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Sample records for expectancy manipulation piloting

  1. Patient expectations for placebo treatments commonly used in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) clinical trials: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, Kimberly G; Slicho, Turner; Stoll, Scott T

    2007-01-01

    Background Placebo treatments should be believable to ensure expectation of benefit, yet not provide a true treatment effect. One obstacle to conducting clinical trials with osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is choosing an appropriate placebo. Various placebo treatments have been used in OMT clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to determine expectations of 3 treatments (HVLA, placebo light touch, placebo sub-therapeutic ultrasound) commonly used in OMT clinical research trials. Methods A randomized, cross-over design was utilized. Subjects were recruited from the Family Medicine Clinic, Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine. Participants watched a video with 2 minute demonstrations of a High Velocity Low Amplitude (HVLA), placebo light touch (LT), and placebo sub-therapeutic ultrasound (ULTRA) treatment for low back pain. The order of presentations was randomized to control for order effect bias. Subjects indicated the extent of their agreement (using a 4 point Likert scale) with 4 statements that were presented after each treatment was viewed: 1)I believe this treatment would allow me to get better quicker; 2)I believe this treatment would decrease my low back pain; 3)I believe this treatment would make me more able to do the things I want to do; 4)This seems like a logical way to treat low back pain. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed, and a partial Eta squared was calculated for each statement. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated where appropriate. Results Thirty of 40 eligible subjects participated. Twenty-two (73%) were female, 16 (53%) were Caucasian, and 11 (37%) had completed college. The mean age was 43 (SD = 15.). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences for statements 2 and 4. For both statements 1 (p = 0.025) and 3 (p = 0.039), post hoc analysis revealed a difference between HVLA and LT. The partial Eta squared (ηp2) was 0.105, 0.072, 0.107, and 0.024 for each statement, respectively

  2. Host manipulation by cancer cells: Expectations, facts, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Tazzio; Arnal, Audrey; Jacqueline, Camille; Poulin, Robert; Lefèvre, Thierry; Mery, Frédéric; Renaud, François; Roche, Benjamin; Massol, François; Salzet, Michel; Ewald, Paul; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Ujvari, Beata; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Similar to parasites, cancer cells depend on their hosts for sustenance, proliferation and reproduction, exploiting the hosts for energy and resources, and thereby impairing their health and fitness. Because of this lifestyle similarity, it is predicted that cancer cells could, like numerous parasitic organisms, evolve the capacity to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts to increase their own fitness. We claim that the extent of this phenomenon and its therapeutic implications are, however, underappreciated. Here, we review and discuss what can be regarded as cases of host manipulation in the context of cancer development and progression. We elaborate on how acknowledging the applicability of these principles can offer novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. The manipulation of host phenotype by cancer cells is one more reason to adopt a Darwinian approach in cancer research. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Chiropractic manipulation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoline Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remains the most common deforming orthopedic condition in children. Increasingly, both adults and children are seeking complementary and alternative therapy, including chiropractic treatment, for a wide variety of health concerns. The scientific evidence supporting the use chiropractic intervention is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot study and explore issues of safety, patient recruitment and compliance, treatment standardization, sham treatment refinement, inter-professional cooperation, quality assurance, and outcome measure selection. Methods Six patients participated in this 6-month study, 5 of whom were female. One female was braced. The mean age of these patients was 14 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 22.2 degrees. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical trial with two independent and blinded observers. Three patients were treated by standard medical care (observation or brace treatment, two were treated with standard medical care plus chiropractic manipulation, and one was treated with standard medical care plus sham manipulation. The primary outcome measure was Cobb, and the psychosocial measure was Scoliosis Quality of Life Index. Results Orthopedic surgeons and chiropractors were easily recruited and worked cooperatively throughout the trial. Patient recruitment and compliance was good. Chiropractic treatments were safely employed, and research protocols were successful. Conclusion Overall, our pilot study showed the viability for a larger randomized trial. This pilot confirms the strength of existing protocols with amendments for use in a full randomized controlled trial. Trial registration This trial has been assigned an international standard randomized controlled trial number by Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/. The number is ISRCTN41221647.

  4. Osteopathic manipulative treatment and vertigo: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix, Marcel

    2010-07-01

    To assess the safety and feasibility of studying osteopathic manipulative treatment and its potential effectiveness for patients with vertigo. A nonrandomized pilot study. Outpatient clinic affiliated with a teaching hospital and osteopathic medical school. The subjects were older than 18 years of age, with the diagnosis of vertigo for longer than 3 months. The patients were treated with osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). Treatment effectiveness was measured with the use of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), a validated symptom inventory. Intensity and duration of adverse effects after OMT were used to measure study safety. Of the 18 patients who were recruited all 18 (100%) met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. Sixteen patients (88.9%) completed the treatment course with OMT, and data with respect to the DHI were obtained from all 16 (100%). Significant improvement (Ptreatment. Of the 8 patients with moderate pretest scores, 7 (87.5%) had mild post-test scores after undergoing OMT, and of the 8 patients with severe pretest scores, 4 (50%) had mild post-test scores. Of the 18 enrolled patients, 3 (16.7%) experienced an exacerbation of their vertigo, and 5 (27.8%) experienced muscle soreness after OMT. These adverse effects were mild and transient, not lasting longer than 24 hours. This study showed that OMT is generally well tolerated in patients with vertigo. It also demonstrated that it is feasible to recruit a population of patients with vertigo who can complete a course of OMT and collect data by using the DHI. A randomized control trial that examines the efficacy of OMT in patients with vertigo is warranted, given that OMT may be a reasonable treatment for vertigo and the functional impairment associated with it. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of alcohol expectancy priming and mood manipulation on subsequent alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K D; Goldman, M S; Del Boca, F K

    2000-02-01

    Studies showing that verbal priming can implicitly affect alcohol consumption have been used to support cognitive models of expectancies. However, because expectancy words reflect affective states as well as drinking outcomes, mediation through an affective pathway remains theoretically plausible (i.e., such words inadvertently may affect mood, which in turn influences drinking). The primary pathway was identified (and expectancy theory was tested) by comparing memory priming (using alcohol expectancy or neutral words) with mood induction (using positive or neutral music); an unrelated experiment paradigm allowed the priming manipulation to implicitly affect drinking. Men in the alcohol priming group drank significantly more than men in each of the other conditions, and, consistent with theory, men with histories of heavier drinking drank the most when primed with alcohol expectancies, indicating that expectancies can function as automatic memory processes.

  6. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: an experimental study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosky, Joel E; Bishop, Mark D; Robinson, Michael E; Barabas, Josh A; George, Steven Z

    2008-02-11

    The mechanisms thorough which spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) exerts clinical effects are not established. A prior study has suggested a dorsal horn modulated effect; however, the role of subject expectation was not considered. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of subject expectation on hypoalgesia associated with SMT. Sixty healthy subjects agreed to participate and underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) to their leg and low back. Next, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, negative, or neutral expectation instructional set regarding the effects of a specific SMT technique on pain perception. Following the instructional set, all subjects received SMT and underwent repeat QST. No interaction (p = 0.38) between group assignment and pain response was present in the lower extremity following SMT; however, a main effect (p influence of expectation on SMT induced hypoalgesia in the body area to which the expectation is directed.

  7. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: An experimental study in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabas Josh A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms thorough which spinal manipulative therapy (SMT exerts clinical effects are not established. A prior study has suggested a dorsal horn modulated effect; however, the role of subject expectation was not considered. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of subject expectation on hypoalgesia associated with SMT. Methods Sixty healthy subjects agreed to participate and underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST to their leg and low back. Next, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, negative, or neutral expectation instructional set regarding the effects of a specific SMT technique on pain perception. Following the instructional set, all subjects received SMT and underwent repeat QST. Results No interaction (p = 0.38 between group assignment and pain response was present in the lower extremity following SMT; however, a main effect (p Conclusion The current study replicates prior findings of c- fiber mediated hypoalgesia in the lower extremity following SMT and this occurred regardless of expectation. A significant increase in pain perception occurred following SMT in the low back of participants receiving negative expectation suggesting a potential influence of expectation on SMT induced hypoalgesia in the body area to which the expectation is directed.

  8. Discovering the process of user expectating in a pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    This Ph.D.-dissertation addresses the call for more research on “how” and “why” users change their expectations in Information Systems Development (ISD). Contrary to many previous studies on user expectations in the IS literature, the study takes an interpretative, qualitative approach to address...... the research question of: "How do users change their expectations in an Information Systems Development (ISD) project?" The findings of the study are that users in the case studied characterised their expectations in different ways and did not define an expectation, as previously assumed, as belonging...

  9. Fascial Manipulation(®) method applied to pubescent postural hyperkyphosis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, Vilma; Day, Julie Ann; Iogna, Pietro; Stecco, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Treatment of pubescent postural hyperkyphosis commonly includes postural exercises and auto-elongation. Myofascial imbalances can be involved in functional, sagittal plane deviations of spinal curves. This pilot-study assesses the effects of one manual therapy approach that addresses fascial dysfunctions (Fascial Manipulation(®)) in pubescent subjects with postural hyperkyphosis. 17 subjects (mean age 11.8 DS 0.8; 9 males, 8 females) were evaluated for familiarity; psychological aspects; sport; pain; anteposition of shoulders, head, and pelvis; distance C7 and L3 from plumb-line; distance fingers to floor on forward bend. Each subject received 2-4 weekly sessions of Fascial Manipulation(®). Parameters were evaluated before and after manual treatment, with a follow-up at 7 months. A statistically significant difference (p hyperkyphosis in pubescent subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot trial of osteopathic manipulative therapy for patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Guido; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Somalvico, Francesco; Ferrarese, Carlo; Bressan, Livio C

    2014-09-01

    Osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) may be used for managing headache pain and related disability, but there is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials to assess the effectiveness of this intervention. To explore the efficacy of OMTh for pain management in frequent episodic tension-type headache (TTH). Single-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients were recruited from 5 primary care settings. Forty-four patients who were affected by frequent episodic TTH and not taking any drugs for prophylactic management of episodic TTH were recruited. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental or control group. The experimental group received corrective OMTh techniques, tailored for each patient; the control group received assessment of the cranial rhythmic impulse (sham therapy). The study included a 1-month baseline period, a 1-month treatment period, and a 3-month follow-up period. The primary outcome was the change in patient-reported headache frequency, and secondary outcomes included changes in headache pain intensity (discrete score, 1 [lowest perceived pain] to 5 [worst perceived pain]), over-the-counter medication use, and Headache Disability Inventory score. Forty patients completed the study (OMTh, n=21; control, n=19). The OMTh group had a significant reduction in headache frequency over time that persisted 1 month (approximate reduction, 40%; Ptreatment. Moreover, there was an absolute difference between the 2 treatment groups at the end of the study, with a 33% lower frequency of headache in the OMTh group (POsteopathic manipulative therapy may be preferred over other treatment modalities and may benefit patients who have adverse effects to medications or who have difficulty complying with pharmacologic regimens. This protocol may serve as a model for future studies. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  11. Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...

  12. The Effects of Experimentally Manipulated Social Status on Acute Eating Behavior: A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, MI; Johnson, SL; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, AD; Tomczik, AC; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, DM; Muller, K; Piff, PK; Peters, JC; Hill, JO; Allison, DB

    2016-01-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19–25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30 kg/m2). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of ‘privilege’ depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status

  13. Effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment versus osteopathy in the cranial field in temporomandibular disorders - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesslbauer, Christina; Vavti, Nadja; Keilani, Mohammad; Mickel, Michael; Crevenna, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders are a common musculoskeletal condition causing severe pain, physical and psychological disability. The effect and evidence of osteopathic manipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field is scarce and their use are controversial. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field in temporomandibular disorders. A randomized clinical trial in patients with temporomandibular disorders was performed. Forty female subjects with long-term temporomandibular disorders (>3 months) were included. At enrollment, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) osteopathic manipulative treatment group (20 female patients) and (2) osteopathy in the cranial field group (20 female patients). Examination was performed at baseline (E0) and at the end of the last treatment (E1), consisting of subjective pain intensity with the Visual Analog Scale, Helkimo Index and SF-36 Health Survey. Subjects had five treatments, once a week. 36 subjects completed the study (33.7 ± 10.3 y). Patients in both groups showed significant reduction in Visual Analog Scale score (osteopathic manipulative treatment group: p = 0.001; osteopathy in the cranial field group: pmanipulative treatment group: p = 0.02; osteopathy in the cranial field group: p = 0.003) and a significant improvement in the SF-36 Health Survey - subscale "Bodily Pain" (osteopathic manipulative treatment group: p = 0.04; osteopathy in the cranial field group: p = 0.007) after five treatments (E1). All subjects (n = 36) also showed significant improvements in the above named parameters after five treatments (E1): Visual Analog Scale score (pmanipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field as an effective treatment modality in patients with temporomandibular disorders. The positive results in both treatment groups should encourage further research on osteopathic

  14. Effects of comprehensive osteopathic manipulative treatment on balance in elderly patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; King, Hollis H; Knebl, Janice A; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Collins, Deraan; Patterson, Rita M

    2011-06-01

    Falls, many of which are caused by balance problems, are a leading cause of injuries in elderly persons. Few studies have investigated osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for patients with balance problems. To test whether an OMT protocol with an emphasis on cranial manipulation can improve vestibular balance control structures and postural stability in a healthy elderly population. A pilot prospective clinical trial. Research laboratories of the University of North Texas Health Science Center Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine in Fort Worth. Forty healthy elderly patients aged 65 or older were enrolled and separated into an OMT group and a control group. Owing to the recruitment process and limited time for the study, the first 20 patients to enroll were in the OMT group, and the next 20 were in the control group. Patients were excluded if they had a condition that could impair balance. The OMT protocol comprised 7 OMT techniques applied weekly by the same osteopathic physician before balance tests. Patients in the control group received no treatment. Patients were asked to stand on a force plate and to perform 3 balance tests: (1) eyes open, (2) eyes closed, and (3) a modified Romberg test. The center of pressure between their feet was recorded for 30 seconds. The average center of pressure displacement for each test was used to determine anteroposterior (AP) sway and mediolateral (ML) sway. Balance tests were performed each week for 4 weeks. Tests were performed at the same time of day as the first test. Changes in AP sway values between visits 1 and 4 were as follows: eyes open, -0.72 and 0.75 mm for the control and OMT groups, respectively; eyes closed, -0.49 and 0.44 mm; and Romberg test, -0.17 and 0.52 mm. The changes in ML sway values between visits 1 and 4 were as follows: eyes open, -0.58 and 0.07 mm for the control and OMT groups, respectively; eyes closed, -0.21 and 0.03 mm; and Romberg test, -0.15 and 0.39 mm. The OMT group had significantly

  15. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  16. Adjunctive osteopathic manipulative treatment in the elderly hospitalized with pneumonia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, D R; Shores, J; Bryman, P N; Masterson, E V

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the benefit of osteopathic manipulative treatment in the elderly with pneumonia, the authors recruited 21 individuals older than 60 years who were hospitalized with acute pneumonia. Eleven patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and ten to the control group. The treatment group received specific osteopathic manipulative treatment for somatic dysfunction and a standardized treatment protocol. Both groups received conventional therapy, and the attending physician was blind to group assignments. No significant difference existed between groups for age, sex, or severity of illness. Although the mean duration of leukocytosis, intravenous antibiotic treatment, and length of stay were shorter for the treatment group, these measures did not reach statistical significance. However, the mean duration of oral antibiotic use did reach statistical significance at 3.1 days for the treatment group and 0.8 day for the control group. Osteopathic manipulative treatment may reduce antibiotic use and length of stay; however, a larger study is needed to clarify this outcome.

  17. Manipulation of the wrist for management of lateral epicondylitis: A randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Peter A. A.; Damen, Pieter-Jan; Bakker, Eric W. P.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2003-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Lateral epicondylitis ("tennis elbow") is a common entity. Several nonoperative interventions, with varying success rates, have been described. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 2 protocols for the management of lateral epicondylitis: (1) manipulation

  18. Osteopathic manipulative treatment in obese patients with chronic low back pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Luca; Cimolin, Veronica; Menegoni, Francesco; Zaina, Fabio; Galli, Manuela; Negrini, Stefano; Villa, Valentina; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with various musculoskeletal disorders including chronic low back pain (cLBP). Osteopathy is a discipline emphasizing the conservative treatment of the disease in an olistic vision. We designed a randomized controlled study to investigate whether Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) combined with specific exercises (SE) is more effective than SE alone in obese patients with cLBP. nineteen obese females with cLBP, randomized into 2 groups: SE + OMT and SE were studied during the forward flexion of the spine using an optoelectronic system. A biomechanical model was developed in order to analyse kinematics and define angles of clinical interest. kinematic of the thoracic and lumbar spine and pelvis during forward flexion, pain according to a visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire. significant effects on kinematics were reported only for OMT + SE with an improvement in thoracic range of motion of nearly 20%. All scores of the clinical scales used improved significantly. The greatest improvements occurred in the OMT + SE group. combined rehabilitation treatment including Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT + SE) showed to be effective in improving biomechanical parameters of the thoracic spine in obese patients with cLBP. Such results are to be attributed to OMT, since they were not evident in the SE group. We also observed a reduction of disability and pain. The clinical results should be considered preliminary due to the small sample size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Taylor; Higgins, Derek C; Burnham, Robert S; Heath, Deborah M

    2015-03-01

    Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) has been recognized as a management option for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), although limited research exists to substantiate its effectiveness. To evaluate the effectiveness of OMT in the management of CTS. This single-blinded quasi-controlled trial was conducted at an academic institution. Participants with CTS underwent weekly OMT sessions for 6 consecutive weeks. The main outcome measures were the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ), a sensory symptom diagram (SSD), patient estimate of overall change, electrophysiologic testing of the median nerve (trans-carpal tunnel motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and amplitude ratio), and carpal tunnel ultrasound imaging of the cross-sectional area of the median nerve and transverse carpal ligament length and bowing. All outcome measures were administered to participants before the first OMT session. Immediately after the first session, electrophysiologic testing of the median nerve and ultrasound imaging of the carpal tunnel were repeated. After 6 weeks of OMT, all outcome measures were readministered. Results of the BCTQ revealed statistically significant improvements in symptoms and function after 6 weeks of OMT (F=11.0; P=.004), and the improvements tended to be more pronounced on the treated side. The drop in SSD scores after 6 weeks of treatment was statistically significant (F=4.19; P=.0002). Patient estimate of overall improvement of symptoms was statistically significant for the treated side. No statistically significant changes in electrophysiologic function of the median nerve, cross-sectional area of the median nerve, or transverse carpal ligament bowing were observed. After treatment, the increase in transverse carpal ligament length was statistically significant, but no side-to-side difference was detected. Osteopathic manipulative treatment resulted in patient-perceived improvement in symptoms and function associated with CTS. However, median

  20. Influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement in patient with lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cervera, Francisco Vicente; Olteanu, Theodor Emanuel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Díaz-Pulido, Belén; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement (MWM) in kinesiophobia, perceived disability and sensorimotor variables in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. A pilot randomized controlled trial in 24 patients with lateral epicondylalgia was conducted. Perceived pain, pain-free grip strength, pressure pain detection threshold, kinesiophobia measured with the short version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, perceived disability of the upper limb measured with disability of the arm, hand and shoulder questionnaire, and perceived disability specifically for the elbow joint measured with patient-rating tennis elbow evaluation, and also satisfaction were assessed. Participants were randomized to receive written instructions in order to create positive expectations regarding the technique in one group (n=12) or neutral expectations in the other one (n=12). All patients were treated for three sessions with the MWM technique. Measures were recorded before and after treatment. The effect size was calculated by Rosenthal "r" for nonparametrical tests. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between groups after receiving the treatment for none of the physical analyzed variables. The Wilcoxon test showed statistically significant changes in kinesiophobia (Z=-2.278, r=0.47, P=0.023) and perceived disability (Z= -2.934, r=0.61, P=0.003) within positive expectations group. In conclusion this pilot study shows that a positive expectation almost given in a sealed envelope before treatment plus MWM produced changes in kinesiophobia and perceived disability in the immediate term, in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

  1. Influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement in patient with lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cervera, Francisco Vicente; Olteanu, Theodor Emanuel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Díaz-Pulido, Belén; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement (MWM) in kinesiophobia, perceived disability and sensorimotor variables in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. A pilot randomized controlled trial in 24 patients with lateral epicondylalgia was conducted. Perceived pain, pain-free grip strength, pressure pain detection threshold, kinesiophobia measured with the short version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, perceived disability of the upper limb measured with disability of the arm, hand and shoulder questionnaire, and perceived disability specifically for the elbow joint measured with patient-rating tennis elbow evaluation, and also satisfaction were assessed. Participants were randomized to receive written instructions in order to create positive expectations regarding the technique in one group (n=12) or neutral expectations in the other one (n=12). All patients were treated for three sessions with the MWM technique. Measures were recorded before and after treatment. The effect size was calculated by Rosenthal “r” for nonparametrical tests. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between groups after receiving the treatment for none of the physical analyzed variables. The Wilcoxon test showed statistically significant changes in kinesiophobia (Z=−2.278, r=0.47, P=0.023) and perceived disability (Z= −2.934, r=0.61, P=0.003) within positive expectations group. In conclusion this pilot study shows that a positive expectation almost given in a sealed envelope before treatment plus MWM produced changes in kinesiophobia and perceived disability in the immediate term, in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. PMID:28349041

  2. Task-Oriented Performance Evaluation for Assistive Robotic Manipulators: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Wang, Hongwu; Hannan, Matthew J; Ding, Dan; Kelleher, Annmarie R; Cooper, Rory A

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of commercially available assistive robotic manipulators (ARMs) user interfaces and to investigate the concurrent validity and sensitivity to change with task-oriented performance evaluation tools (TO-PETs) for ARMs. This was a nonblinded randomized controlled study with power-wheelchair users with upper-extremity impairments (N = 10). Participants were trained to use 2 ARMs with their respective original user interfaces (keypad and joystick) and evaluated the performance using TO-PET and the adapted Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-ARM). Task completion time, ISO 9241-9 throughput, trajectory parameters, NASA-TLX, and questionnaires were the main outcome measurements. Concurrent validity and sensitivity were evaluated. Statistical differences were found in ISO 9241-9 throughput between the 2 user interfaces for the single motion tasks and WMFT-ARM. However, there was no statistical difference found on the self-reported perceived workload and ease of use. Moderate to high correlation was found between the TO-PET and WMFT-ARM (P evaluation were revealed.

  3. Effect of chiropractic manipulation on vertical jump height in young female athletes with talocrural joint dysfunction: a single-blind randomized clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Sofia; Nilsson, Hans; Lenz, Markus; Sundberg, Tobias

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to explore the effect of chiropractic high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation on vertical jump height in young female athletes with talocrural joint dysfunction. This was a randomized assessor-blind clinical pilot trial. Twenty-two female handball players with talocrural joint dysfunction were randomized to receive either HVLA manipulation (n = 11) or sham treatment (n = 11) once a week during a 3-week period. The main outcome was change in vertical jump height from baseline to follow-up within and between groups after 3 weeks. Nineteen athletes completed the study. After 3 weeks, the group receiving HVLA manipulation (n = 11) had a statistically significant mean (SD) improvement in vertical jump height of 1.07 (1.23) cm (P = .017). The sham treatment group (n = 8) improved their vertical jump height by 0.59 (2.03) cm (P = .436). The between groups' change was 0.47 cm (95% confidence interval, -1.31 to 2.26; P = .571) in favor of the group receiving HVLA manipulation. Blinding and sham procedures were feasible, and there were no reported adverse events. The results of this pilot study show that a larger-scale study is feasible. Preliminary results suggest that chiropractic HVLA manipulation may increase vertical jump height in young female athletes with talocrural joint dysfunction. However, the clinical result in favor of HVLA manipulation compared with sham treatment needs statistical confirmation in a larger randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Manual and manipulative therapy in addition to rehabilitation for osteoarthritis of the knee: assessor-blind randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Lauren; Parkin-Smith, Gregory F; Brantingham, James W; Korporaal, Charmaine; Cassa, Tammy K; Globe, Gary; Bonnefin, Debra; Tong, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the methodological integrity, sample size requirements, and short-term preliminary clinical outcomes of manual and manipulative therapy (MMT) in addition to a rehabilitation program for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This was a pilot study of an assessor-blinded, randomized, parallel-group trial in 2 independent university-based outpatient clinics. Participants with knee OA were randomized to 3 groups: 6 MMT sessions alone, training in rehabilitation followed by a home rehabilitation program alone, or MMT plus the same rehabilitation program, respectively. Six MMT treatment sessions (provided by a chiropractic intern under supervision or by an experienced chiropractor) were provided to participants over the 4-week treatment period. The primary outcome was a description of the research methodology and sample size estimation for a confirmatory study. The secondary outcome was the short-term preliminary clinical outcomes. Data were collected at baseline and 5weeks using the Western Ontario and McMasters Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire, goniometry for knee flexion/extension, and the McMaster Overall Therapy Effectiveness inventory. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences between groups. Eighty-three patients were randomly allocated to 1 of the 3 groups (27, 28, and 28, respectively). Despite 5 dropouts, the data from 78 participants were available for analysis with 10% of scores missing. A minimum of 462 patients is required for a confirmatory 3-arm trial including the respective interventions, accounting for cluster effects and a 20% dropout rate. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in scores from baseline to week 5 were found for all groups for the Western Ontario and McMasters Osteoarthritis Index (P ≤ .008), with a greater change in scores for MMT and MMT plus rehabilitation. Between-group comparison did not reveal statistically significant differences between group scores at

  5. Osteopathic manipulative treatment results in sustained relief from spinal pain in older patients: A pilot crossover study

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    Pannunzio A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment is commonly used to complement conventional treatment of back pain. The present study verified whether OMT, associated with training program, reduces spinal pain in older. A pilot randomized, double-blind crossover study was conducted at Sport Association of Milan, Italy. We recruited 19 subjects above 60 years old, with presence of SP for more than 3 weeks and with intensity score higher than 3 (NRS score. All patients underwent a multi-component group exercise program for older adults and were randomized in two groups: in the study group (SG OMT was added, while the control group (CG continued with the exercise only. After 6 weeks a crossover was applied to the 2 groups and OMT was added to CG, while SG continued with the exercise only. Self-reported measures: the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS was used at each time to evaluate treatment outcomes. At pre-crossover, SG had a significant improvement in pain perception (p<0.05, while CG had a not significate improvement in pain perception (p=0.33.At post-crossover, the SG remains relatively stable (p=0.37, while CG after OMT addition have a significant benefit on pain perception (p=0.001. At follow-up, pain improvement is sustained (p=0.32. OMT associated to exercise reduce spinal pain in older patients. Our study suggests that OMT associated to exercise leads to significant improvement on pain relief in patients with chronic SP in a short term and the exercise allows to maintain these improvements for several months

  6. Early individualised manipulative rehabilitation following lumbar open laser microdiscectomy improves early post-operative functional disability: A randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungho J; Ahn, Junghoon; Cho, Heecheol; Kim, Dongyun; Kim, Taeyeong; Yoon, Bumchul

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar open laser microdiscectomy has been shown to be an effective intervention and safe approach for lumbar disc prolapse. However early post-operative physical disability affecting daily activities have been sporadically reported. To evaluate the feasibility of using early individualised manipulative rehabilitation to improve early post-operative functional disability following lumbar discectomy. Randomised controlled pilot trial. Setting at a major metropolitan spine surgery hospital. Twenty-one patients aged 25-69 years who underwent lumbar microdiscectomy were randomised to either the manipulative rehabilitation treatment group or the active control group. Rehabilitation was initiated 2-3 weeks after surgery, twice a week for 4 weeks. Each session was for 30 minutes. Primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Early post-operative physical disability was improved with a 55% reduction by early individualised manipulative rehabilitation, compared to that of control care with a 5% increase. Early post-operative residual leg pain decreased with rehabilitation (55%) and control care (9%). This pilot study supports the feasibility of a future definitive randomised control trial and indicates this type of rehabilitation may be an important option for post-operative management after spinal surgery.

  7. A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and neuro emotional technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Caroline D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility of conducting a full scale study and compared the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and a mind-body therapy called Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain, a common morbidity of pregnancy. Methods Healthy pregnant women with low back pain of insidious onset were eligible to enroll in the study at any point in their pregnancy. Once enrolled, they remained in the study until they had their babies. Women were randomly allocated into one of three treatment groups using opaque envelopes. The treatment schedule paralleled the prenatal care schedule and women received individualized intervention. Our null hypothesis was that spinal manipulation and Neuro Emotional Technique would perform no better than exercise in enhancing function and decreasing pain. Our primary outcome measure was the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and our secondary outcome measure was the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Intention to treat analysis was conducted. For the primary analysis, regression was conducted to compare groups on the outcome measure scores. In a secondary responder analysis, difference in proportions of participants in attaining 30% and 50% improvement were calculated. Feasibility factors for conducting a future larger trial were also evaluated such as recruitment, compliance to study protocols, cost, and adverse events. Results Fifty-seven participants were randomized into the exercise (n = 22, spinal manipulation (n = 15, and Neuro Emotional Technique (n = 20 treatment arms. At least 50% of participants in each treatment group experienced clinically meaningful improvement in symptoms for the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. At least 50% of the exercise and spinal manipulation participants also experienced clinically meaningful improvement for the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. There were no clinically

  8. Short-Term Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation on the Biomechanical Organisation of Gait Initiation: A Randomized Pilot Study

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    Sébastien Ditcharles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA. According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. “Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude” (SMT-HVLA is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility. As such, it may have a positive effect on the PKC and therefore facilitate gait initiation. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of thoracic SMT-HVLA on spine mobility, APA and speed performance during gait initiation. Healthy young adults (n = 22 performed a series of gait initiation trials on a force plate before (“pre-manipulation” condition and after (“post-manipulation” condition a sham manipulation or an HVLA manipulation applied to the ninth thoracic vertebrae (T9. Participants were randomly assigned to the sham (n = 11 or the HVLA group (n = 11.The spine range of motion (ROM was assessed in each participant immediately after the sham or HVLA manipulations using inclinometers. The results showed that the maximal thoracic flexion increased in the HVLA group after the manipulation, which was not the case in the sham group. In the HVLA group, results further showed that each of the following gait initiation variables reached a significantly lower mean value in the post-manipulation condition as compared to the pre-manipulation condition: APA duration, peak of anticipatory backward center of pressure displacement, center of gravity velocity at foot-off, mechanical efficiency of APA, peak of center of gravity velocity and step length. In contrast, for the sham group, results showed that none of the gait initiation variables significantly differed between

  9. The Effects of Thoracic Manipulation Versus Mobilization for Chronic Neck Pain: a Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarnnato, Thavatchai; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Kaber, David; Boucaut, Rose; Boonphakob, Yodchai; Arayawichanon, Preeda; Chatchawan, Uraiwan

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate effects of thoracic manipulation versus mobilization on chronic neck pain. [Methods] Thirty-nine chronic neck pain subjects were randomly assigned to single level thoracic manipulation, single level thoracic mobilization, or a control group. The cervical range of motion (CROM) and pain ratings (using a visual analog scale: VAS) were measured before, immediately after and at a 24-hour follow-up. [Results] Thoracic manipulation significantly decreased VAS pain ratings and increased CROM in all directions in immediate and 24-hour follow-ups. The thoracic mobilization group significantly increased in CROM in most directions at immediate follow-up and right and left rotational directions at the 24-hour follow-up. Comparisons between groups revealed the CROM for the manipulation group to increase significantly more than for control subjects in most directions at immediate follow-up and flexion, left lateral flexion and left rotation at the 24-hour follow-up. The CROM for the thoracic mobilization group significantly increased in comparison to the control group in flexion at immediate follow-up and in flexion and left rotation at the 24-hour follow-up. [Conclusion] The study demonstrated reductions in VAS pain ratings and increases in CROM at immediate and 24-hour follow-ups from both single level thoracic spine manipulation and thoracic mobilization in chronic neck pain. PMID:24259872

  10. Immediate effects of lumbopelvic manipulation and lateral gluteal kinesio taping on unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Westrick, Richard; Diebal, Angela; Marks, Christopher; Gerber, J Parry

    2013-05-01

    To determine the immediate effects of Kinesio taping directed to the hip and manipulation directed to the lumbopelvic region in individuals with unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). PFPS affects up to 25% of the general population. Despite the high prevalence, this condition is not clearly understood, as evidenced by the numerous proposed causes and recommended treatments. Notwithstanding, recent evidence suggests that treatments directed at the hip or spine may lead to beneficial results. A convenience sample of 18 participants (12 men and 6 women, 19.5 ± 1.15 years old) with unilateral PFPS was recruited. Participants were randomized by sex to 1 of 3 groups: Kinesio taping, manipulation, and control taping. The main outcome measures included the Y-balance test, squatting range of motion (ROM), and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Compared with the lumbopelvic manipulation and control groups, those in the Kinesio taping group performed significantly better on the Y-balance test (F = 5.59, P = 0.02) and with squatting ROM (F = 3.93, P = 0.04). The Kinesio taping and lumbopelvic groups were also significantly better than the control (sham) group with double-leg squatting ROM performance 3 days later. Kinesio taping may facilitate gluteus medius activation and improve postural stability and a double-leg squat. The improvement in affected limb reach and double-leg squatting ROM highlights the potential for Kinesio taping to improve gluteus medius activation. Lumbopelvic manipulation may also immediately improve rehabilitation programs for PFPS.

  11. Impact of osteopathic manipulative therapy on quality of life of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis with colorectal involvement: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraï, Camille; Deboute, Olivier; Zacharopoulou, Chrysoula; Laas, Enora; Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Belghiti, Jéremie; Zilberman, Sonia; Ballester, Marcos; Daraï, Emile

    2015-05-01

    A prospective pilot study to evaluate the potential role of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMT) on quality of life (QOL) of patients with Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis (DIE) and colorectal involvement. Twenty patients with DIE and colorectal infiltration completed the SF-36 QOL questionnaire before and after undergoing OMT. The median age (range) of the patients was 30.4 years (22-39). Thirty-five percent of the patients had undergone previous surgery for endometriosis and 70% were on medical treatment. Fifteen of the 20 patients (75%) completed the protocol. There was no difference in the epidemiological characteristics or in the pre-OMT Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the SF-36 questionnaire between patients who completed the protocol or not. After a mean period of 24 days (15-53), a significant improvement in PCS (p=0.03) and MCS (p=0.0009) compared to pre-OMT values was observed giving a success rate of 80% and 60% in intention-to-treat, respectively. Our results support that OMT can improve QOL of patients with DIE and colorectal involvement. Moreover, this pilot study can serve to determine power calculations for future randomized trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Nicole Landa; Garry, Jamie; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E; Anderson, Ellen J; Walford, Geoffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine) in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]). All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; pBCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation.

  13. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Landa Cavallaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective: To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design: Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]. All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results: Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all. Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02 and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion: Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation.

  14. Osteopathic manipulative treatment in conjunction with medication relieves pain associated with fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized clinical pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamber, Russell G; Shores, Jay H; Russo, David P; Jimenez, Cynthia; Rubin, Benard R

    2002-06-01

    Osteopathic physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) often use osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in conjunction with other forms of standard medical care. Despite a growing body of evidence on the efficacy of manual therapy for the treatment of selected acute musculoskeletal conditions, the role of OMT in treating patients with chronic conditions such as FM remains largely unknown. Twenty-four female patients meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) manipulation group, (2) manipulation and teaching group, (3) moist heat group, and (4) control group, which received no additional treatment other than current medication. Participants' pain perceptions were assessed by use of pain thresholds measured at each of 10 bilateral tender points using a 9-kg dolorimeter, the Chronic Pain Experience Inventory, and the Present Pain Intensity Rating Scale. Patients' affective response to treatment was assessed using the Self-Evaluation Questionnaire. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Stanford Arthritis Center Disability and Discomfort Scales: Health Assessment Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Significant findings between the four treatment groups on measures of pain threshold, perceived pain, attitude toward treatment, activities of daily living, and perceived functional ability were found. All of these findings favored use of OMT. This study found OMT combined with standard medical care was more efficacious in treating FM than standard care alone. These findings need to be replicated to determine if cost savings are incurred when treatments for FM incorporate nonpharmacologic approaches such as OMT.

  15. Turnout in Classical Dance: Is It Possible to Enhance the External Rotation of the Lower Limb by a Myofascial Manipulation? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Christine; Schmidt, Tobias

    2017-12-15

    Turnout in classical dance refers to the external rotation of the lower extremities so that the longitudinal axes of the feet form an angle of up to 180°. To what extent a myofascial manipulation (myofascial release, MFR) could enhance this external rotation is as yet unknown. In this pilot study, 16 students of dance and 3 dance instructors were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG; N = 10) and a group of controls (CG; N = 9). Isolated external hip rotation (EHR) and functional turnout (TO) were evaluated three times (pre-, post-, and follow-up measurement) using a plurimeter and Functional Footprints® rotation discs. In addition, subjectively perceived physical flexibility (PPF) was determined by means of a written survey. The interval between pre- and post-measurement and between post- and follow-up measurement was 4 weeks. Only the IG received four 20-minute MFR treatments of the lower limb at weekly intervals between pre- and post-measurement. In both the post-measurement (pre- versus post-: p = 0.038, d = 0.77) and the follow-up measurement (pre- versus follow-up: p < 0.001, d = 1.66) the IG showed a significantly improved isolated EHR of the right hip and a significantly increased PPF (pre- versus post-: p = 0.047, d = 0.73; pre- versus follow-up: p = 0.012, d = 1.00). The left EHR as well as the right and left TO were not affected by the intervention. It was demonstrated that four sessions of MFR of the lower limb can induce an improvement in the isolated external hip rotation (right hip). The beneficial effects of the treatment regarding an improvement of functional turnout could not be entirely verified in this pilot study. However, the significant increase in the participants' subjective flexibility supports the promising trend in the objective parameters and emphasizes the need to undertake further research.

  16. Arbitrary visuo-motor mapping during object manipulation in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Mitra; Kemper, Friederike; Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Kessler, Josef; Fink, Gereon R; Nowak, Dennis A

    2011-07-01

    Empirical evidence for an essential role of the hippocampal system in arbitrary visuo-motor mapping suggests that acquisition and retrieval of arbitrary visuo-motor mapping might be impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present pilot study investigated whether MCI of amnestic type or AD impact upon the capacity to scale grip force in a predictive manner to the mass of an object to be lifted based on learned associations between arbitrary colour cues and mass. Patients with MCI (n=8) and AD (n=8) grasped and lifted two different masses (400g and 600g) in random order using a precision grip between index finger and thumb. In a "no cue" experiment, a non-informative neutral visual stimulus was presented prior to each lift, thereby disallowing any prediction about which of the two masses was going to be lifted in the next trial. In a "cue" experiment an arbitrary colour cue provided advance information about which of the two masses to be lifted. In the "no cue" condition patients scaled their grip force according to the mass of the preceding lift. In the "cue" experiment neither patients with amnestic MCI nor those with AD were able to adjust their grip force based on visuo-motor mappings with arbitrary colour cues. These preliminary data suggest that the hippocampal system plays an essential role for arbitrary visuo-motor mapping in the grip-lift task. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging and acute low back pain: a pilot study to characterize lumbar muscle activity asymmetries and examine the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Walkowski, Stevan; Conatser, Robert R; Eland, David C; Howell, John N

    2009-01-01

    Background Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) measures transverse relaxation time (T2), and allows for determination of the spatial pattern of muscle activation. The purposes of this pilot study were to examine whether MRI-derived T2 or side-to-side differences in T2 (asymmetries) differ in low back muscles between subjects with acute low back pain (LBP) compared to asymptomatic controls, and to determine if a single osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) session alters these T2 properties immediately and 48-hours after treatment. Methods Subjects with non-specific acute LBP (mean score on 1-10 visual analog score = 3.02 ± 2.81) and asymptomatic controls (n = 9/group) underwent an MRI, and subsequently the LBP subjects received OMT and then underwent another MRI. The LBP subjects reported back for an additional MRI 48-hours following their initial visit. T2 and T2 asymmetry were calculated from regions of interest for the psoas, quadratus lumborum (QL), multifidus, and iliocostalis lumborum/longissimus thoracis (IL/LT) muscles. Results No differences were observed between the groups when T2 was averaged for the left and right side muscles. However, the QL displayed a significantly greater T2 asymmetry in LBP subjects when compared to controls (29.1 ± 4.3 vs. 15.9 ± 4.1%; p = 0.05). The psoas muscle also displayed a relatively large, albeit non-significant, mean difference (22.7 ± 6.9 vs. 9.5 ± 2.8%; p = 0.11). In the subjects with LBP, psoas T2 asymmetry was significantly reduced immediately following OMT (25.3 ± 6.9 to 6.1 ± 1.8%, p = 0.05), and the change in LBP immediately following OMT was correlated with the change in psoas T2 asymmetry (r = 0.75, p = 0.02). Conclusion Collectively, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility of mfMRI for quantification and localization of muscle abnormalities in patients with acute low back pain. Additionally, this pilot work provides insight into the mechanistic actions of OMT during acute LBP, as

  18. Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging and acute low back pain: a pilot study to characterize lumbar muscle activity asymmetries and examine the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Walkowski, Stevan; Conatser, Robert R; Eland, David C; Howell, John N

    2009-08-27

    Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) measures transverse relaxation time (T2), and allows for determination of the spatial pattern of muscle activation. The purposes of this pilot study were to examine whether MRI-derived T2 or side-to-side differences in T2 (asymmetries) differ in low back muscles between subjects with acute low back pain (LBP) compared to asymptomatic controls, and to determine if a single osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) session alters these T2 properties immediately and 48-hours after treatment. Subjects with non-specific acute LBP (mean score on 110 visual analog score = 3.02 +/- 2.81) and asymptomatic controls (n = 9/group) underwent an MRI, and subsequently the LBP subjects received OMT and then underwent another MRI. The LBP subjects reported back for an additional MRI 48-hours following their initial visit. T2 and T2 asymmetry were calculated from regions of interest for the psoas, quadratus lumborum (QL), multifidus, and iliocostalis lumborum/longissimus thoracis (IL/LT) muscles. No differences were observed between the groups when T2 was averaged for the left and right side muscles. However, the QL displayed a significantly greater T2 asymmetry in LBP subjects when compared to controls (29.1 +/- 4.3 vs. 15.9 +/- 4.1%; p = 0.05). The psoas muscle also displayed a relatively large, albeit non-significant, mean difference (22.7 +/- 6.9 vs. 9.5 +/- 2.8%; p = 0.11). In the subjects with LBP, psoas T2 asymmetry was significantly reduced immediately following OMT (25.3 +/- 6.9 to 6.1 +/- 1.8%, p = 0.05), and the change in LBP immediately following OMT was correlated with the change in psoas T2 asymmetry (r = 0.75, p = 0.02). Collectively, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility of mfMRI for quantification and localization of muscle abnormalities in patients with acute low back pain. Additionally, this pilot work provides insight into the mechanistic actions of OMT during acute LBP, as it suggests that it may

  19. Attitudes to ageing and expectations for filial piety across Chinese and British cultures: a pilot exploratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Ken; Wang, DaHua; Coelho, Claudia; Power, Mick

    2010-04-01

    Filial piety (FP) is a central theme in Asian culture and is seen as care for one's parents as part of a traditional concept of Confucianism. Older people may hold strong expectations for FP from their children. Attitudes towards the experience of ageing may be influenced by how far one perceives their expectations to be met. A cross-sectional evaluation of expectation for FP and attitudes to ageing was undertaken in three different cultural groups--elderly Chinese immigrants living in the UK, Chinese older people living in Beijing and Scottish older people living in Scotland. There were significant differences between the three cultural groups on a standardized measure of attitudes to ageing on psychosocial loss, F(2, 127) = 28.20, p = 0.0005 and physical change, F(2, 127) = 67.60, p = 0.0005 domains of attitudes to ageing. With expectations for FP, the UK-born participants evidenced lower expectations than the two Chinese groups, who were very similar in their levels of expectation, F(2, 127) = 10.92, p = 0.0005. The study was the first of its kind to consider attitudes to ageing and expectations for FP across three cultural groups. Overall an interesting pattern of results emerged suggesting that both Chinese groups remain invested in the concept of FP, whereas the UK sample was not. In contrast, however, the Chinese immigrants and the UK participants were more similar in reporting attitudes to ageing than the Chinese participants who were more likely to endorse a loss-deficit view of ageing.

  20. Effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on middle ear effusion following acute otitis media in young children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Karen M; Carreiro, Jane E; Viola, Judith Haug; Conte, Josephine A; Ridpath, Lance C

    2014-06-01

    Childhood acute otitis media (AOM) is highly prevalent. Its usual sequela of middle ear effusion (MEE) can lead to conductive hearing loss, for which surgery is commonly used. To evaluate the efficacy of an osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) protocol on MEE resolution following an episode of AOM. The authors hypothesized that OMT provided adjunctively to standard care for young children with AOM would reduce the duration of MEE following the onset of AOM. We compared standard care only (SCO) and standard care plus OMT (SC+OMT) for the duration of MEE following AOM. Patients were aged 6 months to 2 years. The SC+OMT group received OMT during 3 weekly visits. Weekly tympanometric and acoustic reflectometer (AR) readings were obtained from all patients. There were 52 patients enrolled, with 43 completing the study and 9 dropping out. No demographic differences were noted. Only ears from each patient with abnormal tympanograms at entry were included. There were 76 ears in the tympanogram analysis (38 from SCO; 38 from SC+OMT) and 61 ears in the AR data analysis (31 from SCO; 30 from SC+OMT). Dependence of bilateral ear disease noted in AR readings was accounted for in statistical analysis. Tympanogram data demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in MEE at visit 3 in patients in the SC+OMT group (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.16, 7.62; χ(2) test for independence, P=.02). The AR data analysis showed statistically significant improvement at visit 3 for the SC+OMT group (z=2.05; P=.02). There was no statistically significant change in MEE before or immediately after the OMT protocol. A standardized OMT protocol administered adjunctively with standard care for patients with AOM may result in faster resolution of MEE following AOM than standard treatment alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00520039.). © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  1. Nursing and midwifery college students' expectations of their educators and perceived stressors during their education: a pilot study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilingir, Dilek; Gursoy, Ayla Akkas; Hintistan, Sevilay; Ozturk, Havva

    2011-10-01

    Nursing and midwifery education is known to be negatively affected by several factors. Nevertheless, the present learning environments for students can be effectively altered to optimize their learning and practical training and decrease their stress levels. In order to minimize the stressors and to encourage the qualities needed of a competent educator, it would be important to first determine students' perceived stressors and the expectations they have of their educators. The main purpose of the study was to define the expectations that nursing and midwifery college students have of their educators as well as the stressors they perceive during their education. The present descriptive study was carried out with 474 students; there were 345 nursing students and 129 midwifery students at a college in northeastern Turkey. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and assessed with X(2) analyses. The findings of the study demonstrated that a majority of the students had some expectations of the educators and perceived stressors during their education. The students' most common expectations of the educators included their desire to be understood during their clinical education. In addition, students wanted the educators to make more use of visual materials during the theoretical part of their courses. The study also determined that the students felt very stressed when they were questioned by the educator on both clinical and theoretical aspects of their coursework. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. From passive passenger to participating co-pilot - Pregnant women's expectations of being able to access their online journal from antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevi, Charlotte; Lendahls, Lena; Crang-Svalenius, Elizabeth; Oscarsson, Marie G

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe pregnant women's expectations of being able to access their electronic health records from antenatal care. Nine pregnant women passing 25 full gestational weeks were interviewed individually. Collected data were analysed with an inductive approach using content analysis. The study was performed in antenatal care units in southern Sweden. The following five categories emerged from the analysis: Being able to achieve increased participation, being able to have more control, being more knowledgeable about the pregnancy, identification of possible risks, and perceptions of one's own well-being can predict usage. The five categories led to one main category: 'Shift in power - from passive passenger to participating co-pilot'. The pregnant women expected that having access to electronic health records would give them more control, make them more knowledgeable and increase their participation. Access to electronic health records may empower pregnant women and contribute to a more person-centred approach. This could provide greater knowledge for the woman and her partner about her health, thus, allowing them to make evidence-based choices in relation to the newborn baby and the woman's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expecting Immediate Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of expecting immediate grades on numerical and verbal reasoning performance and the moderating role of achievement goals. Anticipated grade proximity (immediate vs. 1 week later and goal orientation (approach vs. avoidance were manipulated with instructions. Experiment 1 showed that expecting immediate grades yielded lower numerical performance than expecting delayed feedback, regardless of participants’ goal orientation. Neither grade proximity nor goal orientation impacted verbal performance. In Experiment 2, we used a stronger goal manipulation and included measures of motivation. Expecting immediate grades increased task anxiety, lowered task involvement, and lowered task effort among participants with avoidance goals, compared with expecting delayed grades. The effects on performance were not replicated in Experiment 2, however. The findings demonstrate that expecting immediate grades may have negative consequences under certain conditions, including demotivation and performance impairment.

  4. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  5. Master manipulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamo, S

    2016-01-01

      In her new book, This Is Your Brain on Parasites, Kathleen McAuliffe examines the unusual and often dramatic ways that parasites and microbial manipulators can influence the behavior of their hosts...

  6. Three-dimensional head kinematics and clinical outcome of patients with neck injury treated with spinal manipulative therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbauer, P J; Derickson, K L; Peles, J D; DeBoer, K F; Fuhr, A W; Winters, J M

    1992-10-01

    Finite helical axis parameters (FHAP) of the cervical spine and clinical measures were obtained to evaluate neck function and the clinical effects of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with "whiplash" (WL) type neck injury. Descriptive case series, 1 yr follow-up. Three private chiropractic practices. Ten consecutive new patients with a history of neck injury, nine asymptomatic, volunteer controls. A 6-wk regimen of short lever manually assisted adjustments with an Activator Instrument, while acute, four patients received interferential electrotherapy. Cervical FHAP during normal movements, neck pain (visual analogue scale), active cervical range of motion and follow-up questionnaire. Based on six patients, the FHAPs appeared to mirror the clinical condition, being markedly deviant from the patterns observed in the control group for at least one or more of the tracking tasks for all but one of the patients. Mean pain scores decreased from 44.1 to 10.5 (t = 4.93; p < .0001) and mean total range of motion increased from 234 to 297 degrees (t = 5.68; p < .0001). At 1 yr, seven respondents noted stability of their symptoms at or near the level reported immediately after the 6-wk treatment period. Based on these preliminary data: a) FHAPs may aid in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of neck dysfunction, b) spinal manipulative therapy may be beneficial to some patients with neck injury and future study is warranted as a means to promote recovery of patients with neck injuries.

  7. Effect of spinal manipulative therapy with stretching compared with stretching alone on full-swing performance of golf players: a randomized pilot trial☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Soraya M.V.; Chibana, Yumi E.T.; Giavarotti, Leandro; Compagnoni, Débora S.; Shiono, Adriana H.; Satie, Janice; Bracher, Eduardo S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective There has been a steady growth of chiropractic treatment using spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) that aims to increase the performance of athletes in various sports. This study evaluates the effect of SMT by chiropractors on the performance of golf players. Methods Golfers of 2 golf clubs in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. They were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: Group I received a stretch program, and group II received a stretch program in addition to SMT. Participants in both groups performed the same standardized stretching program. Spinal manipulative therapy to dysfunctional spinal segments was performed on group II only. All golfers performed 3 full-swing maneuvers. Ball range was considered as the average distance for the 3 shots. Treatment was performed after the initial measurement, and the same maneuvers were performed afterward. Each participant repeated these procedures for a 4-week period. Student t test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, and 1-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with significance level of 5% were used to analyze the study. Results Forty-three golfers completed the protocol. Twenty participants were allocated to group I and 23 to group II. Average age, handicap, and initial swing were comparable. No improvement of full-swing performance was observed during the 4 sessions on group I (stretch only). An improvement was observed at the fourth session of group II (P = .005); when comparing the posttreatment, group II had statistical significance at all phases (P = .003). Conclusions Chiropractic SMT in association with muscle stretching may be associated with an improvement of full-swing performance when compared with muscle stretching alone. PMID:19948307

  8. Effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment and concentric and eccentric maximal-effort exercise on women with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Herbert A; Vardy, Terence C; Kuchera, Michael L; Ripley, Bret D; Johnson, Jane C

    2002-05-01

    The research objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) combined with maximal-effort exercise (MEE) on strength, coordination, endurance, and fatigue in female patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Seven female subjects with MS participated in the 12-week study, which included intervention with OMT and MEE twice per week. Standardized tests for progression of MS and fatigue were used. Strength (maximal effort and impulse) was measured with the IsoPump exercise machine (IsoPump USA, Cleveland, Miss) during the three phases of the exercise protocol. Significant changes occurred in all but one measure of strength and on the 25-foot walk (P < .05), but not on the block-and-box test. The change in fatigue scores was not significantly different. Findings indicate that OMT combined with MEE significantly increases strength and ambulatory levels while not increasing fatigue in female patients with MS who have low to medium impairment. Qualitative data show that this intervention also produces beneficial effects in activities of daily living.

  9. Voluntary intravenous self-administration of alcohol detects an interaction between GABAergic manipulation and GABRG1 polymorphism genotype: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plawecki, Martin H; Wetherill, Leah; Vitvitskiy, Victor; Kosobud, Ann; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Edenberg, Howard J; O'Connor, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Operant responding paradigms quantify a subject's motivation for reward, but such studies employing ingested alcohol cannot assure the same incremental increase in brain exposure to alcohol across subjects because of substantial variability in absorption kinetics. We developed a human progressive ratio (PR) paradigm using the computer-assisted self-infusion of ethanol (CASE) system that overcomes such variability and conducted a pilot study to assess its utility for detecting an interaction of subjects' GABRA2 or GABRG1 genotype and pretreatment with 1 mg of lorazepam (LZ) vs. placebo on their willingness to work for alcohol rewards. Twenty healthy, nondependent drinkers, aged 21 to 27, were balanced on rs279871 and rs2350439 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GABRA2 and GABRG1 genes, respectively. Subjects worked for alcohol, with water as an alternative reinforcer (AR), using a progressive schedule of a task that required constant attention and adapted to both fatigue and drug effects. Testing began 1 hour after pretreatment with 1 mg LZ or placebo in a crossover design. The CASE system performed well, and the constant attention task was perceived as work by all subjects. GABRA2 homozygosity did not significantly predict either breakpoint or cumulative work, whereas a significant GABRG1 genotype by LZ pretreatment interaction for cumulative work was detected (p = 0.04). Breakpoint revealed a weak trend toward pretreatment drug effects (p = 0.11), and a somewhat stronger interaction of LZ pretreatment with GABRG1 genotype (p = 0.06). GABRG1 status revealed a more complex relationship with respect to motivation for alcohol with and without LZ pretreatment; AG and GG individuals worked more for alcohol under both pretreatment conditions, while AA individuals worked more for the AR. The CASE PR paradigm shows promise as a laboratory method for use in drug development and phenotyping studies. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Nutrition information to the desktop: a pilot online nutrition course on saturated fat for public librarians increases knowledge, expectancies, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Campbell, Marci K

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an online course for public librarians on helping patrons reduce saturated fat. Pre- and posttest design along with a 6-month follow-up survey. Online nutrition course. 100 (8 males, 92 females) completed the course, and 29 completed the follow-up survey. Completion of an online course. Self-efficacy, expectancies, and knowledge were assessed at pre- and posttest. Self-efficacy, expectancies, and use of course content were assessed at 6-month follow-up. Paired-samples t tests. Knowledge increased significantly (P librarians shows that an online course can be an effective way to increase self-efficacy about helping patrons with nutrition-related questions.

  11. Mental Models and Deliberate Manipulation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koester, Thomas; Jakobsen, Jeanette; Brøsted, Jesper Ejdorf

    2015-01-01

    compromise patient safety and/or the integrity of the system. The pilot study in this paper set out to explore mental models and deliberate manipulation of data in a Danish telemedicine setting of home monitoring among pregnant women. Results show, that patients construct mental models of the telemedicine...... system, and that the patient can utilize such mental models in attempts to manipulate their data input to get a desired output from the telemedicine system....

  12. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...... strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...

  13. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...

  14. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over......' expectation formation. Chapters IV and V constitute the methodological contribution of the dissertation. Chapter IV develops a general method for decomposing total effects into its direct and indirect counterparts in nonlinear probability models such as the logistic response model. The method forms a solution...

  15. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    In this dissertation I examine the relationship between subjective beliefs about the outcomes of educational choices and the generation of inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) in post-industrial society. Taking my departure in the rational action turn in the sociology of educational...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...

  16. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... inequalities if educational reform is to promote educational and social mobility in post-industrial society. I pursue my research agenda in five chapters. In the introductory Chapter I I situate my research contributions in the tradition of the sociology of educational stratification. This chapter also...... outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...

  17. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  18. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...... stratification, I argue that students facing significant educational transitions form their educational expectations by taking into account the foreseeable, yet inherently uncertain, consequences of potential educational pathways. This process of expectation formation, I posit, involves evaluations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...

  19. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    stratification, I argue that students facing significant educational transitions form their educational expectations by taking into account the foreseeable, yet inherently uncertain, consequences of potential educational pathways. This process of expectation formation, I posit, involves evaluations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... the role of causal inference in social science; and it discusses the potential of the findings of the dissertation to inform educational policy. In Chapters II and III, constituting the substantive contribution of the dissertation, I examine the process through which students form expectations...

  20. Expected Value

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lapson

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for decision-making under risk is developed and axiomatized. It provides another explanation for the Allais paradox as well as justification for some other preference patterns that can not be represented by the expected utility model, but it includes expected utility representation fo preferences as a particular case. The idea of the procedure is that evaluation of the lotteries takes two steps. First, a decision maker classifies a lottery as a "bad," "good" or "medium" one. Then ...

  1. Randomized expectancy-enhanced placebo-controlled trial of the impact of Quantum BioEnergetic distant healing and paranormal belief on mood disturbance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Adam J; Permezel, Fiona E; Storm, Lance

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the effects of ostensible subtle energy on physical systems and subjective experience. However, one subtle energy technique that has been neglected, despite anecdotal support for its efficacy, is Quantum BioEnergetics (QBE). Furthermore, the influence of paranormal belief and experience (either real belief/experience or suggested belief/experience) on subtle energy effects remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate experimentally the effects of distant QBE healing, and paranormal belief/experience, on mood. A randomized expectancy-enhanced placebo-controlled design was used. Data were collected at the QBE Centre, Melbourne. Participants were students from Deakin University and from the general public. Snowball sampling (ie, word-of-mouth) and convenience sampling using a ballot box placed in the university library. Profile of Mood States-Short Form was used to quantify positive and negative mood states. The QBE condition was associated with (1) significantly less Tension-Anxiety compared with the placebo and control condition; and (2) significantly less Anger-Hostility and Total Mood Disturbance compared with the control condition (but not the placebo condition). Furthermore, there was an interaction of condition and paranormal belief/experience with regard to Depression-Dejection, with believers assigned to the placebo condition scoring lowest on this Mood variable. Findings suggest that the use of QBE by an experienced practitioner reduces mood disturbance. In addition, the placebo condition may have evoked suggestibility effects in believers, which would mean that they may be more likely than nonbelievers to believe that they were receiving healing, thus resulting in lower Depression-Dejection scores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    In this dissertation I examine the relationship between subjective beliefs about the outcomes of educational choices and the generation of inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) in post-industrial society. Taking my departure in the rational action turn in the sociology of educational...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...

  3. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  4. Optimistic expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Young Australians’ post-school futures are uncertain, insecure and fluid in relation to working life. But if you think that this is the recipe for a next generation of depressed young Australians, you may be wrong. A new book documents that young people are characterised by optimism, but their ex......, but their expectations of the future differ from those of their parents....

  5. Amnioinfusion in preterm premature rupture of membranes (AMIPROM): a randomised controlled trial of amnioinfusion versus expectant management in very early preterm premature rupture of membranes--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Devender; Vause, Sarah; Martin, William; Green, Pauline; Walkinshaw, Stephen; Bricker, Leanne; Beardsmore, Caroline; Shaw, Ben N J; McKay, Andrew; Skotny, Gaynor; Williamson, Paula; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2014-04-01

    Fetal survival is severely compromised when the amniotic membrane ruptures between 16 and 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced amniotic fluid levels are associated with poor lung development, whereas adequate levels lead to better perinatal outcomes. Restoring amniotic fluid by means of ultrasound-guided amnioinfusion (AI) may be of benefit in improving perinatal and long-term outcomes in children of pregnancies with this condition. The AI in preterm premature rupture of membranes (AMIPROM) pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of recruitment, the methods for conduct and the retention through to long-term follow-up of participants with very early rupture of amniotic membranes (between 16 and 24 weeks of pregnancy). It was also performed to assess outcomes and collect data to inform a larger, more definitive, clinical trial. A prospective, non-blinded randomised controlled trial. A computer-generated random sequence using a 1 : 1 ratio was used. Randomisation was stratified for pregnancies in which the amniotic membrane ruptured between 16(+0) and 19(+6) weeks' gestation and 20(+0) and 24(+0) weeks' gestation. The randomisation sequence was generated in blocks of four. Telephone randomisation and intention-to-treat analysis were used. Four UK hospital-based fetal medicine units - Liverpool Women's NHS Trust, St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester, Birmingham Women's NHS Foundation Trust and Wirral University Hospitals Trust. Women with confirmed preterm prelabour rupture of membranes between 16(+0) and 24(+0) weeks' gestation. Women with multiple pregnancies, resultant fetal abnormalities or obstetric indication for immediate delivery were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated to either serial weekly transabdominal AI or expectant management (Exp) until 37 weeks of pregnancy, if the deepest pool of amniotic fluid was < 2 cm. Short-term maternal, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and long-term outcomes for the child were studied. Long-term respiratory

  6. Patient expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagiuri, Ben; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    , specifically controlling for a history of nausea, and involving breast cancer patients, none of the moderators assessed were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that patient expectancies may contribute to post-chemotherapy nausea and that expectancy-based manipulations may provide...

  7. A study of pilot behavior during controlling the lateral directional motion of airplanes in turbulent air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, G.

    1975-01-01

    The pilot behaviors controlling the lateral directional motion of airplanes in turbulent air have been investigated by using the pilot transfer function which has been obtained by the analysis of flight test data. The pilot uses the gains for the aileron manipulation proportionally to bank angle so as to minimize r.m.s. of bank angle. The pilot rudder manipulations are done proportionally to rolling velocity, yawing velocity, and yaw angle. Namely, the pilot carries out the cross control for the rudder.

  8. Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics…

  9. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...

  10. In praise of manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that

  11. CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, James; Mourad, Firas; Zingoni, Andrea; Iorio, Raffaele; Perreault, Thomas; Zacharko, Noah; de Las Peñas, César Fernández; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    No study has previously investigated the side, duration or number of audible cavitation sounds during high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation to the cervicothoracic spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of cavitations, the duration of cervicothoracic thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Quasi-experimental study. Thirty-two patients with upper trapezius myalgia received two cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations targeting the right and left T1-2 articulation, respectively. Two high sampling rate accelerometers were secured bilaterally 25 mm lateral to midline of the T1-2 interspace. For each manipulation, two audio signals were extracted using Short-Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) and singularly processed via spectrogram calculation in order to evaluate the frequency content and number of instantaneous energy bursts of both signals over time for each side of the CTJ. Unilateral cavitation sounds were detected in 53 (91.4%) of 58 cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations and bilateral cavitation sounds were detected in just five (8.6%) of the 58 thrust manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (pcavitation was significantly (pcavitations per manipulation was 4.35 (95% CI 2.88, 5.76). The mean duration of a single manipulation was 60.77 ms (95% CI 28.25, 97.42) and the mean duration of a single audible cavitation was 4.13 ms (95% CI 0.82, 7.46). In addition to single-peak and multi-peak energy bursts, spectrogram analysis also demonstrated high frequency sounds, low frequency sounds, and sounds of multiple frequencies for all 58 manipulations. Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur unilaterally, and on the side contralateral to the short-lever applicator contact, during cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulation. Clinicians should expect multiple

  12. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  13. CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Firas; Zingoni, Andrea; Iorio, Raffaele; Perreault, Thomas; Zacharko, Noah; de las Peñas, César Fernández; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A.

    2017-01-01

    Background No study has previously investigated the side, duration or number of audible cavitation sounds during high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation to the cervicothoracic spine. Purpose The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of cavitations, the duration of cervicothoracic thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Study Design Quasi-experimental study Methods Thirty-two patients with upper trapezius myalgia received two cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations targeting the right and left T1-2 articulation, respectively. Two high sampling rate accelerometers were secured bilaterally 25 mm lateral to midline of the T1-2 interspace. For each manipulation, two audio signals were extracted using Short-Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) and singularly processed via spectrogram calculation in order to evaluate the frequency content and number of instantaneous energy bursts of both signals over time for each side of the CTJ. Result Unilateral cavitation sounds were detected in 53 (91.4%) of 58 cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations and bilateral cavitation sounds were detected in just five (8.6%) of the 58 thrust manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (pmanipulation was 4.35 (95% CI 2.88, 5.76). The mean duration of a single manipulation was 60.77 ms (95% CI 28.25, 97.42) and the mean duration of a single audible cavitation was 4.13 ms (95% CI 0.82, 7.46). In addition to single-peak and multi-peak energy bursts, spectrogram analysis also demonstrated high frequency sounds, low frequency sounds, and sounds of multiple frequencies for all 58 manipulations. Discussion Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur unilaterally, and on the side contralateral to the short-lever applicator contact, during cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulation. Clinicians should expect

  14. Age and pilot performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyraud, M Y; Borowsky, M S

    1985-06-01

    In military and civilian aviation, pilot age is a major factor which determines if the individual is allowed to continue flying. Many factors, including legal considerations, escalating personnel and training costs, and higher skill levels necessitated by increasing equipment complexity, have generated considerable interest in the development of "age free" criteria to determine continued suitability for aviation duty. Central to this issue is a demonstration that older pilots are not necessarily unsafe pilots. Naval Safety Center data relating mishap rates and causal factors to pilot age are presented and policy implications discussed. Results indicate that there are significant differences in mishap rates and mishap causal factors as a function of age, but these differences are not those which might be expected based on a knowledge of the aging literature.

  15. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  16. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  17. Compliant manipulators on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Stefan; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a modeling method for generic serial-chain compliant robotic manipulators. It is based on graph theory and port-Hamiltonian systems, which allows a modular approach to the interconnection of rigid bodies with compliant actuators by means of kinematic pairs. This modularity allows

  18. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  19. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective...

  20. A universal microscope manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Boyadzhiev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified and improved model of a mechanical manipulator for observation of pinned and mounted insects is described. This device allows movement of the observed object around three perpendicular axes in the field of vision at all magnifications of stereomicroscopes. The main improvement of this new model is positioning of the guiding knobs for rotating around two of the axes next to each other, allowing faster and easier manipulation of the studied object. Thus, one of the main advantages of this device is the possibility to rotate the specimen without the need to refocus. The device enables easily reaching a precession deviation in the intersection point of axes up to 0.5 mm in the process of assembling.

  1. Computer aided manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  2. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  3. Insider dealing and market manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Crha, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    The issue of capital market protection, especially from manipulation with financial instruments' prices and abuse of inside information, forms the content of this diploma thesis. After the legal introduction of market manipulation in EU directives and regulations, which gives manipulation relevant context, there follows the analysis of particular forms of manipulation, which can be used to influence prices of investment instruments. Then, analysis of impact of investment recommendation to sel...

  4. Manipulating structured light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4579 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 10/10/2016 1 Manipulating Structured... The City College of New York, New York, USA 5 July 2016 We are tied together by Structured Light Classical Quantum Resonators TweezingFibres Structured Light 10/10/2016 2 Bright Dark Reference beam Hologram Object Light reflected from object Conventional...

  5. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  6. The Malleability of Possible Selves and Expectations regarding Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Shoshana H.; Gayer, Christopher C.; Clinkinbeard, Tiffanie; Zanjani, Faika; Watkins, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Many people are apprehensive about old age and their future years. This pilot study sought to improve participants' sense of possibility in, and expectations for, old age. Students and middle-aged volunteers completed a survey including the Expectations Regarding Aging 38-item questionnaire (ERA-38) and a possible-selves questionnaire before and…

  7. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life...... expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain...

  8. Bone manipulation procedures in dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Yuvika; Jindal, Govind; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants for the rehabilitation of missing teeth has broadened the treatment options for patients and clinicians equally. As a result of advances in research in implant design, materials, and techniques, the use of dental implants has increased dramatically in the past two decades and is expected to expand further in the future. Success of dental implants depends largely on the quality and quantity of the available bone in the recipient site. This however may be compromised or unavailable due to tumor, trauma, periodontal disease, etc., which in turn necessitates the need for additional bone manipulation. This review outlines the various bone manipulation techniques that are used to achieve a predictable long-term success of dental implants.

  9. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  10. Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunning James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The popping produced during high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA thrust manipulation is a common sound; however to our knowledge, no study has previously investigated the location of cavitation sounds during manipulation of the upper cervical spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during C1-2 rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of pops, the duration of upper cervical thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic participants received two upper cervical thrust manipulations targeting the right and left C1-2 articulation, respectively. Skin mounted microphones were secured bilaterally over the transverse process of C1, and sound wave signals were recorded. Identification of the side, duration, and number of popping sounds were determined by simultaneous analysis of spectrograms with audio feedback using custom software developed in Matlab. Results Bilateral popping sounds were detected in 34 (91.9% of 37 manipulations while unilateral popping sounds were detected in just 3 (8.1% manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (P Conclusions Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur bilaterally than unilaterally during upper cervical HVLA thrust manipulation. Most subjects produced 3–4 pops during a single rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation targeting the right or left C1-2 articulation; therefore, practitioners of spinal manipulative therapy should expect multiple popping sounds when performing upper cervical thrust manipulation to the atlanto-axial joint. Furthermore, the traditional manual therapy approach of targeting a single ipsilateral or contralateral facet joint in the upper cervical spine may not be realistic.

  11. [Language Manipulation, Surrogacy, Altruism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.

  12. Subliminal manipulation of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, M

    1996-01-01

    Subliminal advertising techniques have increased in usage and are commonly accepted, particularly regarding cigarette smoking. Considering the high cost of such subliminal methods, their use can be justified only by tangible results, measured by an increase in cigarette sales. The results of our studies confirm the physiological and psychological effects of subliminal stimulation that have already been reported in the specialized literature. Our research on smoking prevention led us to study the sophisticated advertising strategies used by the tobacco industry. We have shown that revealing the subliminal stimuli-at least the visual ones-is extremely useful for teenagers. The enlightened teenager becomes able to recognize the subliminal manipulation concealed in advertising, and the risk of becoming its victim. Such educational efforts have their merits, particularly at the school level.

  13. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  14. Determining health expectancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robine, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jean-Marie Robine 9 1 Increase in Life Expectancy and Concentration of Ages at Death . . . . France Mesle´ and Jacques Vallin 13 2 Compression of Morbidity...

  15. Humans expect generosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-02-01

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  16. A history of manipulative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettman, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice.

  17. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    implementation, and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can...

  18. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  19. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.

  20. Communicating expectancies about others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.; Semin, Gun R.; Spears, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The linguistic expectancy bias hypothesis predicts that, in general, person impressions are shared with others via subtle differences in the level of linguistic abstraction that is used to communicate expected and unexpected information about an individual. In a two-part communication experiment, we

  1. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstein, Regina

    1980-01-01

    Focused on college students' expectations about marijuana. Undergraduates (N=210) expected marijuana to have sedating effects; they largely discounted psychological consequences. Students considered marijuana to be an educational issue and favored decriminalization of the drug. Users, occasional users, and nonusers differed significantly in…

  2. Expectations in experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.

    2014-01-01

    The rational expectations hypothesis is one of the cornerstones of current economic theorizing. This review discusses a number of experiments that focus on expectation formation by human subjects in a number of learning-to-forecast experiments and analyzes the implications for the rational

  3. A Rational Expectations Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Norris A.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a simple classroom simulation of the Lucas supply curve mechanism with rational expectations. Concludes that the exercise has proved very useful as an introduction to the concepts of rational and adaptive expectations, the Lucas supply curve, the natural rate hypothesis, and random supply shocks. (DB)

  4. Expecting the unexpected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Heath, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural......) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire....... A survey completed by 1,003 residents of wildfire-prone areas in Perth, Australia, revealed that perceived risk (especially risk severity) and perceived protection responsibility were both positively associated with all types of preparedness, but the latter did not significantly predict preparedness after...

  5. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  6. Turning the Question Around: Do Colleges Fail to Meet Students' Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga; Cepa, Kennan A.; Zapata-Gietl, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Research often focuses on how students fail to meet college expectations, but it rarely asks how colleges fail to meet students' expectations. This study examines students' expectations of college and their institutional confidence--their level of certainty that college will meet their expectations. Drawing on 65 pilot interviews and a survey of…

  7. Embryo manipulation and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M A

    1991-09-01

    I have argued that early human embryos are not human beings, and do not have normal rights. Like human sperm and ova, they are both alive and biologically human. However, they lack the physiological development necessary to sustain a capacity for sentience. If Ford is right, then they are not yet individual human organisms. But the more important point is that their lack of a capacity for sentience makes them inappropriate candidates for the ascription of moral rights. Thus, research on human embryos produced in vitro is not a wrong against them--at least so long as experimentally manipulated embryos are not returned to the womb, or artificially gestated to a stage at which they might become sentient. Some of the more difficult issues about embryo experimentation involve the rights of women as experimental subject and donors. The consent of both male and female gamete donors should normally be required for the production or experimental use of IVF embryos. (Possible exceptions might include cases in which one or both progenitors have died, and the survivor or other responsible family member wished to donate the (frozen) IVF embryos for research or other uses.) However, it is women's rights that are most apt to be endangered, for example, if the large scale therapeutic or commercial use of human embryos leads to a demand for large numbers of ova. Thus, it is vital that researchers and policy-makers heed feminist concerns about embryo research and the new biomedical technologies it may yield. Given adequate information and appropriate procedural protections, women are capable of making autonomous decisions about donating ova or embryos for biomedical research. But regulatory safeguards are needed to ensure against their being coerced, deceived, or manipulated into becoming ovum or embryo donors. As Daniel Callahan has detailed, biomedical technology has reached the point where we can no longer afford to provide everyone with all of the innovative therapies that might

  8. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  9. ADVERTISING AND LANGUAGE MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Maria PRELIPCEANU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.

  10. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  11. Cerebrovascular complications of neck manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The safety of spinal manipulation is an issue that demands regular and rigorous assessment, as manipulation of the upper spine has been associated with serious adverse events such as cerebrovascular accidents due to cervical artery dissection. A correlation between stroke and cervical manipulation has been reported with increasing frequency, and each new report seems to reignite debate between neurologists and manual therapists. Specific risk factors for cerebrovascular complications related to spinal manipulation have not been identified yet; for this reason, any patient may be at risk, particularly those below 45 years of age. Patients undergoing spinal manipulative therapy need to consent to the possible risk of stroke or vascular injury from the procedure. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Life Expectancy in 2040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; DuGoff, Eva H; Wu, Albert W.

    2016-01-01

    expectancy at age 20 will increase by approximately one year per decade for females and males between now and 2040. According to the clinical experts, 70% of the improvement in life expectancy will occur in cardiovascular disease and cancer, while in the last 30 years most of the improvement has occurred......We use expert clinical and public health opinion to estimate likely changes in the prevention and treatment of important disease conditions and how they will affect future life expectancy. Focus groups were held including clinical and public health faculty with expertise in the six leading causes...... of death in the United States. Mortality rates and life tables for 2040 were derived by sex and age. Life expectancy at age 20 and 65 was compared to figures published by the Social Security Administration and to estimates from the Lee-Carter method. There was agreement among all three approaches that life...

  13. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  14. Omnidirectional Analysis of Spatial Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Leng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space manipulators are mainly used in the spatial loading task. According to problems of the spatial loading diversity, the testing loading installing position, and the utilization ratio of a test platform, the space manipulator is asked to evaluate the position and attitude of itself. This paper proposes the Point Omnidirectional Coefficient (POC with unit attitude sphere/circle to describe attitude of the end-effector, which evaluates any points in the attainable space of the manipulators, in combination with the manipulation’s position message, and get relationships between its position and attitude of all points in the attainable space. It represents the mapping between sphere surface and plane for mission attitude constraints and the method for calculating volume of points space including attainable space, Omnidirectional space, and mission attitude space. Furthermore, the Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient based on mission or not is proposed for evaluating manipulator performance. Through analysis and simulation about 3D and 2D manipulators, the results show that the above theoretical approach is feasible and the relationships about link lengths, joints angles, attainable space, and Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient are drawn for guiding design.

  15. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  16. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  17. Autonomous Object Manipulation Using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzschmann, Robert K; Marchese, Andrew D; Rus, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multilayer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities.

  18. Perceiver self-presentational goals as moderators of expectancy influences: ingratiation and the disconfirmation of negative expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L; Judice, T N; Virdin, L M; Carrillo, M A

    1993-03-01

    Self-fulfilling prophecy processes enable people to confirm their negative expectancies for others. The perceiver goal of ingratiation was hypothesized to alter this behavioral dynamic and thus lead perceivers to disconfirm their negative expectancies. In an interview setting, we manipulated interviewer Ss' expectancies and interaction goals. As anticipated, "no goal" interviewers were relatively cold and challenging toward their negative-expectancy applicants; as a result, these applicants performed somewhat less favorably, consistent with interviewer expectancies. In contrast, "liking goal" interviewers were relatively warm and unthreatening toward their negative-expectancy applicants; as a result, these applicants performed favorably, disconfirming interviewer expectancies. These data support a framework in which perceiver self-presentation goals are conceptualized to moderate the expectancy-confirmation process.

  19. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    hypothesis. Finally, we use ex-ante spanned subjective beliefs to evaluate several reduced-form and structural models. We find support for heterogeneous beliefs models and also uncover a number of statistically significant relationships in favour of alternative rational expectations models once the effect......This paper studies the properties of bond risk premia in the cross-section of subjective expectations. We exploit an extensive dataset of yield curve forecasts from financial institutions and document a number of novel findings. First, contrary to evidence presented for stock markets but consistent......-primary dealers. Third, we reject the null hypothesis that subjective expected bond returns are constant. When predicting long term rates, however, primary dealers have no information advantage. This suggests that a key source of variation in long-term bonds are risk premia and not short- term rate variation...

  20. Rational Expectations in Games

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Aumann; Jacques H. Dreze

    2008-01-01

    A player i's actions in a game are determined by her beliefs about other players; these depend on the game's real-life context, not only its formal description. Define a game situation as a game together with such beliefs; call the beliefs— and i's resulting expectation—rational if there is common knowledge of rationality and a common prior. In two-person zero-sum games, i's only rational expectation is the game’s value. In an arbitrary game G, we characterize i's rational expectations in ter...

  1. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  2. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  3. Performance expectation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  4. Assessing the impact of image manipulation on users' perceptions of deception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conotter, V.; Dang-Nguyen, D.T.; Boato, G.; Menendez, M.; Larson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Generally, we expect images to be an honest reflection of reality. However, this assumption is undermined by the new image editing technology, which allows for easy manipulation and distortion of digital contents. Our understanding of the implications related to the use of a manipulated data is

  5. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...... Manipulation (AIMM)....

  6. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    dynamics. The consensus is not a sufficient statistics of the cross-section of expectations and we propose an alternative real-time aggregate measure of risk premia consistent with Friedmans market selection hypothesis. We then use this measure to evaluate structural models and find support...

  7. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  8. Maintaining High Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  9. Manipulating the Media for Operational Deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heckman, Scot

    2000-01-01

    .... There are historical examples where the military has manipulated the media for this purpose. Current joint military doctrine does not prohibit manipulation of the media to deceive the enemy but does prohibit propaganda and manipulation of public opinion...

  10. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  11. Life expectancy and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploits the unexpected decline in the death rate from cardiovascular diseases since the 1970s as a large positive health shock that affected predominantly old-age mortality; i.e. the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition. Using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy......, we find that US states with higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease prior to the 1970s experienced greater increases in adult life expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard deviation higher treatment intensity is associated with an increase...... in adult life expectancy of 0.37 years and 0.07–0.15 more years of higher education....

  12. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    statistical learning, causing comparatively sharper key profiles in musicians, we hypothesised that musical learning can be modelled as a process of entropy reduction through experience. Specifically, implicit learning of statistical regularities allows reduction in the relative entropy (i.e. symmetrised...... Kullback-Leibler or Jensen-Shannon Divergence) between listeners’ prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions of a musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians were revisited. In Experiments 1-2 participants...... and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure to novel music. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions, statistical learning over varying timescales enables listeners to generate melodic expectations with reduced entropy...

  13. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  14. Genetic enhancements and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, K

    2009-07-01

    Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements.

  15. Reputation and Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben; Risager, Ole

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the importance of reputation in relation to disinflationary policies in a continuous time ration expectations model, where the private sector has incomplete information about the true preferences of the government. It is proved that there is a unique equilibrium with the important property that the costs of disinflation arise in the start of the game where the policy has not yet gained credibility. Published in connection with a visit at the IIES.

  16. Potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents results of the potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability of REDD+ projects in Ugalla- Masito ecosystem using a case of Ilagala and Karago villages whereby REDD+ is being piloted. Various data collection methods were employed and these included focused group discussion, ...

  17. Modelling and Forecasting Health Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Májer (István)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLife expectancy of a human population measures the expected (or average) remaining years of life at a given age. Life expectancy can be defined by two forms of measurement: the period and the cohort life expectancy. The period life expectancy represents the mortality conditions at a

  18. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  19. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  20. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of non-verbal visual behaviour during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

  1. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  2. Virtual Manipulatives in the K-12 Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Bolyard, Johnna J.; Spikell, Mark A.

    Innovations in technology, along with the growing prevalence of the Internet and its increasing availability in classrooms and homes throughout the world, have created a new class of manipulatives, virtual manipulatives. These "virtual manipulatives" offer a new, enhanced approach for teaching and learning mathematics using manipulatives and…

  3. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  4. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  5. Probability via expectation

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This book is a complete revision of the earlier work Probability which ap­ peared in 1970. While revised so radically and incorporating so much new material as to amount to a new text, it preserves both the aim and the approach of the original. That aim was stated as the provision of a 'first text in probability, de­ manding a reasonable but not extensive knowledge of mathematics, and taking the reader to what one might describe as a good intermediate level'. In doing so it attempted to break away from stereotyped applications, and consider applications of a more novel and significant character. The particular novelty of the approach was that expectation was taken as the prime concept, and the concept of expectation axiomatized rather than that of a probability measure. In the preface to the original text of 1970 (reproduced below, together with that to the Russian edition of 1982) I listed what I saw as the advantages of the approach in as unlaboured a fashion as I could. I also took the view that the text...

  6. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  7. Leadership Manipulation and Ethics in Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Tommi; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Sintonen, Teppo; Tuomo TAKALA

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on exerting influence in leadership, namely manipulation in storytelling. Manipulation is usually considered an unethical approach to leadership. We will argue that manipulation is a more complex phenomenon than just an unethical way of acting in leadership. We will demonstrate through an empirical qualitative study that there are various types of manipulation through storytelling. This article makes a contribution to the literature on manipulation through leadership stor...

  8. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  9. Wave Manipulation by Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    topology optimization can be used to design structures for manipulation of the electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The wave problems considered here fall within three classes. The first class concerns the design of cloaks, which when wrapped around an object will render the object undetectable...

  10. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  11. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  12. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  13. Cognition, action, and object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David A; Chapman, Kate M; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-09-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, little attention has been paid to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain in which links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including 1-hand grasps, 2-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in which the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. The tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' law, naturalistic observation, and the teaching of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  15. How to manipulate the microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, Susana; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. This is a natural process that occurs already at birth;

  16. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  17. A study to determine the effectiveness of chiropractic manipulative therapy and chiropractic manipulative therapy combined with myofascial trigger point therapy in the treatment of chronic mechanical posterior cervical spine pain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Tech. (Chiropractic) This unblinded, controlled pilot study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of chiropractic manipulative therapy with that of a combined therapy involving chiropractic manipulative therapy and myofascial trigger point therapy (dry needling technique and passive stretching), in the treatment of chronic mechanical posterior cervical spine pain. In executing the comparison, it was hypothesised that both treatment protocols would be effective, but that the...

  18. Direct model reference adaptive control of a flexible robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quick, precise control of a flexible manipulator in a space environment is essential for future Space Station repair and satellite servicing. Numerous control algorithms have proven successful in controlling rigid manipulators wih colocated sensors and actuators; however, few have been tested on a flexible manipulator with noncolocated sensors and actuators. In this thesis, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme based on command generator tracker theory is designed for a flexible manipulator. Quicker, more precise tracking results are expected over nonadaptive control laws for this MRAC approach. Equations of motion in modal coordinates are derived for a single-link, flexible manipulator with an actuator at the pinned-end and a sensor at the free end. An MRAC is designed with the objective of controlling the torquing actuator so that the tip position follows a trajectory that is prescribed by the reference model. An appealing feature of this direct MRAC law is that it allows the reference model to have fewer states than the plant itself. Direct adaptive control also adjusts the controller parameters directly with knowledge of only the plant output and input signals.

  19. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  20. [Retinal implants. Patients' expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusseck, H

    2005-10-01

    The "Pro Retina" Society and the "Retina Implant" Foundation, two patients associations with the goal of "preventing blindness," view the "Retina Implant" project as a possibility for providing blind individuals a modicum of restored vision. Both patients associations cultivated a cooperative relationship with researchers and policy makers already during the research phase, introducing the wishes and concerns of patients into considerations and providing information and the groundwork for acceptance in society and among those who may potentially benefit from the method. An initial survey of patients, the visually impaired, and blind people revealed that recovery of sight not only represents a medical and technical problem but that it also involves numerous psychosocial implications. By adhering to ethical standards in implantations, in particular by taking patient autonomy into consideration, anxieties and fears can be reduced. It would appear from early positive results in a short-term clinical study that soon successful chronic retinal implantation can be expected. The dedication displayed by physicians, researchers, and the industry as well as the willingness of the Federal Ministry for Research to take the risk are appreciated and greatfully accepted by the patients and their relatives.

  1. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  2. Sub-Saharan African Students’ Experiences, Perceptions, and Expectations with American Health Services: An Intercultural Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia L. McCalman; Carol M. Madere

    2009-01-01

    Understanding patients‟ cultural expectations could contribute to better health outcomes and decrease cultural health disparities. This qualitative pilot study objective was to explore experiences, perceptions, and expectations of males and females Angolan students as patients in America. Eighteen face-to-face interviews were conducted at a Midwestern university. Burgoon‟s expectancy violation theory (1991) was the theoretical background. Results revealed as positive expectation violations an...

  3. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  4. Virtual manipulatives for learning algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačar, Janja

    2015-01-01

    In the theoretical part of my diploma thesis I define what teaching aids are and classify them. Then I present two research articles about the efficiency of virtual manipulatives in learning mathematics. This is followed by a presentation of Bruner's classification of representations, which is very helpful in teaching new concepts. I also explain various methods of solving linear equations in accordance with the most recent curriculum for mathematics in elementary schools. In the empirical...

  5. Genetic Manipulation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Dillard, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    The sexually-transmitted pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, undergoes natural transformation at high frequency. This property has led to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers and to the panmictic structure of the gonococcal population. However, high frequency transformation also makes N. gonorrhoeae one of the easiest bacterial species to manipulate genetically in the laboratory. Techniques have been developed that result in transformation frequencies >50%, allowing the ident...

  6. List manipulation in Turbo Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Cotelea

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with list processing in Turbo Prolog language. It doesn't claim to be an exhaustive description of operations which can be performed upon lists. Nevertheless adduced programs are most representative, more or less known to specialists in logic programming domain. By means of examples are explained the list manipulation techniques, use of recursion, declarative comparison of predicates, analysis and fixation of acceptable prototypes and some problems of predicates' inconsistency. Index terms. Prolog, list, recursion.

  7. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth......, and that curvature is related to subjective term premium expectations themselves. Finally, an aggregate measure of forecasters' term premium expectations has predictive power for bond excess returns over horizons of up to one year....

  8. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth......, and that curvature is related to subjective term premium expectations themselves. Finally, an aggregate measure of forecasters' term premium expectations has predictive power for bond excess returns over horizons of up to one year....

  9. Social gradient in life expectancy and health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Otto; Kjøller, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels.......Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels....

  10. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  11. A theoretical basis for maintenance spinal manipulative therapy for the chiropractic profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss a theoretical basis for wellness chiropractic manipulative care and to develop a hypothesis for further investigation. A SEARCH OF PUBMED AND OF THE MANUAL, ALTERNATIVE, AND NATURAL THERAPY INDEX SYSTEM WAS PERFORMED WITH A COMBINATION OF KEY WORDS: chiropractic, maintenance and wellness care, maintenance manipulative care, preventive spinal manipulation, hypomobility, immobility, adhesions, joint degeneration, and neuronal degeneration. Articles were collected, and trends were identified. The search revealed surveys of doctors and patients, an initial clinical pilot study, randomized control trials, and laboratory studies that provided correlative information to provide a framework for development of a hypothesis for the basis of maintenance spinal manipulative therapy. Maintenance care optimizes the levels of function and provides a process of achieving the best possible health. It is proposed that this may be accomplished by including chiropractic manipulative therapy in addition to exercise therapy, diet and nutritional counseling, and lifestyle coaching. It is hypothesized that because spinal manipulative therapy brings a joint to the end of the paraphysiological joint space to encourage normal range of motion, routine manipulation of asymptomatic patients may retard the progression of joint degeneration, neuronal changes, changes in muscular strength, and recruitment patterns, which may result in improved function, decreased episodes of injuries, and improved sense of well-being.

  12. Familiarity changes expectations about fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Alexander, Erin

    2010-06-01

    Expected satiation (the extent to which a food is expected to deliver fullness) is an excellent predictor of self-selected portion size (kcal). Here, we explored the prospect that expected satiation changes over time. Fifty-eight participants evaluated expected satiation in eight test foods (including two 'candidate' foods: sushi and muesli) and reported how often they consumed each food. In one of the candidate foods (sushi), and across other test foods, expected satiation increased with familiarity. Together, these findings are considered in the context of 'satiation drift' - the hypothesis that foods are expected to deliver poor satiation until experience teaches us otherwise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tools for Manipulation and Characterisation of Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Bøggild, Peter

    grippers, which were then successfully used for pick-and-place manipulation of silicon nanowires. For increased gripping force and control over the manipulation process, microfabricated grippers with integrated force-feedback were also demonstrated. Environmental electron beam deposition (EEBD...

  14. Manipulation in the enrollment of research participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandava, Amulya; Millum, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Researchers can design recruitment and consent processes so that potential participants are more likely to decide to enroll. These strategies work by subtly manipulating the participants. But how much manipulation is acceptable?

  15. Altering gender role expectations: effects on pain tolerance, pain threshold, and pain ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Gagnon, Christine M; Riley, Joseph L; Price, Donald D

    2003-06-01

    The literature demonstrating sex differences in pain is sizable. Most explanations for these differences have focused on biologic mechanisms, and only a few studies have examined social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of gender-role stereotypes to sex differences in pain. This study used experimental manipulation of gender-role expectations for men and women. One hundred twenty students participated in the cold pressor task. Before the pain task, participants were given 1 of 3 instructional sets: no expectation, 30-second performance expectation, or a 90-second performance expectation. Pain ratings, threshold, and tolerance were recorded. Significant sex differences in the "no expectation" condition for pain tolerance (t = 2.32, df = 38, P gender-specific tolerance expectations, men and women did not differ in their pain tolerance, pain threshold, or pain ratings. This is the first empirical study to show that manipulation of expectations alters sex differences in laboratory pain.

  16. Manipulative therapies for infantile colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Dawn; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Miller, Joyce J; Vlieger, Arine M; Prescott, Philip; Lewith, George

    2012-12-12

    Infantile colic is a common disorder, affecting around one in six families, and in 2001 was reported to cost the UK National Health Service in excess of £65 million per year (Morris 2001). Although it usually remits by six months of age, there is some evidence of longer-term sequelae for both children and parents.Manipulative therapies, such as chiropractic and osteopathy, have been suggested as interventions to reduce the severity of symptoms. To evaluate the results of studies designed to address efficacy or effectiveness of manipulative therapies (specifically, chiropractic, osteopathy and cranial manipulation) for infantile colic in infants less than six months of age. We searched following databases: CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to April Week 3 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 17), CINAHL (1938 to April 2012), PsycINFO (1806 to April 2012), Science Citation Index (1970 to April 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to April 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (1990 to April 2012) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (1970 to April 2012). We also searched all available years of LILACS, PEDro, ZETOC, WorldCat, TROVE, DART-Europe, ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP (May 2012), and contacted over 90 chiropractic and osteopathic institutions around the world. In addition, we searched CentreWatch, NRR Archive and UKCRN in December 2010. Randomised trials evaluating the effect of chiropractic, osteopathy or cranial osteopathy alone or in conjunction with other interventions for the treatment of infantile colic. In pairs, five of the review authors (a) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, (b) extracted data from the included studies and (c) assessed the risk of bias for all included studies. Each article or study was assessed independently by two review authors. One review author entered the data into Review Manager software and the team's statistician (PP) reviewed the

  17. Optoelectrofluidic Manipulation of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyundoo Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optoelectrofluidic technologies for manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules. Optoelectrofluidics provides an elegant scheme for the programmable manipulation of particles or fluids in microenvironments based on optically induced electrokinetics. Recent progress on the optoelectrofluidic manipulation of nanoobjects, which include nanospheres, nanowires, nanotubes, and biomolecules, is introduced. Some potential applications of the optoelectrofluidic nanoparticle manipulation, such as nanoparticles separation, nanostructures manufacturing, molecular physics, and clinical diagnostics, and their future directions are also discussed.

  18. Manipulative therapy (Feldenkrais, massage, chiropractic manipulation) for neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastaras, Christopher; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan

    2013-07-01

    Neck pain is an extremely common symptom with many possible etiologies. A substantial number of patients are turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Low-quality evidence supports the beneficial effects of CAM. Feldenkrais, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation are discussed in detail. Complications are generally benign and self-limited, although occasional catastrophic consequences have been documented. Despite the favorable opinion many rheumatologists have of some CAM therapy, many patients are not disclosing CAM use to their medical providers. By expressing interest, asking questions, and taking a shared-decision-making approach, providers can encourage disclosure and provide valuable input.

  19. Formation of Rationally Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper models expectation formation by taking into account that agents produce heterogeneous expectations due to model uncertainty, informational frictions and different capacities for processing information. We show that there are two general classes of steady states within this

  20. An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forero, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. PERSONALITY QUALITIES ENHANCING ITS SECURITY AGAINST MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Sheinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the extent of the problem of an individual being unprotected from the manipulation and its harm. No one is fully immune to manipulation and everyone can become a victim of manipulative actions. It is demonstrated that manipulative relationships have taken roots in modern society and there is a tendency for a wider spread. 92-95% respondents who have had negative state of mind resulting from being manipulated would like to learn how to protect themselves from manipulation. It is established that if individuals are focussed on themselves, they are less prone to being manipulated; if individuals are focussed on relationship they are more likely to be subject to manipulation. The personal characteristics helping to be immune to manipulation are shown, i.e. a rather high social intellect of an individual, their independence from people’s opinions, low levels of trust and inquisitive minds. It is shown that 1 females are better protected from manipulation than males; 2 the degree of protection against manipulation does not depend on the person’s age and the degree of machiavellism of their personality; 3 the individuals’ assertiveness helps to protect themselves from manipulation. The representation level of this research and its results are guaranted by the number of participants (552 respondents and the wide social representation: firemen, university teachers and students, military cadets, psychologists, retail employees.

  2. Effects of Aluminium in Forest. Results of a pilot experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, J.; Wit, H. de; Nygaard, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This conference paper deals with an Norwegian pilot project which started in 1995 and finishing early 1999, investigates the solubility and phyto-toxicity of aluminium (Al) in mature forest ecosystems. The project consists of three major parts, including field manipulation study of Norwegian spruce stands, laboratory experiments and modelling Al chemistry in the root zone. 15 refs.

  3. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eSiller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT, in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate, and reaction times. The participants (n=154 were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full or without replacement (pseudo and were either presented category-wise (cat or regardless of categories (nocat. To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment.

  4. Transfer pricing manipulation, tax penalty cost and the impact of foreign profit taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Rathke, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the optimal level of transfer pricing manipulation when the expected tax penalty is a function of the tax enforcement and the market price parameter, and the multinational enterprise is subjected to distinct rules of foreign profit taxation. The application of the arm’s length principle implies the existence of a range of acceptable prices shaped by market, which influences the probability of tax penalization. It suggests that firms are able to manipulate transfer prices m...

  5. Processing expectancy violations during music performance and perception: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidhof, Clemens; Vavatzanidis, Niki; Prinz, Wolfgang; Rieger, Martina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Musicians are highly trained motor experts with pronounced associations between musical actions and the corresponding auditory effects. However, the importance of auditory feedback for music performance is controversial, and it is unknown how feedback during music performance is processed. The present study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory feedback manipulations in pianists. To disentangle effects of action-based and perception-based expectations, we compared feedback manipulations during performance to the mere perception of the same stimulus material. In two experiments, pianists performed bimanually sequences on a piano, while at random positions, the auditory feedback of single notes was manipulated, thereby creating a mismatch between an expected and actually perceived action effect (action condition). In addition, pianists listened to tone sequences containing the same manipulations (perception condition). The manipulations in the perception condition were either task-relevant (Experiment 1) or task-irrelevant (Experiment 2). In action and perception conditions, event-related potentials elicited by manipulated tones showed an early fronto-central negativity around 200 msec, presumably reflecting a feedback ERN/N200, followed by a positive deflection (P3a). The early negativity was more pronounced during the action compared to the perception condition. This shows that during performance, the intention to produce specific auditory effects leads to stronger expectancies than the expectancies built up during music perception.

  6. Expectations on Track? High School Tracking and Adolescent Educational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms...... of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents’ expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across...

  7. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  8. Survey based investigation into general practitioner referral patterns for spinal manipulative therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kier, Annabel; George, Matthew; McCarthy, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Background In the UK Physiotherapy, Chiropractic and Osteopathy are all statutory regulated professions. Though guidelines have supported the use of Spinal Manipulative Therapy (SMT) for low back pain (LBP), General Practitioners (GP) referral patterns to the 3 registered professions that perform SMT are generally unknown. Method A short questionnaire was designed and piloted. Demographic information, patient referral to SMT and the GPs own personal utilisation of SMT were obtained. 385 GP?s ...

  9. Expectations and Experiences of Information Literacy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saga Pohjola-Ahlin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2016, 48 third semester undergraduate students enrolled in the physiotherapy program at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden were given three sets of questionnaires; before the information literacy instruction (ILI started, at the end of the first session, and a week after, at the end of the second and last session. The aim of this small-scale pilot study was to shed some light on students’ motivation to attend ILI, how they value the sessions afterwards and how they assess their learning outcome. Furthermore, it was an attempt to do a "students’ user experience study” in a pedagogical setting, with the intention to evaluate and improve teaching in ILI to meet student expectations. The average response rate for the three questionnaires was 92%. The results show that students’ expectations were similar to the actual content of ILI, and that the students were satisfied with their own learning outcome. Both motivation and the sense of relevance got higher scores after students attended ILI. Motivation rose from 7,4 to 8,12 out of 10. This is positive because a high level of motivation often improves the learning outcome (Schunk, 2012. When asked which areas most needed improvement in order to further enhance their learning outcome, the most common responses were “the pedagogy” and “my own achievement”. It would be interesting to start collaborating with a group of students in order to explore new methods and learning activities.

  10. Humboldt SK pilot biodigester receives funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-09-30

    The Canada-Saskatchewan Western Economic Partnership Agreement (WEPA) will provide funding for Canada's first pilot-scale biodigester to be built in Humboldt, Saskatchewan. The $208,138 pilot facility will use household garbage as well as agricultural waste such as manure and livestock operations, abattoirs and food processing to create heat or power and fertilizer. Support for this bio-energy facility, which could also reduce greenhouse gases, will come from the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute which has received $186,138 from Canada and Saskatchewan in the form of cost-shared federal-provincial funding. The pilot plant will test different combinations of waste material feedstocks and the characteristics of the resulting gas end products. The pilot facility will also provide design information for full-scale biodigester manufacturers in Canada. It is expected that 25 full-scale biodigesters will be constructed in Canada in the near future.

  11. Affect and exercise: positive affective expectations can increase post-exercise mood and exercise intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Suzanne G; Elhai, Jon D; Geers, Andrew L

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has found affect to predict exercise. Little research has examined the causal influence of exercise-related affect on exercise intentions. The purpose of this study was to test whether expectations about post-exercise affect can be successfully manipulated to produce changes in post-exercise affect and exercise intentions. We also tested whether cognitively elaborating on the expectation would increase the duration of the expectation effect. Participants (59 men, 89 women) were exposed to an affective expectation manipulation as well as an elaboration manipulation and then completed 10 min of light-intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle in the laboratory. Participants also completed a 2-week follow-up. Affective expectation participants displayed more positive post-exercise affect and exercise intentions than no-expectation participants (ps positive post-exercise affect during the follow-up than the no-elaboration participants (p positive post-exercise affect can be experimentally manipulated to increase exercise-related feelings and intentions. The duration of this effect increases when individuals cognitively elaborate on the expectation.

  12. Opposing effects of expectancy and somatic focus on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie E Johnston

    Full Text Available High-pain expectancy increases pain and pain-related brain activity, creating a cycle of psychologically maintained pain. Though these effects are robust, little is known about how expectancy works and what psychological processes either support or mitigate its effects. To address this, we independently manipulated pain expectancy and "top-down" attention to the body, and examined their effects on both a performance-based measure of body-focus and heat-induced pain. Multi-level mediation analyses showed that high-pain expectancy substantially increased pain, replicating previous work. However, attention to the body reduced pain, partially suppressing the effects of expectancy. Furthermore, increased body-focus had larger pain-reducing effects when pain expectancy was high, suggesting that attempts to focus on external distractors are counterproductive in this situation. Overall, the results show that attention to the body cannot explain pain-enhancing expectancy effects, and that focusing on sensory/discriminative aspects of pain might be a useful pain-regulation strategy when severe pain is expected.

  13. Scanning-aperture trapping and manipulation of single charged nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae Kim, Ji; Spindler, Susann; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2014-03-01

    Although trapping and manipulation of small objects have been of interest for a range of applications and many clever techniques have been devised, new methods are still in great demand for handling different materials and geometries. Here, we report on an electrostatic trap that is created in an aqueous medium between the aperture of a nanopipette and a glass substrate without the need for external potentials. After a thorough characterization of the trapping conditions, we show that we can displace or release a particle at will. Furthermore, we demonstrate trapping and manipulation of nanoparticles and lipid vesicles attached to lipid bilayers, paving the way for controlled studies of forces and diffusion associated with biological membranes. We expect the technique to find interesting applications also in other areas such as optonanofluidics and plasmonics.

  14. Airspace Technology Demonstration 2 (ATD-2): ATD-2 CLT Pilot Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Al; Hooey, Becky

    2017-01-01

    The Airspace Technology Demonstration 2 (ATD-2) project conducted a pilot community workshop at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) in Charlotte, North Carolina. The goal was to familiarize pilots with the ATD-2 project, with an emphasis on procedures that may affect pilots during the Phase 1 Field Demonstration (beginning September 30, 2017). At this workshop, the high-level goals and objectives of ATD-2, expected benefits for pilots, changes to procedures, training requirements, and data sharing elements were presented.

  15. Gompertz-Makeham Life Expectancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, Trifon I.; Lenart, Adam; Vaupel, James W.

    We study the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham mortality models. We prove that the resulting life expectancy can be expressed in terms of a hypergeometric function if the population is heterogeneous with gamma-distributed individual frailty, or an incomplete gamma function if the study population...... is homogeneous. We use the properties of hypergeometric and incomplete gamma functions to construct approximations that allow calculating the respective life expectancy with high accuracy and interpreting the impact of model parameters on life expectancy....

  16. Parents' expectations regarding their children's eye care: interview results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Aerlyn G; Freedman, Sharon F; Lee, Paul P; Enyedi, Laura B

    2003-11-01

    To determine a relevant set of concerns that parents express as expectations regarding their children's eye care. Qualitative, cross-sectional, pilot study. A total of 48 interviews were conducted with parents of pediatric ophthalmology patients at Duke University Eye Center and the McGovern Davidson Children's Health Center at Duke University to elicit parents' expectations regarding their children's eye care. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for parent expectations. Content analysis of transcripts from the 48 interviews yielded 35 different expectation areas for eye care, which were further classified into six groups: (1) Communication, (2) Interpersonal Manner, (3) Doctor's Skill, (4) Examination and Testing, (5) Logistics, and (6) Other. The six expectation areas most frequently identified by parents as the single "most important" expectation were the following: (1) Clinical Competence, (2) Interaction with Child, (3) Education/Training, (4) Explanation in Clear Language, (5) Information about Diagnosis, and (6) Personal Connection. Parents of pediatric ophthalmology patients expressed expectation areas in the Communication group more frequently than any other group. However, when asked to identify their single most important expectation area, more than half of parents identified Clinical Competence.

  17. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    at all ages, and the second term captures the effect of heterogeneity in the pace of improvement in mortality at different ages. We extend the formula to decompose change in life expectancy into age-specific and cause-specific components, and apply the methods to analyze changes in life expectancy......We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...

  18. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  19. Ion manipulation method and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.

    2017-11-07

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  20. Microbiota manipulation for weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Tal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Dubourg, Grégory; Paul, Mical

    2017-05-01

    Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota has been linked to weight changes and obesity. To explore the influence of specific agents that alter the intestinal flora on weight in different patient groups we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics on weight. We searched the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases for trials on adults, children, and infants evaluating the effects of these substances on weight. Our primary outcome was weight change from baseline. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We identified and included 13 adult, 17 children, and 23 infant RCTs. Effects were opposite among adults and children, showing weight loss among adults (SMD -0.54 [-0.83, -0.25)) and minor weight gains among children (SMD 0.20 [0.04, 0.36]) and infants (SMD 0.30 [-0.01, 0.62]) taking mainly Lactobacillus probiotic supplements. Heterogeneity was substantial in the adult and infant analyses and could not be explained by intervention or patient characteristics. Azithromycin administration in children with pulmonary disease was associated with weight gain (SMD 0.39 [0.24, 0.54]), without heterogeneity. A high risk of selective reporting and attrition bias was detected across the studies, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Overall, our meta-analysis suggests that there may be a role for probiotics in promoting weight loss in adults and weight gain in children, however additional studies are needed. Though we cannot recommend antibiotic administration for weight manipulation, its use provides advantageous weight gain in children with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plans and RFAs Grant Recipients Grant ... Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plan and RFAs Education Campaigns and ...

  2. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plans and RFAs Grant Recipients Grant ... Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plan and RFAs Education Campaigns and ...

  3. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Grants Clinical Research Awards Clinical Research Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention ... Grants Clinical Research Awards Clinical Research Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention ...

  4. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plans and RFAs Grant Recipients Grant Submission ... Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plan and RFAs Education Campaigns and Treatment ...

  5. Fiscal Consolidations and Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Lustenhouwer, J.; Mavromatis, K.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze fiscal consolidations using a New Keynesian model where agents have heterogeneous expectations and are uncertain about the composition of consoidations. Heterogeneity in expectations may amplify expansions, stabilizing thus the debt-to-GDP ratio faster under tax based consolidations, in

  6. Intraspecific variability in host manipulation by parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, F; Brodeur, J; Maure, F.; De Franceschi, N.; Blanchet, S.; Rigaud, T.

    2011-01-01

    Manipulative parasites have the capacity to alter a broad range of phenotypic traits in their hosts, extending from colour, morphology and behaviour. While significant attention has been devoted to describing the diversity of host manipulation among parasite clades, and testing the adaptive value of phenotypic traits that can be manipulated, there is increasing evidence that variation exists in the frequency and intensity of the changes displayed by parasitized individuals within single host-...

  7. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    adaptive neural network control. Results demonstrated the benefits of an accurate model in model-based control, and the advantages of adaptive neural network control when a model is unavailable or variations in payload are expected. Lastly, a variable recruitment strategy was applied to a group of parallel muscles actuating a common joint. Increased manipulator efficiency was observed when fewer PAMs were activated, justifying the use of variable recruitment strategies. Overall, this research demonstrates the benefits of pneumatic artificial muscles as actuators in robotics applications. It demonstrates that PAM-based manipulators can be well-modeled and can achieve high tracking accuracy over a wide range of payloads and inputs while maintaining natural compliance.

  8. Computer simulation of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Zipf, Mark E.; Kucuk, Senol

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to develop a computerized adaptive pilot model for the computer model of the research aircraft, the Harrier II AV-8B V/STOL with special emphasis on propulsion control. In fact, two versions of the adaptive pilot are given. The first, simply called the Adaptive Control Model (ACM) of a pilot includes a parameter estimation algorithm for the parameters of the aircraft and an adaption scheme based on the root locus of the poles of the pilot controlled aircraft. The second, called the Optimal Control Model of the pilot (OCM), includes an adaption algorithm and an optimal control algorithm. These computer simulations were developed as a part of the ongoing research program in pilot model simulation supported by NASA Lewis from April 1, 1985 to August 30, 1986 under NASA Grant NAG 3-606 and from September 1, 1986 through November 30, 1988 under NASA Grant NAG 3-729. Once installed, these pilot models permitted the computer simulation of the pilot model to close all of the control loops normally closed by a pilot actually manipulating the control variables. The current version of this has permitted a baseline comparison of various qualitative and quantitative performance indices for propulsion control, the control loops and the work load on the pilot. Actual data for an aircraft flown by a human pilot furnished by NASA was compared to the outputs furnished by the computerized pilot and found to be favorable.

  9. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Heiser, Aron T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a system supporting remote collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. To be accepted by users, the shared nanoManipulator application had to have the same high...... level of interactivity as the single user system and the application had to support a user's ability to interleave working privately and working collaboratively. This paper briefly describes the entire collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator application. Based on our experience...

  10. Neural correlates of rhythmic expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P. Zanto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal expectancy is thought to play a fundamental role in the perception of rhythm. This review summarizes recent studies that investigated rhythmic expectancy by recording neuroelectric activity with high temporal resolution during the presentation of rhythmic patterns. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP studies have uncovered auditory evoked responses that reflect detection of onsets, offsets, sustains,and abrupt changes in acoustic properties such as frequency, intensity, and spectrum, in addition to indexing higher-order processes such as auditory sensory memory and the violation of expectancy. In our studies of rhythmic expectancy, we measured emitted responses - a type of ERP that occurs when an expected event is omitted from a regular series of stimulus events - in simple rhythms with temporal structures typical of music. Our observations suggest that middle-latency gamma band (20-60 Hz activity (GBA plays an essential role in auditory rhythm processing. Evoked (phase-locked GBA occurs in the presence of physically presented auditory events and reflects the degree of accent. Induced (non-phase-locked GBA reflects temporally precise expectancies for strongly and weakly accented events in sound patterns. Thus far, these findings support theories of rhythm perception that posit temporal expectancies generated by active neural processes.

  11. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  12. Predictors of outcome after manipulation under anaesthesia in patients with a stiff total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlommel, L; Luyckx, T; Vercruysse, G; Bellemans, J; Vandenneucker, H

    2017-11-01

    Flexion in a stiff total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be improved by manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA). Although this intervention usually results in an improvement in range of motion, the expected result is not always achieved. The purpose of this study is to determine which factors affect range of motion after manipulation in patients with a stiff total knee. After exclusion (n = 22), the data of 158 patients (138 knees) with a stiff knee after TKA who received a manipulation under anaesthesia between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Pre-, peri- and post-operative variables were identified and examined for their influence on flexion after the manipulation using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlations. After MUA, a mean improvement in flexion of 30.3° was observed at the final follow-up. Preoperative TKA flexion, design of TKA and interval between TKA procedure and MUA were positive associated with an increase in flexion after MUA. MUA performed 12 weeks or more after TKA procedure deteriorated the outcome. Three factors, pre-TKA flexion type of prosthesis and interval between TKA procedure and manipulation under anaesthesia, were found to have impact on flexion after TKA and MUA were identified. Results are expected to be inferior in patients with low flexion before TKA procedure or with a long interval (>12 weeks) between the TKA procedure and the manipulation under anaesthesia. IV.

  13. Rational Expectations and Economic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffrin, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Examines how rational expectation models can help describe and predict trends within an economy and explains research needs within the discipline of economics which will enable economists to make more valid predictions. (DB)

  14. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... calculated remaining life expectancies for values of age 15, 25, 35 ⃛ 75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. RESULTS: For the typical male or female patient aged 25 to 45 years, the remaining life expectancy was decreased by 12.0-8.7 years and 10.6-8.3 years, respectively. The ratio between...

  15. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  16. Genetic manipulation system in propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpapan, Pornpimon; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2002-01-01

    Members of the genus Propionibacterium are widely used in the production of vitamin B12, tetrapyrrole compounds, and propionic acid as well as in probiotic and cheese industries. Shuttle vectors were developed in propionibacteria using replicons from endogenous plasmids in Propionibacterium and Escherichia coli and an appropriate selection marker. The efficient transformation was achieved using the shuttle vector prepared from Propionibacterium freudenreichii to overcome the high restriction modification system in propionibacteria. Expression vectors with native promoters for use in propionibacteria were also developed. Using this system, cholesterol oxidase, which is used as a diagnostic enzyme, was produced in P. freudenreichii. Genes involved in 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and vitamin B12 biosynthesis in propionibacteria were isolated. ALA in propionibacteria could be synthesized via both the C4 pathway (condensation of glycine and succinyl CoA) and the C5 pathway (from glutamate). The hemA gene encoding ALA synthase from Rhodobacter spheroides, was overexpressed and ALA accumulated in P. freudenreichii. Thus, the genetic manipulation systems in propionibacteria will facilitate genetic studies of probiotics and the vitamin B12 biosynthetic pathway.

  17. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin; Umran Dal; Gulsen Vural

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Servic...

  18. Rational Expectation Can Preclude Trades

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuhisa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Ryuichiro

    2003-01-01

    We consider a pure exchange economy under uncertainty in which the traders have the non-partition structure of information. They willing to trade the amounts of state-contingent commodities and they know their own expectations. Common knowledge of these conditions among all the traders can preclude trade if the initial endowments allocation is ex-ante Pareto optimal. Furthermore we introduce rational expectations equilibrium under the non-partition information, and prove the existence theorem...

  19. Rational Expectations: Retrospect and Prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Kevin; Young, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The transcript of a panel discussion marking the fiftieth anniversary of John Muth's "Rational Expectations and the Theory of Price Movements" (Econometrica 1961). The panel consists of Michael Lovell, Robert Lucas, Dale Mortensen, Robert Shiller, and Neil Wallace. The discussion is moderated by Kevin Hoover and Warren Young. The panel touches on a wide variety of issues related to the rational-expectations hypothesis, including: its history, starting with Muth's work at Carnegie Tech; its me...

  20. Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Miller, Jordan; D'Sylva, Jonathan; Burnie, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Manipulation and mobilisation are often used, either alone or combined with other treatment approaches, to treat neck pain. Objectives To assess if manipulation or mobilisation improves pain, function/disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and global perceived effect in adults

  1. Manipulation performance in interactive virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.J.; Groen, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied manipulation performance in virtual environments using two types of controllers: virtual hand control and 3D mouse-cursor control. These manipulation methods were tested under monoscopic and stereoscopic viewing conditions. Participants were asked to discriminate, grasp, pitch, roll

  2. Count on It: Congruent Manipulative Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Joe; Samelson, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    Representations that create informative visual displays are powerful tools for communicating mathematical concepts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics encourages the use of manipulatives (NCTM 2000). Manipulative materials are often used to present initial representations of basic numerical principles to young children, and it is…

  3. Design of an environmentally interactive continuum manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.L.; Matsuura, D.; Takeda, Y; Herder, J.L.; Chang, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Continuum manipulators are high degree of freedom structures that can use their increased degrees of freedom to navigate through an environment with obstacles. This type of manipulator is underactuated, which make them promising for adapting to their environments. However, current research is mainly

  4. Spinal manipulative therapy in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, S

    1986-04-01

    Spinal manipulation or manual therapy is becoming an increasingly popular method of treating athletes with spinal problems. The primary theoretic basis for the claimed beneficial results of manipulation is the restoration of motion with subsequent effect on ligamentous adhesions, muscle spasm, disk nutrition, and central nervous system endorphin systems. The concept of joint barriers has been developed to differentiate among exercise therapy, mobilization, and manipulation. Research trials suggest that spinal manipulation is beneficial in relieving or reducing the duration of acute low back pain and acute neck pain but has much less effect on chronic low back pain and neck pain. There is evidence that manipulation increases certain parameters of motion of the spine but this evidence is not yet conclusive. There are a wide variety of manipulative procedures that are utilized to manipulate the spine to increase range of motion, and the selection of the procedures is based on manual diagnostic skills. Manipulation, however, is not a benign procedure and has been implicated in the aggravation of disk herniation or bony fractures as well as the precipitation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion.

  5. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment to Manage Ophthalmic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Tatyana; Qureshi, Yasmin; Bach, Austin

    2017-09-01

    Although there is little evidence-based literature regarding osteopathic manipulative treatment for ophthalmic conditions, the general principles and techniques of osteopathic manipulative medicine can be used to manage various ophthalmic pathologic conditions. Additional research to support these treatment options and evaluate the role of OMT as a potential conservative treatment option used by ophthalmologists is needed.

  6. Recursive Linearization Of Dynamical Models Of Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriquez, Guillermo

    1993-01-01

    Report shows how spatial-operator algebra developed by authors used to derive linearized mathematical models of dynamics of robotic manipulators. Aspects of spatial-operator algebra also described in "Robot Control Based On Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918), "Unified Formulation Of Dynamics Of Robot Arms" (NPO-18040), and "Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators" (NPO-17770).

  7. Particle manipulation methods in droplet microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Fornell, Anna; Ohlin, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan

    2017-11-30

    This Feature article describes the different particle manipulation techniques available in the droplet microfluidics tool-box to handle particles encapsulated inside droplets and to manipulate whole droplets. We address the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques to guide new users.

  8. Outcome manipulation in corporate prediction markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for applying prediction markets to corporate decision-making. The analysis is motivated by the recent surge of interest in markets as information aggregation devices and their potential use within firms. We characterize the amount of outcome manipulation that results...... in equilibrium and the impact of this manipulation on market prices...

  9. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-08-01

    Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we calculated remaining life expectancies for values of age 15, 25, 35 ⃛ 75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. For the typical male or female patient aged 25 to 45 years, the remaining life expectancy was decreased by 12.0-8.7 years and 10.6-8.3 years, respectively. The ratio between remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously reported. Patients start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Surgical manipulators in ear surgery: a future vision?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, M; Dietz, A; Strauss, G

    2011-04-01

    Middle ear surgery bears a high risk for injury of difficult to differentiate risk structures. Thus, a precise preparation in this area must be the surgical task. However, there are human (tremor) and systematic limitations (OR setup, narrow access). Assistance systems in terms of manipulators are so far not part of the clinical routine. Although, they could compensate for the above mentioned limitations. MANIPULATORS: This work reviews existing surgical manipulator systems. The expected value is an elevated patient safety through improving surgical accuracy and the reduction of ergonomic deficits. CLINICAL APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT: In clinical application there are simply modified industrial robots, highly complex master slave systems and small miniature master slave systems which are directly located at the patient. A disadvantage of most systems is the limited number of applicable instruments. Often, only especially designed instruments can be used. The goal in development should be to create a compact, short distance operated master slave system. The usability of standard (already available) instruments with an easy integration into the surgical and sterilisation procedure would lower the threshold for acceptance of such systems.The surgeon will remain the key player. He can only work efficiently in an ergonomic environment and will always have the responsibility for the intervention. From the authors perspective, highly automated systems should not be the research goal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    Many optical design technical books are available for many years which mainly deal with image optics design based on geometric optics and using sequential raytracing technique. Some books slightly touched laser beam manipulation optics design. On the other hand many books on laser diodes have been published that extensively deal with laser diode physics with little touching on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. There are some internet resources dealing with laser diode beams. However, these internet resources have not covered enough materials with enough details on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. A technical book concentrated on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations can fit in to the open and provide useful information to laser diode users. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and  Characterizations is concentrated on the very practical side of the subject, it only discusses the basic physics and mathematics that are necessary for the readers in order...

  12. Characterisation of optically driven microstructures for manipulating single DNA molecules under a fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Kyohei; Masuda, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryo; Gel, Murat; Oana, Hidehiro; Washizu, Masao; Suzuki, Takaaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Shimokawa, Fusao; Oohira, Fumikazu

    2016-06-01

    Optical tweezers are powerful tools for manipulating single DNA molecules using fluorescence microscopy, particularly in nanotechnology-based DNA analysis. We previously proposed a manipulation technique using microstructures driven by optical tweezers that allows the handling of single giant DNA molecules of millimetre length that cannot be manipulated by conventional techniques. To further develop this technique, the authors characterised the microstructures quantitatively from the view point of fabrication and efficiency of DNA manipulation under a fluorescence microscope. The success rate and precision of the fabrications were evaluated. The results indicate that the microstructures are obtained in an aqueous solution with a precision ∼50 nm at concentrations in the order of 10(6) particles/ml. The visibility of these microstructures under a fluorescence microscope was also characterised, along with the elucidation of the fabrication parameters needed to fine tune visibility. Manipulating yeast chromosomal DNA molecules with the microstructures illustrated the relationship between the efficiency of manipulation and the geometrical shape of the microstructure. This report provides the guidelines for designing microstructures used in single DNA molecule analysis based on on-site DNA manipulation, and is expected to broaden the applications of this technique in the future.

  13. A Study of Distance of Manipulation on the Responsive Workbench

    OpenAIRE

    Paljic, Alexis; Coquillart, Sabine; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Richard, Paul

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Virtual environments such as the Responsive Workbench allow the close manipulation of virtual objects. We define close manipulation as either direct manipulation or manipulation at a relatively small distance. This paper reports on two studies on close manipulation using the Responsive Workbench. The first study investigates the influence of manipulation distance on performance in a 3D location task. The results indicate that direct manipulation and 20 cm distance mani...

  14. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  15. Dynamics and Manipulation of Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liufei

    This thesis presents my work on the spin dynamics of nanomagnets and investigates the possibility of manipulating nanomagnets by various means. Most of the work has been published. Some has been submitted for publication. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 1, I present the theory of manipulation of a nanomagnet by rotating ac fields whose frequency is time dependent. Theory has been developed that maps the problem onto Landau-Zener problem. For the linear frequency sweep the switching phase diagrams are obtained on the amplitude of the ac field and the frequency sweep rate. Switching conditions have been obtained numerically and analytically. For the nonlinear frequency sweep, the optimal time dependence of the frequency is obtained analytically with account of damping that gives the fastest controllable switching of the magnetization. In Chapter 2, interaction between a nanomagnet and a Josephson junction has been studied. The I-V curve of the Josephson junction in the proximity of a nanomagnet shows Shapiro-like steps due to the ac field generated by the precessing magnetic moment. Possibility of switching of the magnetic moment by a time-linear voltage in the Josephson junction is demonstrated. Realization of the optimal switching is suggested that employs two perpendicular Josephson junctions with time-dependent voltage signals. The result is shown to be robust against voltage noises. Quantum-mechanical coupling between the nanomagnet considered as a two-level system and a Josephson junction has been studied and quantum oscillations of the populations of the spin states have been computed. In Chapter 3, the switching dynamics of a nanomagnet embedded in a torsional oscillator that serves as a conducting wire for a spin current has been investigated. Generalized Slonczewski's equation is derived. The coupling of the nanomagnet, the torsional oscillator and the spin current generates a number of interesting phenomena. The mechanically

  16. CLIENT EXPECTATION FROM RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY DESIGN SERVICES AND ARCHITECTS’ PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUWATAYO Adedapo Adewunmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies exist on the expectations of clients from architects. There are however, anecdotal evidences that architects may not fully grasp what is most important to their clients. As a pilot study, the aim of this paper was to investigate the expectations of clients from residential design services and architects’ perceptions of those expectations. A questionnaire was designed to suit the purpose of comparison of responses of the two groups.  The factor analysis conducted revealed that the expectations from design services could be described in terms of value, professionalism, and empathy. Using mean gap analysis, the study identified areas where architects have under-estimated the expectations of clients as well as those areas where the expectations have been over-estimated. The results would help architects to focus on areas, which are important to the clients and possibly reduce client dissatisfaction. This is study, which is one of the first on the subject, is limited in three ways. First, residential clients were the only ones considered. In addition, respondents were only taken from Nigeria and the sample size as well as the response rate was small.

  17. Making planned paths look more human-like in humanoid robot manipulation planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacharias, F.; Schlette, C.; Schmidt, F.

    2011-01-01

    It contradicts the human's expectations when humanoid robots move awkwardly during manipulation tasks. The unnatural motion may be caused by awkward start or goal configurations or by probabilistic path planning processes that are often used. This paper shows that the choice of an arm's target...... for the robot arm....

  18. Dynamic manipulation of magnetic contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Congxian; Xia, Jinjun; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Seo, Chi Hyung; Hu, Xiaoge; Jin, Yongdong; Gao, Xiaohu; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used extensively ex vivo for cellular and molecular separations. We recently showed that a coupled nanoparticle combining a superparamagnetic core with a thin, isolated gold shell providing strong absorption in the near infrared can be used for magnetomotive photoacoustic imaging (mmPA), a new technique in which magnetic manipulation of the particle during PA imaging greatly enhances molecular contrast specificity. This particle can also be biologically targeted for in vivo applications, where mmPA imaging provides a spatially localized readout of magnetic manipulations. As an initial test of potential in vivo molecular assays and integrated molecular therapeutics using magnetic manipulation of nanoparticles, we present experiments demonstrating PA readout of trapped magnetic particles in a flow field. An aqueous solution containing a concentration of 0.05-mg/ml 10-μM superparamagnetic iron oxide particles flowed in a 1.65-mm diameter Zeus PTFE (Teflon) sublite wall tubing at three velocities of 0.8, 1.5 and 3.0-mm/s. Opposed permanent magnets separated by 40-mm were positioned on both sides of the tube. As expected, the targeted objects can be magnetically captured and accumulated locally. By translating the magnets, a dynamic magnetic field (0.1-0.3-T) was alternately generated on the side of the tube closest to one of the magnets and created a synchronous PA motion from accumulated targeted objects. This synchronized motion can be used to differentiate the stationary background or other PA sources moving asynchronously with magnetic manipulations (e.g., moving blood) from targeted cells moving synchronously with the magnetic field. This technology can potentially provide sensitive molecular assays of cellular targets travelling in the vasculature (e.g., metastatic tumor cells).

  19. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  20. Consumer's inflation expectations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ormonde Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.

  1. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  2. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  3. The effect of spinal manipulation on pain and prostaglandin levels in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokjohn, K; Schmid, D M; Triano, J J; Brennan, P C

    1992-06-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to compare the effect of spinal manipulation vs. sham manipulation on a) circulating plasma levels of the prostaglandin F2a metabolite, 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin (KDPGF2a), b) perceived abdominal and back pain and c) perceived menstrual distress in women with primary dysmenorrhea. This randomized clinical pilot study investigated the outcome measures before and after either a spinal manipulation treatment (SMT) or a sham manipulation. All subjects were treated at the National College Chiropractic clinic, a private chiropractic clinic in the suburban Chicago area. Forty-five women with a history of primary dysmenorrhea were recruited from the local community. The volunteers ranged in age from 20-49 (mean age = 30.3 yr), and were entered into the study between April 1990 and January 1991. Twenty-four were randomly assigned to the spinal manipulation group and 21 were assigned to the sham group. Subjects treated with spinal manipulation were placed in a side-lying position with the bottom leg straight and the top leg flexed at the knee and hip. They received a high-velocity, short lever, low-amplitude thrust to all clinically relevant vertebral levels within T10 and L5-S1 and the sacroiliac joints. In the sham manipulation, subjects were placed in a side-lying position with both hips and knees flexed. Their manipulation consisted of a similar thrust administered to the midline base of the sacrum. Perceived abdominal and back pain were measured with a visual analog scale, and menstrual distress was measured with the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. Both were administered 15 min before and 60 min after treatment. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture for the determination of plasma levels of KDPGF2a at the same times. The plasma was then assayed for KDPGF2a by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of covariance and paired Student's t tests were used for the statistical evaluation. Immediately after treatment, the

  4. Obtaining a pet: realistic expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Amy; Duxbury, Margaret M

    2008-09-01

    Millions of dog-human relationships fail each year-some from simple and preventable mismatches. False or unrealistic expectations of a dog's behavior are a common reason for failed human-animal bonds. Veterinarians can reduce the incidence of false expectations and thereby increase the likelihood of successful adoptions by offering preadoption counseling to help clients sort through the many factors involved in the process of successful pet selection, by preparing clients to take on the important tasks of puppy socialization and the management of the home learning environment, and by educating new owners about the needs and behavior of dogs.

  5. Virtual Manipulative Materials in Secondary Mathematics: A Theoretical Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukasa, Immacukate K.; Stanley, Darren; Tuchtie, Martin

    2009-01-01

    With the increased use of computer manipulatives in teaching there is need for theoretical discussions on the role of manipulatives. This paper reviews theoretical rationales for using manipulatives and illustrates how earlier distinctions of manipulative materials are broadened to include new forms of materials such as virtual manipulatives.…

  6. Osteopathic manipulative medicine for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Gilbert; Jaffe, J Douglas; Rafique, Maryum; Weinik, Michael M

    2012-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is 1 of the most common peripheral nerve entrapment disorders. Osteopathic manipulative medicine can be invaluable in diagnosing and managing CTS. Combined with a patient's history and a standard physical examination, an osteopathic structural examination can facilitate localizing the nerve entrapment, diagnosing CTS, and monitoring the disease process. Osteopathic manipulative treatment is noninvasive and can be used to supplement traditional CTS treatment methods. The authors also review the relevant anatomy involving CTS and the clinical efficacy of osteopathic manipulative medicine in the management of this disorder.

  7. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Helser, Aren T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2004-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper describes the entire...... collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator (nM) application. To be readily accepted by users, the shared nM application had to have the same high level of interactivity as the single-user system and include all the functions of the single-user system. In addition the application had...

  8. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  9. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  10. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  11. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  12. Expectations and retail profit margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.J. den Hertog; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this study expectations and prediction errors are introduced in the context of retail price setting. A new model and a new data set are used to examine whether prediction errors influence retail price setting, whether prediction errors cause only limited price changes to maintain

  13. Well Clear: General Aviation and Commercial Pilots' Perceptioin of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This research explored how different pilots perceived the concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and observed if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and the effects of other variables. Pilots' WCB perceptions were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Objectively, significant differences were found in WCB perception between two pilot types (general aviation [GA], and Airline Transport Pilots [ATPs]), and significant WCB differences were evident when comparing two intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). Differences were dependent on other manipulated variables (intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels). Subjectively, there were differences in WCB perception across pilot types; GA pilots trusted UAS aircraft higher than the more experienced ATPs. Conclusions indicate pilots' WCB mental models are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, and more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  14. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Research Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plans and RFAs Grant Recipients Grant Submission Grant ...

  15. ADVERTISING AS MEAN OF MANIPULATION OF PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia PAVEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a number of issues involved in defining manipulation, because both in the current language as in the specialty literature, the manipulation notion is used with multiple significations, often contradictory ones, and that it’s not firmly delimited by other notions from the same sphere, like persuasion or propaganda. The aim of the article will be, in the end, removing ambiguity that surrounds this concept and offering a better understanding of its very real effects on human lives. We advance and sustain the hypothesis that manipulation is an illegitimate process, justified by the structure of the human conscience and by the mechanisms of the social life. In addition, the paper provides a concrete example of manipulation of public through advertising contracts offered by Roşia Montană Gold Corporation. Finally conclusions were outlined.

  16. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 58(4):180–186. Ferreira ML, Ferreira PH, Latimer J, et al. Comparison of general exercise, motor ... 1-2):31–37. Ferreira ML, Ferreira PH, Latimer J, et al. Efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy ...

  17. The Frankfurt School's Theory of Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryszak, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the critical sociology of communication of the Frankfurt School suggesting that theorists such as Lowenthal, Adorno, and Habermas have outlined both the political economics of manipulation and the social psychological interaction between the audience and the media. (MH)

  18. ARC Code TI: Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP) is a library which serializes datatypes between XML and ANSI C data structures to support CFD applications. This library...

  19. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  20. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  1. Materials Centered Science and Manipulative Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, Nancy L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of experience with two physical science units adapted for use by the visually impaired on the manipulative skills of 14 visually impaired low income students from 9 to 19 years of age. (DB)

  2. 75 FR 67657 - Prohibition of Market Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... WL 3326624 (2d Cir. 2009), Comm. Fut. L. Rep. ] 31,434 (noting evolution of analytical framework and... Commission to protect against fraud-based manipulation. I thank Senator Cantwell for her leadership in...

  3. Expectations affect psychological and neurophysiological benefits even after a single bout of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Hendrik; Leukel, Christian; Jo, Han-Gue; Seelig, Harald; Schmidt, Stefan; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The study investigated whether typical psychological, physiological, and neurophysiological changes from a single exercise are affected by one's beliefs and expectations. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to four groups and saw different multimedia presentations suggesting that the subsequent exercise (moderate 30 min cycling) would result in more or less health benefits (induced expectations). Additionally, we assessed habitual expectations reflecting previous experience and beliefs regarding exercise benefits. Participants with more positive habitual expectations consistently demonstrated both greater psychological benefits (more enjoyment, mood increase, and anxiety reduction) and greater increase of alpha-2 power, assessed with electroencephalography. Manipulating participants' expectations also resulted in largely greater increases of alpha-2 power, but not in more psychological exercise benefits. On the physiological level, participants decreased their blood pressure after exercising, but this was independent of their expectations. These results indicate that habitual expectations in particular affect exercise-induced psychological and neurophysiological changes in a self-fulfilling manner.

  4. Caffeine expectancies influence the subjective and behavioral effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Juliano, Laura M

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the independent and interactive effects of caffeine pharmacology and expected effects of caffeine on performance and subjective outcomes. Abstinent coffee drinkers (n = 60) consumed decaffeinated coffee with either 280 mg or 0 mg added caffeine. Caffeine dose was crossed with varying instructions that the coffee would either enhance or impair performance in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Performance, mood, caffeine withdrawal, and negative somatic effects were assessed. Relative to placebo, caffeine improved reaction time and accuracy on the rapid visual information processing task, a measure of vigilance. However, there was a significant dose by expectancy interaction that revealed that among participants given placebo coffee, "impair" instructions produced better performance than "enhance" instructions. Caffeine also improved psychomotor performance as indicated by a finger tapping task with no main effects of expectancy or interactions. Impair instructions produced greater reports of negative somatic effects than enhance instructions, but only when caffeine was administered. Manipulating the expected effects of caffeine altered the behavioral and subjective effects of caffeine. A significant dose by expectancy interaction revealed a somewhat paradoxical outcome in the placebo conditions whereby those told "impair" performed better than those told "enhance." This may reflect compensatory responding as has been observed in similar studies using alcohol (Fillmore et al. Psychopharmacology 115:383-388, 1994). Impair instructions led to greater negative somatic effects only when caffeine was administered supporting the active placebo hypothesis.

  5. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with

  6. Billing and coding for osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Jorgensen, Douglas J

    2009-08-01

    Some osteopathic physicians are not properly reimbursed by insurance companies after providing osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to their patients. Common problems associated with lack of reimbursements include insurers bundling OMT with the standard evaluation and management service and confusing OMT with chiropractic manipulative treatment or physical therapy services. The authors suggest methods of appeal for denied reimbursement claims that will also prevent future payment denials.

  7. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for colonic inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Lewe, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Surgical treatment options for patients with colonic inertia are costly and do not always relieve the pain associated with the condition. The author describes a case of a 41-year-old woman with colonic inertia who received osteopathic manipulative treatment targeted at the neuromusculoskeletal and gastrointestinal systems. The patient reported temporary improvement in pain and bowel function without pharmacotherapy or surgical intervention. Osteopathic manipulative treatment should be considered in patients with visceral as well as neuromusculoskeletal symptoms.

  8. Optical Trapping, Cell Manipulation, And Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Tudor N.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Morrison, William C.; Upham, Bryan D.

    1989-06-01

    A new type of analytical and preparative cytometric instrument was developed. The instrument combines image analysis and machine vision with single cell and chromosome manipulation by means of optical trapping. A proof-of-principle instrument, OCAM, has the ability to locate and analyze biological particles inside an enclosed manipulation chamber, as well as the ability to move and position particles according to preprogrammed protocols. Preliminary results and potential biological applications of such a microrobot are discussed.

  9. Optical trapping, cell manipulation and robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buican, T.N.; Neagley, D.L.; Morrison, W.C.; Upham, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new type of analytical and preparative cytometric instrument was developed. The instrument combines image analysis and machine vision with single cell and chromosome manipulation by means of optical trapping. A proof-of-principle instrument, OCAM, has the ability to locate and analyze biological particles inside an enclosed manipulation chamber, as well as the ability to move and position particles according to preprogrammed protocols. Preliminary results and potential biological applications of such a microrobot are discussed. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  11. On-demand Droplet Manipulation via Triboelectrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Vahabi, Hamed; Cackovic, Matthew; Jiang, Rui; Kota, Arun

    2017-11-01

    Controlled manipulation of liquid droplets has attracted tremendous interest across different scientific fields over the past two decades. To date, a variety of external stimuli-mediated methods such as magnetic field, electric field, and light have been developed for manipulating droplets on surfaces. However, these methods usually have drawbacks such as complex fabrication of manipulation platform, low droplet motility, expensive actuation system and lack of precise control. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled manipulation of liquid droplet with both high (e.g., water) and low (e.g., n-hexadecane) dielectric strengths on a smooth, slippery surface via triboelectric effect. Our highly simple, facile and portable methodology enables on-demand, precise manipulation of droplets using solely the electrostatic attraction or repulsion force, which is exerted on the droplet by a simple charged actuator (e.g., Teflon film). We envision that our triboelectric effect enabled droplet manipulation methodology will open a new avenue for droplet based lab-on-a-chip systems, energy harvesting devices and biomedical applications.

  12. Control of two Wheeled Welding Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ngo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-linked manipulator mounted on a two-wheeled mobile platform is used to weld a long curved welding path. A welding torch mounted at the end of a manipulator of the welding mobile manipulator (WMM must be controlled for tracking a welding path with constant velocity and constant welding angle of torch. In this paper, a decentralized control method is applied to control the WMM considered as two separate subsystems such as a mobile platform and a manipulator. Two decentralized motion controllers are designed to control two subsystems of WMM, respectively. Firstly, based on a tracking error vector of the manipulator and a feedback motion of the mobile platform, a kinematic controller is designed for manipulator. Secondly, based on an another tracking error vector of the mobile platform and a feedback angular velocities of revolution joints of three-link, a sliding mode controller is designed for the mobile platform. These controllers are obtained based on the Lyapunov's function and its stability condition to ensure for the tracking error vectors to be asymptotically stable. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Control of two Wheeled Welding Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ngo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A three-linked manipulator mounted on a two-wheeled mobile platform is used to weld a long curved welding path. A welding torch mounted at the end of a manipulator of the welding mobile manipulator (WMM must be controlled for tracking a welding path with constant velocity and constant welding angle of torch. In this paper, a decentralized control method is applied to control the WMM considered as two separate subsystems such as a mobile platform and a manipulator. Two decentralized motion controllers are designed to control two subsystems of WMM, respectively. Firstly, based on a tracking error vector of the manipulator and a feedback motion of the mobile platform, a kinematic controller is designed for manipulator. Secondly, based on an another tracking error vector of the mobile platform and a feedback angular velocities of revolution joints of three-link, a sliding mode controller is designed for the mobile platform. These controllers are obtained based on the Lyapunov's function and its stability condition to ensure for the tracking error vectors to be asymptotically stable. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Dynamic manipulation of asymmetric forebody vortices to achieve linear control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard

    A wind tunnel experiment was performed to further investigate the potential of the dynamic manipulation of forebody vortices as a means of supplementing directional control of fighter aircraft at high angles of attack. Tests were conducted on a 65-deg delta-wing model fitted with a slender, pointed tangent-ogive forebody of circular cross-section and 12.8 deg semi-apex angle. Forward-blowing nozzles located near the apex of the forebody served as the means of manipulating the forebody vortices. As expected, forward blowing was very effective, i.e., little blowing effort was required to cause the forebody vortex on the blown side to assume the 'high' position. However, the magnitudes of yawing moment and side force developed by the slender forebody with blowing do not differ significantly from that of the no-blowing, baseline case. Moreover, blowing above a certain threshold value produced an unexpected reversal, with blowing causing the vortex on the blown side to assume the 'low' position instead and the yawing moment and side force to change sense. The results have shown that the dynamic manipulation scheme is very successful in producing a linear variation of time-average yawing moment with a duty-cycle parameter, even with sideslip, for the aircraft-like model. The results also show that, by switching the vortex pattern rapidly, the linearity can be maintained up to a reduced frequency of at least 0.32, which is expected to be very satisfactory for practical applications. A subsequent water tunnel experiment with the forebody alone was undertaken to conduct off-surface flow visualizations that confirmed the vortex reversal phenomenon. Based on the flow visualization studies, a hypothesis was formed regarding the cause of the reversal phenomenon; it postulates that at the reversal threshold the nozzle flux interrupts the formation of the high forebody vortex on the blowing side and encourages the shear layer to form a replacement vortex that lies close to the

  15. Parental Socialization of Sadness Regulation in Middle Childhood: The Role of Expectations and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation…

  16. Smooth paths of conditional expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Andruchow, Esteban; Larotonda, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a von Neumann algebra with a finite trace $\\tau$, represented in $H=L^2(A,\\tau)$, and let $B_t\\subset A$ be sub-algebras, for $t$ in an interval $I$. Let $E_t:A\\to B_t$ be the unique $\\tau$-preserving conditional expectation. We say that the path $t\\mapsto E_t$ is smooth if for every $a\\in A$ and $v \\in H$, the map $$ I\

  17. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  18. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  19. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  20. Modeling Pilot Pulse Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward; Hess, Ronald; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine; Aponso, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    In this study, behavioral models are developed that closely reproduced pulsive control response of two pilots from the experimental pool using markedly different control techniques (styles) while conducting a tracking task. An intriguing find was that the pilots appeared to: 1) produce a continuous, internally-generated stick signal that they integrated in time; 2) integrate the actual stick position; and 3) compare the two integrations to issue and cease pulse commands. This suggests that the pilots utilized kinesthetic feedback in order to perceive and integrate stick position, supporting the hypothesis that pilots can access and employ the proprioceptive inner feedback loop proposed by Hess' pilot Structural Model. The Pulse Models used in conjunction with the pilot Structural Model closely recreated the pilot data both in the frequency and time domains during closed-loop simulation. This indicates that for the range of tasks and control styles encountered, the models captured the fundamental mechanisms governing pulsive and control processes. The pilot Pulse Models give important insight for the amount of remnant (stick output uncorrelated with the forcing function) that arises from nonlinear pilot technique, and for the remaining remnant arising from different sources unrelated to tracking control (i.e. neuromuscular tremor, reallocation of cognitive resources, etc.).

  1. To eat or not to eat. The effects of expectancy on reactivity to food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Scott, Jade; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Cue reactivity may be determined by the ability of cues to evoke expectations that a reward will be imminently received. To test this possibility, the current study examined the effects of manipulating expectations about the receipt of food (pizza) on self-reported and physiological responses to pizza cues, and attentional bias to pizza pictures. It was predicted that expecting to eat pizza would increase salivation, self-reported measures of motivation and attentional bias to pizza cues relative to conditions where there was no eating expectancy. In a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 42 hungry participants completed two pizza-cue exposures in a single experimental session during which their expectation of consuming the pizza was manipulated (i.e., expectancy of eating imminently vs. no eating expectancy). They also completed a computerised attentional bias task during which the probability of receiving pizza (0%, 50% or 100%) was manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Participants showed reliable increases in hunger and salivation in response to the pizza cues, as well as a bias in attentional maintenance on pizza pictures. However, these responses were not influenced by eating expectancy. Contrastingly, expectancy did influence early attentional processing (initial orientation of attention) in that participants directed their first gaze towards pizza pictures more often on 100% and 50% probability trials relative to 0% trials. Overall, our findings indicate that exposure to food cues triggers appetitive responses regardless of explicit expectancy information. Methodological features of the study that may account for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Middle School Teachers' Expectations of Organizational Behaviors of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Rebecca C.; Shippen, Margaret E.; Dangel, Harry L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the specific classroom organizational behaviors that middle school inclusive teachers report as expectations for students with learning disabilities. Practicing middle school science and social studies teachers (n = 12) responded to a survey about organization behaviors of students with learning…

  3. Enhanced striatal responses during expectancy coding in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holst, Ruth J; Clark, Luke; Veltman, Dick J; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-09-01

    Individuals with alcohol dependence are known to make disadvantageous decisions, possibly caused by alterations in either reward or punishment sensitivity, which lead to persistent alcohol use despite its adverse consequences. Previous studies in alcohol dependence have mainly focused on reward anticipation processing and results from these studies are mixed. To clarify the nature of the motivational deficit that underlies disadvantageous choice in alcohol dependence, the current study sought to characterize the neural representation of expected value in individuals with alcohol dependence, separating expectancy-related processing of gains and losses, as a function of outcome magnitude and outcome probability. Functional MRI was used to examine brain responses during the expectation of gains and losses in patients with alcohol dependence (n=19) and healthy controls (n=19). The task manipulated outcome magnitude (€1 and €5) and outcome probability (30% and 70%). Compared to healthy controls, patients with alcohol dependence were more responsive to the expectancy of large wins, in the caudate and putamen. This effect was driven by a higher caudate activity in the contrast comparing €5 vs. €1 trials in patients with alcohol dependence. There were no group differences in the responses to the expectancy for loss. The patient group reported lower expectancies of winning in the trial-by-trial ratings. Patients with alcohol dependence showed caudate hyperactivity when expecting wins. The result contrasts with past work using the monetary incentive delay task, showing caudate hypoactivity; the passive nature of our task contrasts with an active response requirement in the MIDT studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Embryo transfer in competition horses: Managing mares and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M L H

    2014-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) is an accepted and successful technique for obtaining foals from mares without interrupting their competition careers. Recent research, however, suggests that the potential of factors including heat, exercise, repeated embryo flushing and repeated manipulation of the reproductive cycle using exogenous hormones to have a negative impact on fertility may have been underestimated. This paper reviews the evidence base for involvement of these factors in repeated failures to recover embryos from nongeriatric competition mares without obvious clinical or pathological indications of reproductive abnormalities. It concludes that, for some mares at least, a cessation of exercise for the periovulatory period and the period between ovulation and embryo flushing, combined with careful management of flushing-induced endometritis, and minimal hormonal manipulation of the reproductive cycle, may be necessary to optimise embryo recovery rates. Mare owners may have been encouraged to request ET for their mares following high-profile examples in the media of elite mares that have produced foals by ET whilst competing. The veterinarian should educate mare owners about the multiple factors that may affect the chances of recovering an embryo from their mares, and should manage the expectations of mare owners so that they do not approach ET programmes in the expectation that there will be no disruption to their training and competition plans. PMID:25977596

  5. Modeling Pilot State in Next Generation Aircraft Alert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Alan S.; Alexander, Amy L.; Schurr, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit that must convey a large number of potentially complex alerts. Our work focuses on the challenges associated with prioritizing aircraft sensor alerts in a quick and efficient manner, essentially determining when and how to alert the pilot This "alert decision" becomes very difficult in NextGen due to the following challenges: 1) the increasing number of potential hazards, 2) the uncertainty associated with the state of potential hazards as well as pilot slate , and 3) the limited time to make safely-critical decisions. In this paper, we focus on pilot state and present a model for anticipating duration and quality of pilot behavior, for use in a larger system which issues aircraft alerts. We estimate pilot workload, which we model as being dependent on factors including mental effort, task demands. and task performance. We perform a mathematically rigorous analysis of the model and resulting alerting plans. We simulate the model in software and present simulated results with respect to manipulation of the pilot measures.

  6. Effects of manipulations to detect sliding hiatal hernia in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broux, Olivier; Clercx, Cécile; Etienne, Anne-Laure; Busoni, Valeria; Claeys, Stéphanie; Hamaide, Annick; Billen, Frédéric

    2017-11-02

    To determine the influence of manipulations aimed at increasing the transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient on the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) of dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS), and to identify the manipulation that most improves the detection of GEJ abnormalities and sliding hiatal hernia (SHH) in dogs with BAOS. In vivo experimental pilot study and prospective clinical study. Five purpose-bred Beagles and 20 dogs diagnosed with BAOS. Respiratory and digestive clinical signs as well as respiratory and GEJ abnormalities were scored. The presence of SHH was investigated using radiography and endoscopy in standard conditions. Endoscopic investigation was repeated after manipulations including manual pressure on the cranial abdomen (MP), Trendelenburg position (30°), or temporary complete endotracheal tube obstruction (ETO). No SHH was detected in any normal dog under any condition. Sixty-five percent of dogs with BAOS presented with digestive clinical signs, including vomiting and/or regurgitation. SHH was observed in only one dog via radiography and was not detected via endoscopy. Manipulations during endoscopy influenced GEJ abnormalities and allowed the detection of SHH in 2 (30°), 4 (ETO), and 5 (MP) dogs, respectively. Digestive clinical signs correlated with GEJ abnormalities observed only in dogs with ETO (P = .02). Manipulations aimed at increasing the transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient during endoscopy in BAOS dogs allowed the detection of GEJ abnormalities and SHH that were not detected under standard conditions. Although MP allowed detection of SHH in more dogs than ETO, scores under MP did not correlate with digestive clinical signs. Therefore, ETO may be more accurate manipulation for the detection of GEJ abnormalities in BAOS dogs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Application of Fascial Manipulation technique in chronic shoulder pain--anatomical basis and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Julie Ann; Stecco, Carla; Stecco, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Classical anatomy still relegates muscular fascia to a role of contention. Nonetheless, different hypotheses concerning the function of this resilient tissue have led to the formulation of numerous soft tissue techniques for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. This paper presents a pilot study concerning the application of one such manual technique, Fascial Manipulation, in 28 subjects suffering from chronic posterior brachial pain. This method involves a deep kneading of muscular fascia at specific points, termed centres of coordination (cc) and centres of fusion (cf), along myofascial sequences, diagonals, and spirals. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement of pain administered prior to the first session, and after the third session was compared with a follow-up evaluation at 3 months. Results suggest that the application of Fascial Manipulation technique may be effective in reducing pain in chronic shoulder dysfunctions. The anatomical substratum of the myofascial continuity has been documented by dissections and the biomechanical model is discussed.

  8. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  9. Self-Averaging Expectation Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Opper, Manfred; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    We investigate the problem of approximate inference using Expectation Propagation (EP) for large systems under some statistical assumptions. Our approach tries to overcome the numerical bottleneck of EP caused by the inversion of large matrices. Assuming that the measurement matrices...... are realizations of specific types of random matrix ensembles – called invariant ensembles – the EP cavity variances have an asymptotic self-averaging property. They can be pre-computed using specific generating functions which do not require matrix inversions. We demonstrate the performance of our approach...

  10. Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2013-05-01

    The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

  11. Developing skilled performance of lumbar spine manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triano, John J; Rogers, Carolyn M; Combs, Sarah; Potts, David; Sorrels, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    To quantify elements of spinal manipulation therapy performance and to test the strategy of combined rehearsal and quantitative feedback as a means of enhancing student skill development. Randomized, controlled study. Chiropractic college. Thirty-nine chiropractic student volunteers entering the manipulation technique training course participated after providing informed consent. Student performance of lumbar spinal manipulation therapy was quantified at the beginning, middle, and end of a trimester with a manipulation table imbedded with an AMTI force plate. Loads acting passing through the L5/S1 functional spinal unit were estimated by inverse dynamics. Participating students rehearsed the mamillary push, diversified procedure following either the standard curriculum alone or a modified curriculum adding a training aid as assigned on a randomized basis. Student's t and chi(2) tests were used to explore and describe biomechanical parameter changes over time as the semester progressed. Significant changes in performance between the standard curriculum and modified curriculum were observed in several biomechanical parameters. The reported project used a rehearsal program defined empirically and was self-administered in practice by the student. Results demonstrated significant changes in performance of spinal manipulation by students using the training aid instrument versus those who did not. With quantitative training aids and biomechanical measurement systems, future training programs may be optimized and tested.

  12. Rhythmic Manipulation of Objects with Complex Dynamics: Predictability over Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    The study of object manipulation has been largely confined to discrete tasks, where accuracy, mechanical effort, or smoothness were examined to explain subjects' preferred movements. This study investigated a rhythmic manipulation task, which involved continuous interaction with a nonlinear object that led to unpredictable object behavior. Using a simplified virtual version of the task of carrying a cup of coffee, we studied how this unpredictable object behavior affected the selected strategies. The experiment was conducted in a virtual set-up, where subjects moved a cup with a ball inside, modeled by cart-and-pendulum dynamics. Inverse dynamics calculations of the system showed that performing the task with different amplitudes and relative phases required different force profiles and rendered the object's dynamics with different degrees of predictability (quantified by Mutual Information between the applied force and the cup kinematics and its sensitivity). Subjects (n = 8) oscillated the virtual cup between two targets via a robotic manipulandum, paced by a metronome at 1 Hz for 50 trials, each lasting 45 s. They were free to choose their movement amplitude and relative phase between the ball and cup. Experimental results showed that subjects increased their movement amplitudes, which rendered the interactions with the object more predictable and with lower sensitivity to the execution variables. These solutions were associated with higher average exerted force and lower object smoothness, contradicting common expectations from studies on discrete object manipulation and unrestrained movements. Instead, the findings showed that humans selected strategies with higher predictability of interaction dynamics. This finding expressed that humans seek movement strategies where force and kinematics synchronize to repeatable patterns that may require less sensorimotor information processing. PMID:25340581

  13. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  14. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in ‘preparation’ for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the ‘preparation for tool use’ hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future

  15. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Bonobos (Pan paniscus: Preparation for Tool Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathelijne Koops

    Full Text Available Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo. We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry. Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early object manipulation (i.e., object play in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays. In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed

  16. How Victim Sensitivity leads to Uncooperative Behavior via Expectancies of Injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Simona; Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred J; MacLeod, Colin

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sensitivity-to-mean-intentions model, dispositional victim sensitivity involves a suspicious mindset that is activated by situational cues and guides subsequent information processing and behavior like a schema. Study 1 tested whether victim-sensitive persons are more prone to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations and whether these expectancies mediate the relationship between victim sensitivity and cooperation behavior in a trust game. Results show an indirect effect of victim sensitivity on cooperation after unfair treatment (vs. control condition), mediated by expectancies of injustice. In Study 2 we directly manipulated the tendency to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations to test for causality. Results confirmed that the readiness to expect unjust outcomes led to lower cooperation, compared to a control condition. These findings provide direct evidence that expectancy tendencies are implicated in elevated victim sensitivity and are of theoretical and practical relevance.

  17. How victim sensitivity leads to uncooperative behavior via expectancies of injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eMaltese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Sensitivity-to-mean-intentions (SeMI model, dispositional victim sensitivity involves a suspicious mindset that is activated by situational cues and guides subsequent information processing and behavior like a schema. Study 1 tested whether victim-sensitive persons are more prone to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations and whether these expectancies mediate the relationship between victim sensitivity and cooperation behavior in a trust game. Results show an indirect effect of victim sensitivity on cooperation after unfair treatment (vs control condition, mediated by expectancies of injustice. In Study 2 we directly manipulated the tendency to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations to test for causality. Results confirmed that the readiness to expect unjust outcomes led to lower cooperation, compared to a control condition. These findings provide direct evidence that expectancy tendencies are implicated in elevated victim sensitivity and are of theoretical and practical relevance.

  18. Gambles vs. quasi-realistic scenarios: expectations to find probability and risk-defusing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Oswald; Huber, Odilo W

    2008-02-01

    The paper investigates predecisional information search in risky decisions, specifically information concerning the probability of a negative outcome and whether a risk-defusing operator (RDO) is available. Experiment 1 (54 participants) tested the hypothesis that search for such information is triggered by expectations that it can be obtained in the situation. Cues for the availability of information were manipulated. It was predicted that cues mentioning possible information sources raise expectations and consequently increase search activity. Furthermore, gambles were expected to differ from other real world contexts, with lower expectations for RDOs and higher ones for probabilities. The Method of Active Information Search was employed. The number of questions asked about probability and RDOs in different conditions confirmed the hypotheses. Experiment 2 (36 participants) ruled out the alternative interpretation that the expectation to actually find favorable probabilities or applicable RDOs respectively, rather than the expectation to obtain information, determined information search.

  19. Modeling the manipulator and flipper pose effects on tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available of the platform. An environment is simulated using a gradient vector field and a simulated iRobot PackBot platform is modeled moving through the environment. The PackBot manipulator motion is modeled using the forward kinematics of serial structured manipulators...

  20. The quality of placebos used in randomized, controlled trials of lumbar and pelvic joint thrust manipulation-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Aaron A; Reinhart, Christine J; Doan, Jon B; Vernon, Howard

    2017-03-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has been attributed with substantial non-specific effects. Accurate assessment of the non-specific effects of SMT relies on high-quality studies with low risk of bias that compare with appropriate placebos. This review aims to characterize the types and qualities of placebo control procedures used in controlled trials of manually applied, lumbar and pelvic (LP)-SMT, and to evaluate the assessment of subject blinding and expectations. This is a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and relevant bibliographies. We included randomized, placebo or sham-controlled trials where the index treatment was manually applied LP-SMT. There were no restrictions on the type of condition being investigated. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, assessed study quality, and extracted the data. Relevant data were the type and quality of placebo control(s) used, the assessment of blinding and expectations, and the results of those assessments. Twenty-five randomized, placebo-controlled trials were included in this review. There were 18 trials that used a sham manual SMT procedure for their placebo control intervention; the most common approach was with an SMT setup but without the application of any thrust. One small pilot study used an unequivocally indistinguishable placebo, two trials used placebos that had been validated as inert a priori, and eight trials reported on the success of subject blinding. Risk of bias was high or unclear, for all included studies. Imperfect placebos are ubiquitous in clinical trials of LP-SMT, and few trials have assessed for successful subject blinding or balanced expectations of treatment success between active and control group subjects. There is thus a strong potential for unmasking of control subjects, unequal non-specific effects between active and control groups, and non

  1. Do recovery expectations change over time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamper, S.J.; Kongsted, A.; Haanstra, T.M.; Hestbaek, L.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: While a considerable body of research has explored the relationship between patient expectations and clinical outcomes, few studies investigate the extent to which patient expectations change over time. Further, the temporal relationship between expectations and symptoms is not well

  2. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  3. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program...... properties, or to use the analysis information for code modifications. Semanticsbased program manipulation addresses methods for program modifications and program analyses that are formally defined and therefore can be verified with respect to the programming-language semantics. This dissertation comprises...... four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect...

  4. Tuneable elastomeric nanochannels for nanofluidic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Dongeun; Mills, K. L.; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Burns, Mark A.; Thouless, M. D.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2007-06-01

    Fluidic transport through nanochannels offers new opportunities to probe fundamental nanoscale transport phenomena and to develop tools for manipulating DNA, proteins, small molecules and nanoparticles. The small size of nanofabricated devices and the accompanying increase in the effect of surface forces, however, pose challenges in designing and fabricating flexible nanofluidic systems that can dynamically adjust their transport characteristics according to the handling needs of various molecules and nanoparticles. Here, we describe the use of nanoscale fracturing of oxidized poly(dimethylsiloxane) to conveniently fabricate nanofluidic systems with arrays of nanochannels that can actively manipulate nanofluidic transport through dynamic modulation of the channel cross-section. We present the design parameters for engineering material properties and channel geometry to achieve reversible nanochannel deformation using remarkably small forces. We demonstrate the versatility of the elastomeric nanochannels through tuneable sieving and trapping of nanoparticles, dynamic manipulation of the conformation of single DNA molecules and in situ photofabrication of movable polymeric nanostructures.

  5. Television systems for remote manipulation. [in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, W. H.; Freedman, L. A.; Coan, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was conducted to specify a video system for remote manipulation in space. An operator function analysis identified two basic characteristics, work volume and element relationship, which define four manipulation tasks chosen for examination. A visual function analysis developed a set of elemental scene parameters which grouped the visual dimensions into major areas of influence. Simulation testing was conducted with a four degree-of-freedom motion frame which allowed an operator to perform the manipulation tasks. Four video systems were included in the simulation testing: a black and white and a color monoscopic system, a stereoscopic system, and a black and white two-view system. A sequential experimental plan first provided an overall analysis of the effects of tasks, scene parameters, and video systems. This was followed by a detailed experimental examination of the critical dimensions identified in the first experiment. Results are discussed in terms of a recommended TV system.

  6. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  7. Model Manipulation for End-User Modelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad

    , and proposes the VM* family of model manipulation languages addressing them. This family consists of the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL), the Visual Model Constraint Language (VMCL), and the Visual Model Transformation Language (VMTL). They allow modelers to specify and execute queries, constraints......End-user modelers are domain experts who create and use models as part of their work. They are typically not Software Engineers, and have little or no programming and meta-modeling experience. However, using model manipulation languages developed in the context of Model-Driven Engineering often...... integration, the VM* Runtime is deployed as a collection of lightweight Web Services. The claim that VM* languages offer end-user modelers superior learnability compared to existing model manipulation languages is verified empirically via user experiments complemented by qualitative evidence....

  8. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying

    2009-09-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer-controlled reaction processes for chemistry and biology. Electrorheological fluid, especially giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is considered as a kind of smart material, has been applied to the microfluidic systems to achieve active and precise control of fluid by electrical signal. In this review article, we will introduce recent results of microfluidic droplet manipulation, GERF and some pertinent achievements by introducing GERF into microfluidic system: digital generation, manipulation of "smart droplets" and droplet manipulation by GERF. Once it is combined with real-time detection, integrated chip with multiple functions can be realized. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Stable chromosome aberrations and ionizing radiation in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J S; Butler, G C; Davis, S; Bryant, E; Hoel, D G; Mohr, L C

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of translocations and insertions in the blood of long-term pilots in relation to estimated cumulative radiation dose received while flying, and to compare that to the frequency in a group of similarly aged men without a history of frequent airline travel. Healthy, non-smoking male pilots aged 40-60 yr were recruited from a single airline. Non-pilot controls were recruited from healthy, non-smoking professional males in the same age range and without a history of frequent flying. Eligibility was determined based on screening surveys. Career pilot radiation doses were calculated individually using airline flight profiles, personal flight history, and the CARI computer program. Translocation frequency was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Blood samples for chromosome analysis were provided by 19 individuals. The mean number of metaphases counted per subject was 2802 in the pilots and 3000 in the controls. The mean number of translocations per cell (genome equivalent) was significantly higher among the pilots (mean +/- SE; 0.0031 +/- 0.0008) than among the controls (0.0010 +/- 0.0003) (p = 0.03, Mann-Whitney U test). However, within the 26 to 72 millisievert range encountered in this study, observed values among the pilots did not follow the dose-response pattern expected based on available models for chronic low dose radiation exposure. There was a statistically significant higher number of translocations per cell among pilots than among controls, although the expected dose-response relationship for radiation was not observed among the pilots.

  10. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...... be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device...

  11. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...... is a viable technique for positioning the manipulator and present a pruning technique for managing the growth of the roadmap. We discuss results from simulations and from applications at the shipyard, where a similar planner has now been implemented for production....

  12. Momentum limiting velocity controls for robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.; Bryan, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Robotic tasks in space require manipulating massive objects capable of attaining large momentum. The momentum can pose hazardous conditions and introduce destabilizing effects on a space platform. Consequently, a technique for limiting the momentum applied to objects under manipulation subject to arbitrary velocity input commands is proposed. The algorithm does not require mass position or inertia information about the object, and it takes actuator limitations into account in forming the momentum limits. To evaluate the probability that a velocity trajectory will fall within the momentum bounds, reliability theory is employed. This enables autonomously generated trajectories to be validated for compliance with momentum limits.

  13. The Ethics/ Skills Interface in Image Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Webber

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.

  14. Manipulation of soil biota in ecological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-M. He

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of soil biota, such as soil sterilization, may have complex effects as they alter soil properties as well as microorganism communities. To assess the effects of such manipulation, we conducted an experiment using three sterilizing approaches, two soil types, and two plant species to identify the problems that may occur when different sterilizing approaches are used. The sterilizing treatments decreased growth of plants and resulted in large changes in soil nutrients and pH. Such effects varied with the approach followed. Our data suggest that studied effects on soil biota may be misleading if we fail to consider such changes in the soil.

  15. Trust and Manipulation in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Manuel; Mauleon, Ana; Vannetelbosch, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/bandeau-haut/document-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2013.65 - ISSN : 1955-611X; We investigate the role of manipulation in a model of opinion formation where agents have opinions about some common question of interest. Agents repeatedly communicate with their neighbors in the social network, can exert some effort to manipulate the trust of others, and update their opinions taki...

  16. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

  17. Reconfigurable metamaterials for terahertz wave manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed R.; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-09-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of terahertz waves without being limited by the characteristics of naturally existing materials. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of various types of reconfigurable metamaterials that are utilized to manipulate the intensity, phase, polarization, and propagation direction of terahertz waves. We discuss various reconfiguration mechanisms based on optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli while using semiconductors, superconductors, phase-change materials, graphene, and electromechanical structures. The advantages and disadvantages of different reconfigurable metamaterial designs in terms of modulation efficiency, modulation bandwidth, modulation speed, and system complexity are discussed in detail.

  18. Prediction of musculoskeletal discomfort in a pick and place tast : a pilot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, C.P.; Delleman, N.J.; Schellekens, J.M.H.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted regarding the effects of working posture, handling frequency, and task duration on musculoskeletal discomfort. Participants rated their discomfort perceived while perform-ing a repetitive task at 8 different combinations of manipulations. Pauses between the work periods

  19. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  20. Remote Manipulation of Guidewire using a Virtual Reality Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasaku, K; Negoro, M; Himeno, R

    2001-12-22

    A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had masterslave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.

  1. Remote Manipulation of Guidewire using a Virtual Reality Device

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasaku, K.; Negoro, M.; Himeno, R.

    2001-01-01

    A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had master-slave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.

  2. Evaluation of Remote Collaborative Manipulation for Scientific Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, Cédric; Duval, Thierry; Gouranton, Valérie; Steed, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the context of scientific data analysis, we propose to compare a remote collaborative manipulation technique with a single user manipulation technique. The manipulation task consists in positioning a clipping plane in order to perform cross-sections of scientific data which show several points of interest located inside this data. For the remote collaborative manipulation, we have chosen to use the 3-hand manipulation technique proposed by Aguerreche et al. which is...

  3. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne Gm; Thoomes, Erik; Konings, Sophie; Beijer, Michelle; Verkerk, Karin; Koes, Bart W; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the

  4. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults?: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G.M. Scholten-Peeters (Gwendolijne); E.J. Thoomes (Erik); S. Konings (Sophie); M. Beijer (Michelle); K. Verkerk (Karin); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to

  5. Influence of temperature and humidity manipulation on chicken embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiva, Rute M; Menezes, António C; Peleteiro, Maria C

    2014-10-01

    Temperature and relative humidity (RH) are very important factors affecting embryo development, hatchability, and posthatch performance. This study aimed at characterizing embryonic metabolic and behavioural response to a harsh incubation environment generated by manipulations (elevations and drops) in these two key factors. This study was aimed at establishing patterns of metabolic and behavioural response, as well as mortality and the development of malformations, all of which can potentially be used in monitoring incubating operations and diagnosing problems with faulty equipment. Of all the parameters monitored throughout embryonic development the ones shown to be most affected were: albumen-weight to egg-weight ratio (AR); yolk-weight to egg-weight ratio (YR); embryo-weight to egg-weight ratio (ER); heart rate (HR); voluntary movements per minute (VMM); mortality rates; malformation prevalence and type. The most significant changes in the evolution of AR and YR throughout incubation involved delay and reduction in the amplitude of the expected drop in albumen and yolk levels, reflecting lower nutrient consumption by the embryo. ER tended to grow more slowly and remain lower than the established normal, especially in embryos challenged with temperature treatments. HR and VMM were considered to be strong indicators of embryonic stress, as all treatments applied resulted in elevated heart rate and decreased embryo movement. Mortality rates for both temperature-related treatments were higher during the first four days of incubation. Changes in relative humidity have produced less radical effects on mortality. Malformation rates were higher for embryos subjected to high incubation temperatures and were most prominently related to the abdominal wall, head, skull and limbs. Overall, manipulations in environmental (incubator) temperature during incubation produced more drastic changes in embryo development than humidity-related manipulations, especially where

  6. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Research Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plan and RFAs Education Campaigns and Treatment Resources Evidence-Based Reviews ACG Obesity Initiative IBS Awareness IBD Awareness Colorectal ...

  7. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and physicians alike. About the Institute Mission and Leadership Institute Annual Reports Donation Form ACG Visiting Professor Network Clinical Research Funding Opportunities Junior Faculty Development Grants Clinical Research Awards Clinical Research Awards Pilot ...

  8. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Website Patient Assistance Programs Practice Management Practice Management From articles to educational programs, ACG provides you ... Grants Clinical Research Awards Clinical Research Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention ...

  9. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Assessment Test ACG SAP-Maintenance of Certification CME Evaluations and Certificates Policies and Procedures for Educational Activities ... Grants Clinical Research Awards Clinical Research Awards Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention ...

  10. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CCF IBD Circle and Functional GI Health and Nutrition Circle ACG Professionalism and Wellness Initiative Governors Committees ... Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plans and RFAs Grant Recipients Grant ...

  11. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CCF IBD Circle and Functional GI Health and Nutrition Circle ACG Professionalism and Wellness Initiative Governors Committees ... Pilot Projects Smaller Programs Clinical Research Awards Colorectal Cancer Prevention Action Plans and RFAs Grant Recipients Grant Submission ...

  12. A plasmonic spanner for metal particle manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Shi, W.; Shen, Z.; Man, Z.; Min, C.; Shen, J.; Zhu, S.; Urbach, H.P.; Yuan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Typically, metal particles are difficult to manipulate with conventional optical vortex (OV) tweezers, because of their strong absorption and scattering. However, it has been shown that the vortex field of surface plasmonic polaritons, called plasmonic vortex (PV), is capable of stable trapping and

  13. Attention manipulation for naval tactical picture compilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P.; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses and evaluates an agent model that is able to manipulate the visual attention of a human, in order to support naval crew. The agent model consists of four submodels, including a model to reason about a subject's attention. The model was evaluated based on a practical case study

  14. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping matr...

  15. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program prop...

  16. Microbial manipulation of host sex determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A recent study in the lepidopteran Ostrinia scapulalis shows that endosymbionts can actively manipulate the sex determination mechanism of their host. Wolbachia bacteria alter the sex-specific splicing of the doublesex master switch gene. In ZZ males of this female heterogametic system, the female

  17. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8°C eggshell temperature

  18. Multimodal Electrothermal Silicon Microgrippers for Nanotube Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström Andersen, Karin; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Carlson, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Microgrippers that are able to manipulate nanoobjects reproducibly are key components in 3-D nanomanipulation systems. We present here a monolithic electrothermal microgripper prepared by silicon microfabrication, and demonstrate pick-and-place of an as-grown carbon nanotube from a 2-D array onto...

  19. Using Concrete Manipulatives in Mathematical Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julie P.; Tiller, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA) instruction is a process for teaching and learning mathematical concepts. Starting with manipulation of concrete materials (counters, beans, Unifix cubes), the process moves students to the representational level (tallies, dots, stamps), and peaks at the abstract level, at which numbers and symbols are…

  20. Conjugate Gradient Algorithms For Manipulator Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses applicability of conjugate-gradient algorithms to computation of forward dynamics of robotic manipulators. Rapid computation of forward dynamics essential to teleoperation and other advanced robotic applications. Part of continuing effort to find algorithms meeting requirements for increased computational efficiency and speed. Method used for iterative solution of systems of linear equations.

  1. Money, Manipulation and Misunderstanding on Manus Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallis, Joanne; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Island, on domestic affairs in PNG, and on the relationship between PNG and Australia. Overall, it concludes that the costs arising from the money, manipulation and misunderstanding generated by the centre seem likely to outweigh the purported benefits, particularly for Manusians and other ordinary Papua...

  2. Strengthening Controls from Within: Manipulated by Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasler, Claire E.; Laursen, Erik K.

    2004-01-01

    Since friendship and peer relationships are particularly important to teenagers, students with passive aggressive behaviors frequently and intentionally "set up" more aggressive peers to get them to react and to lose control, guaranteeing a behavioral consequence. As a result, the victim of being set up or "manipulated" also ends up being…

  3. Cell Signaling Experiments Driven by Optical Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Cojoc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling involves complex transduction mechanisms in which information released by nearby cells or extracellular cues are transmitted to the cell, regulating fundamental cellular activities. Understanding such mechanisms requires cell stimulation with precise control of low numbers of active molecules at high spatial and temporal resolution under physiological conditions. Optical manipulation techniques, such as optical tweezing, mechanical stress probing or nano-ablation, allow handling of probes and sub-cellular elements with nanometric and millisecond resolution. PicoNewton forces, such as those involved in cell motility or intracellular activity, can be measured with femtoNewton sensitivity while controlling the biochemical environment. Recent technical achievements in optical manipulation have new potentials, such as exploring the actions of individual molecules within living cells. Here, we review the progress in optical manipulation techniques for single-cell experiments, with a focus on force probing, cell mechanical stimulation and the local delivery of active molecules using optically manipulated micro-vectors and laser dissection.

  4. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2012-06-01

    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  5. Interaction Force Estimation During Manipulation of Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Metz, R.M.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the utilization of microparticles for the wireless sensing of interaction forces in magneticbased manipulation systems. The proposed force estimation approach allows for using microparticles in sensing the interaction forces at hard-to-reach regions to avoid the mechanical and

  6. Complexity in Climate Change Manipulation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Beier, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , precipitation experiments have dealt with temporal variability or extreme events, such as drought, resulting in a multitude of approaches and scenarios with limited comparability among studies. Temperature manipulations have mainly been focused only on warming, resulting in better comparability among studies...

  7. Identity and incentives: impact on accounting manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abernethy, M.A.; Bouwens, J.; Kroos, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how individual characteristics of managers influence the incidence of accounting manipulation. We examine one particular characteristic argued to reduce agency costs, namely the extent to which an individual identifies with the firm (OI). Drawing on a database collected from

  8. A spatial impedance controller for robotic manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasse, Ernest D.; Fasse, Ernest; Broenink, Johannes F.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical impedance is the dynamic generalization of stiffness, and determines interactive behavior by definition. Although the argument for explicitly controlling impedance is strong, impedance control has had only a modest impact on robotic manipulator control practice. This is due in part to the

  9. The Problem-Solving Nemesis: Mindless Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Vincent J.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that only 21% of respondents (secondary school math teachers) used computer-assisted instruction for tutorial work, physical models to interpret abstract concepts, or real-life application of the arithmetic or algebraic manipulation. Recommends that creative teaching methods be applied to problem solving. (NKA)

  10. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping...

  11. Perception and manipulation of game control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass - Oude Bos, D.; van de Laar, B.L.A.; Reuderink, B.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin

    Brain-computer interfaces do not provide perfect recognition of user input, for similar reasons as natural input modalities. How well can users assess the amount of control they have, and how much control do they need? We describe an experiment where we manipulated the control users had in a

  12. Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanger, J.S.; Subramaniam, V.; van Driel, R.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers are widely used for manipulating small magnetic beads inside the cell cytoplasm in order to gain insight into the structural and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. Here we discuss the use of magnetic tweezers for the study of nuclear architecture and the mechanical

  13. maternal abdominal manipulation and massage in labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    her baby within eight minutes of arrival to the labour ward. Her labour lasted about 4 hours and she had gone for abdominal manipulation and massaging before coming to the hospital. Apgar score at birth was 8 recorded 9 at 5 minutes. The baby was discovered to be very pale about 10 hours after delivery, so admitted in ...

  14. Kinematically Optimal Robust Control of Redundant Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicki, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work deals with the problem of the robust optimal task space trajectory tracking subject to finite-time convergence. Kinematic and dynamic equations of a redundant manipulator are assumed to be uncertain. Moreover, globally unbounded disturbances are allowed to act on the manipulator when tracking the trajectory by the endeffector. Furthermore, the movement is to be accomplished in such a way as to minimize both the manipulator torques and their oscillations thus eliminating the potential robot vibrations. Based on suitably defined task space non-singular terminal sliding vector variable and the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive a class of chattering-free robust kinematically optimal controllers, based on the estimation of transpose Jacobian, which seem to be effective in counteracting both uncertain kinematics and dynamics, unbounded disturbances and (possible) kinematic and/or algorithmic singularities met on the robot trajectory. The numerical simulations carried out for a redundant manipulator of a SCARA type consisting of the three revolute kinematic pairs and operating in a two-dimensional task space, illustrate performance of the proposed controllers as well as comparisons with other well known control schemes.

  15. The risk associated with spinal manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina Mai; Tarp, Simon; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a widely used manual treatment, but many reviews exist with conflicting conclusions about the safety of SMT. We performed an overview of reviews to elucidate and quantify the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) associated with SMT. METHODS: We...

  16. Dynamic nonprehensile manipulation: Controllability, planning, and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Mason, M.T. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.

    1999-01-01

    The authors are interested in using low-degree-of-freedom robots to perform complex tasks by nonprehensile manipulation (manipulation without a form- or force-closure grasp). By not grasping, the robot can use gravitational, centrifugal, and Coriolis forces as virtual motors to control more degrees of freedom of the part. The part`s extra motion freedoms are exhibited as rolling, slipping, and free flight. This paper describes controllability, motion planning, and implementation of planar dynamic nonprehensile manipulation. The authors show that almost any planar object is controllable by point contact, and the controlling robot requires only two degrees of freedom (a point translating in the plane). They then focus on a one-joint manipulator (with a two-dimensional state space), and show that even this simplest of robots, by using slipping and rolling, can control a planar object to a full-dimensional subset of its six-0dimensional state space. The authors have developed a one-joint robot to perform a variety of dynamic tasks, including snatching an object from a table, rolling an object on the surface of the arm, and throwing and catching. Nonlinear optimization is used to plan robot trajectories that achieve the desired object motion via coupling forces through the nonprehensile contact.

  17. Minimum jerk trajectory planning for robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the jerk of the desired trajectory adversely affects the performance of the tracking control algorithms for robotic manipulators. In this paper, the reasons behind this effect are investigated, and an optimization problem that minimizes joint jerk over a prespecified Cartesian space trajectory is stated. The necessary conditions are derived, and a numerical algorithm is presented.

  18. Redefining trade-based market manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Trade-based market manipulation, which is usually described as trading shares to initiate a price change or to cause an artificial price, has received wide attention in policy and academic discussions, although the behavior is still poorly defined in both legal and economic literature. This Article

  19. Trends in disability-free life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess trends in Disability-Free Life Expectancy, in life expectancy with disabilities according to levels of severity and in Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2000. Method: The disability-free life expectancy, a composite population health status

  20. Dimension Synthesis of a Spatial Parallel Kinematic Manipulator Based on S-shaped Test Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuzhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the aerospace industry, the hybrid machine tool for machining the complicated curved surface is becoming a research hotspot. The S-shaped test specimen proposed by Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Company is an effective test method to verify the ability of machining the complicated curved surface for a machine tool. Considering the spatial parallel kinematic manipulator in a hybrid machine tool provides the complicated orientation motion and its design of structure dimension affects the accuracy of the machine tool, this paper investigates the issue about dimension synthesis of the manipulator based on S-shaped test specimen. By establishing models of the S-shaped test specimen and parallel kinematic manipulator, the motion trajectory of the parallel kinematic manipulator for machining S-shaped test specimen is obtained. According to the motion trajectory and expected performance indices, the result of dimension synthesis for the manipulator is plotted and a set of suitable dimensions is achieved. With the analysis result in this paper, it is helpful to improving the accuracy of machining the S-shaped test specimen.

  1. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults?: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne GM; Thoomes, Erik; Konings, Sophie; Beijer, Michelle; Verkerk, Karin; Bart W Koes; Verhagen, Arianne P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the efficacy of manipulative therapy compared to sham in adults with a variety of complaints. Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PED...

  2. Educational Expectations and Media Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Missomelius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates themedia-supported educational resources that arecurrently under discussion, such as OERs and MOOCs. Considering the discursive connection between these formats, which is couched in terms of educational freedom and openness, the article’sthesis is that these are expectations which are placed on the media technologies themselves, andthen transferred to learning scenarios. To this end, the article will pursue such questions as: What are the learners, learning materials and learning scenarios allegedly free from or free for? What obstructive configurations should be omitted? To what extent are these characteristics which are of a nature to guaranteelearning processes in the context of lifelong learning or can these characteristics better be attributed to the media technologies themselves and the ways in which they are used? What advantages or new accentuations are promised by proponents of theeducation supplied by media technology? Which discourses provide sustenance for such implied “post-typographic educational ideals” (Giesecke 2001 and Lemke 1998? The importance to learners, teachers and decision-makers at educational institutions of being well informed as far as media is concerned is becoming increasingly apparent.

  3. CMS: Beyond all possible expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After having retraced the entire Standard Model up to the Top, the CMS collaboration is ready to go further and continue the success of what Guido Tonelli – its spokesperson – defines as a ‘magic year’. Things evolve fast at CMS, but scientists have taken up the challenge and are ready for the future.   ‘Enthusiasm’ is the word that best describes the feeling one gets when talking to Guido Tonelli. “In just a few months we have rediscovered the Standard Model and have gone even further by producing new results for cross-sections, placing new limits on the creation of heavy masses, making studies on the excited states of quarks, and seeking new resonances. We could not have expected so much such a short space of time. It’s fantastic”, he says. “We went through the learning phase very smoothly. Our detector was very quickly ready to do real physics and we were able to start to produce results almost ...

  4. Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilyuk, Andrei; Kimel, Alexey V.; Rasing, Theo

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with magnetically ordered materials has developed into a fascinating research topic in modern magnetism. From the discovery of subpicosecond demagnetization over a decade ago to the recent demonstration of magnetization reversal by a single 40fs laser pulse, the manipulation of magnetic order by ultrashort laser pulses has become a fundamentally challenging topic with a potentially high impact for future spintronics, data storage and manipulation, and quantum computation. Understanding the underlying mechanisms implies understanding the interaction of photons with charges, spins, and lattice, and the angular momentum transfer between them. This paper will review the progress in this field of laser manipulation of magnetic order in a systematic way. Starting with a historical introduction, the interaction of light with magnetically ordered matter is discussed. By investigating metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics, the roles of (nearly) free electrons, charge redistributions, and spin-orbit and spin-lattice interactions can partly be separated, and effects due to heating can be distinguished from those that are not. It will be shown that there is a fundamental distinction between processes that involve the actual absorption of photons and those that do not. It turns out that for the latter, the polarization of light plays an essential role in the manipulation of the magnetic moments at the femtosecond time scale. Thus, circularly and linearly polarized pulses are shown to act as strong transient magnetic field pulses originating from the nonabsorptive inverse Faraday and inverse Cotton-Mouton effects, respectively. The recent progress in the understanding of magneto-optical effects on the femtosecond time scale together with the mentioned inverse, optomagnetic effects promises a bright future for this field of ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order or femtomagnetism.

  5. Agile Web Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Mark

    1997-01-01

    ... in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. The pilot program allowed 18 small and medium sized enterprises to experiment with new agile business practices in competitive manufacturing environments by forming virtual organizations within...

  6. CERN pilot greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot installation was situated near Bld. BA6 opposite to the main entrance of the Meyrin site, with respect to Route de Meyrin. See Weekly Bulletin 3/83, and also photo 8305594X, 8505898X, 8302200.

  7. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  8. Intelligent Control of a Novel Hydraulic Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for large-size forgings has led to developments and innovations of heavy-duty forging manipulators. Besides the huge carrying capacity, some robot features such as force perception, delicacy and flexibility, forging manipulators should also possess. The aim of the work is to develop a heavy-duty forging manipulator with robot features by means of combination of methods in mechanical, hydraulic, and control field. In this paper, through kinematic analysis of a novel forging manipulator, control strategy of the manipulator is proposed considering the function and motion of forging manipulators. Hybrid pressure/position control of hydraulic actuators in forging manipulator is realized. The feasibility of the control method has been verified by the experiments on a real prototype of the novel hydraulic forging manipulator in our institute. The intelligent control of the forging manipulator is performed with programmable logic controller which is suitable for industrial applications.

  9. Gaze Following Is Modulated by Expectations Regarding Others' Action Goals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Perez-Osorio

    Full Text Available Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others' behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others' mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants' expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal. In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements. The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gaze-cueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an action-incongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent.

  10. Alpha Oscillatory Dynamics Index Temporal Expectation Benefits in Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsch, Anna; Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-07-01

    Enhanced alpha power compared with a baseline can reflect states of increased cognitive load, for example, when listening to speech in noise. Can knowledge about "when" to listen (temporal expectations) potentially counteract cognitive load and concomitantly reduce alpha? The current magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment induced cognitive load using an auditory delayed-matching-to-sample task with 2 syllables S1 and S2 presented in speech-shaped noise. Temporal expectation about the occurrence of S1 was manipulated in 3 different cue conditions: "Neutral" (uninformative about foreperiod), "early-cued" (short foreperiod), and "late-cued" (long foreperiod). Alpha power throughout the trial was highest when the cue was uninformative about the onset time of S1 (neutral) and lowest for the late-cued condition. This alpha-reducing effect of late compared with neutral cues was most evident during memory retention in noise and originated primarily in the right insula. Moreover, individual alpha effects during retention accounted best for observed individual performance differences between late-cued and neutral conditions, indicating a tradeoff between allocation of neural resources and the benefits drawn from temporal cues. Overall, the results indicate that temporal expectations can facilitate the encoding of speech in noise, and concomitantly reduce neural markers of cognitive load. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Subtle changes in the flavour and texture of a drink enhance expectations of satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrickerd Keri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of liquid calories has been implicated in the development of obesity and weight gain. Energy-containing drinks are often reported to have a weak satiety value: one explanation for this is that because of their fluid texture they are not expected to have much nutritional value. It is important to consider what features of these drinks can be manipulated to enhance their expected satiety value. Two studies investigated the perception of subtle changes in a drink’s viscosity, and the extent to which thick texture and creamy flavour contribute to the generation of satiety expectations. Participants in the first study rated the sensory characteristics of 16 fruit yogurt drinks of increasing viscosity. In study two, a new set of participants evaluated eight versions of the fruit yogurt drink, which varied in thick texture, creamy flavour and energy content, for sensory and hedonic characteristics and satiety expectations. Results In study one, participants were able to perceive small changes in drink viscosity that were strongly related to the actual viscosity of the drinks. In study two, the thick versions of the drink were expected to be more filling and have a greater expected satiety value, independent of the drink’s actual energy content. A creamy flavour enhanced the extent to which the drink was expected to be filling, but did not affect its expected satiety. Conclusions These results indicate that subtle manipulations of texture and creamy flavour can increase expectations that a fruit yogurt drink will be filling and suppress hunger, irrespective of the drink’s energy content. A thicker texture enhanced expectations of satiety to a greater extent than a creamier flavour, and may be one way to improve the anticipated satiating value of energy-containing beverages.

  12. How to manipulate magnetic states of antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheng; You, Yunfeng; Chen, Xianzhe; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic materials, which have drawn considerable attention recently, have fascinating features: they are robust against perturbation, produce no stray fields, and exhibit ultrafast dynamics. Discerning how to efficiently manipulate the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet is key to the development of antiferromagnetic spintronics. In this review, we introduce four main methods (magnetic, strain, electrical, and optical) to mediate the magnetic states and elaborate on intrinsic origins of different antiferromagnetic materials. Magnetic control includes a strong magnetic field, exchange bias, and field cooling, which are traditional and basic. Strain control involves the magnetic anisotropy effect or metamagnetic transition. Electrical control can be divided into two parts, electric field and electric current, both of which are convenient for practical applications. Optical control includes thermal and electronic excitation, an inertia-driven mechanism, and terahertz laser control, with the potential for ultrafast antiferromagnetic manipulation. This review sheds light on effective usage of antiferromagnets and provides a new perspective on antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  13. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  14. Treating patellar tendinopathy with Fascial Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Alessandro; Stecco, Carla; Day, Julie Ann

    2009-01-01

    According to Fascial Manipulation theory, patellar tendon pain is often due to uncoordinated quadriceps contraction caused by anomalous fascial tension in the thigh. Therefore, the focus of treatment is not the patellar tendon itself, but involves localizing the cause of this incoordination, considered to be within the muscular fascia of the thigh region. Eighteen patients suffering from patellar tendon pain were treated with the Fascial Manipulation technique. Pain was assessed (in VAS) before (VAS 67.8/100) and after (VAS 26.5/100) treatment, plus a follow-up evaluation at 1 month (VAS 17.2/100). Results showed a substantial decrease in pain immediately after treatment (p<0.0001) and remained unchanged or improved in the short term. The results show that the patellar tendon may be only the zone of perceived pain and that interesting results can be obtained by treating the muscular fascia of the quadriceps muscle, whose alteration may cause motor incoordination and subsequent pathology.

  15. Stock Price Manipulation: The Role of Intermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Siddiqi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We model a scenario in which there are three types of investors: fundamentalists, speculators, and trend-followers and an intermediary who cares about his reputation. Fundamentalists are rational investors with long horizons who are interested in the dividend stream. Speculators are rational investors who have short horizons and are interested in profiting from short-term price movements or capital gains. Trend-followers are behavioral investors who extrapolate price trends, and, consequently, are late entrants in the market. We show that an informed intermediary (broker can manipulate demand (consequently stock price without losing his reputation when there is information asymmetry. We also show that there is a trade-off between broker level competition for reputation and market liquidity. Broker level competition checks manipulation, but it adversely affects market liquidity.

  16. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho [Mechanical Systems Engineering, Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Maeda 7-15-4-1, Teine-ku, Sapporo 006-855 (Japan)], E-mail: toyodahm@poppy.ocn.ne.jp

    2009-10-15

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  17. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  18. OPTIMAL TRAJECTORY PLANNING OF MANIPULATORS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATEF A. ATA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal motion planning is very important to the operation of robot manipulators. Its main target is the generation of a trajectory from start to goal that satisfies objectives, such as minimizing path traveling distance or time interval, lowest energy consumption or obstacle avoidance and satisfying the robot’s kinematics and dynamics. Review, discussion and analysis of optimization techniques to find the optimal trajectory either in Cartesian space or joint space are presented and investigated. Optimal trajectory selection approaches such as kinematics and dynamics techniques with various constraints are presented and explained. Although the kinematics approach is simple and straight forward, it will experience some problems in implementation because of lack of Inertia and torque constraints. The application of Genetic Algorithms to find the optimal trajectory of manipulators especially in the obstacle avoidance is also highlighted. Combining the Genetic Algorithms with other classical optimization methods proves to have better performance as a hybrid optimization technique.

  19. Adaptive control of space based robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael W.; Wee, Liang-Boon

    1991-01-01

    For space based robots in which the base is free to move, motion planning and control is complicated by uncertainties in the inertial properties of the manipulator and its load. A new adaptive control method is presented for space based robots which achieves globally stable trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties in the inertial parameters of the system. A partition is made of the fifteen degree of freedom system dynamics into two parts: a nine degree of freedom invertible portion and a six degree of freedom noninvertible portion. The controller is then designed to achieve trajectory tracking of the invertible portion of the system. This portion consist of the manipulator joint positions and the orientation of the base. The motion of the noninvertible portion is bounded, but unpredictable. This portion consist of the position of the robot's base and the position of the reaction wheel.

  20. Reversible Bergman cyclization by atomic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Bruno; Fatayer, Shadi; Mohn, Fabian; Moll, Nikolaj; Pavliček, Niko; Meyer, Gerhard; Peña, Diego; Gross, Leo

    2016-03-01

    The Bergman cyclization is one of the most fascinating rearrangements in chemistry, with important implications in organic synthesis and pharmacology. Here we demonstrate a reversible Bergman cyclization for the first time. We induced the on-surface transformation of an individual aromatic diradical into a highly strained ten-membered diyne using atomic manipulation and verified the products by non-contact atomic force microscopy with atomic resolution. The diyne and diradical were stabilized by using an ultrathin NaCl film as the substrate, and the diyne could be transformed back into the diradical. Importantly, the diradical and the diyne exhibit different reactivity, electronic, magnetic and optical properties associated with the changes in the bond topology, and spin multiplicity. With this reversible, triggered Bergman cyclization we demonstrated switching on demand between the two reactive intermediates by means of selective C-C bond formation or cleavage, which opens up the field of radical chemistry for on-surface reactions by atomic manipulation.

  1. Resolution of dacryostenosis after osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoznanski, Theresa E; Abu-Sbaih, Reem; Terzella, Michael J; Yao, Sheldon

    2015-02-01

    Dacryostenosis is an obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct and is the most common cause of epiphora and ocular discharge in newborns. Whereas most cases resolve spontaneously, invasive treatment may become necessary if symptoms persist past age 6 to 12 months. In the present case, a 9-month-old boy with persistent dacryostenosis was scheduled for lacrimal duct probing after first-line treatments failed. After a single session of osteopathic manipulative treatment, the patient's epiphora and other symptoms resolved, and he no longer needed surgical probing. A review of the literature highlights key pathophysiologic processes, management options, and musculoskeletal aspects of dacryostenosis. Physicians should consider osteopathic manipulative treatment in the management of dacryostenosis. © 2015 The American Osteopathic Association.

  2. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  3. Microtechnology for cell manipulation and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Peter; Carlo, Dino

    2017-01-01

    This book delves into the recent developments in the microscale and microfluidic technologies that allow manipulation at the single and cell aggregate level. Expert authors review the dominant mechanisms that manipulate and sort biological structures, making this a state-of-the-art overview of conventional cell sorting techniques, the principles of microfluidics, and of microfluidic devices. All chapters highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each technique they discuss, which include magnetic, electrical, optical, acoustic, gravity/sedimentation, inertial, deformability, and aqueous two-phase systems as the dominant mechanisms utilized by microfluidic devices to handle biological samples. Each chapter explains the physics of the mechanism at work, and reviews common geometries and devices to help readers decide the type of style of device required for various applications. This book is appropriate for graduate-level biomedical engineering and analytical chemistry students, as well as engineers and scientist...

  4. Multivariable PID Controller For Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Tarokh, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Gains updated during operation to cope with changes in characteristics and loads. Conceptual multivariable controller for robotic manipulator includes proportional/derivative (PD) controller in inner feedback loop, and proportional/integral/derivative (PID) controller in outer feedback loop. PD controller places poles of transfer function (in Laplace-transform space) of control system for linearized mathematical model of dynamics of robot. PID controller tracks trajectory and decouples input and output.

  5. Asset price manipulation with several traders

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, A

    2012-01-01

    In financial markets with asymmetric information, traders may have an incentive to forgo profitable deals today in order to preserve their informational advantage for future deals. This sort of manipulative behaviour has been studied in markets with one informed trader (Kyle 1985, Chakraborty and Yilmaz 2004). The effect is slower social learning. Using an extension of Glosten and Milgrom’s (1985) trading model, we study this effect in markets with N informed traders. As N grows large, each t...

  6. Asset price manipulation with several traders

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    In financial markets with asymmetric information, traders may have an incentive to forgo profitable deals today in order to preserve their informational advantage for future deals. This sort of manipulative behaviour has been studied in markets with one informed trader (Kyle 1985, Chakraborty and Yilmaz 2004). The effect is slower social learning. Using an extension of Glosten and Milgromメs (1985) trading model, we study this effect in markets with N informed traders. As N grows large, each t...

  7. Dynamical pixel manipulation of metasurfaces (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jin-Qian

    2017-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) metamaterials or known as metasurfaces have attracted researchers' attention due to their capability to manipulate the amplitudes, phases and polarization states of incident electromagnetic waves by conferring extra phase different phase at different positions through a super cell that is composed of different oriented structures. In other words, metasurfaces can achieve beam steering and wave shaping by imparting local, gradient phase shift to the incoming waves. With these abilities, metasurfaces can be applied to applications such as ultrathin invisibility cloaks, metasurface holograms, planar lenses and a vortex generator. With the above mentioned advantages and applications of metasurfaces, yet, all the demonstrated metasurfaces possess a main insufficiency that once the metasurfaces are designed and fabricated, their optical properties are then fixed without any chance for further manipulation, which limits their versatility in practical applications. Moreover, although some researchers employed dynamically changeable materials to achieve an active metasurface, such manipulation can only change the overall performance such as an operating frequency instead of changing the provided phase on each pixel of a metasurface. To solve this issue, we employ liquid crystal integrated with a metasurface and the combination could be thus be dynamically tuned via electric bias on each pixel of liquid crystals. Through this setup, we can alter the polarization state of the incident electromagnetic wave dynamically and thus manipulate the extra phase provided by each pixel. In this combination, liquid crystal is employed to change the incident polarization from 0 to 360-degree and the metasurface is designed to achieve four different output signals including phase modulated linear- and circular-polarized light and amplitude-modulated linear- and circular-polarized light. Meanwhile, the metasurfaces could also control the transmission efficiency of the

  8. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma†

    OpenAIRE

    Yung, Sonja B.; Primm, Todd P.

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  9. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja B. Yung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  10. Interactive data manipulation program FAWTEK user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, W.B.

    1977-02-01

    The interactive data acquisitio and manipulation program FAWTEK is described. The program allows users of the electron beam data acquisition facility to control the R7912 digitizers and to perform a variety of mathematical operations on data arrays. Commands are entered in a high-level language via a Tektronix 4010 terminal console. Each command directive, aling with its associated parameters, is described in detail.

  11. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  12. Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that

  13. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Josie Hughes; Utku Culha; Fabio Giardina; Fabian Günther; Andre Rosendo; Fumiya Iida

    2016-01-01

    Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are no...

  14. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Josie; Culha, Utku; Giardina, Fabio; Guenther, Fabian; Rosendo, Andre; Iida, Fumiya

    2016-01-01

    Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilizes the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not ...

  15. Manipulating Cells with Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, J. M.; Guevorkian, K.

    2005-07-01

    We review our investigations of the use of static magnetic fields, B, for manipulating cells and cellular processes. We describe how B fields modify the cell division pattern of frog embryos and consequently can be used to probe the pattern determinants. We also observe that magnetic fields modify the swimming behavior of Paramecium Caudatum. We describe these modifications and their potential application to investigations of their swimming behavior.

  16. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping...... matrices that decouples the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Control allocation of torques is applied through an optimization that promotes even distribution of torques over actuators. Simulations showed a good compliance behaviour in low frequencies....

  17. Authorship and citation manipulation in academic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Some scholars add authors to their research papers or grant proposals even when those individuals contribute nothing to the research effort. Some journal editors coerce authors to add citations that are not pertinent to their work and some authors pad their reference lists with superfluous citations. How prevalent are these types of manipulation, why do scholars stoop to such practices, and who among us is most susceptible to such ethical lapses? This study builds a framework around how intense competition for limited journal space and research funding can encourage manipulation and then uses that framework to develop hypotheses about who manipulates and why they do so. We test those hypotheses using data from over 12,000 responses to a series of surveys sent to more than 110,000 scholars from eighteen different disciplines spread across science, engineering, social science, business, and health care. We find widespread misattribution in publications and in research proposals with significant variation by academic rank, discipline, sex, publication history, co-authors, etc. Even though the majority of scholars disapprove of such tactics, many feel pressured to make such additions while others suggest that it is just the way the game is played. The findings suggest that certain changes in the review process might help to stem this ethical decline, but progress could be slow. PMID:29211744

  18. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  19. [Operation training and 24-type simplex manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin

    2014-03-01

    Operation training is the basic training of acupuncture, which includes practicing finger force and finger feeling. During practicing, it is essential to comprehend that needle is the carrier of force, and the force should be exerted through the needle, meaning the finger force should be put into the needle. There are four basic skills, including practicing qi, practicing finger, practicing spirit and practicing technique. Besides, there are three combinations, which are combination of spirit and finger, combination of force and qi and combination of qi and spirit. It is required to seek movement from peace and achieve fast from stable, also it needs to be swift through being steady, be dynamic through being static and be ingenious through being subtle. The techniques in the 24-type simplex manipulation are recorded in the ancient literature, and some arrangement and supplement is added and then summarized to classify this manipulation into six groups, including (1) search and pinch acupoint, activate meridian by finger and by nail; (2) swing, hover, twist and rub the needle; (3) insert, withdraw, lift and thrust the needle; (4) scrape, flip, fly and rub needle handle; (5) pull, push, vibrate and bend the needle; (6) press meridian and acupoint, seek meridian qi and stir the needle. It could provide positive effect on distinguishing and comprehending the manipulation.

  20. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Hughes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not best suited. This requires a paradigm shift in the methods and materials used to develop robots such that they can adapt to and work safely in human environments. One solution to this is soft robotics, which enables soft interactions with the surroundings whilst maintaining the ability to apply significant force. This review paper assess the current materials and methods, actuation methods and sensors which are used in the development of soft manipulators. The achievements and shortcomings of recent technology in these key areas are evaluated, and this paper concludes with a discussion on the potential impacts of soft manipulators on industry and society.

  1. Manipulator for the Reparation of Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrádocký Ladislav

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Èlánok vychádza z poznatkov, získaných riešením rezortnej výskumnej úlohy PO1-125-823 "Manipulátory pre hlbinné bane", ktorý je návrhom autorov. Pozornos sa sústreïuje na súèas-ný stav v zavádzaní manipulátorov pre hlbinné bane, uvádzajú sa kritériá a podmienky ich nasadzovania. Príspevok prezentuje manipulátor, urèený pre automatizáciu opráv banských vozíkov priamo v podzemí. Navrhnuté riešenie je autorsky chránené. Struène sú charakterizované problémy, ale aj možnosti, ktoré robotizácia ponúka baníctvu.

  2. Authorship and citation manipulation in academic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Eric A; Wilhite, Allen W

    2017-01-01

    Some scholars add authors to their research papers or grant proposals even when those individuals contribute nothing to the research effort. Some journal editors coerce authors to add citations that are not pertinent to their work and some authors pad their reference lists with superfluous citations. How prevalent are these types of manipulation, why do scholars stoop to such practices, and who among us is most susceptible to such ethical lapses? This study builds a framework around how intense competition for limited journal space and research funding can encourage manipulation and then uses that framework to develop hypotheses about who manipulates and why they do so. We test those hypotheses using data from over 12,000 responses to a series of surveys sent to more than 110,000 scholars from eighteen different disciplines spread across science, engineering, social science, business, and health care. We find widespread misattribution in publications and in research proposals with significant variation by academic rank, discipline, sex, publication history, co-authors, etc. Even though the majority of scholars disapprove of such tactics, many feel pressured to make such additions while others suggest that it is just the way the game is played. The findings suggest that certain changes in the review process might help to stem this ethical decline, but progress could be slow.

  3. DIRAC universal pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.; Krzemien, W.; consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing models, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are in the form of opportunistic ones. Most but not all of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. In addition, some of them, present opportunities for multi-processor computing slots to the users. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to provide the transparent, uniform interface has become essential. The transparent access to the underlying resources is realized by implementing the pilot model. DIRAC’s newest generation of generic pilots (the so-called Pilots 2.0) are the “pilots for all the skies”, and have been successfully released in production more than a year ago. They use a plugin mechanism that makes them easily adaptable. Pilots 2.0 have been used for fetching and running jobs on every type of resource, being it a Worker Node (WN) behind a CREAM/ARC/HTCondor/DIRAC Computing element, a Virtual Machine running on IaaC infrastructures like Vac or BOINC, on IaaS cloud resources managed by Vcycle, the LHCb High Level Trigger farm nodes, and any type of opportunistic computing resource. Make a machine a “Pilot Machine”, and all diversities between them will disappear. This contribution describes how pilots are made suitable for different resources, and the recent steps taken towards a fully unified framework, including monitoring. Also, the cases of multi-processor computing slots either on real or virtual machines, with the whole node or a partition of it, is discussed.

  4. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  5. Of Hope, Fear and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2011-01-01

    The study explores how gender and differences in preferences affect subjective expectations among a group of students.......The study explores how gender and differences in preferences affect subjective expectations among a group of students....

  6. Experiments on Expectations in Macroeconomics and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, Tiziana; Bao, Te; Hommes, Cars; Massaro, Domenico; Duffy, John

    2014-01-01

    Expectations play a crucial role in finance, macroeconomics, monetary economics, and fiscal policy. In the last decade a rapidly increasing number of laboratory experiments have been performed to study individual expectation formation, the interactions of individual forecasting rules, and the

  7. Experiments on expectations in macroeconomics and finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Bao, T.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.; Duffy, J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations play a crucial role in finance, macroeconomics, monetary economics, and fiscal policy. In the last decade a rapidly increasing number of laboratory experiments have been performed to study individual expectation formation, the interactions of individual forecasting rules, and the

  8. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog Follow ACG on Twitter Patients ACG Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What to Expect During a Colonoscopy Prep. Sedation. Procedure. Post-Procedure. This new educational video for GI patients, produced by the ...

  9. Mortality hazard rates and life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Kaas, R.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the relation between mortality hazards and life expectancy for men and women in the Netherlands and in England. Halving the lifetime mortality hazards increases life expectancy at birth by only 9%.

  10. Health expectancy in Denmark, 1987-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    While life expectancy quantifies average length of life, health expectancy represents the average lifetime in different health states and offers the possibility to evaluate quality of life with respect to health. The purpose of the study was to estimate changes in health expectancy in Denmark from 1987 to 2000 and to assess theories about the relation between increased total lifetime and lifetime in various health states. Data on health status derived from the Danish Health Interview Surveys carried out in 1987, 1991, 1994 and 2000 were combined with life-table data. Expected lifetime in selfrated good health, life expectancy without longstanding illness and disabilityfree life expectancy were estimated by Sullivan's method. In 1987, the life expectancy of a 65-year-old man was 14.1 years, 8.9 years of which were expected to be disabilityfree. In 2000, life expectancy had increased to 15.0 years, 11.3 years of which were disabilityfree. Thus, life expectancy had increased by 0.9 years, whereas disabilityfree life expectancy had increased by 2.4 years. Among 65-year-old women, life expectancy had increased by 0.2 years and disabilityfree life expectancy by 1.1 years. Expected lifetime in selfrated good health had also improved, but the trend in life expectancy without longstanding illness went in the opposite direction, and expected lifetime with longstanding illness had increased. The recent rise in life expectancy in Denmark after many years of stagnation appears to be accompanied by generally improved health status among the elderly, but health expectancy trends depend on the health indicator chosen. Health expectancy expresses average lifetime in various states of health. The study examines changes in expected lifetime in selfrated good health, lifetime without longstanding illness and lifetime without longterm disability. Among 65-year-olds the percentage of disabilityfree life expectancy increased from 63.4% to 74.9% for men and from 55.6% to 61.0% for women

  11. Managing the 'manipulative' patient--a different perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatward, N

    Recent ideas about education suggest that all human behaviour can be seen as an attempt to manipulate other people or the environment. Nurses may use these ideas to find better ways of managing 'manipulative' behaviour.

  12. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...

  13. [Thoughts on and probes into computer simulation of acupuncture manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yin'e; Liu, Tangyi; Tang, Wenchao; Xu, Gang; Gao, Ming; Yang, Huayuan

    2011-08-01

    The studies of the simulation of acupuncture manipulation mainly focus on mechanical simulation and virtual simulation (SIM). In terms of mechanical simulation, the aim of the research is to develop the instruments of the simulation of acupuncture manipulation, and to apply them to the simulation or a replacement of the manual acupuncture manipulation; while the virtual simulation applies the virtual reality technology to present the manipulation in 3D real-time on the computer screen. This paper is to summarize the recent research progress on computer simulation of acupuncture manipulation at home and abroad, and thus concludes with the significance and the rising problems over the computer simulation of acupuncture manipulation. Therefore we put forward that the research on simulation manipulation should pay much attention to experts' manipulation simulation, as well as the verification studies on conformity and clinical effects.

  14. Stock Market Manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to empirically examine stock market manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The dataset contains 40 cases of market manipulation from 1996 to 2009 that were successfully prosecuted by the Hong Kong Securities & Futures Commission. Manipulation is found to negatively impact market efficiency measures such as the bid-ask spread and volatility. Markets appear incapable of efficiently responding to the presence of manipulators and are characterised by information asymmetry. Manipulators were successfully able to raise prices and exit the market. This finding contradicts views that trade-based manipulation is entirely unprofitable and self-deterring. The victimisation of information-seeking investors and the market as a whole provides a strong rationale for all jurisdictions, including Australia, to have effective laws that prohibit manipulation and for robust enforcement of those laws to further deter market manipulation.

  15. CHAMP: A bespoke integrated system for mobile manipulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Eden, B

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile manipulation is a robotics paradigm with the potential to make major contributions to a number of important domain areas. Although some mobile manipulators are commercially available, bespoke systems can be assembled from existing...

  16. Essays on subjective expectations and mortality trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters on two topics. The first topic, covered in chapter 2, 3, and 4, is about subjective expectations. Economists have long understood that expectations are important determinants of economic decisions. However, expectations are rarely observed. One way to overcome

  17. Do recovery expectations change over time?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Steven J; Kongsted, Alice; Haanstra, Tsjitske M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: While a considerable body of research has explored the relationship between patient expectations and clinical outcomes, few studies investigate the extent to which patient expectations change over time. Further, the temporal relationship between expectations and symptoms is not well rese...

  18. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  19. Smoking expands expected lifetime with musculoskeletal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    By indirect estimation of mortality from smoking and life table methods we estimated expected lifetime without musculoskeletal diseases among never smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. We found that although life expectancy of a heavy smoker is 7 years shorter than that of a never smoker, heavy...... smokers can expect to live more than 2 years longer with musculoskeletal diseases than never smokers....

  20. Contextual influences on alcohol expectancy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J

    2007-09-01

    Context may differentially influence expectancy dimensions, in turn affecting drinking behavior. The present study examined alcohol cue and mood contextual influences on expectancy activation, controlling for more stable self-reported expectancy endorsement. We were particularly interested in the specific effects of negative mood on affect-relevant (tension reduction) expectancies. Regularly drinking undergraduates (N = 140; 64 female) underwent a mood (stress or neutral) induction procedure and then were presented with alcohol or nonalcohol beverage cues. Participants next completed a computerized expectancy response time task (ETASK), and self-report measures of drinking variables. Individual difference analyses generally replicated previous reports on the inverse relationship between alcohol involvement and ETASK response time. However, examination of contextual effects revealed a different pattern of ETASK responding. Participants exposed to alcohol cues were slower to respond to expectancy items than those in the nonalcohol cue condition. Mood and expectancy type moderated this effect; response time after alcohol cues slowed selectively for those in the stress mood condition and only for tension-reduction expectancy items. These data highlight the dimensionality of expectancies that comes into relief when contextual factors are considered. Expectancy response times index both facilitation, when examined in the context of drinking expertise, and interference, in response to motivationally relevant stimuli. Our data also support the specificity of contextual effects on those expectancies that are context relevant (i.e., mood). Further consideration of these contextual effects on dynamic expectancy processes may improve prediction of drinking behavior in real-world settings.

  1. Expected utility and catastrophic consumption risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.

    2015-01-01

    An expected utility based cost-benefit analysis is, in general, fragile to distributional assumptions. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions on the utility function of consumption in the expected utility model to avoid this. The conditions ensure that expected (marginal) utility of

  2. Childbirth expectations and correlates at the final stage of pregnancy in Chinese expectant parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: This study adds to understanding of the childbirth expectations of Chinese expectant parents. It is suggested that maternity healthcare providers pay close attention to the childbirth expectations of expectant parents, and improve the nursing care service to promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction of expectant parents.

  3. WORKSPACE DRAWING FROM A MANIPULATOR ARM WITH 6 DOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAIDIN Gigi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling and simulation is an important aspect in robotic field. Knowing of the workspace is very important to the operation of manipulators arm. This paper investigates operational performance of space manipulator arm destined for industrial manufacturing, by defining and analyzing their workspace and manipulability measure. The authors show that manipulator arm developing requires the consideration of more efficient dynamic models and use of dedicated processing techniques such as Autodesk-Inventor 9, MATLAB, WorkSpace software.

  4. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  5. Effect of Osteopathic Cranial Manipulative Medicine on Visual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhouse, Mark E; Shechtman, Diana; Fecho, Gregory; Timoshkin, Elena M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine (OCMM) on visual function have been poorly characterized in the literature. Based on a pilot study conducted by their research group, the authors conducted a study that examined whether OCMM produced a measurable change in visual function in adults with cranial asymmetry. Randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The intervention and control (sham therapy) were applied during 8 weekly visits, and participants in both groups received 8 weekly follow-up visits. Adult volunteers aged between 18 and 35 years with unremarkable systemic or ocular history were recruited. Inclusion criteria were refractive error between 6 diopters of myopia and 5 diopters of hyperopia, regular astigmatism of any amount, and cranial somatic dysfunction. All participants were evaluated for cranial asymmetry and randomly assigned to the treatment or sham therapy group. The treatment group received OCMM to correct cranial dysfunctions, and the sham therapy group received light pressure applied to the cranium. Preintervention and postintervention ophthalmic examinations consisted of distance visual acuity testing, accommodative system testing, local stereoacuity testing, pupillary size measurements, and vergence system testing. A χ2 analysis was performed to determine participant masking. Analysis of variance was performed for all ophthalmic measures. Eighty-nine participants completed the trial, with 47 in the treatment group and 42 in the sham therapy group. A hierarchical analysis of variance revealed statistically significant within-groups effects (Ptherapy group, a statistically significant effect (Pmanipulative medicine may affect visual function in adults with cranial asymmetry. Active motion testing of the cranium for somatic dysfunction may affect the cranial system to a measurable level and explain interrater reliability issues in cranial studies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02728713).

  6. Mechanical versus manual manipulation for low back pain: An observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael J; Brach, Jennifer; Irrgang, James J.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Delitto, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective This is an observational prospective cohort study to explore the treatment effect of mechanical vs. manual manipulation for acute low back pain. Methods Ninety two patients with a history of acute low back pain were recruited from 3 private chiropractic offices, 2 of which utilized manual lumbar manipulation and 1 used mechanical instrument manipulation (Activator) as their primary modes of treatment. The chiropractors used their “treatment as usual” protocols for a maximum of 8 visits or 4 weeks, which ever occurred first. Primary outcome measures were changes in Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores from baseline to 4 weeks. The linear regression models were adjusted for baseline NPRS and ODI scores, age, and treatment expectancy. Results Comparison of baseline characteristics did not show any significant differences between the groups except for age (38.4 vs. 49.7 years; p < .001) and treatment expectancy (5.7 vs. 6.3; p = .003). Linear regression revealed significantly lower NPRS scores in the manual manipulation group at four weeks [β = −1.2; 95% CI (−2.1, −.28)] but no significant difference in ODI scores between the two groups at four weeks [β = 1.5; 95% CI (−8.3, 2.4)]. Treatment expectancy, but not age, was found to have a significant main effect on both NPRS and ODI scores at 4 weeks. Exploratory analysis of the clinical patterns of care between the clinicians revealed significant differences in treatment frequency, duration, modality and radiograph usage between the 2 cohorts. Conclusions This study highlights the challenges inherent with conducting research that allows for “treatment-as-usual”. The data and experience derived from this investigational study will be used to design a future randomized clinical trial in which tighter controls will be imposed on the treatment protocol. PMID:20350672

  7. Vibration suppression during input tracking of a flexible manipulator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to-robot-weight ratio. However, precise control of such manipulators is a challenging task, as flexible manipulators possess large structural vibrations. To control flexible manipulators efficiently, the first and foremost step is to develop an accurate dynamic model of the system. In the past, various authors proposed different ...

  8. An Embedded and Embodied Cognition Review of Instructional Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature on learning with instructional manipulatives seems to call for a moderate view on the effects of perceptual and interactive richness of instructional manipulatives on learning. This "moderate view" holds that manipulatives' perceptual and interactive richness may compromise learning in two ways: (1) by imposing a…

  9. Optical Manipulation System Using a Plurality of Optical Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical manipulation system (10) for generation of a plurality of optical traps for manipulation of micro-objects including nano-objects using electromagnetic radiation forces in a micro-object manipulation volume (14), the system comprising a spatially modulated...

  10. Physical versus Virtual Manipulative Experimentation in Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical or virtual manipulative experimentation can differentiate physics learning. There were four experimental conditions, namely Physical Manipulative Experimentation (PME), Virtual Manipulative Experimentation (VME), and two sequential combinations of PME and VME, as well as a control condition…

  11. Virtual Manipulatives on the Interactive Whiteboard: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenhall, Paula; Swan, Paul; Northcote, Maria; Marshall, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As part of the project titled "Hands-On Heads-On: The Effective Use of Manipulatives Both Virtual and Physical" being undertaken at Edith Cowan University, there was an investigation into the use of virtual manipulatives and the interactive whiteboard (IWB). Virtual manipulatives may be defined as a virtual representation of a physical…

  12. Mechatronic design of a robotic manipulator for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the mechatronic design of a robotic manipulator that is meant to be mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and to be used in industrial applications, for both aerial inspection by contact and aerial manipulation. The combination of an UAV and the robotic manipulator

  13. A study of nanoparticle manipulation using ultrasonic standing waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Rasidovic, A.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the noninvasive manipulation of particles in dispersions during the last 15 years. The manipulation techniques based on acoustic radiation forces are particularly interesting as they allow for the manipulation of particles based on their density,

  14. Commercial Pilot Knowledge Test Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The FAA has available hundreds of computer testing centers nationwide. These testing centers offer the full range of airman knowledge tests including military competence, instrument foreign pilot, and pilot examiner predesignated tests. Refer to appe...

  15. Service Catalog Pilot Project Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the ServCat pilot project and offers recommendations for the full-scale implementation of the database. During the pilot project a total of...

  16. The Effects on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits of Introducing Virtual Manipulatives Within a Physical Manipulatives-Oriented Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether Virtual Manipulatives (VM) within a Physical Manipulatives (PM)-oriented curriculum affect conceptual understanding of electric circuits and related experimentation processes. A pre–post comparison study randomly assigned 194 undergraduates in an introductory physics

  17. Conditioning 'fullness expectations' in a novel dessert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2009-06-01

    Calorie-for-calorie, foods differ considerably in the extent to which they are expected to deliver satiation. We sought to demonstrate that flavour-nutrient learning modifies these expectations. On day 1, participants (N=56) tasted a novel dessert and then completed a measure of expected satiation. Participants then consumed either a low (228 kcal) or high (568 kcal) energy-dense dessert (sensory characteristics matched). On day 2, expected satiation was assessed and then intake was measured using an intermediate energy-dense dessert. Expected satiation did increase but only in the high energy-dense condition (17.4%). This difference was not reflected in a measure of intake.

  18. The Anatomy of Virtual Manipulative Apps: Using Grounded Theory to Conceptualize and Evaluate Educational Apps that Contain Virtual Manipulatives

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to investigate the anatomy of educational apps that contain virtual manipulatives. For this study 100 virtual manipulatives within educational apps designed for the iPad were observed by the researcher in order to expand the explanations of and build theory about virtual manipulatives within apps. Affordance theory was used to frame all six phases of the study in which the researcher identified virtual manipulatives situated within educa...

  19. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  20. Expectation Formation and Monetary DSGE Models: Beyond the Rational Expectations Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Milani; Ashish Rajbhandari

    2012-01-01

    Empirical work in macroeconomics almost universally relies on the hypothesis of rational expectations. This paper departs from the literature by considering a variety of alternative expectations formation models. We study the econometric properties of a popular New Keynesian monetary DSGE model under different expectational assumptions: the benchmark case of rational expectations, rational expectations extended to allow for `news' about future shocks, near-rational expectations and learning, ...

  1. Response of soil respiration to experimental warming and precipitation manipulation in a northern Great Plains grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, L. B.; Sharp, E. J.; Letts, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The interacting effects of altered temperature and precipitation are expected to have significant consequences for ecosystem net carbon storage. Here we report the results of an experiment that evaluated the effects of elevated temperature and altered precipitation, alone and in combination, on plant biomass production and soil respiration rates in a northern Great Plains grassland, near Lethbridge, Alberta Canada. Open-top chambers and rain shelters were used to establish an experiment with two temperature treatments (warmed and control), each combined with three precipitation treatments (minus 50%, ambient (no manipulation), and plus 50%). Our objectives were to determine the sensitivity of plant biomass production and soil respiration to temperature and moisture manipulations, and to test for direct and indirect effects of the environmental changes on soil respiration rates. The experimental manipulations resulted primarily in a significant increase in air temperature in the warmed treatment. There were no significant treatment effects on soil moisture content. Aboveground biomass was not significantly affected by the experimental manipulations, but the warmed plots of the ambient precipitation treatment showed an increase in root biomass relative to the control plots. The warmed treatment increased the cumulative loss of carbon in soil respiration by approximately 400 g C m-2 compared to the control during July-September. This higher soil respiration rate was not directly caused by differences among treatments in soil temperature or soil moisture, but was likely an indirect result of increased carbon substrate availability in the warmed relative to the control treatment.

  2. A Field Reconfigurable Manipulator for Rovers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots will be precursors to human exploration of the lunar surface. They will be expected to prepare the lunar surface for human habitation as well as conduct...

  3. Manipulation of particles based on swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Fan, Jibin; Aoyama, Hisayuki

    2018-01-01

    A method of manipulating particles based on swirl was proposed in this article. The pressure and velocity distributions of swirling flow field were analyzed theoretically. The mechanism of particle trapping and controlling based on swirling flow was discussed, and the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by experiments. The results show that a swirling flow can be generated by placing two microtubules in parallel and jetting fluid in opposite directions. Particles with arbitrary size and shape can be trapped and controlled to rotate and move directionally and quantitatively with proper swirling flow parameters.

  4. Coherent manipulation of single spins in semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald; Awschalom, David D

    2008-06-19

    During the past few years, researchers have gained unprecedented control over spins in the solid state. What was considered almost impossible a decade ago, in both conceptual and practical terms, is now a reality: single spins can be isolated, initialized, coherently manipulated and read out using both electrical and optical techniques. Progress has been made towards full control of the quantum states of single and coupled spins in a variety of semiconductors and nanostructures, and towards understanding the mechanisms through which spins lose coherence in these systems. These abilities will allow pioneering investigations of fundamental quantum-mechanical processes and provide pathways towards applications in quantum information processing.

  5. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  6. Square Root - Type Control for Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of position control for robot manipulators. A new control structure with compensation for global position is presented. The main contribution of this paper is to prove that the closed loop system of the nonlinear robot dynamics model and the proposed control algorithm is globally, asymptotically stable and in agreement with Lyapunov's direct method and LaSalle's invariance principle. Besides this, the theoretical results in a real-time experimental comparison are also presented to show a comparison of the performance between the square root type controller and simple PD scheme on a three degrees-of-freedom direct-drive robot.

  7. View of the Columbia's remote manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This the aft section of the Earth-orbiting Columbia's cargo bay and the remote manipulator system (RMS) moving the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) was photographed through the flight-deck's aft windows during the STS-3 flight. Visible at the lower left of the photo are the twin orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. The vertical stabilizer or tail splits the top part of the image in half. The RMS, with its camera attached to the wrist, is aimed in the direction of the dark payload bay.

  8. Optimizing Motion Planning for Hyper Dynamic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboura, Souhila; Omari, Abdelhafid; Meguenni, Kadda Zemalache

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal motion planning for an hyper dynamic manipulator. As case study, we consider a golf swing robot which is consisting with two actuated joint and a mechanical stoppers. Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is proposed to solve the optimal golf swing motion which is generated by Fourier series approximation. The objective function for GA approach is to minimizing the intermediate and final state, minimizing the robot's energy consummation and maximizing the robot's speed. Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  9. When should a trophically and vertically transmitted parasite manipulate its intermediate host? The case of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lélu, Maud; Langlais, Michel; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Gandon, Sylvain

    2013-08-22

    Parasites with complex life cycles are expected to manipulate the behaviour of their intermediate hosts (IHs), which increase their predation rate and facilitate the transmission to definitive hosts (DHs). This ability, however, is a double-edged sword when the parasite can also be transmitted vertically in the IH. In this situation, as the manipulation of the IH behaviour increases the IH death rate, it conflicts with vertical transmission, which requires healthy and reproducing IHs. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a widespread pathogen, combines both trophic and vertical transmission strategies. Is parasite manipulation of host behaviour still adaptive in this situation? We model the evolution of the IH manipulation by T. gondii to study the conflict between these two routes of transmission under different epidemiological situations. Model outputs show that manipulation is particularly advantageous for virulent strains and in epidemic situations, and that different levels of manipulation may evolve depending on the sex of the IH and the transmission routes considered. These results may help to understand the variability of strain characteristics encountered for T. gondii and may extend to other trophically transmitted parasites.

  10. Decolonization and life expectancy in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Soraya P A; van Oers, Hans A M; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-12-01

    Decolonization has brought political independence to half the Caribbean states in the last half of the 20th century, while the other states remain affiliated. Previous studies suggested a beneficial impact of affiliated status on population health, which may be mediated by more favorable economic development. We assessed how disparities in life expectancy between currently sovereign and affiliated states developed over time, whether decolonization coincided with changes in life expectancy, and whether decolonization coincided with similar changes in GDP per capita. Time-series data on life expectancy and related variables, GDP per capita and political status were collected from harmonized databases. We quantified variations in life expectancy by current political status during the 1950-2010 period. We assessed whether decolonization coincided with life expectancy trend changes by: 1. calculating the annual changes before and after independence, and 2. evaluating trend breaks in a predefined period during decolonization using joinpoint analyses. Similar analyses were undertaken for GDP per capita. Life expectancy in currently sovereign Caribbean states was already lower than in affiliated states before political independence. Overall, decolonization coincided with reductions in life expectancy growth, but not with reductions in economic growth, and changes in life expectancy growth in the decade after independence did not correspond with changes in economic performance. The widening of the life expectancy gap between currently sovereign and affiliated states accelerated in the 1990's and continues to increase. Despite considerable life expectancy gains in all Caribbean states, life expectancy in currently sovereign states increasingly lags behind that of states which remained affiliated. Our results indicate that changing economic conditions were not the main determinant of the unfavorable trends in life expectancy during and after decolonization. Circumstantial

  11. Virtual environment debriefing room for naval fighter pilots: phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark; Alexander, Joanna R.; Downes-Martin, Stephen; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Short, Elisabeth

    1992-06-01

    Current methods for debriefing Navy Fighter Pilots after real and simulated missions are insufficient for handling the speed and complexity of modern air combat. The state of the art in tactical air combat debriefing is essentially a two-dimensional plus time view of a problem whose dimensionality consists of three spatial dimensions plus time plus other non-spatial parameters. The David Sarnoff Research Center (Sarnoff) is developing an advanced debriefing system for Navy fighter jet training, combat development, and research. Called CyberView, the system consists of an advanced interactive data visualization system displaying multi-dimensional abstract and concrete combat data in three-dimensions plus time, an interactive data analysis system for rapid data manipulation and studies, and a faster than real-tie predictive simulation based on the branch wargaming paradigm of military planning for 'what if?' analysis. In our research and development of CyberView, we are attempting to give pilots and battle planners greater awareness of the complex situations which occur during air operations, and the ability to look into the future at the effects of decisions on battle outcomes. Our envisioned system when complete will be capable of intuitively displaying combat errors to pilots, permitting the pilots to re-fight the same battles with better awareness of their situation, giving battle planners the ability to perform tradeoff studies on tactical decisions in order to optimize battle outcomes, and providing an analytical testbed for automated forces paradigms, algorithms, and effectiveness.

  12. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Pilot implementations provide users with real-work experiences of how a system will affect their daily work before the design of the system is finalized. On the basis of a pilot implementation of a system for coordinating the transport of patients by hospital porters, we investigate pilot...... implementation as a method for participatory design. We find that to foster participation and learning about user needs a pilot implementation must create a space for reflecting on use, in addition to the space for using the pilot system. The space for reflection must also exist during the activities preparing...

  13. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan Neville

    2014-01-01

    The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication and control systems, control handovers, the challenges of very long duration flights, and the design of the control station. Problems have included poor physical layout of controls, non-intuitive automation interfaces, an over-reliance on text displays, and complicated sequences of menu selection to perform routine tasks. Some of the interface problems may have been prevented had an existing regulation or cockpit design principle been applied. In other cases, the design problems may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material.

  14. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....

  15. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  16. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  17. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Man-made objects often consist of detailed and interleaving structures, which are created using cane, coils, metal wires, rods, etc. The delicate structures, although manufactured using simple procedures, are challenging to scan and reconstruct. We observe that such structures are inherently 1D, and hence are naturally represented using an arrangement of generating curves. We refer to the resultant surfaces as arterial surfaces. In this paper we approach for analyzing, reconstructing, and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw scans, with the decomposed parts often capturing meaningful object sections. We demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm on a variety of arterial objects corrupted with noise, outliers, and with large parts missing. We present a range of applications including reconstruction, topology repairing, and manipulation of arterial surfaces by directly controlling the underlying curve network and the associated sectional profiles, which are otherwise challenging to perform. © 2010 ACM.

  18. Human-Manipulator Interface Using Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper utilizes a human-robot interface system which incorporates particle filter (PF and adaptive multispace transformation (AMT to track the pose of the human hand for controlling the robot manipulator. This system employs a 3D camera (Kinect to determine the orientation and the translation of the human hand. We use Camshift algorithm to track the hand. PF is used to estimate the translation of the human hand. Although a PF is used for estimating the translation, the translation error increases in a short period of time when the sensors fail to detect the hand motion. Therefore, a methodology to correct the translation error is required. What is more, to be subject to the perceptive limitations and the motor limitations, human operator is hard to carry out the high precision operation. This paper proposes an adaptive multispace transformation (AMT method to assist the operator to improve the accuracy and reliability in determining the pose of the robot. The human-robot interface system was experimentally tested in a lab environment, and the results indicate that such a system can successfully control a robot manipulator.

  19. Kinematics and trajectory synthesis of manipulation robots

    CERN Document Server

    Vukobratović, Miomir

    1986-01-01

    A few words about the series "Scientific Fundamentals of Robotics" should be said on the occasion of publication of the present monograph. This six-volume series has been conceived so as to allow the readers to master a contemporary approach to the construction and synthesis of con­ trol for manipulation ~obots. The authors' idea was to show how to use correct mathematical models of the dynamics of active spatial mecha­ nisms for dynamic analysis of robotic systems, optimal design of their mechanical parts based on the accepted criteria and imposed constraints, optimal choice of actuators, synthesis of dynamic control algorithms and their microcomputer implementation. In authors' oppinion this idea has been relatively successfully realized within the six-volume mono­ graphic series. Let us remind the readers of the books of this series. Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to the dynamics and control algorithms of manipulation ro­ bots, respectively. They form the first part of the series which has a certain topic...

  20. Tobacco industry manipulation of nicotine dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Carpenter, Carrie M

    2009-01-01

    For more than a half century, tobacco manufacturers have conducted sophisticated internal research to evaluate nicotine delivery, and modified their products to ensure availability of nicotine to smokers and to optimize its effects. Tobacco has proven to be a particularly effective vehicle for nicotine, enabling manipulation of smoke chemistry and of mechanisms of delivery, and providing sensory cues that critically inform patterns of smoking behavior as well as reinforce the impact of nicotine. A range of physical and chemical product design changes provide precise control over the quantity, form, and perception of nicotine dose, and support compensatory behavior, which is driven by the smoker's addiction to nicotine. Cigarette manufacturers also enhance the physiological effects of nicotine through the introduction and use of compounds that interact with nicotine but do not directly alter its form or delivery. A review of internal documents indicates important historical differences, as well as significant differences between commercial brands, underscoring the effectiveness of methods adopted by manufacturers to control nicotine dosing and target the needs of specific populations of smokers through commercial product development. Although the focus of the current review is on the manipulation of nicotine dosing characteristics, the evidence indicates that product design facilitates tobacco addiction through diverse addiction-potentiating mechanisms.

  1. Acoustic manipulation of bacteria cells suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    GutiéRrez-Ramos, Salomé; Hoyos, Mauricio; Aider, Jean Luc; Ruiz, Carlos; Acoustofluidics team Team; Soft; Bio group Collaboration

    An acoustic contacless manipulation gives advantages in the exploration of the complex dynamics enviroment that active matter exhibits. Our works reports the control confinement and dispersion of Escherichia coliRP437-pZA3R-YFP suspensions (M9Glu-Ca) via acoustic levitation.The manipulation of the bacteria bath in a parallel plate resonator is achieved using the acoustic radiation force and the secondary radiation force. The primary radiation force generates levitation of the bacteria cells at the nodal plane of the ultrasonic standing wave generated inside the resonator. On the other side, secondary forces leads to the consolidation of stable aggregates. All the experiments were performed in the acoustic trap described, where we excite the emission plate with a continuous sinusoidal signal at a frequency in the order of MHz and a quartz slide as the reflector plate. In a typical experiment we observed that, before the input of the signal, the bacteria cells exhibit their typical run and tumble behavior and after the sound is turned on all of them displace towards the nodal plane, and instantaneously the aggregation begins in this region. CNRS French National Space Studies, CONACYT Mexico.

  2. Spinal Manipulative Therapy and Somatosensory Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickar, Joel G; Bolton, Philip S

    2012-01-01

    Manually-applied movement and mobilisation of body parts as a healing activity has been used for centuries. A relatively high velocity, low amplitude force applied to the vertebral column with therapeutic intent, referred to as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), is one such activity. It is most commonly used by chiropractors, but other healthcare practitioners including osteopaths and physiotherapists also perform SMT. The mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of SMT remain unclear. Early theories proposed that the nervous system mediates the effects of SMT. The goal of this article is to briefly update our knowledge regarding several physical characteristics of an applied SMT, and review what is known about the signalling characteristics of sensory neurons innervating the vertebral column in response to spinal manipulation. Based upon the experimental literature, we propose that SMT may produce a sustained change in the synaptic efficacy of central neurons by evoking a high frequency, bursting discharge from several types of dynamically-sensitive, mechanosensitive paraspinal primary afferent neurons. PMID:22349622

  3. Optical manipulation of aerosol particle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. P.; Haddrell, A. E.; Walker, J. S.; Power, R.; Bones, D. L.; Davies, J. F.

    2011-10-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in many areas of science, ranging from atmospheric chemistry and physics, to drug delivery to the lungs, combustion science and spray drying. The development of new methods to characterise the properties and dynamics of aerosol particles is of crucial importance if the complex role that particles play is to be more fully understood. Optical tweezers provide a valuable new tool to address fundamental questions in aerosol science. Single or multiple particles 1-15 μm in diameter can be manipulated over indefinite timescales using optical tweezing. Linear and non-linear Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies can be used to probe a particle's composition and size. In this paper we will report on the latest developments in the use of holographic optical trapping (HOT) to study aerosols. Although widely used to trap and manipulate arrays of particles in the condensed phase, the application of HOT to aerosols is still in its infancy. We will explore the opportunities provided by the formation of complex optical landscapes for controlling aerosol flow, for comparing the properties of multiple particles, for performing the first ever digital microfluidic operations in the aerosol phase and for examining interparticle interactions that can lead to coalescence/coagulation. Although aerosol coagulation is the primary process driving the evolution of particle size distributions, it remains very poorly understood. Using HOT, we can resolve the time-dependent motion of trapped particles and the light scattering from particles during the coalescence process.

  4. Experimental manipulation of a forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, C.; Rasmussen, L.; Hansen, K. (eds.)

    1991-04-01

    The report describes the scientific research activities at the Klosterhede research site, Lemvig, West Jutland, Denmark. The site was selected as being located on the most sensitive soil type in Denmark with respect to potential soil acidification, as a permanent observation plot. From including descriptions of the biochemical cycling and ion balances of the forest ecosystem the research has been extended to include manipulations of the water and element fluxes of the ecosystem by means of a roof construction for removal of the atmospheric inputs of strong acids to the soil. A brief overview describes the applied methods and instrumentation, the general objectives, the hypotheses to be tested and the measuring programmes in addition to a description of the site and environmental conditions. Currently, it is considered that forest decline is a multifactoral problem caused by a combined stress on the trees from air pollution, climate, forest management, biological and abiotic influences etc. The project attempts to assess the importance of the various factors contributing to the total stress on the ecosystem. At the Klosterhede site the aim is to test some of the hypotheses by creating different research plots within the same research stand and site, thus ensuring that all soil and climatic factors are comparable whilst different manipulations of the biochemical cycles of the ecosystem are performed. The investigations, which cover nitrogen circulation, denitrification, ecophysiological activity, ectomycorrhiza and fertilization, susceptibility to insect attacks, microbial decomposition etc. are described in detail. (AB) (67 refs.).

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Tele-manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Min Sig; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Doo Ho; Choi, Sun Il [Kyungwon Univ., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The manipulator can move linearly along X and Y-axes and has 6-degree rotational freedom. All deriving electric motors are mounted on the base platform to reduce inertia of links and tendons are used to transmit torque from the motors to the corresponding joints. In this report, a dynamic analysis of the manipulator has been carried out. Based on the dimensions of the designed links and allowable maximum rotational constraints on all joints, the maximum torque has been analyzed and working volume has been derived graphically through a numerical analysis. The Danavit-Hartenverg coordinate has been used through out this report. An inverse kinematic model which includes 3-linear and 3-rotational motions of the end effector and its numerical simulation program have been developed. The simulation results showed its validity and usefulness. The program are written in Symbolic Math provided by MatLab. A dynamic model which consists of rigid link dynamic models , driving motors and tendons which are used to tranmit the torques between motors and the corresponding joints. A simulation model written in Simmechanics has been derived and its validity and its usefulness were verified along with some simulation results.

  6. Lycaenid Caterpillar Secretions Manipulate Attendant Ant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Pierce, Naomi E; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2015-08-31

    Mutualistic interactions typically involve the exchange of different commodities between species. Nutritious secretions are produced by a number of insects and plants in exchange for services such as defense. These rewards are valuable metabolically and can be used to reinforce the behavior of symbiotic partners that can learn and remember them effectively. We show here novel effects of insect exocrine secretions produced by caterpillars in modulating the behavior of attendant ants in the food-for-defense interaction between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Reward secretions from the dorsal nectary organ (DNO) of Narathura japonica caterpillars function to reduce the locomotory activities of their attendant ants, Pristomyrmex punctatus workers. Moreover, workers that feed from caterpillar secretions are significantly more likely to show aggressive responses to eversion of the tentacle organs of the caterpillars. Analysis of the neurogenic amines in the brains of workers that consumed caterpillar secretions showed a significant decrease in levels of dopamine compared with controls. Experimental treatments in which reserpine, a known inhibitor of dopamine in Drosophila, was fed to workers similarly reduced their locomotory activity. We conclude that DNO secretions of lycaenid caterpillars can manipulate attendant ant behavior by altering dopaminergic regulation and increasing partner fidelity. Unless manipulated ants also receive a net nutritional benefit from DNO secretions, this suggests that similar reward-for-defense interactions that have been traditionally considered to be mutualisms may in fact be parasitic in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...

  8. Evaluatie pilot Endogene Factoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet AL; Fiolet D; Voortman JK; Rover C de; Hanning C; Uitenbroek D; Loon AJM van; PZO; GGD Achterhoek; GGD Midden Holland; GG&GD Amsterdam

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the project on the Local and National Monitor for Public Health several pilot studies were carried out in three Municipal Health Centres (GGDs). The first aim was to investigate the feasibility of a physical examination at the health centre in combination with a health interview (or

  9. Stakeholder expectations : conceptual foundations and empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Olkkonen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Expectations are an inseparable part of interaction, whether in interpersonal, intragroup, or organization–stakeholder relations. As a concept, expectations appear frequently in the public relations literature, yet definitions are scarce or narrow. This thesis contributes to the conceptual and empirical understanding of expectations in the context of organization–stakeholder relations and, more specifically, studies how organizations translate their societal roles and how st...

  10. On the evaluation of marginal expected shortfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the analysis of systemic risk, Marginal Expected Shortfall may be considered to evaluate the marginal impact of a single stock on the market Expected Shortfall. These quantities are generally computed using log-returns, in particular when there is also a focus on returns conditional distribution....... In this case, the market log-return is only approximately equal to the weighed sum of equities log-returns. We show that the approximation error is large during turbulent market phases, with a subsequent impact on Marginal Expected Shortfall. We then suggest how to improve the evaluation of Marginal Expected...

  11. Interspecific hybridization in pilot whales and asymmetric genetic introgression in northern globicephala melas under the scenario of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Miralles López, Laura; Oremus, Marc; Silva, Mónica A.; Planes, Serge; García Vázquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Pilot whales are two cetacean species (Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus) whose distributions are correlated with water temperature and partially overlap in some areas like the North Atlantic Ocean. In the context of global warming, distribution range shifts are expected to occur in species affected by temperature. Consequently, a northward displacement of the tropical pilot whale G. macrorynchus is expected, eventually leading to increased secondary contact areas and opportunities for ...

  12. Contribution of manipulable and non-manipulable environmental factors to trapping efficiency of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather A.; Bravener, Gale; Beaulaurier, Joshua; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Twohey, Michael; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    We identified aspects of the trapping process that afforded opportunities for improving trap efficiency of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in a Great Lake's tributary. Capturing a sea lamprey requires it to encounter the trap, enter, and be retained until removed. Probabilities of these events depend on the interplay between sea lamprey behavior, environmental conditions, and trap design. We first tested how strongly seasonal patterns in daily trap catches (a measure of trapping success) were related to nightly rates of trap encounter, entry, and retention (outcomes of sea lamprey behavior). We then tested the degree to which variation in rates of trap encounter, entry, and retention were related to environmental features that control agents can manipulate (attractant pheromone addition, discharge) and features agents cannot manipulate (water temperature, season), but could be used as indicators for when to increase trapping effort. Daily trap catch was most strongly associated with rate of encounter. Relative and absolute measures of predictive strength for environmental factors that managers could potentially manipulate were low, suggesting that opportunities to improve trapping success by manipulating factors that affect rates of encounter, entry, and retention are limited. According to results at this trap, more sea lamprey would be captured by increasing trapping effort early in the season when sea lamprey encounter rates with traps are high. The approach used in this study could be applied to trapping of other invasive or valued species.

  13. The manipulation of gametes and embryos in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, C; Lazzari, G

    2008-07-01

    This paper summarizes the major advances in farm animal assisted reproduction in the last 20 years with particular attention to the contributions of the authors. A main emphasis is on the biology of the oocyte, including a description of methods for isolation of developing follicles and culture of the corresponding oocytes. Milestones that have led to optimization of procedures for maturation of fully grown oocytes, fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo culture in sheep, cattle, pigs and horses are described. The current status of nuclear transfer, cloning and embryonic stem cell generation and culture is also summarized for all major farm animal species. It is concluded that the manipulation of early development in farm animals is of crucial importance for agricultural purposes and that reproductive biotechnologies in farm animals are expected to play an increasing role in the next decades due to the growing demand for agricultural products from the emerging economies worldwide. In the biomedical field large animals represent increasingly important research models especially in the stem cell field for creating genetically modified animals for specific purposes. Finally, the successful translation of large animal research in the applied context requires solid science, long-term resource commitment from involved institutions, and vision, dedication and entrepreneurial skills from the scientists involved.

  14. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  15. Jewelled spiders manipulate colour-lure geometry to deceive prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    Selection is expected to favour the evolution of efficacy in visual communication. This extends to deceptive systems, and predicts functional links between the structure of visual signals and their behavioural presentation. Work to date has primarily focused on colour, however, thereby understating the multicomponent nature of visual signals. Here I examined the relationship between signal structure, presentation behaviour, and efficacy in the context of colour-based prey luring. I used the polymorphic orb-web spider Gasteracantha fornicata, whose yellow- or white-and-black striped dorsal colours have been broadly implicated in prey attraction. In a manipulative assay, I found that spiders actively control the orientation of their conspicuous banded signals in the web, with a distinct preference for near-diagonal bearings. Further field-based study identified a predictive relationship between pattern orientation and prey interception rates, with a local maximum at the spiders' preferred orientation. There were no morph-specific effects on capture success, either singularly or via an interaction with pattern orientation. These results reveal a dynamic element in a traditionally 'static' signalling context, and imply differential functions for chromatic and geometric signal components across visual contexts. More broadly, they underscore how multicomponent signal designs and display behaviours may coevolve to enhance efficacy in visual deception. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Fun Science: The Use of Variable Manipulation to Avoid Content Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Burton, Erin E.; Hiller, Suzanne E.

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the beliefs and rationale pre-service elementary teachers used to choose activities for upper-elementary students in a 1-week intensive science camp. Six undergraduate elementary pre-service teachers were observed as they took a semester-long science methods class that culminated in a 1-week science camp. This qualitative, phenomenological study found that counselors chose activities with the possibility of fun being a priority rather than teaching content, even after they were confronted with campers who demanded more content. Additionally, all six of the counselors agreed that activities involving variable manipulation were the most successful, even though content knowledge was not required to complete the activities. The counselors felt the variable manipulation activities were successful because students were constructing products and therefore getting to the end of the activity. Implications include building an awareness of the complexity of self-efficacy of science teaching and outcome expectancy to improve teacher education programs.

  17. Observation and manipulation of glial cell function by virtue of sufficient probe expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyo eNatsubori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of gene-encoded indicators and actuators to observe and manipulate cellular functions is being advanced and investigated. Expressing these probe molecules in glial cells is expected to enable observation and manipulation of glial cell activity, leading to elucidate the behaviors and causal roles of glial cells. The first step toward understanding glial cell functions is to express the probes in sufficient amounts, and the Knockin-mediated ENhanced Gene Expression (KENGE-tet system provides a strategy for achieving this. In the present article, three examples of KENGE-tet system application are reviewed: depolarization of oligodendrocytes, intracellular acidification of astrocytes, and observation of intracellular calcium levels in the fine processes of astrocytes.

  18. Expectation Formation of Older Married Couples and the Rational Expectations Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Benítez-Silva; Debra S. Dwyer

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the Rational Expectations (RE) hypothesis regarding retirement expectations of married older American couples, controlling for sample selection and reporting biases. In prior research we found that individual retirement expectation formation was consistent with the Rational Expectation hypothesis, but in that work spousal considerations were not analyzed. In this research we take advantage of panel data on expectations to test the RE hypothesis among married individuals as we...

  19. Electrokinetic Phenomena in Chemically Manipulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery Azevedo, Rodrigo

    Suspended particles are integral part of many systems and engineering technologies. They can be found in the form of colloidal suspensions, emulsions, polymer precursor solutions, and in biological materials such as blood. The miniaturization of new technologies and the advent of microfludics has made the manipulation of suspended particles in the microscale particularly important for a variety of fields. The ability to easily impart complex chemical environments to suspensions in microfluidic devices enables us to characterize these systems, modify their properties and drive their motion. Nonetheless, precise manipulation of the chemistry surrounding suspended particles has been particularly difficult up until recently. This thesis dissertation shows how microfluidic devices integrated with hydrogel membranes can be used to control the chemical environment of suspended particles for a variety of studies and practical applications. First, I demonstrate how particles move diffusiophoretically under ionic surfactant gradients. Diffusiophoresis, the motion of particles under concentration gradients, has been known for several decades but it has rarely been studied experimentally outside the context of simple electrolytes. Here, we show that diffusiophoresis in ionic surfactants below the CMC can be understood in terms of the classic theory for electrolytes. Above the CMC, however, the drive for diffsuiophoresis is significantly diminished due to a large drop in the change in chemical potential with added solute. Next, I show that gradients of dipolar molecules such a zwitterions can drive diffusiophoresis. I derive the diffusiophoretic migration of particles under gradients of dipolar molecules. This theory is backed up by experiments which reveal that, in such systems, particle velocities are directly proportional to the imposed gradient but do not scale with the inverse of the local concentration, as occurs under electrolyte gradients. Furthermore, I show that the

  20. HOPE: An On-Line Piloted Handling Qualities Experiment Data Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E. B.; Proffitt, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    A novel on-line database for capturing most of the information obtained during piloted handling qualities experiments (either flight or simulated) is described. The Hyperlinked Overview of Piloted Evaluations (HOPE) web application is based on an open-source object-oriented Web-based front end (Ruby-on-Rails) that can be used with a variety of back-end relational database engines. The hyperlinked, on-line data book approach allows an easily-traversed way of looking at a variety of collected data, including pilot ratings, pilot information, vehicle and configuration characteristics, test maneuvers, and individual flight test cards and repeat runs. It allows for on-line retrieval of pilot comments, both audio and transcribed, as well as time history data retrieval and video playback. Pilot questionnaires are recorded as are pilot biographies. Simple statistics are calculated for each selected group of pilot ratings, allowing multiple ways to aggregate the data set (by pilot, by task, or by vehicle configuration, for example). Any number of per-run or per-task metrics can be captured in the database. The entire run metrics dataset can be downloaded in comma-separated text for further analysis off-line. It is expected that this tool will be made available upon request

  1. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key theore...

  2. Expectations and Ideas Coming to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Describes the social construction of parental expectations for kindergarten and first grade in a school community. Focuses on the ideas developed between home and school and between grade levels. Connections are made between these local ideas and the expectations of children as they begin their school careers. (Author)

  3. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  4. Dissonant Feedback about Achievement and Teachers' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Carl J.

    1982-01-01

    Investigates impact of achievement test results (N=285) on 13 sixth-grade teachers' expectations using hypotheses from cognitive dissonance theory. Shows teacher expectations changed very little as a result of feedback, and test results for both under- and overestimated students were rejected. (AH)

  5. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  6. Heterogeneity in consumers' income and pension expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissonnette, L.; van Soest, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The expectations of economic agents play a crucial role in almost any inter-temporal economic model. Using 2009–12 panel data for a representative sample of the Dutch population, we analyze consumers’ income and pension expectations. We focus on heterogeneity across socioeconomic groups and

  7. Memory, expectation formation and scheduling choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.R.; Peer, S.; Dekker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Limited memory capacity, retrieval constraints and anchoring are central to expectation formation processes. We develop a model of adaptive expectations where individuals are able to store only a finite number of past experiences of a stochastic state variable. Retrieval of these experiences is

  8. Experimental evidence on inflation expectation formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Zakelj, B.

    Using laboratory experiments within a New Keynesian sticky price framework, we study the process of inflation expectation formation. We focus on adaptive learning and rational expectations contrary to the previous literature that mostly studied simple heuristics. Using a test for rational

  9. Individual expectations, limited rationality and aggregate outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Hommes, C.H.; Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the type of strategic environment or expectation feedback can have a large impact on whether the market can learn the rational fundamental price. We present an experiment where the fundamental price experiences large unexpected shocks. Markets with negative expectation

  10. Teaching Rational Expectations at 'A' Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachill, Bob

    1987-01-01

    Explains the economic concept of Rational Expectations (RE) and demonstrates how it can be introduced to British 'A' level students. Illustrates the implications of RE for the Cobweb and Augmented Phillips Curve market models. Outlines some attractions and limitations of rational expectations. (Author/DH)

  11. Individual expectations, limited rationality and aggregate outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Hommes, C.; Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the type of strategic environment or expectation feedback may have a large impact on whether the market learns the rational fundamental price. We present an experiment where the fundamental price experiences large unexpected shocks. Markets with negative expectation

  12. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Expectancy and Phobic Level: Effects on Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Bernard J.; Denney, Douglas R.

    1977-01-01

    Expectancy instructions were introduced six times during the four-week treatment, and effectiveness of these instructions was demonstrated with independent nonreactive measures of subjects' expectancies. An analysis of self-report, behavioral, and unobtrusive measures of snake anxiety revealed significant main effects for instructions, with…

  14. Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.

  15. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...

  16. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  17. Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

  18. Incorporating life expectancy in glaucoma care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, C.; Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To calculate for which combinations of age and perimetric disease stage glaucoma patients are unlikely to become visually impaired during their lifetime. Methods We used residual life expectancy data (life expectancy adjusted for the age already reached) as provided by Statistics Netherlands and

  19. On Expectations, Realizations and Partial Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiacomo, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether many people fear an unexpectedshock in their financial situation around retirement and whether therelated expectations and realizations match each other. We use theDutch Social Economic Panel survey data, where expectations aboutthe next year's financial situation are

  20. Job Expectations of Senior Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, C. Emory; Burton, Dorothy T.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted of new nurses' job expectations. Most graduates anticipated full-time work on the day shift in a medium-sized or large hospital. Major job expectations included a good salary, pleasant working conditions, and the opportunity to work a desired shift in a desired specialty. (CT)