 121,389 persons aged 65+ using a list of 46 chronic conditions. Expected prevalences were simulated by drawing without replacement from all observed diseases using observed overall prevalences as initial probability weights. To determine if a disease occurs more or less frequently than expected by chance we calculated observed-minus-expected deltas for each disease. We defined clinical relevance as |delta| ≥ 5.0%. 18 conditions were excluded because of a prevalence < 5.0%. RESULTS: We found that (1 two chronic conditions (e.g. hypertension were more frequent than expected in patients with a low number of comorbidities; (2 four conditions (e.g. renal insufficiency were more frequent in patients with many comorbidities; (3 six conditions (e.g. cancer were less frequent with many comorbidities; and (4 16 conditions had an average course of prevalences. CONCLUSION: A growing extent of multimorbidity goes along with a rapid growth of prevalences. This is for the largest part merely a stochastic effect. If we account for this effect we find that only few diseases deviate from the expected prevalence curves. Causes for these deviations are discussed. Our approach also has methodological implications: Naive analyses of multimorbidity might easily be affected by bias, because the prevalence of all chronic conditions necessarily increases with a growing extent of multimorbidity. We should therefore always examine and discuss the stochastic interrelations

  19. Influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement in patient with lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cervera, Francisco Vicente; Olteanu, Theodor Emanuel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Díaz-Pulido, Belén; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement (MWM) in kinesiophobia, perceived disability and sensorimotor variables in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. A pilot randomized controlled trial in 24 patients with lateral epicondylalgia was conducted. Perceived pain, pain-free grip strength, pressure pain detection threshold, kinesiophobia measured with the short version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, perceived disability of the upper limb measured with disability of the arm, hand and shoulder questionnaire, and perceived disability specifically for the elbow joint measured with patient-rating tennis elbow evaluation, and also satisfaction were assessed. Participants were randomized to receive written instructions in order to create positive expectations regarding the technique in one group (n=12) or neutral expectations in the other one (n=12). All patients were treated for three sessions with the MWM technique. Measures were recorded before and after treatment. The effect size was calculated by Rosenthal "r" for nonparametrical tests. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between groups after receiving the treatment for none of the physical analyzed variables. The Wilcoxon test showed statistically significant changes in kinesiophobia (Z=-2.278, r=0.47, P=0.023) and perceived disability (Z= -2.934, r=0.61, P=0.003) within positive expectations group. In conclusion this pilot study shows that a positive expectation almost given in a sealed envelope before treatment plus MWM produced changes in kinesiophobia and perceived disability in the immediate term, in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

  20. Influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement in patient with lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cervera, Francisco Vicente; Olteanu, Theodor Emanuel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Díaz-Pulido, Belén; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement (MWM) in kinesiophobia, perceived disability and sensorimotor variables in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. A pilot randomized controlled trial in 24 patients with lateral epicondylalgia was conducted. Perceived pain, pain-free grip strength, pressure pain detection threshold, kinesiophobia measured with the short version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, perceived disability of the upper limb measured with disability of the arm, hand and shoulder questionnaire, and perceived disability specifically for the elbow joint measured with patient-rating tennis elbow evaluation, and also satisfaction were assessed. Participants were randomized to receive written instructions in order to create positive expectations regarding the technique in one group (n=12) or neutral expectations in the other one (n=12). All patients were treated for three sessions with the MWM technique. Measures were recorded before and after treatment. The effect size was calculated by Rosenthal “r” for nonparametrical tests. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between groups after receiving the treatment for none of the physical analyzed variables. The Wilcoxon test showed statistically significant changes in kinesiophobia (Z=−2.278, r=0.47, P=0.023) and perceived disability (Z= −2.934, r=0.61, P=0.003) within positive expectations group. In conclusion this pilot study shows that a positive expectation almost given in a sealed envelope before treatment plus MWM produced changes in kinesiophobia and perceived disability in the immediate term, in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. PMID:28349041

  1. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.

    2012-01-01

    pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...... a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure...... of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution...

  2. Global variance in female population height: the influence of education, income, human development, life expectancy, mortality and gender inequality in 96 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Quentin J

    2014-01-01

    Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.

  3. Evidence for a strong genetic influence on childhood adiposity despite the force of the obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jane; Carnell, Susan; Haworth, Claire Ma; Plomin, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be highly heritable, but most studies were carried out in cohorts born before the onset of the "obesity epidemic." We aimed to quantify genetic and environmental influences on BMI and central adiposity in children growing up during a time of dramatic rises in pediatric obesity. We carried out twin analyses of BMI and waist circumference (WC) in a UK sample of 5092 twin pairs aged 8-11 y. Quantitative genetic model-fitting was used for the univariate analyses, and bivariate quantitative genetic model-fitting was used for the analysis of covariance between BMI and WC. Quantitative genetic model-fitting confirmed substantial heritability for BMI and WC (77% for both). Bivariate genetic analyses showed that, although the genetic influence on WC was largely common to BMI (60%), there was also a significant independent genetic effect (40%). For both BMI and WC, there was a very modest shared-environment effect, and the remaining environmental variance was unshared. Genetic influences on BMI and abdominal adiposity are high in children born since the onset of the pediatric obesity epidemic. Most of the genetic effect on abdominal adiposity is common to BMI, but 40% is attributable to independent genetic influences. Environmental effects are small and are divided approximately equally between shared and non-shared effects. Targeting the family may be vital for obesity prevention in the earliest years, but longer-term weight control will require a combination of individual engagement and society-wide efforts to modify the environment, especially for children at high genetic risk.

  4. The Influence of Attention Set, Working Memory Capacity, and Expectations on Inattentional Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    The probability of inattentional blindness, the failure to notice an unexpected object when attention is engaged on some primary task, is influenced by contextual factors like task demands, features of the unexpected object, and the observer's attention set. However, predicting who will notice an unexpected object and who will remain inattentionally blind has proven difficult, and the evidence that individual differences in cognition affect noticing remains ambiguous. We hypothesized that greater working memory capacity might modulate the effect of attention sets on noticing because working memory is associated with the ability to focus attention selectively. People with greater working memory capacity might be better able to attend selectively to target items, thereby increasing the chances of noticing unexpected objects that were similar to the attended items while decreasing the odds of noticing unexpected objects that differed from the attended items. Our study (N = 120 participants) replicated evidence that task-induced attention sets modulate noticing but found no link between noticing and working memory capacity. Our results are largely consistent with the idea that individual differences in working memory capacity do not predict noticing of unexpected objects in an inattentional blindness task. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Expected Changes in Regulation and Licensure: Influence on Future Education of Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalanotto, Frank A

    2017-09-01

    This article is based on the following assumptions about dental care in the United States: there is an access to oral health care problem; the number of individuals with dental insurance is increasing; the demographics of the dental profession does not mirror the overall demographics of the U.S. population; and emerging oral health workforce models may help improve access to care. Based on these assumptions, this article explores related licensure and regulatory factors that will influence the education and practice of dentists in the future. The issues discussed are licensure of emerging oral health practitioners, mobility of the dental health care workforce, corporate ownership of dental practices, ethical issues related to use of human subjects in dental licensure examinations, interprofessional education and practice, and health care reform. The licensure and regulatory bodies discussed are the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA), state legislatures and boards of dentistry, federal legislative activities, judicial activities, and the Federal Trade Commission. Recommendations based on this discussion are presented. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  6. Glacial runoff strongly influences food webs in Gulf of Alaska fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, M.; Piatt, J. F.; Mueter, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Melting glaciers contribute large volumes of freshwater to the Gulf of Alaska coast. Rates of glacier volume loss have increased markedly in recent decades, raising concern about the eventual loss of glaciers as a source of freshwater in coastal waters. To better understand the influence of glacier melt water on fjord ecosystems, we sampled oceanography, nutrients, zooplankton, forage fish, and seabirds within four fjords in the coastal Gulf of Alaska. We used generalized additive models and geostatistics to identify the range of influence of glacier runoff in fjords of varying estuarine and topographic complexity. We also modeled the responses of chlorophyll a concentration, copepod biomass, fish and seabird abundance to physical, nutrient and biotic predictor variables. Physical and nutrient signatures of glacial runoff extended 10-20 km into coastal fjords. Glacially modified physical gradients and among-fjord differences explained 66% of the variation in phytoplankton abundance, which drives ecosystem structure at higher trophic levels. Copepod, euphausiid, fish and seabird distribution and abundance were also related to environmental gradients that could be traced to glacial freshwater input. Seabird density was predicted by prey availability and silica concentrations, which may indicate upwelling areas where this nutrient is in excess. Similarities in ecosystem structure among fjords were due to influx of cold, fresh, sediment and nutrient laden water, while differences were due to fjord topography and the relative importance of estuarine vs. ocean influences. We anticipate continued changes in the volume and magnitude of glacial runoff will affect coastal marine food webs in the future.

  7. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    In this dissertation I examine the relationship between subjective beliefs about the outcomes of educational choices and the generation of inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) in post-industrial society. Taking my departure in the rational action turn in the sociology of educational...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...

  8. Promoting calls to a quitline: quantifying the influence of message theme, strong negative emotions and graphic images in television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Davis, Kevin C; Nonnemaker, James M; Kamyab, Kian; Jackson, Christine

    2011-07-01

    To understand the relative effectiveness of television advertisements that differ in their thematic focus and portrayals of negative emotions and/or graphic images in promoting calls to a smokers' quitline. Regression analysis is used to explain variation in quarterly media market-level per smoker calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline from 2001 to 2009. The primary independent variable is quarterly market-level delivery of television advertisements measured by target audience rating points (TARPs). Advertisements were characterised by their overall objective--promoting cessation, highlighting the dangers of secondhand smoke (SHS) or other--and by their portrayals of strong negative emotions and graphic images. Per smoker call volume is positively correlated with total TARPs (pgraphic images only or neither strong negative emotions nor graphic images are associated with higher call volume with similar effect sizes. Call volume was not significantly associated with the number of TARPs for advertisements with strong negative emotions only (p=0.71) or with both graphic images and strong emotions (p=0.09). Exposure to television advertisements is strongly associated with quitline call volume, and both cessation and SHS advertisements can be effective. The use of strong negative emotions in advertisements may be effective in promoting smoking cessation in the population but does not appear to influence quitline call volume. Further research is needed to understand the role of negative emotions in promoting calls to quitlines and cessation more broadly among the majority of smokers who do not call quitlines.

  9. Factors influencing the potential for strong brand relationships with consumer product brands: An overview and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bergkvist, Lars; Francis, Julie

    Based on the premise that consumer product brands are different with respect to their potential to form strong long-term relationships with consumers, this paper aims to identify factors that influence brands' potential for strong long-term relationships and to suggest how these can be empirically...... investigated. The paper reviews brand-centric and consumer-centric research and identifies twelve brand variables that may influence the relationship potential of consumer product brands. A research agenda is suggested and a number of issues that needs to be resolved before empirical research can be carried...... out are discussed. The paper concludes by speculating on possible outcomes in future empirical studies and it is suggested that multiple brand variables will have to be employed to evaluate the relationship potential of brands....

  10. The influence of an equation of state on the interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements in strongly coupled tungsten plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, S I; Levashov, P R; Khishchenko, K V [Institute for High Energy Densities, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-09

    We study the influence of an equation-of-state (EOS) model on the interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements in strongly coupled plasma of tungsten by Korobenko et al (2002 Plasma Phys. Rep. 28 1008-16). Three different semiempirical EOS models for tungsten are used. Discrepancies in obtaining thermodynamic parameters and specific resistivity values as compared with calculation results of Korobenko et al are analysed.

  11. Strong influence of deposition and vertical mixing on secondary organic aerosol concentrations in CMAQ and CAMx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qian; Koo, Bonyoung; Yarwood, Greg; Henderson, Barron H.

    2017-12-01

    Differences between two air quality modeling systems reveal important uncertainties in model representations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) fate. Two commonly applied models (CMAQ: Community Multiscale Air Quality; CAMx: Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions) predict very different OA concentrations over the eastern U.S., even when using the same source data for emissions and meteorology and the same SOA modeling approach. Both models include an option to output a detailed accounting of how each model process (e.g., chemistry, deposition, etc.) alters the mass of each modeled species, referred to as process analysis. We therefore perform a detailed diagnostic evaluation to quantify simulated tendencies (Gg/hr) of each modeled process affecting both the total model burden (Gg) of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the gas (g) and aerosol (a) phases and the vertical structures to identify causes of concentration differences between the two models. Large differences in deposition (CMAQ: 69.2 Gg/d; CAMx: 46.5 Gg/d) contribute to significant OA bias in CMAQ relative to daily averaged ambient concentration measurements. CMAQ's larger deposition results from faster daily average deposition velocities (VD) for both SVOC (g) (VD,cmaq = 2.15 × VD,camx) and aerosols (VD,cmaq = 4.43 × Vd,camx). Higher aerosol deposition velocity would be expected to cause similar biases for inert compounds like elemental carbon (EC), but this was not seen. Daytime low-biases in EC were also simulated in CMAQ as expected but were offset by nighttime high-biases. Nighttime high-biases were a result of overly shallow mixing in CMAQ leading to a higher fraction of EC total atmospheric mass in the first layer (CAMx: 5.1-6.4%; CMAQ: 5.6-6.9%). Because of the opposing daytime and nighttime biases, the apparent daily average bias for EC is reduced. For OA, there are two effects of reduced vertical mixing: SOA and SVOC are concentrated near the surface, but SOA yields are reduced

  12. Influence of strong magnetic fields on laser pulse propagation in underdense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. C.; Li, F. Y.; Weikum, M.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2017-06-01

    We examine the interaction between intense laser pulses and strongly magnetised plasmas in the weakly relativistic regime. An expression for the electron Lorentz factor coupling both relativistic and cyclotron motion nonlinearities is derived for static magnetic fields along the laser propagation axis. This is applied to predict modifications to the refractive index, critical density, group velocity dispersion and power threshold for relativistic self-focusing. It is found that electron quiver response is enhanced under right circularly-polarised light, decreasing the power threshold for various instabilities, while a dampening effect occurs under left circularly-polarised light, increasing the power thresholds. Derived theoretical predictions are tested by one- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  13. Translatability of a plant-mRNA strongly influences its accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancanneyt, G; Rosahl, S; Willmitzer, L

    1990-05-25

    Current knowledge of parameters affecting RNA stability is very restricted in plants. Here we investigated factors which might contribute to the stability of a particular plant messenger RNA. To this end, insertion and deletion mutants were made in two different exons and an intron of the transcribed region of a well characterised patatin gene (pgT5). Mutant genes were expressed under the control of a strong leaf-stem specific promoter (ST-LS1) and analysed in vivo in transgenic tobacco plants. Northern analysis revealed the importance of the translatability of the mature messenger RNA with respect to its accumulation in transgenic plants. Enlargement of the 3' non-translated region by several hundred base-pairs reduced the steady state mRNA level slightly; the introduction of a stop codon leading to premature termination of translation of the RNA led to a dramatic decrease of the steady state mRNA level.

  14. A Strong-Lens Survey in AEGIS: the influence of large scalestructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Marshall, Phil; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Coil,Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Hopkins, Andrew; Koekemoer, Anton; Konidaris,Nicholas P.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2006-10-13

    We report on the results of a visual search for galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses over 650 arcmin{sup 2} of HST/ACS (F606W and F814W) imaging in the DEEP2-Extended Groth Strip (EGS). In addition to a previously-known Einstein Cross also found by our search (the 'Cross', HSTJ141735+52264, z{sub lens} = 0.8106, z{sub source} = 3.40), we identify two new strong galaxy-galaxy lenses with multiple extended arcs. The first, HSTJ141820+52361 (the 'Dewdrop'; z{sub lens} = 0.5798), lenses two distinct extended sources into two pairs of arcs (z{sub source} = 0.9818), while the second, HSTJ141833+52435 (the 'Anchor'; z{sub lens} = 0.4625), produces a single pair of arcs (z{sub lens} not yet known). Four less convincing arc/counter-arc and two-image lens candidates are also found and presented for completeness. Lenses are found in a both underdense and overdense local environments, as characterized by a robust measure, 1+{delta}{sub 3}, a normalized density that uses the distance to the third nearest neighbor. All three definite lenses are fit reasonably well by simple singular isothermal ellipsoid models including external shear, giving {chi}{sub {nu}}{sup 2} values close to unity. These shears are much greater than those implied by a simple consideration of the three-dimensional convergence and shear from galaxies along the line of sight, where each galaxy is approximated by a singular isothermal sphere halo truncated at 200 h{sup -1} kpc. This shows how a realistic treatment of galaxies and the large scale structure they are embedded in is necessary, and that simply characterizing the very-local environment may be insufficient.

  15. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-03-01

    The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multistage cluster sampling to select 6269 students from 179 classes of 7 vocational high schools in 3 cities of China. Each student completed a battery of 5 measures: PM, SS, ESB, RE, and TAU. Then, we used structural equation modeling techniques and mediation analyses to investigate the relationships among these 5 measures, with TAU as the final dependent variable. Results demonstrated that the relationship between PM and TAU was fully mediated by ESB and RE (b = -0.18, P influenced TAU directly (b = 0.10, P influenced TAU directly (b = 0.09, P adolescents can be explained by ESB and RE. These 4 precursory determinants can play an important role in TAU prevention among adolescents in China.

  16. Pubertal onset in girls is strongly influenced by genetic variation affecting FSH action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian...... follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression......) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5-12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date....

  17. Changes in preservice elementary teachers' personal science teaching efficacy and science teaching outcome expectancies: The influence of context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how retrospective-test/post-test perceptions of science teaching self-efficacy differ according to personal science expectancy and science teaching outcome expectancy among preservice elementary teachers when exposed to a science teaching methods course. Preservice elementary teacher candidates (N=69) enrolled in Spring and Fall 2007 sessions of an elementary science methods class were asked to assess their science teaching self-efficacy using the Science Teaching Expectancy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B). The survey was administered three times using pre-test, post-test and retrospective-test methodology. The 23-item instrument contains a Likert-scale with a 1 to 5 range of "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree". A higher score indicated a stronger sense science teaching self-efficacy. The dependent variable was change in self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy comprises two subcomponents: (1) personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE); and (2) science teaching outcome expectancy (STOE). Both components were represented as subscales on the STEBI-B. The independent variables were: (1) number of postsecondary science content courses taken; (2) perceptions of prior science experiences; and (3) a science methods course. Research questions sought to investigate main effects and interaction effects of independent variables on each of the PSTE and STOE subscales. A 2X2 ANOVA was used to statistically analyze the data with a Type I error rate of 0.05 as the judgment criteria for statistical significance. The findings revealed that whether preservice elementary teachers met or exceeded the number of postsecondary science courses required to graduate, and their positive or negative perceptions of prior school science experiences had a statistically significant main effect on the change in PSTE but not STOE. There was no evidence to suggest significant interaction effects of number of postsecondary science courses taken and

  18. Seasonality of Fire Weather Strongly Influences Fire Regimes in South Florida Savanna-Grassland Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, William J.; Orzell, Steve L.; Slocum, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Fire seasonality, an important characteristic of fire regimes, commonly is delineated using seasons based on single weather variables (rainfall or temperature). We used nonparametric cluster analyses of a 17-year (1993–2009) data set of weather variables that influence likelihoods and spread of fires (relative humidity, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, soil moisture) to explore seasonality of fire in pine savanna-grassland landscapes at the Avon Park Air Force Range in southern Florida. A four-variable, three-season model explained more variation within fire weather variables than models with more seasons. The three-season model also delineated intra-annual timing of fire more accurately than a conventional rainfall-based two-season model. Two seasons coincided roughly with dry and wet seasons based on rainfall. The third season, which we labeled the fire season, occurred between dry and wet seasons and was characterized by fire-promoting conditions present annually: drought, intense solar radiation, low humidity, and warm air temperatures. Fine fuels consisting of variable combinations of pyrogenic pine needles, abundant C4 grasses, and flammable shrubs, coupled with low soil moisture, and lightning ignitions early in the fire season facilitate natural landscape-scale wildfires that burn uplands and across wetlands. We related our three season model to fires with different ignition sources (lightning, military missions, and prescribed fires) over a 13-year period with fire records (1997–2009). Largest wildfires originate from lightning and military ignitions that occur within the early fire season substantially prior to the peak of lightning strikes in the wet season. Prescribed ignitions, in contrast, largely occur outside the fire season. Our delineation of a pronounced fire season provides insight into the extent to which different human-derived fire regimes mimic lightning fire regimes. Delineation of a fire season associated with timing of

  19. Seasonality of fire weather strongly influences fire regimes in South Florida savanna-grassland landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Platt

    Full Text Available Fire seasonality, an important characteristic of fire regimes, commonly is delineated using seasons based on single weather variables (rainfall or temperature. We used nonparametric cluster analyses of a 17-year (1993-2009 data set of weather variables that influence likelihoods and spread of fires (relative humidity, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, soil moisture to explore seasonality of fire in pine savanna-grassland landscapes at the Avon Park Air Force Range in southern Florida. A four-variable, three-season model explained more variation within fire weather variables than models with more seasons. The three-season model also delineated intra-annual timing of fire more accurately than a conventional rainfall-based two-season model. Two seasons coincided roughly with dry and wet seasons based on rainfall. The third season, which we labeled the fire season, occurred between dry and wet seasons and was characterized by fire-promoting conditions present annually: drought, intense solar radiation, low humidity, and warm air temperatures. Fine fuels consisting of variable combinations of pyrogenic pine needles, abundant C4 grasses, and flammable shrubs, coupled with low soil moisture, and lightning ignitions early in the fire season facilitate natural landscape-scale wildfires that burn uplands and across wetlands. We related our three season model to fires with different ignition sources (lightning, military missions, and prescribed fires over a 13-year period with fire records (1997-2009. Largest wildfires originate from lightning and military ignitions that occur within the early fire season substantially prior to the peak of lightning strikes in the wet season. Prescribed ignitions, in contrast, largely occur outside the fire season. Our delineation of a pronounced fire season provides insight into the extent to which different human-derived fire regimes mimic lightning fire regimes. Delineation of a fire season associated with

  20. Quantum dot DNA bioconjugates: attachment chemistry strongly influences the resulting composite architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeneman, Kelly; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Buckhout-White, Susan; Prasuhn, Duane E; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B; Dawson, Philip E; Stewart, Michael H; Susumu, Kimihiro; Goldman, Ellen R; Ancona, Mario; Medintz, Igor L

    2010-12-28

    The unique properties provided by hybrid semiconductor quantum dot (QD) bioconjugates continue to stimulate interest for many applications ranging from biosensing to energy harvesting. Understanding both the structure and function of these composite materials is an important component in their development. Here, we compare the architecture that results from using two common self-assembly chemistries to attach DNA to QDs. DNA modified to display either a terminal biotin or an oligohistidine peptidyl sequence was assembled to streptavidin/amphiphilic polymer- or PEG-functionalized QDs, respectively. A series of complementary acceptor dye-labeled DNA were hybridized to different positions on the DNA in each QD configuration and the separation distances between the QD donor and each dye-acceptor probed with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The polyhistidine self-assembly yielded QD-DNA bioconjugates where predicted and experimental separation distances matched reasonably well. Although displaying efficient FRET, data from QD-DNA bioconjugates assembled using biotin-streptavidin chemistry did not match any predicted separation distances. Modeling based upon known QD and DNA structures along with the linkage chemistry and FRET-derived distances was used to simulate each QD-DNA structure and provide insight into the underlying architecture. Although displaying some rotational freedom, the DNA modified with the polyhistidine assembles to the QD with its structure extended out from the QD-PEG surface as predicted. In contrast, the random orientation of streptavidin on the QD surface resulted in DNA with a wide variety of possible orientations relative to the QD which cannot be controlled during assembly. These results suggest that if a particular QD biocomposite structure is desired, for example, random versus oriented, the type of bioconjugation chemistry utilized will be a key influencing factor.

  1. Seasonality of fire weather strongly influences fire regimes in South Florida savanna-grassland landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, William J; Orzell, Steve L; Slocum, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Fire seasonality, an important characteristic of fire regimes, commonly is delineated using seasons based on single weather variables (rainfall or temperature). We used nonparametric cluster analyses of a 17-year (1993-2009) data set of weather variables that influence likelihoods and spread of fires (relative humidity, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, soil moisture) to explore seasonality of fire in pine savanna-grassland landscapes at the Avon Park Air Force Range in southern Florida. A four-variable, three-season model explained more variation within fire weather variables than models with more seasons. The three-season model also delineated intra-annual timing of fire more accurately than a conventional rainfall-based two-season model. Two seasons coincided roughly with dry and wet seasons based on rainfall. The third season, which we labeled the fire season, occurred between dry and wet seasons and was characterized by fire-promoting conditions present annually: drought, intense solar radiation, low humidity, and warm air temperatures. Fine fuels consisting of variable combinations of pyrogenic pine needles, abundant C4 grasses, and flammable shrubs, coupled with low soil moisture, and lightning ignitions early in the fire season facilitate natural landscape-scale wildfires that burn uplands and across wetlands. We related our three season model to fires with different ignition sources (lightning, military missions, and prescribed fires) over a 13-year period with fire records (1997-2009). Largest wildfires originate from lightning and military ignitions that occur within the early fire season substantially prior to the peak of lightning strikes in the wet season. Prescribed ignitions, in contrast, largely occur outside the fire season. Our delineation of a pronounced fire season provides insight into the extent to which different human-derived fire regimes mimic lightning fire regimes. Delineation of a fire season associated with timing of

  2. Influence of inherent parameter of stabilized UHF oscillators on autodyne response formation at a strong reflected signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noskov V. Ya.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of an autodyne response analysis in UHF oscillators stabilized by the external high-Q cavity in the case of the strong signal when the reflected wave amplitude commen-surable with the own oscillation amplitude. Coupling between the basic operation cavity and the stabilizing cavity is implemented as a pass-reflecting filter with a resistive bond. Key relations are obtained, which describe the autodyne response to the own re-reflected radiation from a target. The load and oscillating system influence on autodyne response formation is fulfilled.

  3. Saltwater wedge variation in a non-anthropogenic coastal karst aquifer influenced by a strong tidal range (Burren, Ireland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perriquet, Marie; Leonardi, Véronique; Henry, Tiernan; Jourde, Hervé

    2014-11-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in saltwater wedges in coastal karst aquifers are still poorly understood, largely due to complex mixing processes in these heterogeneous environments, but also due to anthropogenic forcing such as pumping, which commonly affect natural variations in wedges. The purpose of this study was first to characterize the hydrodynamic functioning of a karst aquifer in an oceanic temperate climate with little anthropogenic pressure but strongly influenced by a high tidal range and second, to evaluate the extent and movements of a saltwater wedge influenced by both the tide and the natural recharge of the aquifer. Variations in specific conductivity combined with water chemistry results from six boreholes and two lakes located in the Bell Harbour catchment (western Ireland) enabled us to assess the extent of the intrusion of the saltwater wedge into the aquifer as a function of both karst recharge and tidal movements at high/low and neap/spring tidal cycles. The marked spatial disparity of the saltwater wedge was analysed as a function of both the hydrodynamic and the structural properties of the karst aquifer. Results showed that the extent of the saltwater wedge depended not only on the intrinsic properties of the aquifer but also on the relative influence of the recharge and the tide on groundwater levels, which have opposite effects. Recharge in the Burren area throughout the year is large enough to prevent saltwater intruding more than about one kilometre from the shore. A strong tidal amplitude seems to be the motor of sudden saltwater intrusion observed in the aquifer near the shore while the position of the groundwater level seems to influence the intensity of the salinity increase. Competition between recharge and the tide thus controls the seawater inputs, hence explaining temporal and spatial changes in the saltwater wedge in this coastal karst aquifer.

  4. Clay minerals and metal oxides strongly influence the structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities during soil maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Annelie; Schulz, Stefanie; Giebler, Julia; Schulz, Stephan; Pronk, Geertje J; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y; Schloter, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Clay minerals, charcoal and metal oxides are essential parts of the soil matrix and strongly influence the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil. We investigated the role of these parental materials for the development of functional microbial guilds using the example of alkane-degrading bacteria harbouring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in artificial mixtures composed of different minerals and charcoal, sterile manure and a microbial inoculum extracted from an agricultural soil. We followed changes in abundance and community structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities after 3 and 12 months of soil maturation and in response to a subsequent 2-week plant litter addition. During maturation we observed an overall increasing divergence in community composition. The impact of metal oxides on alkane-degrading community structure increased during soil maturation, whereas the charcoal impact decreased from 3 to 12 months. Among the clay minerals illite influenced the community structure of alkB-harbouring bacteria significantly, but not montmorillonite. The litter application induced strong community shifts in soils, maturated for 12 months, towards functional guilds typical for younger maturation stages pointing to a resilience of the alkane-degradation function potentially fostered by an extant 'seed bank'.

  5. The load and release characteristics on a strong cationic ion-exchange fiber: kinetics, thermodynamics, and influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jing Yuan, Yanan Gao, Xinyu Wang, Hongzhuo Liu, Xin Che, Lu Xu, Yang Yang, Qifang Wang, Yan Wang, Sanming LiSchool of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Ion-exchange fibers were different from conventional ion-exchange resins in their non-cross-linked structure. The exchange was located on the surface of the framework, and the transport resistance reduced significantly, which might mean that the exchange is controlled by an ionic reaction instead of diffusion. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the load and release characteristics of five model drugs with the strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1. Drugs were loaded using a batch process and released in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP dissolution apparatus 2. Opposing exchange kinetics, suitable for the special structure of the fiber, were developed for describing the exchange process with the help of thermodynamics, which illustrated that the load was controlled by an ionic reaction. The molecular weight was the most important factor to influence the drug load and release rate. Strong alkalinity and rings in the molecular structures made the affinity between the drug and fiber strong, while logP did not cause any profound differences. The drug–fiber complexes exhibited sustained release. Different kinds and concentrations of counter ions or different amounts of drug–fiber complexes in the release medium affected the release behavior, while the pH value was independent of it. The groundwork for in-depth exploration and further application of ion-exchange fibers has been laid. Keywords: ion-exchange fibers, ionic reaction, drug load and release, opposing exchange kinetics, thermodynamics, influences

  6. Analytic Review of Modeling Studies of ARV Based PrEP Interventions Reveals Strong Influence of Drug-Resistance Assumptions on the Population-Level Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dobromir; Boily, Marie-Claude; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Four clinical trials have shown that oral and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) based on tenofovir may be effective in preventing HIV transmission. The expected reduction in HIV transmission and the projected prevalence of drug resistance due to PrEP use vary significantly across modeling studies as a result of the broad spectrum of assumptions employed. Our goal is to quantify the influence of drug resistance assumptions on the predicted population-level impact of PrEP. Methods All modeling studies which evaluate the impact of oral or topical PrEP are reviewed and key assumptions regarding mechanisms of generation and spread of drug-resistant HIV are identified. A dynamic model of the HIV epidemic is developed to assess and compare the impact of oral PrEP using resistance assumptions extracted from published studies. The benefits and risks associated with ten years of PrEP use are evaluated under identical epidemic, behavioral and intervention conditions in terms of cumulative fractions of new HIV infections prevented, resistance prevalence among those infected with HIV, and fractions of infections in which resistance is transmitted. Results Published models demonstrate enormous variability in resistance-generating assumptions and uncertainty in parameter values. Depending on which resistance parameterization is used, a resistance prevalence between 2% and 44% may be expected if 50% efficacious oral PrEP is used consistently by 50% of the population over ten years. We estimated that resistance may be responsible for up to a 10% reduction or up to a 30% contribution to the fraction of prevented infections predicted in different studies. Conclusions Resistance assumptions used in published studies have a strong influence on the projected impact of PrEP. Modelers and virologists should collaborate toward clarifying the set of resistance assumptions biologically relevant to the PrEP products which are already in use or soon to be added to the arsenal

  7. <strong>Influence of timing of two-stage palate closure on early phonological and lexical development in children with cleft palatestrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    of the studies conducted, including the lack of randomized clinical trials (RCT) (Peterson-Falzone 1996). A  prospective RCT was conducted to add to the knowledge of the influence of timing of hard palate closure on early phonological and lexical development from 1 to 3 years. METHODS Fourty-one children....... However, both groups of children with cleft palate had a smaller productive vocabulary than the control children, but the late group produced a smaller number of word tokens than the early group. This difference between the two cleft palate groups is hypothesized to be caused by reduced intelligibility...

  8. The early onset of type 1 autoimmune hepatitis has a strong genetic influence: role of HLA and KIR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorzer, A; Paladino, N; Cuarterolo, M L; Fainboim, H A; Paz, S; Theiler, G; Capucchio, M; López, S I; Machicote, A; Montal, S; Podesta, G; Fainboim, L

    2016-04-01

    We have previously reported a strong association between HLA-DRB1*1301 and type 1 pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (PAH) and between HLA-DR*0405 and adult autoimmune hepatitis (AAH). Because human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are known to be associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, we investigated the frequencies of HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and KIR genes in 144 type 1 PAH and 86 AAH patients, which were compared with 273 healthy controls. We demonstrated in PAH the increased frequency of the functional form of KIR2DS4-Full Length (KIR2DS4-FL), which in combination with HLA-DRB1*1301 revealed a strong synergistic effect (odds ratio=36.5). PAH-KIR2DS4-FL+ subjects have shown an increased frequency of their putative HLA-C*02, 04 and 06 ligands. KIR analysis of PAH also revealed a decreased frequency of KIR2DL2 gene and its ligand. In contrast, AAH cases have shown a weaker increased frequency of KIR2DS4-FL, a lack of synergistic effect with HLA class II antigens and a moderate association with HLA-DRB1*0405. Of note, we demonstrated that liver T cells have a unique pattern of KIR expression. These results show a KIR gene involved in autoimmune hepatitis and suggest a stronger genetic influence for the early onset type I autoimmune hepatitis.

  9. Influence of wind speed on free space optical communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun, E-mail: yuanxh@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2011-02-01

    In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.

  10. Choice of mineral fertilizer substitution principle strongly influences LCA environmental benefits of nutrient cycling in the agri-food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanserud, Ola Stedje; Cherubini, Francesco; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge

    2018-02-15

    Increased nutrient cycling in the agri-food system is a way to achieve a healthier nutrient stewardship and more sustainable food production. In life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, use of recycled fertilizer products is often credited by the substitution method, which subtracts the environmental burdens associated with avoided production of mineral fertilizer from the system under study. The environmental benefits from avoided fertilizer production can make an important contribution to the results, but different calculation principles and often implicit assumptions are used to estimate the amount of avoided mineral fertilizer. This may hinder comparisons between studies. The present study therefore examines how the choice of substitution principles influences LCA results. Three different substitution principles, called one-to-one, maintenance, and adjusted maintenance, are identified, and we test the importance of these in a case study on cattle slurry management. We show that the inventory of avoided mineral fertilizer varies greatly when the different principles are applied, with strong influences on two-thirds of LCA impact categories. With the one-to-one principle, there is a risk of systematically over-estimating the environmental benefits from nutrient cycling. In a sensitivity analysis we show that the difference between the principles is closely related to the application rate and levels of residual nutrients in the soil. We recommend that LCA practitioners first and foremost state and justify the substitution method they use, in order to increase transparency and comparability with other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The influences of course effort, mastery and performance goals, grade expectancies, and earned course grades on student ratings of course satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanum, Soren; Aigner, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    The positive relation between course grades and student ratings of course satisfaction is well established but controversy continues concerning the magnitude, interpretation, and implications of this association. This study examined the within course relations of a set of variables often implicated as potential contributors to the grade-student rating relation. Two-hundred and twenty students enrolled in an internet-based university course. Measures of course mastery and performance goals, expected grades, course effort, cumulative GPA, and final course grade were prospectively collected. The dependent variable was a global measure of course satisfaction obtained at the end of the semester.   A path model fit the data very well and all study variables directly or indirectly predicted course satisfaction. Grades had a moderately strong effect, half of which was independent of other model variables. Adjusting for all model variables, students high on mastery course goals evaluated the course more positively whereas students high on performance goals provided less favourable evaluations. Students can assess the same course and instructor in different ways depending upon such factors as their degree of success, their motivations for taking the course, and the amount of effort invested. Course satisfaction, then, can be substantially influenced by factors loosely or unrelated to course or teacher effectiveness. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  13. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  14. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  15. Relationship-Specific Alcohol Expectancies and Relationship-Drinking Contexts: Reciprocal Influence and Gender-Specific Effects over the First 9 Years of Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that individuals in romantic relationships hold beliefs about the effects of relationship-drinking contexts (e.g., drinking with one’s partner) on later relationship functioning, as well as the effects of relationship functioning on later relationship-drinking contexts, and that these reciprocal effects may be stronger among women compared to men. However, little research has directly examined relationship-specific alcohol expectancies, and no studies have tested the reciprocal associations between these expectancies and the extent of drinking in specific relationship contexts. The current study examined these reciprocal effects by testing time-lagged multilevel models using data from a community sample of 470 married couples across the first 9 years of marriage. As expected, results showed reciprocal effects between intimacy and social expectancies, respectively, and the extent of drinking-with-partner when both partners were drinking, which appeared to be adaptive mechanisms for relationships. Also as expected, some of these effects differed or were stronger for wives compared to husbands. Unexpectedly, reciprocal effects were also found between power expectancies and the extent of drinking apart from one’s partner, which appeared to be maladaptive mechanisms for relationships. The current study supports and extends previous research on alcohol use in romantic relationships by showing how relationship-specific alcohol expectancies influence and are influenced from relationship-drinking contexts, and which processes might be adaptive vs. maladaptive for romantic relationships. Implications for future research and theory are discussed. PMID:23276314

  16. Relationship-specific alcohol expectancies and relationship-drinking contexts: reciprocal influence and gender-specific effects over the first 9 years of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individuals in romantic relationships hold beliefs about the effects of relationship-drinking contexts (e.g., drinking with one's partner) on later relationship functioning, as well as the effects of relationship functioning on later relationship-drinking contexts, and that these reciprocal effects may be stronger among women compared with men. However, little research has directly examined relationship-specific alcohol expectancies, and no studies have tested the reciprocal associations between these expectancies and the extent of drinking in specific relationship contexts. The current study examined these reciprocal effects by testing time-lagged multilevel models using data from a community sample of 470 married couples during the first 9 years of marriage. As expected, results showed reciprocal effects between intimacy and social expectancies, respectively, and the extent of drinking-with-partner when both partners were drinking, which appeared to be adaptive mechanisms for relationships. Also as expected, some of these effects differed or were stronger for wives compared with husbands. Unexpectedly, reciprocal effects were also found between power expectancies and the extent of drinking apart from one's partner, which appeared to be maladaptive mechanisms for relationships. The current study supports and extends previous research on alcohol use in romantic relationships by showing how relationship-specific alcohol expectancies influence and are influenced from relationship-drinking contexts, and which processes might be adaptive versus maladaptive for romantic relationships. Implications for future research and theory are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Start Position Strongly Influences Fixation Patterns during Face Processing: Difficulties with Eye Movements as a Measure of Information Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, Joseph; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I.

    2012-01-01

    Fixation patterns are thought to reflect cognitive processing and, thus, index the most informative stimulus features for task performance. During face recognition, initial fixations to the center of the nose have been taken to indicate this location is optimal for information extraction. However, the use of fixations as a marker for information use rests on the assumption that fixation patterns are predominantly determined by stimulus and task, despite the fact that fixations are also influenced by visuo-motor factors. Here, we tested the effect of starting position on fixation patterns during a face recognition task with upright and inverted faces. While we observed differences in fixations between upright and inverted faces, likely reflecting differences in cognitive processing, there was also a strong effect of start position. Over the first five saccades, fixation patterns across start positions were only coarsely similar, with most fixations around the eyes. Importantly, however, the precise fixation pattern was highly dependent on start position with a strong tendency toward facial features furthest from the start position. For example, the often-reported tendency toward the left over right eye was reversed for the left starting position. Further, delayed initial saccades for central versus peripheral start positions suggest greater information processing prior to the initial saccade, highlighting the experimental bias introduced by the commonly used center start position. Finally, the precise effect of face inversion on fixation patterns was also dependent on start position. These results demonstrate the importance of a non-stimulus, non-task factor in determining fixation patterns. The patterns observed likely reflect a complex combination of visuo-motor effects and simple sampling strategies as well as cognitive factors. These different factors are very difficult to tease apart and therefore great caution must be applied when interpreting absolute

  18. Tell me who you are and I tell you how you feel: expected emotional reactions to success and failure are influenced by knowledge about a person's personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareli, Shlomo; Sharabi, Moshe; Hess, Ursula

    2011-08-01

    The present research investigated the influence of knowledge about a person's modesty or arrogance on people's expectations regarding that person's emotional reactions to success and failure. Arrogance and modesty reflect the extent to which someone is likely to publicize their ability. Accordingly, we predicted that observers' expectations regarding a person's tendency to publicize their ability should inform expectations about the person's emotional reactions to success and failure. In two vignette studies, observers predicted the emotional state of a protagonist, as well as the probability that s/he will actually express that emotion and share the experience with others. For success, participants predicted a protagonist's pride, happiness, schadenfreude, and embarrassment if praised for a positive outcome. For failure, participants predicted anger, shame, guilt, sadness, and fear reactions. Across studies, personality information explained more variance than did gender or status. Results showed that the expectations for an arrogant person matched modal expectations for success, whereas for failure the expectations for the modest individual were closest to the modal expectations. Specifically, both modest and arrogant individuals were expected to suppress emotions that do not fit their self-presentational styles rather than to exaggerate expressions that do. This paper adds to our understanding of the information that people use to predict others' emotional reactions.

  19. Influences of Personal Standards and Perceived Parental Expectations on Worry for Asian American and White American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875

  20. Investigating the expectations of business management students as future leaders regarding the influence of leadership on organisational strategy: A survey at a South African tertiary institution

    OpenAIRE

    Dawid A.J. Bornman

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Unpredictable technology changes challenge how organisations operate in the global competitive business environment. Organisational strategy needs to be flexible, a capability that is impossible to achieve without effective leadership.Research purpose: To investigate the expectations of first year undergraduate business management students at a South African tertiary institution towards leadership and to what extent leadership influences organisational strategy.Motivation for the...

  1. Strong connections, loose coupling: the influence of the Bering Sea ecosystem on commercial fisheries and subsistence harvests in Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alan C Haynie; Henry P Huntington

    2016-01-01

    ... and another looked at subsistence harvests by Alaska Natives. Commercial fisheries and subsistence harvests are extensive, demonstrating strong connections between the ecosystem and the humans who use...

  2. The influence of injury cause, contact-sport participation, and personal knowledge on expectation of outcome from mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of injury cause, contact-sport participation, and prior knowledge of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on injury beliefs and chronic symptom expectations of mTBI. A total of 185 non-contact-sport players (non-CSPs) and 59 contact-sport players (CSPs) with no history of mTBI were randomly allocated to one of two conditions in which they read either a vignette depicting a sport-related mTBI (mTBIsport) or a motor-vehicle-accident-related mTBI (mTBIMVA). The vignettes were otherwise standardized to convey the same injury parameters (e.g., duration of loss of consciousness). After reading a vignette, participants reported their injury beliefs (i.e., perceptions of injury undesirability, chronicity, and consequences) and their expectations of chronic postconcussion syndrome (PCS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Non-CSPs held significantly more negative beliefs and expected greater PTSD symptomatology and greater PCS affective symptomatology from an mTBIMVA vignette thann mTBIsport vignette, but this difference was not found for CSPs. Unlike CSPs, non-CSPs who personally knew someone who had sustained an mTBI expected significantly less PCS symptomatology than those who did not. Despite these different results for non-CSPs and CSPs, overall, contact-sport participation did not significantly affect injury beliefs and symptom expectations from an mTBIsport. Expectations of persistent problems after an mTBI are influenced by factors such as injury cause even when injury parameters are held constant. Personal knowledge of mTBI, but not contact sport participation, may account for some variability in mTBI beliefs and expectations. These factors require consideration when assessing mTBI outcome.

  3. "I like the sound of that!" Wine descriptions influence consumers' expectations, liking, emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Johnson, Trent E; Ristic, Renata; Meiselman, Herbert L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated how information, typically presented on wine back-labels or wine company websites, influences consumers' expected liking, informed liking, wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines. Regular white wine consumers (n=126) evaluated the same set of three commercially available white wines (mono-varietal Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc) under three information levels. Session 1, blind tasting (no information provided) and Session 2, informed tasting (held at least 1week later) with both basic (sensory description of the wines) and elaborate (sensory plus high wine quality and favourable winery information) descriptions followed by liking, wine-evoked emotions (measured with the Australian Wine Evoked Emotions Lexicon (AWEEL)) and willingness to pay evaluations. Before tasting the wine in session 2, consumers also rated expected liking. Results showed that information level had a significant effect on all investigated variables. The elaborate information level evoked higher expectations before tasting the wines, plus resulted in higher liking ratings, elicitation of more intense positive (e.g. contented, happy and warm-hearted) and less intense negative emotions (e.g. embarrassed and unfulfilled), and a substantial increase in willingness to pay after tasting the wines compared to the blind condition, with the basic condition ranging in-between. These results were consistent across the three wine samples. Furthermore, if the liking rating after tasting the wines matched the expected liking or exceeded the expectations by 1 point on a 9-point hedonic scale, participants felt the most intense positive emotions and the least intense negative emotions. Whereas, if the expectations were not met or the actual liking exceeded the expectations by >2 points, participants felt less intense positive and more intense negative emotions. This highlights not only the importance of well written and accurate wine descriptions

  4. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...

  5. Biases in Individualized Cost-effectiveness Analysis: Influence of Choices in Modeling Short-Term, Trial-Based, Mortality Risk Reduction and Post-Trial Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klaveren, David; Wong, John B; Kent, David M; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2017-10-01

    The benefits and costs of a treatment are typically heterogeneous across individual patients. Randomized clinical trials permit the examination of individualized treatment benefits over the trial horizon but extrapolation to lifetime horizon usually involves combining trial-based individualized estimates of short-term risk reduction with less detailed (less granular) population life tables. However, the underlying assumption of equal post-trial life expectancy for low- and high-risk patients of the same sex and age is unrealistic. We aimed to study the influence of unequal granularity between models of short-term risk reduction and life expectancy on individualized estimates of cost-effectiveness of aggressive thrombolysis for patients with an acute myocardial infarction. To estimate life years gained, we multiplied individualized estimates of short-term risk reduction either with less granular and with equally granular post-trial life expectancy estimates. Estimates of short-term risk reduction were obtained from GUSTO trial data (30,510 patients) using logistic regression analysis with treatment, sex, and age as predictor variables. Life expectancy estimates were derived from sex- and age-specific US life tables. Based on sex- and age-specific, short-term risk reductions but average population life expectancy (less granularity), we found that aggressive thrombolysis was cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below $50,000) for women above age 49 y and men above age 53 y (92% and 69% of the population, respectively). Considering sex- and age-specific short-term mortality risk reduction and correspondingly sex- and age-specific life expectancy (equal granularity), aggressive thrombolysis was cost-effective for men above age 45 y and women above age 50 y (95% and 76% of the population, respectively). Failure to model short-term risk reduction and life expectancy at an equal level of granularity may bias our estimates of individualized cost

  6. The Influence of Weight-Loss Expectations on Weight Loss and of Weight-Loss Satisfaction on Weight Maintenance in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; El Ghoch, Marwan; Gavasso, Ilaria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether cognitive mechanisms contribute to weight loss and maintenance. To assess the influence of weight-loss expectations on weight loss, and of weight-loss satisfaction on weight maintenance, in individuals with severe obesity. A randomized controlled trial comparing two types of energy-restricted diets (high protein vs high carbohydrate) combined with weight-loss cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted over 51 weeks and divided into two phases: weight-loss phase (3 weeks of inpatient treatment and 24 weeks of outpatient treatment) and weight maintenance phase (24 weeks of outpatient treatment). Eighty-eight participants with severe obesity (mean age=46.7 years and mean body mass index=45.6), referred to an eating and weight disorders clinical service, were studied. Body weight was assessed at baseline, and after 3, 27 (end of weight-loss phase), and 51 weeks (end of weight maintenance phase). Weight loss expectations were assessed at the time of enrollment, and weight-loss satisfaction was assessed after 27 weeks. The relationship between weight-loss expectations and weight loss was assessed using a linear mixed model. The association between weight-loss satisfaction and final outcomes was tested by linear regression. The two groups had similar weight-loss expectations and satisfaction, and their results were therefore pooled. In general, the total amount of expected weight loss (in kilograms), but not the percentage of expected weight loss, predicted weight loss, and both satisfaction with weight loss and the amount of weight lost (in kilograms) were independent predictors of weight maintenance. Higher expected weight loss improves weight loss, and both the total amount of weight lost and satisfaction with weight loss are associated with weight-loss maintenance at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: How Teachers' Attributions, Expectations, and Stereotypes Influence the Learning Opportunities Afforded Aboriginal Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tasha; Ungerleider, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Educational decisions made about students often have consequences for their subsequent employment and financial well-being, therefore it is imperative to determine whether teacher decisions are discriminatory. This study examines how factors such as race, class, and gender influence the decisions teachers make regarding Aboriginal students. The…

  8. Maternal Influences on Asian American-Pacific Islander Adolescents' Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…

  9. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over......' expectation formation. Chapters IV and V constitute the methodological contribution of the dissertation. Chapter IV develops a general method for decomposing total effects into its direct and indirect counterparts in nonlinear probability models such as the logistic response model. The method forms a solution...

  10. Tailored expectant management in couples with unexplained infertility does not influence their experiences with the quality of fertility care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, F A M; Hermens, R P G M; Braat, D D M; Tepe, E; Sluijmer, A; Kuchenbecker, W K; Van den Boogaard, N; Mol, B W J; Goddijn, M; Nelen, W L D M

    2016-01-01

    Do couples who were eligible for tailored expectant management (TEM) and did not start treatment within 6 months after the fertility work-up, have different experiences with the quality of care than couples that were also eligible for TEM but started treatment right after the fertility work-up? Tailored expectant management of at least 6 months in couples with unexplained infertility is not associated with the experiences with quality of care or trust in their physician. In couples with unexplained infertility and a good prognosis of natural conception within 1 year, expectant management for 6-12 months does not compromise ongoing birth rates and is equally as effective as starting medically assisted reproduction immediately. Therefore, TEM is recommended by various international clinical guidelines. Implementation of TEM is still not optimal because of existing barriers on both patient and professional level. An important barrier is the hesitance of professionals to counsel their patients for TEM because they fear that patients will be dissatisfied with care. However, if and how adherence to TEM actually affects the couples' experience with care is unknown. Experiences with the quality care can be measured by evaluating the patient-centredness of care and the patients' trust in their physician. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. A survey with written questionnaires was performed among all couples who participated in the retrospective audit of guideline adherence on TEM in 25 Dutch clinics. Couples were eligible to participate if they were diagnosed with unexplained infertility and had a good prognosis (>30%) of natural conception within 1 year based on the Hunault prediction model. We used patient's questionnaires to collect data on the couples' experience with the quality of care and possible confounders for their experiences other than having undergone TEM or not. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to investigate case-mix adjusted

  11. Movement imagery for speech in healthy women: influences on articulation accuracy and fluidity, imagery times, and expectations of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Netsell, Ronald; Daniel, Todd

    2012-12-01

    The use of movement imagery in speech performance has received less attention than it has in many other professional disciplines. 30 healthy monolingual native English speakers participated in this within-subjects study. Participants' speech accuracy and fluidity was compared when they used movement imagery and when they did not. The timing of imagery and articulation were compared using a chronometric paradigm. Participants' expectations of improvement when using movement imagery for speech were compared to their actual performance. The results from this study support the use of movement imagery for speech with a single imaging event for the purpose of improving speech fluidity, but not for improving articulation accuracy. The chronometric system as a tool for monitoring adherence to the movement imagery protocol for speech proved valuable. Finally, while estimation inflation has been reported by some using movement imagery techniques, this was not the case for the participants of this study.

  12. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    In this dissertation I examine the relationship between subjective beliefs about the outcomes of educational choices and the generation of inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) in post-industrial society. Taking my departure in the rational action turn in the sociology of educational...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...

  13. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... inequalities if educational reform is to promote educational and social mobility in post-industrial society. I pursue my research agenda in five chapters. In the introductory Chapter I I situate my research contributions in the tradition of the sociology of educational stratification. This chapter also...... outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...

  14. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  15. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    stratification, I argue that students facing significant educational transitions form their educational expectations by taking into account the foreseeable, yet inherently uncertain, consequences of potential educational pathways. This process of expectation formation, I posit, involves evaluations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... the role of causal inference in social science; and it discusses the potential of the findings of the dissertation to inform educational policy. In Chapters II and III, constituting the substantive contribution of the dissertation, I examine the process through which students form expectations...

  16. Expected Value

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lapson

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for decision-making under risk is developed and axiomatized. It provides another explanation for the Allais paradox as well as justification for some other preference patterns that can not be represented by the expected utility model, but it includes expected utility representation fo preferences as a particular case. The idea of the procedure is that evaluation of the lotteries takes two steps. First, a decision maker classifies a lottery as a "bad," "good" or "medium" one. Then ...

  17. Senescence rates and late adulthood reproductive success are strongly influenced by personality in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Samantha C; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-22

    Studies are increasingly demonstrating that individuals differ in their rate of ageing, and this is postulated to emerge from a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Recent theory predicts a correlation between individual personality and life-history strategy, and from this comes the prediction that personality may predict the intensity of senescence. Here we show that boldness correlates with reproductive success and foraging behaviour in wandering albatrosses, with strong sex-specific differences. Shy males show a strong decline in reproductive performance with age, and bold females have lower reproductive success in later adulthood. In both sexes, bolder birds have longer foraging trips and gain more mass per trip as they get older. However, the benefit of this behaviour appears to differ between the sexes, such that it is only matched by high reproductive success in males. Together our results suggest that personality linked foraging adaptations with age are strongly sex-specific in their fitness benefits and that the impact of boldness on senescence is linked to ecological parameters. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Strong Scaling Analysis of a Parallel, Unstructured, Implicit Solver and the Influence of the Operating System Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onkar Sahni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PHASTA falls under the category of high-performance scientific computation codes designed for solving partial differential equations (PDEs. Its a massively parallel unstructured, implicit solver with particular emphasis on fluid dynamics (CFD applications. More specifically, PHASTA is a parallel, hierarchic, adaptive, stabilized, transient analysis code that effectively employs advanced anisotropic adaptive algorithms and numerical models of flow physics. In this paper, we first describe the parallelization of PHASTA's core algorithms for an implicit solve, where one of our key assumptions is that on a properly balanced supercomputer with appropriate attributes, PHASTA should continue to strongly scale on high core counts until the computational workload per core becomes insufficient and inter-processor communications start to dominate. We then present and analyze PHASTA's parallel performance across a variety of current near petascale systems, including IBM BG/L, IBM BG/P, Cray XT3, and custom Opteron based supercluster; this selection of systems with inherently different attributes covers a majority of potential candidates for upcoming petascale systems. On one hand, we achieve near perfect (linear strong scaling out to 32,768 cores of IBM BG/L; showing that a system with desirable attributes will allow implicit solvers to strongly scale on high core counts (including petascale systems. On the contrary, we find that the relative tipping point for strong scaling fundamentally differs among current supercomputer systems. To understand the loss of scaling observed on a particular system (Opteron based supercluster we analyze the performance and demonstrate that such a loss can be associated to an unbalance in a system attribute; specifically compute-node operating system (OS. In particular, PHASTA scales well to high core counts (up to 32,768 cores during an implicit solve on systems with compute nodes using lightweight kernels (for example, IBM

  19. Influence of strong noise on the decline and propagation of population in the delayed Malthus-Verhulst model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-Chun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2010-11-01

    The effects of strong noise on the decline and propagation processes of a population in the Malthus-Verhulst model with time delay are investigated by a stochastic simulation. Time delays in two different processes are concurrent in ecosystems. The simulation results indicate that: The stability of the population is enhanced by the decreasing multiplicative noise intensity and the increasing delay time. The replacement of old individuals with young ones is accelerated by an increasing multiplicative noise intensity, an increasing additive noise intensity and a decreasing delay time. An increasing multiplicative noise intensity will drive the population of species to fluctuate more largely.

  20. Investigating the expectations of business management students as future leaders regarding the influence of leadership on organisational strategy: A survey at a South African tertiary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid A.J. Bornman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Unpredictable technology changes challenge how organisations operate in the global competitive business environment. Organisational strategy needs to be flexible, a capability that is impossible to achieve without effective leadership.Research purpose: To investigate the expectations of first year undergraduate business management students at a South African tertiary institution towards leadership and to what extent leadership influences organisational strategy.Motivation for the study: The results of this study contribute towards: (1 providing insight as to how possible future business leaders are expected to behave in order to have an impact on organisational strategy, (2 providing a better understanding of upcoming leadership trends from future generations and (3 business leadership and organisational strategy’s interdependence.Research design, approach and method: Empirical research through a quantitative survey, distributed to 200 first year undergraduate business management students at a South African tertiary institution.Main findings: (1 That most important leadership style was transformational, (2 emergent strategies were preferred over deliberate strategies and (3 that leadership influence is important to have a successful overall organisational strategy.Practical and managerial implications: An outline of leadership conduct in terms of the expectations of possible future business leaders and that leadership had an influence on organisational strategy.Contribution or value added: If effective leadership training and development gets implemented on an early level (i.e. first year undergraduate studies, then future leaders might be able to develop their followers and inspire them to develop as leaders themselves, which could possibly create a longevity of leadership and organisational success.

  1. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  2. Optimistic expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Young Australians’ post-school futures are uncertain, insecure and fluid in relation to working life. But if you think that this is the recipe for a next generation of depressed young Australians, you may be wrong. A new book documents that young people are characterised by optimism, but their ex......, but their expectations of the future differ from those of their parents....

  3. Use of different globally available long-term data sets and its influence on expected wind farm energy yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Moennich, K. [DEWI, Oldenburg (Germany); Rey, J. [DEWI (Spain); Durante, F. [DEWI (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    One of the greatest challenges of wind resources analysts is the finding of reliable data sources to be applied in the longterm correction of measured wind statistics. A long-term correction has to be performed in order to decrease the influences of year-to-year wind variations on the short-term wind statistics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of different reanalysis data sets as long-term references for energy production estimation. Wind data from three different datasets are analyzed in six different onshore sites located in Brazil, Poland, Romania, Scandinavia and Turkey. The three data sets are two reanalysis datasets and commercial Mesoscale Data. The two reanalysis datasets are the NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) and the MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) reanalysis datasets. NCEP/NCAR has been commonly used in wind resource analysis during the last decade, while MERRA were recently released. The MERRA reanalysis data show a higher spatial and temporal resolution (hourly) in comparison with the NCEP/NCAR (6 hourly) which allows a better representation of the local wind climate. The use of MERRA reanalysis wind data could be a relevant improvement in accuracy for energy production estimation. The commercial mesoscale data use in this study is VORTEX. In general the MERRA reanalysis data lead to an improvement in the correlation coefficient. However, the choice of the most appropriate dataset should be carefully analyzed for each specific case. Furthermore, wind measurements and available ground-based meteorological data have also been used in this investigation. A comparison of all considered reanalysis data, commercial mesoscale data and meteorological long-term stations is presented. (orig.)

  4. Dislocation Dissociation Strongly Influences on Frank—Read Source Nucleation and Microplasticy of Materials with Low Stacking Fault Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Sheng; Zhu, Ya-Xin; Li, Zhen-Huan

    2014-04-01

    The influence of dislocation dissociation on the evolution of Frank—Read (F-R) sources is studied using a three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics simulation (3D-DDD). The classical Orowan nucleation stress and recently proposed Benzerga nucleation time models for F-R sources are improved. This work shows that it is necessary to introduce the dislocation dissociation scheme into 3D-DDD simulation, especially for simulations on micro-plasticity of small sized materials with low stacking fault energy.

  5. Influence of organic matter from urban effluents on trace metal speciation and bioavailability in river under strong urban pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matar Z.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In aquatic systems, dissolved organic matter (DOM constitutes a key component of the carbon cycle controlling the transport, speciation, bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals. In this work, we study the spatio-temporal variability of the MO in terms of both quality and quantity from upstream to downstream the Parisian conurbation. Urban discharges which are the main source of allochthonous organic matter into the Seine at low water periods were also investigated. The DOM collected was fractionated according to polarity criteria into five fractions: hydrophobic, transphilic, hydrophilic acid, hydrophilic basic and hydrophilic neutral. Due to urban discharges a strong enrichment in the hydrophilic (HPI fraction was observed for downstream sites. This hydrophilic fraction presented stronger binding capacities for copper than hydrophobic fraction from less urbanized site (upstream from Paris and than Suwannee river fulvic acid (SRFA. Furthermore, biotests highlighted a significant copper bioavailability decrease in presence of hydrophilic DOM.

  6. Influence of the sample design on the strong light-matter coupling in ZnSe-based periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, K.; Rahman, SK. S.; Kaya, T.; Gutowski, J.; Klein, T.; Klembt, S.; Gust, A.; Hommel, D.

    2017-06-01

    Cavity-exciton polaritons have attracted much interest because these light-matter quasiparticles are very promising for various optoelectronic applications. Bragg-polaritons have been discussed as new tools for tailoring light-matter interactions. These structures can be created by incorporating quantum wells (QWs) periodically into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The advantage of this sample type is the high number of QWs which can be embedded into the sample in order to increase the Rabi-splitting energy. Calculations show, that the coverage of the sample with a thin metal layer results in an increase of the temperature stability of the strong coupling regime. In addition, this concept enables a specific spectral variation of the cavity resonance allowing for the manipulation of the light-matter interaction.

  7. Life-history phenology strongly influences population vulnerability to toxicants: a case study with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, Romain; Mouthon, Jacques; Quéau, Hervé; Charles, Sandrine; Chaumot, Arnaud

    2013-08-01

    One of the main objectives of ecological risk assessment is to evaluate the effects of toxicants on ecologically relevant biological systems such as populations or communities. However, the effects of toxicants are commonly measured on selected subindividual or individual endpoints due to their specificity against chemical stressors. Introducing these effects into population models is a promising way to predict impacts on populations. The models currently employed are very simplistic, and their environmental relevance needs to be improved to establish the ecological relevance of hazard assessment. The present study with the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum combines a field experimental approach with a modeling framework. It clarifies the role played by seasonal variability of life-history traits in the population's vulnerability to the alteration of individual performance, potentially due to toxic stress. The present study comprised 3 steps: 1) characterization of the seasonal variability in life-history traits of a local population over 1 yr by using in situ experiments on caged snails, coupled with a demographic follow-up; 2) development of a periodic matrix population model that visualizes the monthly variability of population dynamics; and 3) simulation of the demographic consequences of an alteration in life-history traits (i.e., fertility, juvenile, and adult survival). The results revealed that demographic impacts strongly depend on the season when alterations of individual performance occur. Model analysis showed that this seasonal variability in population vulnerability is strongly related to the phenology of the population. The authors emphasize that improving the realism of population models is a major objective for ecological risk assessment, and that taking into account species phenology in modeling approaches should be a priority. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  8. Organic carbon, influent microbial diversity and temperature strongly influence algal diversity and biomass in raceway ponds treating raw municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dae-Hyun; Ramanan, Rishiram; Heo, Jina; Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Algae based wastewater treatment coupled to biofuel production has financial benefits and practical difficulties. This study evaluated the factors influencing diversity and growth of indigenous algal consortium cultivated on untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP) for a period of 1 year using multivariate statistics. Diversity analyses revealed the presence of Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. Dominant microalgal genera by biovolume in various seasons were Scenedesmus sp., Microcystis sp., and Chlorella sp. Scenedesmus sp., persisted throughout the year but none of three strains co-dominated with the other. The most significant factors affecting genus dominance were temperature, inflow cyanophyta and organic carbon concentration. Cyanophyta concentration affected microalgal biomass and diversity, whereas temperature impacted biomass. Preferred diversity of microalgae is not sustained in wastewater systems but is obligatory for biofuel production. This study serves as a guideline to sustain desired microalgal consortium in wastewater treatment plants for biofuel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hip Fracture-Related Pain Strongly Influences Functional Performance of Patients With an Intertrochanteric Fracture Upon Discharge From the Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2013-01-01

    patients (20 men and 35 women; ages 75.8 ± 10 years), 33 with a cervical hip fracture and 22 with an intertrochanteric hip fracture, all of whom were allowed to bear full weight after surgery. METHODS: All patients were evaluated upon discharge from the hospital to their own homes at a mean of 10 ± 6 days......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether functional performance upon hospital discharge is influenced by pain in the region of the hip fracture or related to the fracture type. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: A 20-bed orthopedic hip fracture unit. PATIENTS: Fifty-five cognitively intact.......7 seconds to perform the TUG. No significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics or pain medication given for patients with a cervical versus an intertrochanteric fracture (P ≥ .22), but patients with an intertrochanteric fracture presented more often with moderate to severe pain during...

  10. Tibial Slope Strongly Influences Knee Stability After Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Prospective 5- to 15-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, Clemens; Weiler, Andreas; Roider, Manoussos; Schaefer, Frederik M; Jung, Tobias M

    2017-02-01

    The reported failure rate after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction remains high. Previous studies have shown that the tibial slope (TS) influences sagittal plane laxity. Consequently, alterations of TS might have an effect on postoperative knee stability after PCL reconstruction. We hypothesized that flattening of TS is associated with increased posterior laxity after PCL reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence 3. This study consisted of 48 patients who underwent PCL reconstruction in a single-surgeon series. Eight patients underwent an isolated PCL reconstruction, 27 patients underwent an additional posterolateral corner reconstruction, and 13 patients underwent a combined reconstruction of the PCL, anterior cruciate ligament, and posterolateral corner. Three blinded observers measured TS and the side-to-side difference (SSD) of posterior tibial translation (PTT) before and after PCL reconstruction using standardized stress radiographs. The minimum follow-up was 5 years. At a mean follow-up of 103 months (range, 65-187), the mean SSD of PTT was significantly reduced (10.9 ± 2.9 vs 4.9 ± 4.3 mm; P slope.

  11. Strong genetic influence on a UK nationwide test of educational achievement at the end of compulsory education at age 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.

  12. Expecting the unexpected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Heath, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural......) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire....... A survey completed by 1,003 residents of wildfire-prone areas in Perth, Australia, revealed that perceived risk (especially risk severity) and perceived protection responsibility were both positively associated with all types of preparedness, but the latter did not significantly predict preparedness after...

  13. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth......, and that curvature is related to subjective term premium expectations themselves. Finally, an aggregate measure of forecasters' term premium expectations has predictive power for bond excess returns over horizons of up to one year....

  14. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth......, and that curvature is related to subjective term premium expectations themselves. Finally, an aggregate measure of forecasters' term premium expectations has predictive power for bond excess returns over horizons of up to one year....

  15. Daily hay fever forecast in the Netherlands. Radio broadcasting of the expected influence of the weather or subjective complaints of hay fever sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieksma, F T

    1980-10-01

    The literature on local pollen counts and their significance for hay fever is reviewed and a system for forecasting hay fever is described. Such forecasts have been broadcast by radio in The Netherlands since 1977. The hay fever forecast takes the form of a prognosis (in terms of three grades) of the influence of the expected whether situation on tomorrow's course of the subjective complaints of hay fever sufferers. It is not a forecast of the pollen count. When the subjective complaints of about 150 hay fever patients were used as reference for evaluation, the forecasts proved to have been correct in 72, 85, and 88% of the cases in 1977, 1978, and 1979, respectively. The practical usefulness and the limitations of the system are briefly discussed, with emphasis on the principle that not the local pollen count but the weather should be taken as the main determinative factor for the expected subjective experiences in a group of hay fever sufferers in a certain region.

  16. The emerging dental workforce: short-term expectations of, and influences on dental students graduating from a London dental school in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Clarke, Wendy; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this research was to identify short-term career aspirations and goals of final-year dental students at a London dental school and the perceived factors that influenced these aspirations. Two methods were used to collect data on final-year students' short-term career plans and influences. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups and analysed using 'framework methodology'. These findings informed a questionnaire survey of all students at the end of their final undergraduate year. Data were entered into and analysed using a statistical software package. Thirty-five students participated in focus groups, with recruitment continuing until data were saturated. Ninety per cent (n=126) of the total population (140) responded to the questionnaire survey; the majority were Asian (70%), female (58%), and aged 23 years (59%). Short-term professional expectations focused around 'achieving professional status within a social context', 'gaining professional experience', 'developing independence' and 'achieving financial stability'. 'Achieving financial stability' was ranked as the most important influence in decision-making about their career in the short term (77%), followed by 'balance of work and other aspects of life' (75%) and 'good lifestyle' (75%). Four out of ten intended to work towards membership of a Royal College and/or becoming a specialist. Proximity to family (81%) and friends (79%) was an important or very important influence on location in the short term. Asian students were significantly more likely to rate 'proximity to family' (p=0.042), working in an 'urban area' (p=0.001) and 'opportunities for private care' (p=0.043) of greater importance than their White counterparts. Short-term aspirations involve 'achieving professional status within a social context', and personal, social, professional and financial goals. Location of future practice was significantly associated with ethnicity.

  17. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nairn HF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. Method In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Results There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges. Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns. The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Conclusion Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter

  18. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Cabot, Lyndon; Wilson, Nairn H F; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2011-09-24

    Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges.Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns.The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter dentistry by a range of factors which suit their preferences and

  19. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. Method In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Results There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges. Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns. The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Conclusion Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter dentistry by a range of

  20. Population genomic analysis suggests strong influence of river network on spatial distribution of genetic variation in invasive saltcedar across the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Rang; Jo, Yeong-Seok; Park, Chan-Ho; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Olson, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the complex influences of landscape and anthropogenic elements that shape the population genetic structure of invasive species provides insight into patterns of colonization and spread. The application of landscape genomics techniques to these questions may offer detailed, previously undocumented insights into factors influencing species invasions. We investigated the spatial pattern of genetic variation and the influences of landscape factors on population similarity in an invasive riparian shrub, saltcedar (Tamarix L.) by analysing 1,997 genomewide SNP markers for 259 individuals from 25 populations collected throughout the southwestern United States. Our results revealed a broad-scale spatial genetic differentiation of saltcedar populations between the Colorado and Rio Grande river basins and identified potential barriers to population similarity along both river systems. River pathways most strongly contributed to population similarity. In contrast, low temperature and dams likely served as barriers to population similarity. We hypothesize that large-scale geographic patterns in genetic diversity resulted from a combination of early introductions from distinct populations, the subsequent influence of natural selection, dispersal barriers and founder effects during range expansion.

  1. Influence of regional biomass burning on the highly elevated organic carbon concentrations observed at Gosan, South Korea during a strong Asian dust period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Luong; Kim, Jin Young; Ghim, Young Sung; Shim, Shang-Gyoo

    2015-03-01

    PM2.5 carbonaceous particles were measured at Gosan, South Korea during 29 March-11 April 2002 which includes a pollution period (30 March-01 April) when the highest concentrations of major anthropogenic species (nss-SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), and NH4 (+)) were observed and a strong Asian dust (AD) period (08-10 April) when the highest concentrations of mainly dust-originated trace elements (Al, Ca, Mg, and Fe) were seen. The concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) measured in the pollution period were higher than those measured in the strong AD period, whereas an inverse variation in the concentrations of organic carbon (OC) was observed. Based on the OC/EC ratios, the possible source that mainly contributed to the highly elevated OC concentrations measured in the strong AD period was biomass burning. The influence of the long-range transport of smoke plumes emitted from regional biomass burning sources was evaluated by using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data for fire locations and the potential source contribution function analysis. The most potential source regions of biomass burning were the Primorsky and Amur regions in Far Eastern Russia and southeastern and southwestern Siberia, Russia. Further discussion on the source characteristics suggested that the high OC concentrations measured in the strong AD period were significantly affected by the smoldering phase of biomass burning. In addition to biomass burning, secondary OC (SOC) formed during atmospheric long-range transport should be also considered as an important source of OC concentration measured at Gosan. Although this study dealt with the episodic case of the concurrent increase of dust and biomass burning particles, understanding the characteristics of heterogeneous mixing aerosol is essential in assessing the radiative forcing of aerosol.

  2. Spatial structure of seagrass suggests that size-dependent plant traits have a strong influence on the distribution and maintenance of tropical multispecies meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian L S; Van Niel, Kimberly P; Kendrick, Gary A; Holmes, Karen W

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass species in the tropics occur in multispecies meadows. How these meadows are maintained through species co-existence and what their ecological drivers may be has been an overarching question in seagrass biogeography. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of four co-existing species and infer potential ecological processes from these structures. Species presence/absence data were collected using underwater towed and dropped video cameras in Pulau Tinggi, Malaysia. The geostatistical method, utilizing semivariograms, was used to describe the spatial structure of Halophila spp, Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium and Cymodocea serrulata. Species had spatial patterns that were oriented in the along-shore and across-shore directions, nested with larger species in meadow interiors, and consisted of multiple structures that indicate the influence of 2-3 underlying processes. The Linear Model of Coregionalization (LMC) was used to estimate the amount of variance contributing to the presence of a species at specific spatial scales. These distances were 50 m (broad-scale) in the along-shore; and 140 m (broad-scale) in the across-shore. The LMC suggests that smaller species (Halophila spp and H. uninervis) were most influenced by broad-scale processes such as hydrodynamics and water depth whereas large, localised species (S. isoetifolium and C. serrulata) were more influenced by finer-scale processes such as sediment burial, seagrass colonization and growth, and physical disturbance. In this study, we provide evidence that spatial structure is distinct even when species occur in well-mixed multispecies meadows, and we suggest that size-dependent plant traits have a strong influence on the distribution and maintenance of tropical marine plant communities. This study offers a contrast from previous spatial models of seagrasses which have largely focused on monospecific temperate meadows.

  3. Spatial structure of seagrass suggests that size-dependent plant traits have a strong influence on the distribution and maintenance of tropical multispecies meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian L S Ooi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seagrass species in the tropics occur in multispecies meadows. How these meadows are maintained through species co-existence and what their ecological drivers may be has been an overarching question in seagrass biogeography. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of four co-existing species and infer potential ecological processes from these structures. METHODS AND RESULTS: Species presence/absence data were collected using underwater towed and dropped video cameras in Pulau Tinggi, Malaysia. The geostatistical method, utilizing semivariograms, was used to describe the spatial structure of Halophila spp, Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium and Cymodocea serrulata. Species had spatial patterns that were oriented in the along-shore and across-shore directions, nested with larger species in meadow interiors, and consisted of multiple structures that indicate the influence of 2-3 underlying processes. The Linear Model of Coregionalization (LMC was used to estimate the amount of variance contributing to the presence of a species at specific spatial scales. These distances were 50 m (broad-scale in the along-shore; and 140 m (broad-scale in the across-shore. The LMC suggests that smaller species (Halophila spp and H. uninervis were most influenced by broad-scale processes such as hydrodynamics and water depth whereas large, localised species (S. isoetifolium and C. serrulata were more influenced by finer-scale processes such as sediment burial, seagrass colonization and growth, and physical disturbance. CONCLUSION: In this study, we provide evidence that spatial structure is distinct even when species occur in well-mixed multispecies meadows, and we suggest that size-dependent plant traits have a strong influence on the distribution and maintenance of tropical marine plant communities. This study offers a contrast from previous spatial models of seagrasses which have largely focused on monospecific temperate meadows.

  4. How material, visual and verbal cues on packaging influence consumer expectations and willingness to buy: The case of crisps (potato chips) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, Rubén; Gil, Ignacio; Lidón, Iván; Martín, Javier; Fernández, María J; Rivera, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyses the influence that certain aspects of packaging design have on the consumer expectations of a series of sensory and non-sensory attributes and on willingness to buy for a bag of crisps in Spain. A two-part experiment was conducted in which 174 people evaluated the attributes for different stimuli using an online survey. In the first part, four stimuli were created in which two factors were varied: the packaging material and the image displayed. Interaction was identified between both factors for the attributes Crunchy, High quality and Artisan. For the attributes Salty, Crunchy and Willingness to buy, the image was the only significant factor, with the image displaying crisps ready for consumption being the only one that obtained higher scores. For the attribute Intense flavour, no statistically significant differences were identified among the stimuli. In general terms, the image displayed on the bag had a greater influence than the material from which the bag was made. In the second part, an analysis was made of the most effective way (visual cues versus verbal cues) to transmit the information that the crisps were fried in olive oil. To this end, two stimuli were designed: one displaying an image of an oil cruet and another with an allusive text. For all the attributes (Intense flavour, Crunchy, Artisan, High quality, Healthy and Willingness to buy), higher scores were obtained with the image than with the text. These results have important implications for crisps producers, marketers and packaging designers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  6. The influence of self-efficacy and outcome expectations on the relationship between perceived environment and physical activity in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikoff Ronald C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research and commentary contends that ecological approaches may be particularly useful for understanding and promoting physical activity participation in various settings including the workplace. Yet within the physical activity domain there is a lack of understanding of how ecological environment factors influence behaviour. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived environment, social-cognitive variables, and physical activity behaviour. Methods Participants (N = 897 were employees from three large worksites who completed self-report inventories containing measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, perceptions of the workplace environment (PWES, and physical activity behaviour during both leisure-time and incorporated throughout the workday. Results Results of both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicated the global PWES scores had a limited association with leisure-time physical activity (R2adj =.01. Sequential regression analyses supported a weak association between physical activity incorporated in the workplace and PWES (R2adj = .04 and the partial mediation of self-efficacy on the relationship between PWES and workplace physical activity (variance accounted for reduced to R2adj = .02 when self-efficacy was controlled. Conclusion Overall, the results of the present investigation indicate that self-efficacy acted as a partial mediator of the relationship between perceived environment and workplace physical activity participation. Implications of the findings for physical activity promotion using ecological-based approaches, and future directions for research from this perspective in worksite settings are discussed.

  7. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes availab...... at the CPH STL can give this guarantee for all operations. In spite of the safety requirements, the strict running-time requirements specified in the C++ standard, and additional requirements specified in the CPH STL design documents, must be fulfilled....

  8. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  9. Integrated geophysics reveals a steep lithologic boundary and Moho offset at the western Idaho shear zone that strongly influenced later tectonic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, K. K.; Ghanekar, S.; Stanciu, A. C.; Bremner, P. M.; Hole, J. A.; Tikoff, B.; Russo, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple geophysical data sets from the EarthScope Idaho-Oregon (IDOR) project were integrated to examine crustal structure and composition across the boundary between accreted terranes and the Precambrian craton in Idaho and Oregon. New results from controlled-source seismic S-wave data and gravity data are incorporated with previous results from controlled-source seismic P-waves, broadband seismic receiver functions, and broadband ambient noise surface waves. The geophysical data constrain the deeper structure of the western Idaho shear zone (WISZ), imaging a near-vertical, through-going structure that juxtaposes different seismic velocities and densities throughout the crust and offsets the Moho by 7-8 km. Previous work suggested that the WISZ, which formed when transpressional deformation overprinted the original terrane-craton suture, was less steep at depth or was offset within the crust. West of the WISZ, the crust of the Blue Mountains Province oceanic accreted terranes is characterized by faster seismic velocities and higher densities, intermediate lithology with a mafic lower crust, and a shallower, 30 km deep Moho. East of the WISZ the crust of the Precambrian craton and the Idaho batholith has slower seismic velocities, lower densities, felsic lithology with an intermediate-composition lower crust, and a deeper 35-40 km Moho. The juxtaposition of crustal blocks with distinctly contrasting lithologies created a fundamental rheologic boundary that strongly influenced the response of the crust to subsequent tectonic events, including emplacement of the Idaho batholith and the Columbia River basalts, and Basin and Range extension. The strong contrast across the WISZ restricted these tectonic events to primarily one side or the other, and has likely contributed to the survival of this steep vertical boundary and Moho offset through the later tectonic and heating events.

  10. The downside of strong emotional memories: how human memory-related genes influence the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder--a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Sarah; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2014-07-01

    A good memory for emotionally arousing experiences may be intrinsically adaptive, as it helps the organisms to predict safety and danger and to choose appropriate responses to prevent potential harm. However, under conditions of repeated exposure to traumatic stressors, strong emotional memories of these experiences can lead to the development of trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This syndrome is characterized by distressing intrusive memories that can be so intense that the survivor is unable to discriminate past from present experiences. This selective review on the role of memory-related genes in PTSD etiology is divided in three sections. First, we summarize studies indicating that the likelihood to develop PTSD depends on the cumulative exposure to traumatic stressors and on individual predisposing risk factors, including a substantial genetic contribution to PTSD risk. Second, we focus on memory processes supposed to be involved in PTSD etiology and present evidence for PTSD-associated alterations in both implicit (fear conditioning, fear extinction) and explicit memory for emotional material. This is supplemented by a brief description of structural and functional alterations in memory-relevant brain regions in PTSD. Finally, we summarize a selection of studies indicating that genetic variations found to be associated with enhanced fear conditioning, reduced fear extinction or better episodic memory in human experimental studies can have clinical implications in the case of trauma exposure and influence the risk of PTSD development. Here, we focus on genes involved in noradrenergic (ADRA2B), serotonergic (SLC6A4), and dopaminergic signaling (COMT) as well as in the molecular cascades of memory formation (PRKCA and WWC1). This is supplemented by initial evidence that such memory-related genes might also influence the response rates of exposure-based psychotherapy or pharmacological treatment of PTSD, which underscores the

  11. Reinforcement sensitivity theory and alcohol outcome expectancies in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Read, Jennifer P

    2012-03-01

    Little research has examined the development of alcohol expectancies in childhood, a notable omission as expectancies are viable targets for prevention programs. Moreover, limited alcohol expectancies research has been conducted from the perspective of psychobiological models of motivation despite the strong conceptual links between such models and cognitive models of alcohol use. To examine if the associations between individual differences from the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (Gray JA, McNaughton N. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-hippocampal System (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000) and alcohol use is mediated by alcohol expectancies in a large community sample of early adolescents using a prospective design. 378 families (1 caregiver; 1 child) were recruited via random digit phone call using a prospective design. Our findings suggest that both a strong behavioral approach system and fight-flight or freeze system were associated with high levels of positive outcome expectancies, which subsequently predicted an increase in likelihood of alcohol use. There was also some evidence that drive (an aspect of behavioral approach system) was also positively associated with negative expectancies, which subsequently predicted a low probability of alcohol use. Individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity may influence the acquisition of positive and negative outcome expectancies, thereby potentially influencing the likelihood of alcohol use in early adolescence. Thus, reinforcement sensitivity theory is a promising theory to account for the link between neural models of addiction and early acquisition of alcohol use in humans.

  12. Effects of physical forcing on COastal ZOoplankton community structure: study of the unusual case of a MEDiterranean ecosystem under strong tidal influence (Project COZOMED-MERMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Groupe COZOMED: R. Arfi (1), A. Atoui (2), H. Ayadi (6), B. Bejaoui (1), N. Bhairy (1), N. Barraj (2), M. Belhassen (2), S. Benismail (2), M.Y Benkacem (2), J. Blanchot (1), M. Cankovic(5), F. Carlotti (1), C. Chevalier (1), I Ciglenecki-Jusic (5), D. Couet (1), N. Daly Yahia (3), L. Dammak (2), J.-L. Devenon (1), Z. Drira (6), A. Hamza (2), S. Kmia (6), N. Makhlouf (3), M. Mahfoudi (2), M. Moncef (4), M. Pagano (1), C. Sammari (2), H. Smeti (2), A. Zouari (2) The COZOMED-MERMEX project aims at understanding how hydrodynamic forcing (currents, tides, winds) combine with anthropogenic forcing and climate to affect the variability of coastal Mediterranean zooplankton communities under contrasting tidal influence. This study includes (i) a zero state of knowledge via a literature review of existing data and (ii) a case study on the system Boughrara lagoon - Gulf of Gabes. This ecosystem gives major services for Tunisia (about 65% of national fish production) but is weakened by its situation in a heavily anthropized area and under influence of urban, industrial and agricultural inputs. Besides this region is subject to specific climate forcing (Sahelian winds, scorching heat, intense evaporation, flooding) which possible changes will be considered. The expected issues are (i) to improve our knowledge of hydrodynamic forcing on zooplankton and ultimately on the functioning of coastal Mediterranean ecosystems impacted by anthropogenic and climatic effects and (ii) to elaborate management tools to help preserving good ecological status of these ecosystems: hydrodynamic circulation model, mapping of isochrones of residence times, mapping of the areas of highest zooplankton abundances (swarms), and sensitive areas, etc. This project strengthens existing scientific collaborations within the MERMEX program (The MerMex Group, 2011) and in the frame of an international joint laboratory (COSYS-Med) created in 2014. A first field mulidisciplinary campaign was performed in October

  13. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  14. Cosmology with strong lensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiada, Marek

    2017-08-01

    Strong gravitational lensing has now developed into a mature tool for investigating galactic structure and dynamics as well as cosmological models. In this lecture the phenomenon of strong gravitational lensing, its history and applications are reviewed with an emphasis on the recent ideas developed by the author. Expected massive discoveries of strong lensing galactic scale systems in forthcoming projects like Euclid or LSST herald the bright future of gravitational lensing in cosmology.

  15. The Influence of Parents' Beliefs and Expectations on Students' Mathematics Achievement in the United States and Japan: A Comparison of Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskow, Tia

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, considerable research has been done comparing the relative achievement in mathematics by students in the United States and Japan. The current study focuses on one possible factor influencing student achievement: parental influence. The researcher interviewed a small group of teachers in the two countries regarding their…

  16. Distinct Influences of Mothers and Fathers on Kindergartners' Numeracy Performance: The Role of Math Anxiety, Home Numeracy Practices, and Numeracy Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, M. Francisca; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Strasser, Katherine; Salinas, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    The current study analyzed maternal and paternal differential influences on numeracy performance in kindergarten children. Participants were 180 Chilean children from backgrounds of low and high socioeconomic status (SES), their mothers, and their fathers. A path analysis was used to explore the influences of both maternal and paternal numeracy…

  17. The Influence of Time Attitudes on Alcohol-Related Attitudes, Behaviors and Subjective Life Expectancy in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Examination Using Mover-Stayer Latent Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kevin Eugene; Morgan, Grant; Worrell, Frank C.; Sumnall, Harry; McKay, Michael Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine the stability of time attitudes profiles across a one-year period as well as the association between time attitudes profiles and several variables. These variables include attitudes towards alcohol, context of alcohol use, consumption of a full drink, and subjective life expectancy. We assessed the…

  18. The Influence of Teacher Expectations about Twice-Exceptional Students on the Use of High Quality Gifted Curriculum: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, Tracy C.; Azano, Amy Price; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Landrum, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Twice-exceptional students show evidence of high academic performance or potential and also have a disability that impedes their ability to learn. Twice-exceptional students remain under-represented in gifted programs, and some researchers attribute such under-representation to the negative beliefs and low expectations about twice-exceptional…

  19. A validated assay for measuring doxorubicin in biological fluids and tissues in an isolated lung perfusion model: matrix effect and heparin interference strongly influence doxorubicin measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmerle, A; Krueger, T; Dusmet, M; Vallet, C; Pan, Y; Ris, H B; Decosterd, Laurent A

    2003-10-15

    inter-day and intra-day deviations between -5.4 and +7.7%. The in vitro stability in all matrices and in processed samples has been studied at -80 degrees C for 1 month, and at 4 degrees C for 48 h, respectively. During initial studies, heparin used as anticoagulant was found to profoundly influence the measurements of doxorubicin in effluents collected from animals under ILP. Moreover, the strong matrix effect observed with tissues samples indicate that it is mandatory to prepare doxorubicin calibration standard samples in biological matrices which would reflect at best the composition of samples to be analyzed. This method was successfully applied in animal studies for the analysis of effluent, serum and tissue samples collected from pigs and rats undergoing ILP.

  20. Nonverbal behavior in soccer: the influence of dominant and submissive body language on the impression formation and expectancy of success of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Dicks, Matt; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.

  1. Variation in the SLC23A1 gene does not influence cardiometabolic outcomes to the extent expected given its association with L-ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Forouhi, Nita G; Cook, Derek G; Johnson, Paul; McConnachie, Alex; Morris, Richard W; Rodriguez, Santiago; Ye, Zheng; Ebrahim, Shah; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Watt, Graham; Bruckdorfer, K Richard; Wareham, Nick J; Whincup, Peter H; Chanock, Stephen; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies showed that circulating L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic traits. However, these studies were susceptible to confounding and reverse causation. We assessed the relation between L-ascorbic acid and 10 cardiometabolic traits by using a single nucleotide polymorphism in the solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) gene (rs33972313) associated with circulating L-ascorbic acid concentrations. The observed association between rs33972313 and cardiometabolic outcomes was compared with that expected given the rs33972313-L-ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid-outcome associations. A meta-analysis was performed in the following 5 independent studies: the British Women's Heart and Health Study (n = 1833), the MIDSPAN study (n = 1138), the Ten Towns study (n = 1324), the British Regional Heart Study (n = 2521), and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (n = 3737). With the use of a meta-analysis of observational estimates, inverse associations were shown between L-ascorbic acid and systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and the waist-hip ratio [the strongest of which was the waist-hip ratio (-0.13-SD change; 95% CI: -0.20-, -0.07-SD change; P = 0.0001) per SD increase in L-ascorbic acid], and a positive association was shown with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The variation at rs33972313 was associated with a 0.18-SD (95% CI: 0.10-, 0.25-SD; P = 3.34 × 10⁻⁶) increase in L-ascorbic acid per effect allele. There was no evidence of a relation between the variation at rs33972313 and any cardiometabolic outcome. Although observed estimates were not statistically different from expected associations between rs33972313 and cardiometabolic outcomes, estimates for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and body mass index were in the opposite direction to those expected. The nature of the genetic association exploited in this study led to limited

  2. Variation in the SLC23A1 gene does not influence cardiometabolic outcomes to the extent expected given its association with l-ascorbic acid1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Forouhi, Nita G; Cook, Derek G; Johnson, Paul; McConnachie, Alex; Morris, Richard W; Rodriguez, Santiago; Ye, Zheng; Ebrahim, Shah; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Watt, Graham; Bruckdorfer, K Richard; Wareham, Nick J; Whincup, Peter H; Chanock, Stephen; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observational studies showed that circulating l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic traits. However, these studies were susceptible to confounding and reverse causation. Objectives: We assessed the relation between l-ascorbic acid and 10 cardiometabolic traits by using a single nucleotide polymorphism in the solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) gene (rs33972313) associated with circulating l-ascorbic acid concentrations. The observed association between rs33972313 and cardiometabolic outcomes was compared with that expected given the rs33972313-l-ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid–outcome associations. Design: A meta-analysis was performed in the following 5 independent studies: the British Women's Heart and Health Study (n = 1833), the MIDSPAN study (n = 1138), the Ten Towns study (n = 1324), the British Regional Heart Study (n = 2521), and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (n = 3737). Results: With the use of a meta-analysis of observational estimates, inverse associations were shown between l-ascorbic acid and systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and the waist-hip ratio [the strongest of which was the waist-hip ratio (−0.13-SD change; 95% CI: −0.20-, −0.07-SD change; P = 0.0001) per SD increase in l-ascorbic acid], and a positive association was shown with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The variation at rs33972313 was associated with a 0.18-SD (95% CI: 0.10-, 0.25-SD; P = 3.34 × 10−6) increase in l-ascorbic acid per effect allele. There was no evidence of a relation between the variation at rs33972313 and any cardiometabolic outcome. Although observed estimates were not statistically different from expected associations between rs33972313 and cardiometabolic outcomes, estimates for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and body mass index were in the opposite direction to those expected. Conclusions: The nature of the genetic

  3. Neural correlates of rhythmic expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P. Zanto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal expectancy is thought to play a fundamental role in the perception of rhythm. This review summarizes recent studies that investigated rhythmic expectancy by recording neuroelectric activity with high temporal resolution during the presentation of rhythmic patterns. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP studies have uncovered auditory evoked responses that reflect detection of onsets, offsets, sustains,and abrupt changes in acoustic properties such as frequency, intensity, and spectrum, in addition to indexing higher-order processes such as auditory sensory memory and the violation of expectancy. In our studies of rhythmic expectancy, we measured emitted responses - a type of ERP that occurs when an expected event is omitted from a regular series of stimulus events - in simple rhythms with temporal structures typical of music. Our observations suggest that middle-latency gamma band (20-60 Hz activity (GBA plays an essential role in auditory rhythm processing. Evoked (phase-locked GBA occurs in the presence of physically presented auditory events and reflects the degree of accent. Induced (non-phase-locked GBA reflects temporally precise expectancies for strongly and weakly accented events in sound patterns. Thus far, these findings support theories of rhythm perception that posit temporal expectancies generated by active neural processes.

  4. Single amino acid residue changes in subsite -1 of levansucrase from Zymomonas mobilis 10232 strongly influence the enzyme activities and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Yan, Yongliang; Zhou, Zhengfu; Yu, Haiying; Zhan, Yuhua; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Ming; Lu, Wei; Ping, Shuzhen; Lin, Min

    2011-04-01

    The -1 subsite of bacterial fructansucrases (FSs) (levansucrases and inulosucrases) plays an important role in the substrate recognition, binding and catalysis. Three residues (for example W47, W118 and R193, Zymomonas mobilis levansucrase numbering) at the -1 subsite are completely conserved among FSs. Site-directed mutational analysis showed that the substitutions of the three strictly conserved amino acid residues, W47N, W47H, W118N, W118H, R193K and R193H, significantly decreased enzyme activities and synthesis rates of levan, while the size of the synthesized oligosaccharides had been influenced. These experimental results, combined with 3D structure modeling, lead to our proposal that a single amino acid residue change in subsite -1 of levansucrase can influence change to the size and polarity of the sucrose binding pocket with a concomitant change to substrate binding and catalysis, and thus having an overall influence on the enzyme activities and products.

  5. Expectations and retail profit margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.J. den Hertog; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this study expectations and prediction errors are introduced in the context of retail price setting. A new model and a new data set are used to examine whether prediction errors influence retail price setting, whether prediction errors cause only limited price changes to maintain

  6. Mott-Anderson Transition in Molecular Conductors: Influence of Randomness on Strongly Correlated Electrons in the κ-(BEDT-TTF2X System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Sasaki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mott-Anderson transition has been known as a metal-insulator (MI transition due to both strong electron-electron interaction and randomness of the electrons. For example, the MI transition in doped semiconductors and transition metal oxides has been investigated up to now as a typical example of the Mott-Anderson transition for changing electron correlations by carrier number control in concurrence with inevitable randomness. On the other hand, molecular conductors have been known as typical strongly correlated electron systems with bandwidth controlled Mott transition. In this paper, we demonstrate our recent studies on the randomness effect of the strongly correlated electrons of the BEDT-TTF molecule based organic conductors. X-ray irradiation on the crystals introduces molecular defects in the insulating anion layer, which cause random potential modulation of the correlated electrons in the conductive BEDT-TTF layer. In combination with hydrostatic pressure, we are able to control the parameters for randomness and correlations for electrons approaching the Mott-Anderson transition.

  7. The many shades of enhancement: timing of post-gadolinium images strongly influences the scoring of juvenile idiopathic arthritis wrist involvement on MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieter, Jasper F. M. M.; de Horatio, Laura Tanturri; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Müller, Lil-Sofie Ording; Hemke, Robert; Avenarius, Derk F. M.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; Malattia, Clara; Maas, Mario; Rosendahl, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Potential long-term side effects of treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis are concerning. This has necessitated accurate tools, such as MRI, to monitor treatment response and allow for personalized therapy. To examine the extent to which timing of post-contrast MR images influences the scoring

  8. Influence of Additive Manufactured Scaffold Architecture on the Distribution of Surface Strains and Fluid Flow Shear Stresses and Expected Osteochondral Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikson, Wim J; Deegan, Anthony J; Yang, Ying; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Verdonschot, Nico; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rouwkema, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical stability. Since both scaffold strength and stress-strain distributions throughout the scaffold depend on the scaffold's internal architecture, it is important to understand how changes in architecture influence these parameters. In this study, four scaffold designs with different architectures were produced using additive manufacturing. The designs varied in fiber orientation, while fiber diameter, spacing, and layer height remained constant. Based on micro-CT (μCT) scans, finite element models (FEMs) were derived for finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). FEA of scaffold compression was validated using μCT scan data of compressed scaffolds. Results of the FEA and CFD showed a significant impact of scaffold architecture on fluid shear stress and mechanical strain distribution. The average fluid shear stress ranged from 3.6 mPa for a 0/90 architecture to 6.8 mPa for a 0/90 offset architecture, and the surface shear strain from 0.0096 for a 0/90 offset architecture to 0.0214 for a 0/90 architecture. This subsequently resulted in variations of the predicted cell differentiation stimulus values on the scaffold surface. Fluid shear stress was mainly influenced by pore shape and size, while mechanical strain distribution depended mainly on the presence or absence of supportive columns in the scaffold architecture. Together, these results corroborate that scaffold architecture can be exploited to design scaffolds with regions that guide specific tissue development under compression and perfusion. In conjunction with optimization of stimulation regimes during bioreactor cultures, scaffold architecture optimization can be used to improve

  9. Application of a benthic observed/expected-type model for assessing Central Appalachian streams influenced by regional stressors in West Virginia and Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Gregory J; North, Sheila H

    2013-11-01

    Stream bioassessments rely on taxonomic composition at sites compared with natural, reference conditions. We developed and tested an observed/expected (O/E) predictive model of taxonomic completeness and an index of compositional dissimilarity (BC index) for Central Appalachian streams using combined macroinvertebrate datasets from riffle habitats in West Virginia (WV) and Kentucky (KY). A total of 102 reference sites were used to calibrate the O/E model, which was then applied to assess over 1,200 sites sampled over a 10-year period. Using an all subsets discriminant function analysis (DFA) procedure, we tested combinations of 14 predictor variables that produced DF and O/E models of varying performance. We selected the most precise model using a probability of capture at >0.5 (O/E₀.₅, SD = 0.159); this model was constructed with only three simple predictor variables--Julian day, latitude, and whether a site was in ecoregion 69a. We evaluated O/E and BC indices between reference and test sites and compared their response to regional stressors, including coal mining, residential development, and acid deposition. The Central Appalachian O/E and BC indices both showed excellent discriminatory power and were significantly correlated to a variety of regional stressors; in some instances, the BC index was slightly more sensitive and responsive than the O/E₀.₅ model. These indices can be used to supplement existing bioassessment tools crucial to detecting and diagnosing stream impacts in the Central Appalachian region of WV and KY.

  10. Self-assembled Pt2L2 boxes strongly bind G-quadruplex DNA and influence gene expression in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domarco, O; Lötsch, D; Schreiber, J; Dinhof, C; Van Schoonhoven, S; García, M D; Peinador, C; Keppler, B K; Berger, W; Terenzi, A

    2017-01-03

    Supramolecular Pt(ii) quadrangular boxes bind native and G-quadruplex DNA motifs in a size-dependent fashion. Three Pt molecular squares of distinct size show biological activity against cancer cells and heavily influence the expression of genes known to form G-quadruplexes in their promoter regions. The smallest Pt-box displays less activity but more selectivity for a quadruplex formed in the c-Kit gene.

  11. Influence of Strong Diurnal Variations in Sewage Quality on the Performance of Biological Denitrification in Small Community Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Urbini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The great diurnal variation in the quality of wastewater of small communities is an obstacle to the efficient removal of high nitrogen with traditional activated sludge processes provided by pre-denitrification. To verify this problem, the authors developed a pilot plant, in which the domestic wastewater of community of 15,000 inhabitants was treated. The results demonstrate that average and peak nitrogen removal efficiencies of over 60% and 70%, respectively, are difficult to obtain because of the strong variations in the BOD5/NO3-N ratios and the unexpected abnormal accumulation of dissolved oxygen during denitrification when the BOD5 load is low. These phenomena cause inhibitory effects and BOD5 deficiency in the denitrification process. The results demonstrate the need for a more complex approach to designing and managing small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs provided with denitrification than those usually adopted for medium- and large-size plants.

  12. Influence of d-level degeneration and Jahn-Teller effect on electronic structure of manganites by means of strong coupling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dunaevskij, S M

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the E(k) dispersion curves of the charge carriers in the LaMnO sub 3 -type perovskites for the basic types of the Mn sublattice squinted antiferromagnetic ordering is carried out within the frames of the strong coupling method. The calculation of the E(k) spectrum of the antiferromagnetic structures is accomplished for the first time with an account of the manganese e sub g -level degeneration and the Jahn-Teller distortion of the perovskite cubic structure, which required diagonalization of the eight order Hamiltonian matrices. The analytical expressions for the E(k) functions in the separate points and on the individual lines of the corresponding Brillouin zone are obtained. The accomplished calculations showed, that there can be no electron-hole symmetry of properties in the La sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x MnO sub 3 system

  13. Developmental Relations between Alcohol Expectancies and Social Norms in Predicting Alcohol Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tim; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2018-01-01

    Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent…

  14. Influence of the larval phase on connectivity: strong differences in the genetic structure of brooders and broadcasters in the Ophioderma longicauda species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A A-T; Mérigot, B; Valière, S; Chenuil, A

    2015-12-01

    Closely related species with divergent life history traits are excellent models to infer the role of such traits in genetic diversity and connectivity. Ophioderma longicauda is a brittle star species complex composed of different genetic clusters, including brooders and broadcasters. These species diverged very recently and some of them are sympatric and ecologically syntopic, making them particularly suitable to study the consequences of their trait differences. At the scale of the geographic distribution of the broadcasters (Mediterranean Sea and northeastern Atlantic), we sequenced the mitochondrial marker COI and genotyped an intron (i51) for 788 individuals. In addition, we sequenced 10 nuclear loci newly developed from transcriptome sequences, for six sympatric populations of brooders and broadcasters from Greece. At the large scale, we found a high genetic structure within the brooders (COI: 0.07 < F(ST) < 0.65) and no polymorphism at the nuclear locus i51. In contrast, the broadcasters displayed lower genetic structure (0 < F(ST) < 0.14) and were polymorphic at locus i51. At the regional scale, the multilocus analysis confirmed the contrasting genetic structure between species, with no structure in the broadcasters (global F(ST) < 0.001) and strong structure in the brooders (global F(ST) = 0.49), and revealed a higher genetic diversity in broadcasters. Our study showed that the lecithotrophic larval stage allows on average a 50-fold increase in migration rates, a 280-fold increase in effective size and a threefold to fourfold increase in genetic diversity. Our work, investigating complementary genetic markers on sympatric and syntopic taxa, highlights the strong impact of the larval phase on connectivity and genetic diversity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Influences of quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational pigment states in 2D electronic spectra of photosynthetic systems: Strong electronic coupling cases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    In 2D electronic spectroscopy studies, long-lived quantum beats have recently been observed in photosynthetic systems, and it has been suggested that the beats are produced by quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational states. Concerning the electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures, the impact of protein-induced fluctuations was examined by calculating the 2D electronic spectra of a weakly coupled dimer with vibrational modes in the resonant condition [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 212403 (2015)]. This analysis demonstrated that quantum mixtures of the vibronic resonance are rather robust under the influence of the fluctuations at cryogenic temperatures, whereas the mixtures are eradicated by the fluctuations at physiological temperatures. However, this conclusion cannot be generalized because the magnitude of the coupling inducing the quantum mixtures is proportional to the inter-pigment coupling. In this study, we explore the impact of the fluctuations on electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures in a strongl...

  16. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life...... expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain...

  17. Iron Pentapyridyl Complexes as Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysts: Strong Influence of a Chloride Ligand and pH in Altering the Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswanath; Orthaber, Andreas; Ott, Sascha; Thapper, Anders

    2016-05-23

    The development of molecular water oxidation catalysts based on earth-abundant, non-noble metals is essential for artificial photosynthesis research. Iron, which is the most abundant transition metal in the earth's crust, is a prospective candidate for this purpose. Herein, we report two iron complexes based on the polypyridyl ligand Py5OH (Py5OH=pyridine-2,6-diylbis [di(pyridin-2-yl)methanol]) that can catalyse water oxidation to produce O2 in Ru(III) -induced (at pH 8, highest turnover number (TON)=26.5; turnover frequency (TOF)=2.2 s(-1) ), Ce(IV) -induced (at pH≈1.5 highest TON=16; TOF=0.75 s(-1) ) and photo-induced (at pH 8, highest TON=43.5; TOF=0.6 s(-1) ) reactions. A chloride ligand in one of the iron complexes is shown to affect the activity strongly, improve stability and, thereby, the performance at pH 8 but it inhibits oxygen evolution at pH≈1.5. The observations are consistent with a change in mechanism for catalytic water oxidation with the Fe(Py5OH) complexes between acidic (Ce(IV) ) and near-neutral pH (Ru(III) ). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Phytomanagement of strongly acidic, saline eutrophic wetlands polluted by mine wastes: the influence of liming and Sarcocornia fruticosa on metals mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Héctor Miguel; Álvarez-Rogel, José

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of combining liming and vegetation for the phytomanagement of strongly acidic, saline eutrophic wetlands polluted by mine wastes. Simulated soil profiles were constructed and four treatments were assayed: without liming+without plant, without liming+with plant, with liming+without plant and with liming+with plant. The plant species was the halophyte Sarcocornia fruticosa. Three horizons were differentiated: A (never under water), C1 (alternating flooding-drying conditions) and C2 (always under water). The soluble Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured regularly for 18 weeks and a sequential extraction procedure was applied at the end of the experiment. Liming was effective (between ∼70% and ∼100%) in reducing the soluble Zn, Cu and Pb. In contrast, soluble Mn and Cd increased with liming, especially in the treatment with liming+with plant, where the concentrations were 2-fold higher than in the non-limed treatments. The amendment increased the contents of Zn, Mn and Cd bound to potentially-mobilisable soil fractions at the expense of the most-environmentally-inert fractions. Hence, the combined use of liming and vegetation may increase the long-term environmental risk of metals solubilisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single amino acid residue changes in subsite -1 of inulosucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri 121 strongly influence the size of products synthesized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozimek, Lukasz K; Kralj, Slavko; Kaper, Thijs; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial fructansucrase enzymes belong to glycoside hydrolase family 68 and catalyze transglycosylation reactions with sucrose, resulting in the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides and/or a fructan polymer. Significant differences in fructansucrase enzyme product specificities can be observed, i.e. in the type of polymer (levan or inulin) synthesized, and in the ratio of polymer versus fructooligosaccharide synthesis. The Lactobacillus reuteri 121 inulosucrase enzyme produces a diverse range of fructooligosaccharide molecules and a minor amount of inulin polymer [with beta(2-1) linkages]. The three-dimensional structure of levansucrase (SacB) of Bacillus subtilis revealed eight amino acid residues interacting with sucrose. Sequence alignments showed that six of these eight amino acid residues, including the catalytic triad (D272, E523 and D424, inulosucrase numbering), are completely conserved in glycoside hydrolase family 68. The other three completely conserved residues are located at the -1 subsite (W271, W340 and R423). Our aim was to investigate the roles of these conserved amino acid residues in inulosucrase mutant proteins with regard to activity and product profile. Inulosucrase mutants W340N and R423H were virtually inactive, confirming the essential role of these residues in the inulosucrase active site. Inulosucrase mutants R423K and W271N were less strongly affected in activity, and displayed an altered fructooligosaccharide product pattern from sucrose, synthesizing a much lower amount of oligosaccharide and significantly more polymer. Our data show that the -1 subsite is not only important for substrate recognition and catalysis, but also plays an important role in determining the size of the products synthesized.

  20. The emerging dental workforce: long-term career expectations and influences. A quantitative study of final year dental students' views on their long-term career from one London Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Patel, Resmi; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2009-12-23

    Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce and their short-term expectations has already been reported with a view to informing professional and policy decisions. The objective of this component of the research programme was to examine the long-term goals and perceived influences on final year dental students' professional careers. Univariate analysis of a self completed questionnaire survey of all final year dental students from King's College London, comprising questions on demography, long-term career goals and influences, proposed commitment to dentistry, commitment to healthcare systems and the influences thereon. Statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association. Ninety per cent of students responded to this survey (n = 126), the majority of whom were aged 23 years (59%), female (58%) and Asian (70%). Long-term career goals were fairly evenly split between 'dentist with a special interest' (27%), 'primary dental care practitioner' (26%) and 'specialist' (25%), with 19% not certain. Only 60% of total respondents anticipated working full-time in the long-term (79% males cf 52% females; p = 0.00). The vast majority of respondents (> or =80%) identified 'work-life balance', 'financial stability' and 'professional development' as 'important' or 'very important' influences on the number of future sessions. Females were significantly more likely to rate childcare commitments as an important influence on their future working capacity compared with males (p = 0.00). A wide range of factors were considered important or very important in making the NHS attractive, led by support for professional development (88%) and feeling valued by patients (88%), as well as funding, time with patients, rewards for prevention and practical issues such as dental materials and premises. Females were significantly more likely than males to be attracted to work within the NHS by 'childcare support' (p = 0.02), 'retraining facilities after

  1. The emerging dental workforce: long-term career expectations and influences. A quantitative study of final year dental students' views on their long-term career from one London Dental School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nairn HF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce and their short-term expectations has already been reported with a view to informing professional and policy decisions. The objective of this component of the research programme was to examine the long-term goals and perceived influences on final year dental students' professional careers. Methods Univariate analysis of a self completed questionnaire survey of all final year dental students from King's College London, comprising questions on demography, long-term career goals and influences, proposed commitment to dentistry, commitment to healthcare systems and the influences thereon. Statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association. Results Ninety per cent of students responded to this survey (n = 126, the majority of whom were aged 23 years (59%, female (58% and Asian (70%. Long-term career goals were fairly evenly split between 'dentist with a special interest' (27%, 'primary dental care practitioner' (26% and 'specialist' (25%, with 19% not certain. Only 60% of total respondents anticipated working full-time in the long-term (79% males cf 52% females; p = 0.00. The vast majority of respondents (≥80% identified 'work-life balance', 'financial stability' and 'professional development' as 'important' or 'very important' influences on the number of future sessions. Females were significantly more likely to rate childcare commitments as an important influence on their future working capacity compared with males (p = 0.00. A wide range of factors were considered important or very important in making the NHS attractive, led by support for professional development (88% and feeling valued by patients (88%, as well as funding, time with patients, rewards for prevention and practical issues such as dental materials and premises. Females were significantly more likely than males to be attracted to work within the NHS by 'childcare support

  2. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  3. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Marie-Lou; Perron, Gabriel G.; Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Boulianne, Martine; Quessy, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time. PMID:28567032

  4. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Lou Gaucher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time.

  5. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Marie-Lou; Perron, Gabriel G; Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Boulianne, Martine; Quessy, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis outbreaks, over a 14-month period. We show that a high genotypic richness was associated with an increased risk of clinical necrotic enteritis. Also, necrotic enteritis-affected farms had a significant reduction of C. perfringens genotypic richness over time, an increase in the proportion of C. perfringens strains harboring the cpb2 gene, the netB gene, or both. Thus, necrotic enteritis occurrence is correlated with the presence of an initial highly diverse C. perfringens population, increasing the opportunity for the selective sweep of particularly virulent genotypes. Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time.

  6. Strong Influence of Coadsorbate Interaction on CO Desorption Dynamics on Ru(0001) Probed by Ultrafast X-Ray Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; LaRue, J; Öberg, H; Beye, M; Dell'Angela, M; Turner, J J; Gladh, J; Ng, M L; Sellberg, J A; Kaya, S; Mercurio, G; Hieke, F; Nordlund, D; Schlotter, W F; Dakovski, G L; Minitti, M P; Föhlisch, A; Wolf, M; Wurth, W; Ogasawara, H; Nørskov, J K; Öström, H; Pettersson, L G M; Nilsson, A; Abild-Pedersen, F

    2015-04-17

    We show that coadsorbed oxygen atoms have a dramatic influence on the CO desorption dynamics from Ru(0001). In contrast to the precursor-mediated desorption mechanism on Ru(0001), the presence of surface oxygen modifies the electronic structure of Ru atoms such that CO desorption occurs predominantly via the direct pathway. This phenomenon is directly observed in an ultrafast pump-probe experiment using a soft x-ray free-electron laser to monitor the dynamic evolution of the valence electronic structure of the surface species. This is supported with the potential of mean force along the CO desorption path obtained from density-functional theory calculations. Charge density distribution and frozen-orbital analysis suggest that the oxygen-induced reduction of the Pauli repulsion, and consequent increase of the dative interaction between the CO 5σ and the charged Ru atom, is the electronic origin of the distinct desorption dynamics. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of CO desorption from Ru(0001) and oxygen-coadsorbed Ru(0001) provide further insights into the surface bond-breaking process.

  7. Strong influence of coadsorbate interaction on CO desorption dynamics on Ru(0001) probed by ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and ab initio simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Oberg, H. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Beye, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Dell' Angela, M. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Turner, J. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gladh, J. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ng, M. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sellberg, J. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kaya, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mercurio, G. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hieke, F. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Nordlund, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Schlotter, W. F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dakovski, G. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Minitti, M. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fohlisch, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Wolf, M. [Fritz-Haber Institute of the Max-Planck-Society, Berlin (Germany); Wurth, W. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY Photon Science, Hamburg (Germany); Ogasawara, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Norskov, J. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Ostrom, H. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, L. G. M. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ablid-Pedersen, F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    We show that coadsorbed oxygen atoms have a dramatic influence on the CO desorption dynamics from Ru(0001). In contrast to the precursor-mediated desorption mechanism on Ru(0001), the presence of surface oxygen modifies the electronic structure of Ru atoms such that CO desorption occurs predominantly via the direct pathway. This phenomenon is directly observed in an ultrafast pump-probe experiment using a soft x-ray free-electron laser to monitor the dynamic evolution of the valence electronic structure of the surface species. This is supported with the potential of mean force along the CO desorption path obtained from density-functional theory calculations. Charge density distribution and frozen-orbital analysis suggest that the oxygen-induced reduction of the Pauli repulsion, and consequent increase of the dative interaction between the CO 5σ and the charged Ru atom, is the electronic origin of the distinct desorption dynamics. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of CO desorption from Ru(0001) and oxygen-coadsorbed Ru(0001) provide further insights into the surface bond-breaking process.

  8. Expecting Immediate Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of expecting immediate grades on numerical and verbal reasoning performance and the moderating role of achievement goals. Anticipated grade proximity (immediate vs. 1 week later and goal orientation (approach vs. avoidance were manipulated with instructions. Experiment 1 showed that expecting immediate grades yielded lower numerical performance than expecting delayed feedback, regardless of participants’ goal orientation. Neither grade proximity nor goal orientation impacted verbal performance. In Experiment 2, we used a stronger goal manipulation and included measures of motivation. Expecting immediate grades increased task anxiety, lowered task involvement, and lowered task effort among participants with avoidance goals, compared with expecting delayed grades. The effects on performance were not replicated in Experiment 2, however. The findings demonstrate that expecting immediate grades may have negative consequences under certain conditions, including demotivation and performance impairment.

  9. The many shades of enhancement: timing of post-gadolinium images strongly influences the scoring of juvenile idiopathic arthritis wrist involvement on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieter, Jasper F M M; de Horatio, Laura Tanturri; Nusman, Charlotte M; Müller, Lil-Sofie Ording; Hemke, Robert; Avenarius, Derk F M; van Rossum, Marion A J; Malattia, Clara; Maas, Mario; Rosendahl, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Potential long-term side effects of treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis are concerning. This has necessitated accurate tools, such as MRI, to monitor treatment response and allow for personalized therapy. To examine the extent to which timing of post-contrast MR images influences the scoring of inflammatory change in the wrist in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We studied two sets of post-contrast 3-D gradient echo MRI series of the wrist in 34 children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. These images were obtained immediately after administration of intravenous contrast material and again after approximately 10 min. The dataset was drawn from a prospective multicenter project conducted 2006-2010. We assessed five wrist locations for synovial enhancement, effusion and overall inflammation. Examinations were scored by one radiologist in two sessions - the first was based on the early post-contrast images, and the later session, for which the previous findings were masked, was based on the later post-contrast images. Fifty-two of the 170 locations (30.6%) received a higher synovial enhancement score based on the late post-contrast images as compared to the early images. Sixty of the 170 (35%) locations received a higher total inflammation score. The mean scores of synovial enhancement and total inflammation were significantly higher when based on the late post-contrast images as compared to the early post-contrast images. An MRI-based scoring system for the presence and degree of synovitis should be based on a standardized MR-protocol with a fixed interval between intravenous contrast injection and post-contrast images.

  10. The many shades of enhancement: timing of post-gadolinium images strongly influences the scoring of juvenile idiopathic arthritis wrist involvement on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieter, Jasper F.M.M.; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tanturri de Horatio, Laura [Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Avenarius, Derk F.M. [Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Tromsoe, Tromsoe (Norway); Rossum, Marion A.J. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Emma Children' s Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Malattia, Clara [Ospedale Pediatrico Gaslini, Department of Paediatrics, Genoa (Italy); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Radiology Department, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-10-15

    Potential long-term side effects of treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis are concerning. This has necessitated accurate tools, such as MRI, to monitor treatment response and allow for personalized therapy. To examine the extent to which timing of post-contrast MR images influences the scoring of inflammatory change in the wrist in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We studied two sets of post-contrast 3-D gradient echo MRI series of the wrist in 34 children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. These images were obtained immediately after administration of intravenous contrast material and again after approximately 10 min. The dataset was drawn from a prospective multicenter project conducted 2006-2010. We assessed five wrist locations for synovial enhancement, effusion and overall inflammation. Examinations were scored by one radiologist in two sessions - the first was based on the early post-contrast images, and the later session, for which the previous findings were masked, was based on the later post-contrast images. Fifty-two of the 170 locations (30.6%) received a higher synovial enhancement score based on the late post-contrast images as compared to the early images. Sixty of the 170 (35%) locations received a higher total inflammation score. The mean scores of synovial enhancement and total inflammation were significantly higher when based on the late post-contrast images as compared to the early post-contrast images. An MRI-based scoring system for the presence and degree of synovitis should be based on a standardized MR-protocol with a fixed interval between intravenous contrast injection and post-contrast images. (orig.)

  11. Determining health expectancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robine, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jean-Marie Robine 9 1 Increase in Life Expectancy and Concentration of Ages at Death . . . . France Mesle´ and Jacques Vallin 13 2 Compression of Morbidity...

  12. Humans expect generosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-02-01

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  13. Communicating expectancies about others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.; Semin, Gun R.; Spears, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The linguistic expectancy bias hypothesis predicts that, in general, person impressions are shared with others via subtle differences in the level of linguistic abstraction that is used to communicate expected and unexpected information about an individual. In a two-part communication experiment, we

  14. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstein, Regina

    1980-01-01

    Focused on college students' expectations about marijuana. Undergraduates (N=210) expected marijuana to have sedating effects; they largely discounted psychological consequences. Students considered marijuana to be an educational issue and favored decriminalization of the drug. Users, occasional users, and nonusers differed significantly in…

  15. Expectations in experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.

    2014-01-01

    The rational expectations hypothesis is one of the cornerstones of current economic theorizing. This review discusses a number of experiments that focus on expectation formation by human subjects in a number of learning-to-forecast experiments and analyzes the implications for the rational

  16. A Rational Expectations Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Norris A.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a simple classroom simulation of the Lucas supply curve mechanism with rational expectations. Concludes that the exercise has proved very useful as an introduction to the concepts of rational and adaptive expectations, the Lucas supply curve, the natural rate hypothesis, and random supply shocks. (DB)

  17. Change-related expectations and commitment to change of nurses: the role of leadership and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Saiani, Luisa; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Allegrini, Elisabetta

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model linking the impact of expectations on commitment to change and to explore whether change-related communication is a mediating variable between leader-member exchange and expectations. Expectations for change outcomes are an important condition to increase nurses' commitment to change. To understand the role of leadership and communication in expectations development is crucial to promote commitment to change. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 395 nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesized model. Positive expectations had a direct effect on affective commitment to change, whereas negative expectation had a direct effect on continuance commitment to change. Leader-member exchange and communication influenced nurse's expectations about change. Communication partially mediated the relationship between Leader-member exchange and expectations. These findings suggested that nurses' expectation about change were strongly linked to commitment to change. Furthermore, the enhancement of communication and relationship with leader contributed to the development of positive and negative expectations. Strategies to promote commitment to change include developing positive expectations about change outcomes and building high-quality leadership style oriented to the communication. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  19. End-of-the-year economic growth and time-varying expected returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig V.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We show that macroeconomic growth at the end of the year (fourth quarter or December) strongly influences expected returns on risky financial assets, whereas economic growth during the rest of the year does not. We find this pattern for many different asset classes, across different time periods...... quarters of the year. Our findings suggest that expected returns, risk aversion, and economic growth are particularly related at the end of the year, when we also expect consumers׳ portfolio adjustments to be concentrated......., and for US and international data. We also show that movements in the surplus consumption ratio of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) , a theoretically well-founded measure of time-varying risk aversion linked to macroeconomic growth, influence expected returns stronger during the fourth quarter than the other...

  20. Life expectancy: complex measures of the length and the health related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spizzichino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    <strong>Background>: Life expectancy is one of the most frequently used indicators to assess mortality and the health of a population. It is a synthetic measure of mortality, which has the advantage of allowing for comparisons over time and between different groups, while eliminating the influence of the age structure of the population. Life expectancy has the advantage of being very easy to understand, although it needs to be interpreted within the context of the complex system of hypothesis that generates it. This is even more important for health expectancies and health gap measures, which are synthetic indicators that take into account both survival and health condition of a population.

    <strong>Methods>: It is given a description of the most frequently used methods to calculate life expectancy, health expectancies and health gap measures. Measures of health expectancy are disability free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy. As health gap measures, frequently are used DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    <strong>Discussion>: There are various bodies and central government agencies that either have management data or carry out statistical systematic surveys and disability surveys. Statistically speaking, the worst aspect of this scenario is that it creates confusion and uncertainty among the end users of this data, namely the policy makers. At an international level the statistical data on disability is scarcely comparable among countries, despite huge efforts on the part of international organisations to harmonize classifications and definitions of disability.

    <strong>Results and Conclusionsstrong>: There are several methods to compute life expectancy, each of these has some advantages and some disadvantages. Usually life expectancy is used also to account for the health status of population. Actually with the growing role of chronic and degenerative diseases, the increased number of

  1. Life Expectancy in 2040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; DuGoff, Eva H; Wu, Albert W.

    2016-01-01

    expectancy at age 20 will increase by approximately one year per decade for females and males between now and 2040. According to the clinical experts, 70% of the improvement in life expectancy will occur in cardiovascular disease and cancer, while in the last 30 years most of the improvement has occurred......We use expert clinical and public health opinion to estimate likely changes in the prevention and treatment of important disease conditions and how they will affect future life expectancy. Focus groups were held including clinical and public health faculty with expertise in the six leading causes...... of death in the United States. Mortality rates and life tables for 2040 were derived by sex and age. Life expectancy at age 20 and 65 was compared to figures published by the Social Security Administration and to estimates from the Lee-Carter method. There was agreement among all three approaches that life...

  2. Work expectations and organizational attachment of hospital pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J E; Smith, S N

    1987-05-01

    Measures of expectations, organizational attachment, and job satisfaction were studied among hospital pharmacists. Pharmacists in 42 Chicago-area hospitals were asked to respond to 18 closed-ended statements designed to measure job and profession satisfaction and the degree to which the respondents' expectations of their work and profession had been met. From the sample of 529 pharmacists, 217 (41%) usable responses were received. Pharmacists generally agreed that their expectations toward work, salary, department standards, and use of professional abilities had been met. However, it was found that younger pharmacists and those performing primarily staff duties had lower ratings for met expectations and satisfaction than did their counterparts. Measures of expectations and satisfaction with current jobs consistently outranked similar measures of opinions toward the profession. Organizational attachment appeared to be highly correlated with age and with tenure of employment; younger pharmacists and those with one to seven years of concurrent employment were more predisposed to leaving the organization. It was noted in particular that the factors exerting a strong influence to leave the organization involved management-related activities and responsibilities. Managers can encourage organizational attachment by providing promotion opportunities and leadership in the structure and facilitation of job duties and by responding to individual needs.

  3. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  4. Strong moderate deviation theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inglot, Tadeusz; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, Teresa

    1992-01-01

    Strong moderate deviation theorems are concerned with relative errors in the tails caused by replacing the exact distribution function by its limiting distribution function. A new approach for deriving such theorems is presented using strong approximation inequalities. In this way a strong moderate

  5. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  6. Healthy life expectancy and its influencing factors among the elderly in Zhengzhou city%郑州市≥65岁老年人健康预期寿命及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙喜望; 赵超; 李琳琳; 宋敏敏; 冯丽云

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解河南省郑州市≥65岁老年人健康预期寿命及其影响因素,为老年人口卫生服务提供科学依据.方法 采用自行设计调查表和日常生活能力(activity of daily life,ADL)量表对在河南省郑州市7个社区和11所养老院整群抽取的2 622名≥65岁老年人进行问卷调查.结果 郑州市2009年65岁~、70岁~、75岁~、80岁~、85岁~和≥90岁老年人预期寿命分别为19.38,15.81,12.47,9.50,7.38和6.40岁,男性各年龄组的预期寿命均低于女性;健康预期寿命分别为11.31,7.71,4.71,2.51,1.31和0.73岁,男性65岁~、85岁~和≥90岁年龄组健康预期寿命均低于女性,70岁~、75岁~和80岁~年龄组健康预期寿命均高于女性;健康预期寿命与预期寿命比值分别为0.584,0.488,0.378,0.264,0.178和0.114,健康预期寿命与预期寿命比值除≥90岁年龄组为女性高于男性外,其他各年龄组均为男性高于女性;多因素非条件Logistic回归分析结果表明,年龄、听视力障碍、心脑血管疾病、糖尿病和老年痴呆症是郑州市≥65岁老年人健康预期寿命的危险因素;受教育程度、参加体育运动和有配偶是郑州市≥65岁老年人健康预期寿命的保护因素.结论 郑州市≥65岁老年人生活质量男性高于女性,预期寿命男性低于女性;年龄、受教育程度、体育运动情况、配偶状况和慢性病影响老年人的健康预期寿命.%Objective To know the state and the influencing factors of healthy life expectancy among the residents aged 65 years or above in Zhengzhou city and to provide scientific basis for health services in the elderly.Methods With cluster sampling, activity of daily life (ADL) scale and a serf-designed questionnaire were used to investigate the elderly aged 65 years or above from seven communities and eleven rest homes(2 622 people).Results The healthy life expectancy of the people aged 65 to 69 years was 11.31 years( 11.10 years for

  7. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    hypothesis. Finally, we use ex-ante spanned subjective beliefs to evaluate several reduced-form and structural models. We find support for heterogeneous beliefs models and also uncover a number of statistically significant relationships in favour of alternative rational expectations models once the effect......This paper studies the properties of bond risk premia in the cross-section of subjective expectations. We exploit an extensive dataset of yield curve forecasts from financial institutions and document a number of novel findings. First, contrary to evidence presented for stock markets but consistent......-primary dealers. Third, we reject the null hypothesis that subjective expected bond returns are constant. When predicting long term rates, however, primary dealers have no information advantage. This suggests that a key source of variation in long-term bonds are risk premia and not short- term rate variation...

  8. <strong>Cooperative method developmentstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    . The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development......The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...

  9. Rational Expectations in Games

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Aumann; Jacques H. Dreze

    2008-01-01

    A player i's actions in a game are determined by her beliefs about other players; these depend on the game's real-life context, not only its formal description. Define a game situation as a game together with such beliefs; call the beliefs— and i's resulting expectation—rational if there is common knowledge of rationality and a common prior. In two-person zero-sum games, i's only rational expectation is the game’s value. In an arbitrary game G, we characterize i's rational expectations in ter...

  10. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  11. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  12. Performance expectation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  13. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    dynamics. The consensus is not a sufficient statistics of the cross-section of expectations and we propose an alternative real-time aggregate measure of risk premia consistent with Friedmans market selection hypothesis. We then use this measure to evaluate structural models and find support...

  14. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  15. Maintaining High Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  16. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  17. Electronic structure calculations of atomic transport properties in uranium dioxide: influence of strong correlations; Etude des proprietes de transport atomique dans le dioxyde d'uranium par le calcul de structure electronique: influence des fortes correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado, B.

    2010-09-15

    Uranium dioxide UO{sub 2} is the standard nuclear fuel used in pressurized water reactors. During in-reactor operation, the fission of uranium atoms yields a wide variety of fission products (FP) which create numerous point defects while slowing down in the material. Point defects and FP govern in turn the evolution of the fuel physical properties under irradiation. In this study, we use electronic structure calculations in order to better understand the fuel behavior under irradiation. In particular, we investigate point defect behavior, as well as the stability of three volatile FP: iodine, krypton and xenon. In order to take into account the strong correlations of uranium 5f electrons in UO{sub 2}, we use the DFT+U approximation, based on the density functional theory. This approximation, however, creates numerous metastable states which trap the system and induce discrepancies in the results reported in the literature. To solve this issue and to ensure the ground state is systematically approached as much as possible, we use a method based on electronic occupancy control of the correlated orbitals. We show that the DFT+U approximation, when used with electronic occupancy control, can describe accurately point defect and fission product behavior in UO{sub 2} and provide quantitative information regarding point defect transport properties in the oxide fuel. (author)

  18. High resolution NMR study of T1 magnetic relaxation dispersion. III. Influence of spin 1/2 hetero-nuclei on spin relaxation and polarization transfer among strongly coupled protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchak, Sergey E; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Pravdivtsev, Andrey N; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Kaptein, Robert; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2012-09-07

    Effects of spin-spin interactions on the nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) of protons were studied in a situation where spin ½ hetero-nuclei are present in the molecule. As in earlier works [K. L. Ivanov, A. V. Yurkovskaya, and H.-M. Vieth, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234513 (2008); S. E. Korchak, K. L. Ivanov, A. V. Yurkovskaya, and H.-M. Vieth, ibid. 133, 194502 (2010)], spin-spin interactions have a pronounced effect on the relaxivity tending to equalize the longitudinal relaxation times once the spins become strongly coupled at a sufficiently low magnetic field. In addition, we have found influence of (19)F nuclei on the proton NMRD, although in the whole field range, studied protons and fluorine spins were only weakly coupled. In particular, pronounced features in the proton NMRD were found; but each feature was predominantly observed only for particular spin states of the hetero-nuclei. The features are explained theoretically; it is shown that hetero-nuclei can affect the proton NMRD even in the limit of weak coupling when (i) protons are coupled strongly and (ii) have spin-spin interactions of different strengths with the hetero-nuclei. We also show that by choosing the proper magnetic field strength, one can selectively transfer proton spin magnetization between spectral components of choice.

  19. Life expectancy and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploits the unexpected decline in the death rate from cardiovascular diseases since the 1970s as a large positive health shock that affected predominantly old-age mortality; i.e. the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition. Using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy......, we find that US states with higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease prior to the 1970s experienced greater increases in adult life expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard deviation higher treatment intensity is associated with an increase...... in adult life expectancy of 0.37 years and 0.07–0.15 more years of higher education....

  20. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    statistical learning, causing comparatively sharper key profiles in musicians, we hypothesised that musical learning can be modelled as a process of entropy reduction through experience. Specifically, implicit learning of statistical regularities allows reduction in the relative entropy (i.e. symmetrised...... Kullback-Leibler or Jensen-Shannon Divergence) between listeners’ prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions of a musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians were revisited. In Experiments 1-2 participants...... and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure to novel music. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions, statistical learning over varying timescales enables listeners to generate melodic expectations with reduced entropy...

  1. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  2. Genetic enhancements and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, K

    2009-07-01

    Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements.

  3. Reputation and Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben; Risager, Ole

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the importance of reputation in relation to disinflationary policies in a continuous time ration expectations model, where the private sector has incomplete information about the true preferences of the government. It is proved that there is a unique equilibrium with the important property that the costs of disinflation arise in the start of the game where the policy has not yet gained credibility. Published in connection with a visit at the IIES.

  4. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  5. Evolution of non-expected utility preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Widekind, Sven von; Fandel, G

    2008-01-01

    The theory on the evolution of preferences deals with the endogenous formation of preference relations in strategic situations. It is related to the field of evolutionary game theory. In this book we analyze the role and the influence of general, possibly non-expected utility preferences in such an evolutionary setup. In particular, we demonstrate that preferences which diverge from von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility may potentially prove to be successful under evolutionary pressures.

  6. Modelling and Forecasting Health Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Májer (István)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLife expectancy of a human population measures the expected (or average) remaining years of life at a given age. Life expectancy can be defined by two forms of measurement: the period and the cohort life expectancy. The period life expectancy represents the mortality conditions at a

  7. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  8. Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagger, P J

    2004-06-01

    With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy.

  9. Expectation (and attention) in visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Christopher; Egner, Tobias

    2009-09-01

    Visual cognition is limited by computational capacity, because the brain can process only a fraction of the visual sensorium in detail, and by the inherent ambiguity of the information entering the visual system. Two mechanisms mitigate these burdens: attention prioritizes stimulus processing on the basis of motivational relevance, and expectations constrain visual interpretation on the basis of prior likelihood. Of the two, attention has been extensively investigated while expectation has been relatively neglected. Here, we review recent work that has begun to delineate a neurobiology of visual expectation, and contrast the findings with those of the attention literature, to explore how these two central influences on visual perception overlap, differ and interact.

  10. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  11. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  12. Probability via expectation

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This book is a complete revision of the earlier work Probability which ap­ peared in 1970. While revised so radically and incorporating so much new material as to amount to a new text, it preserves both the aim and the approach of the original. That aim was stated as the provision of a 'first text in probability, de­ manding a reasonable but not extensive knowledge of mathematics, and taking the reader to what one might describe as a good intermediate level'. In doing so it attempted to break away from stereotyped applications, and consider applications of a more novel and significant character. The particular novelty of the approach was that expectation was taken as the prime concept, and the concept of expectation axiomatized rather than that of a probability measure. In the preface to the original text of 1970 (reproduced below, together with that to the Russian edition of 1982) I listed what I saw as the advantages of the approach in as unlaboured a fashion as I could. I also took the view that the text...

  13. On Strong Anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, N; Turvey, M T

    2010-06-01

    We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and strong anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is strong if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of strong anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between strong and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of strongly anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as "internal", "model" and "prediction".

  14. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...... wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept...... of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong...

  15. College for some to college for all: social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly A

    2008-06-01

    The educational expectations of 10th-graders have dramatically increased from 1980 to 2002. Their rise is attributable in part to the changing educational composition of students' parents and related to the educational profiles of their expected occupations. Students whose parents have gone to college are more likely to attend college themselves, and students expect occupations that are more prestigious in 2002 than in 1980. The educational requirements of particular occupation categories have risen only slightly. These analyses also reveal that educational expectations in recent cohorts are more loosely linked to social background and occupational plans than they were in 1980. The declining importance of parents' background and the decoupling of educational and occupational plans, in addition to a strong and significant effect of cohort on educational expectations, suggest that the expectation of four-year college attainment is indeed becoming the norm.

  16. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  17. Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.

  18. Users’ expectations of public library services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Borko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Public libraries are used by a wide range of users. Therefore they should offer as many different services as possible. The proper introduction of library services to the users can be monitored by measuring their expectations. The article represents the services, which public libraries should offer to their users, definition of the expectation and which factors influence forming the expectations. 60 users were interviewed in two public libraries. The purpose of research was to find out how expectation differs from public library service offer. The results show that most users expect traditional library services such as free access to books, loaning books, giving information over the phone, reading rooms and inter-library loan; furthermore, most users expect library consultancy and advisory services, access to the Internet, public library website, on-line library catalog and services for the youngest members of the library. Fewer users expect guided tour of the library and information on cultural events in the city. Very few users expect modern services, such as provision of electronic publications, courses or lectures for using the Internet and other electronic sources, special courses, such as how to write a scientific research, and services for leisure and recreation, such as organized trips, and fun activities, such as arranging flowers, painting, sawing, etc.

  19. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  20. Explanations and expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2015-01-01

    drug use ‘aetiologies’ drawn upon by the interviewees. These cover childhood experiences, self-medication, the influence of friends and cannabis use as a specific lifestyle. A central argument of the article is that these explanations not only concern the past but also point towards the future...... by assigning the interviewee a more or less agential position in relation to drugs. Further, the drug narratives are viewed as interactional achievements, related to the social context in which they were produced, namely, the institutional setting of the treatment centres. The article is based on 30...

  1. [Retinal implants. Patients' expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusseck, H

    2005-10-01

    The "Pro Retina" Society and the "Retina Implant" Foundation, two patients associations with the goal of "preventing blindness," view the "Retina Implant" project as a possibility for providing blind individuals a modicum of restored vision. Both patients associations cultivated a cooperative relationship with researchers and policy makers already during the research phase, introducing the wishes and concerns of patients into considerations and providing information and the groundwork for acceptance in society and among those who may potentially benefit from the method. An initial survey of patients, the visually impaired, and blind people revealed that recovery of sight not only represents a medical and technical problem but that it also involves numerous psychosocial implications. By adhering to ethical standards in implantations, in particular by taking patient autonomy into consideration, anxieties and fears can be reduced. It would appear from early positive results in a short-term clinical study that soon successful chronic retinal implantation can be expected. The dedication displayed by physicians, researchers, and the industry as well as the willingness of the Federal Ministry for Research to take the risk are appreciated and greatfully accepted by the patients and their relatives.

  2. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  3. Strong Field Spherical Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dormy, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Numerical models of the geodynamo are usually classified in two categories: those denominated dipolar modes, observed when the inertial term is small enough, and multipolar fluctuating dynamos, for stronger forcing. I show that a third dynamo branch corresponding to a dominant force balance between the Coriolis force and the Lorentz force can be produced numerically. This force balance is usually referred to as the strong field limit. This solution co-exists with the often described viscous branch. Direct numerical simulations exhibit a transition from a weak-field dynamo branch, in which viscous effects set the dominant length scale, and the strong field branch in which viscous and inertial effects are largely negligible. These results indicate that a distinguished limit needs to be sought to produce numerical models relevant to the geodynamo and that the usual approach of minimizing the magnetic Prandtl number (ratio of the fluid kinematic viscosity to its magnetic diffusivity) at a given Ekman number is mi...

  4. Friendship Expectations and Children's Friendship-Related Behavior and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Papadakis, Alison A.; Fedigan, Shea K.; Ash, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Although relationship expectations are thought to influence all social interactions, little is known about the function of children's friendship expectations. This study examined the associations among children's friendship expectations and their behavior within their friendships, their friendship adjustment, and their socioemotional functioning.…

  5. Expectancy-Value and Children's Science Achievement: Parents Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie A.; Strunk, Kamden K.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the ways parents' and teachers' expectancy for success influences 3rd-5th children's expectancy for success and achievement in science. Guided by an open-systems perspective and functional (Ballantine & Roberts, 2007) and expectancy-value (Eccles, 2005, 2007) theories, we focused on school related socialization…

  6. Subjective Life Expectancy Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Alyssa E; Arigo, Danielle

    2017-09-14

    Establishing healthy habits in college is important for long-term health. Despite existing health promotion efforts, many college students fail to meet recommendations for behaviors such as healthy eating and exercise, which may be due to low perceived risk for health problems. The goals of this study were to examine: (1) the accuracy of life expectancy predictions, (2) potential individual differences in accuracy (i.e., gender and conscientiousness), and (3) potential change in accuracy after inducing awareness of current health behaviors. College students from a small northeastern university completed an electronic survey, including demographics, initial predictions of their life expectancy, and their recent health behaviors. At the end of the survey, participants were asked to predict their life expectancy a second time. Their health data were then submitted to a validated online algorithm to generate calculated life expectancy. Participants significantly overestimated their initial life expectancy, and neither gender nor conscientiousness was related to the accuracy of these predictions. Further, subjective life expectancy decreased from initial to final predictions. These findings suggest that life expectancy perceptions present a unique-and potentially modifiable-psychological process that could influence college students' self-care.

  7. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  8. Social gradient in life expectancy and health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Otto; Kjøller, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels.......Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels....

  9. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-03-01

    Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities from special needs education, their parents and their school teachers regarding future work and the extent to which these expectations predict work outcome. Data on 341 young adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities, coming from special needs education, aged 17-20 years, and with an ability to work according to the Social Security Institute were examined. The school teacher's expectation was the only perspective that significantly predicted entering competitive employment, with a complementary effect of the expectation of parents and a small additional effect of the expectation of the young adult. Expectations of school teachers and parents are valuable in predicting work outcome. Therefore, it is important for professionals working with the young adult in the transition from school to work to incorporate the knowledge of school teachers and parents regarding the abilities of the young adult to enter competitive employment as a valuable source of information.

  10. Impulsivity, expectancies, and evaluations of expected outcomes as predictors of alcohol use and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eugene M; Freedlander, Jonathan; Coleman, Kimberly; Katz, Elizabeth C

    2013-05-01

    While the association between outcome expectancies and drinking is well documented, few studies have examined whether evaluations of expected outcomes (outcome evaluations) moderate that association. The present study tested the hypotheses that outcome evaluations moderate the outcome expectancy-drinking association and that outcome expectancies mediate the association between impulsive personality and drinking. College students (N = 201; 55.5% female) enrolled in a mid-sized metropolitan university completed measures assessing outcome expectancies and evaluations, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems. Consistent with study hypotheses, expectation of negative outcomes predicted lower levels of drinking, but only when these outcomes were evaluated as highly aversive. However, impulsivity was found to be a far stronger predictor of both drinking and related problems than were outcome expectancies or evaluations. The association between negative expectancy and drinking was moderated by negative evaluation, such that individuals who both expected that negative outcomes were likely to occur and who judged such outcomes as highly undesirable consumed significantly fewer drinks per week. Impulsivity was found to be a strong predictor of both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems.

  11. Familiarity changes expectations about fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Alexander, Erin

    2010-06-01

    Expected satiation (the extent to which a food is expected to deliver fullness) is an excellent predictor of self-selected portion size (kcal). Here, we explored the prospect that expected satiation changes over time. Fifty-eight participants evaluated expected satiation in eight test foods (including two 'candidate' foods: sushi and muesli) and reported how often they consumed each food. In one of the candidate foods (sushi), and across other test foods, expected satiation increased with familiarity. Together, these findings are considered in the context of 'satiation drift' - the hypothesis that foods are expected to deliver poor satiation until experience teaches us otherwise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social cognitive determinants of nutrition and physical activity among web-health users enrolling in an online intervention: the influence of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Bill, Eileen Smith; Winett, Richard A; Wojcik, Janet R

    2011-03-17

    had good self-efficacy and outcome expectations for health behavior change; however, they perceived little social support for making these changes and engaged in few self-regulatory behaviors. Consistent with SCT, theoretical models provided good fit to Web-users' data (root mean square error of the approximation [RMSEA] social support and use of self-regulatory behaviors were strong predictors of physical activity and nutrition behavior. Web users' self-efficacy was also a good predictor of healthier levels of physical activity and dietary fat but not of fiber, fruits, and vegetables. Social support and self-efficacy indirectly predicted behavior through self-regulation, and social support had indirect effects through self-efficacy. Results suggest Web-health users visiting and ultimately participating in online health interventions may likely be middle-aged, well-educated, upper middle class women whose detrimental health behaviors put them at risk of obesity, heart disease, some cancers, and diabetes. The success of Internet physical activity and nutrition interventions may depend on the extent to which they lead users to develop self-efficacy for behavior change, but perhaps as important, the extent to which these interventions help them garner social-support for making changes. Success of these interventions may also depend on the extent to which they provide a platform for setting goals, planning, tracking, and providing feedback on targeted behaviors.

  13. Student Perceptions of Science Ability, Experiences, Expectations, and Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Michael; Cherney, I.

    2006-12-01

    The decision to study physics or astronomy is affected by many factors, including preferences, motivations, and expectations for success. Differing cognitive profiles contribute to the learning of science through a complex process in which intrinsic capacities are tuned both by everyday experience and by instruction. In an attempt to identify the developmental pathways and intrinsic factors that most strongly influence the choice to study science, we administered an extensive survey to a sample of 400 students. The survey questions were based on Eccles et al.’s model of achievement-related choices and findings showing that previous play experiences, spatial experiences, task beliefs, as well as perceived mathematics ability, motivational and personality characteristics affect mathematics achievement and science career choices. The perceptions of students planning a science career are compared with those planning a career in other areas. Gender differences are also discussed.

  14. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  15. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...... of funding liquidity constraints suggesting an economic channel for the effect....

  16. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  17. Formation of Rationally Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper models expectation formation by taking into account that agents produce heterogeneous expectations due to model uncertainty, informational frictions and different capacities for processing information. We show that there are two general classes of steady states within this

  18. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  19. Public expectations about access fees and road closures on public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, K.; Lamb, B.L.; Ponds, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that land managers could better communicate with the general public by relying on people who are active in community affairs to frame the message. By comparing responses from the 'attentive' and general public on the Colorado Plateau in the USA, this study investigated the expected effects of using recreation access fees or road closures to manage recreation on public lands. Although neither the attentive nor general public strongly anticipated benefits from the two management options, the attentive public was more likely than the general public to report positive expectations. Those more likely to expect fewer benefits from the management options do so because of factors that are outside the influence of managers (e.g., socio-demographics and value orientation). The results point out challenges for building public support through mobilizing the attentive public to develop a positive management atmosphere with fees and road closures. ?? 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  20. Exploration of Exercise Outcome Expectations Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschey, Rachel; Docherty, Sharron L; Pan, Wei; Lipkus, Isaac

    Exercise is associated with decreased recurrence risk and improved survival and quality of life for breast cancer survivors. However, only an estimated 17% to 37% of survivors adhere to the American Cancer Society exercise guidelines. A critical first step to increase exercise among survivors is to understand how they believe exercise will affect them. The aim of this study is to explore common exercise outcome expectations among 20 female survivors of stage IA to IIB breast cancer who completed adjuvant treatment and an exercise intervention. A mixed-method descriptive study consisting of semistructured telephone interviews assessed exercise outcome expectations and how the experience of cancer and its treatment influenced the expected outcomes of exercise. The qualitative data were analyzed using a summative content analysis procedure; means were calculated for each item of the exercise outcome questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative data were compared and contrasted. The sample was 70% white and 30% African American, with a mean (SD) age of 62 (8.5) years, and mean (SD) time since treatment completion of 4.2 (1.3) years. Three themes emerged from the interviews: (1) prevalence of common expectations, (2) pervasive impact of fatigue, and (3) a brighter future. Overall, findings revealed that breast cancer survivors have low levels of agreement that exercise may mitigate late and long-term cancer and treatment effects. In general, breast cancer survivors (even those who are motivated to exercise) do not hold strong beliefs that exercise will decrease late and long-term treatment effects. Clinicians can educate survivors about exercise benefits.

  1. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  2. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh C Nguyen

    Full Text Available Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II, 2001-02 (Wave III and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32. Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  3. Dynamic emotion perception and prior expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzafic, Ilvana; Martin, Andrew K; Hocking, Julia; Mowry, Bryan; Burianová, Hana

    2016-06-01

    Social interactions require the ability to rapidly perceive emotion from various incoming dynamic, multisensory cues. Prior expectations reduce incoming emotional information and direct attention to cues that are aligned with what is expected. Studies to date have investigated the prior expectancy effect using static emotional images, despite the fact that dynamic stimuli would represent greater ecological validity. The objective of the study was to create a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to examine the influence of prior expectations on naturalistic emotion perception. For this purpose, we developed a dynamic emotion perception task, which consisted of audio-visual videos that carry emotional information congruent or incongruent with prior expectations. The results show that emotional congruency was associated with activity in prefrontal regions, amygdala, and putamen, whereas emotional incongruency was associated with activity in temporoparietal junction and mid-cingulate gyrus. Supported by the behavioural results, our findings suggest that prior expectations are reinforced after repeated experience and learning, whereas unexpected emotions may rely on fast change detection processes. The results from the current study are compatible with the notion that the ability to automatically detect unexpected changes in complex dynamic environments allows for adaptive behaviours in potentially advantageous or threatening situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Document Server

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  5. Expectations on Track? High School Tracking and Adolescent Educational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms...... of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents’ expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across...

  6. SUSY strong production (leptonic) with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the most motivated scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model. This article summarizes recent ATLAS results on searches for supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at LHC, which target supersymmetric particles produced by strong interaction in events with leptonic fi nal states. No signi ficant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed and exclusion limits have been set on squark and gluino masses in various scenarios.

  7. Gompertz-Makeham Life Expectancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, Trifon I.; Lenart, Adam; Vaupel, James W.

    We study the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham mortality models. We prove that the resulting life expectancy can be expressed in terms of a hypergeometric function if the population is heterogeneous with gamma-distributed individual frailty, or an incomplete gamma function if the study population...... is homogeneous. We use the properties of hypergeometric and incomplete gamma functions to construct approximations that allow calculating the respective life expectancy with high accuracy and interpreting the impact of model parameters on life expectancy....

  8. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    at all ages, and the second term captures the effect of heterogeneity in the pace of improvement in mortality at different ages. We extend the formula to decompose change in life expectancy into age-specific and cause-specific components, and apply the methods to analyze changes in life expectancy......We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...

  9. Association between illness perceptions and return-to-work expectations in workers with common mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvvik, Camilla; Øverland, Simon; Hysing, Mari; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Reme, Silje E

    2014-03-01

    Mental health symptoms (MHSs) may affect people's work capacity and lead to sickness absence and disability. Expectations and perceptions of illness have been shown to influence return to work (RTW) across health conditions, but we know little about illness perceptions and RTW-expectations in MHSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between illness perceptions and RTW-expectations in a group struggling with work participation due to MHSs. Cross-sectional associations between illness perceptions and return to work expectations at baseline were analyzed for 1,193 participants who reported that MHSs affected their work participation. The study was part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of job focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) combined with supported employment (IPS). Participants were from a working age population with diverse job status. There was a strong and salient relationship between illness perceptions and RTW-expectations. When adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, the components consequences, personal control, identity and illness concern remained significantly associated with uncertain and negative RTW-expectations. Less illness understanding remained significantly associated with uncertain RTW-expectations, while timeline and emotional representations remained significantly associated with negative RTW-expectations. In the fully adjusted model only the consequences component (believing that illness has more severe consequences) remained significantly associated with RTW-expectations. Openly asked, participants reported work, personal relationships and stress as main causes of their illness. In people with MHSs who struggle with work participation, perceptions and beliefs about their problems are strongly associated with their expectations to return to work.

  10. Parents Influencing Secondary Students' University Aspirations: A Multilevel Approach Using School-SES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stuart; Vernon, Lynette; Seddon, Sarah; Andrews, Yolanda; Wang, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Students' university aspirational capacity and expectancies are key factors in predicting future university participation. Aspirations and expectations to attend university are strongly influenced by parent educational socialisation and school culture. This study investigates associations between students' university discussions with parents and…

  11. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies.

  12. Fiscal Consolidations and Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Lustenhouwer, J.; Mavromatis, K.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze fiscal consolidations using a New Keynesian model where agents have heterogeneous expectations and are uncertain about the composition of consoidations. Heterogeneity in expectations may amplify expansions, stabilizing thus the debt-to-GDP ratio faster under tax based consolidations, in

  13. Alcohol Expectancy Priming and Drinking Behavior: The Role of Compatibility between Prime and Expectancy Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ronald S.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Hicks, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    According to information-processing models of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies constitute representations in long-term memorythat may be activated in the presence of drinking-related cues, thereby influencing alcohol consumption. A fundamental implication of this approach is that primed expectancies should affect drinking only for those individuals who possess the specific expectancies primed. To test this notion, in the present study, participants were initially assessed on three distinct domains of positive alcohol expectancies. Approximately one week later, they completed an ad libitum drinking study during which only a single expectancy domain (sociability) was primed in the experimental condition. Consistent with predictions, following exposure to sociability primes, but not control primes, individuals with stronger expectancies that alcohol would enhance sociability uniquely showed increased placebo consumption of nonalcoholic beer. These results, which demonstrate the moderating role of compatibility between the specific content of primes and that of underlying expectancies, offer new, direct support for memory network-based models of drinking behavior. PMID:19586149

  14. Longitudinal analyses of adoptive parents' expectations and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; South, Susan C

    2017-12-01

    Grounded in a theoretical model specific to adoptive parents, we examined the relationship between parental expectations and depressive symptoms across time. Assessments of 129 adoptive parents of 64 children were performed at three time points before and after placement of an adopted child with the family: 4-6 weeks pre-placement and 4-6 weeks and 5-6 months post-placement. Expectations were assessed in four dimensions: expectations of self as parents, of the child, of family and friends, and of society. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Associations between parental expectations and depressive symptoms were analyzed, and longitudinal multilevel modeling was conducted to explore influences on expectations over time. Parental expectations changed from pre- to post-placement. With the exception of expectations of self as parent, adoptive parents' pre-adoption expectations were affirmed in the post-adoption time periods. In each expectation dimension, higher affirmation of expectations was correlated with decreased depressive symptoms before and after placement of a child. While parental expectations are not unique to adoptive parents, the essence and characteristics of certain expectations are unique to these parents. When working with adoptive parents, nurses who care for families should assess expectations both pre- and post-placement with awareness of their relationship to depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Role-player expectations regarding the education of nursing research

    OpenAIRE

    SCD Zeelie

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on role player expectations regarding the education of nursing research. The importance of the role player expectations are two-fold: firstly as a factor in the external environment influencing and guiding the formulation phase of the development of standards and secondly, due to the clear indications of problems regarding nursing research in the nursing profession in literature. The role player expectations were elicited using a qualitative, exploratory and contextual de...

  16. Modern perceptions and expectations regarding total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert Michael; Russo, Glenn S; Lieberman, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    It is established that patients and surgeons share different perceptions regarding total knee replacement (TKA). This study's objective was to determine patient perceptions regarding TKA as well as the influence of the various information sources in shaping these perceptions. All patients presenting with knee pain for evaluation of TKA were offered a questionnaire. Multivariate statistical analysis correlated response and demographic variables. Approximately 81% of patients felt the main reason for TKA was to alleviate pain, whereas only 19% felt return to sports-related activities was the main reason. Approximately 37% of patients felt TKAs should last for 20 years or more, which was strongly correlated with TV, newspaper, or Internet exposure (p ≤ 0.01). Approximately 38% of respondents had heard of partial knee replacement, whereas relatively few had received information regarding patient-specific, gender-specific, mobile-bearing, or high-flexion TKA designs. Men were likelier than women to get their information from friends, family, or another patient (p = 0.04). Although most respondents perceived pain relief as the primary goal, patients getting information from the media are likelier to expect TKA to last longer than 20 years. This suggests direct-to-patient marketing with such claims as 30-year durability may influence patient perceptions regarding TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Strong Winds over the Keel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The latest ESO image reveals amazing detail in the intricate structures of one of the largest and brightest nebulae in the sky, the Carina Nebula (NGC 3372), where strong winds and powerful radiation from an armada of massive stars are creating havoc in the large cloud of dust and gas from which the stars were born. ESO PR Photo 05a/09 The Carina Nebula ESO PR Video 05a/09 Pan over the Carina Nebula ESO PR Video 05b/09 Carina Nebula Zoom-in The large and beautiful image displays the full variety of this impressive skyscape, spattered with clusters of young stars, large nebulae of dust and gas, dust pillars, globules, and adorned by one of the Universe's most impressive binary stars. It was produced by combining exposures through six different filters from the Wide Field Imager (WFI), attached to the 2.2 m ESO/MPG telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory, in Chile. The Carina Nebula is located about 7500 light-years away in the constellation of the same name (Carina; the Keel). Spanning about 100 light-years, it is four times larger than the famous Orion Nebula and far brighter. It is an intensive star-forming region with dark lanes of cool dust splitting up the glowing nebula gas that surrounds its many clusters of stars. The glow of the Carina Nebula comes mainly from hot hydrogen basking in the strong radiation of monster baby stars. The interaction between the hydrogen and the ultraviolet light results in its characteristic red and purple colour. The immense nebula contains over a dozen stars with at least 50 to 100 times the mass of our Sun. Such stars have a very short lifespan, a few million years at most, the blink of an eye compared with the Sun's expected lifetime of ten billion years. One of the Universe's most impressive stars, Eta Carinae, is found in the nebula. It is one of the most massive stars in our Milky Way, over 100 times the mass of the Sun and about four million times brighter, making it the most luminous star known. Eta Carinae is highly

  18. Survey Finds Mismatch in Student Achievement and Parents' College Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Education Department released a report last week, "Parent Expectations and Planning for College," that offers new insights into the factors influencing whether parents expect their children to enroll at four-year colleges. It suggests that many young people who could succeed at such institutions are not being encouraged by their families or…

  19. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr3Ru2O7, graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k

  20. Patient expectations of podiatric surgery in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Antony N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient expectations can be difficult to conceptualise and are liable to change with time, health and environmental factors. Patient expectation is known to influence satisfaction, however little is known about the expectations of patients attending for podiatric surgery. This paper will explore the expectations of a large cohort of patients undergoing elective foot surgery. Methods The UK based podiatric audit of surgery and clinical outcome measurement (PASCOM audit system was applied to a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing elective podiatric surgery in Doncaster, South Yorkshire between 2004 and 2010. Data was collected relating to the surgical episode and patient expectations. A patient questionnaire was administered at 6 months post intervention. Results A total of 2910 unique surgical admissions were completed and satisfaction questionnaires were returned by 1869 patients. A total of 1430 patients answered question 1 which relates to patient expectations. Pain relief was the most frequent expectation with 1191 counts (52.3%, while footwear and mobility accounted for 16.6% and 16.4% respectively. Cosmesis counts occurred less commonly; 12.2%. 709 patients (49.6% stated only a single expectation, 599 patients (41.9% stated two expectations, 114 patients (8% stated three expectations and 7 patients (0.5% stated 4 expectations. Pain relief was the dominant expectation accounting for 515 counts (72.6% of patients who provided only one response. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the expectations of a large cohort of podiatric surgery patients. For the most part patients expect pain relief, improved mobility and improved shoe fitting, while a small number of patients also expect a cosmetic improvement. Further research is required to determine the relationship between patient expectation and health related quality of life, and to determine whether podiatric surgery is successful in addressing the expectations of

  1. Rational Expectations and Economic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffrin, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Examines how rational expectation models can help describe and predict trends within an economy and explains research needs within the discipline of economics which will enable economists to make more valid predictions. (DB)

  2. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... calculated remaining life expectancies for values of age 15, 25, 35 ⃛ 75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. RESULTS: For the typical male or female patient aged 25 to 45 years, the remaining life expectancy was decreased by 12.0-8.7 years and 10.6-8.3 years, respectively. The ratio between...

  3. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  4. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin; Umran Dal; Gulsen Vural

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Servic...

  5. Rational Expectation Can Preclude Trades

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuhisa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Ryuichiro

    2003-01-01

    We consider a pure exchange economy under uncertainty in which the traders have the non-partition structure of information. They willing to trade the amounts of state-contingent commodities and they know their own expectations. Common knowledge of these conditions among all the traders can preclude trade if the initial endowments allocation is ex-ante Pareto optimal. Furthermore we introduce rational expectations equilibrium under the non-partition information, and prove the existence theorem...

  6. Rational Expectations: Retrospect and Prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Kevin; Young, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The transcript of a panel discussion marking the fiftieth anniversary of John Muth's "Rational Expectations and the Theory of Price Movements" (Econometrica 1961). The panel consists of Michael Lovell, Robert Lucas, Dale Mortensen, Robert Shiller, and Neil Wallace. The discussion is moderated by Kevin Hoover and Warren Young. The panel touches on a wide variety of issues related to the rational-expectations hypothesis, including: its history, starting with Muth's work at Carnegie Tech; its me...

  7. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-08-01

    Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we calculated remaining life expectancies for values of age 15, 25, 35 ⃛ 75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. For the typical male or female patient aged 25 to 45 years, the remaining life expectancy was decreased by 12.0-8.7 years and 10.6-8.3 years, respectively. The ratio between remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously reported. Patients start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Linking melodic expectation to expressive performance timing and perceived musical tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Pearce, Marcus T; Goodchild, Meghan; Dean, Roger T; Wiggins, Geraint; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This research explored the relations between the predictability of musical structure, expressive timing in performance, and listeners' perceived musical tension. Studies analyzing the influence of expressive timing on listeners' affective responses have been constrained by the fact that, in most pieces, the notated durations limit performers' interpretive freedom. To circumvent this issue, we focused on the unmeasured prelude, a semi-improvisatory genre without notated durations. In Experiment 1, 12 professional harpsichordists recorded an unmeasured prelude on a harpsichord equipped with a MIDI console. Melodic expectation was assessed using a probabilistic model (IDyOM [Information Dynamics of Music]) whose expectations have been previously shown to match closely those of human listeners. Performance timing information was extracted from the MIDI data using a score-performance matching algorithm. Time-series analyses showed that, in a piece with unspecified note durations, the predictability of melodic structure measurably influenced tempo fluctuations in performance. In Experiment 2, another 10 harpsichordists, 20 nonharpsichordist musicians, and 20 nonmusicians listened to the recordings from Experiment 1 and rated the perceived tension continuously. Granger causality analyses were conducted to investigate predictive relations among melodic expectation, expressive timing, and perceived tension. Although melodic expectation, as modeled by IDyOM, modestly predicted perceived tension for all participant groups, neither of its components, information content or entropy, was Granger causal. In contrast, expressive timing was a strong predictor and was Granger causal. However, because melodic expectation was also predictive of expressive timing, our results outline a complete chain of influence from predictability of melodic structure via expressive performance timing to perceived musical tension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  10. What do Professional Forecasters' Stock Market Expectations Tell Us about Herding, Information Extraction and Beauty Contests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We study how professional forecasters form equity market expectations based on a new micro-level dataset which includes rich cross-sectional information about individual characteristics. We focus on testing whether agents rely on the beliefs of others, i.e., consensus expectations, when forming...... their own forecast. We find strong evidence that the average of all forecasters' beliefs influences an individual's own forecast. This effect is stronger for young and less experienced forecasters as well as forecasters whose pay depends more on performance relative to a benchmark. Further tests indicate...... that neither information extraction to incorporate dispersed private information, nor herding for reputational reasons can fully explain these results, leaving Keynes' beauty contest argument as a potential candidate for explaining forecaster behavior....

  11. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  12. Consumer's inflation expectations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ormonde Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.

  13. Strong signatures of right-handed compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Sanz, Veronica [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Vries, Maikel de; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Right-handed light quarks could be significantly composite, yet compatible with experimental searches at the LHC and precision tests on Standard Model couplings. In these scenarios, that are motivated by flavor physics, one expects large cross sections for the production of new resonances coupled to light quarks. We study experimental strong signatures of right-handed compositeness at the LHC, and constrain the parameter space of these models with recent results by ATLAS and CMS. We show that the LHC sensitivity could be significantly improved if dedicated searches were performed, in particular in multi-jet signals.

  14. Obtaining a pet: realistic expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Amy; Duxbury, Margaret M

    2008-09-01

    Millions of dog-human relationships fail each year-some from simple and preventable mismatches. False or unrealistic expectations of a dog's behavior are a common reason for failed human-animal bonds. Veterinarians can reduce the incidence of false expectations and thereby increase the likelihood of successful adoptions by offering preadoption counseling to help clients sort through the many factors involved in the process of successful pet selection, by preparing clients to take on the important tasks of puppy socialization and the management of the home learning environment, and by educating new owners about the needs and behavior of dogs.

  15. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  16. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  17. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  18. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  19. Music undergraduates' usefulness and importance expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian university perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Harvey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalised the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialisation. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialised tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialised development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates’ pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and

  20. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dominic G; Davidson, Jane W; Nair, Chenicheri S

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  1. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dominic G.; Davidson, Jane W.; Nair, Chenicheri S.

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  2. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesley, Andres; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul

    2007-01-01

    1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school...... with educational expectations that change minimally from that point onward. Moreover, their findings reveal that there is a strong correspondence among gender, socioeconomic background of parents, and educational attainment. They conclude with direct implications for K-12 and postsecondary policy and practice....

  3. The impact of future expectations on adolescent sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S

    2015-01-01

    Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8% female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period.

  4. The influence of relationship intention on cell phone users' attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In any service environment, there is a strong possibility that customers' expectations and the actual service delivery are not in unison. When service failures do occur, customers' attitudes towards complaining directly influence their actual complaint behaviour. As not all customers want to build relationships with service ...

  5. Focusing on situation-specific expectations in major depression as basis for behavioural experiments - Development of the Depressive Expectations Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, Tobias; D'Astolfo, Lisa; Glombiewski, Julia A; Doering, Bettina K; Rief, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Dysfunctional expectations are considered to be core features of various mental disorders. The aim of the study was to develop the Depressive Expectations Scale (DES) as a depression-specific measure for the assessment of dysfunctional expectations. Whereas previous research primarily focused on general cognitions and attitudes, the DES assesses 25 future-directed expectations (originally 75 items) which are situation-specific and falsifiable. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the DES, the scale was completed by 175 participants with and without severe depressive symptoms in an online survey. Participants additionally completed the Patient Health Questionnaire modules for depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7). People experiencing depressive symptoms were informed about the study with the help of self-help organizations. Reliability analyses indicated excellent internal consistency of the scale. An exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors: social rejection, social support, mood regulation, and ability to perform. The DES sum score strongly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. The DES sum score also significantly correlated with symptoms of generalized anxiety. The DES was shown to have excellent reliability; validity analyses were promising. As the DES items are situation-specific and falsifiable, they can be tested by the individual using behavioural experiments and may therefore facilitate cognitive restructuring. Thus, a structured assessment of patients' expectation with help of the DES can provide a basis for interventions within cognitive-behavioural treatment of depression. Assessing situation-specific expectations in patients experiencing depressive symptoms can provide a basis for the conduction of behavioural experiments to test patients' expectations. For the use of behavioural experiments, therapists should choose those dysfunctional expectations which a patient strongly agrees on. To modify patients' expectations, they

  6. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eSiller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT, in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate, and reaction times. The participants (n=154 were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full or without replacement (pseudo and were either presented category-wise (cat or regardless of categories (nocat. To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment.

  7. When appearance does not match accent: neural correlates of ethnicity-related expectancy violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karolina; Steffens, Melanie C; Rakic, Tamara; Wiese, Holger

    2017-03-01

    Most research on ethnicity in neuroscience and social psychology has focused on visual cues. However, accents are central social markers of ethnicity and strongly influence evaluations of others. Here, we examine how varying auditory (vocal accent) and visual (facial appearance) information about others affects neural correlates of ethnicity-related expectancy violations. Participants listened to standard German and Turkish-accented speakers and were subsequently presented with faces whose ethnic appearance was either congruent or incongruent to these voices. We expected that incongruent targets (e.g. German accent/Turkish face) would be paralleled by a more negative N2 event-related brain potential (ERP) component. Results confirmed this, suggesting that incongruence was related to more effortful processing of both Turkish and German target faces. These targets were also subjectively judged as surprising. Additionally, varying lateralization of ERP responses for Turkish and German faces suggests that the underlying neural generators differ, potentially reflecting different emotional reactions to these targets. Behavioral responses showed an effect of violated expectations: German-accented Turkish-looking targets were evaluated as most competent of all targets. We suggest that bringing together neural and behavioral measures of expectancy violations, and using both visual and auditory information, yields a more complete picture of the processes underlying impression formation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Relationships between expected, online and remembered enjoyment for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric

    2014-03-01

    How enjoyable a food product is remembered to be is likely to shape future choice. The present study tested the influence that expectations and specific moments during consumption experiences have on remembered enjoyment for food products. Sixty-four participants consumed three snack foods (savoury, sweet and savoury-sweet) and rated expected and online enjoyment for each product. Twenty-four hours later participants rated remembered enjoyment and future expected enjoyment for each product. Remembered enjoyment differed to online enjoyment for two of the three products, resulting in the foods being remembered as less enjoyable than they actually were. Both expected enjoyment and specific moments during the consumption experience (e.g. the least enjoyable mouthful) influenced remembered enjoyment. However, the factors that shaped remembered enjoyment were not consistent across the different food products. Remembered enjoyment was also shown to be a better predictor of future expected enjoyment than online enjoyment. Remembered enjoyment is likely to influence choice behaviour and can be discrepant to actual enjoyment. Specific moments during a consumption experience can have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment (whilst others are neglected), but the factors that determine which moments influence remembered enjoyment are unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smooth paths of conditional expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Andruchow, Esteban; Larotonda, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a von Neumann algebra with a finite trace $\\tau$, represented in $H=L^2(A,\\tau)$, and let $B_t\\subset A$ be sub-algebras, for $t$ in an interval $I$. Let $E_t:A\\to B_t$ be the unique $\\tau$-preserving conditional expectation. We say that the path $t\\mapsto E_t$ is smooth if for every $a\\in A$ and $v \\in H$, the map $$ I\

  10. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  11. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  12. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  13. Total and free testosterone concentrations are strongly influenced by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and diabetes-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mousumi; Hampton, David; Newcombe, Robert G; Rees, D Aled

    2012-05-01

    Testosterone levels are commonly lowered in men with diabetes, but it is unclear how these relate to symptoms of hypogonadism and quality of life. We sought to investigate the relationship between testosterone levels, symptoms of androgen deficiency, erectile function and quality of life in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional study of 115 men with type 2 diabetes, 93 men with type 1 diabetes and 121 healthy controls. Total, bioavailable and free testosterone levels were measured or calculated by Vermuelen's formula. Quality of life and symptom scores were assessed by the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), androgen deficiency in the aging male (ADAM) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. Forty-five and sixty-one per cent of men with type 2 diabetes had low total and calculated free testosterone (CFT) levels, respectively. Total testosterone (TT) levels were not lowered in men with type 1 diabetes, but 32% had low CFT. After adjustment for age and waist circumference, only CFT in men with type 2 diabetes (-0·037 nm, 95% CI -0·075 to -0·0003, P = 0.048) remained lowered compared with controls. CFT correlated weakly with ADAM (r = -0·26, 95% CI -0.42 to -0·08, P = 0·006), IIEF (r = 0.19, 95% CI 0.01-0.37, P = 0.042) and ADDQoL (r = 0.21, 95% CI 0·03 to 0·38, P = 0·022) scores in men with type 2, but not type 1 diabetes. Age exerted the predominant effect on erectile function in both groups, in a model incorporating age, testosterone level and complications. Testosterone levels are strongly affected by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and erectile function. Testosterone levels do not appear to be a major determinant of quality of life in patients with diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Deletion of the genes encoding the MtrA-MtrB two-component system of Corynebacterium glutamicum has a strong influence on cell morphology, antibiotics susceptibility and expression of genes involved in osmoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möker, Nina; Brocker, Melanie; Schaffer, Steffen; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne; Bott, Michael

    2004-10-01

    The MtrAB two-component signal transduction system is highly conserved in sequence and genomic organization in Mycobacterium and Corynebacterium species, but its function is completely unknown. Here, the role of MtrAB was studied with C. glutamicum as model organism. In contrast to M. tuberculosis, it was possible to delete the mtrAB genes in C. glutamicum. The mutant cells showed a radically different cell morphology and were more sensitive to penicillin, vancomycin and lysozyme but more resistant to ethambutol. In order to identify the molecular basis for this pleiotropic phenotype, the mRNA profiles of mutant and wild type were compared with DNA microarrays. Three genes showed a more than threefold increased RNA level in the mutant, i.e. mepA (NCgl2411) encoding a putative secreted metalloprotease, ppmA (NCgl2737 ) encoding a putative membrane-bound protease modulator, and lpqB encoding a putative lipoprotein of unknown function. Expression of plasmid-encoded mepA in Escherichia coli led to elongated cells that were hypersensitive to an osmotic downshift, supporting the idea that peptidoglycan is the target of MepA. The mRNA level of two genes was more than fivefold decreased in the mutant, i.e. betP and proP which encode transporters for the uptake of betaine and proline respectively. The microarray results were confirmed by primer extension and RNA dot blot experiments. In the latter, the transcript level of genes involved in osmoprotection was tested before and after an osmotic upshift. The mRNA level of betP, proP and lcoP was strongly reduced or undetectable in the mutant, whereas that of mscL (mechanosensitive channel) was increased. The changes in cell morphology, antibiotics susceptibility and the mRNA levels of betP, proP, lcoP, mscL and mepA could be reversed by expression of plasmid-encoded copies of mtrAB in the DeltamtrAB mutant, confirming that these changes occurred as a consequence of the mtrAB deletion.

  15. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2017-01-01

    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  16. Expectation of success for the PNQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dagostin Bilessimo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work searchs to develop an instrument to diagnosis the expectation of success of the small Brazilian company. Approach PNQ (Prêmio Nacional da Qualidade is used as reference. First, a questionnaire was created, with simple and current language for the partner-controlling, that generate a punctuation in the end of the application, facilitating the identification of strong points and chances of improvement for the company in question. A applicatory one for this questionnaire elaborated From the application of the considered model was developed previously, the owner of small busines has a diagnosis of its management, serving of base for its strategical planning, route the continuous improvement. Key-words: PNQ, Smal Busines, Diagnosis.

  17. Compactons in strongly nonlinear lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Ahnert, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, we study wave phenomena in strongly nonlinear lattices. Such lattices are characterized by the absence of classical linear waves. We demonstrate that compactons – strongly localized solitary waves with tails decaying faster than exponential – exist and that they play a major role in the dynamics of the system under consideration. We investigate compactons in different physical setups. One part deals with lattices of dispersively coupled limit cycle oscillators which find ...

  18. Experienced and potential medical tourists' service quality expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, Michael; Scott, Jeannie J; Vequist, David G

    2013-01-01

    The paper's aim is to compare experienced and potential US medical tourists' foreign health service-quality expectations. Data were collected via an online survey involving 1,588 US consumers engaging or expressing an interest in medical tourism. The sample included 219 experienced and 1,369 potential medical tourists. Respondents completed a SERVQUAL questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine significant differences between experienced and potential US medical tourists' service-quality expectations. For all five service-quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) experienced medical tourists had significantly lower expectations than potential medical tourists. Experienced medical tourists also had significantly lower service-quality expectations than potential medical tourists for 11 individual SERVQUAL items. Results suggest using experience level to segment medical tourists. The study also has implications for managing medical tourist service-quality expectations at service delivery point and via external marketing communications. Managing medical tourists' service quality expectations is important since expectations can significantly influence choice processes, their experience and post-consumption behavior. This study is the first to compare experienced and potential US medical tourist service-quality expectations. The study establishes a foundation for future service-quality expectations research in the rapidly growing medical tourism industry.

  19. Self-Averaging Expectation Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Opper, Manfred; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    We investigate the problem of approximate inference using Expectation Propagation (EP) for large systems under some statistical assumptions. Our approach tries to overcome the numerical bottleneck of EP caused by the inversion of large matrices. Assuming that the measurement matrices...... are realizations of specific types of random matrix ensembles – called invariant ensembles – the EP cavity variances have an asymptotic self-averaging property. They can be pre-computed using specific generating functions which do not require matrix inversions. We demonstrate the performance of our approach...

  20. Can we forecast farmers' yields? The relationships between rainfall variability, farmers' expectations, and actual yields in a tropical dryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z.; Tian, D.; Estes, L. D.; Evans, T. P.; Wood, E. F.; Caylor, K. K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate variability is one of the most important drivers of global crop yield variability. This is particularly true in dryland ecosystems, where vegetation dynamics, including agricultural production, are strongly shaped by both the pronounced seasonality of rainfall and its intra-seasonal distribution, both of which can exhibit substantial variability. This variability plays a key role not only in impacting end of season yields, but is also likely to influence farmers' expectations of final yields and thus their management decisions. Both these values are typically collected using farmer surveys, and their values influence higher-level policy decisions related to food security. It is unclear, however, whether farmers' expectations are shaped by the rainfall variables that most influence final yields, which has important ramifications for food security. In this study, we use agricultural survey data combined with a bias-corrected gridded meteorological forcing dataset to investigate the relationships between farmers' expected yields, end-of-season yields, and several different indices of seasonal rainfall and rainfall variability. We focus on Zambia, a country that relies heavily on smallholder agricultural production for the majority of its food production. Our goals are to identify which aspects of rainfall variability have the greatest influence on farmers' yield expectations, which have the greatest impact on actual yield, how well actual and expected yields are correlated with one another, and how these relationship differ throughout the country. Understanding these connections can help to improve seasonal crop yield forecasting and farmer decision-making, and thereby lead to improved food security policy in a region where rainfall variability is increasing.

  1. Diabetes is a strong predictor of mortality during tuberculosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment.......Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment....

  2. Parental expectations of maternal and child health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Lieve; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Lammertyn, Jan; Bouverne-De Bie, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on survey research (N = 1,418) aimed at examining whether parental expectations of maternal and child health (MCH) services are influenced by group characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], ethnicity, at risk of poverty) and/or individual parenting context variables (e.g., received social support) in a context where these services are available to all. The findings reveal that parents have different expectations about the technical and relational expertise of MCH nurses. However, the authors found only very weak associations between family characteristics and parental expectations, suggesting that individual differences matter more than SES and other more traditional distinctions. Implications for MCH services are made.

  3. The role of entrepreneurship education in career expectations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the role that entrepreneurship education plays in the career expectations of students. Although strong emphasis has been placed on entrepreneurship education in tertiary institutions since the early nineties, exposure to one course in entrepreneurship does not ensure entrepreneurial orientation or ...

  4. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are expected to play a more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are expected to play a more prominent role in the conservation of marine resources and fisheries management. Fishery scientists and international organizations, such as the. World Conservation Union, are strongly advocating the use of MPAs to conserve marine resources, to.

  5. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  6. [Expectations and patient satisfaction in hospitals: construction and application of an expectation-based experience typology and its use in the management of quality and expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrlach, Christoph; Güntert, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction (PS) surveys are frequently used evaluation methods to show performance from the customer's view. This approach has some fundamental deficits, especially with respect to theory, methodology and usage. Because of the significant theoretical value of the expectation confirmation/disconfirmation concept in the development of PS, an expectation-based experience typology has been developed and tested to check whether this approach could be a theoretical and practical alternative to the survey of PS. Due to the mainly cognitive-rational process of comparison between expectations and expectation fulfilment, it is easier to make changes in this stage of the process than in the subsequent stage of the development of PS that is mainly based on emotional-affective processes. The paper contains a literature review of the common concept of PS and its causal and influencing factors. Based on the theoretical part of this study, an expectation-based experience typology was developed. In the next step, the typology was subjected to exploratory testing, based on two patient surveys. In some parts of the tested typology explorative differences could be found between hospitals. Despite this rather more complex and unusual approach to expectation-based experience typology, this concept offers the chance to change conditions not only retrospectively (based on data), but also in a prospective way in terms of a "management of expectations". Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Do recovery expectations change over time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamper, S.J.; Kongsted, A.; Haanstra, T.M.; Hestbaek, L.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: While a considerable body of research has explored the relationship between patient expectations and clinical outcomes, few studies investigate the extent to which patient expectations change over time. Further, the temporal relationship between expectations and symptoms is not well

  8. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  9. Supernova forecast with strong lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Yudai

    2018-02-01

    In the coming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope era, we will observe O(100) of lensed supernovae (SNe). In this paper, we investigate the possibility for predicting time and sky position of an SN using strong lensing. We find that it will be possible to predict the time and position of the fourth image of SNe which produce four images by strong lensing, with combined information from the three previous images. It is useful to perform multimessenger observations of the very early phase of SN explosions including the shock breakout.

  10. On the role of consumer expectations in markets with network effects

    OpenAIRE

    Suleymanova, Irina; Wey, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of consumer expectations in a Hotelling model of price competition when products exhibit network effects. Expectations can be strong (stubborn), weak (price-sensitive) or partially stubborn (a mix of weak and strong). As a rule, the price-sensitivity of demand declines when expectations are more stubborn. An increase of stubbornness i) reduces competition, ii) increases (decreases) the parameter region with a unique duopoly equilibrium (multiple equilibria), iii) reduces t...

  11. <strong>On Determinism in Modal Transition Systemsstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretinsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a formalism which extends the classical notion of labelled transition systems by introducing transitions of two types: must transitions that have to be present in any implementation of the MTS and may transitions that are allowed but not required. The MTS framewo....... In the present article, we provide a comprehensive account of the MTS framework in the deterministic setting. We study a number of problems previously considered on MTS and point out to what extend we can expect better results under the restriction of determinism....

  12. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  13. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  14. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting ... representation for the two-point functions, anticipating the QCD sum rules. The latter are obtained ... resentation of SU(2)V. In particular, if they belong to the adjoint (triplet) representation, such as the vector and ...

  15. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules.

  16. Strong gravitational lensing with SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, LVE; Browne, IWA; Jackson, NJ

    2004-01-01

    The advent of new observational facilities in the last two decades has allowed the rapid discovery and high-resolution optical imaging of many strong lens systems from galaxy to cluster scales, as well as their spectroscopic follow-up. Radio telescopes have played the dominant role in the systematic

  17. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  18. Main factors of megalopolis citizens’ life expectancy (example of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Novoselova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes mortality rate, life expectancy and self-preservation behavior of the Russian population. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of these indicators in Moscow. The author analyzes and explains the differences in life expectancy between Muscovites and residents of other regions. The article shows that despite the environmental problems, levels of noise and stress, chaotic rhythm of life, life expectancy in Moscow is the highest in the country. The analysis also demonstrates indicators of life expectancy in different administrative districts of the capital. The correlation is discovered between education, material wealth, social status and life expectancy. The statistical data is given which characterizes the mortality rate and life expectancy of the population of Moscow and underlines the main trends. Author considers that one of the key factors influencing the life expectancy is the positive side of self-preservation behavior of the population, focus on a healthy lifestyle. The article examines the impact on mortality and life expectancy indicators such as the percentage of smokers among the population and the level of alcohol consumption.

  19. Strong CP Problem with $10^{32}$ Standard Model Copies

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2008-01-01

    We show that a recently proposed solution to the Hierarchy Problem simultaneously solves the Strong CP Problem, without requiring an axion or any further new physics. Consistency of black hole physics implies a non-trivial relation between the number of particle species and particle masses, so that with ~10^{32} copies of the standard model, the TeV scale is naturally explained. At the same time, as shown here, this setup predicts a typical expected value of the strong-CP parameter in QCD of theta ~ 10^{-9}. This strongly motivates a more sensitive measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment.

  20. Age-dependent decline of endogenous pain control: exploring the effect of expectation and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Grashorn

    Full Text Available Although chronic pain affects all age ranges, it is particularly common in the elderly. One potential explanation for the high prevalence of chronic pain in the older population is impaired functioning of the descending pain inhibitory system which can be studied in humans using conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigms. In this study we investigated (i the influence of age on CPM and (ii the role of expectations, depression and gender as potential modulating variables of an age-related change in CPM. 64 healthy volunteers of three different age groups (young = 20-40 years, middle-aged = 41-60 years, old = 61-80 years were studied using a classical CPM paradigm that combined moderate heat pain stimuli to the right forearm as test stimuli (TS and immersion of the contralateral foot into ice water as the conditioning stimulus (CS. The CPM response showed an age-dependent decline with strong CPM responses in young adults but no significant CPM responses in middle-aged and older adults. These age-related changes in CPM responses could not be explained by expectations of pain relief or depression. Furthermore, changes in CPM responses did not differ between men and women. Our results strongly support the notion of a genuine deterioration of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms with age.

  1. Late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: genotype strongly influences phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauschka, H.; Colsch, B.; Baumann, N.; Wevers, R.A.; Schmidbauer, M.; Krammer, M.; Turpin, J.C.; Lefevre, M.; Olivier, C.; Tardieu, S.; Krivit, W.; Moser, H.; Moser, A.; Gieselmann, V.; Zalc, B.; Cox, T.; Reuner, U.; Tylki-Szymanska, A.; Aboul-Enein, F.; LeGuern, E.; Bernheimer, H.; Berger, J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: P426L and I179S are the two most frequent mutations in juvenile and adult metachromatic leukodystrophy (late-onset MLD), which, in contrast to infantile MLD, show marked phenotypic heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: To search for genotype-phenotype correlations in late-onset MLD. METHODS: The

  2. Notes on Kalkoti: A Shina Language with Strong Kohistani Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Liljegren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some novel and hard-to-access data from Kalkoti, an Indo-Aryan language spoken in northern Pakistan. The particular focus is on showing how this Shina variety in a relatively short time span has drifted apart from its closest known genealogical relatives and undergone significant linguistic convergence with a Kohistani variety in whose vicinity Kalkoti is presently spoken. Among other features, we explore what seems like an ongoing process of tonogenesis as well as structural ?copying? in the realm of tense and aspect.

  3. Subluminal and superluminal pulse propagation influenced by strong nonlinear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zengguang; Qi, Yihong; Niu, Yueping; Zhang, Jingtao; Gong, Shangqing

    2012-12-01

    A scheme is proposed for control of pulse propagation from subluminal to superluminal in a four-level Λ-type atomic system. With the relatively intense probe laser and the appropriate detuning of control field, the medium exhibits much lower absorption in the spectral ranges where the dispersion changes from normal to abnormal in the double electromagnetically induced transparency system than in the single electromagnetically induced transparency system. The transmission intensity can be enhanced by several times for the subluminal pulse propagation and by several orders of magnitude for the superluminal pulse propagation without the large distortion in the former compared with those in the latter. We attribute the dramatic absorption reduction to the enhanced nonlinear effects.

  4. Strong biotic influences on regional patterns of climate regulation services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serna-Chavez, H.M.; Swenson, N.G.; Weiser, M.D.; van Loon, E.E.; Bouten, W.; Davidson, M.D.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate regulation services from forests are an important leverage in global-change mitigation treaties. Like most ecosystem services, climate regulation is the product of various ecological phenomena with unique spatial features. Elucidating which abiotic and biotic factors relate to spatial

  5. Harm expectancy violation during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleine, Rianne A; Hendriks, Lotte; Becker, Eni S; Broekman, Theo G; van Minnen, Agnes

    2017-06-01

    Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of harm expectancies is a crucial mechanism of action in exposure therapy. But to date, changes in harm expectancies have not been examined during exposure therapy in PTSD. The goal of the current study was to examine harm expectancy violation as mechanism of change in exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients (N=50, 44 female) with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD received intensive exposure therapy. Harm expectancies, harm experiences and subjective units of distress (SUDs) were assessed at each imaginal exposure session, and PTSD symptoms were assessed pre- and posttreatment with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Results showed that harm expectancies were violated within and strongly declined in-between exposure therapy sessions. However, expectancy violation was not related to PTSD symptom change. Fear habituation measures were moderately related to PTSD symptom reductions. In line with theory, exposure therapy promotes expectancy violation in PTSD patients, but this is not related to exposure therapy outcome. More work is warranted to investigate mechanisms of change during exposure therapy in PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in disability-free life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess trends in Disability-Free Life Expectancy, in life expectancy with disabilities according to levels of severity and in Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2000. Method: The disability-free life expectancy, a composite population health status

  7. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  8. The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety, expected satiation and premeal planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Unlike energy expenditure, energy intake occurs during discrete events: snacks and meals. The prevailing view is that meal size is governed by physiological and psychological events that promote satiation towards the end of a meal. This review explores an alternative and perhaps controversial proposition. Specifically that satiation plays a secondary role, and that meal size (kJ) is controlled by decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Recently, techniques have been developed that enable us to quantify 'expected satiation' and 'expected satiety' (respectively, the fullness and the respite from hunger that foods are expected to confer). When compared on a kJ-for-kJ basis, these expectations differ markedly across foods. Moreover, in self-selected meals, these measures are remarkably good predictors of the energy content of food that ends up on our plate, even more important than palatability. Expected satiation and expected satiety are influenced by the physical characteristics of a food (e.g. perceived volume). However, they are also learned. Indeed, there is now mounting evidence for 'expected-satiation drift', a general tendency for a food to have higher expected satiation as it increases in familiarity. Together, these findings show that important elements of control (discrimination and learning/adaptation) are clearly evident in plans around portion size. Since most meals are eaten in their entirety, understanding the nature of these controls should be given high priority.

  9. STRONG FIELD PHYSICS WITH MID INFRARED LASERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POGORELSKY,I.V.

    2001-08-27

    Mid-infrared gas laser technology promises to become a unique tool for research in strong-field relativistic physics. The degree to which physics is relativistic is determined by a ponderomotive potential. At a given intensity, a 10 {micro}m wavelength CO{sub 2} laser reaches a 100 times higher ponderomotive potential than the 1 {micro}m wavelength solid state lasers. Thus, we can expect a proportional increase in the throughput of such processes as laser acceleration, x-ray production, etc. These arguments have been confirmed in proof-of-principle Thomson scattering and laser acceleration experiments conducted at BNL and UCLA where the first terawatt-class CO{sub 2} lasers are in operation. Further more, proposals for the 100 TW, 100 fs CO{sub 2} lasers based on frequency-chirped pulse amplification have been conceived. Such lasers can produce physical effects equivalent to a hypothetical multi-petawatt solid state laser. Ultra-fast mid-infrared lasers will open new routes to the next generation electron and ion accelerators, ultra-bright monochromatic femtosecond x-ray and gamma sources, allow to attempt the study of Hawking-Unruh radiation, and explore relativistic aspects of laser-matter interactions. We review the present status and experiments with terawatt-class CO{sub 2} lasers, sub-petawatt projects, and prospective applications in strong-field science.

  10. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  11. Educational Expectations and Media Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Missomelius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates themedia-supported educational resources that arecurrently under discussion, such as OERs and MOOCs. Considering the discursive connection between these formats, which is couched in terms of educational freedom and openness, the article’sthesis is that these are expectations which are placed on the media technologies themselves, andthen transferred to learning scenarios. To this end, the article will pursue such questions as: What are the learners, learning materials and learning scenarios allegedly free from or free for? What obstructive configurations should be omitted? To what extent are these characteristics which are of a nature to guaranteelearning processes in the context of lifelong learning or can these characteristics better be attributed to the media technologies themselves and the ways in which they are used? What advantages or new accentuations are promised by proponents of theeducation supplied by media technology? Which discourses provide sustenance for such implied “post-typographic educational ideals” (Giesecke 2001 and Lemke 1998? The importance to learners, teachers and decision-makers at educational institutions of being well informed as far as media is concerned is becoming increasingly apparent.

  12. CMS: Beyond all possible expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After having retraced the entire Standard Model up to the Top, the CMS collaboration is ready to go further and continue the success of what Guido Tonelli – its spokesperson – defines as a ‘magic year’. Things evolve fast at CMS, but scientists have taken up the challenge and are ready for the future.   ‘Enthusiasm’ is the word that best describes the feeling one gets when talking to Guido Tonelli. “In just a few months we have rediscovered the Standard Model and have gone even further by producing new results for cross-sections, placing new limits on the creation of heavy masses, making studies on the excited states of quarks, and seeking new resonances. We could not have expected so much such a short space of time. It’s fantastic”, he says. “We went through the learning phase very smoothly. Our detector was very quickly ready to do real physics and we were able to start to produce results almost ...

  13. Dynamical basis of intentions and expectations in a simple neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proekt, Alex; Brezina, Vladimir; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2004-06-01

    Selection of behavioral responses to external stimuli is strongly influenced by internal states, such as intentions and expectations. These internal states are often attributed to higher-order brain functions. Yet here we show that even in the simple feeding network of Aplysia, external stimuli do not directly specify which motor output is expressed; instead, the motor output is specified by the state of the network at the moment of stimulation. The history-dependence of this network state manifests itself in the same way as do intentions and expectations in the behavior of higher animals. Remarkably, we find that activity-dependent plasticity of a synapse within the network itself, rather than some higher-order network, mediates one important aspect of the change in the network state. Through this mechanism, changes in the network state become an automatic consequence of the generation of behavior. Altogether, our findings suggest that intentions and expectations may emerge within behavior-generating networks themselves from the plasticity of the very processes that generate the behavior.

  14. Rural Youth Expectations: A Selected Topics Bibliography of ERIC Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    One of a series on selected topics, this bibliography of resource materials and research findings is drawn from ERIC documents; the 42 citations on rural youth cover expectations and aspirations about education, occupation, residence, marriage, and procreation (several are historical change studies), and focus on such influences as race, sex,…

  15. Networks of Heterogeneous Expectations in an Asset Pricing Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarewicz, T.

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the effect of information networks on learning to forecast in an asset pricing market. Financial traders have heterogeneous price expectations, are influenced by friends and seem to be prone to herding. However, in laboratory experiments subjects use contrarian strategies.

  16. The expected number of road traffic casualties using stratified data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P. Stipdonk, H. & Ale, B.

    2014-01-01

    Road safety policy plans often require robust calculation of the expected number of road casualties in a certain target year. The relevance of such estimations should be measured by their power to influence and support safety policy makers. Thus, techniques to evaluate the safety developments and

  17. An Expectancy Theory Motivation Approach to Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Barry A.; Cox, Pamela L.; Maher, Larry E.

    2008-01-01

    Group projects are an important component of higher education, and the use of peer assessment of students' individual contributions to group projects has increased. The researchers employed an expectancy theory approach and an experimental design in a field setting to investigate conditions that influence students' motivation to rate their peers'…

  18. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  19. Electron Dynamics in Nanostructures in Strong Laser Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Matthias

    2014-09-11

    The goal of our research was to gain deeper insight into the collective electron dynamics in nanosystems in strong, ultrashort laser fields. The laser field strengths will be strong enough to extract and accelerate electrons from the nanoparticles and to transiently modify the materials electronic properties. We aimed to observe, with sub-cycle resolution reaching the attosecond time domain, how collective electronic excitations in nanoparticles are formed, how the strong field influences the optical and electrical properties of the nanomaterial, and how the excitations in the presence of strong fields decay.

  20. Status of Women in Society and Life Expectancy at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the status of women in society over life expectancy at birth. Based on the data of some of the socio-economic variables for 187 countries worldwide, collected by the United Nations within United Nations Development Programme – Human Development Report, we developed a regression model of life expectancy factors. Through empirical testing of the three hypotheses which refer to different aspects of the status of women in society, we found that the employment ratio between women and men has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth, which is, at least at first glance, unexpected. At the same time, the number of teenage births per 100 women aged 15–19 as well as gender inequality has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth.

  1. Political conditions and life expectancy in Europe, 1900-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-04-01

    The rise of life expectancy in Europe has been a very uneven process, both in time and space. This paper aims to identify instances in which major political conditions are likely to have influenced the rise of life expectancy, focusing on formation and dissolution of states and supranational blocs and on differences between political regimes (democratic vs. authoritarian non-communist and communist rule). Data on life expectancy, cause-specific mortality and political conditions were compiled from existing data sources. Possible relations between political conditions and life expectancy were studied by direct comparisons of changes in life expectancy in countries with different political conditions but similar starting levels of life expectancy. We found that formation and dissolution of states often went together with convergence and divergence of life expectancy, respectively, and that otherwise similar countries that did or did not become part of the Soviet bloc had distinctly different life expectancy trajectories. Democratically governed states had higher life expectancies than authoritarian states throughout the 20th century. The gap narrowed between 1920 and 1960 due to rapid catching up of infectious disease control in both non-communist and communist authoritarian states. It widened again after 1960 due to earlier and more rapid progress in democratic states against cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents and other causes of death that have become amenable to intervention. We conclude that the history of life expectancy in Europe contains many instances in which political conditions are likely to have had a temporary or more lasting impact on population health. This suggests that there is scope for further in-depth studies of the impact of specific political determinants on the development of population health in Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning to Learn: A Case for the Heterogeneous Expectations Hypothesis in Industrialized Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond W. Ng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A cobweb model is developed where the heterogeneous expectation hypothesis is examined. An agent’s heterogeneous expectation involves the development of a “higher ordered learning” process in which agents over time develop expectations that are consistent with rational expectations. In addition, as cob web models are production based systems, an agents’ heterogeneous expectations are influenced by a specialization of activities. The case of the industrialization of the U.S. hog-pork industry is used to illustrate the influence of these features on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of a modified cob-web model.

  3. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  4. [Regional life expectancy rankings : Methodological artefacts in population updates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Franziska; Annuß, Rolf; Kuhn, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    For the calculation of life expectancy on a regional level, data from the mortality statistics and population numbers are needed. The latter are derived from population censuses, which have to be undertaken every 10 years according to the EU regulation No. 763/2008. In Germany, the last census took place in 2011 (Census 2011). The current population numbers are calculated on the basis of the most recent population census (population update). Births, deaths, immigration and migration, in addition to other data, are taken into account in this calculation. However, with passing time since the last census, inaccuracies in population updates may increase, which can affect the value of life expectancy calculations.Based on the comparison of life expectancy rankings, the impact and extent of changing over from the 1987 to the more recent 2011 census for regional comparisons were examined in two parts of Germany, Bavaria and North Rhine-Westphalia. As expected, the results show that larger changes in the calculated life expectancy result from larger changes in population statistics. However, noteworthy changes in life expectancy rankings do not necessarily follow larger changes in the population numbers. Regional life expectancy rankings are potentially always influenced by inaccuracies in the underlying population statistics. This should be taken into account when interpreting such small-scale differences.

  5. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  6. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  7. Evidence-based management of nutrigenomics expectations and ELSIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Vural; Godard, Béatrice

    2007-08-01

    Nutrigenomics is a new application context for genomics technologies that focuses on the bidirectional study of genetic factors influencing host (individuals' or populations') response to diet and the effects of bioactive constituents in food on host genome and gene expression. Nutrigenomics is considered the next wave after pharmacogenomics for individualization of health interventions. However, relatively little attention has been given to the specific ethical-legal-social issues (ELSIs) and sociotechnical expectations raised by nutrigenomics research. Some of the ELSIs, such as ensuring privacy of genetic information and implications of genetic testing for health insurance and employment, may be shared across the continuum of genomic technology applications in human disease genetics, pharmacogenomics and nutrigenomics. However, there are certain aspects of nutrigenomics research that may result in unique or unprecedented ELSIs. For example, nutrigenomics has a strong focus on public health and the prevention/modification of 'predisease phenotypes' in apparently healthy individuals. Thus, in contrast to previous applications of genomics technologies, where the goal is to distinguish existing disease from absence of disease, the aim of nutrigenomics is the discernment of nuanced differences in predisease states. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that ELSIs may be different in biomarker discovery, translational research and clinical testing stages of nutrigenomics. Ideally, ELSI research and nutrigenomics bioscience should progress in parallel and in a commensurate manner. We suggest that qualitative research methods, using a hypothesis-free approach, can be employed to gain deeper insights on complex bioethics issues that do not ordinarily lend themselves to formal hypothesis testing with the quantitative methods used in biomedical sciences.

  8. Expectation vs Reality: Cosmopolitan and Insular Social Capital among Malaysian Chinese Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Chan Suet Kay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the form of social capital present among Malaysian Chinese youth, comparing across those who are Chinese-medium educated and English-medium educated. The reason for comparison is because of the dichotomy of Confucian values in Chinese-medium education and Western liberal democratic values in English-medium education, which may influence their choice of social network. Using a self-designed survey questionnaire, I assessed whether Putnam’s two forms of social capital, the bridging and the bonding social capital, are found in these two sub-ethnic groups. In terms of face-to-face interaction, it is found that ethnic identification remains a strong influence on respondents’ choice of social network. However, respondents also demonstrate an aspiration to network on a more global scale if facilitated by information communication technology. Given Malaysia’s present globalised environment, with strong migratory flows inside and outside, the reality of respondents’ social capital does not match the expectations respondents have of themselves. While they express a desire to network in a global nexus, in order to be more connected to the rest of the world, they are still restrained by attributes like ethnic identification and language preference.

  9. Attitudes to ageing and expectations for filial piety across Chinese and British cultures: a pilot exploratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Ken; Wang, DaHua; Coelho, Claudia; Power, Mick

    2010-04-01

    Filial piety (FP) is a central theme in Asian culture and is seen as care for one's parents as part of a traditional concept of Confucianism. Older people may hold strong expectations for FP from their children. Attitudes towards the experience of ageing may be influenced by how far one perceives their expectations to be met. A cross-sectional evaluation of expectation for FP and attitudes to ageing was undertaken in three different cultural groups--elderly Chinese immigrants living in the UK, Chinese older people living in Beijing and Scottish older people living in Scotland. There were significant differences between the three cultural groups on a standardized measure of attitudes to ageing on psychosocial loss, F(2, 127) = 28.20, p = 0.0005 and physical change, F(2, 127) = 67.60, p = 0.0005 domains of attitudes to ageing. With expectations for FP, the UK-born participants evidenced lower expectations than the two Chinese groups, who were very similar in their levels of expectation, F(2, 127) = 10.92, p = 0.0005. The study was the first of its kind to consider attitudes to ageing and expectations for FP across three cultural groups. Overall an interesting pattern of results emerged suggesting that both Chinese groups remain invested in the concept of FP, whereas the UK sample was not. In contrast, however, the Chinese immigrants and the UK participants were more similar in reporting attitudes to ageing than the Chinese participants who were more likely to endorse a loss-deficit view of ageing.

  10. Comparison of outcome expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, Kirstin J; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-07-01

    Although initially developed for medical purposes, synthetic cannabinoids have also been consumed for recreational purposes. To evaluate whether agreement with positive and negative outcome expectancies differed for synthetic cannabinoids versus botanical marijuana, and assess reported reasons for using synthetic cannabinoids. Using a web-based recruitment and data collection procedure, 186 adults who had used both synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana and 181 adults who had used botanical marijuana but not synthetic cannabinoids, completed measures of outcome expectancies and other relevant questionnaires. A significant interaction revealed that participants who had used both synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana indicated lower agreement with positive expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids, and higher agreement with positive expectancies for botanical marijuana, than did those participants who used only botanical marijuana. There was no interaction between type of drug and use history on agreement with negative expectancies, and participants agreed more strongly with negative outcome expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids than for botanical marijuana whether they had used one or both types of these drugs. The most frequently provided reasons for using synthetic cannabinoids included availability, perceived legality, cost, curiosity, and social interaction. Given growing public acceptance of recreational and medical marijuana, coupled with negative perceptions and increasing regulation of synthetic cannabinoid compounds, botanical marijuana is likely to remain more available and more popular than synthetic cannabinoids.

  11. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  12. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Chouchou

    Full Text Available The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers. Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1 placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2 pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3 REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  13. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  14. SARCS strong-lensing galaxy groups. II. Mass-concentration relation and strong-lensing bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foëx, G.; Motta, V.; Jullo, E.; Limousin, M.; Verdugo, T.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: Various studies have shown a lensing bias in the mass-concentration relation of cluster-scale structures that is the result of an alignment of the major axis and the line of sight. In this paper, we aim to study this lensing bias through the mass-concentration relation of galaxy groups, thus extending observational constraints to dark matter haloes of mass ~1013-1014 M⊙. Methods: Our work is based on the stacked weak-lensing analysis of a sample of 80 strong-lensing galaxy groups. By combining several lenses, we significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the lensing signal, thus providing constraints on the mass profile that cannot be obtained for individual objects. The resulting shear profiles were fitted with various mass models, among them the Navarro-Frank-White (NFW) profile, which provides an estimate of the total mass and of the concentration of the composite galaxy groups. Results: The main results of our analysis are the following: (i) the lensing signal does not allow us to firmly distinguish between a simple singular isothermal sphere mass distribution and the expected NFW mass profile; (ii) we obtain an average concentration c200 = 8.6-1.3+2.1 that is much higher than the value expected from numerical simulations for the corresponding average mass M200 = 0.73-0.10+0.11 × 1014 M⊙; (iii) the combination of our results with those at larger mass scales gives a mass-concentration relation c(M) of more than two decades in mass, whose slope disagrees with predictions from numerical simulations using unbiased populations of dark matter haloes; (iv) our combined c(M) relation matches results from simulations that only used haloes with a large strong-lensing cross-section, that is, elongated with a major axis close to the line of sight; (v) for the simplest case of prolate haloes, we estimate a lower limit on the minor-to-major axis ratio a/c = 0.5 for the average SARCS galaxy group with a toy model. Conclusions: Our analysis based on galaxy

  15. Of Hope, Fear and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2011-01-01

    The study explores how gender and differences in preferences affect subjective expectations among a group of students.......The study explores how gender and differences in preferences affect subjective expectations among a group of students....

  16. Experiments on Expectations in Macroeconomics and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, Tiziana; Bao, Te; Hommes, Cars; Massaro, Domenico; Duffy, John

    2014-01-01

    Expectations play a crucial role in finance, macroeconomics, monetary economics, and fiscal policy. In the last decade a rapidly increasing number of laboratory experiments have been performed to study individual expectation formation, the interactions of individual forecasting rules, and the

  17. Experiments on expectations in macroeconomics and finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Bao, T.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.; Duffy, J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations play a crucial role in finance, macroeconomics, monetary economics, and fiscal policy. In the last decade a rapidly increasing number of laboratory experiments have been performed to study individual expectation formation, the interactions of individual forecasting rules, and the

  18. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog Follow ACG on Twitter Patients ACG Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What to Expect During a Colonoscopy Prep. Sedation. Procedure. Post-Procedure. This new educational video for GI patients, produced by the ...

  19. Mortality hazard rates and life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Kaas, R.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the relation between mortality hazards and life expectancy for men and women in the Netherlands and in England. Halving the lifetime mortality hazards increases life expectancy at birth by only 9%.

  20. Health expectancy in Denmark, 1987-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    While life expectancy quantifies average length of life, health expectancy represents the average lifetime in different health states and offers the possibility to evaluate quality of life with respect to health. The purpose of the study was to estimate changes in health expectancy in Denmark from 1987 to 2000 and to assess theories about the relation between increased total lifetime and lifetime in various health states. Data on health status derived from the Danish Health Interview Surveys carried out in 1987, 1991, 1994 and 2000 were combined with life-table data. Expected lifetime in selfrated good health, life expectancy without longstanding illness and disabilityfree life expectancy were estimated by Sullivan's method. In 1987, the life expectancy of a 65-year-old man was 14.1 years, 8.9 years of which were expected to be disabilityfree. In 2000, life expectancy had increased to 15.0 years, 11.3 years of which were disabilityfree. Thus, life expectancy had increased by 0.9 years, whereas disabilityfree life expectancy had increased by 2.4 years. Among 65-year-old women, life expectancy had increased by 0.2 years and disabilityfree life expectancy by 1.1 years. Expected lifetime in selfrated good health had also improved, but the trend in life expectancy without longstanding illness went in the opposite direction, and expected lifetime with longstanding illness had increased. The recent rise in life expectancy in Denmark after many years of stagnation appears to be accompanied by generally improved health status among the elderly, but health expectancy trends depend on the health indicator chosen. Health expectancy expresses average lifetime in various states of health. The study examines changes in expected lifetime in selfrated good health, lifetime without longstanding illness and lifetime without longterm disability. Among 65-year-olds the percentage of disabilityfree life expectancy increased from 63.4% to 74.9% for men and from 55.6% to 61.0% for women

  1. Essays on subjective expectations and mortality trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters on two topics. The first topic, covered in chapter 2, 3, and 4, is about subjective expectations. Economists have long understood that expectations are important determinants of economic decisions. However, expectations are rarely observed. One way to overcome

  2. Do recovery expectations change over time?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Steven J; Kongsted, Alice; Haanstra, Tsjitske M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: While a considerable body of research has explored the relationship between patient expectations and clinical outcomes, few studies investigate the extent to which patient expectations change over time. Further, the temporal relationship between expectations and symptoms is not well rese...

  3. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  4. Smoking expands expected lifetime with musculoskeletal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    By indirect estimation of mortality from smoking and life table methods we estimated expected lifetime without musculoskeletal diseases among never smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. We found that although life expectancy of a heavy smoker is 7 years shorter than that of a never smoker, heavy...... smokers can expect to live more than 2 years longer with musculoskeletal diseases than never smokers....

  5. Expected utility and catastrophic consumption risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.

    2015-01-01

    An expected utility based cost-benefit analysis is, in general, fragile to distributional assumptions. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions on the utility function of consumption in the expected utility model to avoid this. The conditions ensure that expected (marginal) utility of

  6. Childbirth expectations and correlates at the final stage of pregnancy in Chinese expectant parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: This study adds to understanding of the childbirth expectations of Chinese expectant parents. It is suggested that maternity healthcare providers pay close attention to the childbirth expectations of expectant parents, and improve the nursing care service to promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction of expectant parents.

  7. Corresponding aspects of strong-field multiquantum processes and ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, K.; Gibson, G.; Jara, H.; Luk, T.S.; McIntyre, I.A.; McPherson, A.; Rosman, R.; Solem, J.C.; Rhodes, C.K. (Lab. for Atomic, Molecular, and Radiation Physics, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, P.O. Box 4348, Chicago, IL (US))

    1988-10-01

    Corresponding aspects of multiphoton processes and ion-atom collisions are explored. With a simple model, a set of relationships is derived which relate the radiative power, frequency, and pulse width governing multiphoton coupling to the corresponding variables of ion charge, collisional velocity, and impact parameter involved in collisional reactions. Comparisons of spectral data in the extreme ultraviolet region for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe produced by collisional excitation and subpicosecond ultraviolet laser irradiation indicate approximate conformance with the expectations stemming from this analysis. These results suggest that, for ultraviolet radiation, this approach may be useful in understanding the gross features of the strong-field multiquantum interaction over the range of intensity spanning from --10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/ to --10/sup 21/ W/cm/sup 2/. Collisional data on transfer ionization occurring in ion-atom collisions are also used to estimate the conditions under which multiphoton processes should be appreciably influenced by multielectron motions.

  8. Innovative Work Behavior: The Roles of Employee Expectations and Effects on Job Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Doerner Nadin

    2012-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the question of how innovative work behavior of employees affects their task performance and how managers can influence innovative work behavior. Two research models approach the question: research model I addresses how employee expectations influence innovative work behavior and how innovative work behavior relates to task performance. Research model II deals with the factors that influence the formation of expectations. Research model I investigates the roles ...

  9. The Jewish-Arab divide in life expectancy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Anson, Jon

    2005-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in Israel in 2001 was 77.7 years for males and 81.6 years for females among Jews, and 74.5 and 77.8 years for males and females, respectively, among Israeli Arabs. In spite of vast improvements in health conditions of the two populations since Israel's statehood in 1948, persistent disparities in life expectancy between the two groups have challenged the Israeli socialized health care system. These disparities are influenced primarily by differences between the two population groups in infant and child mortality rates. This early study suggests that the distribution of life expectancy across localities in Israel reflects the distribution of those localities' socio-economic condition index (not including health and medical care), and the distribution of medical services. The positive association between life expectancy and the index is pronounced, however, only within the Jewish population but not among Arabs. While there may be no significant difference in life expectancy among Jews and Arabs living in poorer communities, there are fewer Arabs living in relatively affluent communities. Thus, persistent higher concentration of poverty among Arabs than among Jews has sufficed to maintain the gap in life expectancy between them. In addition, however, there are population-specific effects: wealth and education are more protective among Jews than among Arabs, while medical services are more protective among Arabs.

  10. Circulating MicroRNAs and Life Expectancy Among Identical Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Scherler, Kelsey; Baxter, David; Wang, Kai; Krasnow, Ruth E; Reed, Terry; Dai, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Human life expectancy is influenced not only by longevity assurance mechanisms and disease susceptibility loci but also by the environment, gene-environment interactions, and chance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs closely related to genes. Circulating miRNAs have been shown as promising noninvasive biomarkers in the development of many pathophysiological conditions. However, the concentration of miRNA in the circulation may also be affected by environmental factors. We used a next-generation sequencing platform to assess the association of circulating miRNA with life expectancy, for which deaths are due to all causes independent of genes. In addition, we showed that miRNAs are present in 41-year archived plasma samples, which may be useful for both life expectancy and all-cause mortality risk assessment. Plasma miRNAs from nine identical male twins were profiled using next-generation sequencing. The average absolute difference in the minimum life expectancy was 9.68 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above 0.4 for 50% of miRNAs. Comparing deceased twins with their alive co-twin brothers, the concentrations were increased for 34 but decreased for 30 miRNAs. Identical twins discordant in life expectancy were dissimilar in the majority of miRNAs, suggesting that environmental factors are pivotal in miRNAs related to life expectancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  11. Conditioning 'fullness expectations' in a novel dessert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2009-06-01

    Calorie-for-calorie, foods differ considerably in the extent to which they are expected to deliver satiation. We sought to demonstrate that flavour-nutrient learning modifies these expectations. On day 1, participants (N=56) tasted a novel dessert and then completed a measure of expected satiation. Participants then consumed either a low (228 kcal) or high (568 kcal) energy-dense dessert (sensory characteristics matched). On day 2, expected satiation was assessed and then intake was measured using an intermediate energy-dense dessert. Expected satiation did increase but only in the high energy-dense condition (17.4%). This difference was not reflected in a measure of intake.

  12. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  13. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a ...

  14. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  15. Platinum Nanoparticles Strongly Bonded to Freestanding Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibado, Paul; Schoelz, J. K.; Ghosh, P. K.; Thompson, J.; Dong, L.; Neek-Amal, M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-03-01

    Freestanding graphene membranes were successfully functionalized with platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs). The membranes were imaged using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, revealing a homogeneous distribution of uniformly sized, single-crystal Pt NPs that exhibit a preferred orientation and nearest-neighbor distance. The Pt NPs were also found to be partially elevated by the graphene substrate, as deduced from atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images. Furthermore, the electrostatic force between the STM tip and sample was utilized to estimate the binding energy of the Pt NPs to the suspended graphene. Local strain accumulation due to strong sp3 bond formation is thought to be the origin of the Pt NP self-organization. Such detailed insight into the atomic nature of this functionalized system was only possible through the cooperation of dual microscopic techniques combined with molecular dynamics simulations. The findings are expected to shape future approaches to develop high-performance electronics based on nanoparticle-functionalized graphene as well as fuel cells using Pt NP catalysts. Financial support provided by the Office of Naval Research under Grant No. N00014-10-1-0181 and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-0855358.

  16. Expectation Formation and Monetary DSGE Models: Beyond the Rational Expectations Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Milani; Ashish Rajbhandari

    2012-01-01

    Empirical work in macroeconomics almost universally relies on the hypothesis of rational expectations. This paper departs from the literature by considering a variety of alternative expectations formation models. We study the econometric properties of a popular New Keynesian monetary DSGE model under different expectational assumptions: the benchmark case of rational expectations, rational expectations extended to allow for `news' about future shocks, near-rational expectations and learning, ...

  17. Strong deflection lensing by a Lee-Wick black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi

    2017-11-01

    We study strong deflection gravitational lensing by a Lee-Wick black hole, which is a non-singular black hole generated by a high derivative modification of Einstein-Hilbert action. The strong deflection lensing is expected to produce a set of relativistic images very closed to the event horizon of the black hole. We estimate its observables for the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center. It is found that the Lee-Wick black hole can be distinguished from the Schwarzschild black hole via such lensing effects when the UV scale is not very large, but the requiring resolution is much higher than current capability.

  18. Antibiotics for the common cold: expectations of Germany's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, M S; Heckenbach, K; Velasco, E; Eckmanns, T

    2010-09-02

    Physicians mention patients' expectations as a reason for prescribing antibiotics for common (viral) upper respiratory tract infections despite clinical evidence against their use and the physicians' better judgement. We aimed to assess the prevalence of such expectations and factors of influence (knowledge and attitudes) in Germany's general population. In November 2008, 1,778 persons registered with a large market research company were invited to complete an online questionnaire on expectations concerning prescription of antibiotics and on knowledge and attitudes regarding the effectiveness and use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. A total of 1,076 persons aged 15-78 years participated (response: 61%), of whom 91.8% reported using antibiotics 'only if absolutely necessary'. Prescription of antibiotics was expected by 113 (10.5%) of the 1,076 respondents for the common cold and by 997 (92.7%) for pneumonia. In a logistic regression analysis, predictors for expecting a prescription for antibiotics for the common cold included the following opinions: 'common cold or flu can effectively be treated with antibiotics' (prevalence: 37.6%; odds ratio (OR): 9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8 to 24.3) and 'antibiotics should be taken when having a sore throat to prevent more serious illness' (prevalence 8.6%; OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 3.9 to 14.5). Among those expecting a prescription (n=113), 80 (71%) reported that they would trust their physician when he or she deems a prescription unnecessary; a further eight (7%) would be unsatisfied, but would accept the decision. Our results suggest that only a minority expects antibiotics for the treatment of cold symptoms. Physicians should be educated that their decisions not to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold, even when against patients' expectations, are apparently accepted by the majority.

  19. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  20. Exposing therapists to trauma-focused treatment in psychosis: effects on credibility, expected burden, and harm expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. G. van den Berg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite robust empirical support for the efficacy of trauma-focused treatments, the dissemination proves difficult, especially in relation to patients with comorbid psychosis. Many therapists endorse negative beliefs about the credibility, burden, and harm of such treatment. Objective: This feasibility study explores the impact of specialized training on therapists’ beliefs about trauma-focused treatment within a randomized controlled trial. Method: Therapist-rated (n=16 credibility, expected burden, and harm expectancies of trauma-focused treatment were assessed at baseline, post-theoretical training, post-technical training, post-supervised practical training, and at 2-year follow-up. Credibility and burden beliefs of therapists concerning the treatment of every specific patient in the trial were also assessed. Results: Over time, therapist-rated credibility of trauma-focused treatment showed a significant increase, whereas therapists’ expected burden and harm expectancies decreased significantly. In treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in patients with psychotic disorders (n=79, pre-treatment symptom severity was not associated with therapist-rated credibility or expected burden of that specific treatment. Treatment outcome had no influence on patient-specific credibility or burden expectancies of therapists. Conclusions: These findings support the notion that specialized training, including practical training with supervision, has long-term positive effects on therapists’ credibility, burden, and harm beliefs concerning trauma-focused treatment.

  1. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  2. Mechanism and Simulation of Generating Pulsed Strong Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Chuang; Deng, Ai-Dong; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Luo, Hao

    2014-10-01

    A strong magnetic field (over 1000 T) was recently experimentally produced at the Academy of Engineering Physics in China. The theoretical methods, which include a simple model and MHD code, are discussed to investigate the physical mechanism and dynamics of generating the strong magnetic field. The analysis and simulation results show that nonlinear magnetic diffusion contributes less as compared to the linear magnetic diffusion. This indicates that the compressible hydrodynamic effect and solid imploding compression may have a large influence on strong magnetic field generation.

  3. Marital and birth expectations of urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Zabin, L S

    1993-09-01

    The formation of attitudes conducive to pregnancy prevention is usually included in the development of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs. This research examines the marital and birth expectations among 3646 adolescents enrolled in grades 7-12 in four inner city schools in 1981-82 in the US. The aim is to assess adolescents' perceptions of life experiences in their social environment, which reveal their beliefs about the social acceptability of birth after marriage. Two of the schools had entirely Black student populations, and two for comparison purposes had a mixed student population comprised of 33% Black students. Results reveal that Blacks reported a higher age for marriage and a lower age of first birth than Whites. Blacks had a lower mean ideal age of first birth than for marriage, while White had a lower mean age of marriage than for first birth. 59.1% of Black teenage females and 55% of Black teenage males reported a first birth ideal less than the marriage age, while 20.4% of White teenage females and 21.1% of White teenage males did so. A comparative graph shows Whites having in-wedlock births around 21 years of age and Blacks having in-wedlock births at 26 years of age. The analysis of the best age of marriage regressed on the best age at first birth indicates that the slopes are parallel, and there is no significant difference between Black and White attitudes. Blacks had an ideal marriage age of about two years later than Whites. In the comparison of survey responses to vital statistics data on legitimacy of first births in Baltimore in 1980, it appears that there is a close correspondence between actual out-of-wedlock status of first births and female adolescent attitudes. This study's findings suggest that both Blacks and Whites expect early births to be premarital and later births to be postmarital. Adolescent experiences affect their perceptions, and teenagers' perceptions are fairly realistic. The interpretation of findings is that Black

  4. Controllability and hippocampal activation during pain expectation in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Roldán, Ana María; Bomba, Isabelle C; Diesch, Eugen; Montoya, Pedro; Flor, Herta; Kamping, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    To examine the role of perceived control in pain perception, fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls participated in a reaction time experiment under different conditions of pain controllability. No significant differences between groups were found in pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings. However, during the expectation of uncontrollable pain, patients compared to controls showed higher hippocampal activation. In addition, hippocampal activity during the pain expectation period predicted activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus and hippocampus during pain stimulation in fibromyalgia patients. The increased activation of the hippocampus during pain expectation and subsequent activation of the PCC/precuneus during the lack of control phase points towards an influence of pain perception through heightening of alertness and anxiety responses to pain in fibromyalgia patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Decolonization and life expectancy in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Soraya P A; van Oers, Hans A M; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-12-01

    Decolonization has brought political independence to half the Caribbean states in the last half of the 20th century, while the other states remain affiliated. Previous studies suggested a beneficial impact of affiliated status on population health, which may be mediated by more favorable economic development. We assessed how disparities in life expectancy between currently sovereign and affiliated states developed over time, whether decolonization coincided with changes in life expectancy, and whether decolonization coincided with similar changes in GDP per capita. Time-series data on life expectancy and related variables, GDP per capita and political status were collected from harmonized databases. We quantified variations in life expectancy by current political status during the 1950-2010 period. We assessed whether decolonization coincided with life expectancy trend changes by: 1. calculating the annual changes before and after independence, and 2. evaluating trend breaks in a predefined period during decolonization using joinpoint analyses. Similar analyses were undertaken for GDP per capita. Life expectancy in currently sovereign Caribbean states was already lower than in affiliated states before political independence. Overall, decolonization coincided with reductions in life expectancy growth, but not with reductions in economic growth, and changes in life expectancy growth in the decade after independence did not correspond with changes in economic performance. The widening of the life expectancy gap between currently sovereign and affiliated states accelerated in the 1990's and continues to increase. Despite considerable life expectancy gains in all Caribbean states, life expectancy in currently sovereign states increasingly lags behind that of states which remained affiliated. Our results indicate that changing economic conditions were not the main determinant of the unfavorable trends in life expectancy during and after decolonization. Circumstantial

  6. The Activation of Reward Versus Relief Gambling Outcome Expectancies in Regular Gamblers: Relations to Gambling Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Melissa; Collins, Pamela; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-12-01

    Gambling outcome expectancies refer to the anticipated outcomes that gamblers expect will occur from gambling (i.e., learned memory associations between gambling cues, behavior, and outcomes). Unlike previous approaches to gambling outcome expectancies that have predominantly focused on the valence of outcome expectancies (positive vs. negative), the present study investigated two specific types of positive gambling outcome expectancies: reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. Specifically, the primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether gambling prime exposure activates different types of positive gambling outcome expectancies in enhancement- versus coping-motivated gamblers. Fifty adult, community-recruited regular gamblers performed a reaction time (RT) task and completed a self-report expectancy scale, both designed to assess reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. They also completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (Stewart and Zack in Addiction 103:1110-1117 2008) to assess their levels of coping and enhancement motives for gambling. As hypothesized, reward gambling outcome expectancies were more strongly activated by gambling prime exposure than relief outcome expectancies on the RT task for gamblers with high enhancement motives. On the self-report expectancy measure, high enhancement-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger reward gambling outcome expectancies than low enhancement-motivated gamblers, and high coping-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger relief gambling outcome expectancies than low coping-motivated gamblers. Results suggest that automatic activation of reward gambling outcome expectancies is particularly strong for high enhancement-motivated gamblers. Possible reasons for the failure to observe an association between coping gambling motives and automatic relief gambling outcome expectancies are discussed.

  7. Strong ground motion from the michoacan, Mexico, earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J G; Bodin, P; Brune, J N; Prince, J; Singh, S K; Quaas, R; Onate, M

    1986-09-05

    The network of strong motion accelerographs in Mexico includes instruments that were installed, under an international cooperative research program, in sites selected for the high potenial of a large earthquake. The 19 September 1985 earthquake (magnitude 8.1) occurred in a seismic gap where an earthquake was expected. As a result, there is an excellent descripton of the ground motions that caused the disaster.

  8. STIR: Novel Electronic States by Gating Strongly Correlated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    techniques and learned to apply thin hexagonal Boron Nitride to single crystals of materials expected to show some of the most exciting correlated...Equivalent: Total Number: NAME Total Number: NAME Total Number: PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: ...... ...... Inventions (DD882...understood landscape of phases . The physics of strongly-correlated materials is at the heart of some of the most important current problems in condensed

  9. The Double Pulsar: Timing and Strong-Field Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Ingrid H.; Kramer, Michael; Burgay, Marta; Ferdman, Robert D.; Freire, Paulo; Lorimer, Duncan; Lyne, Andrew; Manchester, Richard N.; McLaughlin, Maura; Possenti, Andrea; Sarkissian, John; Wex, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The double pulsar is a highly relativistic system in which both neutron stars are known to be radio pulsars. As expected from binary evolutionary theory, one pulsar is recycled and the other young. This binary provides the most stringent tests of strong-field relativistic gravity to date and offers the prospect of entirely new tests. We present updated timing results from this unique system, derived in large part from sensitive observations with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope.

  10. Aerosol Radiative Effects: Expected Variations in Optical Depth Spectra and Climate Forcing, with Implications for Closure Experiment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Philip B.; Stowe, L. L.; Hobbs, P. V.; Podolske, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We examine measurement strategies for reducing uncertainties in aerosol direct radiative forcing by focused experiments that combine surface, air, and space measurements. Particularly emphasized are closure experiments, which test the degree of agreement among different measurements and calculations of aerosol properties and radiative effects. By combining results from previous measurements of large-scale smokes, volcanic aerosols, and anthropogenic aerosols with models of aerosol evolution, we estimate the spatial and temporal variability in optical depth spectra to be expected in the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX, planned for summer 1996 off the Eastern U.S. seaboard). In particular, we examine the expected changes in the wavelength dependence of optical depth as particles evolve through nucleation, growth by condensation and coagulation, and removal via sedimentation. We then calculate the expected radiative climate forcing (i.e. change in net radiative flux) for typical expected aerosols and measurement conditions (e.g. solar elevations, surface albedos, radiometer altitudes). These calculations use new expressions for flux and albedo changes, which account not only for aerosol absorption, but also for instantaneous solar elevation angles and the dependence of surface albedo on solar elevation. These factors, which are usually ignored or averaged in calculations of global aerosol effects, can have a strong influence on fluxes measured in closure experiments, and hence must be accounted for in calculations if closure is to be convincingly tested. We compare the expected measurement signal to measurement uncertainties expected for various techniques in various conditions. Thereby we derive recommendations for measurement strategies that combine surface, airborne, and spaceborne measurements.

  11. Weight-Loss Expectancies, Relative Weight, and Symptoms of Bulimia in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A canonical correlation analysis of various weight concerns in a sample of college women revealed that strong expectations of weight loss benefits and a high relative body weight were positively correlated with the four major symptoms of bulimia. Expectations of increased self-worth and social confidence were linked to eating problems. (RJM)

  12. Insight into the Chemistry Skills Gap: The Duality between Expected and Desired Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Anne E.; Fair, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    Results from an employer survey that examines the skills gap that exists for students majoring in chemistry are presented. Employers expect candidates with technical abilities but desire those who possess strong interprofessional skills. Although employers do not expect students to have had explicit teaching and application of interprofessional…

  13. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....

  14. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  15. Stakeholder expectations : conceptual foundations and empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Olkkonen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Expectations are an inseparable part of interaction, whether in interpersonal, intragroup, or organization–stakeholder relations. As a concept, expectations appear frequently in the public relations literature, yet definitions are scarce or narrow. This thesis contributes to the conceptual and empirical understanding of expectations in the context of organization–stakeholder relations and, more specifically, studies how organizations translate their societal roles and how st...

  16. On the evaluation of marginal expected shortfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the analysis of systemic risk, Marginal Expected Shortfall may be considered to evaluate the marginal impact of a single stock on the market Expected Shortfall. These quantities are generally computed using log-returns, in particular when there is also a focus on returns conditional distribution....... In this case, the market log-return is only approximately equal to the weighed sum of equities log-returns. We show that the approximation error is large during turbulent market phases, with a subsequent impact on Marginal Expected Shortfall. We then suggest how to improve the evaluation of Marginal Expected...

  17. Pressurizing the STEM Pipeline: an Expectancy-Value Theory Analysis of Youths' STEM Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Cotten, Shelia R.; Rikard, R. V.

    2017-08-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a strong national push to increase minority students' positive attitudes towards STEM-related careers. However, despite this focus, minority students have remained underrepresented in these fields. Some researchers have directed their attention towards improving the STEM pipeline which carries students through our educational system and into STEM careers. Previous research has shown that expectancy-value theory (EVT) is useful for examining the short-term as well as long-term academic motivations and intentions of elementary age minority students. These findings provide insights into ways we may be able to potentially "patch" particular STEM pipeline leaks. In the current study, we advance this research by using EVT as a framework to examine the STEM attitudes of young students directly. We hypothesize that students' academic-related expectancies for success and subjective task values will be associated with an increase in STEM attitudes. Data for this study was gathered over the course of a large-scale computing intervention which sought to increase students' STEM interest. This computing intervention took place in an urban elementary school district located within the southeastern USA. Results from this study indicate that both intrinsic values and utility values predict students' STEM attitudes but they influence attitudes related to the various dimensions of STEM differently. These findings demonstrate that EVT provides a useful framework, which can be integrated into future computing interventions, to help encourage positive STEM attitudes in young children, thus increasing the internal pressure (or flow) within the STEM pipeline.

  18. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Role-player expectations regarding the education of nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelie, S C; Bornman, J E; Botes, A C

    2003-12-01

    This article reports on role player expectations regarding the education of nursing research. The importance of the role player expectations are two-fold: firstly as a factor in the external environment influencing and guiding the formulation phase of the development of standards and secondly, due to the clear indications of problems regarding nursing research in the nursing profession in literature. The role player expectations were elicited using a qualitative, exploratory and contextual design. The role player population included nurse educators, nurses in managerial, clinical and research positions, students and the medical profession. The data was gathered using the naïve sketches and qualitative data analysis was done using Morse & Field's approach (1996:103-107) in combination with Tesch's data analysis approach as cited by Creswell (1994:154-156). Sixty initial categories were narrowed down to six final categories, which are the research learning programme, personnel, students, departmental policies, funding and support systems. The role player expectations were elicited as part of a research study aiming tot develop a self-evaluation system for quality assurance in nursing research and as such, the role player expectations plays a pivotal role in the development of standards for the self-evaluation system.

  20. Expectancy bias mediates the link between social anxiety and memory bias for social evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Justin D; Ruiz, Sarah K; Lee, Clinton C; Anbari, Zainab; Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety (SA) involves a multitude of cognitive symptoms related to fear of evaluation, including expectancy and memory biases. We examined whether memory biases are influenced by expectancy biases for social feedback in SA. We hypothesised that, faced with a socially evaluative event, people with higher SA would show a negative expectancy bias for future feedback. Furthermore, we predicted that memory bias for feedback in SA would be mediated by expectancy bias. Ninety-four undergraduate students (55 women, mean age = 19.76 years) underwent a two-visit task that measured expectations about (Visit 1) and memory of (Visit 2) feedback from unknown peers. Results showed that higher levels of SA were associated with negative expectancy bias. An indirect relationship was found between SA and memory bias that was mediated by expectancy bias. The results suggest that expectancy biases are in the causal path from SA to negative memory biases for social evaluation.

  1. Expectation Formation of Older Married Couples and the Rational Expectations Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Benítez-Silva; Debra S. Dwyer

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the Rational Expectations (RE) hypothesis regarding retirement expectations of married older American couples, controlling for sample selection and reporting biases. In prior research we found that individual retirement expectation formation was consistent with the Rational Expectation hypothesis, but in that work spousal considerations were not analyzed. In this research we take advantage of panel data on expectations to test the RE hypothesis among married individuals as we...

  2. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key theore...

  3. Expectations and Ideas Coming to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Describes the social construction of parental expectations for kindergarten and first grade in a school community. Focuses on the ideas developed between home and school and between grade levels. Connections are made between these local ideas and the expectations of children as they begin their school careers. (Author)

  4. Patient expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagiuri, Ben; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    , specifically controlling for a history of nausea, and involving breast cancer patients, none of the moderators assessed were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that patient expectancies may contribute to post-chemotherapy nausea and that expectancy-based manipulations may provide...

  5. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  6. Dissonant Feedback about Achievement and Teachers' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Carl J.

    1982-01-01

    Investigates impact of achievement test results (N=285) on 13 sixth-grade teachers' expectations using hypotheses from cognitive dissonance theory. Shows teacher expectations changed very little as a result of feedback, and test results for both under- and overestimated students were rejected. (AH)

  7. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  8. Heterogeneity in consumers' income and pension expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissonnette, L.; van Soest, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The expectations of economic agents play a crucial role in almost any inter-temporal economic model. Using 2009–12 panel data for a representative sample of the Dutch population, we analyze consumers’ income and pension expectations. We focus on heterogeneity across socioeconomic groups and

  9. Memory, expectation formation and scheduling choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.R.; Peer, S.; Dekker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Limited memory capacity, retrieval constraints and anchoring are central to expectation formation processes. We develop a model of adaptive expectations where individuals are able to store only a finite number of past experiences of a stochastic state variable. Retrieval of these experiences is

  10. Experimental evidence on inflation expectation formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Zakelj, B.

    Using laboratory experiments within a New Keynesian sticky price framework, we study the process of inflation expectation formation. We focus on adaptive learning and rational expectations contrary to the previous literature that mostly studied simple heuristics. Using a test for rational

  11. Individual expectations, limited rationality and aggregate outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Hommes, C.H.; Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the type of strategic environment or expectation feedback can have a large impact on whether the market can learn the rational fundamental price. We present an experiment where the fundamental price experiences large unexpected shocks. Markets with negative expectation

  12. Teaching Rational Expectations at 'A' Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachill, Bob

    1987-01-01

    Explains the economic concept of Rational Expectations (RE) and demonstrates how it can be introduced to British 'A' level students. Illustrates the implications of RE for the Cobweb and Augmented Phillips Curve market models. Outlines some attractions and limitations of rational expectations. (Author/DH)

  13. Individual expectations, limited rationality and aggregate outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Hommes, C.; Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the type of strategic environment or expectation feedback may have a large impact on whether the market learns the rational fundamental price. We present an experiment where the fundamental price experiences large unexpected shocks. Markets with negative expectation

  14. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expectancy and Phobic Level: Effects on Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Bernard J.; Denney, Douglas R.

    1977-01-01

    Expectancy instructions were introduced six times during the four-week treatment, and effectiveness of these instructions was demonstrated with independent nonreactive measures of subjects' expectancies. An analysis of self-report, behavioral, and unobtrusive measures of snake anxiety revealed significant main effects for instructions, with…

  16. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...

  17. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  18. Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

  19. Incorporating life expectancy in glaucoma care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, C.; Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To calculate for which combinations of age and perimetric disease stage glaucoma patients are unlikely to become visually impaired during their lifetime. Methods We used residual life expectancy data (life expectancy adjusted for the age already reached) as provided by Statistics Netherlands and

  20. On Expectations, Realizations and Partial Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiacomo, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether many people fear an unexpectedshock in their financial situation around retirement and whether therelated expectations and realizations match each other. We use theDutch Social Economic Panel survey data, where expectations aboutthe next year's financial situation are