WorldWideScience

Sample records for expectation social adjustment

  1. The Social Distribution of Health: Estimating Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love-Koh, James; Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Griffin, Susan

    2015-07-01

    To model the social distribution of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) in England by combining survey data on health-related quality of life with administrative data on mortality. Health Survey for England data sets for 2010, 2011, and 2012 were pooled (n = 35,062) and used to model health-related quality of life as a function of sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES). Office for National Statistics mortality rates were used to construct life tables for age-sex-SES groups. These quality-of-life and length-of-life estimates were then combined to predict QALE as a function of these characteristics. Missing data were imputed, and Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate standard errors. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore alternative regression models and measures of SES. Socioeconomic inequality in QALE at birth was estimated at 11.87 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with a sex difference of 1 QALY. When the socioeconomic-sex subgroups are ranked by QALE, a differential of 10.97 QALYs is found between the most and least healthy quintile groups. This differential can be broken down into a life expectancy difference of 7.28 years and a quality-of-life adjustment of 3.69 years. The methods proposed in this article refine simple binary quality-adjustment measures such as the widely used disability-free life expectancy, providing a more accurate picture of overall health inequality in society than has hitherto been available. The predictions also lend themselves well to the task of evaluating the health inequality impact of interventions in the context of cost-effectiveness analysis. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attachment to Parents, Social Support Expectations, and Socioemotional Adjustment during the High School--College Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Compared adolescents attending college to adolescent nonenrollees and found that (1) college attendees experienced improved means of perceived security to parents, decreased perceptions of social support, and increased feelings of loneliness and social anxiety; and (2) perceived security to parents at end of high school predicted positive changes…

  3. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...

  4. Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Parsons, Richard; McAuliffe, Tomomi; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

  5. Friendship Expectations and Children's Friendship-Related Behavior and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Papadakis, Alison A.; Fedigan, Shea K.; Ash, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Although relationship expectations are thought to influence all social interactions, little is known about the function of children's friendship expectations. This study examined the associations among children's friendship expectations and their behavior within their friendships, their friendship adjustment, and their socioemotional functioning.…

  6. Theatre Practice and Social Adjustment in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Media Sociology Lecturer ... adjustments in favour of local processes to drive social and economic .... needs the need to meet the requirements of all motivated efficiency, a certain degree of .... Centre for Production of Tourism, Arts and Culture.

  7. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  8. Development of the Social Efficacy and Social Outcome Expectations Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen L.; Wright, Dorothy A.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study developed an 18-item scale measuring individuals' social expectations in relationships related to their efficacy expectations (Subscale 1) and outcome expectations (Subscale 2) based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using an undergraduate sample ("N" = 486),…

  9. Social gradient in life expectancy and health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Otto; Kjøller, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels.......Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels....

  10. Social Adjustment and Personality Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Merrill; And Others

    This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…

  11. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee in November 2009 and decisions taken by the Council in December 2009, certain financial benefits have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2010. An increase of 1.6% has been applied to the scale of basic salaries and to stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). The adjusted amounts are available from the HR Department intranet site or from departmental secretariats. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, no adjustments have been made to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). The following social benefits also remain unchanged: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Tel. 70674 (Classification and Remuneration Service)

  12. PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AND PARENTS ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia VELOTTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks often provide an important source of support for new parents. General, parent support programs sustain social-emotional development of children. Different aspects could impact both the quantity and quality of the sources of social support and the perception that parents would had. This study examines the role of social support in the couples of new-parents and assesses the influence of attachment models on it. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS were administered to a sample of 100 participants. Results indicated a perception of social support more pronounced in women, mainly on the dimension of social support derived from the partner. Furthermore, for women and not for men, an association between attachment models to the AAI and the different perceptions of social support was revealed. Data seems support the opportunity to assess parents during early rehabilitation interventions. Support groups could be used with insecure parents and has positive effects in reducing stress and promoting adjustment to the disability for children and their families.

  13. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2008, certain financial and social benefits will be adjusted with effect from 1st January 2009. An increase of 2.7% will be applied to the scale of basic salaries and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, the following financial elements will increase by 3.2%: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) b) Payment of education fees: payment ceilings (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) for the academic year 2008/2009. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, adjustments will be applied to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students. The adjusted amounts are available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 70674

  14. Maternal expectations and postpartum emotional adjustment in first-time mothers: results of a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Erin J; Fried, Rachel; Teeters, Jenni Beth; Siskind, Emily E

    2014-09-01

    Several predictors of postpartum mood have been identified in the literature, but the role of maternal expectations in postpartum mental health remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify whether maternal expectations during the postpartum hospital stay predict adjustment and depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum. The sample included 233 first-time mothers recruited from the postpartum unit of a Midwestern hospital. Participants completed measures of maternal expectations and depressive symptoms (EPDS) at Time 1 (2 d postpartum) and completed EPDS and an Emotional Adjustment Scale (BaM-13) at Time 2 (6 weeks postpartum). A conditional relationship between the expectation that an infant's behavior will reflect maternal skill and Time 2 outcomes (BaM-13 and EPDS) was found, such that endorsing this belief predicted increased depression and poorer adjustment in those with higher (but not lower) Time 1 EPDS scores. Time 2 BaM-13 scores were also negatively predicted by expectations of self-sacrifice and positively predicted by expectations that parenthood would be naturally fulfilling. The expectations that new mothers hold about parenting soon after delivery are predictive of emotional adjustment in the early postpartum period, suggesting a role for discussion of expectations in future preventive strategies.

  15. Impact of selected risk factors on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The construct quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) combines mortality and overall health status and can be used to quantify the impact of risk factors on population health. The purpose of the study was to estimate the impact of tobacco smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity...... Health Survey 2000, and Danish EQ-5D values. RESULTS: The quality-adjusted life expectancy of 25-year-olds was 10-11 QALYs shorter for heavy smokers than for those who never smoke. The difference in life expectancy was 9-10 years. Men and women with high alcohol consumption could expect to lose about 5...... and 3 QALYs, respectively. Sedentary persons could expect to have about 7 fewer QALYs than physically active persons. Obesity shortened QALYs by almost 3 for men and 6 for women. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity strongly reduce life expectancy and health...

  16. Adjusting Expected Mortality Rates Using Information From a Control Population: An Example Using Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hannah; Andersson, Therese M-L; Crowther, Michael J; Dickman, Paul W; Lambe, Mats; Lambert, Paul C

    2018-04-01

    Expected or reference mortality rates are commonly used in the calculation of measures such as relative survival in population-based cancer survival studies and standardized mortality ratios. These expected rates are usually presented according to age, sex, and calendar year. In certain situations, stratification of expected rates by other factors is required to avoid potential bias if interest lies in quantifying measures according to such factors as, for example, socioeconomic status. If data are not available on a population level, information from a control population could be used to adjust expected rates. We have presented two approaches for adjusting expected mortality rates using information from a control population: a Poisson generalized linear model and a flexible parametric survival model. We used a control group from BCBaSe-a register-based, matched breast cancer cohort in Sweden with diagnoses between 1992 and 2012-to illustrate the two methods using socioeconomic status as a risk factor of interest. Results showed that Poisson and flexible parametric survival approaches estimate similar adjusted mortality rates according to socioeconomic status. Additional uncertainty involved in the methods to estimate stratified, expected mortality rates described in this study can be accounted for using a parametric bootstrap, but this might make little difference if using a large control population.

  17. Social and Emotional Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Doppelt, Osnat; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with autism was examined, to explore their risk or resilience to effects of genetic liability and environmental factors involved in having a sibling with autism. Method: Social-emotional adjustment, behavior problems, socialization skills, and siblings' relationships were compared…

  18. On the Borders: Adjusting to Academic, Social and Cultural Practices at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John; Ljungdahl, Lesley; Maher, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment to university is challenging for students as they navigate a path through new academic, social and cultural practices. Some may feel on the borders, marginalised by their background. Issues such as adjustment to university life, independence, performance expectations, establishing friendships, technological competence, cultural capital,…

  19. Female Genital Mutilation: Fundamentals, Social Expectations and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bicchieri, Cristina; Marini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the relationship between female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) dynamics, social expectations and fundamentals across African countries. We show that socioeconomic conditions are overall worse in countries where FGM/C is practiced. Yet when we consider the dynamics of FGM/C within countries that perform it, there is no clear link between fundamentals and the decline of the practice. We find instead that FGM/C dynamics are strongly related to social expectations and social...

  20. Increase in social inequality in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Baadsgaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Health expectancy represents the average lifetime in various states of health and differs among social groups. The purpose of the study was to determine trends in social inequality in health expectancy since 1994 between groups with high, medium and low educational levels in Denmark. METHODS...... educational level, the increase was 2.7 years for men and 2.2 years for women. The difference between people with low and high educational level in expected lifetime in self-rated good health increased by 2.0 and 1.3 years for 30-year-old men and women, respectively. The social gap also increased for other...... indicators. CONCLUSIONS: During the past 12 years, social inequality in life expectancy and health expectancy has increased in Denmark, but the proportion of the population with a low educational level has decreased....

  1. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, Eva M; Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy) could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34). The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire , the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  2. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Romera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  3. Regional patterns of disability-free life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy: global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C J; Lopez, A D

    1997-05-10

    Information on non-fatal health outcomes of disease and injury has been largely neglected in health planning because of the conceptual and definitional complexity of measuring morbidity and disability in populations. One of our major objectives was to quantify disability for inclusion in health policy debates. We analysed these health outcomes in terms of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE). Published and unpublished data were systematically reviewed to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and duration of 483 disabling sequelae of 107 diseases and injuries. To ensure internal consistency of these estimates, a software programme (DISMOD) was applied many times until consistent parameters were identified. The severity of disability, on a scale of 0 (perfect health) to 1 (death), was measured in a deliberate manner by the person-trade-off method. Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to measure disability weights among groups. Prevalence of seven classes of disability was back-calculated from the distribution of each disabling sequela across disabilities. Prevalence for each class of disability for different age-sex groups was used to calculate seven forms of DFLE and DALE based on Sullivan's method. Prevalence of most disability classes is highest in sub-Saharan Africa and lowest in established market economies. Low-severity disabilities (class I and class II) are the most common. The expectation at birth of class I disability ranges from 6.5 years in established market economies to 14.7 years in sub-Saharan Africa, and for class II disabilities, from 8.5-18.4 years. DFLE varies significantly among regions: DFLE for class I disabilities at birth ranges from 9.9 years in sub-Saharan Africa to 47.7 years in established market economies for females and DFLE for class V disabilities ranges from 43.4 years for men in sub-Saharan Africa to 74.8 years for women in established market economies. The

  4. College for some to college for all: social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly A

    2008-06-01

    The educational expectations of 10th-graders have dramatically increased from 1980 to 2002. Their rise is attributable in part to the changing educational composition of students' parents and related to the educational profiles of their expected occupations. Students whose parents have gone to college are more likely to attend college themselves, and students expect occupations that are more prestigious in 2002 than in 1980. The educational requirements of particular occupation categories have risen only slightly. These analyses also reveal that educational expectations in recent cohorts are more loosely linked to social background and occupational plans than they were in 1980. The declining importance of parents' background and the decoupling of educational and occupational plans, in addition to a strong and significant effect of cohort on educational expectations, suggest that the expectation of four-year college attainment is indeed becoming the norm.

  5. Whites but Not Blacks Gain Life Expectancy from Social Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research suggests that the health gain from economic resources and psychological assets may be systematically larger for Whites than Blacks. Aim. This study aimed to assess whether the life expectancy gain associated with social contacts over a long follow up differs for Blacks and Whites. Methods. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study, 1986–2011. The sample was a nationally representative sample of American adults 25 and older, who were followed for up to 25 years (n = 3361. Outcome was all-cause mortality. The main predictor was social contacts defined as number of regular visits with friends, relatives, and neighbors. Baseline demographics (age and gender, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment, health behaviors (smoking and drinking, and health (chronic medical conditions, obesity, and depressive symptoms were controlled. Race was the focal moderator. Cox proportional hazard models were used in the pooled sample and based on race. Results. More social contacts predicted higher life expectancy in the pooled sample. A significant interaction was found between race and social contacts, suggesting that the protective effect of more social contacts is smaller for Blacks than Whites. In stratified models, more social contacts predicted an increased life expectancy for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion. Social contacts increase life expectancy for White but not Black Americans. This study introduces social contacts as another social resource that differentially affects health of Whites and Blacks.

  6. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  7. Conformity expectations: Differential effects on IVF twins and singletons' parent-child relationships and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Connor, Jennifer J; Chen, Muzi; Damario, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Increased utilization of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to treat infertility has resulted in a growing twin birthrate. Despite early childhood risks, twins have fewer psychosocial problems in middle childhood than singleton children. This study proposes that parents' conformity expectations for children have differential effects on parent-child relationships for twin and singleton children, which indirectly explains twins' more optimum psychosocial adjustment. Parental conformity expectations, parent-child relationship satisfaction, and children's emotional, behavioral, and attention problems were assessed in a sample of 288 6- to 12-year-old IVF-conceived twins and singletons. Overall, parents of twins had higher expectations for child conformity to parent rules than singleton parents. Path models demonstrate that twin status and parental expectations for child conformity interact to influence parent-child relationships, and this interaction indirectly accounted for differences in twins' and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. Findings suggest parenting constructs have differential influences on the association between twin status and parent-child relationships. Parenting research, predominantly conducted with singletons, should be reexamined before applying existing research to twin children and their families. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Impact of particulate air pollution on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Douglas; Stieb, Dave; Burnett, Richard T; DeCivita, Paul; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Yue; Thun, Michael J

    Air pollution and premature death are important public health concerns. Analyses have repeatedly demonstrated that airborne particles are associated with increased mortality and estimates have been used to forecast the impact on life expectancy. In this analysis, we draw upon data from the American Cancer Society (ACS) cohort and literature on utility-based measures of quality of life in relation to health status to more fully quantify the effects of air pollution on mortality in terms of quality-adjusted life expectancy. The analysis was conducted within a decision analytic model using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Outcomes were estimated based on projections of the Canadian population. A one-unit reduction in sulfate air pollution would yield a mean annual increase in Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) of 20,960, with gains being greater for individuals with lower educational status and for males compared to females. This suggests that the impact of reductions in sulfate air pollution on quality-adjusted life expectancy is substantial. Interpretation of the results is unclear. However, the potential gains in QALYs from reduced air pollutants can be contrasted to the costs of policies to bring about such reductions. Based on a tentative threshold for the value of health benefits, analysis suggests that an investment in Canada of over 1 billion dollars per annum would be an efficient use of resources if it could be demonstrated that this would reduce sulfate concentrations in ambient air by 1 microg/m(3). Further analysis can assess the efficiency of targeting such initiatives to communities that are most likely to benefit.

  9. Adjusting Estimates of the Expected Value of Information for Implementation: Theoretical Framework and Practical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronis, Lazaros; Barton, Pelham M

    2016-04-01

    Value of information (VoI) calculations give the expected benefits of decision making under perfect information (EVPI) or sample information (EVSI), typically on the premise that any treatment recommendations made in light of this information will be implemented instantly and fully. This assumption is unlikely to hold in health care; evidence shows that obtaining further information typically leads to "improved" rather than "perfect" implementation. To present a method of calculating the expected value of further research that accounts for the reality of improved implementation. This work extends an existing conceptual framework by introducing additional states of the world regarding information (sample information, in addition to current and perfect information) and implementation (improved implementation, in addition to current and optimal implementation). The extension allows calculating the "implementation-adjusted" EVSI (IA-EVSI), a measure that accounts for different degrees of implementation. Calculations of implementation-adjusted estimates are illustrated under different scenarios through a stylized case study in non-small cell lung cancer. In the particular case study, the population values for EVSI and IA-EVSI were £ 25 million and £ 8 million, respectively; thus, a decision assuming perfect implementation would have overestimated the expected value of research by about £ 17 million. IA-EVSI was driven by the assumed time horizon and, importantly, the specified rate of change in implementation: the higher the rate, the greater the IA-EVSI and the lower the difference between IA-EVSI and EVSI. Traditionally calculated measures of population VoI rely on unrealistic assumptions about implementation. This article provides a simple framework that accounts for improved, rather than perfect, implementation and offers more realistic estimates of the expected value of research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Female Genital Cutting: Fundamentals, Social Expectations and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bicchieri, Cristina; Marini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the relationship between female genital cutting (FGC) dynamics, beliefs and fundamentals across African countries. Results show that social and economic conditions are worse in countries where FGC is practiced. However, if we consider the dynamics of FGC in those countries, there is no clear link between fundamentals and the abandonment of the practice. Instead, we find a significant correlation with social expectations and trust. Our findings support the implementation of b...

  11. Familism, Family Ethnic Socialization, and Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Educational Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers’ ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers’ reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers’ familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers’ endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers’ educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers’ educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

  12. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture.

  13. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Eva M. Romera; Olga Gómez-Ortiz; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychoso...

  14. Expectations and obligations: professionalism and medicine's social contract with society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R

    2008-01-01

    As health care has become of great importance to both individual citizens and to society, it has become more important to understand medicine's relationship to the society it serves in order to have a basis for meaningful dialogue. During the past decade, individuals in the medical, legal, social sciences, and health policy fields have suggested that professionalism serves as the basis of medicine's relationship with society, and many have termed this relationship a social contract. However, the concept of medicine's social contract remains vague, and the implications of its existence have not been fully explored. This paper endorses the use of the term social contract, examines the origin of the concept and its relationship to professionalism, traces its evolution and application to medicine, describes the expectations of the various parties to the contract, and explores some of the implications of its use.

  15. Increasing social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Baadsgaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine trends in social inequality in mortality and life expectancy in Denmark. METHODS: The study was based on register data on educational level and mortality during the period 1981-2005 and comprised all deaths among Danes aged 30-60. Sex- and age...... with low and high educational level increased by 0.3 years. CONCLUSION: During the past 25 years, the social gap in mortality has widened in Denmark. In particular, women with a low educational level have been left behind....

  16. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Drinking to Cope with Social Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigan, Maureen H.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated use of alcohol as a coping strategy to reduce anxiety or discomfort increases one's risk of developing alcohol dependence. Previous studies have found alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) strongly predict drinking behavior, in general, and also are related to drinking to cope. The purpose of the current study was to examine AOE that may be related to drinking to cope with discomfort in social situations. It was hypothesized that positive AOE, especially related to assertion and tension...

  17. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Richard; van Baal, Pieter; Oppe, Mark; Koolman, Xander; Westert, Gert

    2011-06-23

    The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE) at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers of differences in health-state values across populations. This

  18. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppe Mark

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. Methods We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. Results QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. Conclusions The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers

  19. Persistent social inequality in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The state old-age pension in Denmark increases to keep pace with the projected increase in average life expectancy (LE) without any regard to the social gap in LE and expected lifetime in good health. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in LE and disability-free life expectancy...... (DFLE) between groups of Danes with high, medium and low levels of education. METHODS: Nationwide register data on education and mortality were combined with data from the Surveys of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) surveys in 2006-2007, 2010-2011 and 2013-2014 and the DFLE by educational...... level was estimated by Sullivan's method for each of these three time points. RESULTS: Between 2006-2007 and 2013-2014, LE among 65-year-old men and women with a low educational level increased by 1.3 and 1.0 years, respectively, and by 1.4 and 1.3 years for highly educated men and women. The gap in LE...

  20. Health inequalities in the Netherlands: trends in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) by educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Maria; Wubulihasimu, Parida; Peters, Frederik; Nusselder, Wilma; Van Baal, Pieter H M

    2016-10-01

    Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) has been proposed as a summary measure of population health because it encompasses multiple health domains as well as length of life. However, trends in QALE by education or other socio-economic measure have not yet been reported. This study investigates changes in QALE stratified by educational level for the Dutch population in the period 2001-2011. Using data from multiple sources, we estimated mortality rates and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as functions of age, gender, calendar year and educational level. Subsequently, predictions from these regressions were combined for calculating QALE at ages 25 and 65. QALE changes were decomposed into effects of mortality and HRQoL. In 2001-2011, QALE increased for men and women at all educational levels, the largest increases being for highly educated resulting in a widening gap by education. In 2001, at age 25, the absolute QALE difference between the low and the highly educated was 7.4 healthy years (36.7 vs. 44.1) for men and 6.3 healthy years (39.5 vs. 45.8) for women. By 2011, the QALE difference increased to 8.1 healthy years (38.8 vs. 46.9) for men and to 7.1 healthy years (41.3 vs. 48.4) for women. Similar results were observed at age 65. Although the gap was largely attributable to widening inequalities in mortality, widening inequalities in HRQoL were also substantial. In the Netherlands, population health as measured by QALE has improved, but QALE inequalities have widened more than inequalities in life expectancy alone. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Studying International Students: Adjustment Issues and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lijuan

    This study investigated international student adjustment issues and needed social support. Data were obtained from individual interviews with 10 international students at The Ohio State University. Results indicate that international students experience significant problems in their coping with U.S. education, cultural differences, and language…

  2. Psycho-social correlates of adjustment in adult amputees | Ajala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collection was done by using structured questionnaire which contained the locus of control, self-concept, social support and coping scales. Multiple Regressions was used to test the independent and joint influence of these factors on adjustment. The result revealed significant influence of self-concept (t = 0.07, â = 0.03 ...

  3. Social media e-cigarette exposure and e-cigarette expectancies and use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Laestadius, Linnea; Buente, Wayne; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-03-01

    A vast majority of U.S. young adults use social media such as Facebook and Instagram daily. Research suggests that young adults are commonly exposed to e-cigarette-related marketing or user-generated content on the social media they use. Currently, however, there is limited empirical evidence as to how social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use beliefs and behavior. In particular, limited evidence exists to support the proposition that social media e-cigarette exposure is uniquely associated with e-cigarette use, even after adjusting for the effects of e-cigarette use in young adults' in-person or 'offline' social networks. This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that 1) social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use outcome expectancies and current e-cigarette use; and 2) the association between social media and e-cigarette use is linked via outcome expectancies. We collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 470 young adult college students in Hawaii. Hypotheses were tested by fitting a structural equation model to the data. The model accounted for the associations of demographic variables, cigarette smoking history, as well as e-cigarette use in individuals' actual social networks with expectancies and behavior. Results indicated that social media e-cigarette exposure was associated with current e-cigarette use indirectly through two of the four positive outcome expectancies examined, namely, positive "smoking" experience and positive sensory experience. We discuss the implications of the findings in the context of tobacco control efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...

  6. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social

  7. Social capital in the classroom: a study of in-class social capital and school adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, R.; Vermande, M.; Volker, B.; Baerveldt, C.

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students’ school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils’ performance and well-being. The sample in

  8. Social Capital in the Classroom: A Study of In-Class Social Capital and School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn; Völker, Beate; Baerveldt, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students' school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils' performance and well-being. The sample in this study consists of 1036 children in 60…

  9. Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Social Adjustment of Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Taghinezhad

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion According to the results of this study, it can be said that holding social skills instruction social work group on social adjustment method is effective among the elderly. The wider use of this type of intervention by specialists in the field of aging can affect well-being and mental health of this group. 

  10. Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind and social adjustment in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasse, Catherine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind (ToM) and social adjustment were investigated in 45 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) compared with 45 typically developing (TD) preschoolers, matched for developmental age assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency-Revised edition (EDEI-R, Perron-Borelli, 1996). Children's understanding of beliefs and emotions was assessed by means of ToM belief tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011) and ToM emotion tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011). Seven items from the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for children (PSPCSA, Harter & Pike, 1980) assessed children's perceived social acceptance. Their teachers completed the Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hughes, Soares-Boucaud, Hochmann, & Frith, 1997). For both groups together, the results showed that perceived social acceptance mediates the relation between ToM skills and social adjustment. The presence or absence of intellectual disabilities does not moderate the relations either between ToM skills and perceived social acceptance, or between perceived social acceptance and social adjustment. The study did not confirm the difference hypothesis of structural and relational patterns between these three processes in children with ID, but instead supported the hypothesis of a similar structure that develops in a delayed manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expected Risk Assessment—Annual Report versus Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Böcskei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global economic, social and environmental changes are inspiring companies to behave responsibly towards the environment, not only in the interest of others, but also in that of the future of their companies. It is crucial that companies are able to recognize any lack in their ability to grow values in a timely manner, because issues at companies require immediate intervention. A key factor in maintaining operations is the time interval required for companies to adjust to challenges. Are Annual Reports capable of indicating problems or possibly to inform decision-makers that a company is entering a period of decline? Such information can be gathered from the notes to the financial statement. Are annually prepared statements capable of indicating problems? Definitely, yes. Do yearly once due statements provide enough information? The answer must be no, as we are not living in a static economic environment. The more dynamic our economic environment is, the greater the role played by the question of time. Thanks to improvements in accounting and technology, we are able to create up-to-date analyses, based on accounting statements. However, in order to be effective, teamwork inside the company is essential and controllers should play a key role.

  12. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  13. When do we communicate stereotypes? Influence of the social context on the linguistic expectancy bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, DHJ; Spears, R; Semin, GR

    The linguistic expectancy bias (LEB) refers to the tendency to describe expectancy consistent information at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent information. Two experiments examined the influence of the social communicative context on the production of this

  14. Expectations and decisions in the Volunteer’s Dilemma: Effects of social distance and social projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Israel Krueger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a Volunteer’s Dilemma (VoD one individual needs to bear a cost so that a public good can be provided. Expectations regarding what others will do play a critical role because they would ideally be negatively correlated with own decisions; yet, a social-projection heuristic generates positive correlations. In a series of 2-person-dilemma studies with over 1,000 participants, we find that expectations are indeed correlated with own choice, and that people tend to volunteer more than game-theoretic benchmarks and their own expectations would allow. We also find strong evidence for a social-distance heuristic, according to which a person’s own probability to volunteer and the expectation that others will volunteer decrease as others become socially more remote. Experimentally induced expectations make opposite behavior more likely, but respondents underweight these expectations. As a result, there is a small but systematic effect of overvolunteering among psychologically close individuals.

  15. Expectations and Decisions in the Volunteer’s Dilemma: Effects of Social Distance and Social Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joachim I.; Ullrich, Johannes; Chen, Leonard J.

    2016-01-01

    In a Volunteer’s Dilemma (VoD) one individual needs to bear a cost so that a public good can be provided. Expectations regarding what others will do play a critical role because they would ideally be negatively correlated with own decisions; yet, a social-projection heuristic generates positive correlations. In a series of 2-person-dilemma studies with over 1,000 participants, we find that expectations are indeed correlated with own choice, and that people tend to volunteer more than game-theoretic benchmarks and their own expectations would allow. We also find strong evidence for a social-distance heuristic, according to which a person’s own probability to volunteer and the expectation that others will volunteer decrease as others become socially more remote. Experimentally induced expectations make opposite behavior more likely, but respondents underweight these expectations. As a result, there is a small but systematic effect of over-volunteering among psychologically close individuals. PMID:28018257

  16. Unexpected Acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Manifest their Social Expectancy in ERPs During Social Feedback Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianqin; Gu, Ruolei; Bi, Xuejing; Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative – positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy. PMID:26635659

  17. Unexpected Acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Manifest their Social Expectancy in ERPs During Social Feedback Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianqin; Gu, Ruolei; Bi, Xuejing; Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative - positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

  18. Unexpected acceptance? Patients with social anxiety disorder manifest their social expectancy in ERPs during social feedback processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin eCao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control (HC participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger FRN to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive △FRN (△FRN = negative - positive. Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with △FRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS score correlated positively with the △FRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and △FRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2. However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

  19. Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Wubbels, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van der Ende, J.; Maras, A.; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, N.T.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both

  20. Serious Social Media: On the Use of Social Media for Improving Students' Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAndrea, David C.; Ellison, Nicole B.; LaRose, Robert; Steinfield, Charles; Fiore, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A considerable body of research indicates that social support plays an integral role in determining students' successful adjustment to college. Unlike previous research that has evaluated face-to-face support interventions that occur during students' first semester at college, the current study reports on a student-centered social media site…

  1. Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/390776114; Wubbels, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070651361; van Lier, P.A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van der Ende, J.; Maras, A.; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298678012

    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher–child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both

  2. Newcomer adjustment: Examining the role of managers' perception of newcomer proactive behavior during organizational socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allison M; Nifadkar, Sushil S; Bauer, Talya N; Erdogan, Berrin

    2017-06-01

    Separate streams of organizational socialization research have recognized the importance of (a) newcomer proactivity and (b) manager support in facilitating newcomer adjustment. However, extant research has largely focused on the newcomers' experience, leaving the perspectives of managers during socialization relatively unexplored-a theoretical gap that has implications both for newcomer adjustment and manager-newcomer interactions that may serve as a basis for future relationship development. Drawing from the "interlocked" employee behavior argument of Weick (1979), we propose that managers' perception of newcomers' proactive behaviors are associated with concordant manager behaviors, which, in turn, support newcomer adjustment. Further, we investigate a cognitive mechanism-managers' evaluation of newcomers' commitment to adjust-which we expect underlies the proposed relationship between newcomers' proactive behaviors and managers' supportive behaviors. Using a time-lagged, 4-phase data collection of a sample of new software engineers in India and their managers, we were able to test our hypothesized model as well as rule out alternative explanations via multilevel structural equation modeling. Results broadly supported our model even after controlling for manager-newcomer social exchange relationship, proactive personalities of both newcomers and managers, and potential effects of coworker information providing. The implications of our findings for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Self-esteem, social adjustment and suicidality in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, E G; Dikeos, D G; Papadimitriou, G N; Souery, D; Blairy, S; Massat, I; Mendlewicz, J; Stefanis, C N

    2002-09-01

    Self-esteem (SE) and social adjustment (SA) are often impaired during the course of affective disorders; this impairment is associated with suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate SE and SA in unipolar or bipolar patients in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, especially the presence of suicidality (ideation and/or attempt). Forty-four patients, 28 bipolar and 16 unipolar, in remission for at least 3 months, and 50 healthy individuals were examined through a structured clinical interview. SE and SA were assessed by the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the social adjustment scale, respectively. The results have shown that bipolar patients did not differ from controls in terms of SE, while unipolar patients had lower SE than bipolars and controls. No significant differences in the mean SA scores were found between the three groups. Suicidality during depression was associated only in bipolar patients with lower SE at remission; similar but not as pronounced was the association of suicidality with SA. It is concluded that low SE lasting into remission seems to be related to the expression of suicidality during depressive episodes of bipolar patients, while no similar pattern is evident in unipolar patients.

  4. When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

    2012-08-01

    According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications.

  5. Process monitoring in intensive care with the use of cumulative expected minus observed mortality and risk-adjusted P charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockings, Jerome G L; Cook, David A; Iqbal, Rehana K

    2006-02-01

    A health care system is a complex adaptive system. The effect of a single intervention, incorporated into a complex clinical environment, may be different from that expected. A national database such as the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme in the UK represents a centralised monitoring, surveillance and reporting system for retrospective quality and comparative audit. This can be supplemented with real-time process monitoring at a local level for continuous process improvement, allowing early detection of the impact of both unplanned and deliberately imposed changes in the clinical environment. Demographic and UK Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) data were prospectively collected on all patients admitted to a UK regional hospital between 1 January 2003 and 30 June 2004 in accordance with the ICNARC Case Mix Programme. We present a cumulative expected minus observed (E-O) plot and the risk-adjusted p chart as methods of continuous process monitoring. We describe the construction and interpretation of these charts and show how they can be used to detect planned or unplanned organisational process changes affecting mortality outcomes. Five hundred and eighty-nine adult patients were included. The overall death rate was 0.78 of predicted. Calibration showed excess survival in ranges above 30% risk of death. The E-O plot confirmed a survival above that predicted. Small transient variations were seen in the slope that could represent random effects, or real but transient changes in the quality of care. The risk-adjusted p chart showed several observations below the 2 SD control limits of the expected mortality rate. These plots provide rapid analysis of risk-adjusted performance suitable for local application and interpretation. The E-O chart provided rapid easily visible feedback of changes in risk-adjusted mortality, while the risk-adjusted p chart allowed statistical evaluation. Local analysis of

  6. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60 data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60 and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for each group. Results: Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion: Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care.

  7. Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, L D; Wubbels, T; van Lier, P A C; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher-child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher-child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher-child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher-child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meeting the expectations of your heritage culture: Links between attachment orientations, intragroup marginalization and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczi, Nelli; Marshall, Tara C

    2016-02-01

    Do insecurely attached individuals perceive greater rejection from their heritage culture? Few studies have examined the antecedents and outcomes of this perceived rejection - termed intragroup marginalization - in spite of its implications for the adjustment of cultural migrants to the mainstream culture. This study investigated whether anxious and avoidant attachment orientations among cultural migrants were associated with greater intragroup marginalization and, in turn, with lower subjective well-being and flourishing and higher acculturative stress. Anxious attachment was associated with heightened intragroup marginalization from friends and, in turn, with increased acculturative stress; anxious attachment was also associated with increased intragroup marginalization from family. Avoidant attachment was linked with increased intragroup marginalization from family and, in turn, with decreased subjective well-being.

  9. Social Media Use in Journalism Education: Faculty and Student Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ammina; Hickerson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Social media use has become essential for journalists. Although previous research has explored how journalists use social media, less is known about how journalism and mass communication programs incorporate social media in their coursework. Based on our survey of 323 students and 125 faculty in American universities, this study offers a…

  10. Marijuana Effect Expectancies: Relations to Social Anxiety and Marijuana Use Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2008-01-01

    High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...

  11. Social problem-solving and social adjustment in paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa M; Bigler, Erin; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn A; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the predictors of social deficits that occur following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study sought to investigate social problem solving (SPS) and its relationship to social adjustment after TBI. Participants included 8-13 year old children, 25 with severe TBI, 57 with complicated mild-to-moderate TBI and 61 with orthopaedic injuries (OI). Children responded to scenarios involving negative social situations by selecting from a fixed set of choices their causal attribution for the event, their emotional reaction to the event and how they would behave in response. Parent ratings of social behaviours and classmate friendship nominations and sociometric ratings were obtained for a sub-set of all participants. Children with severe TBI were less likely than children with OI to indicate they would attribute external blame or respond by avoiding the antagonist; they were more likely to indicate they would feel sad and request adult intervention. Although several SPS variables had indirect effects on the relationship between TBI and social adjustment, clinical significance was limited. The findings suggest that, while children with TBI display atypical SPS skills, SPS cannot be used in isolation to accurately predict social adjustment.

  12. Associations of Smoking, Physical Inactivity, Heavy Drinking, and Obesity with Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy among US Adults with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Zack, Matthew M; Gottesman, Irving I; Thompson, William W

    2018-03-01

    To examine associations between four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity) and three health indices (health-related quality of life, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE)) among US adults with depression. Data were obtained from the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) health preference scores were estimated on the basis of extrapolations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's healthy days measures. Depression scores were estimated using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Life expectancy estimates were obtained from US life tables, and QALE was estimated from a weighted combination of the EQ-5D scores and the life expectancy estimates. Outcomes were summarized by depression status for the four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity). For depressed adults, current smokers and the physically inactive had significantly lower EQ-5D scores (0.040 and 0.171, respectively), shorter life expectancy (12.9 and 10.8 years, respectively), and substantially less QALE (8.6 and 10.9 years, respectively). For nondepressed adults, estimated effects were similar but smaller. Heavy alcohol drinking among depressed adults, paradoxically, was associated with higher EQ-5D scores but shorter life expectancy. Obesity was strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores but only weakly associated with shorter life expectancy. Among depressed adults, physical inactivity and smoking were strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, life expectancy, and QALE, whereas obesity and heavy drinking were only weakly associated with these indices. These results suggest that reducing physical inactivity and smoking would improve health more among depressed adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Social Facilitation Expectancies for Smoking: Psychometric Properties of a New Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, C. Amanda; Doran, Neal; Myers, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about social outcomes for smoking are relevant to college student smokers, who frequently report "social smoking." A new measure, the Social Facilitation Expectancies (SFE) scale, was developed to assess these beliefs. Participants: The SFE was administered to undergraduate college student smokers ("N" =…

  14. Pathways of Influence: Chinese Parents' Expectations, Parenting Styles, and Child Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2015-01-01

    This study examines relations among Chinese parents' expectations for children's development of social-emotional skills, parenting styles, and child social competence. A total of 154 parents with preschool-aged children from mainland China completed questionnaires measuring their timing of expectations for children's mastery of social-emotional…

  15. Social anxiety, alcohol expectancies, and self-efficacy as predictors of heavy drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Donna M; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M

    2006-03-01

    Burke and Stephens (1999) [Burke, R.S., Stephens, R.S. Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social cognitive theory analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (1999) 513-530.] proposed a social cognitive theory of heavy drinking in college students. According to this theory, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and self-efficacy for refusing heavy drinking in anxiety-producing social situations moderate the relationship between social anxiety and drinking. In the current study, a significant three-way interaction was observed among social anxiety, expectancies, and self-efficacy when amount and frequency of drinking was the dependent variable. As predicted by the model, socially anxious college students with low self-efficacy for avoiding heavy drinking in social situations and high positive expectancies for social facilitation reported more alcohol consumption than other socially anxious individuals.

  16. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesley, Andres; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul

    2007-01-01

    1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school with educ...

  17. Social Capital and the Educational Expectations of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtoui, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the determinants of the educational expectations of young people in disadvantaged urban areas in three large cities in Sweden. In addition to the conventional predictors such as parental resources (economic and cultural capital) and demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, immigration background), this…

  18. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  19. Appropriate Social Behavior: Teaching Expectations to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Pool, Juli Lull

    2012-01-01

    Young children's challenging behavior can impact all aspects of the classroom environment, including relationships (peer-peer, student-teacher), learning, and safety. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a program that focuses on supporting pro-social behaviors and preventing challenging behavior. PBIS begins with building a…

  20. College Students' Social Goals and Psychological Adjustment: Mediation via Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Wang, Cen; Makara, Kara A.; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Xie, Li-Na; Zhong, Ming

    2017-01-01

    University life can be stressful and students may struggle to adjust socially. We examined students' social achievement goals--their orientations towards their relationships with their peers--as one important factor underlying students' social and psychological adjustment in college. When investigating the direct and indirect effects of social…

  1. College Adjustment of First Year Students: The Role of Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruseno Arjanggi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the correlation between social anxiety and college adjustment. 436 undergraduate psychology students of five universities in Central Java were involved in this study. All respondents completed a questionnaire about student adjustment to college, and social anxiety scale. Canonical correlation was conducted to analyze the data. The result showed that fear of negative evaluation correlates with academic and personal-emotional adjustment, but not with social adjustment and institutional adjustment, while social avoidance and distress correlate with all of the dependent variables. This study suggests about the role of social anxiety to college adjustment. These findings investigate further discussion about appropriate intervention to address adjustment problems among college students.

  2. College Adjustment of First Year Students: the Role of Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Luh Putu S. Kusumaningsih, Ruseno Arjanggi

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the correlation between social anxiety and college adjustment. 436 undergraduate psychology students of five universities in Central Java were involved in this study. All respondents completed a questionnaire about student adjustment to college, and social anxiety scale. Canonical correlation was conducted to analyze the data. The result showed that fear of negative evaluation correlates with academic and personal-emotional adjustment, but not with social adjustm...

  3. Motives for using Facebook, patterns of Facebook activities, and late adolescents' social adjustment to college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B Bradford

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and late adolescents' social adjustment to the college environment. Anonymous self-report survey data from 193 mostly European American students (M age = 20.32; 54 % female) attending a major Midwestern university indicated that motives and activity patterns were associated directly with social adjustment, but the association between one activity, status updating, and social adjustment also was moderated by the motive of relationship maintenance. Findings provide a more comprehensive portrait of how Facebook use may foster or inhibit social adjustment in college.

  4. Optimism, Social Support, and Adjustment in African American Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Rebecca A.; Crespin, Tim R.; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M.; Lamdan, Ruth M.; Siegel, Jamie E.; Taylor, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    Past studies show that optimism and social support are associated with better adjustment following breast cancer treatment. Most studies have examined these relationships in predominantly non-Hispanic White samples. The present study included 77 African American women treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer. Women completed measures of optimism, social support, and adjustment within 10-months of surgical treatment. In contrast to past studies, social support did not mediate the relationship between optimism and adjustment in this sample. Instead, social support was a moderator of the optimism-adjustment relationship, as it buffered the negative impact of low optimism on psychological distress, well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Women with high levels of social support experienced better adjustment even when optimism was low. In contrast, among women with high levels of optimism, increasing social support did not provide an added benefit. These data suggest that perceived social support is an important resource for women with low optimism. PMID:18712591

  5. Personality and social adjustment of medical cadets, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaichumchuen, Tassana; Jarmornmarn, Sirinapa; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut

    2009-02-01

    To determine personality and ability of social adjustment of medical cadets, Phramongkutkao College of Medicine. In addition, the factors influencing social adjustment in these medical cadets were evaluated. The study population consisted of 45 medical cadets in their second year of a 6-year medical curriculum of Phramongkutkao College of Medicine. All study medical cadets gave written informed consent. The medical cadets completed a baseline assessment including a standardized questionnaire for general information and social adjustment. Personality traits were determined by a standard personality test, the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The personalities of medical cadets were in between reserved and outgoing socially aware, concerns, shrewd and practical. The ability of social adjustment in these medical cadets was high. Social adjustment was significantly different between medical cadets who received different scholarships. Social adjustment of the medical cadets was positively correlated with personalities: factor C (emotionally stable), factor I (sensitivity), factor G (group conformity), factor H (social boldness), and factor Q3 (self-control), but negatively correlated with factor M (abstractedness), and factor Q2 (self-sufficiency). This study presents the unique personalities of medical cadets. Social adjustment is significantly different between medical cadets with different source of scholarships. Longitudinal study of the influence of personality and social adjustment on academic performance needs to be performed.

  6. Prospective associations between friendship adjustment and social strategies: friendship as a context for building social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Gary C; Rose, Amanda J

    2011-07-01

    The proposal that friendships provide a context for the development of social skills is widely accepted. Yet little research exists to support this claim. In the present study, children and adolescents (N = 912) were presented with vignettes in which a friend encountered a social stressor and they could help the friend and vignettes in which they encountered a stressor and could seek help from the friend. Social strategies in response to these vignettes were assessed in the fall and spring of the school year. Different indicators of friendship adjustment had unique effects on youths' strategies in response to helping tasks. Whereas having more friends predicted decreases in avoidant or hostile strategies, having high-quality friendships predicted emotionally engaged strategies that involved talking about the problem. Moreover, whereas having more friends predicted increases in relatively disengaged strategies, like distraction and acting like the problem never happened, having high-quality friendships predicted decreases in these strategies. The present study also tested whether youths' strategies in the fall predicted changes in friendship adjustment by the spring. Only strategies which may be seen as major friendship transgressions (i.e., avoiding or blaming the friend when the friend encounters a problem) predicted changes in friendship over time. Collectively, these results provide important new information on the interplay between social competencies and friendship experiences and suggest that friendships may provide a critical venue for the development of important relationship skills. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Prospective Associations Between Friendship Adjustment and Social Strategies: Friendship as a Context for Building Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Gary C.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The proposal that friendships provide a context for the development of social skills is widely accepted. Yet little research exists to support these claims. In the present study, children and adolescents (N = 912) were presented with vignettes in which their friend encountered a social stressor and they could help the friend and vignettes in which they encountered a stressor and could seek help from the friend. Social strategies in response to these vignettes were assessed in the fall and spring of the school year. Notably, different indicators of friendship adjustment had unique effects on youths’ strategies in response to helping tasks. Whereas having more friends predicted decreases in avoidant or hostile strategies, having high-quality friendships predicted emotionally-engaged strategies that involved talking about the problem. Moreover, whereas having more friends predicted increases in relatively disengaged strategies, like distraction and acting like the problem never happened, having high-quality predicted decreases in these strategies. The present study also tested whether youths’ strategies in fall predicted changes in friendship adjustment by the spring. Only strategies which may be seen as major friendship transgressions (i.e., avoiding or blaming the friend when the friend encounters a problem) predicted changes in friendship over time. Collectively, these results provide important new information on the interplay between social competencies and friendship experiences and suggest that friendships may provide a critical venue for the development of important relationship skills. PMID:21443336

  8. No Fear, Just Relax and Play: Social Anxiety, Alcohol Expectancies, and Drinking Games among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Olthuis, Janine V.; Casner, Hilary G.; Bui, Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the association between social anxiety and drinking game (DG) involvement as well as the moderating role of social anxiety-relevant alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) in social anxiety and DG involvement among college students. Participants: Participants were 715 students (74.8% women, M[subscript age] = 19.46, SD =…

  9. Let's Go Toy Shopping! Exploring Early Anticipatory Socialization for Careers and Gender Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Bodie, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Gender Communication, Communication and Careers, Organizational Communication. Objectives: At the end of the activity, students will be able: to identify and analyze the socialization of gender expectations, to recognize and describe how early this type of socialization can occur, to critique the early socialization of gendered career…

  10. Persistent social inequality in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy: Outlook for a differential pension age in Denmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Jeune, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The state old-age pension in Denmark increases to keep pace with the projected increase in average life expectancy (LE) without any regard to the social gap in LE and expected lifetime in good health. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in LE and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) between groups of Danes with high, medium and low levels of education. Nationwide register data on education and mortality were combined with data from the Surveys of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) surveys in 2006-2007, 2010-2011 and 2013-2014 and the DFLE by educational level was estimated by Sullivan's method for each of these three time points. Between 2006-2007 and 2013-2014, LE among 65-year-old men and women with a low educational level increased by 1.3 and 1.0 years, respectively, and by 1.4 and 1.3 years for highly educated men and women. The gap in LE between people with high and low levels of education remained more than 2 years. In 2006-2007, 65-year-old men with a high level of education could expect 3.2 more years without disability than men of the same age with a low level of education. In 2013-2014, the difference was 2.9 years. For women, the results were 3.7 and 3.4 years, respectively. With the persistent social inequality in LE of more than 2 years and the continuous gap between high and low educational groups in DFLE of about 3 years, a differential pension age is recommended.

  11. Social Adjustment of College Freshmen: The Importance of Gender and Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between living environment, gender and both overall adjustment to college and social adjustment in freshmen students was examined in this study. The College Adjustment Scales were administered to 511 freshmen students living in on-campus housing. There were 259 students living in Freshmen Year Experience (FYE) Halls verses 252…

  12. Adler's Concept of Social Interest: Theory, Measurement, and Implications for Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a new, short measure of social interest and examines its relations to a variety of measures of adjustment and psychological well-being. Also summarizes the meaning of Adler's concept of social interest and his theorizing concerning its influence on adjustment. (Author/SS)

  13. Influence of social motivation, self-perception of social efficacy and normative adjustment in the peer setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera López, Mauricio; Romera Félix, Eva M; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario; Gómez Ortiz, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Social Achievement Goal Scale (Ryan & Shim, 2006) in Spanish adolescent students. The second objective sought to analyse the influence of social goals, normative adjustment and self-perception of social efficacy on social adjustment among peers. A total of 492 adolescents (54.1% females) attending secondary school (12-17 years; M = 13.8, SD = 1.16) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were performed. The validation confirmed the three-factor structure of the original scale: social development goals, social demonstration-approach goals and social demonstration-avoidance goals. The structural equation model indicated that social development goals and normative adjustment have a direct bearing on social adjustment, whereas the social demonstration-approach goals (popularity) and self-perception of social efficacy with peers and teachers exert an indirect influence. The Spanish version of the Social Achievement Goal Scale (Ryan & Shim, 2006) yielded optimal psychometric properties. Having a positive motivational pattern, engaging in norm-adjusted behaviours and perceiving social efficacy with peers is essential to improving the quality of interpersonal relationships.

  14. Unmitigated agency, social support, and psychological adjustment in men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L

    2011-04-01

    Unmitigated agency (UA), a gender-linked characteristic, has been associated with poorer cancer adjustment. Support from one's social network typically predicts adjustment but may be poorly matched to UA. The influence of UA on the utility of social support on adjustment over time is examined. Men with cancer (N=55) were assessed initially and 6 months later on three indicators of adjustment. Multilevel modeling analyses varied by adjustment indicator. UA was associated with increased cancer-related psychosocial symptoms but not depressive symptoms or cancer-related thought intrusion. Social support predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less cancer-related thought intrusion. However, a cross-level interaction revealed that the utility of social support on cancer-related thought intrusion was weaker for men with greater levels of UA. Men with cancer likely respond differently to changes in social support depending on their endorsement of UA. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' "empirical" or "normative" expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms.

  16. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eAndrighetto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others’ esteem and the desire to meet others’ expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others’ expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others’ empirical or normative expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others’ normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms.

  17. Aspirations and Expectations of West Malaysian Youth: Two Models of Social Class Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshimitsu; And Others

    1973-01-01

    While the occupational aspirations of Malay and Chinese male students in the secondary schools reveal fairly similar configurations, the socio-economic expectations of Malays are higher and largely independent of social class origins. (Authors)

  18. Describing the population health burden of depression: health-adjusted life expectancy by depression status in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steensma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. Methods: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status. National Population Health Survey (NPHS participants 20 years and older (n = 12 373 were followed for mortality outcomes from 1994 to 2009, based on depression status. Depression was defined as having likely experienced a major depressive episode in the previous year as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Life expectancy was estimated by building period abridged life tables by sex and depression status using the relative risks of mortality from the NPHS and mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2007-2009. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2009/10 provided estimates of depression prevalence and Health Utilities Index as a measure of HRQOL. Using the combined mortality, depression prevalence and HRQOL estimates, HALE was estimated for the adult population according to depression status and by sex. Results: For the population of women with a recent major depressive episode, HALE at 20 years of age was 42.0 years (95% CI: 40.2-43.8 compared to 57.0 years (95% CI: 56.8-57.2 for women without a recent major depressive episode. For the population of Canadian men, HALE at 20 was 39.0 years (95% CI: 36.5-41.5 for those with a recent major depressive episode compared to 53.8 years (95% CI: 53.6-54.0 for those without. For the 15.0-year difference in HALE between women with and without depression, 12.3 years can be attributed to the HRQOL gap and the remaining 2.7 years to the mortality gap. The 14.8 fewer

  19. Social Support, Unfulfilled Expectations, and Affective Well-Being on Return to Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate how social support from the partner is related to mothers' affective well-being during their return to employment after maternity leave and whether expectations of that support have an additional impact. We differentiated four forms of support and their respective expectation discrepancies:…

  20. The Role of Early Childhood Personality in the Developmental Course of Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavcic, Tina; Podlesek, Anja; Zupancic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    This study explored children, preschool, and family characteristics that contribute to individual differences in the developmental trajectories of social competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior. Teachers reported on personality and social adjustment of 304 children at ages 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Predictors of social adjustment…

  1. Are Students Really Connected? Predicting College Adjustment from Social Network Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raacke, John; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in popularity of social networking sites has spurred research exploring the impact of usage in a variety of areas. The current study furthered this line of research by examining the relationships between social network usage and adjustment to college in the academic, social, personal-emotional and university affiliation domains.…

  2. Patients' and health professionals' use of social media in health care: motives, barriers and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L; Tates, Kiek; Nieboer, Theodoor E

    2013-09-01

    To investigate patients' and health professionals' (a) motives and use of social media for health-related reasons, and (b) barriers and expectations for health-related social media use. We conducted a descriptive online survey among 139 patients and 153 health care professionals in obstetrics and gynecology. In this survey, we asked the respondents about their motives and use of social network sites (SNS: Facebook and Hyves), Twitter, LinkedIn, and YouTube. Results showed that patients primarily used Twitter (59.9%), especially for increasing knowledge and exchanging advice and Facebook (52.3%), particularly for social support and exchanging advice. Professionals primarily used LinkedIn (70.7%) and Twitter (51.2%), for communication with their colleagues and marketing reasons. Patients' main barriers for social media use were privacy concerns and unreliability of the information. Professionals' main barriers were inefficiency and lack of skills. Both patients and professionals expected future social media use, provided that they can choose their time of social media usage. The results indicate disconcordance in patients' and professionals' motives and use of social media in health care. Future studies on social media use in health care should not disregard participants' underlying motives, barriers and expectations regarding the (non)use of social media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Executive functions and theory of mind as predictors of social adjustment in childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2014-11-15

    This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind.

  4. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the

  5. Perceived Social Support and Locus of Control as the Predictors of Vocational Outcome Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of vocational outcome expectation to social support which is an environmental factor and locus of control which is a personal factor. With this purpose, using Social Cognitive Career Theory as the theoretical framework, 263 undergraduate students completed Vocational Outcome Expectations…

  6. Patients' and health professionals' use of social media in health care: Motives, barriers and expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Tates, K.; Nieboer, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate patients' and health professionals' (a) motives and use of social media for health-related reasons, and (b) barriers and expectations for health-related social media use. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive online survey among 139 patients and 153 health care professionals

  7. Patterns of Social Expectations among Maori and European Children in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Petrie, Keith J.

    1996-01-01

    Assessed social expectations of 163 Maori and European New Zealanders aged 9 and 12 in response to videotaped social encounters. Ethnic differences were greater among younger children. Among Maori children, an enculturated pattern was associated with less assertiveness and lower self-concept, but was not with cross-ethnic acceptance. (SLD)

  8. Enhancing Cross-Cultural Training Efficacy on Expatriate Adjustment through Emotional Intelligence and Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Susanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cross cultural training is widely believed to make a positive contribution to expatriate adjustment. In practice, however, it is very costly and sometimes ineffective for expatriates. Therefore, there is a growing importance placed on increasing the cost effectiveness or enhancing the efficacy of crosscultural training by functioning individual expatriate’s social capital and emotional intelligence as moderating variables towards expatriate’s adjustment and performance. To do so we blend ideas drawn from social capital theory and emotional intelligence to develop the structure that underlies the logic of this paper. Thus, this paper uses social capital and emotional intelligence theories to enrich extant literature on expatriate adjustment

  9. Spherical Model Integrating Academic Competence with Social Adjustment and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others

    This study replicates and elaborates a three-dimensional, spherical model that integrates research findings concerning social and emotional behavior, psychopathology, and academic competence. Kindergarten teachers completed an extensive set of rating scales on 100 children, including the Classroom Behavior Inventory and the Child Adaptive Behavior…

  10. The impact of the structural adjustment | Rono | Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the SAPs in Kenya have been linked to the increasing deviant and crime rates, ethnic hatred and discrimination and welfare problems, especially in the areas of education and health. African Journal of Social Work Vol.17(1) 2002: 81-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jsda.v17i1.23847 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhu, Maoling

    2017-01-01

    Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor) and social support (contextual protective factor) are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness) of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children) in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects) and subsequent (lagged effects) status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children ( M age = 14.09, SD = 1.40) who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1) left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2) After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  12. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobing Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  13. Population-Based Estimates of Decreases in Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Associated with Unhealthy Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Zack, Matthew M; Thompson, William W

    2016-01-01

    Being classified as outside the normal range for body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk for chronic health conditions, poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and premature death. To assess the impact of BMI on HRQOL and mortality, we compared quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) by BMI levels. We obtained HRQOL data from the 1993-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and life table estimates from the National Center for Health Statistics national mortality files to estimate QALE among U.S. adults by BMI categories: underweight (BMI overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)), and severely obese (BMI ≥35.0 kg/m(2)). In 2010 in the United States, the highest estimated QALE for adults at 18 years of age was 54.1 years for individuals classified as normal weight. The two lowest QALE estimates were for those classified as either underweight (48.9 years) or severely obese (48.2 years). For individuals who were overweight or obese, the QALE estimates fell between those classified as either normal weight (54.1 years) or severely obese (48.2 years). The difference in QALE between adults classified as normal weight and those classified as either overweight or obese was significantly higher among women than among men, irrespective of race/ethnicity. Using population-based data, we found significant differences in QALE loss by BMI category. These findings are valuable for setting national and state targets to reduce health risks associated with severe obesity, and could be used for cost-effectiveness evaluations of weight-reduction interventions.

  14. Adjusting to Social Change - A Multi-Level Analysis in Three Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    example, coping may be more collective in collectivist , compared to individualist , societies (Chang & Sivam, 2004). Some cultures have a greater sense...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0041 Adjusting to Social Change - A multi-level Analysis in three cultures Prof Robin Goodwin...COVERED (From – To) 23 May 2012 – 22 May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adjusting to Social Change - A multi-level Analysis in three cultures

  15. Study of Association between Social Adjustment and Spiritual Health in Qom University of Medical Sciences Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra Aliakbarzade arani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Admission to university is considered an opportunity to learn more and mentally grow further. At the same time, it is considered a stressor by some students and causes maladaptive reactions in them. This study was conducted to investigate the association between social adjustment and spiritual health in university students. Methods: Two hundred and fifty students were enrolled in this descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional study according to random, systematic sampling. The used instruments were Bell Adjustment Inventory, consisting of 32 items, with 89% reliability coefficient and Paloutzian & Ellison Spiritual Well-Being Scale, consisting of 20 items, with validity and reliability of 79% and 82%, respectively. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and univariate and multivariate linear regression in SPSS 16. Results: Women comprised 50.2% of the participants. The mean (SD age of the participants was 21.72 (5.02 and only 18.4% were married. Social adjustment was significantly correlated with total score of spiritual health and scores of the subscales religious health and existential health (P<0.001. Conclusion: Because social adjustment was moderate among Qom University of Medical Sciences students, and in the light of the association between spiritual health and social adjustment, group and individual counseling services can be delivered to students with low levels of social adjustment in universities to help them improve their social and spiritual health. Keywords:

  16. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIFE BUILDING SKILLS AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. ADENIYI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing impairment contributes greatly to social and psychological deficits of the affected individuals, which can affect their interpersonal relation. The inability to hear and communicate effectively results in adjustment problem that leads to social isolation. Objectives: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between life building skills and social adjustment of students with hearing impairment. Methods: The study employed descriptive survey research design. The samples consisted of 150 students with hearing impairment purposively selected from two inclusive schools in Lagos state, Nigeria. The samples comprised of 65 boys and 85 girls with age range between 15 and 18 years in the Senior Secondary School. The instruments used for data collection were Life building skills inventory (adapted with reliability of 0.80 and Social adjustment scale (Self developed. The instruments consisted of two sections namely: A&B. Section A of Life building skills contained bio- data of the respondents, while B contained 3 subscales: Self-efficacy inventory adapted from Schwarzer and Jerusalem 1995 with reliability of 0.85, Decision-making inventory adapted from Rowe 1997 with reliability of 0.75, Assertiveness inventory adapted from Aberti and Emmons 1995 with reliability of 0.80. The self-constructed Social Adjustment scale contained 10 items probing questions with reliability of 0.69. Data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression. Results: The results revealed relative contributions of some life building skills to social adjustment of students with hearing impairment. There were joint contributions of the independent variables to dependent variable, while decision-making contributed mostly. Conclusion: This study examined relationship between life building skills and social adjustment of students with hearing impairment with a bid to provide adequate counseling services. It was

  18. Parental socialization of sadness regulation in middle childhood: the role of expectations and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Michael C; Zeman, Janice L

    2010-09-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation of parent-child interactions in 62 families of White, middle-class children in 3rd and 4th grades. Families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions. After parents were provided with a description of normative child behavior on a sadness-induction task, feedback was manipulated such that parents in the control condition were told their child had demonstrated typical regulation while parents in the violated-expectancy condition were informed their child did not manage sadness as well as peers. The hypothesis that violated expectancies influence socialization processes was supported, with greater evidence emerging for fathers than mothers. In certain circumstances within the violated-expectancy condition, there was more parental similarity in socialization practices than in the control condition. Further, mother-father comparisons indicated differences in socialization as a function of parent and child gender that were generally consistent with gender stereotypes.

  19. Changes in Perceived Social Support and Socioemotional Adjustment across the Elementary to Junior High School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebecca S.; Aricak, O. Tolga; Graves, Misha N.; Peters-Myszak, Jessica; Nellis, Leah

    2011-01-01

    One of the most fundamental factors related to psychological well being across the lifespan is whether a person perceives social support from important others in his or her life. The current study explored changes in and relationships among perceived social support (SS) and socioemotional adjustment (SEA) across the 1-year transition from…

  20. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  1. Community Involvement and Victimization at School: An Analysis through Family, Personal and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Teresa Isabel; Musitu, Gonzalo; Ramos, Manuel Jesus; Murgui, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzes the impact of adolescents' community involvement on victimization by peers at school through various indicators of family, personal and social adjustment (openness of communication with mother and father, life satisfaction, social self-esteem, and loneliness). Participating in the project were 565 adolescents aged 11 to…

  2. Social Cognitive Predictors of Adjustment to Engineering Majors across Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.; Smith, Paige E.; Watford, Bevlee A.; Lim, Robert H.; Hui, Kayi; Morrison, M. Ashley; Wilkins, Gregory; Williams, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    We tested a social cognitive model of academic adjustment in a sample of 1377 students enrolled in engineering schools at two predominantly White and two historically Black state universities. The model brought together central elements of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) segmental models of educational/vocational satisfaction, interest,…

  3. Friendship Moderates Prospective Associations between Social Isolation and Adjustment Problems in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…

  4. Infants' Social-Emotional Adjustment within a Childcare Context of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hee; Moon, Hyukjun

    2011-01-01

    In a child day-care setting, the naturally occurring social-emotional behaviours and play interaction of 51 infants were observed and recorded. Individual differences in gender, age, temperament, and maternal parenting behaviours were examined to understand how these variables might be related to social-emotional adjustment of infants. The…

  5. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  6. Comparison of dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile employed and unemployed women in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Azadeh S; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Azkhosh, Manouchehr; Askari, Ali

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our goal is to consider the effects of employment in conjunction with education on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile women in Iran. In this work, we employed the survey method. We recruited 240 infertile women, utilizing the cluster random sampling method. These women filled out the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and the social adjustment part of the California Test of Personality. Next, multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationship of employment status and education with dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. Our results indicated that dysfunctional attitudes were far more prevalent in infertile unemployed women than in infertile employed women. Also, social adjustment was better in infertile employed women than in infertile unemployed women. It was shown that education level alone does not have significant effect on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. However, we demonstrated that the employment status of infertile women in conjunction with their education level significantly affects the two dimensions of dysfunctional attitudes (relationships, entitlements) and has insignificant effects on social adjustment. It was revealed that in employed infertile women in Iran, the higher education level, the less dysfunctional were attitudes in relationships and entitlements, whereas in unemployed infertile women, those with a college degree had the least and those with master's or higher degrees had the most dysfunctional attitudes in terms of relationships and entitlements.

  7. The effect of acquiring life skills through humor on social adjustment rate of the female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Sabour, Nazanin Hashemi; Yazdani, Mohsen; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-01-01

    Life skills have different effects on various aspects of the mental health. Social adjustment prepares adolescents for entering to the adulthood. On the other hand, humor and joking in the education is considered as a stress reducer and learning increaser. Therefore, the present study conducted aimed to determine the effect of acquiring life skills through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girls. This was a two-group semi-experimental study including three phases. The study population included 69 first year high school female students of Isfahan Department of Education district 3 who were selected in simple random sampling. First of all, the social adjustment rate was measured using California Personality Inventory. Thereafter, life skills education was conducted using humor during five sessions. Finally, a test was taken in order to assess the acquisition of the life skills in which passing score was required for re-completing the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using software SPSS(10) and independent and paired t-tests. The findings of the study indicated that the mean score of the social adjustment statistically had a significant difference in the intervention group before and after the intervention. Furthermore, statistically, there was a significant difference between mean score of the social adjustment in the control group and test group after conducting the intervention. The findings of the study indicated that life skills education has been increased through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girl students. Considering the efficacy of learning life skills on the social adjustment and results of the other studies which were in accordance with the present study, implementing such trainings with a new method comprehensively is recommended in the schools.

  8. Hope-inspiring therapeutic relationships, professional expectations and social inclusion for young people with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Clio; Greenwood, Kathryn

    2015-10-01

    Personal recovery accounts suggest that a positive therapeutic relationship with an optimistic mental health professional may facilitate social inclusion. However, little empirical research has investigated the role of the therapeutic relationship in social outcomes or explored potential mechanisms of change within community psychosis care. This study investigated the direct predictive associations of the therapeutic relationship and professional expectancies for social inclusion and vocational activity for young people with psychosis, and indirect associations through hopefulness. Young people with psychosis and their main mental health professional (n=51 dyads) participated across two time points. Measures of therapeutic relationships, professional expectancies, and vocational activity were obtained at baseline. Measures of hopefulness, social inclusion and vocational activity were obtained at follow-up. Direct and indirect associations between variables were analysed using path modelling. Directed path models were consistent with a positive therapeutic relationship and positive professional expectancies predicting social inclusion and vocational activity through mediation by increased patient domain-specific hopefulness. The professional-rated therapeutic relationship more directly predicts change in vocational activity status. Change in vocational activity status predicts increased patient hopefulness. The therapeutic relationship between professionals and young people with psychosis appears hope-inspiring and important to patients' social inclusion and vocational outcomes. Vocational activity may produce reciprocal gains in hopefulness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of psychodrama with pantomime on the social adjustment of deaf female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Faramarzi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups. To gather information, Rao’s Social Maturity Scale was used. The data were analyzed by the multivariate analysis of covariance s tatistical method (SPSS version 21.Results: Our findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances of deaf students of both the groups in the post-test on social adjustment (p=0.0001.Conclusion: The use of psychodrama increased the rate of social adjustment in deaf students.

  10. Health care social media: expectations of users in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrita; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2013-01-01

    Affordability, acceptability, accommodation, availability, and accessibility are the five most important dimensions of access to health services. Seventy two percent of the Indian population lives in semi-urban and rural areas. The strong mismatched ratio of hospitals to patients, rising costs of health care, rapidly changing demographics, increasing population, and heightened demands in pricing for technological health care usage in emerging economies necessitate a unique health delivery solution model using social media. A greater disease burden lies in the health care delivery in developing country like India. This is due to the lack of health care infrastructure in the majority of semi-urban and rural regions. New techniques need to be introduced in these regions to overcome these issues. In the present scenario, people use social media from business, automobiles, arts, book marking, cooking, entertainment, and general networking. Developed and advanced countries like the United States have developed their communication system for many years now. They have already established social media in a number of domains including health care. Similar practice incidences can be used to provide a new dimension to health care in the semi-urban regions of India. This paper describes an extended study of a previous empirical study on the expectations of social media users for health care. The paper discusses what the users of social media expect from a health care social media site. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significance of the affect of four factors (privacy, immediacy, usability, and communication) on the usage of health care social media. Privacy, immediacy, usability, and communication were the independent variables and health care social media was the dependant variable. There were 103 respondents who used the online questionnaire tool to generate their responses. The results from the multiple regression analysis using SPSS 20 showed that

  11. Investigating cardiovascular patients' preferences and expectations regarding the use of social media in health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshah, Nidal F

    2018-02-01

    To reach more people in the community, health educators have considered employing social media alongside traditional health education methods. To understand the preferences and expectations of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) regarding the use of social media in health education. To assess the association between patients' socio-demographics with their preferences and expectations about the use of social media in health education. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which included 135 subjects with an established diagnosis of CVDs. The subjects were met at three cardiac outpatient clinics and recruited through a convenience sampling technique. They were recruited if they were adults, oriented and diagnosed with the CVDs for at least six months. Most subjects (50.3%) were interested in receiving health education through social media, and 74.8% of them felt that using social media in health education would improve the process and lead to better outcomes. Preference for social media was significantly related to younger age, higher education, lower income, watching health education programmes on television, positive family history of CVDs, and currently has a job. Furthermore, higher positive expectations regarding using social media in health education were significantly related to higher education, watching health education programmes on television, being single, and currently has a job. Subjects with CVDs are enthusiastic about health education through social media, believing that it will be good for educating them and providing them with the up-to-date information they need to live with their diseases. Findings of this study may positively contribute to the international efforts of improving health education through employing social media to improve accessibility to health education materials, and consequently decrease the burden of CVDs.

  12. Developmental Relations between Alcohol Expectancies and Social Norms in Predicting Alcohol Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tim; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2018-01-01

    Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent…

  13. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…

  14. Paternal/Maternal Attachment, Peer Support, Social Expectations of Peer Interaction, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how paternal and maternal attachment might relate to adolescents' peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms; 1,144 8th graders in Taiwan participated in the study. The relationships were examined through a structural equating modeling. Consistent with theoretical…

  15. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  16. Great expectations: neural computations underlying the use of social norms in decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.J.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Social expectations play a critical role in everyday decision-making. However, their precise neuro-computational role in the decision process remains unknown. Here we adopt a decision neuroscience framework by combining methods and theories from psychology, economics and neuroscience to outline a

  17. Great expectations: neural computations underlying the use of social norms in decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.J.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Social expectations play a critical role in everyday decision-making. However, their precise neuro-computational role in the decision process remains unknown. Here we adopt a decision neuroscience framework by combining methods and theories from psychology, economics and neuroscience to outline a

  18. A STUDY ON SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS AND ITS IMPACT ON THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    P.Priya Packiaselvi; Ms.Malathi.V.A

    2017-01-01

    Every human being seeks adjustment to various situations. He constantly makes efforts to adjustment himself to his surroundings because a wholesome adjustment is essential for leading a happy life and going satisfaction. Social adjustment to other people is general and to the group with which they are identified is particular. The main motive of the study is to find out the social adjustment among higher secondary school students and its impact on academic achievement in Coimbatore Educationa...

  19. Relationship between Teaching Styles of Faculty Members and Social Adjustment of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Nejad B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Teachers as one of the most important and most influential people in students’ life and they have an important effect on their personal and social life. Social adjustment as an important indicator of mental health is an issues which has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent decades. The aime of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' learning styles faculty members and social adjustment. Instrument & Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was done in 2014. The study population consisted of all first-year students and faculty of the Urmia Medical University. 220 faculty and 350 students were selected using Cochran formula and random sampling. Data collected by Grasha teaching styles standard questionnaires and California psychological tests. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and analysis of variance. Findings: There was a significant correlation between specialty-oriented (p=0.042 r=0.15, authoritarian (p=0.02 r=0.14, model-oriented (p=0.17 r=0.03 and facilitates styles (p=0.032 r=0.21 with students' social adjustment, but sthere was no significant correlation between selected style with social adjustment (p=0.23 r=-0.18. No significant relationship was observed between educational degree (p=0.274 and work experience (p=0.583 of faculty members with teaching methods. Conclusion: Specialty-oriented, authoritarian, model-oriented, and facilitates teaching styles are associated with students' social adjustment no relationship is observed between the selected teaching style with students' social adjustment.

  20. Parent emotion socialization and pre-adolescent's social and emotional adjustment: Moderating effects of autonomic nervous system reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2017-12-01

    This study examined whether measures of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to social stress moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's social and emotional adjustment. Sixty-one children (9-13 years) completed a peer rejection task while their respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) and skin conductance level reactivity (SCL-R) were assessed. Parents' report of supportive and non-supportive reactions to their child's negative emotions served as measures of emotion socialization. Measures of children's social and emotional adjustment included: teacher-rated peer rejection, aggression, and prosocial behavior and parent-rated aggressive/dysregulated behavior and emotion regulation skills. Measures of children's ANS reactivity moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's adjustment. Supportive responses were more protective for children evidencing RSA augmentation whereas non-supportive responses were more detrimental for children evidencing low SCL-R. Thus children's ANS reactivity during social stress may represent a biological vulnerability that influences sensitivity to parent emotion socialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Social and Psychological Adjustment in Foster Care Alumni: Education and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Archakova T.O.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses issues in social and psychological adjustment of young adults, grown up in foster families. The psychological and socio-pedagogical factors facilitating professional education, successful employment and financial independence are emphasized. The methods and results of several large simple design researches of adjustment in foster care alumni, conducted in USA, are described. Recommendations for services and specialists working with young adults leaving state care are prov...

  2. Enhancing Cross-Cultural Training Efficacy on Expatriate Adjustment through Emotional Intelligence and Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Ely; Rostiani, Rokhima

    2012-01-01

    Cross cultural training is widely believed to make a positive contribution to expatriate adjustment. In practice, however, it is very costly and sometimes ineffective for expatriates. Therefore, there is a growing importance placed on increasing the cost effectiveness or enhancing the efficacy of crosscultural training by functioning individual expatriate’s social capital and emotional intelligence as moderating variables towards expatriate’s adjustment and performance. To do so we blend idea...

  3. Social adjustment and repressive adaptive style in survivors of pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Wurz, Amanda; Russell, K Brooke; Reynolds, Kathleen; Strother, Douglas; Dewey, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between repressive adaptive style and self-reports of social adjustment in survivors of pediatric cancer compared to their siblings. We hypothesized that there would be a greater proportion of repressors among survivors of pediatric cancer compared to siblings, and that repressive adaptive style would be significantly associated with more positive self-reports of social adjustment. We utilized a cross-sectional approach. Seventy-seven families participated. Survivors of pediatric cancer (n = 77, 48% male; 8-18 years of age) and one sibling (n = 50, 48% male; 8-18 years of age) completed measures assessing repressive adaptive style and social adjustment. As well, one parent from each family completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Questionnaire packages were mailed to eligible families who agreed to participate, and were mailed back to investigators in a pre-addressed, pre-stamped envelope. Chi-square analyses revealed there was no significant difference in the proportion of repressors among survivors and siblings. Social adjustment scores were subjected to a two (group: survivor, sibling) by two (repressor, nonrepressor) ANCOVA with gender and age as covariates. There was a significant main effect of repressive adaptive style (F = 5.69, p < .05, η 2 = 0.05) with a modest effect. Survivors and siblings with a repressive style reported significantly higher social adjustment scores (M = 106.91, SD = 11.69) compared to nonrepressors (M = 99.57, SD = 13.45). Repressive adaptive style explains some of the variance in survivors and siblings' self-reports of social adjustment. Future research should aim to better understand the role of the repressive adaptive style in survivors and siblings of children with cancer.

  4. Effect of coping with stress training on the social adjustment of students with learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifolah Khodadadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning disability includes wide range of educational problems which treating these problems need child's social, emotional and behavior treatment. As prevalence of learning disabilities among children and their difficulties, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of coping with stress training on social adjustment of students with learning disabilities. The statistical population consists of all boy student with learning disabilities in learning disabilities center, in which 34 students were selected by convenience sampling. The social adjustment questionnaire was used. The experimental group had coping strategies training in 9 sessions for 90 minutes every week. Covariance analysis was used to compare the scores. The results showed that there was significant difference in pretest and posttest of experimental group. The findings also indicated that coping strategies training increased social adjustment, affective and educational adjustments of experimental group in comparison of control group. Appropriate strategies can be used for dealing with stress in students with learning disabilities. Coping training can be used as supplemental program in schools and centers of learning disabilities to improve the adjustment problems of these students.

  5. Universities in social media – Recipients’ expectations and the published contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chwiałkowska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research carried out by the author in 2013, which covered all 59 public universities listed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education showed that Polish public universities are more and more eagerly resorting to social media as a channel for communication with the environment of students and they are currently active in social media and especially on Facebook, where 81% (48 units have their official profiles. Also other research projects show that the activities of a university in social media influences the image of the university especially among students – according to them student candidates admit that the presence of universities in social media and information published on their official Facebook profiles and the manner of interaction with users had an impact on their final decision on the choice of a university. At the same time it is possible to notice a research gap in the area of expectations of main target group for messages of universities published in social media, that is, students, with regard to the form and content of these messages from universities. It is also possible to notice a clear lack of qualitative analyses of activities taken up by Polish universities in social media. For this reason the author has decided to continue the above-mentioned research in order to learn more about the described phenomenon, that is, the presence of universities on social media platforms. The author has defined the following detailed goals for the research: identification of the expectations of students (who in Poland are the main recipient of universities’ messages in social media and employees with regard to the presence of the university in social media; identification of student’s preferred methods of communication with the university; Learning about the students’ assessment of the activities of universities conducted in social media; Qualitative analysis of contents published by universities in social media. The research

  6. Still lonely: Social adjustment of youth with and without social anxiety disorder following cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Kingery, Julie Newman; Davis, Molly; Jones, Anna; Whitehead, Monica; Jacob, Marni L

    2017-12-01

    Social experiences are an integral part of normative development for youth and social functioning difficulties are related to poor outcomes. Youth with anxiety disorders, and particularly social anxiety disorder, experience difficulties across many aspects of social functioning that may place them at risk for maladjustment. The goal of this paper was to compare social experiences of youth across anxiety diagnoses and examine whether treatment is helpful in improving social functioning. Ninety-two children (age 7-12 years; 58% male; 87.0% White) with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social anxiety disorder participated in cognitive behavioral therapy. At both pre- and post-treatment, children with social anxiety disorder self-reported greater loneliness than youth without social anxiety disorder, though levels of peer victimization and receipt of prosocial behavior were similar across groups. Parents reported greater social problems for youth with social anxiety disorder compared to those without social anxiety disorder. All youth experienced improved social functioning following treatment per child- and parent-reports. The results call for an increased focus on the social experiences of youth with anxiety disorders, and particularly loneliness, for children with social anxiety disorder. The results document ways that evidenced-based practice can improve social functioning for youth with anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Users' intention to continue using social fitness-tracking apps: expectation confirmation theory and social comparison theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Liu, Xuan; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Weiqiang

    2018-03-05

    The key step in changing health behavior is understanding why users continue to use fitness apps. Therefore, we intend to investigate the users' intention to continue using social fitness-tracking apps. We identify two major forces driving continuous behavior. Expectation confirmation is the internal driving force and social comparison is the external driving force. A survey was conducted to test this proposed research model. We obtained 211 valid questionnaires. Our results indicate that activity amount ranking (p fitness-tracking apps. In addition, the impact of activity amount ranking and activity frequency ranking on continuous intention is moderated by expectation confirmation. Meanwhile, as the upward comparison tendency increases, the positive effect of confirmation on continuous intention decreases (p Social rank expectation and confirmation are the primary driving forces of continuous intention in individuals using fitness-tracking apps. Social rank is a meaningful and straightforward measurement individuals can use to evaluate their activity performance. An upward comparison tendency weakens the effect of confirmation on continuous intention.

  8. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ro-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated.

  9. Psychological Adjustment to Lung Cancer: the role of self-compassion and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Batista

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available // Introduction: The impact of the diagnosis of an oncologic disease is well-known in terms of psychological adjustment and quality of life. On the other hand it is known that depressive symptoms may also overlap the physical symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment, which may interfere in their detection and appropriate treatment approach.   Objectives: The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between psychological adjustment to lung cancer, self-compassion, social support and emotional negative states in patients with lung cancer.   Method: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with lung cancer (38 men and 17 women with ages ranging from 44 to 87 years old participated in the study. A set of self-report instruments was used: the Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MiniMac, the Self-compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003, the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21.   Results: Significant correlations were found between psychological adjustment, psychopathology, emotion regulation strategies (self-compassion, and social support. The predictive models for psychological adjustment and stress related symptomatology include self-compassion and social support as significant predictive variables. Regarding the predictive model for depressive symptomatology, mindfulness seems to be the only significant predictor.   Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these patients may benefit, in their therapeutic approach, from the development of this kind of strategies (new ways of relating themselves with their emotional experiences and quality of their social networks in order to promote a better psychological adjustment to their clinical condition.

  10.   Islam and expectations of Social Mobility in Tamale, Northern Ghana,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    their religious engagement considerably. Taking its departing point in social theories of power and symbolic capital, as presented by Pierre Bourdieu, the paper encircles the relationship between structural forces, which have influenced the political, economic, and religious development of the local Islamic...... have been promoted. Thus, the argument of the paper is that young Muslims, through the enactment of speech acts on morals, a sort of religious capital, expect to become able to move upward socially, and at the same time manage to take steps, which make them become part of a modern world. From...

  11. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  12. The Fulfilment Level of Turkic Republics Higher Education Students' Academic and Social Expectations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mirgül ENTERİEVA; Ferudun SEZGİN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhs...

  13. The importance of relationship closeness expectations in brand-page communication in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Rui Alberto Móia Praça

    2013-01-01

    While there is extensive research regarding the way users in social networking sites (SNSs) connect and communicate with each other, literature on consumer-brand relationships in SNSs is scarce. This paper hypothesizes and tests the impact of varying the source of communication in Facebook brand pages on key characteristics of brand equity, examining whether this impact is conditioned by relationship closeness expectations. More specifically, two experiments assess how relationship closeness ...

  14. Maternity Capital as an Economic Factor, Forming Social Expectation of Women with Two or More Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Svetlichnaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of sociological study devoted to the evaluation of the social expectations of women associated with the realization of their right to maternity capital. Different social attitudes and intentions of 308 women who have two and more children with respect to realization of the program of the maternity capital were investigated. Characteristics of cognitive, emotional and behavioral readiness to participate in the governmental program of increasing fertility were assessed. The results confirm the adequacy and objectivity of the social expectations of women. They made the decision about the birth of a second child without taking into account the expected payment of the maternity capital (for 33.8% respondents maternity capital had “no meaning”; for 36.4% respondents it was just a “pleasant additional payment”. The reproductive behavior of women was based on family traditions (91.9% respondents were born in big families with two or more children and awareness of their personal responsibility for bearing and raising children (45.8% respondents were ready “for any difficulties for their children”, 23.1% respondents consider their children as “happiness and meaning of their lives”. However, 22.0% of women made their decision about the birth of the second child with expectations for the maternity capital. They were the women from the low-income families (29.6%. Promotion the childbirth in low-income families may lead to the increasing number of dysfunctional families and children who find themselves in difficult life situations. All this facts may lead to different social problems in the future.

  15. USING SOCIAL MEDIA BY MICRO ENTERPRISES – CASE STUDY FOR UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION, PRACTICE AND EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA MAJLÁTH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether microenterprises can use facilities given by the internet successfully in their marketing communication or not. Tinta Publisher has been chosen as a case study, a Hungarian microenterprise specializing in publishing books on linguistics and dictionaries. The publishing company uses Facebook, Twitter and Youtube for popularizing their publications. The paper summarizes the expectations, techniques, experiences and disadvantages of using social media.

  16. When social inclusion is not enough: Implicit expectations of extreme inclusion in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Riva, Paolo; Preti, Emanuele; Cabrino, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) might feel rejected even when socially included by others. A psychological mechanism accounting for this response bias could be that objective social inclusion violates BPD patients' underlying implicit needs of "extreme" inclusion. Thus, this study investigated whether, during interpersonal exchanges, BPD patients report more rejection-related negative emotions and less feelings of social connection than controls unless they are faced with conditions of extreme social inclusion. Sixty-one BPD patients and 61 healthy controls completed a modified Cyberball paradigm. They were randomly assigned to a condition of ostracism, social inclusion, or overinclusion (a proxy for extreme social inclusion). They then rated their emotional states and feelings of social connection immediately and 20 min after the game. BPD patients reported greater levels of negative emotions than controls in the ostracism and the inclusion conditions, but not when overincluded. Furthermore, only for BPD participants was overinclusion associated with experiencing less negative emotions than the ostracism condition. However, BPD patients reported lower feelings of social connection than controls in any experimental situation. Thus, in BPD, a laboratory condition of "overinclusion" is associated with a reduction of negative emotions to levels comparable to those of control participants, but not with similar degrees of social connection. These results suggest that for BPD patients, even "including contexts" activate feelings of rejection. Their implicit expectations of idealized interpersonal inclusion may nullify the opportunity of experiencing "real" social connection and explain their distorted subjective experiences of rejection. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Relaunching a national social marketing campaign: expectations and challenges for the "new" ParticipACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Guy; McCloy, Cora; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2011-07-01

    ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization that has been relaunched in 2007 after a 6-year hiatus. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively identify and describe the expectations and challenges the relaunch of the new ParticipACTION may present for existing physical activity organizations. Using a purposeful sampling strategy, the authors conduct semistructured telephone interviews with 49 key informants representing a range of national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Overall, there is strong support in seeing ParticipACTION relaunched. However, organizational expectations and/or their ideal vision for it are mixed. Organizations envision and support its performing an overarching social marketing and advocacy role, and in providing tools and resources that supplement existing organizational activities. Four major organizational challenges are identified concerning overlapping mandates, partnership and leadership concerns, competition for funding, and capacity concerns. Social marketing initiatives, such as ParticipACTION, may not be able to maximize their impact unless they address the expectations and concerns of competing organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity.

  18. [Self-esteem, self-centeredness and social-emotional adjustment of gifted children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A

    2009-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate of how giftedness affects social-emotional adjustment. Self-esteem may be an indicator of social-emotional adjustment but insufficient in its explanatory capacity, especially high self-esteem which tends to produce opposite responses in regards to adjustment. A distinction between defensive and genuine high self-esteem could account for these results. In order to understand how self-esteem operates on social-emotional adjustment, it should be associated with other measurements relating to self-concern. In the Rorschach comprehensive system (CS), egocentricity index measures self-centeredness, which can be defined as the balance between self-concern and concern for others. High self-concern is associated with a neglect of the others. Operationalized here, as the interaction of high self-esteem and excessive self-concern, defensive high self-esteem should predict maladaptive outcomes. Participants were aged from 9 to 15 years old, with an IQ greater or equal to 130 on the WISC-III. They were attending regular classes and were not in counseling or psychotherapy. Children and adolescents were administrated the Rorschach CS and the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Parents completed the child behaviour checklist (CBCL) which assesses general psychopathology. Seventy-eight subjects' data satisfy the conditions of validity of the instruments used. Gifted boys present more behavior and emotional problems than gifted girls in this study. Self-esteem predicts social-emotional adjustment. There is an interaction between self-esteem and self-concern on psychopathology only for high values of self-esteem. Gifted with high self-esteem associated with high self-concern are more vulnerable to maladjustment than high self-esteem associated with low self-concern. Gifted children and adolescents with low self-esteem experience more problems anyhow. These findings reinforce the view that the gifted are a diverse group in terms of social-emotional adjustment

  19. Parental attachment and adolescents' emotional adjustment: The associations with social skills and relational competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Young people learn from their interactions with their parents how to initiate and maintain satisfying and warm friendships. Attachment with parents thereby plays an important role in adolescents' social and emotional adjustment. The model tested in this study proposes that the relation between

  20. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  1. Social Networking Site Use Predicts Changes in Young Adults' Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined youths' friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer-report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for…

  2. Social Functioning and Adjustment in Chinese Children: The Imprint of Historical Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Cen, Guozhen; Li, Dan; He, Yunfeng

    2005-01-01

    This study examined, in 3 cohorts (1990, 1998, and 2002) of elementary school children (M age10 years), relations between social functioning and adjustment in different phases of the societal transition in China. Data were obtained from multiple sources. The results indicate that sociability-cooperation was associated with peer acceptance and…

  3. School Adjustment, Social Support, and Mental Health of Mainland Chinese College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Raymond Chi-Fai; Chan, Chi-Keung

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of school adjustment and social support with the mental health of mainland Chinese college students studying in Hong Kong. During the spring semester in 2011, 384 mainland Chinese college students across the postsecondary institutions in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire. Results showed that better school…

  4. A Threshold Model of Social Support, Adjustment, and Distress after Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Armer, Jane M.; Heppner, P. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a threshold model that proposes that social support exhibits a curvilinear association with adjustment and distress, such that support in excess of a critical threshold level has decreasing incremental benefits. Women diagnosed with a first occurrence of breast cancer (N = 154) completed survey measures of perceived support…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  6. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  7. Stability in Bullying and Victimization and its Association with Social Adjustment in Childhood and Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kemp, R.A.T. de; Haselager, G.J.T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations between stability in bullying and victimization, and social adjustment in childhood and adolescence. Participants were 189 girls and 328 boys who were studied in primary school and in secondary school. The mean age of the participants

  8. "Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment": Correction to Wood (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment" by Jeffrey Wood (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Mar], Vol 42[2], 345-349). The byline and author note should have included the author's middle initial, J. Thus, the byline and author note should refer to "Jeffrey J. Wood." The correction is…

  9. Maternal Parenting and Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment of Migrant Children in Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations of maternal warmth, behavioral control, and encouragement of sociability to social, school, and psychological adjustment in migrant children in China. The participants were 284 rural-to-urban migrant children (M age = 11 years, 149 boys) in migrant children's schools and their mothers. Data on parenting were…

  10. International Students in the U.S.: Social and Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michelle; Ray, Sukanya; Bybell, Danica

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of self-esteem, hope, optimism, coping, acculturative stress, and social support on international students' depressive symptoms and sociocultural adjustment. Seventy international students completed a self-report online survey. The most notable finding was that the international students used adaptive and…

  11. Social Relationships among Adolescents with Disabilities: Unique and Cumulative Associations with Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Yen K.; Murray, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated linkages between parent, peer, teacher, and mentor relationships and adjustment among adolescents with disabilities. The sample included 228 high school students with disabilities (65% male, 50% White) across four states. Overall findings indicate that students' social relationships were significantly associated…

  12. Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Parenting, and Children's School and Social Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K P; George, M R W; Cummings, E M; Davies, P T

    2013-11-01

    This study addresses the links between destructive and constructive marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' parenting to understand associations with children's social and school adjustment. Multi-method, longitudinal assessments of 235 mothers, fathers, and children (129 girls) were collected across kindergarten, first, and second grades (ages 5-7 at Time 1; ages 7-9 at Time 3). Whereas constructive marital conflict was related to both mothers' and fathers' warm parenting, destructive marital conflict was only linked to fathers' use of inconsistent discipline. In turn, both mothers' and fathers' use of psychological control was related to children's school adjustment, and mothers' warmth was related to children's social adjustment. Reciprocal links between constructs were also explored, supporting associations between destructive marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' inconsistent discipline. The merit of examining marital conflict and parenting as multidimensional constructs is discussed in relation to understanding the processes and pathways within families that affect children's functioning.

  13. The Perceptions and Expectations Toward the Social Responsibility of Hospitals and Organizational Commitment of Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Che; Chiu, Herng-Chia; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Ho, Pei-Shen; Chen, Li-Chin; Chang, Wei-Chou

    2016-09-01

    The labor rights of medical workers in hospitals in Taiwan have been a key issue of discussion and controversy in recent years. Generally, poor work conditions and manpower shortages in hospitals have resulted in a vicious circle of severely overworked medical and healthcare staff and chronically low staffing and retention rates. This study employed corporate social responsibility as the conceptual framework of the social responsibility of hospitals to examine the perceptions and expectations of nurses toward the social responsibility practices of the hospital where they serve and to explore the relationship between these perceptions and organizational commitment (OC). The participants were all nurses who were employed by one medical group in southern Taiwan. Two hundred forty anonymous questionnaires, which included scales that were designed to measure the social responsibility of hospitals and OC, were distributed. Two hundred twenty-seven valid questionnaires were returned. Exploratory factor analysis was used to validate the dimension of the social responsibility of hospitals, and hierarchical multiregression analyses were used to verify the relationship between the perceptions of nurses with regard to the social responsibility practices of the hospital where nurses serve and OC. There were considerable differences between participants' perceptions and expectations toward the social responsibility of hospitals. The nurses with high perceptions toward the social responsibility practices of the hospital where they serve tended to have relatively high OC. Senior nurses who had high perceptions of the legal and rational, ethical, and economic dimensions of the social responsibility practices of the hospital where they serve exhibited relatively strong affective commitment. Nurses in junior positions who had high perceptions of the practices of ethical responsibilities exhibited relatively strong continuance commitment. Senior nurses who had high perceptions of the

  14. An Examination of Social Anxiety, Social Skills, Social Adjustment, and Self-Construal in Chinese and American Students at an American University

    OpenAIRE

    Ingman, Kathleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Research has shown that international students studying in the United States report significantly lower levels of social adjustment than American students. Cultural differences may contribute to this problem; however, social relationships between international students and American students lead to greater adjustment for the former group. In spite of this finding, many international students fail to develop significant interpersonal relationships with American students. In this study, self...

  15. Significance of Perceived Social Expectation and Implications to Conservation Education: Turtle Conservation as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y.; Chow, Alex T.; Cheung, Sze Man

    2012-11-01

    The likelihood of participating in wildlife conservation programs is dependent on social influences and circumstances. This view is validated by a case study of behavioral intention to support conservation of Asian turtles. A total of 776 college students in China completed a questionnaire survey designed to identify factors associated with their intention to support conservation. A regression model explained 48 % of variance in the level of intention. Perceived social expectation was the strongest predictor, followed by attitudes toward turtle protection and perceived behavioral control, altogether explaining 44 %. Strong ethics and socio-economic variables had some statistical significant impacts and accounted for 3 % of the variance. The effects of general environmental awareness, trust and responsibility ascription were modest. Knowledge about turtles was a weak predictor. We conclude that perceived social expectation is a limiting factor of conservation behavior. Sustained interest and commitment to conservation can be created by enhancing positive social influences. Conservation educators should explore the potential of professionally supported, group-based actions that can nurture a sense of collective achievement as part of an educational campaign.

  16. Utopian Left-Wing Expectations and the Social Consequences of the 3rd Memorandum in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotroyannos, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In January 2015 the radical left SYRIZA has won the Greek national elections and formed a coalition government with Independent Greeks (ANEL, a right-wing populist party. After a seven-month negotiation with Greece’s creditors and the agreement for the implementation of a third memorandum of fiscal adjustment, SYRIZA announced the conduction of a second round of national elections in September 2015. After a second electoral victory, SYRIZA formed again a coalition government with ANEL. The main characteristic of SYRIZA’s pre-electoral campaign was that it has primarily focused on the commitment for austerity measures termination and on the implementation of tax alleviation. Even during the second electoral campaign in September 2015, after the agreement for the implementation of the third memorandum of fiscal adjustment, SYRIZA was promising that its implementation will be socially endued in order to reduce negative social consequences, such as those created by the previous memoranda. Practically though, after the first months of the new memorandum implementation, it is obvious that the government has introduced an unprecedented tax policy. Interestingly, this policy is not different from a traditional left logic of tax enforcement but actually leads to the implementation of horizontal austerity policies which firstly affect the socially vulnerable groups. From this point of view, while SYRIZA emphatically declare that it aims at resolving the crisis, its policies seem to deepen the depression. For instance, its inability to find alternative options to finance the social security system, leads to the implementation of restrictive policies which dismantle the welfare state. This paper aims at analyzing the policies of the first left government in Greece by focusing on the tentative social consequences of the third memorandum and at the same time, studying some of the basic factors for its electoral victory, such as populism.

  17. Expectation vs Reality: Cosmopolitan and Insular Social Capital among Malaysian Chinese Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Chan Suet Kay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the form of social capital present among Malaysian Chinese youth, comparing across those who are Chinese-medium educated and English-medium educated. The reason for comparison is because of the dichotomy of Confucian values in Chinese-medium education and Western liberal democratic values in English-medium education, which may influence their choice of social network. Using a self-designed survey questionnaire, I assessed whether Putnam’s two forms of social capital, the bridging and the bonding social capital, are found in these two sub-ethnic groups. In terms of face-to-face interaction, it is found that ethnic identification remains a strong influence on respondents’ choice of social network. However, respondents also demonstrate an aspiration to network on a more global scale if facilitated by information communication technology. Given Malaysia’s present globalised environment, with strong migratory flows inside and outside, the reality of respondents’ social capital does not match the expectations respondents have of themselves. While they express a desire to network in a global nexus, in order to be more connected to the rest of the world, they are still restrained by attributes like ethnic identification and language preference.

  18. Living with Moebius syndrome: adjustment, social competence, and satisfaction with life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Kathleen Rives; Matsumoto, David

    2010-03-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital condition that results in bilateral facial paralysis. Several studies have reported social interaction and adjustment problems in people with Moebius syndrome and other facial movement disorders, presumably resulting from lack of facial expression. To determine whether adults with Moebius syndrome experience increased anxiety and depression and/or decreased social competence and satisfaction with life compared with people without facial movement disorders. Internet-based quasi-experimental study with comparison group. Thirty-seven adults with Moebius syndrome recruited through the United States-based Moebius Syndrome Foundation newsletter and Web site and 37 age- and gender-matched control participants recruited through a university participant database. Anxiety and depression, social competence, satisfaction with life, ability to express emotion facially, and questions about Moebius syndrome symptoms. People with Moebius syndrome reported significantly lower social competence than the matched control group and normative data but did not differ significantly from the control group or norms in anxiety, depression, or satisfaction with life. In people with Moebius syndrome, degree of facial expression impairment was not significantly related to the adjustment variables. Many people with Moebius syndrome are better adjusted than previous research suggests, despite their difficulties with social interaction. To enhance interaction, people with Moebius syndrome could compensate for the lack of facial expression with alternative expressive channels.

  19. Social Networking Site Use Predicts Changes in Young Adults’ Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined youths’ friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for online friendships, predicting decreases in internalizing symptoms for youth with lower initial levels of social acceptance, but increases in symptoms for youth with higher initial levels over the following year. Across the entire sample, deviant behavior in posted photos predicted increases in young adults’ problematic alcohol use over time. The importance of considering the interplay between online and offline social factors for predicting adjustment is discussed. PMID:23109797

  20. Network characteristics, perceived social support, and psychological adjustment in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  1. Social surrogacy and adjustment: exploring the correlates of having a "social helper" for shy and non-shy young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    A social surrogate is an individual who offers help and comfort in social situations or makes social events more exciting. In this study of 157 young adolescents (55% female; Mage = 13.84 years, SD = 0.75 years), the authors examined whether the linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported social surrogate use and adjustment outcomes (social problems, loneliness, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms) varied as a function of shyness and gender, after accounting for the effects of positive friendship quality. Regression analyses revealed that low and high levels of social surrogate use were related to greater social problems for all adolescents. In addition, shyness emerged as a moderator for several curvilinear effects. Specifically, results indicated that (a) high levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater anxiety for adolescents high in shyness; and (b) low levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater depressive symptoms for adolescents low in shyness. Findings highlight the developmental importance of specific types of relationship experiences during early adolescence and point to different implications of social surrogate use for shy and non-shy young adolescents.

  2. Social reactions to disclosure of sexual victimization and adjustment among survivors of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Untied, Amy S; Gidycz, Christine A

    2013-07-01

    How a support provider responds to disclosure of sexual victimization has important implications for the process of recovery. The present study examines the associations between various positive and negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and psychological distress, coping behavior, social support, and self-esteem in a sample of college women (N = 374). Social reactions to assault disclosure that attempted to control the survivor's decisions were associated with increased symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and lower perceptions of reassurance of worth from others. Blaming social reactions were associated with less self-esteem and engagement in coping via problem solving. Social reactions that provided emotional support to the survivor were associated with increased coping by seeking emotional support. Contrary to expectations, social reactions that treated the survivor differently were associated with higher self-esteem. Implications are discussed.

  3. How social position of origin relates to intelligence and level of education when adjusting for attained social position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo

    2011-06-01

    Intelligence and its relationship to achievement is a classical question within psychology. In accordance with earlier British studies, the present study, based on conscription data and follow-ups for Swedish men born 1949-51 (N = 36,156), found that when adjusting for attained social position, people with a high social position of origin tend to have higher intelligence and level of education than people with a lower social position of origin. These results could be seen to contradict the claim that more merit, at least when operationalized as intelligence or education, is required from people with a low social position of origin in order to attain a certain social level. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  4. A multigene prognostic assay for selection of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T3, stage II colon cancer: impact on quality-adjusted life expectancy and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, John; Lyman, Gary H; Chien, Rebecca; Meropol, Neal J

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding appropriate and affordable use of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer (T3, proficient DNA mismatch repair). This study aimed to estimate the effectiveness and costs from a US societal perspective of a multigene recurrence score (RS) assay for patients recently diagnosed with stage II colon cancer (T3, proficient DNA mismatch repair) eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy. RS was compared with guideline-recommended clinicopathological factors (tumor stage, lymph nodes examined, tumor grade, and lymphovascular invasion) by using a state-transition (Markov) lifetime model. Data were obtained from published literature, a randomized controlled trial (QUick And Simple And Reliable) of adjuvant chemotherapy, and rates of chemotherapy use from the National Cooperative Cancer Network Colon/Rectum Cancer Outcomes study. Life-years, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and lifetime costs were examined. The RS is projected to reduce adjuvant chemotherapy use by 17% compared with current treatment patterns and to increase quality-adjusted life expectancy by an average of 0.035 years. Direct medical costs are expected to decrease by an average of $2971 per patient. The assay was cost saving for all subgroups of patients stratified by clinicopathologic factors. The most influential variables affecting treatment decisions were projected years of life remaining, recurrence score, and patients' disutilities associated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Use of the multigene RS to assess recurrence risk after surgery in stage II colon cancer (T3, proficient DNA mismatch repair) may reduce the use of adjuvant chemotherapy without decreasing quality-adjusted life expectancy and be cost saving from a societal perspective. These findings need to be validated in additional cohorts, including studies of clinical practice as assay use diffuses into nonacademic settings. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR

  5. [Social media monitoring of asthmatic children treated in a specialized program: Parents and caregivers expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Ávila, Jennifer Bg; Cherrez-Ojeda, Ivan; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Solé, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Social media has been used in support of patients with asthma. However, it remains unclear what are the expectations of parents or caregivers of asthmatic patients. To evaluate the expectations of parents or caregivers of asthmatic children treated at Children's Asthma Prevention Program (PIPA), Uruguaiana, RS, in relation to the use of social media. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional survey of parents or caregivers of children seen at Children's Asthma Prevention Program through responses to a written questionnaire on the use of new technologies and different applications to enhance information about asthma. 210 parents or caregivers (median age: 25 years; age range: 18-42 years of patients were enrolled. The mean age of their children was 7.3 years (age range: 2 to 18 years), the mean duration of asthma was 4.7 years and 65% of parents/caregivers of these children had less than eight years of schooling. Most of them (72%) had no access to the Internet via cell/mobile phones and only 18% actively used to gathered information about asthma by internet. There was high interest (87%) in receiving information via social media. Parents or caregivers of children attending the PIPA program expressed high interest in using social media. However, few use it to control their children's disease. While providing a great benefit to use social media as a mean of communication in health, the content needs to be monitored for reliability and quality. The privacy of users (doctors and patients) must be preserved and it is very important to facilitate the access to Internet.

  6. Comparison of Social Adjustment in Blind Children and Normal in Primary School in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA ModdaresMoghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Methods:This is a descriptive, analytical study in which 270 blind and viewing students of primary schools in Mashhad participated in the academic years 2012-13. The blind students were chosen by census and viewing students through a stratified random sampling from normal schools. For data collection, a standard questionnaire that was social adjustment questionnaire was used. It was made in 1974 in America by Lambert, Wind Miller, Cole & Figueroa, which was translated in 1992 by Dr. Shahny Yeylagh, to be used for children of 7 to 13 years. It was conducted on 1500 boy and girl students of the first to fifth grade in elementary schools of Ahvaz. This test consists of 11 subscales, 38 sub-categories and 260 items. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-test was used. (P <0.05. Results:The mean scores of social adjustment of students showed no statistically significant difference between the viewing and the blind (p=0.8. Also the mean of social adjustment in blind girls and boys was not statistically significant (p=0.1, but the incompatibility was found in more boys than the girls. Conclusion: Regarding the results, social incompatibility was higher in the blind girl students than the viewing girl students. Also this incompatibility was higher in the boys than the girls thereby requiring scientific and coherent planning for them.

  7. Social support, coping strategies and their correlations with older adults' relocation adjustments after natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiau-Fang

    2017-06-01

    The present study examines the associations among social support, coping strategies and relocation adjustment outcomes, including community cohesion, residential satisfaction and depressive symptoms, for older persons in Taiwan displaced by Typhoon Morakot. This study enrolled 372 adults aged 60 years or older who were relocated to permanent houses after Typhoon Morakot destroyed their homes on 8 August 2009. A path analysis simultaneously examined the hypothesized links among social support, coping strategies and relocation adjustment outcomes. The relationships between coping strategies and relocation outcomes varied. Problem-focused and support-seeking coping were positively related to perceived community cohesion, whereas emotion-focused coping was associated with a high number of depressive symptoms. Social support was positively related to residential satisfaction. Additionally, social support was also indirectly related to increased community cohesion and residential satisfaction through its positive relationship with support-seeking and problem-focused coping. More interventions should be implemented to enhance support within informal networks and a sense of belonging to the new resident community, thereby promoting more active coping strategies, enhancing the effectiveness of coping efforts and maximizing positive adjustment outcomes. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1006-1014. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Framing and Claiming: How Information-Framing Affects Expected Social Security Claiming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey R.; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a “breakeven analysis” encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others. PMID:28579641

  9. Framing and Claiming: How Information-Framing Affects Expected Social Security Claiming Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey R; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a "breakeven analysis" encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others.

  10. Gender differences in customer expectations and perceptions of corporate social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabrese, Armando; Costa, Roberta; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The literature on business ethics, corporate social responsibility and sustainability includes many studies on gender differences, however the results are often contrasting. In particular, there has not yet been full agreement on the role and significance of gender differences in customer...... the statistical and the substantive significance of gender differences in customer expectations and perceptions of corporate responsibility, also examining the influence of age and education. The analysis is carried out on a remarkably large sample of 908 clients, pertaining to 12 of the largest Italian banks...... strategies in designing, planning, implementing and assessing sustainability initiatives....

  11. Personality traits as predictors of children's social adjustment to school entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous and longitudinal predictive relations between three blocks of predictors and measures of children's social adjustment (social competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviour after the school entry were investigated. The first block of predictors captures expressions of child personality dimensions as perceived by pre-school teachers/assistant school teachers, the second block contains parental education and self-evaluations of parenting in mothers and fathers of the target children, and the third block refers to children's pre-school attendance prior to school entry. Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale, school teachers reported on firstgraders' social adjustment. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences was employed to assess personality when the target children were 3, 4, 5, and 6 years old, while at ages 3 and 6 their parents filled-in the Family Environment Questionnaire to provide self-reports on parenting. The blocks of predictors jointly explain a relatively large portion of variance in firstgraders' social adjustment both contemporaneously and longitudinally. Personality characteristics significantly predict all of the criteria measures, while family environment and pre-school attendance explain additional variance in internalizing behaviour (depressive, anxious, isolated, and dependent behaviour, over and above the contribution of personality. Perceptions of children's conscientiousness-openness at the beginning of the school year as well as through early childhood and of their agreeableness in preschool predict teacher ratings of the firstgraders' social competence. Externalizing behaviour (angry, aggressive, egotistical and oppositional behaviour was consistently predicted by low conscientiousness-openness, extraversion-emotional stability, and low agreeableness. Finally, low conscientiousness-openness in school, low extraversion-emotional stability in preschool, maternal inefficient

  12. Micro and Small Entrepreneur Social Ads: The Influence of Risk Perception as Measured by Self-Monitoring and Social Expectation on Poverty Reduction Social Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Zakaria Afiff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the growing usage of social ads in Indonesia, the effectiveness of these social ads has not really been assessed. One theme of the social ads that is related to the poverty problem in this country is the micro and small entrepreneur social ads, namely a number of related social ads issued by the government that persuades its audience to release themselves from poverty by becoming micro and small entrepreneurs that is supported by low cost loans from the government.As becoming a micro or small entrepreneur has both an individual and a social risk perception, a 2x2x2 experiment was conducted using self-monitoring to represent the individual risk perception, social expectation to represent the social risk perception and message framing; to see how these 3 factors affect the target audience attitude toward the message of becoming a micro and small entrepreneur. The result of the study shows that self-monitoring, the individual risk perception, has the strongest influence over the audience’s attitude, in which the higher the self-monitoring characteristic of the audience the more positive the attitude formed toward the message. Social expectation and message framing does not show any direct significant influence, however the interaction of the 2 factors show significant influence toward the attitude the message.

  13. BEHAVIOURAL, EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT IN SIBLINGS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER. A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ruiz Aparicio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD have unique characteristics and very little is known about how these characteristics may influence the family and the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of their siblings. The purpose of the current study is to focus on the siblings and to review the literature related to the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of siblings of individuals with ASD. We have identified and analysed 24 articles to find the relevant results that may help us to understand the needs of these siblings. The findings suggest mixed results but they also bring to light a number of risk factors that could have an impact on the entire family and particularly on the siblings of children with ASD.

  14. Relational aggression in middle childhood predicting adolescent social-psychological adjustment: the role of friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the indirect effect of 6th-grade negative friendship quality on the associations between 5th-grade relational aggression and age 15 social-psychological adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and risky behavior). The study consisted of a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development using 776 children (M = 10.42 years in 5th grade; 50.4% boys) from the original sample. Using teacher and self-report ratings, relational and physical aggression, friendship quality, depressive symptoms, and risky behavior were measured. Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted. Negative friendship quality was found to mediate the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms as well as between relational aggression and risky behavior, when controlling for physical aggression, gender and age. This longitudinal study identifies possible developmental pathways by which relational aggression and future social psychological adjustment may be linked.

  15. Social-emotional and behavioral adjustment in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, A; Pankau, R

    1994-12-01

    In children with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), disturbed behaviors (neurotic, antisocial, and hyperactive) [Arnold et al., 1985: Dev Med Child Neurol 27:49-59; Udwin et al., 1987: J Child Psychol Psychiat 28:297-309] have been described. To study the behavior disturbances and social-emotional adjustment in children with WBS, a group of N = 19 patients was compared with a control group, matched for age, gender, and nonverbal reasoning abilities. Parents were asked to assess the children's behavior in terms of a list of 20 items of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) [Achenbach and Edelbrock, 1983: Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist] and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS) [Lüer et al., 1972: Kurzform der Vineland Social Maturity Scale]. As compared with the control group, children with WBS differ significantly in their social behavior towards strangers. They exhibit no reserve or distancing behavior and would, for instance, follow a stranger without hesitation. They are described as showing a hypersensitivity to sounds that is more pronounced than in the control group. Finally, they are found to be significantly less well-adjusted socially than the control individuals.

  16. The social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia: implications to the mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Paulo R.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.

  17. The social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia: implications to the mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Menezes

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.

  18. Internet-Communication Disorder: It's a Matter of Social Aspects, Coping, and Internet-Use Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Elisa; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness) and specific cognitions. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety) as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability) on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016). As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders.

  19. Internet-Communication Disorder: It's a Matter of Social Aspects, Coping, and Internet-Use Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Elisa; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness) and specific cognitions. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety) as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability) on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016). As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders. PMID:27891107

  20. Home Away Home: Better Understanding of the Role of Social Support in Predicting Cross-Cultural Adjustment among International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoko; Hosoda, Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined international students' adjustment problems, yet, these studies have not explored the mechanisms through which social support operates in the context of stressful events in predicting cross-cultural adjustment among international students. Using Barrera's (1988) models of social support, the present study…

  1. Social adjustment and friendship patterns of international students : a study of Norwegian students studying abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Gunn Irene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of friendships in the social adjustment of international students, in particular to explore the role of preference for co-nationals/co-culturals as opposed to a preference for befriending people belonging to other cultural groups. Information was gathered by a psychometric, self-report survey questionnaire. A modified version of the Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (Ward & Kennedy, 1999) was used. For the purpose of this study, a Success Scale, ...

  2. Parental Adjustment to Disability, Stress Indicators and the Influence of Social Support

    OpenAIRE

    Felizardo, Sara; Ribeiro, Esperança; Amante, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Research into families of children and young people with disability maintain that parents or caregivers seem to experience higher levels of global stress than parents of children without disabilities, thereby presenting a high risk of developing disorders in their health and quality of life. The aim of this study is to understand the differences in parental stress and social support among groups of parents whose children have different disabilities in the context of parental adjustment to dis...

  3. Minorities' acculturation and social adjustment: The moderator role of meta-perceptions of majority's acculturation attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    António, João H C; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta

    2015-12-01

    Two studies addressed the role of Black meta-perception of acculturation attitudes on the relation between minority acculturation attitudes and their social adjustment (school achievement and perceived quality of intergroup relations). Participants in both studies were Black Lusophone adolescents living in Portugal. Study 1 (N = 140) indicated that participants' attitude regarding the host culture was positively correlated with their school achievement and to their evaluation of intergroup relations. It also indicated that participants' meta-perception of majority attitude add to the explained variance of participants' social adjustment. Study 2 (N = 62) manipulated the perceived majority high/low support of immigrants' learning the host culture. The dependent variable (DV) was perceived quality of intergroup relations. Only in the low support condition were participants' attitudes towards the host culture positively related to perceived quality of Black-White relationships. These results suggest that perceived social context is central to understand the relationship between minority adolescents' acculturation attitudes and key dimensions of their adjustment to host societies. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Pathological jealousy: romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects, and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea Lorenada; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Tavares, Hermano; Zilberman, Monica L

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to identify romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects and social adjustment in subjects with pathological jealousy (PJ) and to compare them to control group. The participants, 32 individuals with PJ and 31 healthy volunteers completed measures of jealousy intensity, attachment type, love and relationship styles, personality, impulsivity, aggressiveness and social adjustment. Socio-demographic profiles were also obtained. Participants with PJ were significantly older than the control group, but no other important socio-demographic differences were observed. Participants with PJ were significantly more jealous and were predominately categorized with anxious-ambivalent attachment type, and Mania love style. They presented with elevated novelty seeking and harm avoidance, low self-directedness and cooperativeness, high levels of impulsivity and trait anxiety, and poor social adjustment. Multivariate analysis showed that jealousy intensity and trait anxiety were the variables that best distinguished participants with PJ from the control group. This study was limited by the cross-sectional design and relatively small sample size. PJ presents a particular pattern of attachment, love style, and personality structure, and deserves further attention as a specific potential disorder of the romantic bonding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A longitudinal study of cannabis use initiation among high school students: Effects of social anxiety, expectancies, peers and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmits, Emilie; Mathys, Cécile; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-06-01

    This study identified protective and risk factors of cannabis use initiation, including expectancies and social anxiety. A questionnaire was completed twice by 877 teenagers. Logistic regressions, mediation and moderation analyses were performed. Significant risk factors were alcohol use, peer users, perceptual enhancement, and craving expectancies. Protective factors were negative behavior expectancies and social anxiety. Social anxiety protected from initiation through the mediating role of perceptual enhancement and craving expectancies, whatever the role of peer users and alcohol use. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protection, in an overall approach including internalizing factors. Results support the identification of an internalizing profile of adolescents for prevention or treatment and the importance of social anxiety and expectancies in intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. STUDENTS EXPECTATIONS OF STUDENT’S ACHIEVEMENT ASSESSMENT: SOCIAL WORK STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautė Žibėnienė

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of student achievement is one of the indication of the study quality. Each time attention is paid to the student’s achievements assessment issues in Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (2015 which is a systematically-published European edition relevant to higher education institutions. Also it is reminiscent of the meaning of student oriented studies. The article raises the problem, that it is not clear, what assessment of student›s achievements first-year students would like. Also what assessment methods are relevant and why. The analysis of published literature suggests that this aspect has been less studied in Lithuania. The main aim of the article is to present first-year social work students expectations of the aspect of personal studying achievement assessment. A qualitative research, based on the methodological provisions of social constructivism and theoretical assumptions of social constructivism is presented in the article. Research data collection and analysis methods: document analysis and analysis of scientific literature, open questions, content analysis. The research was conducted on 2013-2015. May. The research involved 23 first-year social work students of bachelor›s degree studies. Was figured out expectations of assessment of studying achievements of students by first-year social work students, which we can connect with essential characteristic of personal achievement assessment which is mentioned in methodological literature: motivational assessment, formative/educational assessment, self promotion, self-assessment integration, criterion assessment. First-year social work students (of bachelor›s degree studies prefer different assessment methods, but they can highlight some of the most likely to choose (test, conversation, debate, open questions, review of literature, essay, project, problem solving. However, first-year students are not sufficiently aware of

  7. The Fulfilment Level of Turkic Republics Higher Education Students' Academic and Social Expectations in Turkey

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    Mirgül ENTERİEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan participated in the present study. This study indicated that, while expecting satisfactory accommodation the students also anticipated having quality education enabling them for better employment opportunities upon graduation. Some of the students thought that graduate studies in Turkey would be a bridge to Europe. However, it has been found out that students have several academical, social and educational support service problems. According to findings it can be recommended to improve internationalization in higher education, student-centered environment and current educational and training content, organization of orientation programs, submission of international student office and guidance and consultancy services and enhancing the education support services and dormitory facilities.

  8. Social competence promotion with inner-city and suburban young adolescents: effects on social adjustment and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M; Weissberg, R P; Grober, J S; Sivo, P J; Grady, K; Jacoby, C

    1992-02-01

    This study assessed the impact of school-based social competence training on skills, social adjustment, and self-reported substance use of 282 sixth and seventh graders. Training emphasized broad-based competence promotion in conjunction with domain-specific application to substance abuse prevention. The 20-session program comprised six units: stress management, self-esteem, problem solving, substances and health information, assertiveness, and social networks. Findings indicated positive training effects on Ss' skills in handling interpersonal problems and coping with anxiety. Teacher ratings revealed improvements in Ss' constructive conflict resolution with peers, impulse control, and popularity. Self-report ratings indicated gains in problem-solving efficacy. Results suggest some preventive impact on self-reported substance use intentions and excessive alcohol use. In general, the program was found to be beneficial for both inner-city and suburban students.

  9. Changing Avatars, Changing Selves? The Influence of Social and Contextual Expectations on Digital Rendition of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triberti, Stefano; Durosini, Ilaria; Aschieri, Filippo; Villani, Daniela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Avatar creation is an interesting topic for both video game and social network studies. Research has shown that the creation of avatars is influenced by individual, contextual, and cultural features. Avatars are used to represent aspects of users' personality, but multiple avatars are used in different virtual contexts, as self-presentation strategies may vary according to the different "audiences" to be met online (say: friends, or strangers). Moreover, avatar creation is also influenced by cultural variables, such as gender, as avatars embody stereotypical aspects of being a woman or a man. This research tested whether avatars, as digital self-representations, may change depending on the above-mentioned variables. Ninety-four participants created two avatars to be used in different contexts (video game and job-themed social network). Moreover, two groups of participants were told that they would have met friends or total strangers within the two virtual contexts. Results showed that avatars changed from the game to the job context. Changes involved avatars' transient features (Clothes) more than physical (Body) and symbolic (Accessories) ones, and females changed accessories more than males. Moreover, females who expected to meet friends changed their avatars' bodies significantly more than males in both virtual contexts. The findings are discussed based on literature about computer-mediated communication and online self-disclosure. In conclusion, possible implications of the results for avatar-based interventions and the field of video games and social network design are reviewed.

  10. “Like Playing With Fire Under a Hut” - You Will Get Burnt If You Do Not Adjust: Reflections of Social Work Students on Adjusting to University Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkosinathi Sibanyoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High dropout rates in first year and the enculturation into the academic literacies essential in promoting a successful academic adjustment are some of the challenges faced by many students when entering a higher education institution. The study aimed to understand some of the factors that contribute to student adjustment as social work students negotiate the higher education landscape from first to second year. The study explored the views of twelve first-year and seven second-year students utilising a qualitative research design where purposive sampling was used to recruit two focus groups. The results revealed that what both sets of students recognised as beneficial to their academic adjustment were the familiarisation of context, the use of effective time management skills, and positive attitudes. However, university-driven interventions aiming at assisting first year social work students with their academic life, such as the First Year Experience (FYE, were identified as too generic and not able to meet the unique needs of the participants. Recommendations emanating from the study included the development of discipline-specific academic development programmes that encourage social and academic adjustment. Additionally, collaboration between students within professional disciplines and the use of technology-enhanced learning could facilitate student adjustment.

  11. The design of social housing. Meeting the needs and user expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Leandro Pérez-Pérez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El diseño de la vivienda de interés social.La satisfacción de las necesidades y expectativas del usuarioResumenSe presenta un modelo de relaciones entre el diseño y la satisfacción de las necesidades y expectativas de los usuarios, mediante un enfoque temporal y espacial determinado. A partir de metodologías cualitativas de investigación se evaluó la calidad del diseño en dos ejemplos documentados y paradigmáticos en Latinoamérica, y seis casos en la evolución histórica de la vivienda social de Bogotá desde el año 2000. La evaluación de la vivienda para los sectores de bajos ingresos económicos se efectúa mediante un enfoque que involucra no solo la solución habitacional, sino la relación de esta con su entorno inmediato y con la ciudad; se ofrecen recomendaciones para mejorar la calidad del diseño, basadas en las ideas de una vivienda de interés social (VIS flexible, evolutiva y productiva, aportando a la discusión actual sobre la responsabilidad social del diseño urbano y arquitectónico que involucre la participación del usuario, de la mano de los retos impuestos por el Estado nacional en relación con los promotores inmobiliarios y la administración Distrital.Palabras clave: calidad de vida, diseño arquitectónico, hábitat popular, planificación urbana, política pública. The design of social housingMeeting the needs and user expectationsAbstractA pattern of relationships between design and meeting the needs and expectations of users through a certain temporal and spatial approach is presented. From qualitative research methodologies design quality is evaluated in two documented examples and evaluated in Latin America, and six cases in the historical development of social housing in Bogota since 2000. The assessment of housing for the low income population is effected by an approach that involves not only the housing solution, but the relationship between it and its immediate surroundings and the city

  12. Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Parenting, and Children’s School and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K. P.; George, M. R. W.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the links between destructive and constructive marital conflict and mothers’ and fathers’ parenting to understand associations with children’s social and school adjustment. Multi-method, longitudinal assessments of 235 mothers, fathers, and children (129 girls) were collected across kindergarten, first, and second grades (ages 5-7 at Time 1; ages 7-9 at Time 3). Whereas constructive marital conflict was related to both mothers’ and fathers’ warm parenting, destructive marital conflict was only linked to fathers’ use of inconsistent discipline. In turn, both mothers’ and fathers’ use of psychological control was related to children’s school adjustment, and mothers’ warmth was related to children’s social adjustment. Reciprocal links between constructs were also explored, supporting associations between destructive marital conflict and mothers’ and fathers’ inconsistent discipline. The merit of examining marital conflict and parenting as multidimensional constructs is discussed in relation to understanding the processes and pathways within families that affect children’s functioning. PMID:24249973

  13. Structural Analysis of Relationship of Internet Addiction with Depression, Social Adjustment and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Internet has become more widespread, removed borders, and provided the people all over the world with great opportunities. Notwithstanding this, the consequences especially in social and cultural context must not be neglected. One of the harmful aspects of internet is internet addiction disorder. The present study aimed to survey and analyzes internet addiction relationship with depression, social adjustment, and self esteem.Materials & Methods: Our research method is descriptive-correlational. By random sampling and offline method, we have selected a sample consisting of 120 persons from Dubai coffee net users with different native languages, 74males and 46 females, aged at least 18 years old and proficient in the English language. Research tools were young internet addiction test (IAT with reliability α=0.88, Beck depression inventory with reliability α=0.84, Sinha social adjustment with reliability α=0.92 and Eysenck self esteem inventory with reliability α= 0.87. The data was analyzed with path analysis method.Results: The results from analysis showed that the data has goodness of fit with the presented model (χ2=3.17; df=3; P=0.36; GFI= 0.99; AGFI= 0.96; CFI= 1.00; NFI= 0.97; RMSEA=0.02. Scales means in internet addiction was 47.69±17.75; depression 21.29 ± 11.12; social adjustment 19.75±7.91 and self esteem was 15.16±4.16. Path coefficient showed that depression (β= 0.57; t=7.61, social adjustment (β= -0.55; t=13.1 and self esteem (β= -0.32; t=14.8 have significantly predicted internet addiction Conclusion: Internet is an important means in the today’s world, but we have to be fully aware of its dangers .In order to avoid the risks of internet use, vast national and international culture-building activities should be done. The results of our research proved the above-mentioned hypothesis.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(3:41-48

  14. Self-efficacy expectations and emotional adjustment on coping with fibromyalgia - Las expectativas de autoeficacia y el ajuste emocional en el afrontamiento de la fibromialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Vallejo Pareja

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the relationship between of self-efficacy expectations, psychological distress and coping strategies among subjects with fibromyalgia, given the physical and psychosocial components of pain, and specially the need to clarify the relationship between them in order to improve the adjustment to any chronic pain condition. One-hundred women diagnosed of fibromyalgia from the rehabilitation center at the Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón de Madrid completed the following set of questionnaires, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI and the Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale (CPSS. The results showed that self-efficacy was inversely correlated with psychological distress (anxiety and depression. Respect to coping strategies, task persistence was significantly related to expectations of self-efficacy, while this variable was inversely correlated with depression. A negative relation was found between guarding, resting and self-efficacy. These findings suggest that expectations of self-efficacy may have greater explanatory power over the use of positive coping strategies and correct emotional functioning in FMS patients.

  15. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  16. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline.

  17. The family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk of families expecting a baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Sari; Ellonen, Noora; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognised and helped before actual violent behaviour. A follow-up case-control study, with a supportive intervention in the case group (families with a heightened risk) in maternity and child welfare clinics. The baseline results of families are described here. Child maltreatment risk in families expecting a baby was measured by Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The health and functioning was measured by Family Health, Functioning and Social Support Scale. Data included 380 families. A total of 78 families had increased risk for child maltreatment. Heightened risk was associated with partners' age, mothers' education, partners' father's mental health problems, mothers' worry about partners' drinking and mothers' difficulties in talking about the family's problems. Risk was associated with family functioning and health. Families with risk received a less support from maternity clinics. Families with child maltreatment risk and related factors were found. This knowledge can be applied for supporting families both during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Professionals working with families in maternity clinics need tools to recognise families with risk and aid a discussion with them about the family life situation. The Child Abuse Potential, as a part of evaluating the family life situation, seems to prove a useful tool in identifying families at risk. The results offer a valid and useful tool for recognising families with risk and provide knowledge about high-risk family situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Social capital practices as adaptive drivers for local adjustment of new public management in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    local adjustments of the reform initiatives, while also revealing some ambiguities. The results demonstrate that some reform initiatives can lead to new collaborative leadership and management practices in schools that solve the central school leadership and management tasks of coordination and planning....... This indicates that collaborative leadership and management practices may emerge from NPM reforms, and that such practices can prevent negative outcomes of such reforms....... on empirical case studies from two Danish municipal schools and the concept of organisational social capital, we investigate how two reform initiatives – ‘student plan-based school–home collaboration’ and ‘teamwork’ – were locally adjusted into collaborative practices. The analysis demonstrates surprising...

  19. Socio-emotional regulation in children with intellectual disability and typically developing children, and teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Céline; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Dionne, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which socio-emotional regulation displayed in three dyadic interactive play contexts (neutral, competitive or cooperative) by 45 children with intellectual disability compared with 45 typically developing children (matched on developmental age, ranging from 3 to 6 years) is linked with the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. A Coding Grid of Socio-Emotional Regulation by Sequences (Baurain & Nader-Grosbois, 2011b, 2011c) focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behavior and Behavior toward Social Rules in children was applied. The Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hugues, Soares-Boucaud, Hochman, & Frith, 1997) and the Assessment, Evaluation and Intervention Program System (AEPS, Bricker, 2002) were completed by teachers. Regression analyses emphasized, in children with intellectual disability only, a positive significant link between their Behavior toward Social Rules in interactive contexts and the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. Children with intellectual disabilities who listen to and follow instructions, who are patient in waiting for their turn, and who moderate their externalized behavior are perceived by their teachers as socially adapted in their daily social relationships. The between-groups dissimilarity in the relational patterns between abilities in socio-emotional regulation and social adjustment supports the "structural difference hypothesis" with regard to the group with intellectual disability, compared with the typically developing group. Hierarchical cluster cases analyses identified distinct subgroups showing variable structural patterns between the three specific categories of abilities in socio-emotional regulation and their levels of social adjustment perceived by teachers. In both groups, several abilities in socio-emotional regulation and teachers' perceptions of social adjustment vary depending on children's developmental age. Chronological age in children with

  20. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunde-Ayinmode, Mosunmola F; Akande, Tanimola M; Ademola-Popoola, Dupe S

    2011-01-01

    Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often personalized and depends on nature and quality of prevailing psychosocial support and rehabilitation opportunities. This study was aimed at identifying the pattern of psychosocial adjustment in a group of relatively secluded and under-reached totally blind people in Ilorin, thus sensitizing eye doctors to psychosocial morbidity and care in the blind. A cross-sectional descriptive study using 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in Ilorin metropolis. The study revealed that most of the blind people were reasonably adjusted in key areas of social interaction, marriage, and family. Majority were considered to be poorly adjusted in the areas of education, vocational training, employment, and mobility. Many were also considered to be psychologically maladjusted based on the high rate of probable psychological disorder of 51%, as determined by SRQ. Factors identified as risk factors of probable psychological disorder were poor educational background and the presence of another medical disorder. Most of the blind had no access to formal education or rehabilitation system, which may have contributed to their maladjustment in the domains identified. Although their prevailing psychosocial situation would have been better prevented yet, real opportunity still exists to help this group of people in the area of social and physical rehabilitation, meeting medical needs, preventive psychiatry, preventive ophthalmology, and community health. This will require the joint efforts of medical community, government and nongovernment organizations to provide the framework for delivery of these services directly to the communities.

  1. Neoliberalism’s legacy in Southern Africa: the economic and social impact of adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bidaurrazaga Aurre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide a better understanding of the problems involved in the processes of economic liberalization undertaken in Africa, specifically in the various economies of Southern Africa, over the last two decades through the application of structural adjustment programs. An examination of the results, particularly the consequences for the most disadvantaged sectors of these societies in terms of social vulnerability and marginalization, makes clear that criticism of the liberalizing model, analysis of the most recently implemented initiatives, and proposals for alternatives that favour the meeting of basic needs among the population, are essential.

  2. Chinese Parents' Expectations and Child Preacademic Skills: The Indirect Role of Parenting and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined how parenting styles and child social-emotional functioning may help explain the indirect relations between Chinese parents' expectations for their preschool-age children's social-emotional development and their children's preacademic skills. A total of 154 parents with preschool-age children were recruited…

  3. Social and emotional adjustment of adolescents extremely talented in verbal or mathematical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, L E; Benbow, C P

    1986-02-01

    Perceptions of self-esteem, locus of control, popularity, depression (or unhappiness), and discipline problems as indices of social and emotional adjustment were investigated in highly verbally or mathematically talented adolescents. Compared to a group of students who are much less gifted, the highly gifted students perceive themselves as less popular, but no differences were found in self-esteem, depression, or the incidence of discipline problems. The gifted students reported greater internal locus of control. Comparisons between the highly mathematically talented students and the highly verbally talented students suggested that the students in the latter group perceive themselves as less popular. Within both the gifted and comparison groups, there were also slight indications that higher verbal ability may be related to some social and emotional problems.

  4. Perception of quality of life and social adjustment of patients with recurrent depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Žana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most commonly present psychiatric entity in clinical practice, accompanied by significant impairment of both social and professional functioning. In addition, depression frequently develops as complication of other psychiatric disorders and various somatic diseases. Objective: To investigate subjective perception of quality of life and social adjustment, severity of depressive symptoms as well as level of correlation of severity of depressive symptoms and quality of life and social adjustment of patients with recurrent depression in comparison to the group of patients with diabetes and healthy subjects. Method: The study included 45 subjects of both sexes, ranging from 18 to 60 years of age, divided in three groups of 15 subjects each. The experimental group comprised the patients diagnosed with recurrent depression in remission (DSM-IV, one control group was consisted of patients diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and another one comprised healthy subjects. The instruments of assessment were: The Beck Depression Inventory- BDI, The Social Adaptation Self -evaluation scale - SASS, The Psychological General Well-Being Scale - WBQ. Results: Significant difference of both BDI and WBQ scales was found between the experimental and the control group of healthy subjects (ANOVA, Mann Whitney; p≤0.01, as well as between two control groups (p≤0.02. The level of inverse correlation of mean score values of BDI and SASS scales was significant in the control group of patients with diabetes while such levels of BDI and WBQ scales (Spearman correlation coefficient, p<0.01 were found in all groups of our study. Conclusion: In the group of patients with recurrent depression, significant decline of quality of life and significantly higher severity of depressive symptoms were present in comparison to the group of healthy subjects as well as significant level of inverse correlation of severity of depressive symptoms and

  5. Expectancies for Social Support and Negative Mood Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Self-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Tresno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is common among young people. A majority of individuals who injure themselves do so to alleviate negative affect, as most self-injurers report difficulties with mood regulation. Trauma in childhood is an important risk factor that may cause individuals to develop poor interpersonal relations and impaired emotion-regulation, leading to the use of non-adaptive coping strategies such as NSSI. This study examined factors contributing to self-injury, focusing on the link from childhood maltreatment, through mood regulation expectancies and expectancies for social support (father, mother, and friends, to self-injury. Understanding how these variables relate to NSSI is crucial for early identification of individuals at risk of NSSI. Participants were 377 Japanese university students. Lifetime prevalence of self-injury was 20% among the sample. Results showed childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor that increases the risk for NSSI. However, expectancies for social support and mood regulation seem to be potential protective factors. Mood regulation expectancies mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injury. In addition, expectancies for social support were indirectly linked with NSSI through negative mood regulation expectancies. It appears that perceived support from father and friends increases one's confidence in regulating difficult emotions, which in turn reduces risk for NSSI. Results suggest that strong expectancies for social support, especially from friends, increase one's confidence in regulating emotion, which contributes as a protective factor against self-injury.

  6. Mediating Effects of Global Negative Effect Expectancies on the Association between Problematic Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Di Blasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between social anxiety (SA and cannabis use among adolescents and young adults is a highly debated topic. In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether cannabis use expectancies mediated the association between SA and cannabis use severity in a sample of 343 young adults (74.3% male who used cannabis. They completed self-report measures for the screening of problematic cannabis use (Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test and SA symptoms (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale. A multiple mediation analysis was used to test whether marijuana effect expectancies mediate SA effect on problematic cannabis use. SA was negatively associated with cannabis use severity in this sample, and we found evidence that cannabis use expectancies fully mediated this relationship. Specifically, global negative effect expectancies influence the relationship between SA and problematic cannabis use. These findings may inform current prevention strategies and clinical intervention for young adults who use cannabis.

  7. Mediating Effects of Global Negative Effect Expectancies on the Association between Problematic Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasi, Maria; Cavani, Paola; Pavia, Laura; Tosto, Crispino; La Grutta, Sabina; Lo Baido, Rosa; Giordano, Cecilia; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between social anxiety (SA) and cannabis use among adolescents and young adults is a highly debated topic. In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether cannabis use expectancies mediated the association between SA and cannabis use severity in a sample of 343 young adults (74.3% male) who used cannabis. They completed self-report measures for the screening of problematic cannabis use (Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test) and SA symptoms (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale). A multiple mediation analysis was used to test whether marijuana effect expectancies mediate SA effect on problematic cannabis use. SA was negatively associated with cannabis use severity in this sample, and we found evidence that cannabis use expectancies fully mediated this relationship. Specifically, global negative effect expectancies influence the relationship between SA and problematic cannabis use. These findings may inform current prevention strategies and clinical intervention for young adults who use cannabis.

  8. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing

  9. [Professional's expectations to improve quality of care and social services utilization in geriatric oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Valéry; de Wazières, Benoît; Houédé, Nadine

    2015-02-01

    Coordination of a multidisciplinary and multi-professional intervention is a key issue in the management of elderly cancer patients to improve health status and quality of life. Optimizing the links between professionals is needed to improve care planning, health and social services utilization. Descriptive study in a French University Hospital. A 6-item structured questionnaire was addressed to professionals involved in global and supportive cares of elderly cancer patients (name, location, effective health care and services offered, needs to improve the quality of their intervention). After the analysis of answers, definition of propositions to improve cares and services utilization. The 37 respondents identified a total of 166 needs to improve quality of care in geriatric oncology. Major expectations were concerning improvement of global/supportive cares and health care services utilization, a better coordination between geriatric teams and oncologists. Ten propositions, including a model of in-hospital health care planning, were defined to answer to professional's needs with the aim of optimizing cancer treatment and global cares. Identification of effective services and needs can represent a first step in a continuous program to improve quality of cares, according to the French national cancer plan 2014-2019. It allows federating professionals for a coordination effort, a better organization of the clinical activity in geriatric oncology, to optimize clinical practice and global cares. Copyright © 2014 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpretation and expectation in childhood anxiety disorders: age effects and social specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Theory and treatment for childhood anxiety disorders typically implicates children's negative cognitions, yet little is known about the characteristics of thinking styles of clinically anxious children. In particular, it is unclear whether differences in thinking styles between children with anxiety disorders and non-anxious children vary as a function of child age, whether particular cognitive distortions are associated with childhood anxiety disorders at different child ages, and whether cognitive content is disorder-specific. The current study addressed these questions among 120 7-12 year old children (53% female) who met diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder, other anxiety disorder, or who were not currently anxious. Contrary to expectations, threat interpretation was not inflated amongst anxious compared to non-anxious children at any age, although older (10-12 year old) anxious children did differ from non-anxious children on measures of perceived coping. The notion of cognitive-content specificity was not supported across the age-range. The findings challenge current treatment models of childhood anxiety, and suggest that a focus on changing anxious children's cognitions is not warranted in mid-childhood, and in late childhood cognitive approaches may be better focussed on promoting children's perceptions of control rather than challenging threat interpretations.

  11. Social adjustment of children with cerebral palsy in mainstream classes: peer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Line; Tessier, Réjean

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the social experience of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in mainstream classes in Canada and compare it with that of their classmates without disability. The CP group included 25 females and 35 males (mean age 10 y 5 mo [SD 0.95], range 10 y 4 mo-10 y 10 mo) diagnosed as having hemiplegia (n=44) or diplegia (n=16) and classified as Level I on the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Fifty-seven comparison children, born at term and without any motor and/or sensory impairment, were recruited from the classes of the children with CP during a school visit (mean age 10 y 3 mo, [SD 1.0], range 10 y-10 y 6 mo). They were matched to children with CP for sex, age, parents' education level, and family income. Social adjustment measures (social status, reciprocated friendships, social isolation, aggression, sociability/leadership, and verbal and/or physical victimization) were obtained by conducting a class-wide sociometric interview (n=943) in the classes of the children with CP. Findings showed that children with CP (specifically females with CP and irrespective of their type of disability) had fewer reciprocated friendships, exhibited fewer sociable/leadership behaviours, and were more isolated and victimized by their peers than their classmates without a disability. This seems to suggest that females and males with CP are perceived differently from their peers in a mainstreaming context. The discussion addresses the issue of age- and sex-related differences and provides avenues of intervention relating to personal and environmental factors that could facilitate or interfere with the social experience of children with CP in a mainstream environment.

  12. How does social comparison within a self-help group influence adjustment to chronic illness? A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb, Bridget; Yardley, Lucy

    2006-09-01

    Despite the growing popularity of self-help groups for people with chronic illness, there has been surprisingly little research into how these may support adjustment to illness. This study investigated the role that social comparison, occurring within a self-help group, may play in adjustment to chronic illness. A model of adjustment based on control process theory and response shift theory was tested to determine whether social comparisons predicted adjustment after controlling for the catalyst for adjustment (disease severity) and antecedents (demographic and psychological factors). A sample of 301 people with Ménière's disease who were members of the Ménière's Society UK completed questionnaires at baseline and 10-month follow-up assessing adjustment, defined for this study as functional and goal-oriented quality of life. At baseline, they also completed measures of the predictor variables i.e. the antecedents (age, sex, living circumstances, duration of self-help group membership, self-esteem, optimism and perceived control over illness), the catalyst (severity of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss and fullness in the ear) and mechanisms of social comparison within the self-help group. The social comparison variables included the extent to which self-help group resources were used, and whether reading about other members' experiences induced positive or negative feelings. Cross-sectional results showed that positive social comparison was indeed associated with better adjustment after controlling for all the other baseline variables, while negative social comparison was associated with worse adjustment. However, greater levels of social comparison at baseline were associated with a deteriorating quality of life over the 10-month follow-up period. Alternative explanations for these findings are discussed.

  13. Impact of smoking on the social gradient in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud

    2004-01-01

    Health expectancy is arrived at by dividing life expectancy into average lifetime in different states of health. The purpose of the study was to estimate health expectancy among never smokers and smokers in groups at high, medium, and low educational levels in Denmark.......Health expectancy is arrived at by dividing life expectancy into average lifetime in different states of health. The purpose of the study was to estimate health expectancy among never smokers and smokers in groups at high, medium, and low educational levels in Denmark....

  14. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  15. How Do Young Adolescents Cope with Social Problems? An Examination of Social Goals, Coping with Friends, and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…

  16. Outcome Expectancy as a Predictor of Treatment Response in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Public Speaking Fears Within Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive–behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome exp...

  17. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Contributions of Observed Parent Socialization of Coping and Skin Conductance Level Reactivity to Childhood Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin; Sanders, Wesley

    2018-03-01

    This research examined the longitudinal association between parent socialization of coping and child adjustment, as well as the moderating role of children's skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR). Participants were a community sample of children (n = 64, M age = 9.02, 54.5% females, 93.2% Caucasian) and their parent(s). Parent coping suggestions were observed while their child engaged in a stressful challenge task, during which the child's SCLR, a measure of children's physiological reactivity to stress, was also measured. Parent(s) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) at baseline and a 6-month follow-up to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Results revealed that secondary control engagement suggestions predicted fewer internalizing problems over time. In addition, disengagement suggestions predicted fewer externalizing problems over time among children with high SCLR. This study provides evidence that parent coping suggestions serve as a resource that protects youth from developing adjustment problems. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  19. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  20. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  1. Social Impact of Recharging Activity in Long-Term HRI and Verbal Strategies to Manage User Expectations During Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Deshmukh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social robots perform tasks to help humans in their daily activities. However, if they fail to fulfill expectations this may affect their acceptance. This work investigates the service degradation caused by recharging, during which the robot is socially inactive. We describe two studies conducted in an ecologically valid office environment. In the first long-term study (3 weeks, we investigated the service degradation caused by the recharging behavior of a social robot. In the second study, we explored the social strategies used to manage users’ expectations during recharge. Our findings suggest that the use of verbal strategies (transparency, apology, and politeness can make robots more acceptable to users during recharge.

  2. Mediating Effects of Global Negative Effect Expectancies on the Association between Problematic Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    DI BLASI, M.; Cavani, P.; Pavia, L.; Tosto, C.; LA GRUTTA, S.; LO BAIDO, R.; Giordano, C.; Schimmenti, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between social anxiety (SA) and cannabis use among adolescents and young adults is a highly debated topic. In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether cannabis use expectancies mediated the association between SA and cannabis use severity in a sample of 343 young adults (74.3% male) who used cannabis. They completed self-report measures for the screening of problematic cannabis use (Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test) and SA symptoms (Social Interaction Anxiety Sc...

  3. A Prospective, Multicentered Study to Assess Social Adjustment in Patients With an Intestinal Stoma in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Ayişe; Karabulut, Hatice; Baykara, Zehra G; Harputlu, Deniz; Toyluk, Eylem; Ulusoy, Birgül; Karadağ, Sercan; Kahraman, Aysel; Hin, Aysel Ören; Altinsoy, Meral; Akıl, Yasemin; Leventoğlu, Sezai

    2015-10-01

    Patients with a stoma undergo physiological, psychological, and social adjustment to their new life situation. A descriptive, prospective study was conducted to assess adaptation among patients >18 years of age with a new temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy living in Turkey and receiving care at a participating stomatherapy unit. The study took place between September 1, 2011, and September 1, 2012. During hospitalization and following discharge, patients with a stoma received training and counseling according to their individual characteristics and their physiological, psychological, and social needs. Each participant completed the 19-item "Identification Form for Patients with a Stoma" at the beginning of the study to document sociodemographic and stoma characteristics. To assess adjustment to the stoma, The Ostomy Assessment Inventory (OAI-23) was administered 2 times - the first within 1 month and the second within 6 months after surgery or when a temporary stoma was closed (whichever came first). This instrument comprised 23 items regarding adaptation to the stoma using Likert-type response options (0-4 range). Total scores ranged from 10 to 92, with higher scores indicating better adjustment. The instruments were completed by stoma and wound care nurses during face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Of the 135 participants, the majority (77, 57.0%) were male; 73 (54.1%) had a colostomy, and 106 (78.5%) had a temporary stoma. The primary reason for stoma creation was cancer (89, 65.9%). Mean total OAI-23 scores were 48.63 ± 13.75 at the first administration and 50.59 ± 13.89 for the second. In terms of sociodemographic factors, significant increases in mean scores from the first to the second survey time were noted among patients in the 50-69 age group, women, married persons, and unemployed persons (P less than 0.05). With regard to stoma characteristics, the OAI-23 scores of patients

  4. Outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response in cognitive behavioral therapy for public speaking fears within social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2012-06-01

    Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response for public-speaking fears across both individual virtual reality and group-based cognitive-behavioral therapies. The findings supported outcome expectancy as a predictor of the rate of change in public-speaking anxiety during both individual virtual reality exposure therapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that the impact of outcome expectancy differed across virtual reality or group treatments. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Customers' expectations of complaint handling by airline service: privilege status and reasonability of demands from a social learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2009-04-01

    In the airline industry, membership and cabin class are noticeable servicescape features of customers' privilege status. Customers may learn that higher privilege customers are more desired and endured by the airline. From the customers' point of view, those with higher privilege may expect their demands to be complied with when they complain. The present study employed hypothetical scenarios to investigate how the privilege status of passengers and reasonability of their demands influenced their expectations toward the compliance of airline personnel. Analysis showed that higher privilege customers were more likely to expect airline personnel to comply with their demands. Moreover, participants with medium or high levels of privilege status had greater expectations of compliance even when demands were unreasonable. In sum, customer expectations toward complaint handling reflected predictions based on social learning.

  6. What do we really know about the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Facts versus myths? Trying to understand social expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dzialo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work is to confront the social expectations of the TTIP, and how it effects the so-called "expert knowledge". Defining a mismatch between the social expectations and expert knowledge may contribute to better understanding of the controversies related to the TTIP. Using the NAFTA case study, we investigate if there is a significant gap between ex-ante and ex-post analysis of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA. Design/methodology/approach: We rely on Eurobarometer (2014, 2015 and Bertelsmann Foundation (2016 surveys to describe the TTIP-related social expectations. We make a critical overview of the global CGE models, which are the main source of ex-ante estimations of TTIP macro effects. We also use the NAFTA case study as a TTIP reference point that allows for a comparison of ex-ante with ex-post analysis results. Findings: Social expectations regarding the economic effects of the TTIP are ambiguous on both sides of the Atlantic. The CGE models have many limiting assumptions. They are, however, a useful tool for exploring the effects of the TTIP, bearing in mind all restrictions and limitations of ex-ante analyses. The NAFTA case study indicates that most ex-ante models tend to overestimate benefits and underestimate disadvantages arising from free trade. Research limitations/implications: Many such surveys have been conducted recently. The results should be developed upon, for a more detailed, country-specific and time variant understanding of possible sources of social conflicts in the context of the TTIP (or FTA implementation. Originality/value: The analysis tends to prove the existence of a mismatch between social and expert knowledge on the TTIP, which may result in generating social conflicts. A practical and original outcome of our work is a well-supported recommendation to make the TTIP realistic effects much more transparent to the public, which should be important to those supporting the TTIP (and generally

  7. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  8. Great Expectations: The Role of Rules in Guiding Pro-Social Behaviour in Groups with High versus Low Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Leila; Vyas, Karishma; Bellesi, Giulia; Cassell, Diana; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Measuring autistic traits in the general population has proven sensitive for examining cognition. The present study extended this to pro-social behaviour, investigating the influence of expectations to help others. A novel task describing characters in need of help was administered to students scoring high versus low on the Autism-Spectrum…

  9. Student Interns' Socially Constructed Work Realities: Narrowing the Work Expectation-Reality Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    New employees, including college students, often experience expectation-reality gaps about work, making the assimilation process more difficult for all. This qualitative study explores the role of the internship in narrowing the work expectation-reality gap. This article addresses two research questions: (a) What do students learn about work…

  10. The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived vulnerability, and parenting stress to behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Page, Melanie C; McNall-Knapp, René Y; Meyer, William H; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2008-08-01

    To examine the relationship of self-reported parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to parent-reported behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment of children currently on treatment for cancer. Parents of 62 children (34 boys, 28 girls) currently on treatment for cancer were recruited from an outpatient pediatric cancer clinic. Children ranged in age from 2 to 12 years; age at diagnosis ranged from 1.33 to 11.83 years. Higher levels of parenting stress, but not parental overprotection or perceived child vulnerability, were associated with poorer behavioral and social adjustment. Higher levels of perceived child vulnerability and parenting stress, but not parental overprotection, were independently associated with poorer emotional adjustment. Specific parenting variables appear to be related to specific adjustment outcomes in children with cancer. Longitudinal follow-up of these children is necessary to determine the developmental trajectory of parent variables and long-term child outcomes.

  11. Trustworthy Tricksters: Violating a Negative Social Expectation Affects Source Memory and Person Perception When Fear of Exploitation Is High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Mario; Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel; Bell, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    People who are high in victim-sensitivity-a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others-are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target's trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the "trustworthy trickster"). These findings are in line with recent theorizing on schema inconsistency and expectancy violation effects in social cognition and with research on the different facets of justice sensitivity in personality psychology.

  12. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  13. Social and health adjustment of bulimic women 7-9 years following therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, B; Liedtke, R; Lamprecht, F; Freyberger, H

    2004-08-01

    To examine the long-term social adaptation and long-term follow-up of bulimic women after therapy. Eighty women with bulimia nervosa were investigated 7-9 years after the beginning of either conflict-oriented in-patient therapy or systemic out-patient therapy. Data was gathered through interviews and patient questionnaires. At the time of follow-up, 28.9% still had DSM-III-R bulimia, 10.1% suffered from subthreshold bulimia or anorexia (EDNOS), 61.2% did not suffer from any DSM-III-R eating disorder. Compared with statistics on the normal population, the social adaptation of the women was quite good with regard to work, household and living conditions. Some dimensions representing probable aetiological factors (i.e. restrictions of intake, feelings of ineffectiveness) showed a delayed reaction to therapy. Long-term outcome of bulimia nervosa may be expected to be moderately good. During therapy, greater attention should be paid to characteristics of the disorder less responsive to treatment.

  14. Increasing social support for depressed individuals: a cross-cultural assessment of an affect-expectancy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Lienemann, Brianna A; Hohman, Zachary P; O'Brien, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a mental illness affecting 121 million people. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration recently launched a national, bilingual (English and Spanish) campaign to motivate young adults to support friends with mental illness. This article highlights and assesses the usefulness of two theoretically derived variables for increasing the social support received by all depressed individuals: (a) affect and (b) social support outcome expectations. In accord with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's bilingual campaign, the authors conducted two studies using intercepts at 2 swap meets in the U.S. Southwest. One study sample consisted of Spanish-dominant Hispanics, the other non-Hispanics. For both samples, results indicate that affect, social support outcome expectations, and their interaction accounted for more than 50% of the variance of social support intentions (67% in the Hispanic sample when familism was considered). Affect is commonplace in the helping behavior literature; results indicate social support outcome expectations deserve equal consideration. Moreover, an unexpected finding emerged: Perceiving a lack of willpower, need for attention, and lack of moral character to be the cause of depression resulted in increased sympathy among the Hispanic sample but increased anger among non-Hispanics.

  15. The Social Environment and Childbearing Expectations: Implications for Strength-Based Sexual Health Interventions for Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, adolescent childbearing is disproportionately higher among Latino youth, a growing population facing substantial social exclusion. Exploring the relationship between the social environment and sexual health outcomes among Latino youth may offer insights into the development of novel interventions. In this study, Latino youth in partnerships were recruited from neighborhood venues in San Francisco and completed in-depth interviews. Youth reported a desire to complete higher education goals prior to starting a family to improve future opportunities and further personal development. Youth stated that social network members, family and partners, were supportive of their individual childbearing expectations. Social environment barriers tied to poverty, immigration status, and gang violence hindered educational attainment. Some differences were noted by gender and immigrant generation. Building on protective social ties and creating avenues in poor, urban neighborhoods for Latino youth to fully access educational opportunities may counter early childbearing and improve sexual health.

  16. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    the role of causal inference in social science; and it discusses the potential of the findings of the dissertation to inform educational policy. In Chapters II and III, constituting the substantive contribution of the dissertation, I examine the process through which students form expectations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...

  17. Adjustment, social sectors, and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekouevi, K; Adepoju, A

    1995-01-01

    This discussion concludes that the economic crises of the 1980s resulted in a halt to the social and economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. Employment, health, and education sectors all deteriorated under structural adjustment programs (SAPs) and poor economic performance. SAPs are considered inadequate solutions to long-term problems. Economic crises were found to affect countries differently in their demographic impact. Delayed demographic transition occurred both through economic development as a prerequisite and as a result of poor economic development. Case studies of each country are considered the appropriate geographic unit of analysis of demographic change rather than regional or comparative studies. The economic crises in sub-Saharan Africa occurred due to both external (commodity prices, high real interest rates, and decreasing net capital flows) and internal distortions (strategies of development such as import substitution, neglect of the agricultural sector, and government control of prices and trade). The unfavorable external context reduced export prices and earnings while increasing the costs of imports. Internal controls were detrimental to farmers. During the 1970s and 1980s African countries experienced declines in both the volume and value of exports, increases in import volume, and imbalances in the balance of payments. Large domestic borrowing and foreign borrowing was done by governments, which was at the expense of the private sector. Economic management and corruption were rampant. SAPs restrained demand, reduced public expenditures, adjusted exchange rates, contracted the size of the public sector, liberalized trade, deregulated the interest rate, stimulated domestic production, and used market forces for balancing optimum allocation of resources. SAPs were the fix for trade imbalances and government debt. Development was slowed or stopped. During 1980-87 spending on health care, education, and infrastructure was drastically reduced

  18. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2008-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975

  19. Socio-economic status in relation to smoking: The role of (expected and desired) social support and quitter identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Van Laar, Colette; Kawous, Ramin; Beijk, Sarah C A M

    2016-08-01

    Smoking behavior differs substantially between lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Previous research shows that social support for quitting may be more available to higher-SES smokers, and higher-SES smokers may have stronger nonsmoker self-identities (i.e., can see themselves more as nonsmokers). To investigate how SES influences smoking behavior, taking the role of identity processes and social support into account. A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted among 387 daily smokers from lower, middle and higher-SES groups in the Netherlands in 2014. Educational level was used as an indicator of SES. Expected and desired social support for quitting smoking, expected exclusion from the social network when quitting, identity factors and intention to quit were measured. Smokers from all SES backgrounds desired to receive positive social support if they would quit smoking. Lower-SES smokers expected to receive more negative and practical support than middle or higher-SES smokers. There were no significant differences between SES groups for almost all identity measures, nor on intention to quit. Above and beyond other important influences such as nicotine-dependence, results showed that smokers regardless of SES who expected to receive more positive support tended to have stronger intentions to quit. Moreover, smokers who could see themselves more as being quitters (quitter self-identity) and perceived themselves less as smokers (smoker self-identity), as well as smokers who felt more positive about nonsmokers (nonsmoker group-identity) had stronger intentions to quit. No significant interactions with SES were found. The results suggest that developing ways to stimulate the social environment to provide adequate support for smokers who intend to quit, and developing ways to strengthen identification with quitting in smokers may help smokers to quit successfully. Findings further suggest that the possible-self as a quitter is more important than

  20. On certain aspects of reproductive function preservation and social adjustment following complex treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuleva, N.A.; Il'yashenko, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Data on the reproductive status and social adjustment of 443 children exposed to combined treatment of Hodgkin's disease according 3 different programs (from 1976 up to 1994). 1 program consists of chemoradiotherapy, 2 program includes the irradiation of zones of primary injury (cumulative dose up to 40 Gy), 3 program stipulates the irradiation of zones of primary injury at the cumulative dose 30 Gy. 258 patients reach the age of 18. It is shown that the treatment in childhood does not affect considerably the reproductive function and social adjustment

  1. Influence of cognition, premorbid adjustment and psychotic symptoms on psycho-social functioning in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Norma; Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Usall, Judith; Barajas, Ana; Butjosa, Anna; Dolz, Montserrat; Baños, Iris; Sánchez, Bernardo; Rodríguez, Maria José; Peláez, Trinidad; Sammut, Stephanie; Carlson, Janina; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between psycho-social functioning and symptoms, cognitive function, and premorbid adjustment, in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Clinical data were obtained from 90 patients, who were assessed with the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS-sv), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS-S) and with a battery of cognitive tests including Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA- B), Continous Performance Test (CPT), some subscales of the Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Verbal Learning Test España-Complutense (TAVEC). The results of the study suggest that psycho-social functioning in first-episode psychosis is significantly related to: positive, negative, excitative, affective and disorganized symptoms, social premorbid adjustment, cognitive flexibility, working memory, short term and long term memory. Of these, those which best explained psycho-social functioning are the positive and excitative symptoms, premorbid adjustment, flexibility and memory. These findings highlight the importance early intervention on cognitive and clinical variables to help provide a better psycho-social functioning in people with a first-episode of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Raising Expectations or Constructing Victims? Problems with Promoting Social Inclusion through Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Whilst in government, New Labour defined social exclusion as a state of "disadvantage" resulting from individual psychology: namely, low aspirations, a lack of self-confidence or moral deviancy. Engagement in lifelong learning was considered a means of promoting social inclusion and of overcoming such disadvantage. This policy review…

  3. Family burden, child disability, and the adjustment of mothers caring for children with epilepsy: Role of social support and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jeffrey M; Miller, Paul A

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States. Participants included 152, predominantly Caucasian (89.5%), married (78.9%) women (95.4%). Via a web-based interface, mothers completed questionnaires assessing the impact of their child's disability on their family (i.e., severity of their child's disability, family burden, and personal stress), social resources (i.e., perceived social support), coping (i.e., emotion-focused and social support seeking), and adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). After controlling for demographic variables, mediational analysis revealed that mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability were associated with decreased perceived social support, which was then related to higher reported levels of depression and anxiety. Similarly, low levels of perceived social support partially mediated the relation between family burden and depression, anxiety, and stress. Finally, mothers' perceptions of the severity of their children's disability and family burden were unrelated to their reports of emotion-focused or social support seeking coping. However, their use of emotion-focused and social support seeking behaviors was related to lower levels of depression. Low levels of perceived social support may help to explain the mechanisms underlying the relation between mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability and family burden on their mental health adjustment, such as depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social-technical design for evaluation of student's behaviour and expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Claudette; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth; Briollet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    . So, we focus here on the evaluation process based on socio-technical design that allows integrating student’s behaviour and expectations. A Web App has been constructed and tested on an exploratory basis to get real-time insights about the combination of theory, course and practical applications......This paper focuses on the usability of new technologies and real-time socio-technical features for evaluation issues in student’s courses. The evaluation of content and forms of knowledge taught within a course are directly linked to behaviour, perception and expectations from the student’s side...

  5. The Social Transmission of Attractiveness Stereotypes: An Investigation of Parental Expectations of Children's Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hicken, Marianne White

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children fran the Utah State University Child Development Latoratories and Hillcrest Elerrentary School and their parents participated in the study. The study focused on the use of attractiveness stereotyping used by children across four age groups. The study also analyzed the social transmission of attractiveness stereotypes fran parents to their children. The study included two parts: 1) a play-preference measure, and 2) a social attribJtion measure. The stimlli were sketches of ...

  6. Social media monitoring of asthmatic children treated in a specialized program: Parents and caregivers expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Parents or caregivers of children attending the PIPA program expressed high interest in using social media. However, few use it to control their children’s disease. While providing a great benefit to use social media as a mean of communication in health, the content needs to be monitored for reliability and quality. The privacy of users (doctors and patients must be preserved and it is very important to facilitate the access to Internet.

  7. Raising Expectations or Constructing Victims? Problems with promoting social inclusion through lifelong learning

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Whilst in government, New Labour defined social exclusion as a state of ‘disadvantage’ resulting from individual psychology: namely, low aspirations, a lack of self-confidence or moral deviancy. Engagement in lifelong learning was considered a means of promoting social inclusion and of overcoming such disadvantage. This policy review explores how such a psychological approach to post-compulsory education impacts upon the more traditional educational and vocational goals of the sector. A criti...

  8. Social Security cost-of-living adjustments and the Consumer Price Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Clark; Fisher, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    OASDI benefits are indexed for inflation to protect beneficiaries from the loss of purchasing power implied by inflation. In the absence of such indexing, the purchasing power of Social Security benefits would be eroded as rising prices raise the cost of living. By statute, cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for Social Security benefits are calculated using the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). Some argue that this index does not accurately reflect the inflation experienced by the elderly population and should be changed to an elderly-specific price index such as the Experimental Consumer Price Index for Americans 62 Years of Age and Older, often referred to as the Consumer Price Index for the Elderly (CPI-E). Others argue that the measure of inflation underlying the COLA is technically biased, causing it to overestimate changes in the cost of living. This argument implies that current COLAs tend to increase, rather than merely maintain, the purchasing power of benefits over time. Potential bias in the CPI as a cost-of-living index arises from a number of sources, including incomplete accounting for the ability of consumers to substitute goods or change purchasing outlets in response to relative price changes. The BLS has constructed a new index called the Chained Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U) that better accounts for those consumer adjustments. Price indexes are not true cost-of-living indexes, but approximations of cost-of-living indexes (COLI). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006a) explains the difference between the two: As it pertains to the CPI, the COLI for the current month is based on the answer to the following question: "What is the cost, at this month ' market prices, of achieving the standard of living actually attained in the base period?" This cost is a hypothetical expenditure-the lowest expenditure level necessary at this month's prices to achieve the

  9. The Prevalence of Cyber Bullying Victimization and Its Relationship to Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007)…

  10. Social Support and Adjustment Outcomes of First-Year University Students in Hong Kong: Self-Esteem as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Chan, Kevin Ka Shing; Lam, Chun Bun

    2018-01-01

    Although the contribution of family support and peer support to university adjustment has been examined separately, few attempts have been made to explore the mechanism underlying this relation. This is the first study in the Asian context to test the role of self-esteem in mediating the effect of social support on first-year university adjustment…

  11. Coping Styles, Social Support, Relational Self-Construal, and Resilience in Predicting Students' Adjustment to University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, Enes; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how well coping styles, social support, relational self-construal, and resilience characteristics predict first year university students' ability to adjust to university life. Participants consisted of 527 at-risk students attending a state university in Turkey. The Personal Information Form, Risk…

  12. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  13. Can We Really (All Work Longer?Trends in Healthy Life Expectancy According to Social Stratum in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Unger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of raising the retirement age to 67 years and the associated lengthening of working lifetimes in higher age groups, this article examines the question of the extent to which this political objective is covered by the health assets of the population. Here, we will first trace trends in “healthy” life expectancy among the total population for different points in time 1989, 1999 and 2009 on the basis of the data from the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP and analyse these against the background of social strata indicators such as income and educational levels. Among others, one significant result is the fact that social differences have a far greater effect on healthy life expectancy than on general life expectancy and that these differences increase further over the course of time. This effect can be found particularly in men. One mandatory uniform working lifetime for all persons would however not do justice to these findings of socially highly unequally distributed life opportunities. Instead, the findings support a flexible arrangement of retirement age limits.

  14. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility Reputation (CSRR) : do companies comply with their raised CSR expectations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soppe, A.B.M.; Schauten, M.B.J.; Soppe, J.; Kaymak, U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility reputation (CSRR) both theoretically and empirically. The first part examines the literature on CSRR extensively in an attempt to develop both a qualitative and a quantitative interpretation to measure CSRR. The new aspect of this

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility: Case Study of Community Expectations and the Administrative Systems, Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogula, David

    2012-01-01

    Poor community-company relations in the Niger Delta have drawn attention to the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the region. Since the 1960s, transnational oil corporations operating in the Niger Delta have adopted various CSR strategies, yet community-company relations remain adversarial. This article examines community…

  17. Effects of group size and expectancy of reward on social loafing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... years (mean age = 14.53). Results indicated that performance was significantly poorer in the group condition than in the alone condition (p. <05); and reward significantly attenuated social loafing effect in the group condition (p. <05). These observations were discussed in relation to the prevailing challenge in team work.

  18. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, N.J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Brown, J.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, M.; Coggeshall, M.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development,

  19. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.; Singh, Abhishek; Tura, Abera Kenay

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and

  20. Do Consumers Expect Companies To Be Socially Responsible? The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Buying Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lois A.; Webb, Deborah J.; Harris, Katherine E.

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 48 consumers found that they desired moderate to high levels of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Precontemplators (n=16) did not base purchasing on CSR and contemplators (n=11) only moderately. The action group (n=8) had stronger beliefs about CSR but did not always purchase accordingly. Maintainers (n=9) practiced socially…

  1. Perceived Social Norms, Expectations, and Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment among an Urban Community Sample of Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L.; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents’ perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expe...

  2. Cohesive Neighborhoods Where Social Expectations Are Shared May Have Positive Impact On Adolescent Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Louis; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Wagner, Brandon G.; Jacobsen, Wade C.; Gold, Sarah; Gaydosh, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mental health problems are associated with poor health and well-being in adulthood. This study uses data from a birth cohort of children born in large U.S. cities (N=2,264) to examine whether neighborhood collective efficacy (social cohesion and control) is associated with improvements in adolescent mental health. We find that children who grow up in high collective efficacy neighborhoods experience fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms during adolescence than sim...

  3. The contribution of personality traits and academic and social adjustment to life satisfaction and depression in college freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of personality traits and student academic and social college adjustment to their overall life satisfaction and depression. Sample of 492 freshmen completed a battery of measures. Hierarchical regression analyses are applied to analyze the contribution of predictor variables on life satisfaction and depression in the group of male and female students. After controlling for the personality traits, college adjustment had a significant contribution to student depression and life satisfaction. Optimism has a significant protective role only with male, but not with female students.

  4. Shaping a Favorable Environment in Line with Social Expectations on Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Agnieszka Pawłowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The driving force behind the development of any city includes its residents. Hence, it is very important that they have the opportunity to live, work and rest in a friendly environment. The source of their well-being and positive aesthetic experience is a harmonious landscape shaped by a functional spatial arrangement of streets, shapes of buildings, as well as the accompanying nature, ensuring rational development of the city space. One of the key stages that developers and construction companies must take into consideration when planning new investments, is becoming familiar with people's expectations regarding their future place of residence. It is no secret that each square meter of building land is a potential source of profit for developers. The more apartments they build and sell, the more they earn. However, in order for apartments to be sold, they must meet the expectations of their potential buyers related not only to apartments and buildings themselves, but also to the environment surrounding them. Therefore, it is very important that residential estates be attractive and satisfy the needs of their dwellers, which substantially comes down to the comfort of living, rest and recreation within their place of residence. The primary objective behind meeting these needs is to stimulate the demand for new apartments among people, integrate the local community and increase the people' satisfaction with living in a friendly environment.

  5. Do Children with Autism Have Expectancies about the Social Behaviour of Unfamiliar People?: A Pilot Study Using the Still Face Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Jacqueline; Croue, Sabine; Mattlinger, Marie-Jeanne; Canet, Pierre; Hudelot, C.; Lecuyer, C.; Martini, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Eight low-functioning and non-verbal children with autism were presented with a modified version of the "still face" paradigm in an investigation of their expectancies concerning human social behavior. Results indicated the children were unable to form a generalized expectancy for social contingency in human beings with whom they have not yet had…

  6. Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for 315 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) in Iran and its Neighboring Countries, 1990-2015: Findings from Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Krohn, Kristopher J; Afshin, Ashkan; Farzadfar, Farshad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Karimkhani, Chante; Bazargan-Hejazi, Sharzad; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Ali Reza; Farvid, Maryam S; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Islami, Farhad; Karimi, Seyed M; Katibeh, Marzieh; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Pishgar, Farhad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Safi, Sare; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shahraz, Saeid; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mokdad, Ali H; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Summary measures of health are essential in making estimates of health status that are comparable across time and place. They can be used for assessing the performance of health systems, informing effective policy making, and monitoring the progress of nations toward achievement of sustainable development goals. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) as main summary measures of health. We assessed the trends of health status in Iran and 15 neighboring countries using these summary measures. We used the results of GBD 2015 to present the levels and trends of DALYs, life expectancy (LE), and HALE in Iran and its 15 neighboring countries from 1990 to 2015. For each country, we assessed the ratio of observed levels of DALYs and HALE to those expected based on socio-demographic index (SDI), an indicator composed of measures of total fertility rate, income per capita, and average years of schooling. All-age numbers of DALYs reached over 19 million years in Iran in 2015. The all-age number of DALYs has remained stable during the past two decades in Iran, despite the decreasing trends in all-age and age-standardized rates. The all-cause DALY rates decreased from 47,200 in 1990 to 28,400 per 100,000 in 2015. The share of non-communicable diseases in DALYs increased in Iran (from 42% to 74%) and all of its neighbors between 1990 and 2015; the pattern of change is similar in almost all 16 countries. The DALY rates for NCDs and injuries in Iran were higher than global rates and the average rate in High Middle SDI countries, while those for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders were much lower in Iran. Among men, cardiovascular diseases ranked first in all countries of the region except for Bahrain. Among women, they ranked first in 13 countries. Life expectancy and HALE show a consistent increase in all countries. Still, there are

  7. Peer Victimization and Social-Psychological Adjustment in Hispanic and African-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Barlas, Mitchell E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the relation of overt and relational victimization to depressive symptoms, fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social avoidance, and loneliness in a sample of Hispanic and African-American children. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised, and Asher Loneliness…

  8. Perceived Social Support and Domain-Specific Adjustment of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popliger, Mina; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    The perceived availability of social support has been documented as a protective mechanism among adults and adolescents. However, little research has explored the role of social support among children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (E/BD). The current study sought to investigate the effects of perceived social support from family,…

  9. Sleep, Affect, and Social Competence from Preschool to Preadolescence: Distinct Pathways to Emotional and Social Adjustment for Boys and for Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Foley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a normative sample of 1,057 children studied across 4 waves over 6 years with multiple informants, we investigated transactional relations for sleep problems, anxious-depressed symptoms, and social functioning from preschool to preadolescence, assessing cumulative effects on children's emotional and social adjustment. To examine sex differences in the developmental processes, we conducted separate analyses for boys and girls. For both boys and girls, longitudinal cross-lagged panel analyses showed that preschool sleep problems directly predicted anxious-depressed symptoms 2 years later; indirect effects continued into preadolescence. For girls, early and later sleep problems directly or indirectly predicted a wide variety of preadolescent emotional and social adjustment domains (e.g., depressive symptoms, school competence, emotion regulation, risk-taking behaviors. For boys, social competence played a more important role than sleep problems in predicting preadolescent adjustment. Among the first set of findings that demonstrate longitudinal relations between sleep problems and social functioning in middle childhood and preadolescence, these results support Dahl's and Walker's neurological models of sleep and emotional functioning. We discuss these findings in light of relations between sleep and affect during pre-pubertal development and discuss differential findings for boys and girls.

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy Helps HIV-Positive Women Navigate Social Expectations for and Clinical Recommendations against Childbearing in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Kastner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that influence pregnancy decision-making and experiences among HIV-positive women is important for developing integrated reproductive health and HIV services. Few studies have examined HIV-positive women’s navigation through the social and clinical factors that shape experiences of pregnancy in the context of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with HIV-positive, pregnant women receiving ART in Mbarara, Uganda in 2011 to explore how access to ART shapes pregnancy experiences. Main themes included: (1 clinical counselling about pregnancy is often dissuasive but focuses on the importance of ART adherence once pregnant; (2 accordingly, women demonstrate knowledge about the role of ART adherence in maintaining maternal health and reducing risks of perinatal HIV transmission; (3 this knowledge contributes to personal optimism about pregnancy and childbearing in the context of HIV; and (4 knowledge about and adherence to ART creates opportunities for HIV-positive women to manage normative community and social expectations of childbearing. Access to ART and knowledge of the accompanying lowered risks of mortality, morbidity, and HIV transmission improved experiences of pregnancy and empowered HIV-positive women to discretely manage conflicting social expectations and clinical recommendations regarding childbearing.

  11. Cohesive Neighborhoods Where Social Expectations Are Shared May Have Positive Impact On Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Louis; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Wagner, Brandon G; Jacobsen, Wade C; Gold, Sarah; Gaydosh, Lauren

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent mental health problems are associated with poor health and well-being in adulthood. We used data from a cohort of 2,264 children born in large US cities in 1998-2000 to examine whether neighborhood collective efficacy (a combination of social cohesion and control) is associated with improvements in adolescent mental health. We found that children who grew up in neighborhoods with high collective efficacy experienced fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms during adolescence than similar children from neighborhoods with low collective efficacy. The magnitude of this neighborhood effect is comparable to the protective effects of depression prevention programs aimed at general or at-risk adolescent populations. Our findings did not vary by family or neighborhood income, which indicates that neighborhood collective efficacy supports adolescent mental health across diverse populations and urban settings. We recommend a greater emphasis on neighborhood environments in individual mental health risk assessments and greater investment in community-based initiatives that strengthen neighborhood social cohesion and control. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Multimethod prediction of physical parent-child aggression risk in expectant mothers and fathers with Social Information Processing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The Social Information Processing (SIP) model postulates that parents undergo a series of stages in implementing physical discipline that can escalate into physical child abuse. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to investigate whether SIP factors can predict risk of parent-child aggression (PCA) in a diverse sample of expectant mothers and fathers. SIP factors of PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, reactivity, and empathy were considered as potential predictors of PCA risk; additionally, analyses considered whether personal history of PCA predicted participants' own PCA risk through its influence on their attitudes and attributions. Findings indicate that, for both mothers and fathers, history influenced attitudes but not attributions in predicting PCA risk, and attitudes and attributions predicted PCA risk; empathy and reactivity predicted negative child attributions for expectant mothers, but only reactivity significantly predicted attributions for expectant fathers. Path models for expectant mothers and fathers were remarkably similar. Overall, the findings provide support for major aspects of the SIP model. Continued work is needed in studying the progression of these factors across time for both mothers and fathers as well as the inclusion of other relevant ecological factors to the SIP model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the effectiveness of behavioral parent training in bullying, emotional regulation and social adjustment of male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Nesayiand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is a semi-experimental study (pretest-posttest and follow-up design with a nonequivalent control group. To this end, a sample size of 30 secondary school male students (first period was selected through convenience sampling and voluntarily from the statistical population of 10133 male students studying in District 1 of Mashhad. For data collection, Olweus Bully Questionnaire, Garnefski Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Social Adjustment Scale (SAS were applied. The data was analyzed using SPSS software and based on variance analysis test with repeated measures, Hine-Feldet post hoc test and also the paired testof Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The results of this research demonstrated that behavioral parent training has had a significant impact on bullying, emotional regulation and social adjustment of students (P= 0.000.

  14. The impact of social constraints and sense of coherence on the psychological adjustment of adolescents and young adults with CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya L. Beinke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the medical understanding of Cystic Fibrosis (CF has dramatically improved, however, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the psychological adjustment of families coping with CF. We examined the utility of the Social Cognitive Processing (SCP Model in understanding the interactions of parents and young people with CF. We also examined the relationship between social constraints, a key construct in the SCP model, sense of coherence (SOC and other psychological adjustment indicators for young people with CF. Participants comprised 49 individuals with CF, aged 16–25, recruited through state-based CF organisations in Australia. The results indicated that participant ratings of difficulties with communication (social constraints were positively associated with ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress and negatively related to ratings of positive affect and seeing life challenges as predictable, manageable and meaningful (SOC. Ratings of SOC were also positively related to ratings of positive affect and negatively related to ratings of depression, anxiety and stress. A significant mediating effect of SOC was also identified in the relationships between social constraints and positive affect and social constraints and stress. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Everyday physical activity in ambulatory heart transplant candidates: the role of expected health benefits, social support, and potential barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Weidner, Gerdi; Grassmann, Mariel; Spaderna, Heike

    2014-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is recommended for stable patients with advanced heart failure (HF). We evaluated expected health benefits of PA and social support as facilitators of PA, and physical symptom distress and psychological distress (depression, anxiety) as barriers to PA. Additionally, we investigated if facilitators of PA are of particular importance for patients who report barriers. We analyzed data assessed at time of waitlisting in 231 ambulatory patients (53.4 ± 10.3 years, 18 % women) who were enrolled in the multisite Waiting for a New Heart Study in 1 Austrian and 16 German hospitals. Self-reported everyday PA scores (number of activities, duration of activities) was regressed on demographic characteristics and indicators of disease severity (ejection fraction, peak oxygen consumption), facilitators (expected health benefits of PA, perceived emotional support, perceived support for PA), and barriers to PA (physical symptom distress, psychological distress). Interaction terms of facilitators with barriers were also examined. PA was positively associated with higher peak oxygen consumption, validating self-reported PA. Regarding facilitators, expected health benefits of PA were independently associated with higher PA (p values barriers, depression tended to be associated with fewer activities (p = 0.068). However, in the presence of barriers (depression, physical symptoms), feeling supported for being physically active was positively associated with PA (p values < 0.05). Interventions to improve PA may benefit from strengthening positive expectations of health outcomes associated with everyday PA and fostering PA-specific social support for those distressed by HF symptoms or depression.

  16. The model of children's social adjustment under the gender-roles absence in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao

    2018-01-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Initiation and Maintenance of Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding. The role of Outcome Expectation and Satisfaction with the Psychosocial Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Larsen, J.K.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Ramshorst, B. van; Geenen, R.

    2009-01-01

    A premise of this study was that different psychological processes would predict the initiation and maintenance of weight loss after surgery for morbid obesity. Our aim was to examine whether more favorable preoperative expectations of psychosocial outcomes predict weight loss in the first year

  18. Protégés' Personality Traits, Expectations, the Quality of the Mentoring Relationship and Adjustment: A Big Five Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Community-based mentoring interventions can benefit high-risk youth. However, meta-analyses suggest that these benefits may be conditioned by protégés' personality. Objectives: Associations between protégés' personality traits and mentoring expectations, the quality of the mentoring relationship, the perceived mentoring contribution,…

  19. Internet-communication disorder: It’s a matter of social aspects, coping, and Internet-use expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wegmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness and specific cognitions assessing the contribution of an Internet-communication disorder (ICD. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016. As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders.

  20. The big five and identification-contrast processes in social comparison in adjustment to cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R; Botke, G; van den Bergh, F

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between social comparison processes and the Big Five personality factors. In a sample of 112 patients with various forms of cancer it was found that Neuroticism was associated with a tendency to focus on the negative interpretation of social comparison

  1. Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Adjustment: A Meta-Analytic Review and Test of a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Alan M.; Uggerslev, Krista L.; Fassina, Neil E.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most popular and often studied topics in the organizational socialization literature is Van Maanen and Schein's [Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E. H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. In B. M. Staw (Ed.), "Research in organizational behavior" (Vol. 1), pp. 209-264. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.] theory of organizational…

  2. A Case Study of International Students' Social Adjustment, Friendship Development, and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Zizzi, Sam

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature has focused on international student's social transition and monocultural and bicultural ties. Little research has explored international students' multicultural friendship development and the role that physical activity plays in their social interaction. The current case study explored a group of international students'…

  3. [Community diagnosis using qualitative techniques of expectations and experiences in a health area in need of social transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Ruiz, Juan Andrés; Pérez Milena, Alejandro; Enguix Martínez, Natalia; Alvarez Nieto, Carmen; Martínez Fernández, M Luz

    2013-01-01

    To know the views, experiences and expectations of care provided by the Andalusian Public Health System (SSPA) of users of an urban area in need of social transformation (ZNTS). Qualitative methodology (exploratory study). Urban basic health zone (16,000 inhabitants, 40% ZNTS). Purposive sampling of users of SSPA and community leaders. Homogeneity criteria: age. Heterogeneity criteria: sex, frequency, active/pensioner, level cultural/economic. Conversational techniques recorded by videotape and moderated by a sociologist (user dicussion groups and in-depth interviews for community leaders). transcription of speeches, coding, categories triangulation and final outcome. Seven groups (43 participants, 58% ZNTS) and 6 leaders. They want continuity of care and choice of professionals, but not the medical change without information and attention's discontinuity primary care/hospital. There's bad physical accesibility by the urban environment in the ZNTS and is criticized admission services and paperwork; the programmed appointment and the electronic prescriptions are improvements but asking more hospital referrals and reviews. There's good appreciation of the professionals (primary care-closer, hospital-greater technical capacity). It needs to improve nursing education and speed of emergency assistance. There's a lack of leadership in the system organization, very fragmented. They know a range of services focusing on the demand for care; other health activities not spread to the users. The SSPA should incorporate the views and expectations of communities in social risk to a real improvement in the quality of care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Living Joyfully after Losing Social Hope: Kierkegaard and Chrétien on Selfhood and Eschatological Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aaron Simmons

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I offer an existential-phenomenological consideration of what it might look like to live joyfully after losing social hope. Using the example of the widespread hopelessness that many are feeling in light of the election of Donald Trump, I suggest that the danger of losing hope is that we can also lose our selfhood in the process. In order to develop a conception of “eschatological hope” that would be resistant to the loss of such social and political expectations, I draw specifically on Søren Kierkegaard’s notion that “the expectancy of faith is victory,” and Jean-Louis Chrétien’s idea of “the unhoped for,” in order to develop a model of hope that remains when it seems like all other hope has been lost. Rather than being overcome by anxiety about the future, eschatological hope fosters joy in the present.

  5. Social Capital Practices as Adaptive Drivers for Local Adjustment of New Public Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers' autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawing on empirical case studies from two Danish…

  6. Trends in mortality differentials and life expectancy for male social security-covered workers, by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of trends in mortality differentials and life expectancy by average relative earnings for male Social Security-covered workers aged 60 or older. Because average relative earnings are measured at the peak of the earnings distribution (ages 45-55), it is assumed that they act as a rough proxy for socioeconomic status. The historical literature reviewed in this analysis generally indicates that mortality differentials by socioeconomic status have not been constant over time. For this study, time trends are examined by observing how mortality differentials by average relative earnings have been changing over 29 years of successive birth cohorts that encompass roughly the first third of the 20th century. Deaths for these birth cohorts are observed at ages 60-89 from 1972 through 2001, encompassing roughly the last third of the 20th century. The large size and long span of death observations allow for disaggregation by age and year-of-birth groups in the estimation of mortality differentials by socioeconomic status. This study finds a difference in both the level and the rate of change in mortality improvement over time by socioeconomic status for male Social Security-covered workers. Average relative earnings (measured as the relative average positive earnings of an individual between ages 45 and 55) are used as a proxy for adult socioeconomic status. In general, for birth cohorts spanning the years 1912-1941 (or deaths spanning the years 1972-2001 at ages 60-89), the top half of the average relative earnings distribution has experienced faster mortality improvement than has the bottom half. Specifically, male Social Security-covered workers born in 1941 who had average relative earnings in the top half of the earnings distribution and who lived to age 60 would be expected to live 5.8 more years than their counterparts in the bottom half. In contrast, among male Social Security-covered workers born in 1912 who survived to age 60, those

  7. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and develop......Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research...... birth defects, and skin, oral, and sense organ diseases) either increased or remained unchanged, leading to increases in their relative ranking in many geographies. From 2005 to 2015, HALE at birth increased by an average of 2·9 years (95% uncertainty interval 2·9–3·0) for men and 3·5 years (3...

  8. Trends in Life Expectancy by Level of Education and Occupational Social Class in Finland 1981-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Valkonen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses trends in life expectancy by level of education and by occupational social class in Finland from 1981 to 2000 to assess to what extent these trends have been in accordance with the target of reducing socioeconomic differences in life expectancy set in the Government public health programme. The study is based on the census records for the population aged 35 or over, which have been linked to the death records for the years 1981 to 2000. The results show that, contrary to the public health target, the difference in the life expectancy between persons with tertiary and basic education and that between upper non-manual and manual occupational classes increased during the 1990s. Differences in the trends in mortality from alcohol-related causes of death and from other cancers than lung cancer accounted for most the increase in the socioeconomic gap among men. Different from the 1980s changes in cardiovascular mortality did not contribute to the increase in the socioeconomic gap. Among women the increase in the socioeconomic gap was mainly due to the heterogeneous group of other diseases and cancers other than lung and breast cancer

  9. Working Life and Retirement Expectancies at Age 50 by Social Class: Period and Cohort Trends and Projections for Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Taina; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2018-01-11

    The balance between the amount of time spent in work and in retirement underlies the long-term sustainability of the social security system. We examined socioeconomic differences in how increasing longevity is distributed between labor market statuses in Finland. We used register data and the Sullivan method to analyze life expectancy at age 50 spent in different labor market statuses over the period 1989-2012 and across cohorts born in 1938-1953. We projected the future mortality and labor market participation rates of partially observed cohorts. Both working life expectancy at age 50 and the share of remaining life spent in work have increased across periods following the recession of the early 1990s, and across successive cohorts. The trends were similar across the social classes, but there were large differences in the numbers of years spent in various states: for the most recent period and the youngest cohort, we find that compared with upper non-manual employees, male and female manual workers were expected to spend 3.6-3.7 fewer years in work, 1.7-4.7 fewer years in statutory retirement, and 3.2-3.9 more years in other forms of nonemployment. Our finding that the share of remaining life at age 50 spent in work is increasing implies that pressure on the welfare system is not as severe as is commonly thought. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Theories on coping with loss: the impact of social support and self-esteem on adjustment to emotional and social loneliness following a partner's death in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarsen, Berna

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on the role of self-esteem and social support in adjustment to loneliness experienced by bereaved elderly persons. This study also examined the contributions of a general and a specific coping theory toward explaining loneliness. A distinction has been made between emotional loneliness and social loneliness/perceived support. The theory of mental incongruity predicts that the presence of more favorable conditions, such as higher self-esteem or more social support, results in less loneliness (i.e., less incongruity). According to the theory of relational loneliness, the partner's death leads to a loss of identity, thus increasing emotional loneliness, and social support does not mitigate emotional loneliness following a loss. In total, 101 participants, aged 55-89 years, were interviewed before and after their partners' deaths. Findings were ambiguous with regard to both theories. As hypothesized, partner loss lowered self-esteem, resulting in higher emotional loneliness and social loneliness, that is, perception of less support. Supportive personal relations reduced emotional loneliness. The presence of close friends, however, seemed to increase emotional and social loneliness (i.e., decrease perceived support) in the long term, particularly among bereaved participants with lower self-esteem. The findings highlight the need to integrate theoretical concepts. In explaining adjustment to a partner's death, attention should be paid to underlying mechanisms relevant to the restoration process (e.g., identity change) and the ways in which the adjustment process can be improved (e.g., intimate relationships) or impeded (e.g., dependency-sustaining relationships).

  11. Socialization Tactics, Content, and Career Effectiveness: The Role of Political Skill in Contextual Adjustment and Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blass, Fred

    2003-01-01

    .... Study 2 provided a more extensive investigation of the proposed relationships. More specifically, this research examined the outcomes of the relationship between the collective and serial socialization tactics (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979...

  12. Trends of gender gaps in life expectancy in Japan, 1947-2010: associations with gender mortality ratio and a social development index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Kanda, Koji; Boostrom, Eugene; Lee, Romeo B; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-07-01

    This study analyzed the trend of gender gaps in life expectancy (GGLE) in Japan between 1947 and 2010, and explored the correlations of GGLE with gender mortality ratio and social development indices. Using GGLE and social indices data collected from the official websites, we carried out trends analysis of GGLE by calculating segmented average growth rates for different periods. We explored the association between GGLE and all-cause mortality; and between GGLE and Human Development Index (HDI) while controlling for time trend, by computing the generalized additive models based on the software R (version 2.15). Japan's GGLE increased in a fluctuating fashion. Across 53 years, the average growth rates varied widely: 0.14% (1947-1956), 1.43% (1956-1974), 1.06% (1974-2004) and -0.60% (2004-2010) (overall average 0.87%). The value of GGLE peaked to 7.00 years in 2004, and then has slowly declined (6.75 years in 2010). Age-adjusted all-cause gender mortality ratio had a statistically positive association with GGLE (PJapan could be partly explained by increased disease-specific mortality ratios (male/female), especially those involving chronic bronchitis and emphysema, diseases of the liver, suicide and cancer. The recent decline of GGLE might imply that Japanese women have been catching up with the lifestyle of men, resulting in similar mortality patterns. This calls for gender-sensitive approaches to developing policies and programs that will help sustain healthy lifestyles to combat smoking and alcohol intake, and social support to prevent suicide. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The mediating role of social skills and sensation seeking in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and school adjustment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Elika; Zarani, Fariba; Fathabadi, Jalil

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 400 female high school students in Tehran, Iran, the present study examines the mediating role of social skills and sensation seeking in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and school adjustment in adolescent girls. Statistical analysis revealed positive correlations between trait emotional intelligence and school adjustment; trait emotional intelligence and social skills; and social skills and school adjustment. The study also revealed a negative correlation between trait emotional intelligence and sensation seeking, as well as sensation seeking and school adjustment. In addition, the data provided a good fit to the hypothesized model of the mediating role of social skills and sensation seeking in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and school adjustment. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Murgui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.

  16. The Role of Social Networks in the Adjustment and Academic Success of International Students: A Case Study of a University in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisang, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This study is a qualitative investigation of the role that social networks play in the adjustment and academic success of international students. With large numbers of international students enrolled on US campuses, it is important for practitioners to prepare, understand and address their dynamic needs. Based on social network, social capital and…

  17. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2014-12-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females ( N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.

  18. Gender as a moderator of self-esteem in socially adjusted and maladjusted youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Kupiec

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research into the self-esteem of adolescents. The comparative analysis conducted reveals that the self-esteem of juveniles placed in social rehabilitation institutions is higher than the self-esteem of youth attending public schools and that gender is not a statistically significant differentiating factor. The text also includes a review of empirical studies of other authors dealing with this issue, a discussion of the obtained results, and practical recommendations useful in the social rehabilitation juveniles

  19. Effects of social comparison direction, threat, and self-esteem on affect, self-evaluation, and expected success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, L G; Taylor, S E

    1993-05-01

    Two studies explored the conditions under which social comparisons are used to manage negative affect and naturalistic threats. Study 1 examined induced mood and dispositional self-esteem as determinants of affective responses to upward and downward comparisons. Consistent with a mood repair prediction, only low-self-esteem Ss in whom a negative mood had been induced reported improved mood after exposure to downward comparison information. Study 2 examined the impact of naturalistic threats on responses to comparison information. Relative to a no-comparison baseline, low-self-esteem Ss who had experienced a recent academic setback reported more favorable self-evaluations and greater expectations of future success in college after exposure to downward comparison information. These results remained significant after controlling statistically for general distress. Implications for downward comparison theory are discussed.

  20. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  1. Network Characteristics, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…

  2. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Patterns of Social Support in the Middle Childhood to Early Adolescent Transition: Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Mary J.; Levitt, Jerome; Bustos, Gaston L.; Crooks, Noel A.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Milevsky, Avidan

    2005-01-01

    Children's social networks often include close family members, extended family members, and friends, but little is known about interindividual differences in the patterning of support from these sources. In this study, we used person-oriented analyses to differentiate patterns of support for children undergoing the transition to adolescence.…

  4. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first

  5. Early social experience predicts referential communicative adjustments in five-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.; Hunnius, S.; Bekkering, H.; Toni, I.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of work has focused on children's ability to attribute mental states to other people, and whether these abilities are influenced by the extent and nature of children's social interactions. However, it remains largely unknown which developmental factors shape children's ability to

  6. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Pamela F; Lytle, Megan C

    2015-06-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60-87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample.

  7. Re-visiting internet addiction among Taiwanese students: a cross-sectional comparison of students' expectations, online gaming, and online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Ko, Chih-Hung; Chou, Chien

    2015-04-01

    Using expectancy theory, this study aimed at identifying the attitudinal/behavioral factors that explain the relationship between Internet expectancies and Internet addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 25,573 students (49.8% boys and 50.2% girls) across junior and senior high schools participated in the study. The students reported on their background characteristics, general expectations from the Internet, attitudes toward online social interaction and online gaming, preferences in online social interaction, and dys-controlled online gaming behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effects of Internet expectancies on Internet addiction through these attitudinal/behavioral factors. The results showed that Internet expectancies positively predicted students' attitudes toward online games and online social interaction, which in turn predicted their respective preferences or dys-controlled behavior and Internet addiction. The indirect effect of Internet expectancies was higher on Internet addiction via attitudes toward online gaming and dys-controlled online gaming than via attitudes toward and preferences of online social interaction. The indirect effects exhibited a larger impact on boys than on girls. The authors recommend that the expectancies of online gaming and social interaction be addressed in efforts to prevent and attenuate the severity of adolescent Internet addiction.

  8. Do Older Siblings Make a Difference? The Effects of Older Sibling Support and Older Sibling Adjustment on the Adjustment of Socially Disadvantaged Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Eric D.; Weiss, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    Examined role of support from a well-adjusted older sibling for positive adjustment of disadvantaged inner-city adolescents. Found that sibling support was nonsignificantly related to delinquency, academic success, and mental health for younger siblings. Only when accompanied by a positive image of their older sibling was support associated with…

  9. DSM-5 PTSD and posttraumatic stress spectrum in Italian emergency personnel: correlations with work and social adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmassi C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Carmassi,1 Camilla Gesi,1 Marly Simoncini,1 Luca Favilla,1 Gabriele Massimetti,1 Maria Cristina Olivieri,1 Ciro Conversano,2 Massimo Santini,2 Liliana Dell’Osso1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP, Pisa, Italy Abstract: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5 has recently recognized a particular risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among first responders (criterion A4, acknowledging emergency units as stressful places of employment. Little data is yet available on DSM-5 among emergency health operators. The aim of this study was to assess DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD and posttraumatic stress spectrum, as well as their impact on work and social functioning, in the emergency staff of a major university hospital in Italy. One hundred and ten subjects (doctors, nurses, and health-care assistants were recruited at the Emergency Unit of the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (Italy and assessed by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS. A 15.7% DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD prevalence rate was found. Nongraduated persons reported significantly higher TALS-SR Domain IV (reaction to loss or traumatic events scores and a significantly higher proportion of individuals presenting at least one maladaptive behavior (TALS-SR Domain VII, with respect to graduate ones. Women reported significantly higher WSAS scores. Significant correlations emerged between PTSD symptoms and WSAS total scores among health-care assistants, nongraduates and women. Our results showed emergency workers to be at risk for posttraumatic stress spectrum and related work and social impairment, particularly among women and nongraduated subjects. Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, emergency, emergency

  10. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2013-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...

  11. Impact of Communication on Parents' and First-Year College Students' Ratings of Student Academic, Emotional, and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogan, Lissa; Freedle, Agata; Ringenberg, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the effects of parents' and students' communication patterns on students' social, emotional, and academic adjustment to college. It matched 118 pairs of parents and students (n = 236) and asked them to report their frequency and mode of communication, as well as the first-year students' perceived adjustment to college. The…

  12. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global...... Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared...... from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95...

  13. Psychiatric Comorbidity, Social Aspects and Quality of Life in a Population-Based Cohort of Expecting Fathers with Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Frizell Reiter

    Full Text Available To investigate psychiatric disorders, adverse social aspects and quality of life in men with epilepsy during partner's pregnancy.We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 76,335 men with pregnant partners. Men with epilepsy were compared to men without epilepsy, and to men with non-neurological chronic diseases.Expecting fathers in 658 pregnancies (mean age 31.8 years reported a history of epilepsy, 36.9% using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs at the onset of pregnancy. Symptoms of anxiety or depression were increased in epilepsy (7.0% and 3.9%, respectively vs. non-epilepsy (4.6% and 2.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.023, and so were new onset symptoms of depression (2.0% vs. 1.0%, p < 0.031 and anxiety (4.3% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.023. Low self-esteem (2.5% and low satisfaction with life (1.7% were more frequent among fathers with epilepsy compared to fathers without epilepsy (1.3% and 0.7%, respectively, p = 0.01 and 0.010. Adverse social aspects and life events were associated with epilepsy vs. both reference groups. Self-reported diagnoses of ADHD (2.2% and bipolar disorder (1.8% were more common in epilepsy vs. non-epilepsy (0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, p = 0.002 and 0.003 and non-neurological chronic disorders (0.5% and 0.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.018. A screening tool for ADHD symptoms revealed a higher rate compared to self-reported ADHD (9.5% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001.Expecting fathers with epilepsy are at high risk of depression and anxiety, adverse socioeconomic aspects, low self-esteem, and low satisfaction with life. Focus on mental health in fathers with epilepsy during and after pregnancy is important. The use of screening tools can be particularly useful to identify those at risk.

  14. Expectations in the field of the internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-03-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users' online and offline practices and contexts. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for Sociology of Health & Illness.

  15. Expectations in the field of the Internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users’ online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  16. Play-solicitation gestures in chimpanzees in the wild: flexible adjustment to social circumstances and individual matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Social play is a frequent behaviour in great apes and involves sophisticated forms of communicative exchange. While it is well established that great apes test and practise the majority of their gestural signals during play interactions, the influence of demographic factors and kin relationships between the interactants on the form and variability of gestures are relatively little understood. We thus carried out the first systematic study on the exchange of play-soliciting gestures in two chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) communities of different subspecies. We examined the influence of age, sex and kin relationships of the play partners on gestural play solicitations, including object-associated and self-handicapping gestures. Our results demonstrated that the usage of (i) audible and visual gestures increased significantly with infant age, (ii) tactile gestures differed between the sexes, and (iii) audible and visual gestures were higher in interactions with conspecifics than with mothers. Object-associated and self-handicapping gestures were frequently used to initiate play with same-aged and younger play partners, respectively. Our study thus strengthens the view that gestures are mutually constructed communicative means, which are flexibly adjusted to social circumstances and individual matrices of interactants.

  17. Quality of life and adjustment in children and adolescents with Moebius syndrome: Evidence for specific impairments in social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Linda; Renner, Gerolf

    2016-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by congenital facial paralysis and impairment of ocular abduction. The absence of facial expression in people with Moebius syndrome may impair social interaction. The present study aims at replicating prior findings on psychological adjustment in children and adolescents with Moebius syndrome and providing first data on quality of life. Parents (n=26) and children and adolescents (n=14) with Moebius-Syndrome completed the KINDL(R) (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents), the SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and a newly devised questionnaire on the global, social, and emotional impact of Moebius syndrome, including a scale that addressed what conjectures were made concerning the thoughts of other people about a child with Moebius syndrome. In comparison with normative data, quality of life was reduced for the subscale Friends (large effect for both parental ratings and self-report) and the Total Score of the KINDL(R). Parents reported elevated levels of peer problems on the respective subscale of the SDQ. In SDQ self-report data, cases classified as abnormal were observed on Peer Problems only. Moebius-specific scales showed adequate reliabilities, and were related, most notably for parent-report, to quality of life. 29% of children reported feelings of anger when being stared at, and wished that they were not affected by Moebius syndrome. Although most children and adolescents in our sample did not show behavioral problems or reduced quality of life, our results indicate that their emotional and social development should be closely monitored. Maintaining satisfying peer relationships seems to be a special challenge for children and adolescents with Moebius syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial and Ethnic Socialization as Moderators of Racial Discrimination and School Adjustment of Adopted and Non-adopted Korean American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 non-adopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than non-adopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. Moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas, ethnic socialization buffered this link for non-adopted Korean American adolescents. Findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. PMID:26479418

  19. Cumulative Trauma and Adjustment in Women Exposed to a Campus Shooting: Examining the Role of Appraisals and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Derrecka M; Dunn, Qweandria T; Orcutt, Holly K

    2017-05-01

    Experiencing repeated trauma can have increasingly detrimental effects on psychosocial functioning after subsequent stressors. These effects may be intensified for victims of interpersonal traumas given that these events are often associated with heightened risk for adverse outcomes. To better understand this relationship, the present study prospectively examined the effect of pre-shooting trauma exposure (i.e., interpersonal vs. non-interpersonal trauma) on psychological functioning (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression) following a mass campus shooting. Based on previous research, it was expected that negative appraisals and social support would mediate this relationship. A sample of 515 college women reporting prior trauma exposure was assessed at four time points following the shooting (i.e., pre-shooting, 1-month, 6-months, and 12-months post-shooting). Bootstrap analyses with bias-corrected confidence intervals were conducted. Contrary to expectation, pre-shooting trauma exposure was unrelated to 12-month post-shooting outcomes and neither negative appraisals nor social support at 6-months post-shooting emerged as mediators. Interestingly, a history of non-interpersonal trauma was associated with greater post-shooting family and friend support than a history of interpersonal trauma. Ad hoc analyses showed that pre-shooting symptom severity and level of exposure to the shooting had indirect effects on post-shooting outcomes via post-shooting negative appraisals. These findings support that cumulative trauma, regardless of type, may not have an additive effect unless individuals develop clinically significant symptoms following previous trauma. Trauma severity also appears to play a meaningful role.

  20. Parental Emotion Socialization and Child Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Urban Families: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Dyadic Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuyun Jin; Xutong Zhang; Zhuo Rachel Han

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediatin...

  1. The relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Dadarigashti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study conducted to examine the relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht. The research is descriptive correlational. The target population includes all female students studying in Rasht in 2015. By random cluster sampling method and based on the variables, 180 subjects selected. In this study, to collect data, psychological adjustment and social support, academic self-concept and academic achievement questionnaire are used. To test the hypothesis of this research, the parametric statistical Pearson correlation and regression tests are used. Moreover, all statistical operations were analyzed by using SPSS software. The research results showed that the correlation values between psychological adjustment and social support with academic self-concept and academic achievement of high school female students is statistically significant ( 01/0 > p.

  2. Does Political Socialization at Home Boost Adolescents' Expectation of Higher Education? An Analysis of Eighth-Grade Students in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This study uses comparative data to examine the impact of political socialization in the home on adolescents' expectations of university participation. The first part of the study is an international partial replication of design and findings of an earlier Norwegian study published in 2011. It examines, in socioculturally diverse countries, the…

  3. Caesarean section rates in Southwestern Ontario: changes over time after adjusting for important medical and social characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hilary K; Hill, Jacquelyn; Natale, Renato

    2014-07-01

    To compare Caesarean section rates in a cohort of women in Southwestern Ontario over time, overall, and in patient subgroups defined by the Robson criteria, after adjusting for important medical and social characteristics. We obtained data from a perinatal database on deliveries at ≥ 22 weeks' gestation at a level II centre and a level III centre in London, Ontario between 1999 and 2010. Caesarean section rates were examined overall and in subgroups defined by parity, presentation, plurality, gestational age, and history of previous Caesarean section. Multivariable modified Poisson regression was used to compare Caesarean section rates in 2003-2006 and 2007-2010 versus 1999-2002. In the fully adjusted models, the overall Caesarean section rate was significantly higher in 2007-2010 than in 1999-2002 for the level II centre (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.12; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21). An increase was also seen in the level III centre in both 2003 to 2006 (aRR 1.19; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.24) and 2007 to 2010 (aRR 1.17; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.22). Similar increases were seen over time among patient subgroups. Notably, repeat Caesarean sections without labour increased at the level II centre (2003 to 2006 aRR 1.21; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.45, and 2007 to 2010 aRR 1.44; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.71) and the level III centre (2003 to 2006 aRR 1.72; 95% CI 1.53 to 1.94, and 2007 to 2010 aRR 1.77; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.00). There has been a significant increase over time in the Caesarean section rate overall and in important subgroups. This increase remains even after controlling for other factors which may explain the trend.

  4. The impact of premorbid adjustment, neurocognition, and depression on social and role functioning in patients in an early psychosis treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Leung, Y Jude; Meyer, Eric C; Zimmet, Suzanna V; Caplan, Brina; Monteleone, Thomas; Bryant, Caitlin; Guyer, Margaret; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-05-01

    Functional impairments are debilitating concomitants of psychotic disorders and are present early in the illness course and, commonly, prior to psychosis onset. The factors affecting social and role functioning in early psychosis (EP) following treatment are unclear. We evaluated whether six months of participation in the PREP(R), Boston, EP treatment program, part of a public-academic community mental health center, was related to improvements in social and role functioning and whether premorbid adjustment in adolescence, baseline neurocognition, and depression symptoms predicted functional improvement. The Global Functioning Social and Role scales, MATRICS neurocognitive battery, and Calgary Depression Scale were assessed at baseline and six months during naturalistic treatment, while premorbid adjustment was measured at baseline. All participants were psychotic disorder patients in PREP(R) (n = 46 with social functioning and 47 with role functioning measures at both time points). Large improvements were observed in role functioning (d = 0.84) and medium to large improvements were observed in social functioning (d = 0.70). Models consisting of adolescent premorbid adjustment and change in depression symptoms predicted social and role functioning change, whereas neuropsychological functioning did not. Substantial improvements in social and role functioning were observed among this sample participating in a recovery-based EP program. The impact of clinical factors on social and role functioning was highlighted. Further studies of premorbid adjustment in adolescence and the treatment of depression in EP programs in controlled treatment trials are needed to confirm these findings. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Zand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek’s Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost.

  6. Instructor Experiences with a Social Networking Site in a Higher Education Setting: Expectations, Frustrations, Appropriation, and Compartmentalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce; French, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have suggested that the use of social networking sites in formal education may be a worthwhile endeavor. Toward this goal, emerging learning platforms have included social networking features. Nevertheless, empirical literature examining user experiences, and more specifically instructor experiences, with these tools…

  7. Parental Emotion Socialization and Child Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Urban Families: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Dyadic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyun Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediating role of children’s emotion regulation in linking parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment, and whether dyadic collaboration could moderate the proposed mediation model in a sample of Chinese parents and their children in their middle childhood. Participants were 150 Chinese children (87 boys and 63 girls, Mage = 8.54, SD = 1.67 and their parents (Mage = 39.22, SD = 4.07. Parent–child dyadic collaboration was videotaped and coded from an interaction task. Parents reported on their emotion socialization, children’s emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms. Results indicated that child emotion regulation mediated the links between parental emotion socialization and child’s psychopathological symptoms. Evidence of moderated mediation was also found: supportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation were positively correlated only at high and medium levels of dyadic collaboration, with child’s psychopathological symptoms as the dependent variables. Our findings suggested that higher-level parent–child collaboration might further potentiate the protective effect of parental supportive emotion socialization practices against child psychopathological symptoms.

  8. Parental Emotion Socialization and Child Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Urban Families: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Dyadic Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhuyun; Zhang, Xutong; Han, Zhuo Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical model of emotion regulation and many empirical findings have suggested that children’s emotion regulation may mediate the association between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment. However, limited research has been conducted on moderators of these relations, despite the argument that the associations between parenting practices and children’s psychological adjustment are probabilistic rather than deterministic. This study examined the mediating role of children’s emotion regulation in linking parents’ emotion socialization and children’s psychological adjustment, and whether dyadic collaboration could moderate the proposed mediation model in a sample of Chinese parents and their children in their middle childhood. Participants were 150 Chinese children (87 boys and 63 girls, Mage = 8.54, SD = 1.67) and their parents (Mage = 39.22, SD = 4.07). Parent–child dyadic collaboration was videotaped and coded from an interaction task. Parents reported on their emotion socialization, children’s emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms. Results indicated that child emotion regulation mediated the links between parental emotion socialization and child’s psychopathological symptoms. Evidence of moderated mediation was also found: supportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation were positively correlated only at high and medium levels of dyadic collaboration, with child’s psychopathological symptoms as the dependent variables. Our findings suggested that higher-level parent–child collaboration might further potentiate the protective effect of parental supportive emotion socialization practices against child psychopathological symptoms. PMID:29326629

  9. The Peer Group as a Context: Moderating Effects on Relations between Maternal Parenting and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; He, Yunfeng; Liu, Hongyun

    2005-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age=11 years), the moderating effects of the peer group on relations between maternal supportive parenting and social and school adjustment. Data were collected from multiple sources including peer assessments, teacher ratings, school records, and maternal reports.…

  10. The Role of Culture in Relational Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems in Japanese and US School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…

  11. A Best Evidence Synthesis of Literacy Instruction on the Social Adjustment of Students with or At-Risk for Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Ron; Lane, Kathleen L.; Benner, Gregory J.; Kim, Ockjean

    2011-01-01

    The findings of a best-evidence synthesis of the collateral effect of literacy instruction on the social adjustment of students are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Wanzek, Vaughn, Kim, and Cavanaugh (2006) by (a) reviewing treatment-outcomes conducted using group design methodology; (b) focusing on a more defined set…

  12. An examination of biracial college youths' family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment: do self-identification labels and university context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants' ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse.

  13. An Examination of Biracial College Youths’ Family Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Adjustment: Do Self-Identification Labels and University Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants’ ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse. PMID:22905967

  14. The role of perceived family social support and parental solicitous responses in adjustment to bothersome pain in young people with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Jordi; de la Vega, Rocío; Gertz, Kevin J; Jensen, Mark P; Engel, Joyce M

    2017-11-12

    Family social support and parental solicitous responses have been hypothesised to play an important role in paediatric pain. However, research testing the hypothesised associations between these social domains and measures of adjustment to pain in youths with disabilities and chronic pain is non-existent. About 111 youths with physical disabilities and bothersome pain were interviewed and asked to complete measures of average pain intensity, pain interference, family social support, parent solicitous responding, and catastrophising. Children's perceptions of pain-related solicitous responses from their parent/guardian were associated both with more pain interference and greater pain-related catastrophising; perceived social support was negatively associated with pain interference. The findings provide new information regarding the role that psychosocial factors have in predicting function and adjustment, and have important implications as to how youth with physical disabilities with pain might be most effectively treated. Implications for rehabilitation Little is known about the role of perceived family social support or parental solicitous responses in the adjustment to chronic pain in young people with physical disabilities. This study provides new and important findings that have significant theoretical and practical implications that could help to understand and manage function in these patients. Results show that it matters how parents respond to their children with disabilities who have pain, and raise the possibility that interventions which target these responses may result in significant benefits for the children.

  15. Why Do More Women than Men Want to Earn a Four-Year Degree? Exploring the Effects of Gender, Social Origin, and Social Capital on Educational Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan S.; Seifert, Tricia A.; Padgett, Ryan D.; Park, Sueuk; Umbach, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Students' educational expectations are one of the strongest predictors of their future educational attainment (Mortimer, 1996; Reynolds & Burge, 2008; Sewell & Hauser, 1980; Sewell & Shah, 1968). Thus, the growing gender gap in educational expectations partially explains the growth in the gender gap in educational attainment (Reynolds & Burge,…

  16. When outcome expectations become habitual : explaining vs. predicting new media technology use from a social cognitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the triadic relationship between expected outcomes, habit strength, and media technology use within the model of media attendance (Larose & Eastin, 2004). Mobile phone users (N = 664) were divided into two groups using a stratified random sampling method. Respondents of group one

  17. Construction of Social Reality during Early Adolescence: Can Expecting Storm and Stress Increase Real or Perceived Storm and Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Christy M.; Hughes, Johna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether mothers' or adolescents' expectations concerning "storm and stress" behaviors at adolescence predict subsequent real or perceived adolescent behavior and attributes during the early years of adolescence. The study used a short-term longitudinal design. Participants were 6th- and 7th-grade adolescents and their mothers…

  18. The Role of Parental Expectations in Understanding Social and Academic Well-Being among Children with Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Selina; Maître, Bertrand; Watson, Dorothy; Banks, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on longitudinal data to examine the extent to which parents' educational expectations shape academic development and changes in self-concept among young people with different types of disability. The analysis is based on the "Growing Up in Ireland" longitudinal study, which tracked 7423 children between the primary to…

  19. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: Truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lange, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as

  20. Gender, Language, and Social Influence: A Test of Expectation States, Role Congruity, and Self-Categorization Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.; Palomares, Nicholas A.; Anderson, Grace L.; Bondad-Brown, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    This study compares self-categorization, expectation states, and role congruity theories' explanations for female influence. Male and female participants (N = 267) listened to a recording of a female speaker who used either tentative or assertive language under conditions that led participants to categorize her as a woman or as college-educated.…

  1. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  2. Teasing and social rejection among obese children enrolling in family-based behavioural treatment: effects on psychological adjustment and academic competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, T; Njardvik, U; Olafsdottir, A S; Craighead, L W; Bjarnason, R

    2012-01-01

    The first objective was to determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment (emotional and behavioural problems), low academic competencies and teasing/social rejection among obese Icelandic children enrolling in a family-based behavioural treatment. A second objective was to explore the degree to which teasing/social rejection specifically contributes to children's psychological adjustment and academic competencies when controlling for other variables, including demographics, children's physical activity, parental depression and life-stress. Participants were 84 obese children (mean body mass index-standard deviation score=3.11, age range=7.52-13.61 years). Height and weight, demographics and measures of children's psychological adjustment, academic competencies, teasing/social rejection and physical activity were collected from children, parents and teachers. Parental depression and life-stress was self-reported. Over half the children exceeded cutoffs indicating concern on at least one measure of behavioural or emotional difficulties. Children endorsed significant levels of teasing/social rejection, with almost half acknowledging they were not popular with same-gender peers. Parent reports of peer problems were even higher, with over 90% of both boys and girls being rated by their parents as having significant peer difficulties. However, rates of low academic competencies as reported by teachers were not different from those of the general population. In regression analyses controlling for other variables, self-reported teasing/social rejection emerged as a significant contributor to explaining both child psychological adjustment and academic competencies. The results indicate that among obese children enrolled in family-based treatment, self-reported teasing/social rejection is quite high and it is associated with poorer psychological adjustment as well as lower academic competencies. Parent reports corroborate the presence of substantial peer

  3. Addictive use of social networking sites can be explained by the interaction of Internet use expectancies, Internet literacy, and psychopathological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Elisa; Stodt, Benjamin; Brand, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Most people use the Internet in a functional way to achieve certain goals and needs. However, there is an increasing number of people who experience negative consequences like loss of control and distress based on an excessive use of the Internet and its specific online applications. Some approaches postulate similarities with behavioral addictions as well as substance dependencies. They differentiate between a generalized and a specific Internet addiction, such as the pathological use of social networking sites (SIA-SNS). Prior studies particularly identified the use of applications, personal characteristics, and psychopathological symptoms as significant predictors for the development and maintenance of this phenomenon. So far, it remains unclear how psychopathological symptoms like depression and social anxiety interact with individual expectancies of Internet use and capabilities of handling the Internet, summarized as Internet literacy. The current study (N = 334) investigated the interaction of these components in a structural equation model. The results indicate that the effects of depression and social anxiety on SIA-SNS were mediated by Internet use expectancies and self-regulation. Thus, Internet use expectancies seem to be crucial for SIA-SNS, which is in line with prior models. SNS use may be reinforced by experienced gratification and relief from negative feelings. Individual competences in handling the Internet may be preventive for the development of SIA-SNS.

  4. Addictive use of social networking sites can be explained by the interaction of Internet use expectancies, Internet literacy, and psychopathological symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Elisa; Stodt, Benjamin; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Most people use the Internet in a functional way to achieve certain goals and needs. However, there is an increasing number of people who experience negative consequences like loss of control and distress based on an excessive use of the Internet and its specific online applications. Some approaches postulate similarities with behavioral addictions as well as substance dependencies. They differentiate between a generalized and a specific Internet addiction, such as the pathological use of social networking sites (SIA–SNS). Prior studies particularly identified the use of applications, personal characteristics, and psychopathological symptoms as significant predictors for the development and maintenance of this phenomenon. So far, it remains unclear how psychopathological symptoms like depression and social anxiety interact with individual expectancies of Internet use and capabilities of handling the Internet, summarized as Internet literacy. Methods The current study (N = 334) investigated the interaction of these components in a structural equation model. Results The results indicate that the effects of depression and social anxiety on SIA–SNS were mediated by Internet use expectancies and self-regulation. Discussion Thus, Internet use expectancies seem to be crucial for SIA–SNS, which is in line with prior models. Conclusions SNS use may be reinforced by experienced gratification and relief from negative feelings. Individual competences in handling the Internet may be preventive for the development of SIA–SNS. PMID:26551905

  5. Leaving the Parental Nest: Adjustment Problems, Attachment Representations, and Social Support during the Transition from High School to Military Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2011-01-01

    Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two…

  6. A Social Cognitive Approach to Understanding Engineering Career Interest and Expectations among Underrepresented Students in School-Based Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Sandra L.; Alvarez, Jaquelina; Santos, Jeannette; Suárez, Oscar Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Interest in engineering at early stages of the educational career is one important precursor to choosing to study engineering in college, and engineering-related clubs are designed to foster such interest and diversify the engineering pipeline. In this study, the researchers employed a social cognitive career theory framework to examine level of…

  7. A Study of Performance and Effort Expectancy Factors among Generational and Gender Groups to Predict Enterprise Social Software Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Social software technology has gained considerable popularity over the last decade and has had a great impact on hundreds of millions of people across the globe. Businesses have also expressed their interest in leveraging its use in business contexts. As a result, software vendors and business consumers have invested billions of dollars to use…

  8. A cultural and social cognitive model of differences in acculturation orientations, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S; Huang, Shi

    2013-04-01

    The present study used a cultural and social cognitive conceptual framework to investigate whether alcohol expectancies and valuations would mediate the associations between specific acculturation orientations and alcohol-related risk behaviors. The sample comprised 1,527 Hispanic students attending colleges and universities in diverse regions of the United States. Respondents completed self-report measures of Hispanic and American cultural practices; alcohol expectancies and valuations; and self-reported frequency of hazardous alcohol use, binge drinking, sexual activity under the influence of alcohol, driving under the influence of alcohol, and riding with a drunk driver. Latent class analysis was used to classify participants into acculturation orientations. Results indicated that acculturation orientations were differentially associated with alcohol-related risk outcomes, with separated bicultural and low bicultural orientations inversely related to all of the alcohol-related risk behaviors except for riding with a drunk driver. Negative expectancy valuations were positively associated with endorsement of binge drinking and drunk driving and negative expectancies were negatively associated with binge drinking, drunk driving, and riding with a drunk driver. With the exception of sexual activity under the influence of alcohol, the associations between acculturation orientations and alcohol-related risk behaviors were partially mediated by positive alcohol expectancies. Our findings provided relevant data that are informative for preventing alcohol and related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Human grooming in comparative perspective: People in six small-scale societies groom less but socialize just as much as expected for a typical primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kramer, Karen L; Hames, Raymond; Kiely, Evan J; Gomes, Cristina; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Grooming has important utilitarian and social functions in primates but little is known about grooming and its functional analogues in traditional human societies. We compare human grooming to typical primate patterns to test its hygienic and social functions. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were used to derive expected human grooming time given the potential associations between grooming, group size, body size, terrestriality, and several climatic variables across 69 primate species. This was compared against observed times dedicated to grooming, other hygienic behavior, and conversation among the Maya, Pumé, Sanöma, Tsimane', Yanomamö, and Ye'kwana (mean number of behavioral scans = 23,514). Expected grooming time for humans was 4% (95% Credible Interval = 0.07%-14%), similar to values observed in primates, based largely on terrestriality and phylogenetic signal (mean λ = 0.56). No other covariates strongly associated with grooming across primates. Observed grooming time across societies was 0.8%, lower than 89% of the expected values. However, the observed times dedicated to any hygienic behavior (3.0%) or "vocal grooming," that is conversation (7.3%), fell within the expected range. We found (i) that human grooming may be a (recent) phylogenetic outlier when defined narrowly as parasite removal but not defined broadly as personal hygiene, (ii) there was no support for thermoregulatory functions of grooming, and (iii) no support for the "vocal grooming" hypothesis of language having evolved as a less time-consuming means of bonding. Thus, human grooming reflects decreased hygienic needs, but similar social needs compared to primate grooming. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Right-wing authoritarianism and stereotype-driven expectations interact in shaping intergroup trust in one-shot vs multiple-round social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsi, Giorgia; Panasiti, Maria Serena; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Liuzza, Marco Tullio

    2017-01-01

    Trust towards unrelated individuals is often conditioned by information about previous social interactions that can be derived from either personal or vicarious experience (e.g., reputation). Intergroup stereotypes can be operationalized as expectations about other groups' traits/attitudes/behaviors that heavily influence our behavioral predictions when interacting with them. In this study we investigated the role of perceived social dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM)-Warmth (W) and Competence (C)-in affecting trusting behavior towards different European national group members during the Trust Game. Given the well-known role of ideological attitudes in regulating stereotypes, we also measured individual differences in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In Experiment 1, we designed an online survey to study one-shot intergroup trust decisions by employing putative members of the European Union states which were also rated along SCM dimensions. We found that low-RWA participants' trusting behavior was driven by perceived warmth (i.e., the dimension signaling the benevolence of social intentions) when interacting with low-C groups. In Experiment 2, we investigated the dynamics of trust in a multiple-round version of the European Trust Game. We found that in low-RWA participants trusting behavior decreased over time when interacting with high-W groups (i.e., expected to reciprocate trust), but did not change when interacting with low-W groups (i.e., expected not to reciprocate trust). Moreover, we found that high-RWA participants' trusting behavior decreased when facing low-W groups but not high-W ones. This suggests that low-RWA individuals employ reputational priors but are also permeable to external evidence when learning about others' trustworthiness. In contrast, high-RWA individuals kept relying on stereotypes despite contextual information. These results confirm the pivotal role played by reputational priors triggered by perceived warmth in shaping

  11. Right-wing authoritarianism and stereotype-driven expectations interact in shaping intergroup trust in one-shot vs multiple-round social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Ponsi

    Full Text Available Trust towards unrelated individuals is often conditioned by information about previous social interactions that can be derived from either personal or vicarious experience (e.g., reputation. Intergroup stereotypes can be operationalized as expectations about other groups' traits/attitudes/behaviors that heavily influence our behavioral predictions when interacting with them. In this study we investigated the role of perceived social dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM-Warmth (W and Competence (C-in affecting trusting behavior towards different European national group members during the Trust Game. Given the well-known role of ideological attitudes in regulating stereotypes, we also measured individual differences in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA. In Experiment 1, we designed an online survey to study one-shot intergroup trust decisions by employing putative members of the European Union states which were also rated along SCM dimensions. We found that low-RWA participants' trusting behavior was driven by perceived warmth (i.e., the dimension signaling the benevolence of social intentions when interacting with low-C groups. In Experiment 2, we investigated the dynamics of trust in a multiple-round version of the European Trust Game. We found that in low-RWA participants trusting behavior decreased over time when interacting with high-W groups (i.e., expected to reciprocate trust, but did not change when interacting with low-W groups (i.e., expected not to reciprocate trust. Moreover, we found that high-RWA participants' trusting behavior decreased when facing low-W groups but not high-W ones. This suggests that low-RWA individuals employ reputational priors but are also permeable to external evidence when learning about others' trustworthiness. In contrast, high-RWA individuals kept relying on stereotypes despite contextual information. These results confirm the pivotal role played by reputational priors triggered by perceived

  12. International Students' Feelings of Adjustment in Japanese Society

    OpenAIRE

    早矢仕, 彩子; Hayashi, Saiko

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how self-perception and cultural attitude influence on the international students' feelings of adjustment. Students in 7 Japanese language schools mainly from Asian countries answered the questionnair. Items were about (1) attitude to own/host culture, (2) positive feeling toward own country/culture, (3) self-efficacy and social life skills in their own countries and (4) self-efficacy, social life skills, expecting level of social life skills an...

  13. Suitability of a three-dimensional model to measure empathy and its relationship with social and normative adjustment in Spanish adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-López, Mauricio; Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Jolliffe, Darrick; Romera, Eva M

    2017-09-25

    (1) To examine the psychometric properties of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) with Spanish adolescents, comparing a two and a three-dimensional structure;(2) To analyse the relationship between the three-dimensional empathy and social and normative adjustment in school. Transversal and ex post facto retrospective study. Confirmatory factorial analysis, multifactorial invariance analysis and structural equations models were used. 747 students (51.3% girls) from Cordoba, Spain, aged 12-17 years (M=13.8; SD=1.21). The original two-dimensional structure was confirmed (cognitive empathy, affective empathy), but a three-dimensional structure showed better psychometric properties, highlighting the good fit found in confirmatory factorial analysis and adequate internal consistent valued, measured with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Composite reliability and average variance extracted showed better indices for a three-factor model. The research also showed evidence of measurement invariance across gender. All the factors of the final three-dimensional BES model were direct and significantly associated with social and normative adjustment, being most strongly related to cognitive empathy. This research supports the advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology and psychopathology through a three-dimensional version of the BES, which represents an improvement in the original two-factorial model. The organisation of empathy in three factors benefits the understanding of social and normative adjustment in adolescents, in which emotional disengagement favours adjusted peer relationships. Psychoeducational interventions aimed at improving the quality of social life in schools should target these components of empathy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The Effect of Parents' Ethnic Socialization Practices on Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment of Multi Ethnic Children in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chua Bee Seok; Rosnah Ismail; Jasmine Adela Mutang; Shaziah Iqbal; Nur Farhana Ardillah Aftar; Alfred Chan Huan Zhi; Ferlis Bin Bahari; Lailawati Madlan; Hon Kai Yee

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the role of parents' ethnic socialization practices contributes to the ethnic identity development, self-esteem and psychological adjustment of multi ethnic children in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 342 multi ethnic children (age range = 10 years old to 14 years old; mean age = 12.65 years, SD = 0.88) and their parents participated in the present study. The modified version of Multi group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), The Familial Ethnic ...

  15. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    , they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  16. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154 answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001, a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001 and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615. Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.

  17. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.

  18. How could Theory of Mind contribute to the differentiation of social adjustment profiles of children with externalizing behavior disorders and children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Houssa, Marine; Mazzone, Stéphanie

    2013-09-01

    This study compared Theory of Mind (ToM) emotion and belief abilities in 43 children with externalized behavior (EB) disorders presenting low intelligence, 40 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and 33 typically developing (TD) preschoolers (as a control group), matched for developmental age. The links between their ToM abilities, their level in seven self-regulation strategies as displayed in social problem-solving tasks and their social adjustment profiles (assessed by the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation, completed by their teachers) were examined. Children with EB presented lower comprehension of causes of emotions and lower self-regulation of joint attention and of attention than children with ID and TD children. In comparison with TD children, lower social adjustment was observed in nearly all dimensions of profiles in both atypical groups. Specifically, children with EB were significantly angrier than children with ID. Although variable patterns of positive correlations were obtained in atypical groups between self-regulation strategies and ToM abilities, the most numerous positive links were obtained in the group with EB. Regression analyses showed that developmental age predicted ToM abilities and certain dimensions of social adjustment profiles in atypical groups. In the ID group, ToM emotions predicted general adaptation, affective adaptation, interactions with peers and with adults and low internalizing problems. In the EB group, general adaptation was predicted by ToM emotions and self-regulation, interactions with peers by ToM beliefs, and a low level of externalizing problems by ToM emotions. Some implications for intervention and perspectives for research are suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development. We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high

  20. Trauma, post-migration living difficulties, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment in resettled Sudanese refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Robert; Melville, Fritha; Steel, Zachary; Lacherez, Philippe

    2006-02-01

    This paper explores the impact of pre-migration trauma, post-migration living difficulties and social support on the current mental health of 63 resettled Sudanese refugees. A semistructured interview including questionnaires assessing sociodemographic information, pre-migration trauma, anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, post-migration living difficulties and perceived social support were administered assisted by a bilingual community worker. Resettled refugees from Sudan evidenced a history of trauma. Less than 5% met criteria for posttraumatic stress but 25% reported clinically high levels of psychological distress. The results indicate that social support--particularly perceived social support from the migrant's ethnic community--play a significant role in predicting mental health outcomes. Pre-migration trauma, family status and gender were also associated with mental health outcomes. Refugees in Australia may constitute a particularly vulnerable group in terms of mental health outcomes. Culturally specific sequelae in terms of social isolation and acculturation may be particularly problematic for these migrants.

  1. Premorbid functioning of patients with first-episode nonaffective psychosis: a comparison of deterioration in academic and social performance, and clinical correlates of Premorbid Adjustment Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Ralph C; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    Motivated by a previous study among male veterans [Allen, D.N., Frantom, L.V., Strauss, G.P., van Kammen, D.P., 2005. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 75, 389-397], the present analysis examined: (1) patterns of premorbid academic and social functioning during childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, and (2) associations between these premorbid functioning dimensions and a number of clinical variables. Data on premorbid functioning were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 95 hospitalized first-episode patients. Analyses were similar to those conducted by Allen and colleagues (2005). Deterioration was evident in both academic and social functioning from childhood to early adolescence, along with a pronounced/accelerated deterioration in academic functioning from early adolescence to late adolescence, occurring in both male and female patients. Age at onset of prodromal symptoms was predicted by childhood/early adolescent/late adolescent academic functioning scores, and age at onset of psychotic symptoms was significantly associated only with childhood academic functioning. Severity of negative symptoms was predicted by childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores, and severity of general psychopathology symptoms was predicted by late adolescent academic functioning, as well as childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores. Consistent with prior findings, deterioration in premorbid functioning appears to be more pronounced in the academic than social dimension of the PAS. Some PAS scores are predictive of ages at onset of prodrome/psychosis and severity of psychotic symptoms. Ongoing research on premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia may have implications for future prevention goals.

  2. The perception of trauma patients from social support in adjustment to lower-limb amputation: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Given the high number of physical, mental and social problems in trauma patients, identifying and strengthening support sources can be effective in their adaptation with the disease and improvement of the quality of their life.

  3. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  4. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  5. A follow-up study of 'successful' IVF/GIFT couples: social-emotional well-being and adjustment to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S M; Clifford, E; Gordon, A G; Hay, D M; Robinson, J

    1993-01-01

    Twenty couples who conceived their babies by in vitro fertilization/gamete intrafallopian transfer (IVF/GIFT) were seen between 15 and 27 months postdelivery in order to evaluate social-emotional well-being and parental functioning. Emotional health and marital adjustment were assessed by standard questionnaires and compared with general population norms. Questionnaires measuring quality of life, parents' feelings about their babies and child-rearing attitudes were also administered. Scores from these were compared with those obtained from a group of parents who had conceived without medical assistance. Results indicated that IVF/GIFT parents were undifferentiated from the general population with respect to emotional health and marital adjustment. Also, relative to non-IVF parents, they gave higher positive ratings for their feelings about their babies and for one aspect of quality of life (feelings of freedom). Parenting attitudes for the two groups differed in only one respect, IVF/GIFT parents reported being more overprotective.

  6. ADHD and autistic traits, family function, parenting style, and social adjustment for Internet addiction among children and adolescents in Taiwan: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence, predictors, and related factors for Internet addiction among elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. A convenient sample of grades 3, 5, and 8 students (n = 1153) was recruited from six elementary and one junior high schools. They were assessed during the beginning and the end of the spring semester of 2013. Internet addiction was examined by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). Other factors were screened using the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for autistic trait, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for parenting, the Family APGAR for family support, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for social function, and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV) for ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of Internet addiction decreased from 11.4% to 10.6%. Male, low family support, poor social adjustment, and high ADHD-related symptoms were related to Internet addiction. However, there was an inverse relationship between autistic traits and Internet addiction. Further, its predictivity could be accounted by poor academic performance, male, and protective parenting style. Internet addiction is not uncommon among youths in Taiwan. The predictors identified in this study could be the specific measures for the development of a prevention program for Internet addiction in the youth population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Job satisfaction among Iranian hospital-based practicing nurses: examining the influence of self-expectation, social interaction and organisational situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravari, Ali; Bazargan, Mohsen; Vanaki, Zohre; Mirzaei, Tayebe

    2012-05-01

    The influence of self-expectation, social interaction, and organisational situation on job satisfaction among nurses is examined. Understanding determinants and correlates of job satisfaction are important factors that help to reduce the problem of nurse attrition. Utilizing the Hybrid Model of concept development, job satisfaction was examined in three phases: (1) the theoretical phase, a working definition and the dimensions of job satisfaction were established; (2) the fieldwork phase, a qualitative semi-structured interview was employed to capture participants' perceptions of the concept; and (3) the analytical phase, the experiences of nurses were evaluated using the conceptual model. The results indicate that personal beliefs, rather than social interaction or organisational situation, constitute the core of job satisfaction. Despite the variety of dissatisfaction factors rooted in social interaction and organisational situation, participants achieved the highest job satisfaction when trusting in self-value systems and the spiritual value of their job objectives. Intervention is needed to increase organisational and professional support for nurses. However, highlighting the sacred and spiritual value of the nursing profession, which is rooted in religious values and culture, provides additional reinforcement for enhancing the job satisfaction among this segment of health care providers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Global emergency medicine journal club: a social media discussion about the Age-Adjusted D-Dimer Cutoff Levels To Rule Out Pulmonary Embolism trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Salim R; Swaminathan, Anand; Chan, Teresa; Shaikh, Sam; Lin, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Annals of Emergency Medicine collaborated with an educational Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Journal of the American Medical Association publication on the Age-Adjusted D-Dimer Cutoff Levels to Rule Out Pulmonary Embolism (ADJUST-PE) trial by Righini et al. The objective is to describe a 14-day (August 25 to September 7, 2014) worldwide academic dialogue among clinicians in regard to 4 preselected questions about the age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff to detect pulmonary embolism. Five online facilitators hosted the multimodal discussion on the ALiEM Web site, Twitter, and Google Hangout. Comments across the social media platforms were curated for this report, as framed by the 4 preselected questions, and engagement was tracked through various Web analytic tools. Blog and Twitter comments, as well as video expert commentary involving the ADJUST-PE trial, are summarized. The dialogue resulted in 1,169 page views from 391 cities in 52 countries on the ALiEM Web site, 502,485 Twitter impressions, and 159 views of the video interview with experts. A postdiscussion summary on the Journal Jam podcast resulted in 3,962 downloads in its first week of publication during September 16 to 23, 2014. Common themes that arose in the multimodal discussions included the heterogeneity of practices, D-dimer assays, provider knowledge about these assays, and prevalence rates in different areas of the world. This educational approach using social media technologies demonstrates a free, asynchronous means to engage a worldwide audience in scholarly discourse. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiments expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, B; Meschi, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the expectations and the constraints of the experiments relatively to the commissioning procedure and the running conditions for the 2015 data taking period. The views about the various beam parameters for the p-p period, like beam energy, maximum pileup, bunch spacing and luminosity limitation in IP2 and IP8, are discussed. The goals and the constraints of the 2015 physics program are also presented, including the heavy ions period as well as the special...

  10. The role of high expectations of self and social desirability in emotional processing in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibelli, Alice; Chalder, Trudie; Everitt, Hazel; Workman, Paul; Bishop, Felicity L; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2017-11-01

    Although high levels of distress are associated with the onset and severity of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it is unclear how this relates to emotional processing, particularly in relation to maintenance of symptoms and treatment outcome. This qualitative study embedded within a randomized controlled trial aimed to explore how individuals with refractory IBS experience, express, and manage their emotions after either therapist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (TCBT) or Web-based CBT (WBCBT) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Cross-sectional qualitative study. Fifty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted at post-treatment with 17 TCBT, 17 WBCBT, and 18 TAU participants. The transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis with grounded theory elements. NVivo 11 was used to compare themes across groups. Across all groups, high expectations of self was a recurring reason for how participants experienced and expressed their emotions. Three themes with subthemes captured how high expectations related to specific aspects of emotional processing: perceived causes of emotions, strategies for coping with emotions (bottling up, avoiding emotions, and active coping strategies), and the perceived interplay between emotions and IBS symptoms. Patients recognized that their IBS symptoms both triggered and were triggered by negative emotions. However, there was a tendency to bottle up or avoid negative emotions for reasons of social desirability regardless of whether patients had CBT for IBS or not. Future psychological interventions in IBS may benefit from addressing negative beliefs about expressing emotions, promoting assertive emotional expression, and encouraging the experience of positive emotions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? High levels of distress are consistently associated with both the onset and maintenance of IBS symptoms. Little is known about how this relates to the concept of emotional processing

  11. Environmental factors and social adjustment as predictors of a first psychosis in subjects at ultra high risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, Sara; Nieman, Dorien H.; Veltman, Doede; Becker, Hiske E.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The onset of schizophrenia is associated with genetic, symptomatic, social and environmental risk factors. The aim of the present study was to determine which environmental factors may contribute to a prediction of a first psychotic episode in subjects at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for

  12. Associations among Children's Social Goals, Responses to Peer Conflict, and Teacher-Reported Behavioral and Academic Adjustment at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Smith-Schrandt, Heather L.; Gesten, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations among children's agentic (social influence, status, power) and communal (relationship, affiliation) goals for peer interaction, cognitive and affective responses to hypothetical peer conflict, and teacher-reported achievement and behavior at school ("N" = 367; "M" age = 9.9 years). Agentic goals…

  13. Variables Involved in Personal, Social and School Adjustment in a Sample of Preschool-Aged Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Parra, Antonio; Lopez-Rubio, Sonia; Carles, Rosario; Mata, Sara; Vives, Maria del Carmen; Navarro, Elena; Marquez, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The continuing incorporation of immigrant populations into the Spanish educational system poses an important challenge in that all participants must cooperate toward creating the best possible adaptation process at the academic level as well as on the personal and social levels. A number of different factors appear to influence children's…

  14. The Impact of Disability and Social Determinants of Health on Condition-Specific Readmissions beyond Medicare Risk Adjustments: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddings, Jennifer; Reichert, Heidi; Smith, Shawna N; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Langa, Kenneth M; Hofer, Timothy P; McMahon, Laurence F

    2017-01-01

    Readmission rates after pneumonia, heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations are risk-adjusted for age, gender, and medical comorbidities and used to penalize hospitals. To assess the impact of disability and social determinants of health on condition-specific readmissions beyond current risk adjustment. Retrospective cohort study of Medicare patients using 1) linked Health and Retirement Study-Medicare claims data (HRS-CMS) and 2) Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (Florida, Washington) linked with ZIP Code-level measures from the Census American Community Survey (ACS-HCUP). Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the impact of disability and selected social determinants of health on readmission beyond current risk adjustment. Outcomes measured were readmissions ≤30 days after hospitalizations for pneumonia, heart failure, or acute myocardial infarction. HRS-CMS models included disability measures (activities of daily living [ADL] limitations, cognitive impairment, nursing home residence, home healthcare use) and social determinants of health (spouse, children, wealth, Medicaid, race). ACS-HCUP model measures were ZIP Code-percentage of residents ≥65 years of age with ADL difficulty, spouse, income, Medicaid, and patient-level and hospital-level race. For pneumonia, ≥3 ADL difficulties (OR 1.61, CI 1.079-2.391) and prior home healthcare needs (OR 1.68, CI 1.204-2.355) increased readmission in HRS-CMS models (N = 1631); ADL difficulties (OR 1.20, CI 1.063-1.352) and 'other' race (OR 1.14, CI 1.001-1.301) increased readmission in ACS-HCUP models (N = 27,297). For heart failure, children (OR 0.66, CI 0.437-0.984) and wealth (OR 0.53, CI 0.349-0.787) lowered readmission in HRS-CMS models (N = 2068), while black (OR 1.17, CI 1.056-1.292) and 'other' race (OR 1.14, CI 1.036-1.260) increased readmission in ACS-HCUP models (N = 37,612). For acute myocardial infarction, nursing home status

  15. Perceived social environment and adolescents' well-being and adjustment: Comparing a foster care sample with a matched sample

    OpenAIRE

    Farruggia, SP; Greenberger, E; Chen, C; Heckhausen, J

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that former foster care youth are at risk for poor outcomes (e.g., more problem behaviors, more depression, lower self-esteem, and poor social relationships). It is not clear, however, whether these findings reflect preemancipation developmental deficits. This study used 163 preemancipation foster care youth and a matched sample of 163 comparison youth. Results showed that foster-care youth did not differ from the comparison sample on measures of well-being,...

  16. Teen motherhood and pregnancy prototypes: the role of social context in changing young African American mothers' risk images and contraceptive expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2013-12-01

    Despite the declining rate of teen pregnancies in the United States, academic and public health experts have expressed concern over the still relatively high rate of rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, particularly among minority youth. Using a sample of over 300 African American female adolescents, the current study used insights from the prototype/willingness model of adolescent risk behavior to explore this risk. More specifically, it assessed the relationship between entry into unwed motherhood during mid-to-late adolescence and changes in prototypes of unmarried pregnant teens. Further, it explored the extent to which these changing prototypes accounted for young mothers' later contraceptive expectations. We tested the possibility that social images were affected not only by personal experience (the birth of a child) but also by the family and community context in which this experience took place. The findings show that the early entrance into teen motherhood was associated with a shift toward more favorable prototypes of unwed pregnant teens, but that this was only the case for young mothers in disadvantaged contexts. Given this, prototype changes helped to explain the link between teen motherhood and contraceptive expectations only for those in disadvantaged contexts. We discuss these findings in terms of their practical and theoretical implications.

  17. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  18. Drug-using and nonusing women: potential for child abuse, child-rearing attitudes, social support, and affection for expected baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S

    1994-10-01

    Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.

  19. Social Networking and the School Adjustment of Karen Refugee Youth from Burma: Determining the Effects of Ethnic Identity, Bonding Social Capital, and Facebook Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 alone, over 56,000 refugees were admitted to the United States and a third of these individuals were under the age of 18 (Martin & Yankay, 2012). Researchers have found that the social capital developed through close and confiding relationships is instrumental in the academic outcomes of refugee youth (Kia-Keating & Ellis, 2007;…

  20. Community expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between the nuclear generator and the local community has been one of stability and co-operation. However in more recent times (2000-2003) the nuclear landscape has had several major issues that directly effect the local nuclear host communities. - The associations mandate is to be supportive of the nuclear industry through ongoing dialogue, mutual cooperation and education, - To strengthen community representation with the nuclear industry and politically through networking with other nuclear host communities. As a result of these issues, the Mayors of a number of communities started having informal meetings to discuss the issues at hand and how they effect their constituents. These meetings led to the official formation of the CANHC with representation from: In Canada it is almost impossible to discuss decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear Facilities without also discussing Nuclear Waste disposal for reasons that I will soon make clear. Also I would like to briefly touch on how and why expectation of communities may differ by geography and circumstance. (author)

  1. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Simon I; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Ackerman, Ilana N; Adedeji, Isaac A; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expec...

  2. Applying the disability-adjusted life year to track health impact of social franchise programs in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagu, Dominic; Ngamkitpaiboon, Lek; Duvall, Susan; Ratcliffe, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Developing effective methods for measuring the health impact of social franchising programs is vital for demonstrating the value of this innovative service delivery model, particularly given its rapid expansion worldwide. Currently, these programs define success through patient volume and number of outlets, widely acknowledged as poor reflections of true program impact. An existing metric, the disability-adjusted life years averted (DALYs averted), offers promise as a measure of projected impact. Country-specific and service-specific, DALYs averted enables impact comparisons between programs operating in different contexts. This study explores the use of DALYs averted as a social franchise performance metric. Using data collected by the Social Franchising Compendia in 2010 and 2011, we compared franchise performance, analyzing by region and program area. Coefficients produced by Population Services International converted each franchise's service delivery data into DALYs averted. For the 32 networks with two years of data corresponding to these metrics, a paired t-test compared all metrics. Finally, to test data reporting quality, we compared services provided to patient volume. Social franchising programs grew considerably from 2010 to 2011, measured by services provided (215%), patient volume (31%), and impact (couple-years of protection (CYPs): 86% and DALYs averted: 519%), but not by the total number of outlets. Non-family planning services increased by 857%, with diversification centered in Asia and Africa. However, paired t-test comparisons showed no significant increase within the networks, whether categorized as family planning or non-family planning. The ratio of services provided to patient visits yielded considerable range, with one network reporting a ratio of 16,000:1. In theory, the DALYs averted metric is a more robust and comprehensive metric for social franchising than current program measures. As social franchising spreads beyond family planning

  3. Applying the disability-adjusted life year to track health impact of social franchise programs in low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing effective methods for measuring the health impact of social franchising programs is vital for demonstrating the value of this innovative service delivery model, particularly given its rapid expansion worldwide. Currently, these programs define success through patient volume and number of outlets, widely acknowledged as poor reflections of true program impact. An existing metric, the disability-adjusted life years averted (DALYs averted), offers promise as a measure of projected impact. Country-specific and service-specific, DALYs averted enables impact comparisons between programs operating in different contexts. This study explores the use of DALYs averted as a social franchise performance metric. Methods Using data collected by the Social Franchising Compendia in 2010 and 2011, we compared franchise performance, analyzing by region and program area. Coefficients produced by Population Services International converted each franchise's service delivery data into DALYs averted. For the 32 networks with two years of data corresponding to these metrics, a paired t-test compared all metrics. Finally, to test data reporting quality, we compared services provided to patient volume. Results Social franchising programs grew considerably from 2010 to 2011, measured by services provided (215%), patient volume (31%), and impact (couple-years of protection (CYPs): 86% and DALYs averted: 519%), but not by the total number of outlets. Non-family planning services increased by 857%, with diversification centered in Asia and Africa. However, paired t-test comparisons showed no significant increase within the networks, whether categorized as family planning or non-family planning. The ratio of services provided to patient visits yielded considerable range, with one network reporting a ratio of 16,000:1. Conclusion In theory, the DALYs averted metric is a more robust and comprehensive metric for social franchising than current program measures. As social

  4. Adjustment to Acute Leukemia: The Impact of Social Support and Marital Satisfaction on Distress and Quality of Life Among Newly Diagnosed Patients and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Megan E; Johnson, Teresa M; Kuszczak, Sarah; Attwood, Kristopher M; Zevon, Michael A; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Thompson, James; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the specific patterns of adjustment among newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients and their caregivers. This study examined the trajectories of patient and caregiver distress over time as well as the extent to which marital satisfaction and social support moderated these trajectories among those with significant-other caregivers. Forty six patient-caregiver dyads provided ratings at four time points: within 1 week of diagnosis (T1), 2 week follow-up (T2), 6 week follow-up (T3) and 12 week follow-up (T4). As anticipated, patients and caregivers reported higher levels of distress around the time of diagnosis than they did during subsequent time points. Marital satisfaction was a significant predictor of distress among patients, whereas among caregivers, social support predicted distress and quality of life. Results support the inclusion of relational variables such as social support and relationship satisfaction in the assessment of newly diagnosed patients and families in order to best identify those at risk for distress over time.

  5. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  6. Increased Risk Proneness or Social Withdrawal? The Effects of Shortened Life Expectancy on the Expression of Rescue Behavior in Workers of the ant Formica cinerea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Krzysztof; Symonowicz, Beata; Godzińska, Ewa J

    2017-01-01

    In social insects behavioral consequences of shortened life expectancy include, among others, increased risk proneness and social withdrawal. We investigated the impact of experimental shortening of life expectancy of foragers of the ant Formica cinerea achieved by their exposure to carbon dioxide on the expression of rescue behavior, risky pro-social behavior, tested by means of two bioassays during which a single worker (rescuer) was confronted with a nestmate (victim) attacked by a predator (antlion larva capture bioassay) or immobilized by an artificial snare (entrapment bioassay). Efficacy of carbon dioxide poisoning in shortening life expectancy was confirmed by the analysis of ant mortality. Rescue behavior observed during behavioral tests involved digging around the victim, transport of the sand covering the victim, pulling the limbs/antennae/mandibles of the victim, direct attack on the antlion (in antlion larva capture tests), and snare biting (in entrapment tests). The rate of occurrence of rescue behavior was lower in ants with shortened life expectancy, but that effect was significant only in the case of the entrapment bioassay. Similarly, only in the case of the entrapment bioassay ants with shortened life expectancy displayed rescue behavior after a longer latency and devoted less time to that behavior than ants from the control groups. Our results demonstrated that in ant workers shortened life expectancy may lead to reduced propensity for rescue behavior, most probably as an element of the social withdrawal syndrome that had already been described in several studies on behavior of moribund ants and honeybees.

  7. Pre-entry Characteristics, Perceived Social Support, Adjustment and Academic Achievement in First-Year Spanish University Students: A Path Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Soledad; Tinajero, Carolina; Páramo, María Fernanda

    2017-11-17

    Transition to university is a multifactorial process to which scarce consideration has been given in Spain, despite this being one of the countries with the highest rates of academic failure and attrition within the European Union. The present study proposes an empirical model for predicting Spanish students' academic achievement at university by considering pre-entry characteristics, perceived social support and adaptation to university, in a sample of 300 traditional first-year university students. The findings of the path analysis showed that pre-university achievement and academic and personal-emotional adjustment were direct predictors of academic achievement. Furthermore, gender, parents' education and family support were indirect predictors of academic achievement, mediated by pre-university grades and adjustment to university. The current findings supporting evidence that academic achievement in first-year Spanish students is the cumulative effect of pre-entry characteristics and process variables, key factors that should be taken into account in designing intervention strategies involving families and that establish stronger links between research findings and university policies.

  8. Asymmetric adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method of adjusting a signal processing parameter for a first hearing aid and a second hearing aid forming parts of a binaural hearing aid system to be worn by a user is provided. The binaural hearing aid system comprises a user specific model representing a desired asymmetry between a first ear

  9. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  10. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  11. Stress, Social Support and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    approach was also used successfully by Vroom (1964) to predict job performance . Third, and perhaps most importantly, results from several recent...influence him to stay. Finally, we note that the effect of job satisfaction on turnover is moderated by performance : job satisfaction keeps poor...Steers, R. M. Performance as a moderator of the job satisfaction - turnover relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1981, 66, 511-514. Thurstone, L

  12. Shaft adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  13. Adjustable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  14. Factors Impacting the Psychological Adjustment of Saudi Arabian International Students in the United States: Self-Esteem, Social Support, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundles, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    International populations face difficulties adjusting to a new culture. This is especially true for international students, who have to adjust to a new country and face academic demands concurrently. Research has explored various factors that impact psychological adjustment of international students and show the influence of self-esteem and social…

  15. Social cognitive determinants of nutrition and physical activity among web-health users enrolling in an online intervention: the influence of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Bill, Eileen Smith; Winett, Richard A; Wojcik, Janet R

    2011-03-17

    had good self-efficacy and outcome expectations for health behavior change; however, they perceived little social support for making these changes and engaged in few self-regulatory behaviors. Consistent with SCT, theoretical models provided good fit to Web-users' data (root mean square error of the approximation [RMSEA] social support and use of self-regulatory behaviors were strong predictors of physical activity and nutrition behavior. Web users' self-efficacy was also a good predictor of healthier levels of physical activity and dietary fat but not of fiber, fruits, and vegetables. Social support and self-efficacy indirectly predicted behavior through self-regulation, and social support had indirect effects through self-efficacy. Results suggest Web-health users visiting and ultimately participating in online health interventions may likely be middle-aged, well-educated, upper middle class women whose detrimental health behaviors put them at risk of obesity, heart disease, some cancers, and diabetes. The success of Internet physical activity and nutrition interventions may depend on the extent to which they lead users to develop self-efficacy for behavior change, but perhaps as important, the extent to which these interventions help them garner social-support for making changes. Success of these interventions may also depend on the extent to which they provide a platform for setting goals, planning, tracking, and providing feedback on targeted behaviors.

  16. Expectations from the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Atabek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition from agricultural society to industry society, from industrial society to science society has taken place. In all these societies, expectations from children also vary. In the agricultural community, human labor is based on arm power. For this reason, expectation from children is to increase work power. Having more children is the basis for the expectations in this community to see that the boy is valuable because he has increased his work power. In the industrial society, the power of the arm changed its place with the machine power. The knowledgeable person is not a family grown-up but a foreman. Childhood was distinguished during this period. It has been investigated that the child has a separate development.  In the information society, communication and information has never been as fast as it is in this period.  The widespread use of the Internet, and the use of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are in this period. In this society, families are panicked to prepare a future in their own heads for their children. Because the parents thought of their children, they decided about the child's life instead of the child making these decisions. This has had a negative impact on children's sense of autonomy and their ability to take responsibility. To change this, parents should train their children in auto control and develop children's impulse control skills. The children should be able to understand their emotions and make decisions by reasoning and reasoning.

  17. Challenges of University Adjustment in the UK: A Study of East Asian Master's Degree Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…

  18. Predicting armed conflict: Time to adjust our expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, Lars-Erik; Weidmann, Nils B

    2017-02-03

    This Essay provides an introduction to the general challenges of predicting political violence, particularly compared with predicting other types of events (such as earthquakes). What is possible? What is less realistic? We aim to debunk myths about predicting violence, as well as to illustrate the substantial progress in this field. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. The social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia: implications to the mental health policy in Brazil O ajustamento social de pacientes com esquizofrenia: implicações para a política de saúde mental no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Menezes

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.A esquizofrenia é um importante problema de saúde pública em países desenvolvidos, afetando em média 0,5/1000 pessoas adultas e causando altos custos econômicos para a sociedade. Em países menos desenvolvidos não há muitas informações disponíveis, mas projeções baseadas nas taxas de incidência e tendências demográfica sugerem que o número de casos nesses países deve aumentar em 87% de 1975 ao ano 2000. No Brasil o diagnóstico de esquizofrenia representa cerca de um terço de todas as internações psiquiátricas, e até o presente existe uma falta de informações sobre as condições reais desses pacientes. Com esse objetivo, uma amostra (n=124 de pacientes esquizofrênicos residentes em uma região geográfica de captação definida na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, e que haviam sido internados consecutivamente em hospitais

  20. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However,

  1. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES: CONTRIBUTION TO A “GOOD SOCIETY” OR EXPECTED BUSINESS STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badulescu Daniel

    2013-07-01

    financially and legally to ensure maximum efficacy and visibility of CSR actions. Finally we conclude on the importance of CSR within society but also on the risk that it could be converted in a business strategy or marketing tool, without any social impact.

  2. Communicative competencies and the structuration of expectations: the creative tension between Habermas’ critical theory and Luhmann’s social systems theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2010-01-01

    I elaborate on the tension between Luhmann’s social systems theory and Habermas’ theory of communicative action, and argue that this tension can be resolved by focusing on language as the interhuman medium of the communication which enables us to develop symbolically generalized media of

  3. Conceptions and Expectations of Research Collaboration in the European Social Sciences: Research Policies, Institutional Contexts and the Autonomy of the Scientific Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Yann; Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactions between policy drivers and academic practice in international research collaboration. It draws on the case of the Open Research Area (ORA), a funding scheme in the social sciences across four national research agencies, seeking to boost collaboration by supporting "integrated" projects. The paper…

  4. "It is Democratic Citizens We Are After:" The Possibilities and the Expectations for the Social Studies From the Writings of Shirley H. Engle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.; Ligon, Jerry A.

    2004-01-01

    For almost five decades during his professional life, Engle was deeply concerned about the philosophical views that made up social studies education, as well as ways those views were being practiced in the classrooms. In particular, he criticized the philosophical views of two contemporary educators, Edgar Wesley and Jerome Bruner. Wesley believed…

  5. Wives of pathological gamblers: personality traits, depressive symptoms and social adjustment Esposas de jogadores patológicos: traços de personalidade, sintomas depressivos e ajustamento social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena B. Mazzoleni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Wives of pathological gamblers tend to endure long marriages despite financial and emotional burden. Difficulties in social adjustment, personality psychopathology, and comorbidity with psychiatric disorders are pointed as reasons for remaining on such overwhelming relationships. The goal was to examine the social adjustment, personality and negative emotionality of wives of pathological gamblers. Method: The sample consisted of 25 wives of pathological gamblers, mean age 40.6, SD = 9.1 from a Gambling Outpatient Unit and at GAM-ANON, and 25 wives of non-gamblers, mean age 40.8, SD = 9.1, who answered advertisements placed at the Universidade de São Paulo hospital and medical school complex. They were selected in order to approximately match demographic characteristics of the wives of pathological gamblers. Subjects were assessed by the Social Adjustment Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: Three variables remained in the final Multiple Logistic Regression model, wives of pathological gamblers presented greater dissatisfaction with their marital bond, and higher scores on Reward Dependence and Persistence temperament factors. Both, Wives of pathological gamblers and wives of non-gamblers presented well-structured character factors excluding personality disorders. Conclusion: This personality profile may explain wives of pathological gamblers emotional resilience and their marriage longevity. Co-dependence and other labels previously used to describe them may work as a double edged sword, legitimating wives of pathological gamblers problems, while stigmatizing them as inapt and needy.Objetivo: Esposas de jogadores patológicos tendem a permanecer casadas por muitos anos, apesar das dificuldades financeiras e emocionais. Dificuldades de ajustamento social, transtornos de personalidade, e comorbidades com transtornos psiquiátricos são apontados como raz

  6. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  7. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  8. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  9. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  10. Perfectionism, Stress, and Social (Dis)Connection: A Short-Term Study of Hopelessness, Depression, and Academic Adjustment among Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Christopher, John; Porter, J. Diane

    2006-01-01

    This study tested models of perfectionism predicting psychological distress and academic adjustment and moderators and mediators of those associations in 2 successive cohorts of high-achieving university honors students (N = 499). Participants completed measures earl and late in the semester. Adaptive (high standards) and maladaptive…

  11. Maternal Sensitivity and Effortful Control in Early Childhood as Predictors of Adolescents' Adjustment: The Mediating Roles of Peer Group Affiliation and Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N.; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial,…

  12. Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in International Undergraduate Students in a Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…

  13. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Expectations from Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prof. A. Blowers observed that the social context within which radioactive waste management is considered has evolved over time. The early period where radioactive waste was a non-issue was succeeded by a period of intense conflict over solutions. The contemporary context is more consensual, in which solutions are sought that are both technically sound and socially acceptable. Among the major issues is that of inter-generational equity embraced in the question: how long can or should our responsibility to the future extend? He pointed out the differences in timescales. On the one hand, geo-scientific timescales are very long term, emphasizing the issue of how far into the future it is possible to make predictions about repository safety. By contrast, socio cultural timescales are much shorter, focusing on the foreseeable future of one or two generations and raising the issue of how far into the future we should be concerned. He listed. the primary expectations from society which are: safety and security to alleviate undue burdens to future generations and flexibility in order to enable the future generations to have a stake in decision making. The need to reconcile the two had led to a contemporary emphasis on phased geological disposal incorporating retrievability. However, the long timescales for implementation of disposal provided for sufficient flexibility without the need for retrievability. Future generations would inevitably have sold stake in decision making. Prof. A.. Blowers pointed out that society is also concerned with participation in decision making for implementation. The key elements for success are: openness and transparency, staged process, participation, partnership, benefits to enhance the well being of communities and a democratic framework for decision making, including the ratification of key decisions and the right for communities to withdraw from the process up to a predetermined point. This approach for decision making may also have

  15. Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter

    2015-07-01

    One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females' EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring within

  16. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  17. International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E

    2015-07-02

    Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also

  18. Psychosocial Adjustment of Children with Short Stature (Achondroplasia): Social Competence, Behavior Problems, Self-Esteem, Family Functioning, Body Image, and Reaction to Frustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1991-01-01

    This evaluation of 16 children (ages 7-12) with achondroplasia from Transkei, Hungary, and Nigeria found that, compared to controls, subjects had more behavior problems and less self-esteem. Subjects were socially withdrawn, internalized emotional problems, had lower academic performance, found less adaptive solutions to frustration, and faced…

  19. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from Grade…

  20. Factors Associated With Subjective Life Expectancy: Comparison With Actuarial Life Expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyoung Bae

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Subjective life expectancy (SLE has been found to show a significant association with mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the major factors affecting SLE. We also examined whether any differences existed between SLE and actuarial life expectancy (LE in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1000 individuals in Korea aged 20-59 was conducted. Participants were asked about SLE via a self-reported questionnaire. LE from the National Health Insurance database in Korea was used to evaluate differences between SLE and actuarial LE. Age-adjusted least-squares means, correlations, and regression analyses were used to test the relationship of SLE with four categories of predictors: demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Results Among the 1000 participants, women (mean SLE, 83.43 years; 95% confidence interval, 82.41 to 84.46 years; 48% of the total sample had an expected LE 1.59 years longer than that of men. The socioeconomic factors of household income and housing arrangements were related to SLE. Among the health behaviors, smoking status, alcohol status, and physical activity were associated with SLE. Among the psychosocial factors, stress, self-rated health, and social connectedness were related to SLE. SLE had a positive correlation with actuarial estimates (r=0.61, p<0.001. Gender, household income, history of smoking, and distress were related to the presence of a gap between SLE and actuarial LE. Conclusions Demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors showed significant associations with SLE, in the expected directions. Further studies are needed to determine the reasons for these results.

  1. Expecting the unexpected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Heath, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural......) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire...

  2. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life......Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain...

  3. Aging: What to Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn to play a musical instrument. Be social. Social interaction helps ward off depression and stress, which can ... for Americans, 2010. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/dietary-guidelines- ...

  4. Determining health expectancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robine, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jean-Marie Robine 9 1 Increase in Life Expectancy and Concentration of Ages at Death . . . . France Mesle´ and Jacques Vallin 13 2 Compression of Morbidity...

  5. The (InSignificance of Socio-Demographic Factors as Possible Determinants of Vietnamese Social Scientists’ Contribution-Adjusted Productivity: Preliminary Results from 2008–2017 Scopus Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu-Trang Vuong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As collaboration has become widespread in academia, and the number of authors per article has increased, the publication count is no longer an accurate indicator of scientific output in many cases. To overcome this limitation, this study defined and computed a relative count of publications called ‘CP’ (credit-based contribution points, based on the sequence-determines-credit (SDC method, which takes into account the level of contribution of each author. Analyses were done on a sample of 410 Vietnamese social scientists whose publications were indexed in the Scopus database during 2008–2017. The results showed that the average CP of Vietnamese researchers in the field of social sciences and humanities is very low: more than 88% of authors have a CP less than five over a span 10 years. Researchers with a higher CP were mostly 40–50 years old; however, even for this sub-group, the mean CP was only 3.07. Multiple attributes of first-authorship—including knowledge, research skills, and critical thinking—could boost the CP by a ratio of 1:1.06. There is no evidence of gender differences in productivity, however, there is a regional difference. These findings offer significant insights into the education system in regard to science and technology, namely policy implications for science funding and management strategies for research funds.

  6. Performance appraisal of expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russkikh G.A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article provides basic concepts for teachers to estimate and reach planned students’ expectations, describes functions and elements of expectations; nature of external and internal estimate, technology to estimate the results, gives recommendations how to create diagnostic assignments.

  7. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations are generated with different degrees of certainty. Given distributions of expectedness ratings for multiple continuations of each context, as obtained with the probe-tone paradigm, this certainty can be quantified in terms of Shannon entropy. Because expectations arise from s...

  8. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  9. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  10. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  11. Expectancies as core features of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Glombiewski, Julia A; Gollwitzer, Mario; Schubö, Anna; Schwarting, Rainer; Thorwart, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Expectancies are core features of mental disorders, and change in expectations is therefore one of the core mechanisms of treatment in psychiatry. We aim to improve our understanding of expectancies by summarizing factors that contribute to their development, persistence, and modification. We pay particular attention to the issue of persistence of expectancies despite experiences that contradict them. Based on recent research findings, we propose a new model for expectation persistence and expectation change. When expectations are established, effects are evident in neural and other biological systems, for example, via anticipatory reactions, different biological reactions to expected versus unexpected stimuli, etc. Psychological 'immunization' and 'assimilation', implicit self-confirming processes, and stability of biological processes help us to better understand why expectancies persist even in the presence of expectation violations. Learning theory, attentional processes, social influences, and biological determinants contribute to the development, persistence, and modification of expectancies. Psychological interventions should focus on optimizing expectation violation to achieve optimal treatment outcome and to avoid treatment failures.

  12. Life expectancy and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    , we find that US states with higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease prior to the 1970s experienced greater increases in adult life expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard deviation higher treatment intensity is associated with an increase...... in adult life expectancy of 0.37 years and 0.07–0.15 more years of higher education....

  13. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  14. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  15. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  16. Managing heterogeneous and unanchored expectations: a monetary policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Lustenhouwer, J.

    2016-01-01

    We study monetary policy in a New Keynesian model with heterogeneity in expectations. Agents may choose from a continuum of forecasting rules and adjust their expectations based on relative past performance. The extent to which expectations are anchored to the fundamentals of the economy turns out

  17. 高绩效要求与亲组织不道德行为:基于社会认知理论的视角%High performance expectation and unethical pro-organizational behavior: Social cognitive perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈默; 梁建

    2017-01-01

    通过确立较高的绩效目标以提升组织绩效被普遍认为是一项有效的管理措施.然而,学术界对它的负面影响却缺乏研究.本文提出了高绩效要求将启动员工道德推脱机制为其随后进行的亲组织不道德行为开脱,即道德推脱在高绩效要求与亲组织不道德行为之间起到了中介作用.为了检验这一观点,本研究提出两种不同效应的调节变量:感知的市场竞争正向调节变量之间的间接关系,而道德认同则负向调节这一间接关系.通过对某零售企业225名员工的两阶段调查,本研究提出的调节-中介模型获得了观察数据的支持.本研究的发现有利于进一步了解亲组织不道德行为发生的中介心理机制和边界条件,指导管理者采取恰当的管理措施,以期有效地管控亲组织不道德行为的出现.%Unethical behavior in the workplace has been widely reported last decades.In view of its serious consequences,there has been a surge of business ethics research focusing on workplace unethical behavior.Especially,an emerging stream of research has begun to systematically theorize and investigate unethical pro-organizational behavior.In the study,we propose a moderated-mediation model to uncover the underlying mechanism and the boundary conditions of the relationship between high performance expectation and unethical pro-organizational behavior.Drawing upon social cognitive theory,we hypothesize that high performance expectation is indirectly related to unethical pro-organizational behavior through moral disengagement.We further propose that perceived industrial competition strengthens the hypothesized relationship and that moral identity weakens the hypothesized relationship.To test those hypotheses,we collected a two-wave field data,one month apart each other,from a group of Chinese retailing employees.In the first wave,300 employees from 35 retail stores responded to questions assessing their level of high

  18. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  19. Ted, Expecting Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    In a roomful of people, Ted Sizer always went right to the kids. With merry eyes and delighted smile, he would adjust his tall frame so he could speak directly with the young one. Then he would ask just the right question about what this interesting person was thinking and doing. One could tell that the conversation engaged Sizer completely. He…

  20. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  1. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  2. Premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Marshall L; Mavrolefteros, George; Close, David

    2002-01-01

    To examine the relationship between premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia, this report examined retrospective ratings of social and school adjustment during three age epochs (childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) as predictors of neurocognitive performance in 61 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized schizophrenia outpatients. Results indicated greater cognitive deficits when premorbid adjustment was unfavorable, particularly for measures of attention and executive functions. Premorbid number and quality of peer relationships and psychosocial adaptation to the school environment were more closely related to neuropsychological performance during adulthood than were premorbid withdrawal and premorbid academic performance. Early onset of poor premorbid adjustment rather than deterioration from childhood to adolescence was associated with greater neuropsychological disturbance in adulthood. It is suggested that childhood onset of premorbid deficits in selective areas of social and academic adjustment appears to influence the cognitive performance seen in adult schizophrenia. This study is consistent with findings from other related reports; it extends these findings to a larger and clinically stabilized sample.

  3. Performance expectation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  4. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  5. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  6. 酒精及饮酒期望对社会饮酒者执行功能的影响%Effects of alcohol and alcohol expectations on executive function of social drinkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文超; 张澜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence on each dimension of executive function of social drinkers with moderate dose of alcohol intake and different alcohol expectations.Methods 90 university students who were social drinkers allocated randomly by a lottery method to drinking group (n=31),control group (n=30) and placebo group (n=29).The Stroop task,1-Back task and local-global task were employed to measure executive function from three aspects respectively,namely the inhibition,updating and shifting process.Results Drinking group was compared with the Control group in the three dimensions of executive function:inhibition ((61.65 ± 26.31) ms,(42.48 ± 32.94) ms),updating ((557.23 ± 86.24) ms,(515.02 ± 70.24) ms),and shifting process ((718.85±246.03) ms,(553.95± 151.74) ms).The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Placebo group was compared with the control group,in the three dimensions of executive function:inhibition ((39.25±29.35) ms,(42.48±32.94) ms),updating ((516.32±73.25) ms,(515.02±70.24) ms),and shifting process ((591.20± 193.07) ms,(553.95± 151.74) ms),all the differences had no statistically significance (P> 0.05).In the drinking group,positive expectation was negatively related to each dimension of executive function (-0.427,-0.330,-0.383).The inhibition and the shifting process appeared significant correlation(P<0.05).Negative expectation was positively related to each dimension of executive function (0.251,0.323,0.377).The shifting process appeared significant correlation (P<0.05).Regression analysis showed that positive expectation was significantly negative predictions of inhibition and shifting process.Conclusion Executive function of social drinkers is damaged after moderate alcohol intake,and there are differences between executive function damage of different alcohol expectancy drinkers.%目的 探讨中等剂量的酒精摄入和不同饮酒期望对社会饮酒者执行功能各维度的影响.方法

  7. Premorbid adjustment in individuals at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannevang, Anders; Randers, Lasse; Gondan, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    between childhood and early adolescence. The UHR individuals had more premorbid adjustment difficulties on both the social and academic scale, and on the individual PAS scales. Conclusion: From childhood UHR individuals have lower levels of social and academic premorbid adjustment compared to healthy...... and academic scales were computed. Results: Compared to the healthy controls the UHR individuals’ social and academic premorbid adjustment declined across age periods. Social premorbid adjustment declined particularly between late adolescence and adulthood. Academic premorbid adjustment declined particularly...

  8. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  9. Life Expectancy in 2040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; DuGoff, Eva H; Wu, Albert W.

    2016-01-01

    We use expert clinical and public health opinion to estimate likely changes in the prevention and treatment of important disease conditions and how they will affect future life expectancy. Focus groups were held including clinical and public health faculty with expertise in the six leading causes...

  10. Preschool Children's Expectations for Parental Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Angie Geertsen

    1998-01-01

    Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur. In this study,...

  11. Defining Trust Using Expected Utility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Trust has been discussed in many social sciences including economics, psychology, and sociology. However, there is no widely accepted definition of trust. Inparticular, there is no definition that can be used for economic analysis. This paper regards trust as expectation and defines it using expected utility theory together with concepts such as betrayal premium. In doing so, it rejects the widely accepted black-and-white view that (un) trustworthy people are always (un)trustworthy. This pape...

  12. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  13. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  14. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative to...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  15. Expectancy Theory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    accomplish the task, (2) the instrumentality of task performance for job outcomes, and (3) the instrumentality of outcomes for need satisfaction . We...in this discussion: effort, performance , outcomes, and needs. In order to present briefly the conventional approach to the Vroom models, another...Presumably, this is the final event in the sequence of effort, performance , outcome, and need satisfaction . The actual research reported in expectancy

  16. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies.

  17. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  18. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  19. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    We construct and study the cross-sectional properties of survey-based bond risk premia and compare them to their traditional statistical counterparts. We document large heterogeneity in skill, identify top forecasters, and learn about the importance of subjective risk premia in long-term bonds...... dynamics. The consensus is not a sufficient statistics of the cross-section of expectations and we propose an alternative real-time aggregate measure of risk premia consistent with Friedmans market selection hypothesis. We then use this measure to evaluate structural models and find support...

  20. Referral expectations of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.

    1989-01-01

    The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction

  1. Agreeing on expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Bentsen, Martin Juul

    Commitment and trust are often mentioned as important aspects of creating a perception of reliability between counterparts. In the context of university-industry collaborations (UICs), agreeing on ambitions and expectations are adamant to achieving outcomes that are equally valuable to all parties...... involved. Despite this, our initial probing indicated that such covenants rarely exist. As such, this paper draws on project management theory and proposes the possibility of structuring assessments of potential partners before university-industry collaborations are brought to life. Our analysis suggests...

  2. Probability via expectation

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This book is a complete revision of the earlier work Probability which ap­ peared in 1970. While revised so radically and incorporating so much new material as to amount to a new text, it preserves both the aim and the approach of the original. That aim was stated as the provision of a 'first text in probability, de­ manding a reasonable but not extensive knowledge of mathematics, and taking the reader to what one might describe as a good intermediate level'. In doing so it attempted to break away from stereotyped applications, and consider applications of a more novel and significant character. The particular novelty of the approach was that expectation was taken as the prime concept, and the concept of expectation axiomatized rather than that of a probability measure. In the preface to the original text of 1970 (reproduced below, together with that to the Russian edition of 1982) I listed what I saw as the advantages of the approach in as unlaboured a fashion as I could. I also took the view that the text...

  3. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  4. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  5. Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Yoo, Seung Hee; Nakagawa, Sanae

    2008-06-01

    This article reports differences across 23 countries on 2 processes of emotion regulation--reappraisal and suppression. Cultural dimensions were correlated with country means on both and the relationship between them. Cultures that emphasized the maintenance of social order--that is, those that were long-term oriented and valued embeddedness and hierarchy--tended to have higher scores on suppression, and reappraisal and suppression tended to be positively correlated. In contrast, cultures that minimized the maintenance of social order and valued individual Affective Autonomy and Egalitarianism tended to have lower scores on Suppression, and Reappraisal and Suppression tended to be negatively correlated. Moreover, country-level emotion regulation was significantly correlated with country-level indices of both positive and negative adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  7. Customer experiences and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    Customer experiences and expectations from competition and cogeneration in the power industry were reviewed by Charles Morton, Director of Energy at CPC International, by describing Casco's decision to get into cogeneration in the early 1990s in three small corn milling plants in Cardinal, London and Port Colborne, Ontario, mainly as result of the threat of a 40 per cent increase in power prices. He stressed that cost competitiveness of cogeneration is entirely site-specific, but it is generally more attractive in larger facilities that operate 24 hours a day, where grid power is expensive or unreliable. Because it is reliable, cogeneration holds out the prospect of increased production-up time, as well as offering a hedge against higher energy costs, reducing the company's variable costs when incoming revenues fall short of costs, and providing an additional tool in head-to-head competition

  8. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  9. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  10. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  11. Should adjustment disorder be conceptualized as transitional disorder? In pursuit of adjustment disorders definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2012-12-01

    The DSM classification of an adjustment disorder is frequently criticized for not being well differentiated from other disorders. A possible reason for this is the vague definition of the term adjustment in social science literature. Hence, the current paper discusses the definition of adjustment and its implications for understanding maladjustment. Differential definitions of the terms adjustment, adaptation, socialization and coping are outlined, leading to the proposition that each one of them represents a different type of demand that is imposed on an individual who encounters a transitional event. Moreover, the four types of demands might be the possible sources of maladjustment. Helping people in transition requires an identification of the source, or combination of sources, that have led to the adjustment problem first, followed by the implementation of an adequate helping approach.

  12. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    Based on individual expectations from the Survey of Professional Forecasters, we construct a realtime proxy for expected term premium changes on long-term bonds. We empirically investigate the relation of these bond term premium expectations with expectations about key macroeconomic variables as ...

  13. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  14. Expectations from ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, P.

    2008-01-01

    Prof. Patricia Fleming, centred her presentation on ethical expectations in regulating safety for future generations. The challenge is to find a just solution, one that provides for a defensible approach to inter-generational equity. The question on equity is about whether we are permitted to treat generations differently and to still meet the demands of justice. And the question must be asked regarding these differences: 'in what ways do they make a moral difference?' She asked the question regarding the exact meaning of the ethical principle 'Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that predicted impacts on the health of future generations will not be greater than relevant levels of impact that are acceptable today'. Some countries have proposed different standards for different time periods, either implicitly or explicitly. In doing so, have they preserved our standards of justice or have they abandoned them? Prof. Fleming identified six points to provide with some moral maps which might be used to negotiate our way to a just solution to the disposal of nuclear waste. (author)

  15. Expected years ever married

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Mogi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the second half of the 20th century, remarkable marriage changes were seen: a great proportion of never married population, high average age at first marriage, and large variance in first marriage timing. Although it is theoretically possible to separate these three elements, disentangling them analytically remains a challenge. Objective: This study's goal is to answer the following questions: Which of the three effects, nonmarriage, delayed marriage, or expansion, has the most impact on nuptiality changes? How does the most influential factor differ by time periods, birth cohorts, and countries? Methods: To quantify nuptiality changes over time, we define the measure 'expected years ever married' (EYEM. We illustrate the use of EYEM, looking at time trends in 15 countries (six countries for cohort analysis and decompose these trends into three components: scale (the changes in the proportion of never married - nonmarriage, location (the changes in timing of first marriage - delayed marriage, and variance (the changes in the standard deviation of first marriage age - expansion. We used population counts by sex, age, and marital status from national statistical offices and the United Nations database. Results: Results show that delayed marriage is the most influential factor on period EYEM's changes, while nonmarriage has recently begun to contribute to the change in North and West Europe and Canada. Period and cohort analysis complement each other. Conclusions: This study introduces a new index of nuptiality and decomposes its change into the contribution of three components: scale, location, and variance. The decomposition steps presented here offer an open possibility for more elaborate parametric marriage models.

  16. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  17. Expectations from implementers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biurrun, E.; Zuidema, P.

    2008-01-01

    Enrique Biurrun (DBE) presented the expectations from the implementer. He explained that the implementer needs a framework to successfully develop a repository which means the definition of requirements and guidance (for repository system development, analysis, licences, etc.) as well as the decision-making process (stepwise approach, roles of different players, etc.). He also needs a reasonable stability of the regulatory system. The regulatory framework should be developed in a clear, reasonable and consistent manner. In the context of the long duration of the project (100 years) there will be technological progress. In that context E. Biurrun asked what is the meaning of best practice. How can one deal with judgmental issues in a step-wise approach? Regulatory criteria and guidance must deal with the repository system for which an iterative process is necessary where dialogue is needed with the regulator despite the need to maintain his independence. The safety case, which is a periodic documentation of the status of the project, must provide a synthesis of the underlying scientific understanding and evidence and becomes part of the design process through feedback. E. Biurrun pointed out that safety is not calculated or assessed, but designed and built into the repository system (by geological and engineered barriers). He stressed the importance of the operational aspects since the implementer has to build and operate the repository safely. He asked the question: is it 'Ethical' to buy 'peace of mind' of some stakeholders with casualties of the implementer's staff because of mining accidents if the repository is left open during a phase of reversibility. The implementer needs dependable criteria, legal security and investment security. He interpreted the 'Precautionary principle' as meaning 'do it now'. Long-lasting solutions are very uncertain. Will we heave the money and the technology to do it later? He made some reflections regarding the ethical need to

  18. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    . As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...

  19. Perfectionism and performance expectations at university: Does gender still matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala K. Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the relationship between the perfectionist orientation and performance expectations at university and whether gender moderates this relationship. One-hundred first year university students responded to two subscales from the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS-HF: the Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP subscale and the Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP subscale. Results of the study showed that SOP and SPP correlated positively. Students, regardless of gender, demonstrated higher levels of SOP than SPP. Both SOP and SPP correlated positively with performance expectations. Self- oriented perfectionists and high perfectionists reported significantly higher performance expectations than socially oriented perfectionists and non-perfectionists. There were no significant differences between socially oriented perfectionists and non-perfectionists nor were there significant differences between self-oriented perfectionists and high perfectionists in performance expectations. Gender did not moderate the effect of types of perfectionism on performance expectations. There were no gender differences in SOP, SPP, or performance expectations

  20. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...