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Sample records for expansions phoenician footprints

  1. Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalloua, Pierre A.; Platt, Daniel E.; El Sibai, Mirvat; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Izaabel, Hassan; Bosch, Elena; Adams, Susan M.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana María; Aler, Mercedes; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Jobling, Mark A.; Comas, David; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenicians were the dominant traders in the Mediterranean Sea two thousand to three thousand years ago and expanded from their homeland in the Levant to establish colonies and trading posts throughout the Mediterranean, but then they disappeared from history. We wished to identify their male genetic traces in modern populations. Therefore, we chose Phoenician-influenced sites on the basis of well-documented historical records and collected new Y-chromosomal data from 1330 men from six such sites, as well as comparative data from the literature. We then developed an analytical strategy to distinguish between lineages specifically associated with the Phoenicians and those spread by geographically similar but historically distinct events, such as the Neolithic, Greek, and Jewish expansions. This involved comparing historically documented Phoenician sites with neighboring non-Phoenician sites for the identification of weak but systematic signatures shared by the Phoenician sites that could not readily be explained by chance or by other expansions. From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined. Our methodology can be applied to any historically documented expansion in which contact and noncontact sites can be identified. PMID:18976729

  2. Identifying genetic traces of historical expansions: Phoenician footprints in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalloua, Pierre A; Platt, Daniel E; El Sibai, Mirvat; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Izaabel, Hassan; Bosch, Elena; Adams, Susan M; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana María; Aler, Mercedes; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Jobling, Mark A; Comas, David; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Wells, R Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2008-11-01

    The Phoenicians were the dominant traders in the Mediterranean Sea two thousand to three thousand years ago and expanded from their homeland in the Levant to establish colonies and trading posts throughout the Mediterranean, but then they disappeared from history. We wished to identify their male genetic traces in modern populations. Therefore, we chose Phoenician-influenced sites on the basis of well-documented historical records and collected new Y-chromosomal data from 1330 men from six such sites, as well as comparative data from the literature. We then developed an analytical strategy to distinguish between lineages specifically associated with the Phoenicians and those spread by geographically similar but historically distinct events, such as the Neolithic, Greek, and Jewish expansions. This involved comparing historically documented Phoenician sites with neighboring non-Phoenician sites for the identification of weak but systematic signatures shared by the Phoenician sites that could not readily be explained by chance or by other expansions. From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined. Our methodology can be applied to any historically documented expansion in which contact and noncontact sites can be identified.

  3. Assyrian Nimrud and the Phoenicians

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    Georgina Herrmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The first ivories at the Assyrian imperial capital of Kalhu/Nimrud in northern Iraq were found by Henry Layard in the mid-19th century. Max Mallowan and David Oates (both professors at the Institute of Archaeology, together with the British School of Archaeology in Iraq, worked there from 1949–1963 and found literally thousands more, both in the palaces of the acropolis and in a large outlying building known as Fort Shalmaneser. During the last 50 years the majority has been published in the Ivories from Nimrud series, so that it is now possible to look at this remarkable corpus as a whole. It immediately becomes evident that most were not made in Assyria, but imported from the states conquered by the Assyrian kings in the early 1st millennium BC. Many show a debt to the art of Egypt and can be assigned to the ‘Phoenician tradition’, thus recording the otherwise little-known art of the Phoenicians, long famed as master craftsmen. ‘Syrian-Intermediate’ ivories are versions of Phoenician ivories and may represent the art of the recently-arrived Aramaean kingdoms, while the very different ‘North Syrian’ ivories derive from earlier Hittite traditions.

  4. The Outward Extension of an Ecological Footprint in City Expansion: The Case of Beijing

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    Gaodi Xie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologically productive area was used in the ecological footprint method to measure the demand and impact of human activities on the natural capital, and further, to judge whether the impact is within the scope of the regional bio-capacity. In this presentation, an indicator “ecological footprint distance (Def” is proposed. The results indicated that the proposed indicator Def could identify the outward extension of a city’s ecological footprint with the city’s rapid expansion. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of imported bio-capacity increased approximately from 48% to 64%, which implied that the ecological impact of Beijing had expanded year by year. The Def of Beijing increased from 567 km in 2008 to 677 km in 2012, with an average annual increase of about 25 km. From the perspective of seasonal change, Beijing’s ecological footprint distance in winter and spring was much higher than in summer and fall. The main features of provincial-spatial distribution of Beijing’s Def were as follows: grain and oil and meat and eggs were mainly supplied by Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei and Inner Mongolia; yet vegetable and fruit were mainly supplied by Hainan, Guangdong, Hebei and Shandong. Measures should be taken to decentralize the sources of imported bio-capacity, so as to ensure a sustainable development in Metropolitan cities.

  5. The Spatial Expansion and Ecological Footprint of Fisheries (1950 to Present)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Wilf; Sala, Enric; Tracey, Sean; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Using estimates of the primary production required (PPR) to support fisheries catches (a measure of the footprint of fishing), we analyzed the geographical expansion of the global marine fisheries from 1950 to 2005. We used multiple threshold levels of PPR as percentage of local primary production to define ‘fisheries exploitation’ and applied them to the global dataset of spatially-explicit marine fisheries catches. This approach enabled us to assign exploitation status across a 0.5° latitude/longitude ocean grid system and trace the change in their status over the 56-year time period. This result highlights the global scale expansion in marine fisheries, from the coastal waters off North Atlantic and West Pacific to the waters in the Southern Hemisphere and into the high seas. The southward expansion of fisheries occurred at a rate of almost one degree latitude per year, with the greatest period of expansion occurring in the 1980s and early 1990s. By the mid 1990s, a third of the world's ocean, and two-thirds of continental shelves, were exploited at a level where PPR of fisheries exceed 10% of PP, leaving only unproductive waters of high seas, and relatively inaccessible waters in the Arctic and Antarctic as the last remaining ‘frontiers.’ The growth in marine fisheries catches for more than half a century was only made possible through exploitation of new fishing grounds. Their rapidly diminishing number indicates a global limit to growth and highlights the urgent need for a transition to sustainable fishing through reduction of PPR. PMID:21151994

  6. The spatial expansion and ecological footprint of fisheries (1950 to present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Wilf; Sala, Enric; Tracey, Sean; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2010-12-02

    Using estimates of the primary production required (PPR) to support fisheries catches (a measure of the footprint of fishing), we analyzed the geographical expansion of the global marine fisheries from 1950 to 2005. We used multiple threshold levels of PPR as percentage of local primary production to define 'fisheries exploitation' and applied them to the global dataset of spatially-explicit marine fisheries catches. This approach enabled us to assign exploitation status across a 0.5° latitude/longitude ocean grid system and trace the change in their status over the 56-year time period. This result highlights the global scale expansion in marine fisheries, from the coastal waters off North Atlantic and West Pacific to the waters in the Southern Hemisphere and into the high seas. The southward expansion of fisheries occurred at a rate of almost one degree latitude per year, with the greatest period of expansion occurring in the 1980s and early 1990s. By the mid 1990s, a third of the world's ocean, and two-thirds of continental shelves, were exploited at a level where PPR of fisheries exceed 10% of PP, leaving only unproductive waters of high seas, and relatively inaccessible waters in the Arctic and Antarctic as the last remaining 'frontiers.' The growth in marine fisheries catches for more than half a century was only made possible through exploitation of new fishing grounds. Their rapidly diminishing number indicates a global limit to growth and highlights the urgent need for a transition to sustainable fishing through reduction of PPR.

  7. The spatial expansion and ecological footprint of fisheries (1950 to present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilf Swartz

    Full Text Available Using estimates of the primary production required (PPR to support fisheries catches (a measure of the footprint of fishing, we analyzed the geographical expansion of the global marine fisheries from 1950 to 2005. We used multiple threshold levels of PPR as percentage of local primary production to define 'fisheries exploitation' and applied them to the global dataset of spatially-explicit marine fisheries catches. This approach enabled us to assign exploitation status across a 0.5° latitude/longitude ocean grid system and trace the change in their status over the 56-year time period. This result highlights the global scale expansion in marine fisheries, from the coastal waters off North Atlantic and West Pacific to the waters in the Southern Hemisphere and into the high seas. The southward expansion of fisheries occurred at a rate of almost one degree latitude per year, with the greatest period of expansion occurring in the 1980s and early 1990s. By the mid 1990s, a third of the world's ocean, and two-thirds of continental shelves, were exploited at a level where PPR of fisheries exceed 10% of PP, leaving only unproductive waters of high seas, and relatively inaccessible waters in the Arctic and Antarctic as the last remaining 'frontiers.' The growth in marine fisheries catches for more than half a century was only made possible through exploitation of new fishing grounds. Their rapidly diminishing number indicates a global limit to growth and highlights the urgent need for a transition to sustainable fishing through reduction of PPR.

  8. Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon: A story of settlement, integration, and female mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, A. L.; Platt, D.; Kardailsky, O.; Prost, S.; Cameron-Christie, S.; Collins, C. J.; Boocock, J.; Kurumilian, Y.; Guirguis, M.; Pla Orquín, R.; Khalil, W.; Genz, H.; Abou Diwan, G.; Nassar, J.; Zalloua, P.

    2018-01-01

    The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE) and Phoenician (~700–400 BCE) samples from Lebanon (n = 4) and Sardinia (n = 10) and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic) site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society. PMID:29320542

  9. Optimal expansion of a drinking water infrastructure system with respect to carbon footprint, cost-effectiveness and water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Qi, Cheng; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2012-11-15

    Urban water infrastructure expansion requires careful long-term planning to reduce the risk from climate change during periods of both economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternatives responding to the population dynamics, ecological conservation, and water management policies should be systematically examined to balance the water supply and demand temporally and spatially with different scales. To mitigate the climate change impact, this practical implementation often requires a multiobjective decision analysis that introduces economic efficiencies and carbon-footprint matrices simultaneously. The optimal expansion strategies for a typical water infrastructure system in South Florida demonstrate the essence of the new philosophy. Within our case study, the multiobjective modeling framework uniquely features an integrated evaluation of transboundary surface and groundwater resources and quantitatively assesses the interdependencies among drinking water supply, wastewater reuse, and irrigation water permit transfer as the management options expand throughout varying dimensions. With the aid of a multistage planning methodology over the partitioned time horizon, such a systems analysis has resulted in a full-scale screening and sequencing of multiple competing objectives across a suite of management strategies. These strategies that prioritize 20 options provide a possible expansion schedule over the next 20 years that improve water infrastructure resilience and at low life-cycle costs. The proposed method is transformative to other applications of similar water infrastructure systems elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. King Solomon's Silver? Southern Phoenician Hacksilber Hoards and the Location of Tarshish

    OpenAIRE

    Christine M. Thompson; Sheldon Skaggs

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from silver hoards found in Phoenicia is linking Tarshish, the legendary source of King Solomon's silver, to ores in the western Mediterranean. Biblical passages sometimes describe this lost land as a supplier of metals (especially silver) to Phoenician sailors who traded in the service of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre in the 10th century BC. Classical authors similarly attribute the mercantile supremacy of the Phoenicians to their command of lucrative supplies of silver in the west, bef...

  11. Optimal Expansion of a Drinking Water Infrastructure System with Respect to Carbon Footprint, Cost Effectiveness and Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water infrastructure requires careful long-term expansion planning to reduce the risk from climate change during both the periods of economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternativ...

  12. Archaeometric researches on the provenance of Mediterranean Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, M L; Del Vais, C; Fermo, P; Pallante, P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to setup a first chemical database that could represent the starting point for a reliable classification method to discriminate between Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery on the base of their chemical data. This database up to now can discriminate between several different areas of production and provenance and can be applied also to unknown ceramic samples of comparable age and production areas. More than 100 ceramic fragments were involved in this research, coming from various archaeological sites having a crucial importance in the context of the Phoenician and Punic settlement in central and western Mediterranean: Carthage (Tunisia), Toscanos (South Andalusia, Spain), Sulci, Monte Sirai, Othoca, Tharros (Sardinia, Italy) and Pithecusa (Campania, Italy). Since long-time archaeologists hypothesised that Mediterranean Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery had mainly a local or just a regional diffusion, with the exception of some particular class like transport amphorae. To verify the pottery provenance, statistical analyses were carried out to define the existence of different ceramic compositional groups characterised by a local origin or imported from other sites. The existing literature data are now supplemented by new archaeometric investigations both on Archaic Phoenician ceramics and clayey raw materials from Sardinia. Therefore, diffractometric analyses, optical microscopy observations and X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed to identify the mineralogical and chemical composition of Othoca ceramics and clayey raw material. The obtained results were then compared with own literature data concerning Phoenician and Punic pottery in order to find features related to the different ceramic productions and their provenance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also performed on the chemical compositional data in order to discriminate ceramic groups. A very complex situation was found

  13. King Solomon's Silver? Southern Phoenician Hacksilber Hoards and the Location of Tarshish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from silver hoards found in Phoenicia is linking Tarshish, the legendary source of King Solomon's silver, to ores in the western Mediterranean. Biblical passages sometimes describe this lost land as a supplier of metals (especially silver to Phoenician sailors who traded in the service of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre in the 10th century BC. Classical authors similarly attribute the mercantile supremacy of the Phoenicians to their command of lucrative supplies of silver in the west, before they colonised the coasts and islands of its metalliferous regions around 800 BC. Conservative rejections of such reports have correctly emphasised a lack of evidence from silver. Lead isotope analyses of silver hoards found in Phoenicia now provide the initial evidence for pre-colonial silver-trade with the west; ore-provenance data correlate with the ancient documents that indicate both Sardinia and Spain as suppliers, and Sardinia as the island of Tarshish.

  14. Gold and electrum jewellery in the strategic area of Gadir in Phoenician period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Feliu, I.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. Á.; Respaldiza, M. Á.; de la Bandera, M. L.; Ovejero Zappino, G.

    2007-07-01

    A set of ancient gold jewellery was found in Cádiz (formerly Gadir, south Spain) in tombs dated in Phoenician-Archaic period (VII-VI century BC), and nowadays is exhibited in the local Museum. The production of this strategic area is of great interest for the knowledge of the commercial routes along the Mediterranean Sea at that time. Part of this production has already been analyzed by the authors, finding compositional differences and identifying soldering procedures, thanks to the use of the external microbeam. Absolutely non destructive analysis was performed. For this work we have again employed PIXE spectrometry with 2.2 MeV protons from the 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the CNA to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. We have found an unusual composition characterized by around 50 wt.% gold, 50 wt.% silver and some copper, which can be identified as ELECTRUM. Few analytical data of this particular kind of alloy are reported in the bibliography. The study of these objects can help to follow the trade of metals in the Phoenician-colonial period.

  15. Gold and electrum jewellery in the strategic area of Gadir in Phoenician period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092-Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: iofeliu@us.es; Gomez-Tubio, B. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092-Sevilla (Spain); Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Dpto. de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 10071-Caceres (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092-Sevilla (Spain); Bandera, M.L. de la [Dpto. Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Maria de Padilla s/n 41004-Sevilla (Spain); Ovejero Zappino, G. [Cobre Las Cruces S.A., 1o de Mayo 46, 41860-Gerena (Sevilla) (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    A set of ancient gold jewellery was found in Cadiz (formerly Gadir, south Spain) in tombs dated in Phoenician-Archaic period (VII-VI century BC), and nowadays is exhibited in the local Museum. The production of this strategic area is of great interest for the knowledge of the commercial routes along the Mediterranean Sea at that time. Part of this production has already been analyzed by the authors, finding compositional differences and identifying soldering procedures, thanks to the use of the external microbeam. Absolutely non destructive analysis was performed. For this work we have again employed PIXE spectrometry with 2.2 MeV protons from the 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the CNA to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. We have found an unusual composition characterized by around 50 wt.% gold, 50 wt.% silver and some copper, which can be identified as ELECTRUM. Few analytical data of this particular kind of alloy are reported in the bibliography. The study of these objects can help to follow the trade of metals in the Phoenician-colonial period.

  16. Palaeoenvironmental and coastal changes within the context of early Phoenician colonization in the southern Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Marzoli, Dirce; Moret, Pierre; Brill, Dominik; León Martín, César; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, new chronological data resulted in a re-evaluation of the timing of initial Phoenician colonization in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Against this background, follow-up archaeological studies aimed at improving our understanding of the early contact with the local indigenous population, trading patterns, and knowledge exchange during the time of the first Phoenician colonial settlements. Separated by a distance of only 40 km, and situated in the northwest and northeast of the Strait of Gibraltar (Andalusia, Spain) and thus in a strategically important - yet understudied - area, two of the most important Late Bronze/Early Iron Age settlements in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, La Silla del Papa (Cádiz) and Los Castillejos de Alcorrín (Málaga), have been subject to archaeological investigations during the recent past. Previous geoscientific studies carried out in the lower Río Guadiaro valley and in the direct vicinity of the Phoenician settlement Montilla some 10 km southwest of Alcorrín during the mid-eighties lacked detail, particularly in terms of chronological resolution. Thus, ongoing geoarchaeological research embedded in a German-French DFG-funded interdisciplinary project ("Archeostraits") aims at (i) deciphering palaeoenvironmental and coastal changes in the surroundings of the two mentioned settlements throughout the mid- to late Holocene; (ii) constraining palaeoenvironmental conditions during early Phoenician colonization; and (iii) better understanding human-environment interactions during the Iron Age. This study presents first data collected within the framework of the "Archeostraits" project in the surroundings of both the Atlantic (La Silla del Papa) and Mediterranean (Los Castillejos de Alcorrín) areas of research during two field campaigns in 2015. Research permits were granted by the Consejería de Cultura, Junta de Andalucía. The preliminary interpretation of coring transects along the lower Río Guadiaro (M

  17. Genomic footprinting.

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    Vierstra, Jeff; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2016-03-01

    The advent of DNA footprinting with DNase I more than 35 years ago enabled the systematic analysis of protein-DNA interactions, and the technique has been instrumental in the decoding of cis-regulatory elements and the identification and characterization of transcription factors and other DNA-binding proteins. The ability to analyze millions of individual genomic cleavage events via massively parallel sequencing has enabled in vivo DNase I footprinting on a genomic scale, offering the potential for global analysis of transcription factor occupancy in a single experiment. Genomic footprinting has opened unique vistas on the organization, function and evolution of regulatory DNA; however, the technology is still nascent. Here we discuss both prospects and challenges of genomic footprinting, as well as considerations for its application to complex genomes.

  18. Anatomical study of animal remains from Phoenician-Punic amphorae found in the Santa Giusta Pond, Sardinia (Italy

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    Laura Portas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the underwater excavations carried out in the Santa Giusta Pond, near Oristano, Sardinia, a significant amount of Phoenician- Punic materials was brought to light including amphorae (dating back to 7th-2nd century BC and vegetal and animal remains. All of these archaeological finds may come from Othoca, an important Phoenician- Punic city on the eastern shore of the pond, geographically corresponding with the modern-day town of Santa Giusta. Animal materials consist of more than 3000 very well-preserved remains, belonging to sheep (Ovis aries, goat (Capra hircus and cattle (Bos taurus. Bone analyses allowed reconstructing the slaughtering methods, as well as manipulation procedures carried out to preserve meat in order to be exported overseas. Although pig (Sus scrofa played an important economical role in other Sardinian Phoenician-Punic settlements, in this archaeological context this species is absent, suggesting that the meat contained in the amphorae was probably destined to other areas of the Mediterranean basin, where people did not eat pork.

  19. Empire Without A Voice Phoenician Iron Metallurgy and Imperial Strategy at Carthage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Brett Sanford

    The role of iron in the emergence of Iron Age states in North Africa and the Near East has been poorly understood due to a paucity of contemporary, diachronic ferrous archaeometallurgical data. Excavations at Phoenician and Punic Carthage in the 2000s recovered one of the largest and most diverse corpora of Iron Age iron production material culture from North Africa and the Near East, spanning the entire history of Carthage from its Tyrian colonial foundations to its destruction by Rome (historical dates 814--146 BC). Analysis of the materials employing metallography, portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy x-ray dispersive spectroscopy (VPSEM-EDS) indicates that Carthaginian smiths were smelting and smithing wrought iron and steel as an exchange good or tribute commodity to Tyre and the Assyrian empire, as well as producing, refining, and consuming tin and arsenical bronzes, leaded bronzes, lead, and cobalt. Archaeological evidence demonstrates a state industry of iron production, including the commissioning, decommissioning, and outsourcing of metallurgical precincts. There is an overwhelming difference exhibited between output capacity at industrial and household production sites. Epigraphic evidence in Punic illustrates the inherent economic and familial affiliations between the Carthaginian state and metalworkers. Ironsmiths, bronze casters, and goldsmiths were privileged engineers of one of the state's most strategic industries, and were stratified in a hierarchy of technical specialties and ranks. In order to conserve fuel and succeed in properly vitrifying ore or bloom impurities into slag, they recycled industrial byproducts in the form of murex shells from purple dye production as a metallurgical flux and lined the furnaces with quartz-rich heat insulation. Carthage was one colony in the Phoenician commodity procurement network, whose task it was to convert iron blooms into

  20. The Integration of phoenician communities in the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman Empire from a postcolonial perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Machuca Prieto, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to research on the analysis of the process of integration experienced by the Phoenician-Punic communities of the Iberian Peninsula in the Roman world, from the end of the Second Punic War (206 BCE) until Flavian times (mid-1st Century CE). The main goal is to explain the process of identity construction among these communities and the changes that led to their gradual transformation into Roman ciuitates. This thesis tries to overcome the traditional one-way approache...

  1. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

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    Maxwell Peter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational

  2. Vestige: maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Maxwell, Peter; Huttley, Gavin A

    2005-05-29

    Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational processes, DNA repair and selection can be evaluated both

  3. DNase I footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardew, Antonia S; Fox, Keith R

    2010-01-01

    Footprinting is a method for determining the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding compounds in which ligands protect DNA from cleavage at their binding sites. Footprinting templates are typically 50-200 base pairs long, and DNase I is the most commonly used nuclease for these experiments. This chapter describes the preparation and labelling of suitable DNA footprinting substrates, the footprinting experiment itself, and the way in which these data can be used to estimate the dissociation constant of the interaction.

  4. Humanity's unsustainable environmental footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of Earth’s limited natural resources and assimilation capacity, the current environmental footprint of humankind is not sustainable. Assessing land, water, energy, material, and other footprints along supply chains is paramount in understanding the sustainability, efficiency, and

  5. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely

  6. Mapping the Carbon Footprint of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Moran, Daniel; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-10-04

    Life cycle thinking asks companies and consumers to take responsibility for emissions along their entire supply chain. As the world economy becomes more complex it is increasingly difficult to connect consumers and other downstream users to the origins of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the important role of subnational entities-cities, states, and companies-in GHG abatement efforts, it would be advantageous to better link downstream users to facilities and regulators who control primary emissions. We present a new spatially explicit carbon footprint method for establishing such connections. We find that for most developed countries the carbon footprint has diluted and spread: for example, since 1970 the U.S. carbon footprint has grown 23% territorially, and 38% in consumption-based terms, but nearly 200% in spatial extent (i.e., the minimum area needed to contain 90% of emissions). The rapidly growing carbon footprints of China and India, however, do not show such a spatial expansion of their consumption footprints in spite of their increasing participation in the world economy. In their case, urbanization concentrates domestic pollution and this offsets the increasing importance of imports.

  7. Water footprint of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  8. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    .... Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2...

  9. Measuring your Garden Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth; Schmutz, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The work reports on a Garden Organic (working name of Henry Doubleday Research Association, Coventry UK) members experiment in 2007. Garden Organic members were surveyed with a detailed paper questionnaire to calculate an average gardening footprint of committed (self-selected) organic gardeners in the UK. This was used to develop a garden footprinting methodology and to create a benchmark of committed organic gardening in the UK. This was then compared to commerical orangic growing and to ot...

  10. Footprints of Buildings at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (footprints)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/INFO coverage consisting of 10 polygons representing the buildings' footprints at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The footprints were collected...

  11. Our Ecological Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackernagel, Mathis; Rees, William

    1996-01-01

    Defines an ecological footprint as the land that would be required on this planet to support a certain group's current lifestyle forever. Shows that the United States and southern Canada consume far more energy, materials, foods, and services per capita than the rest of the world population. Suggests numerous activities to raise awareness of the…

  12. Making A-FOOTPRINT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Munajjed, Amir; Rasmussen, John

    available with an intended use to develop implants or orthotics for the foot to treat diseases like the flatfoot and metatarsalgia syndrome. This work is part of the A-FOOTPRINT project, funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (Grant Agreement NMP2-SE-2009-228893). 1. MacWilliams, B.A...

  13. Mapping methods applied to Underwater Archaeology: the photoprogrammetrical model and the photomosaic of the Phoenician shipwreck Mazarrón-2 (Puerto de Mazarrón, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Miñano Domínguez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, ARQVA – National Museum of Underwater Archaeology carried out an archaeological project at the Phoenician shipwreck Mazarrón-2 (Port of Mazarrón, Murcia, Spain. The aims of the project were to check the state of preservation of the hull remains of the ship as well as the metal structure that protects the site. Moreover, the available archaeological data on the shipwreck were updated for the purpose of creating a new digital archive of the site. A real scale photogrammetrical 3D model of the interior of the hull of the ship was created using the program Photomodeler. In addition, a high-resolution photomosaic of the ship was produced since this had not been done in the past. This article describes the methods employed in the realization of both the photogrammetrical model and the photomosaic. Finally, an evaluation is offered of the applications of these recording techniques for archaeological hull remains underwater.

  14. Pyrite footprinting of RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlatterer, Joerg C., E-mail: joerg.schlatterer@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Wieder, Matthew S. [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Jones, Christopher D.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Brenowitz, Michael [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNA structure is mapped by pyrite mediated {sup {center_dot}}OH footprinting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Repetitive experiments can be done in a powdered pyrite filled cartridge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High {sup {center_dot}}OH reactivity of nucleotides imply dynamic role in Diels-Alderase catalysis. -- Abstract: In RNA, function follows form. Mapping the surface of RNA molecules with chemical and enzymatic probes has revealed invaluable information about structure and folding. Hydroxyl radicals ({sup {center_dot}}OH) map the surface of nucleic acids by cutting the backbone where it is accessible to solvent. Recent studies showed that a microfluidic chip containing pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) can produce sufficient {sup {center_dot}}OH to footprint DNA. The 49-nt Diels-Alder RNA enzyme catalyzes the C-C bond formation between a diene and a dienophile. A crystal structure, molecular dynamics simulation and atomic mutagenesis studies suggest that nucleotides of an asymmetric bulge participate in the dynamic architecture of the ribozyme's active center. Of note is that residue U42 directly interacts with the product in the crystallized RNA/product complex. Here, we use powdered pyrite held in a commercially available cartridge to footprint the Diels-Alderase ribozyme with single nucleotide resolution. Residues C39 to U42 are more reactive to {sup {center_dot}}OH than predicted by the solvent accessibility calculated from the crystal structure suggesting that this loop is dynamic in solution. The loop's flexibility may contribute to substrate recruitment and product release. Our implementation of pyrite-mediated {sup {center_dot}}OH footprinting is a readily accessible approach to gleaning information about the architecture of small RNA molecules.

  15. Maxillary Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Anirudh; Mathur, Rinku

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maxillary transverse discrepancy usually requires expansion of the palate by a combination of orthopedic and orthodontic tooth movements. Three expansion treatment modalities are used today: rapid maxillary expansion, slow maxillary expansion and surgically assisted maxillary expansion.This article aims to review the maxillary expansion by all the three modalities and a brief on commonly used appliances.

  16. Ecological footprint of Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-jing; Luc, Hens; Zhu, Yong-guan; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint has been given much attention and widely praised as an effective heuristic and pedagogic device for presenting current total human resource use in a way that communicates easily to almost everyone since 1996 when Wackernagel and Rees proposed it as a sustainable development indicator. Ecological footprint has been improving on its calculation and still can be a benchmark to measure sustainable development although there are still ongoing debates about specific methods for calculating the ecological footprint. This paper calculates the ecological footprint of Shandong Province, China with the methodology developed by Wackernagel and analyzes the current situation of sustainable development in Shandong.

  17. Footprints of alien technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2012-04-01

    If alien civilizations do, or did, exist, their technology will impact their environment. Some consideration has been given to the detection of large-scale astro-engineering, such as Dyson spheres. However, a very advanced technology might leave more subtle footprints requiring sophisticated scientific methods to uncover. We must not overlook the possibility that alien technology has impacted our immediate astronomical environment, even Earth itself, but probably a very long time ago. This raises the question of what traces, if anything, might remain today. I shall consider the possibilities of biological, geological and physical traces, and suggest ways that we might search for them.

  18. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  19. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scherer

    Full Text Available Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100. Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  20. Measuring Your School's Ecological Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk Julie; Cameron Tim

    2000-01-01

    Explaining ecological footprint analyses, this activity consists of a survey as a preliminary activity. Presents the survey questions and a chart of required calculations for ecological footprint activity. Lists the chart in five categories: waste management, energy, water, transportation, green space, and food. Provides information for follow-up…

  1. Progress and Prospects for Tourism Footprint Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuxin Wang; Yiyuan Hu; Hong He; Genxu Wang

    2017-01-01

    ...) and the tourism water footprint (TWF). The tourism footprint represents an important tool for quantitatively assessing the impact of tourism activities on the ecosystem of a tourist destination...

  2. Review of water footprint components of grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wan Amiza Amneera Wan; Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Nik; Zalina Mahmood, Noor

    2017-06-01

    Burgeoning global population, economic development, agriculture and prevailing climate pattern are among aspects contributed to water scarcity. In low and middle income countries, agriculture takes the highest share among water user sector. Demand for grain is widespread all over the globe. Hence, this study review published papers regarding quantification of water footprint of grain. Review shows there are various methods in quantifying water footprint. In ascertaining water footprint, three (green, blue, grey) or two (green, blue) components of water footprint involved. However, there was a study introduced new term in evaluating water footprint, white water footprint. The vulnerability of varying methods is difficulty in conducting comparative among water footprint. Salient source in contributing high water footprint also varies. In some studies, green water footprint play major role. Conversely, few studies found out blue water footprint most contributing component in water footprint. This fluctuate pattern influenced by various aspects, namely, regional climatic characteristics, crop yield and crop types.

  3. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...

  4. Progress and Prospects for Tourism Footprint Research

    OpenAIRE

    Shuxin Wang; Yiyuan Hu; Hong He; Genxu Wang

    2017-01-01

    The tourism footprint family comprises the tourism ecological footprint (TEF), the tourism carbon footprint (TCF) and the tourism water footprint (TWF). The tourism footprint represents an important tool for quantitatively assessing the impact of tourism activities on the ecosystem of a tourist destination. This paper systematically reviews the relevant literature on TEF, TCF and TWF, analyses and summarizes the main progress and failures in the analytical frameworks, research methods, measur...

  5. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  6. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  7. Footprints of Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Trevor Williams

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is ironic that the management of education has become more closed while learning has become more open, particularly over the past 10-20 years. The curriculum has become more instrumental, predictive, standardized, and micro-managed in the belief that this supports employability as well as the management of educational processes, resources, and value. Meanwhile, people have embraced interactive, participatory, collaborative, and innovative networks for living and learning. To respond to these challenges, we need to develop practical tools to help us describe these new forms of learning which are multivariate, self-organised, complex, adaptive, and unpredictable. We draw on complexity theory and our experience as researchers, designers, and participants in open and interactive learning to go beyond conventional approaches. We develop a 3D model of landscapes of learning for exploring the relationship between prescribed and emergent learning in any given curriculum. We do this by repeatedly testing our descriptive landscapes (or footprints against theory, research, and practice across a range of case studies. By doing this, we have not only come up with a practical tool which can be used by curriculum designers, but also realised that the curriculum itself can usefully be treated as emergent, depending on the dynamics between prescribed and emergent learning and how the learning landscape is curated.

  8. Progress and Prospects for Tourism Footprint Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxin Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The tourism footprint family comprises the tourism ecological footprint (TEF, the tourism carbon footprint (TCF and the tourism water footprint (TWF. The tourism footprint represents an important tool for quantitatively assessing the impact of tourism activities on the ecosystem of a tourist destination. This paper systematically reviews the relevant literature on TEF, TCF and TWF, analyses and summarizes the main progress and failures in the analytical frameworks, research methods, measurement results, environmental impacts and reductions in the tourism footprint. This paper also proposes areas for further developing the tourism footprint research, including unifying the analytical frameworks and boundaries of the tourism footprint, distinguishing the geographical scope of the tourism footprint effectively, improving the process of analyzing the environmental impact of the tourism footprint, measuring the tourism footprint scientifically and roundly, performing space-time calculations of the tourism footprint, and expanding the tourism footprint family by introducing new members. Accordingly, this paper is devoted to the continued study of the tourism footprint.

  9. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1999-01-01

    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  10. AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...

  11. Human appropriation of natural capital: a comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume

  12. Human appropriation of natural capital: Comparing ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume

  13. Urban ecological footprints in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2008-01-01

    Africa's rate of urbanization is the highest in the world. This is relevant to ecologists working in Africa because urban growth is strongly associated with habitat destruction, and also creates new fields of study. The ecological footprint concept is used to illustrate how urban settlements in

  14. What Is My Carbon Footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Wagstrom, Rikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are having a profound impact on the environment. The opportunity to investigate this timely issue during one or two class periods gives algebra and precalculus students insight into a sustainability topic of great international concern--carbon footprints. Students use mathematical thinking in matters that are pertinent to their…

  15. Advancing water footprint assessment research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Chapagain, Ashok K.; Oel, van Pieter R.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity forms a major

  16. HLA Footprints for Multipurpose Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, G.; Lubow, S.; Donaldson, T.; Gillies, K.; Budavari, T.; Szalay, A.

    2010-12-01

    Footprints from the science observations of the Hubble Space Telescope are defined by a set of hierarchical geometric regions of instrument coverage; exposures, combined observations, high level science products, and mosaics. In the growing global community of networked applications, the science end-user has several use cases for visualizing and accessing footprint data including scientific proposal preparation, research and analysis of generated science products, and interoperability between archives for correlation of coverage. The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at Space Telescope Science Institute, in coordination with ESO-ECF and CADC, has developed a web based science user interface built on a VO service oriented architecture system to enable varying levels of astronomical community access to science products derived from the HST archive. In this ADASS poster paper we describe new features and technologies for the HLA footprint component web browser visualization tool and the underlying footprint services utilized by the HST Astronomers Proposal Tool (APT) in compliance with an IVOA standard data access protocol. The service infrastructure is based on a high performance spherical geometric model developed by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and database search algorithms co-developed by STScI and JHU.

  17. [Ecological footprint in building green university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Wei; Li, Guang-Jun; Wang, Qing; Liu, Jian-Xing; Ding, Yi; Liu, Jing-Zhi

    2005-07-01

    Ecological footprint is one of the best indexes to evaluate the level of green university. The approaches of ecological footprint are made up of compound approach and component approach. This paper introduces the basic principle and algorithm of the componential approach of ecological footprint, taking Northeastern University as an example and using this approach in the research of campus. Result show that the ecological footprint of Northeastern University 2003 was 24 787hm2, needing the productive land of ecology about 25 000hm2 support all kinds of consumption of the school and absorb the offal. The ecological efficiency of the school was 0.94cap/hm2. In the ecological footprints, the energy's footprints is the largest, it accounted for more than 2/3 of the total footprints, the next are food consumption and solid rubbish.

  18. Ecological Footprints in transnational media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2013-01-01

    planning in administrative bodies to broadcast media reporting how countries are ranked in the newest index of corruption, wealth, or happiness. The question this paper rises is how sustainable development indicators, and more specifically the Ecological Footprint is represented and at work in public media....... An actor-network theoretical approach is applied, according to which indicators are viewed as non-material objects. Indicators are carriers of agency and through their appearance in media they connect to other fields of agency. The agency that emanates from the Ecological Footprint seems mainly to connect...... to the formation of public sentiments regarding planetary problems, consumer habits, and global equity, whereas its connections to policy making - through its media appearances - are rather weak....

  19. Teres major muscle - insertion footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancker, Malte; Lambert, Simon; Brenner, Erich

    2017-05-01

    Teres major muscle (TM) and latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) are frequently used in muscle transfers around the shoulder girdle. Some authors have suggested harvesting techniques in which the muscle is detached in continuity with a bone segment. Information on the bony attachment footprint of these muscles is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the region of attachment of the TM to facilitate safe and complete harvesting with a bone segment where it is indicated, and to determine the relationship of the TM footprint with that of the LD. Twenty-eight upper extremities of 14 human cadavers (six female, eight male) were investigated during the students' dissection course in the winter term 2012. The attachment footprints were photographed and the images were processed with ImageJ Version 1.46r. The TM attachment footprint at the crest of the lesser tubercle had an average dimension of 187 ± 89 mm2 . It was 49.6 ± 7.9 mm long and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm wide. The bony attachment of the LD within the bicipital groove, just below the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle, had an area of 94 ± 37 mm2 . It was 36.5 ± 8 mm long and 3.7 ± 1.2 mm wide. Both muscles were separated by 4.4 ± 1.7 mm and their attachments overlapped in the craniocaudal direction by 24.4 ± 12.4 mm. Earlier studies have investigated the dimensions of the muscles' tendons close to the attachment not the bony attachment itself. The dimension of the attachment of the TM was larger than that of the LD. The ratio between the footprint areas was approximately 2:1. This information should be considered by surgeons undertaking transfers, which include a bony segment of the muscle insertion. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  20. Redesigning Manufacturing Footprint from Dynamic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2009-01-01

    Facing all the difficulties and uncertainties brought by the recent financial crisis, redesigning the manufacturing footprint can be the biggest and most important transformation a manufacturer can undertake. This paper tries to focus on this question and answer how to redesign a manufacturing...... footprint to address the constantly emerging new challenges by giving a holistic approach from dynamic perspective. Three Danish companies are presented. The way they developed their international manufacturing networks is analysed historically, and their redesigning of manufacturing footprint is expressed...

  1. Human appropriation of natural capital: Comparing ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume (cubic metres per year) required. In elaborating the WF concept into a well-defined quantifiable indicator, a number of methodological issues have been addressed, with many similarities to the methodol...

  2. Carbon footprint: current methods of estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Pandey, Jai Shanker

    2011-07-01

    Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for carbon footprint calculations are still evolving and it is emerging as an important tool for greenhouse gas management. The concept of carbon footprinting has permeated and is being commercialized in all the areas of life and economy, but there is little coherence in definitions and calculations of carbon footprints among the studies. There are disagreements in the selection of gases, and the order of emissions to be covered in footprint calculations. Standards of greenhouse gas accounting are the common resources used in footprint calculations, although there is no mandatory provision of footprint verification. Carbon footprinting is intended to be a tool to guide the relevant emission cuts and verifications, its standardization at international level are therefore necessary. Present review describes the prevailing carbon footprinting methods and raises the related issues.

  3. The footprint family : Comparison and interaction of the ecological, energy, carbon and water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Kai; Heijungs, Reinout; De Snoo, Geert

    2013-01-01

    The year of 2012 marks the 20th anniversary since the concept of ecological footprint was introduced to the global community for the first time. Nowadays footprint studies have gained extensive debates as well as popularity. In this paper, we define the footprint family as an indicator system of

  4. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  5. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we shall apply the (G /G)-expansion method to obtain the exact travelling wave solution of the two-dimensional ... In §3, we apply our method to the mentioned equations. In §4, some conclusions are ..... The exact solution obtained by this method can be used to check computer codes or as initial condition for ...

  6. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  7. promoting sustainability by curtailing ecological footprints of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to regulate land use and the exploitation of natural resources has led to the concept of sustainability, and by extension, ecological footprint (the total amount of land required by an individual to grow his/her needs). This paper examines ecological footprint savings in urban growth and housing development in ...

  8. The water footprint of modern consumer society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    Water is not only used in the domestic context, but also in agriculture and industry in the production of commercial goods, from food to paper. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks at both direct and indirect use of water by a consumer or producer. The water footprint of

  9. Assessing carbon footprints of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The farm-gate carbon footprint of milk quantifies the net greenhouse gas emissions of a dairy production system. Published values vary widely depending upon farm management practices and the calculation method used. Standard procedures for calculating the carbon footprint of milk are now established...

  10. Product carbon footprint developments and gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Over the last decade, multiple initiatives have been undertaken to learn how to capture the carbon footprint of a supply chain at a product level. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the process of standardization to secure consistency of product carbon footprinting (PCF...

  11. Water footprinting of dairy farming in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Holden, N.M.; Shalloo, L.; Curran, T.P.; Upton, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global water scarcity, water footprints have become an important sustainability indicator for food production systems. To improve the water footprint of the dairy sector, insight into freshwater consumption of individual farms is required. The objective of this study was to

  12. Double counting in supply chain carbon footprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Caro (Felipe); C.J. Corbett (Charles); T. Tan (Terence); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCarbon footprinting is a tool for firms to determine the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with their supply chain or with a unit of final product or service. Carbon footprinting typically aims to identify where best to invest in emission reduction efforts, and/or to

  13. Sustainable Colombia : A Comprehensive Colombian Footprint Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Brad

    2010-01-01

    During the past several months, the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development of Colombia has been researching potential indicators that would be useful to assess and possibly adopt among which included the ecological footprint. This work was commissioned in order to provide the Ministry with a deeper understanding of the ecological footprint and to train a number of its...

  14. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  15. Water Footprint of crop productions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovarelli, Daniela; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Water Footprint is an indicator recently developed with the goal of quantifying the virtual content of water in products and/or services. It can also be used to identify the worldwide virtual water trade. Water Footprint is composed of three parts (green, blue and grey waters) that make the assessment complete in accordance with the Water Footprint Network and with the recent ISO14046. The importance of Water Footprint is linked to the need of taking consciousness about water content in products and services and of the achievable changes in productions, diets and market trades. In this study, a literature review has been completed on Water Footprint of agricultural productions. In particular, the focus was paid on crops for the production of food and bioenergy. From the review, the development of the Water Footprint concept emerged: in early studies the main goal was to assess products' water trade on a global scale, while in the subsequent years, the goal was the rigorous quantification of the three components for specific crops and in specific geographical areas. In the most recent assessments, similarities about the methodology and the employed tools emerged. For 96 scientific articles on Water Footprint indicator of agricultural productions, this literature review reports the main results and analyses weaknesses and strengths. Seventy-eight percent of studies aimed to quantify Water Footprint, while the remaining 22% analysed methodology, uncertainty, future trends and comparisons with other footprints. It emerged that most studies that quantified Water Footprint concerned cereals (33%), among which maize and wheat were the most investigated crops. In 46% of studies all the three components were assessed, while in 18% no indication about the subdivision was given; in the remaining 37%, only blue or green and blue components were quantified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  17. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jackson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals. The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  19. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  20. Corporate Ecological Footprint: New Conversion Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Coto-Millán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first ecological footprint calculation version, applied to companies, appeared in 2003. The said tool provides the possibility of calculating the total impact of a company or organisation in hectares or in equivalent emissions of CO2. This paper updates carbon absorption rates and improves electricity consumption conversion factors, one of the major footprint generating consumptions in companies. The new rates prove that the footprint estimated to date will be notably increased as, among other aspects, the IPCC has downgraded the amount of carbon that forests are capable of absorbing. These data reveal that companies must make a great effort to adapt to the challenges triggered by climate change.

  1. Urban Footprint of Mumbai - The Commercial Capital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. RAMACHANDRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban footprint refers to the proportion of paved surface (built up, roads, etc. with the reduction of other land use types in a region. Rapid increase in the urban areas is the major driver in landscape dynamics with the significant erosion in the quality and quantity of the natural ecosystems. The urban expansion process hence needs to be monitored, quantified and understood for effective planning and the sustainable management of natural resources. Cities and towns have been experiencing considerable growth in urban area, population size, social aspects, negative environmental and geographical influence, and complexity. Mumbai, the commercial capital of India, has experienced a spurt in infrastructural and industrial activities with globalization and opening up of Indian markets. Unplanned urbanization has resulted in dispersed growth inperi-urban pockets due to socio-economic aspects with the burgeoning population of the city. Consequent to this, there has been an uneven growth pattern apart from the increase in slums in and around the city. This has necessitated the understanding of the urbanization pattern and process focusing especially on the expanding geographical area, its geometry and the spatial pattern of its development. This communication discusses the urban footprint dynamics of Mumbai using multi-temporal remote sensing data with spatial metrics. Land use analysis indicated a decrease of vegetation by 20% with an increase in urban extent by 155% during the last three decades. Landscape metrics aided in assessing the spatial structure and composition of the urban footprints through the zonal analysis by dividing the region into four zones with concentric circles of 1 km incrementing radius from the city centre. The study reveals a significant variation in the composition of the urban patch dynamics with increasing complexity and aggregation of urban area at the centre and sprawl at the outskirts. Shannon’s entropy further

  2. Future Directions of Structural Mass Spectrometry using Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Kiselar; M Chance

    2011-12-31

    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry has been developed over the last decade and has matured to a powerful method for analyzing protein structure and dynamics. It has been successfully applied in the analysis of protein structure, protein folding, protein dynamics, and protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Using synchrotron radiolysis, exposure of proteins to a 'white' X-ray beam for milliseconds provides sufficient oxidative modification to surface amino acid side chains, which can be easily detected and quantified by mass spectrometry. Thus, conformational changes in proteins or protein complexes can be examined using a time-resolved approach, which would be a valuable method for the study of macromolecular dynamics. In this review, we describe a new application of hydroxyl radical protein footprinting to probe the time evolution of the calcium-dependent conformational changes of gelsolin on the millisecond timescale. The data suggest a cooperative transition as multiple sites in different molecular subdomains have similar rates of conformational change. These findings demonstrate that time-resolved protein footprinting is suitable for studies of protein dynamics that occur over periods ranging from milliseconds to seconds. In this review, we also show how the structural resolution and sensitivity of the technology can be improved as well. The hydroxyl radical varies in its reactivity to different side chains by over two orders of magnitude, thus oxidation of amino acid side chains of lower reactivity are more rarely observed in such experiments. Here we demonstrate that the selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based method can be utilized for quantification of oxidized species, improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This expansion of the set of oxidized residues of lower reactivity will improve the overall structural resolution of the technique. This approach is also suggested as a basis for developing hypothesis

  3. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Green Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation will focus on the following points: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint are two criteria evaluating the greenness in urban development, (2) Two cases are examined and presented: water footprints in energy productions and carbon footprints in water ...

  4. Water footprint and carbon footprint of the energy consumption in sunflower agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the energy requirements, carbon footprint, and water footprint of sunflower production in Kermanshah province, western Iran. Data were collected from 70 sunflower production agroecosystems which were selected based on random sampling method in summer 2012. Results indicated that total input and output energy in sunflower production were 26,973.87 and 64,833.92 MJha-1, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in sunflower agroecosystems was recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 35, 19, and 17%, respectively. Also, energy use efficiency, water footprint, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and carbon footprint were calculated as 2.40, 3.41 m3 kg-1, 2042.091 kg CO2eqha-1, and 0.875 kg CO2eqkg-1, respectively. 0.18 of sunflower water footprint was related to green water footprint and the remaining 82% was related to blue water footprint. Also, the highest share of carbon footprint was related to electricity power (nearby 80%). Due to the results of this study, reducing use of fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resource and application of sufficient irrigation systems by efficient use of water resource are essential in order to achieve low carbon footprint, environmental challenges, and also sustainability of agricultural production systems.

  5. Carbon Footprint Calculator | Climate Change | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    An interactive calculator to estimate your household's carbon footprint. This tool will estimate carbon pollution emissions from your daily activities and show how to reduce your emissions and save money through simple steps.

  6. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Mesfin

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in understanding the pressure put on the global freshwater resources. The overall objective of this thesis is, therefore, to analyse the spatial and temporal pattern of the water footprint of humans from both...

  7. Augmenting a guitar with its digital footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Benford, Steve; Hazzard, Adrian; Chamberlain, Alan; Xu, Liming

    2015-01-01

    We explore how to digitally augment musical instruments by connecting them to their social histories. We describe the use of Internet of Things technologies to connect an acoustic guitar to its digital footprint – a record of how it was designed, built and played. We introduce the approach of crafting interactive decorative inlay into the body of an instrument that can then be scanned using mobile devices to reveal its digital footprint. We describe the design and construction of an augmented...

  8. Unrealistic phylogenetic trees may improve phylogenetic footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettling, Martin; Treutler, Hendrik; Cerquides, Jesus; Grosse, Ivo

    2017-06-01

    The computational investigation of DNA binding motifs from binding sites is one of the classic tasks in bioinformatics and a prerequisite for understanding gene regulation as a whole. Due to the development of sequencing technologies and the increasing number of available genomes, approaches based on phylogenetic footprinting become increasingly attractive. Phylogenetic footprinting requires phylogenetic trees with attached substitution probabilities for quantifying the evolution of binding sites, but these trees and substitution probabilities are typically not known and cannot be estimated easily. Here, we investigate the influence of phylogenetic trees with different substitution probabilities on the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting using synthetic and real data. For synthetic data we find that the classification performance is highest when the substitution probability used for phylogenetic footprinting is similar to that used for data generation. For real data, however, we typically find that the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting surprisingly increases with increasing substitution probabilities and is often highest for unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one. This finding suggests that choosing realistic model assumptions might not always yield optimal predictions in general and that choosing unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one might actually improve the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting. The proposed PF is implemented in JAVA and can be downloaded from https://github.com/mgledi/PhyFoo. : martin.nettling@informatik.uni-halle.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  10. Resource footprints and their ecosystem consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Moran, Daniel; Stadler, Konstantin; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Wood, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A meaningful environmental impact analysis should go beyond the accounting of pressures from resource use and actually assess how resource demand affects ecosystems. The various currently available footprints of nations report the environmental pressures e.g. water use or pollutant emissions, driven by consumption. However, there have been limited attempts to assess the environmental consequences of these pressures. Ultimately, consequences, not pressures, should guide environmental policymaking. The newly released LC-Impact method demonstrates progress on the path to providing this missing link. Here we present “ecosystem impact footprints” in terms of the consequences for biodiversity and assess the differences in impact footprint results from MRIO-based pressure footprints. The new perspective reveals major changes in the relative contribution of nations to global footprints. Wealthy countries have high pressure footprints in lower-income countries but their impact footprints often have their origin in higher-income countries. This shift in perspective provides a different insight on where to focus policy responses to preserve biodiversity.

  11. In Vitro DNase I Footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Benoît P; Moss, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The association of proteins with the DNA double helix can interfere with the accessibility of the latter to nucleases. This is particularly true when using bulky nucleases such as DNase I. The DNase I footprinting method was developed to take advantage of this fact in the study of DNA-protein interactions: it consists in comparing the pattern of fragments generated by the partial digestion of a DNA sequence in the absence of a protein to that produced by its partial digestion in the presence of said protein. Normally, when the two sets of fragments are separated side by side on a gel, the ladder of DNase I-generated fragments produced in the presence of the protein will feature blank regions (devoid of fragments, indicating protection) and/or enhanced cleavage sites (indicating increased availability to the nuclease). This technique can furthermore reveal if multiple sites for a DNA-binding protein are present on a same fragment and in such a case will also allow the comparison of their respective affinities.

  12. The water footprint of Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Bidoglio, G

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) and production (WFprod) of Milan. The current WFcons amounts to 6,139 l/cap/d (a volume of 2.93 km(3) annually), of which 52 l/cap/d (1%) is attributed to domestic water, 448 l/cap/d (7%) to the consumption of industrial products and 5,639 l/cap/d (92%) to the consumption of agricultural products. The WFprod is 52 l/cap/d. Milan is thus a net virtual water importer, predominantly through the import of agricultural products. These are produced outside city borders, both in Italy and abroad. This shows the dependency of city dwellers on water resources from other river basins. In addition, the WFcons for a healthy diet (based on Mediterranean Food-Based Dietary Guidelines) and a vegetarian diet are analysed. The current Milanese diet consists of too much sugar, crop oils, meat, animal fats, milk and milk products and not enough cereals, rice, potatoes, vegetables and fruit. The latter two diets result in substantial WFcons reductions: -29% (to 4,339 l/cap/d) for a healthy diet and -41% (to 3,631 l/cap/d) for a vegetarian diet. Indeed, a lot of water could be saved by Milan citizens through a change in their diet. A sustainable city should account for its impacts beyond its borders.

  13. The material footprint of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Schandl, Heinz; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Suh, Sangwon; West, James; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2015-05-19

    Metrics on resource productivity currently used by governments suggest that some developed countries have increased the use of natural resources at a slower rate than economic growth (relative decoupling) or have even managed to use fewer resources over time (absolute decoupling). Using the material footprint (MF), a consumption-based indicator of resource use, we find the contrary: Achievements in decoupling in advanced economies are smaller than reported or even nonexistent. We present a time series analysis of the MF of 186 countries and identify material flows associated with global production and consumption networks in unprecedented specificity. By calculating raw material equivalents of international trade, we demonstrate that countries' use of nondomestic resources is, on average, about threefold larger than the physical quantity of traded goods. As wealth grows, countries tend to reduce their domestic portion of materials extraction through international trade, whereas the overall mass of material consumption generally increases. With every 10% increase in gross domestic product, the average national MF increases by 6%. Our findings call into question the sole use of current resource productivity indicators in policy making and suggest the necessity of an additional focus on consumption-based accounting for natural resource use.

  14. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water

  15. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if

  16. Human footprints in Central Mexico older than 40,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia; Huddart, David; Bennett, Matthew R.; González-Huesca, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    The timing, route and origin of the first colonization to the Americas remains one of the most contentious topics in human evolution. A number of migration routes have been suggested and there are different views as to the antiquity of the earliest human occupation. Some believe that settlement happened as early as 30 ka BP, but most of the currently accepted early sites in North America date to the latest Pleistocene, related to the expansion of the Clovis culture, while the oldest directly radiocarbon dated human remains are 11.5 ka BP. In this context new evidence is presented in this paper, in the form of human footprints preserved in indurated volcanic ash, to suggest that Central Mexico was inhabited as early as over 40 ka BP. Human and animal footprints have been found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico. This ash layer was produced by a subaqueous monogenetic volcano erupting within a palaeo-lake, dammed by lava within the Valsequillo Basin during the Pleistocene. The footprints were formed during low stands in lake level along the former shorelines and indicate the presence of humans, deer, canids, big felids, and probably camels and bovids. The footprints were buried by ash and lake sediments as lake levels rose and transgressed across the site. The ash has been dated to at least 40 ka BP by OSL dating of incorporated, baked lake sediments.

  17. Carbon footprint of grain production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Yu'e; Zhang, Weifeng

    2017-06-29

    Due to the increasing environmental impact of food production, carbon footprint as an indicator can guide farmland management. This study established a method and estimated the carbon footprint of grain production in China based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The results showed that grain production has a high carbon footprint in 2013, i.e., 4052 kg ce/ha or 0.48 kg ce/kg for maize, 5455 kg ce/ha or 0.75 kg ce/kg for wheat and 11881 kg ce/ha or 1.60 kg ce/kg for rice. These footprints are higher than that of other countries, such as the United States, Canada and India. The most important factors governing carbon emissions were the application of nitrogen fertiliser (8-49%), straw burning (0-70%), energy consumption by machinery (6-40%), energy consumption for irrigation (0-44%) and CH4 emissions from rice paddies (15-73%). The most important carbon sequestration factors included returning of crop straw (41-90%), chemical nitrogen fertiliser application (10-59%) and no-till farming practices (0-10%). Different factors dominated in different crop systems in different regions. To identity site-specific key factors and take countermeasures could significantly lower carbon footprint, e.g., ban straw burning in northeast and south China, stopping continuous flooding irrigation in wheat and rice production system.

  18. Phylogenetic footprinting to find functional DNA elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Austen R D; Kobayashi, Takehiko

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting is powerful technique for finding functional elements from sequence data. Functional elements are thought to have greater sequence constraint than nonfunctional elements, and, thus, undergo a slower rate of sequence change through time. Phylogenetic footprinting uses comparisons of homologous sequences from closely related organisms to identify "phylogenetic footprints," regions with slower rates of sequence change than background. This does not require prior characterization of the sequence in question, therefore, it can be used in a wide range of applications. In particular, it is useful for the identification of functional elements in noncoding DNA, which are traditionally difficult to detect. Here, we describe in detail how to perform a simple yet powerful phylogenetic footprinting analysis. As an example, we use ribosomal DNA repeat sequences from various Saccharomyces yeasts to find functional noncoding DNA elements in the intergenic spacer, and explain critical considerations in performing phylogenetic footprinting analyses, including the number of species and species range, and some of the available software. Our methods are broadly applicable and should appeal to molecular biologists with little experience in bioinformatics.

  19. Carbon footprint of a music festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K. V.

    2009-12-01

    In an effort to curb CO2 and by extension, greenhouse gas emissions various initiatives have been taken statewide, nationally and internationally. However, benchmarks and metrics are not clearly defined for CO2 and CO2 equivalent accounting. The objective of this study is to estimate the carbon footprint of the Lincoln Park Music Festival which occurs annually in Newark, NJ. This festival runs for three days each summer and consists of music, food vendors, merchandise and a green marketplace. In order to determine the carbon footprint generated by transportation, surveys of participants were analyzed. Of the approximately 40,000 participants in 2009, 3.3% were surveyed. About 30% of respondents commuted to the festival by car with an average of 10 miles traveling distance. Transportation emission amounted to an estimated CO2 emission of 188 metric tons for all three days combined. Trash at the music festival was weighed, components estimated, and potential CO2 emission calculated if incinerated. 63% of the trash was found to be carbon based, which is the equivalent of three metric tons of CO2 if incinerated. The majority of the trash (>60%) could have been recycled, thus significantly reducing the carbon footprint. In order to limit the carbon footprint of this festival, alternative transport options would be advisable as transport accounted for the largest proportion of the carbon footprint at this festival.

  20. Nitrogen footprints: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, James N.; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison M.; Bleeker, Albert; Willem Erisman, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has evolved from minimal in the mid-19th century to extensive in the present time. The consequences to human and environmental health are significant. While much attention has been given to the extent and impacts of the alteration, little attention has been given to those entities (i.e., consumers, institutions) that use the resources that result in extensive reactive nitrogen (Nr) creation. One strategy for assessment is the use of nitrogen footprint tools. A nitrogen footprint is generally defined as the total amount of Nr released to the environment as a result of an entity’s consumption patterns. This paper reviews a number of nitrogen footprint tools (N-Calculator, N-Institution, N-Label, N-Neutrality, N-Indicator) that are designed to provide that attention. It reviews N-footprint tools for consumers as a function of the country that they live in (N-Calculator, N-Indicator) and the products they buy (N-Label), for the institutions that people work in and are educated in (N-Institution), and for events and decision-making regarding offsets (N-Neutrality). N footprint tools provide a framework for people to make decisions about their resource use and show them how offsets can be coupled with behavior change to decrease consumer/institution contributions to N-related problems.

  1. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    larger river systems. By using projections in urban populations for 2030 and 2050, we estimated scenarios of expansion in water footprints depending on urban growth policies and energy production technology. We provide examples of how this framework can be used to minimize water footprints and impacts to aquatic biodiversity.

  2. Footprint Geometry and Sessile Drop Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.

    2016-11-01

    How does a sessile drop resonate if its footprint is square (square drop)? In this talk, we discuss the two distinct families of observed modes in our experiments. One family (spherical modes) is identified with the natural modes of capillary spherical caps, and the other (grid modes) with Faraday waves on a square bath (square Faraday waves). A square drop exhibits grid or spherical modes depending on its volume, and the two families of modes arise depending on how wavenumber selection of footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes which are constrained response; otherwise the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates. Chun-Ti Chang takes his new position at National Taiwan University on Aug. 15th, 2016. Until then, Chun-Ti Chang is affiliated with Technical University Dortmund, Germany.

  3. Silk industry and carbon footprint mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, A. M.; Garcia, J. B., Jr.; Zonatti, W. F.; Silva-Santos, M. C.; Laktim, M. C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    Currently there is a concern with issues related to sustainability and more conscious consumption habits. The carbon footprint measures the total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced directly and indirectly by human activities and is usually expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents. The present study takes into account data collected in scientific literature regarding the carbon footprint, garments produced with silk fiber and the role of mulberry as a CO2 mitigation tool. There is an indication of a positive correlation between silk garments and carbon footprint mitigation when computed the cultivation of mulberry trees in this calculation. A field of them mitigates CO2 equivalents in a proportion of 735 times the weight of the produced silk fiber by the mulberry cultivated area. At the same time, additional researches are needed in order to identify and evaluate methods to advertise this positive correlation in order to contribute to a more sustainable fashion industry.

  4. The carbon footprint of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D S; Wright, T; Somner, J E A; Connor, A

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to be one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century. Health care itself is a large contributor to carbon emissions. Determining the carbon footprint of specific health care activities such as cataract surgery allows the assessment of associated emissions and identifies opportunities for reduction. To assess the carbon footprint of a cataract pathway in a British teaching hospital. This was a component analysis study for one patient having first eye cataract surgery in the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. Activity data was collected from three sectors, building and energy use, travel and procurement. Published emissions factors were applied to this data to provide figures in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq). The carbon footprint for one cataract operation was 181.8 kg CO2eq. On the basis that 2230 patients were treated for cataracts during 2011 in Cardiff, this has an associated carbon footprint of 405.4 tonnes CO2eq. Building and energy use was estimated to account for 36.1% of overall emissions, travel 10.1% and procurement 53.8%, with medical equipment accounting for the most emissions at 32.6%. This is the first published carbon footprint of cataract surgery and acts as a benchmark for other studies as well as identifying areas for emissions reduction. Within the procurement sector, dialogue with industry is important to reduce the overall carbon footprint. Sustainability should be considered when cataract pathways are designed as there is potential for reduction in all sectors with the possible side effects of saving costs and improving patient care.

  5. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  6. Exceptional preservation of children's footprints from a Holocene footprint site in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Morse, Sarita A.; Liutkus-Pierce, Cynthia; McClymont, Juliet; Evans, Mary; Crompton, Robin H.; Francis Thackeray, J.

    2014-09-01

    Here we report on a Holocene inter-dune site close to Walvis Bay (Namibia) which contains exceptionally well-preserved children's footprints. The footprint surface is dated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methods to approximately 1.5 ka. These dates are compared to those obtained at nearby footprint sites and used to verify a model of diachronous footprint surfaces and also add to the archaeological data available for the communities that occupied these near-coastal areas during the Holocene. This model of diachronous footprint surfaces has implications for other soft-sediment footprint sites such as the 1.5 Ma old footprints at Ileret (Kenya). The distribution of both human and animal tracks, is consistent with the passage of small flock of small ungulates (probably sheep/goats) followed by a group of approximately 9 ± 2 individuals (children or young adults). Age estimates from the tracks suggest that some of the individuals may have been as young as five years old. Variation in track topology across this sedimentologically uniform surface is explained in terms of variations in gait and weight/stature of the individual print makers and is used to corroborate a model of footprint morphology developed at a nearby site. The significance of the site within the literature on human footprints lies in the quality of the track preservation, their topological variability despite a potentially uniform substrate, and the small size of the tracks, and therefore the inferred young age of the track-makers. The site provides an emotive insight into the life of the track-makers.

  7. The conundrum of calculating carbon footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Gausset, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A pre-condition for reducing global warming is to minimise the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). A common approach to informing people about the link between behaviour and climate change rests on developing GHG calculators that quantify the ‘carbon footprint’ of a product, a sector or an actor....... There is, however, an abundance of GHG calculators that rely on very different premises and give very different estimates of carbon footprints. In this chapter, we compare and analyse the main principles of calculating carbon footprints, and discuss how calculators can inform (or misinform) people who wish...

  8. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bolanca Mirkovic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the development of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the environmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca methods take into account all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products.  The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by life cycle assessment.The aim of this paper is to describe the potential environmental impacts (greenhouse gases, carbon footprint of printed paper and new media.

  9. The ecological footprint of Lions Gate Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, S

    The first-ever Ecological Footprint of a hospital was carried out in the summer of 2001 in North Vancouver, British Columbia. Although there has been growing concern that the healthcare system in Canada might be adversely affecting the environment, there have been few analyses of its environmental impact. Lions Gate Hospital bravely agreed to participate in this study and have its footprint calculated. This displays real leadership, reflecting very positively on the hospital's commitment to becoming more environmentally responsible and its willingness to open up to scrutiny.

  10. TIRO Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES DE LA ECONOMÍA FENICIA DURANTE EL SIGLO VIII ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Tyre and the Fluctuations of Phoenician Economy during the 8th Century BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis de los ajuares funerarios hasta ahora publicados de la necrópolis fenicia de Tiro-Al Bass, Líbano, permite aislar las fluctuaciones económicas y los cambios sociales experimentados por la población tiria durante el siglo VIII a. C. En concreto, se detecta una larga prosperidad desde mediados del siglo IX hasta mediados del VIII antes de nuestra era, con un máximo de bonanza a lo largo del periodo 775-750 a. C. En cambio, la segunda mitad del siglo VIII muestra una aguda crisis económica asociada a una elevada conflictividad social. Estos resultados coinciden plenamente con los acontecimientos históricos conocidos a través de las fuentes literarias antiguas, aportando evidencias que las complementan. En todo caso, con este nuevo ejemplo se confirma, una vez más, la universalidad de la metodología empleada y su irrefutable validez científica. ENGLISH: By applying the contextual valuation method to the analysis of grave goods from the Phoenician cemetery of Tyre-Al Bass, Lebanon, we can isolate the economic fluctuations and social changes experienced by the Tyrian population during the 8th century BC. Based on the evidence, the mid-9th to the mid-8th century BC was a period of prosperity, with the most pronounced economic boom between 775-750 BC. In contrast, the second half of the 8th century BC shows a sharp economic crisis associated with a high level of social conflict. These results are fully consistent with the historical events known through ancient literary sources. This new example confirms the universality of this methodology and its irrefutable scientific validity.

  11. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M; Wagnild, Janelle; Wagler, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition...

  12. Resource Footprints are Good Proxies of Environmental Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmann, Z.J.N.; Schipper, A.M.; Hauck, M.; Giljum, S.; Wernet, G.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental footprints are increasingly used to quantify and compare environmental impacts of for example products, technologies, households, or nations. This has resulted in a multitude of footprint indicators, ranging from relatively simple measures of resource use (water, energy, materials) to

  13. Human Footprint Variation while Performing Load Bearing Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M.; Wagnild, Janelle; Wagler, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footpr...

  14. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  15. Investigating the inventory and characterization aspects of footprinting methods. Lessons for the classification and integration of footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.; Heijungs, R.

    2015-01-01

    Inventory and characterization schemes play different roles in shaping a variety of footprint indicators. This paper performs a systematic and critical investigation of the hidden inventory aspect and characterization aspect of selected footprints with implications for classification and integration

  16. Forest Products Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  17. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF CANNED SWEET CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairat Usubharatana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA and ecological footprint (EF. This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn (340 g was selected for the case study. All inputs and outputs associated with the product system boundary were collected through field surveys. The acquired inventory was then analysed and evaluated using both LCA and EF methodology. The results were converted into an area of biologically productive land and presented as global hectares (gha. The ecological footprint of one can of sweet corn was calculated as 6.51E-04 gha. The three factors with the highest impact on ecological footprint value were the corn kernels used in the process, the packaging and steam, equivalent to 2.93E-04 gha, 1.19E-04 gha and 1.17E-04 gha respectively. To promote the sustainable development, the company should develop new technology or utilize better management techniques to reduce the ecological footprint of canned food production.

  18. The auroral footprint of Enceladus on Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Wayne R; Rymer, Abigail M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hill, Thomas W; Young, David T; Saur, Joachim; Jones, Geraint H; Jacobsen, Sven; Cowley, Stan W H; Mauk, Barry H; Coates, Andrew J; Gustin, Jacques; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Lamy, Laurent; Nichols, Jonathan D; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Esposito, Larry W; Dougherty, Michele K; Jouchoux, Alain J; Stewart, A Ian F; McClintock, William E; Holsclaw, Gregory M; Ajello, Joseph M; Colwell, Joshua E; Hendrix, Amanda R; Crary, Frank J; Clarke, John T; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2011-04-21

    Although there are substantial differences between the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, it has been suggested that cryovolcanic activity at Enceladus could lead to electrodynamic coupling between Enceladus and Saturn like that which links Jupiter with Io, Europa and Ganymede. Powerful field-aligned electron beams associated with the Io-Jupiter coupling, for example, create an auroral footprint in Jupiter's ionosphere. Auroral ultraviolet emission associated with Enceladus-Saturn coupling is anticipated to be just a few tenths of a kilorayleigh (ref. 12), about an order of magnitude dimmer than Io's footprint and below the observable threshold, consistent with its non-detection. Here we report the detection of magnetic-field-aligned ion and electron beams (offset several moon radii downstream from Enceladus) with sufficient power to stimulate detectable aurora, and the subsequent discovery of Enceladus-associated aurora in a few per cent of the scans of the moon's footprint. The footprint varies in emission magnitude more than can plausibly be explained by changes in magnetospheric parameters--and as such is probably indicative of variable plume activity.

  19. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  20. The importance of carbon footprint estimation boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H Scott; Hendrickson, Chris T; Weber, Christopher L

    2008-08-15

    Because of increasing concern about global climate change and carbon emissions as a causal factor, many companies and organizations are pursuing "carbon footprint" projects to estimate their own contributions to global climate change. Protocol definitions from carbon registries help organizations analyze their footprints. The scope of these protocols varies but generally suggests estimating only direct emissions and emissions from purchased energy, with less focus on supply chain emissions. In contrast approaches based on comprehensive environmental life-cycle assessment methods are available to track total emissions across the entire supply chain, and experience suggests that following narrowly defined estimation protocols will generally lead to large underestimates of carbon emissions for providing products and services. Direct emissions from an industry are, on average, only 14% of the total supply chain carbon emissions (often called Tier 1 emissions), and direct emissions plus industry energy inputs are, on average, only 26% of the total supply chain emissions (often called Tier 1 and 2 emissions). Without a full knowledge of their footprints, firms will be unable to pursue the most cost-effective carbon mitigation strategies. We suggest that firms use the screening-level analysis described here to set the bounds of their footprinting strategy to ensure that they do not ignore large sources of environmental effects across their supply chains. Such information can help firms pursue carbon and environmental emission mitigation projects not only within their own plants but also across their supply chain.

  1. Our Footprints on the Sands of Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Our Footprints on the Sands of Time. Partha P Majumder D Balasubramanian. General Article Volume 11 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 32-50. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find

  3. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in

  4. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, A.M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, J.N.; Bekunda, M.; Sullivan, C.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there

  5. How to Calculate Your Institution's Nitrogen Footprint ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) allows institutions to estimate and manage their nitrogen footprint, and EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities program is supporting an effort to test and expand this approach at multiple colleges, universities and institutions across the US. The growing awareness of sustainability has prompted many institutions of higher education to assess and manage their environmental impact. Many universities have programs to decrease their carbon footprint, but carbon represents just one facet of an institution’s environmental impact. Nitrogen is also important because a university’s nitrogen loss to the environment contributes to smog, soil acidification, eutrophication, biodiversity loss, the enhanced greenhouse effect, stratospheric ozone depletion, and more. The attached data template and user’s manual was based on the first NFT created for a university (University of Virginia), and tested in 6 additional institutions (including University of New Hampshire, Brown University, Eastern Mennonite University, Colorado State University). The footprint includes nitrogen released to the environment due to: 1) food consumption; 2) food production, reported by specific food categories (vegetable products, seafood, dairy and eggs, meat); 3) research animals; 4) transportation, including fleet vehicles and commuter vehicles; 5) fertilizer application; and 6) utilities, separated into electricity and heating. The data template and

  6. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  7. Footprint Representation of Planetary Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, S. H. G.; Gasselt, S. V.; Michael, G.; Neukum, G.

    The geometric outline of remote sensing image data, the so called footprint, can be represented as a number of coordinate tuples. These polygons are associated with according attribute information such as orbit name, ground- and image resolution, solar longitude and illumination conditions to generate a powerful base for classification of planetary experiment data. Speed, handling and extended capabilites are the reasons for using geodatabases to store and access these data types. Techniques for such a spatial database of footprint data are demonstrated using the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) PostgreSQL, spatially enabled by the PostGIS extension. Exemplary, footprints of the HRSC and OMEGA instruments, both onboard ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, are generated and connected to attribute information. The aim is to provide high-resolution footprints of the OMEGA instrument to the science community for the first time and make them available for web-based mapping applications like the "Planetary Interactive GIS-on-the-Web Analyzable Database" (PIG- WAD), produced by the USGS. Map overlays with HRSC or other instruments like MOC and THEMIS (footprint maps are already available for these instruments and can be integrated into the database) allow on-the-fly intersection and comparison as well as extended statistics of the data. Footprint polygons are generated one by one using standard software provided by the instrument teams. Attribute data is calculated and stored together with the geometric information. In the case of HRSC, the coordinates of the footprints are already available in the VICAR label of each image file. Using the VICAR RTL and PostgreSQL's libpq C library they are loaded into the database using the Well-Known Text (WKT) notation by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC). For the OMEGA instrument, image data is read using IDL routines developed and distributed by the OMEGA team. Image outlines are exported together with relevant attribute

  8. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettis, William [William Lettis & Associates, Inc.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  9. Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurbhi Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5 to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL, breadth at heel (BHEL and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI and footprint index (FPI. All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions. Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI.

  10. Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint (1994–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jaan Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the 2011 edition of the National Footprint Accounts (NFA published by the Global Footprint Network (GFN, humankind consumed the resources and services of 1.5 planets in 2008; the corresponding number in 1961 was 0.7 planets. North Americans have an ecological footprint of 8.7 global hectares per person whereas Africans have a footprint of only 1.4 global hectares per person. The global mean biological capacity is only 1.8 global hectares per person so human beings are overshooting ecological resources. The ecological footprint measures the resources that are consumed by humans from the biosphere, and serves as an index of the sustainability of development. The NFA includes the ecological footprints of over 200 countries and regions, but not Taiwan. Hence, Taiwan must establish and update its own ecological footprint databases. Ecological footprint is one indicator of the sustainability of development, and can be compared across nations. This study extends previous studies by analyzing Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. With reference to the ecological footprint accounts of the Global Footprint Network and the Taiwan’s ecological footprint analysis for 1997–2007, this study presents Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. Most of the data that are used herein are taken from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Energy Agency, Taiwan’s Council of Agriculture and Taiwan’s National Development Council. The results thus obtained reveal that Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011 exceeded that from 1997–2007. To respond to this trend toward un-sustainable development and to help Taiwan move toward sustainability, carbon reduction and energy saving policies should be implemented to effectively manage Taiwan’s ecological resources.

  11. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  12. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bolanča Mirković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the develop-ment of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the envi-ronmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca methods take into ac-count all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products. The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by life cycle assessment.The aim of this paper is to describe the potential environmental impacts (green-house gases, carbon footprint of printed paper and new media.

  13. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human consumption choices are responsible for growing losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Once in the environment, Nr can cause a cascade of negative impacts such as smog, acid rain, coastal eutrophication, climate change, and biodiversity loss. Although all humans must consume nitrogen as protein, the food production process releases substantial Nr to the environment. This dilemma presents a challenge: how do we feed a growing population while reducing Nr? Although top-down strategies to reduce Nr losses (e.g., emissions controls) are necessary, the bottom-up strategies focusing on personal consumption patterns will be imperative to solve the nitrogen challenge. Understanding the effects of different personal choices on Nr losses and the environment is an important first step for this strategy. This paper will utilize information and results from the N-Calculator, a per capita nitrogen footprint model (www.N-Print.org), to analyze the impact of different food consumption patterns on a personal food nitrogen footprint and the environment. Scenarios will analyze the impact of the following dietary patterns on the average United States (28 kg Nr/cap/yr) food nitrogen footprint: 1) Consuming only the recommended protein as defined by the WHO and the USDA; 2) Reducing food waste by 50%; 3) Consuming a vegetarian diet; 4) Consuming a vegan diet; 5) Consuming a demitarian diet (replacing half of animal protein consumption with vegetable protein); 6) Substituting chicken (a more efficient animal protein) with beef (a less efficient animal protein); 7) Consuming sustainably-produced food; and 8) Using advanced wastewater treatment. Preliminary results suggest that widespread advanced wastewater treatment with nutrient removal technology and halving food waste would each reduce the US personal food nitrogen footprint by 13%. In addition, reducing protein consumption to the recommended levels would reduce the footprint by about 42%. Combining these measures

  14. Mapping the carbon footprint of EU regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Diana; Vita, Gibran; Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Stadler, Konstantin; Melo, Patricia C.; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-05-01

    While the EU Commission has encouraged Member States to combine national and international climate change mitigation measures with subnational environmental policies, there has been little harmonized effort towards the quantification of embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household consumption across European regions. This study develops an inventory of carbon footprints associated with household consumption for 177 regions in 27 EU countries, thus, making a key contribution for the incorporation of consumption-based accounting into local decision-making. Footprint calculations are based on consumer expenditure surveys and environmental and trade detail from the EXIOBASE 2.3 multiregional input-output database describing the world economy in 2007 at the detail of 43 countries, 5 rest-of-the-world regions and 200 product sectors. Our analysis highlights the spatial heterogeneity of embodied GHG emissions within multiregional countries with subnational ranges varying widely between 0.6 and 6.5 tCO2e/cap. The significant differences in regional contribution in terms of total and per capita emissions suggest notable differences with regards to climate change responsibility. The study further provides a breakdown of regional emissions by consumption categories (e.g. housing, mobility, food). In addition, our region-level study evaluates driving forces of carbon footprints through a set of socio-economic, geographic and technical factors. Income is singled out as the most important driver for a region’s carbon footprint, although its explanatory power varies significantly across consumption domains. Additional factors that stand out as important on the regional level include household size, urban-rural typology, level of education, expenditure patterns, temperature, resource availability and carbon intensity of the electricity mix. The lack of cross-national region-level studies has so far prevented analysts from drawing broader policy conclusions that hold

  15. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, A.M.; Leip, Adrian; J. N. Galloway; Bekunda, M.; Sullivan, C.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contrib...

  16. The industrial water footprint of zippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wu, Xiong Ying; Wang, Lai Li; Ding, Xue Mei

    2014-01-01

    Industrial production of apparel consumes large quantity of freshwater and discharges effluents that intensify the problem of freshwater shortage and water pollution. The industrial water footprint (IWF) of a piece of apparel includes the water footprint (WF) of the fabric, apparel accessories (e.g. zipper, fastener, sewing thread) and industrial production processes. The objective of this paper is to carry out a pilot study on IWF accounting for three kinds of typical zipper (i.e. metal zipper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) zipper and polyoxymethylene copolymer (Co-POM) zipper) that are commonly used for apparel production. The results reveal that product output exerts a remarkable influence on zipper's average IWF. Metal zipper has the largest IWF and followed by Co-POM zipper and PET zipper. Painting, dyeing and primary processing are the top three water-consuming processes and contribute about 90% of the zipper's IWF. Painting consumes the largest amount of freshwater among all processes and occupies more than 50% of the zipper's IWF. In addition, the grey water footprint (WFgrey) provides the greatest contribution, more than 80%, to the zipper's IWF. Based on these results, this paper also provides several strategies aimed at water economization and pollution reduction during industrial production of zipper.

  17. Footprinting with an automated capillary DNA sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yindeeyoungyeon, W; Schell, M A

    2000-11-01

    Footprinting is a valuable tool for studying DNA-protein contacts. However, it usually involves expensive, tedious and hazardous steps such as radioactive labeling and analyses on polyacrylamide sequencing gels. We have developed an easy four-step footprinting method involving (i) the generation and purification of a PCR fragment that is fluorescently labeled at one end with 6-carboxyfluorescein; (ii) brief exposure of the fragment to a DNA-binding protein and then DNase I; (iii) spin-column purification; and (iv) analysis of partial digestion products on the ABI Prism 310 capillary DNA sequencer/genetic analyzer. Very detailed and sensitive footprints of large (> 400 bp) DNA fragments can be easily obtained, as illustrated by our use of this method to characterize binding of PhcA, a LysR-type activator, to two sites greater than 100 bp apart in the 5' untranslated region of xpsR, one of its regulated target genes. The advantages of this new method are that it (i) uses long-lived, safe and easy-to-make fluorescently labeled target fragments; (ii) uses sensitive, robust and highly reproducible fragment analysis using an automated DNA sequencer, instead of gel electrophoresis and autoradiography; and (iii) is cost effective.

  18. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  19. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara M Wall-Scheffler

    Full Text Available Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  20. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M; Wagnild, Janelle; Wagler, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females) walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  1. The relationship between plantar pressure and footprint shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Dingwall, Heather L; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G

    2013-07-01

    Fossil footprints preserve the only direct evidence of the external foot morphologies and gaits of extinct hominin taxa. However, their interpretation requires an understanding of the complex interaction among foot anatomy, foot function, and soft sediment mechanics. We applied an experimental approach aimed at understanding how one measure of foot function, the distribution of plantar pressure, influences footprint topography. Thirty-eight habitually unshod and minimally shod Daasanach individuals (19 male, 19 female) walked across a pressure pad and produced footprints in sediment directly excavated from the geological layer that preserves 1.5 Ma fossil footprints at Ileret, Kenya. Calibrated pressure data were collected and three-dimensional models of all footprints were produced using photogrammetry. We found significant correlations (Spearman's rank, p footprint depths at ten anatomical regions across the foot. Furthermore, plantar pressure distributions followed a pattern similar to footprint topography, with areas of higher pressure tending to leave deeper impressions. This differs from the results of experimental studies performed in different types of sediment, supporting the hypothesis that sediment type influences the relationship between plantar pressure and footprint topography. Our results also lend support to previous interpretations that the shapes of the Ileret footprints preserve evidence of a medial transfer of plantar pressure during late stance phase, as seen in modern humans. However, the weakness of the correlations indicates that much of the variation in relative depths within footprints is not explained by pressure distributions under the foot when walking on firm ground, using the methods applied here. This warrants caution when interpreting the unique foot anatomies and foot functions of extinct hominins evidenced by their footprint structures. Further research is necessary to clarify how anatomical, functional, and sedimentary

  2. Bridges Expansion Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-01-01

    The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  3. Interpreting locomotor biomechanics from the morphology of human footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Dingwall, Heather L; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    Fossil hominin footprints offer unique direct windows to the locomotor behaviors of our ancestors. These data could allow a clearer understanding of the evolution of human locomotion by circumventing issues associated with indirect interpretations of habitual locomotor patterns from fossil skeletal material. However, before we can use fossil hominin footprints to understand better the evolution of human locomotion, we must first develop an understanding of how locomotor biomechanics are preserved in, and can be inferred from, footprint morphologies. In this experimental study, 41 habitually barefoot modern humans created footprints under controlled conditions in which variables related to locomotor biomechanics could be quantified. Measurements of regional topography (depth) were taken from 3D models of those footprints, and principal components analysis was used to identify orthogonal axes that described the largest proportions of topographic variance within the human experimental sample. Linear mixed effects models were used to quantify the influences of biomechanical variables on the first five principal axes of footprint topographic variation, thus providing new information on the biomechanical variables most evidently expressed in the morphology of human footprints. The footprint's overall depth was considered as a confounding variable, since biomechanics may be linked to the extent to which a substrate deforms. Three of five axes showed statistically significant relationships with variables related to both locomotor biomechanics and substrate displacement; one axis was influenced only by biomechanics and another only by the overall depth of the footprint. Principal axes of footprint morphological variation were significantly related to gait type (walking or running), kinematics of the hip and ankle joints and the distribution of pressure beneath the foot. These results provide the first quantitative framework for developing hypotheses regarding the

  4. [A modified method of ecological footprint and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yu; Bian, Xin-Min

    2007-09-01

    The Wackernagel's method of ecological footprint assumes that arable lands are cropped only once a year in a country or a region, which does not accord with the conception of ecological footprint referring to the area of productive land. In this paper, the method of cropland footprint was modified by regulating with multi-cropping index, and the ecological footprint calculated with the new method was for the area of cropland but not that of multi-cropping. The ecological economic systems in Binhai and Funing counties of Jiangsu Province from 1995 to 2003 were analyzed by the modified method, and the results showed that when calculated with conventional Wackernagel's method, the ecological footprints of Binhai and Funing were from 1.79 hm2 to 2.22 hm2 and from 1.38 hm2 to 2.81 hm2, and the percentages of cropland ecological footprint in total ecological footprints decreased from 42.65% to 38.81% and from 45.73% to 38.85%, respectively, while calculated with the modified method, the ecological footprints and the percentage of cropland ecological footprint in total ecological footprints were from 1.43 hm2 to 1.88 hm2 and from 1.12 hm2 to 2.43 hm2, and decreased from 28.45% to 22.89% and from 32.94% to 29.42%, respectively. It was indicated that the ecological footprint calculated with the new method was for the area of cropland, which more accorded with the eco-capacity and changed the size and composition of ecological footprints, being able to reflect the use of natural resources more precisely.

  5. On skin expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon footprint as environmental performance indicator for the manufacturing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    With the current focus on our climate change impacts, the embodied CO2 emission or "Carbon footprint" is often used as an environmental performance indicator for our products or production activities. The ability of carbon footprint to represent other types of impact like human toxicity, and hence...... the overall environmental impact is investigated based on life cycle assessments of several materials of major relevance to manufacturing industries. The dependence of the carbon footprint on the assumed scenarios for generation of thermal and electrical energy in the life cycle of the materials is analyzed......, and the appropriateness of carbon footprint as an overall indicator of the environmental performance is discussed....

  7. Geometry of the hemispherical radiometric footprint over plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolla, B.; Cescatti, A.

    2017-11-01

    Radiometric measurements of hemispherical surface reflectance and long-wave irradiance are required to quantify the broadband albedo and the outgoing thermal radiation. These observations are typically integrated with eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes to characterize the surface energy budget. While the aerodynamic footprint has been widely investigated, the geometry of the hemispherical radiometric footprint over plant canopies has been rarely tackled. In the present work, the size and shape of the hemispherical radiometric footprint are formalized for a bare surface and in presence of a vegetation cover. For this purpose, four idealized canopies are analyzed and the dependency of the radiometric footprint on leaf area index and canopy height is explored. Besides, the radiometric footprint is compared with the aerodynamic footprint in conditions of neutral stability. It was observed that almost 100% of the hemispherical radiometric signal originates within a distance of a few radiometer heights, while only about 50-80% of the cumulative aerodynamic signal is generated within a distance of about 20 sensor heights. In order to achieve comparable extensions of the footprint areas, hemispherical radiometric measurements should therefore be taken about 6-15 times higher than turbulent flux ones, depending on the vegetation type. The analysis also highlights that the size of the radiative footprint decreases at increasing leaf area index, whereas the aerodynamic footprint shows an opposite behavior. For the abovementioned reasons, this work may support the interpretation of energy flux measurements and the optimal design of eddy covariance stations located in heterogeneous sites.

  8. Nitrogen footprint in China: food, energy, and nonfood goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Baojing; Leach, Allison M; Ma, Lin; Galloway, James N; Chang, Scott X; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-08-20

    The nitrogen (N) footprint is a novel approach to quantify losses to the environment of reactive N (Nr; all species of N except N2) derived from human activities. However, current N footprint models are difficult to apply to new countries due to the large data requirement, and sources of Nr included in calculating the N footprint are often incomplete. In this study, we comprehensively quantified the N footprint in China with an N mass balance approach. Results show that the per capita N footprint in China increased 68% between 1980 and 2008, from 19 to 32 kg N yr(-1). The Nr loss from the production and consumption of food was the largest component of the N footprint (70%) while energy and nonfood products made up the remainder in approximately equal portion in 2008. In contrast, in 1980, the food-related N footprint accounted for 86% of the overall N footprint, followed by nonfood products (8%) and energy (6%). The findings and methods of this study are generally comparable to that of the consumer-based analysis of the N-Calculator. This work provides policy makers quantitative information about the sources of China's N footprint and demonstrates the significant challenges in reducing Nr loss to the environment.

  9. Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint (1994–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Jaan Lee; Li-Pei Peng

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2011 edition of the National Footprint Accounts (NFA) published by the Global Footprint Network (GFN), humankind consumed the resources and services of 1.5 planets in 2008; the corresponding number in 1961 was 0.7 planets. North Americans have an ecological footprint of 8.7 global hectares per person whereas Africans have a footprint of only 1.4 global hectares per person. The global mean biological capacity is only 1.8 global hectares per person so human beings are overshoot...

  10. [Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

    2008-11-01

    By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method.

  11. Holocene footprints in Namibia: the influence of substrate on footprint variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Sarita A; Bennett, Matthew R; Liutkus-Pierce, Cynthia; Thackeray, Francis; McClymont, Juliet; Savage, Russell; Crompton, Robin H

    2013-06-01

    We report a Holocene human and animal footprint site from the Namib Sand Sea, south of Walvis Bay, Namibia. Using these data, we explore intratrail footprint variability associated with small variations in substrate properties using a "whole foot" analytical technique developed for the studies in human ichnology. We demonstrate high levels of intratrail variability as a result of variations in grain size, depositional moisture content, and the degree of sediment disturbance, all of which determine the bearing capacity of the substrate. The two principal trails were examined, which had consistent stride and step lengths, and as such variations in print typology were primarily controlled by substrate rather than locomotor mechanics. Footprint typology varies with bearing capacity such that firm substrates show limited impressions associated with areas of peak plantar pressure, whereas softer substrates are associated with deep prints with narrow heels and reduced medial longitudinal arches. Substrates of medium bearing capacity give displacement rims and proximal movement of sediment, which obscures the true form of the medial longitudinal arch. A simple conceptual model is offered which summarizes these conclusions and is presented as a basis for further investigation into the control of substrate on footprint typology. The method, model, and results presented here are essential in the interpretation of any sites of greater paleoanthropological significance, such as recently reported from Ileret (1.5 Ma, Kenya; Bennett et al.: Science 323 (2009) 1197-1201). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Ecological Footprint of Industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Frassoldati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the carbon footprint of different nations and the per capita for each country allows us to visualize a problem often underestimated by our systems of production and consumption, which is based on inequality. There is a need to work on this problem because in sharing the liability and the global consequences, the effects that cannot continue, reveals a series of possibilities. It would require 3-6 planets equal to Earth in order to sustain a lifestyle like that of an inhabitant of North America in order to supporst all inhabitants on Earth.

  13. Environmental footprints in the meat chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đekić, I.; Tomašević, I.

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to present environmental performance of the meat chain and highlight main environmental footprints. The meat sector is recognized as one of the leading polluting sectors in the food industry. The meat chain was analyzed from a five-link perspective introducing the following actors: farm(er)s, slaughterhouses, meat processors, customers and consumers. Meat production needs natural resources (water and energy) resulting in waste and waste water discharge. As an outcome it has a high influence on climate change in respect to global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials and ozone depletion substances.

  14. Categorization of Scope 3 emissions for streamlined enterprise carbon footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Anny; Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-11-15

    Many organizations look to carbon footprint protocols for guidance on measuring their greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon footprint. Existing protocols generally require estimation of direct emissions (Scope 1) and emissions from direct purchases of energy (Scope 2), but focus less on indirect emissions upstream and downstream of the supply chain (optional Scope 3). Because on average more than 75% of an industry sector's carbon footprint is attributed to Scope 3 sources, better knowledge of Scope 3 footprints can help organizations pursue emissions mitigation projects not just within their own plants but also across their supply chain. In this work, Scope 3 footprints of U.S. economic sectors are categorized using an Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model to identify upstream emission sources that are likely to contribute significantly to different sectors' footprints. The portions of the upstream footprint captured by the sector's top-10 upstream suppliers are estimated at 3 different levels of specificity: general economy-wide, industry specific, and sector specific. The results show that enterprises can capture a large portion of their total upstream carbon footprint by collecting full emissions information from only a handful of direct suppliers, and Scope 3 footprint capture rates can be improved considerably by sector-specific categorization. Employee commuting and air transportation may be more important (7%-30%) for the services industries, but should not be a focus of detailed Scope 3 footprint estimates for the manufacturing industries (<1% of the total analyzed footprint). Protocol organizations should actively make more specific Scope 3 guidelines available for their constituents by developing sector-specific categorizations for as many sectors as they feasibly can and create broader industry-specific protocols for others.

  15. Bridges Expansion Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  16. European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ertug Ercin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops water footprint scenarios for Europe for 2050, at the country level, based on projections regarding population and economic growth, production and trade patterns, consumption patterns (diets and bioenergy use and technological development. The objective is to estimate possible future changes in the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of production and consumption, to analyze the main drivers of projected changes and to assess Europe’s future dependence on water resources elsewhere in the world. We develop four scenarios, considering globalization versus regional self-sufficiency, and development driven by economic objectives versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows that the most critical driver of change affecting Europe’s future WF is the consumption pattern. The WFs of both production and consumption in Western Europe increase under scenarios with high meat consumption and decrease with low-meat scenarios. Besides, additional water demands from increasing biofuel needs will put further pressure on European water resources. The European countries with a large ratio of external to total WF of consumption in 2000 decrease their dependencies on foreign water resources in 2050.

  17. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica de Leo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production, in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment.

  18. [Research progress on ecological footprint analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongdong; Gao, Wangsheng; Chen, Yuanquan

    2006-10-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) model, as an indicator of sustainability, has received broad attention and wide use. With the development and refinement of the research work on EF theory and methodology, it appeared various methods which can be applied at different scales. Ecological footprint analysis has been combined with material flow analysis, life cycle assessment or input-output analysis, and especially, the newest progress in EF methods called allocating EF to final consumption categories with input-output analysis helps to develop a "standardized" EF. In this paper, the underlying causes of these methods were interpreted theoretically, and the research methods were classified into progress analysis and input-output analysis (IOA). In addition, the compound and component-based methods as well as IOA were introduced, with their respective features, application, and development progress discussed. A prospect on the development of EF in term of the tendency and application of EF methods in China and abroad was given, i. e. , the common framework should be built at the national and regional scales by using compound analysis, IOA and component-based analysis are expected to develop their application

  19. Bridges Expansion Joints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-01-01

    .... The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting...

  20. Klimaregnskab og Carbon Footprint beregning for Kommunekemi a/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinikka Dall, Ole; Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Klimaregnskab for anlægget i Nyborg og carbon footprint for: -forbrænding -uorganisk behandling -halmaskeanlæg Afrapporteret på tryk og indtastet i Simapro......Klimaregnskab for anlægget i Nyborg og carbon footprint for: -forbrænding -uorganisk behandling -halmaskeanlæg Afrapporteret på tryk og indtastet i Simapro...

  1. Analysis of the carbon footprint of coastal protection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labrujere, A.L.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    When calculating the Carbon Footprint for a product or service, a direct link is made between the total amount of consumed energy and the produced amount of carbon dioxide during production. For that reason calculating the carbon footprint of various alternatives is a very straightforward method to

  2. Intensification to reduce the carbon footprint of smallholder milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, Henk; Weiler, Viola; Modupeore, Ogun; Viets, Theo; Oosting, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Will the intensification of cattle-keeping lower the carbon footprint of milk production in resource-poor environments? The authors included the multiple functions of cattle in carbon footprint estimates of milk production in farming systems with different degrees of intensification in Kenya. The

  3. Mainstreaming life cycle thinking through a consistent approach to footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Brad; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental Life Cycle Impact Assessment has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The initial work involved forming a consensual position on the difference between footprints and existing LCA impact...

  4. Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

  5. Personal nitrogen footprint tool for the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Carly J; Leach, Allison M; Dale, Sarah; Galloway, James N

    2014-07-01

    The global nitrogen (N) cycle has been transformed by human use of reactive N as a consequence of increased demand for food and energy. Given the considerable impact of humans on the N cycle, it is essential that we raise awareness amongst the public and policy makers as this is the first step in providing individuals and governments the opportunity to reduce their impact on the N cycle and reduce the environmental and health consequences of N pollution. Here we describe an N footprint tool for the UK developed as part of the N-PRINT program. The current per capita N footprint in the UK is 27.1 kg N per capita per year with food production constituting the largest proportion of the footprint (18.0 kg N per capita per year). Calculating an N footprint for 1971 (26.0 kg N per capita per year) demonstrates that per capita N footprints have increased slightly. The average UK footprint is smaller than that found in the USA but is higher than the Netherlands and Germany. Scenario analysis demonstrates that reducing food protein consumption to the levels recommended by the FAO and World Health Organization reduces the overall N footprint by 33%. Consuming a vegetarian diet and consuming only sustainable food both decreased the N footprint by 15% but changes in energy use have a much smaller impact.

  6. Nitrogen Footprint in China: Food, Energy, and Nonfood Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, B.J.; Leach, A.M.; Ma, L.; Galloway, J.N.; Chang, S.X.; Ge, Y.; Chang, J.

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) footprint is a novel approach to quantify losses to the environment of reactive N (Nr; all species of N except N-2) derived from human activities. However, current N footprint models are difficult to apply to new countries due to the large data requirement, and sources of Nr

  7. Dynamic Ecological Footprint in Jiangxi Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Jinqiao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the related research progress of ecological footprint theory. According to the data of Jiangxi Province from 1995 to 2004, this paper measures the per capita ecological footprint and supply in recent 10 years. Result shows that ecological deficit of Jiangxi Province of China is relatively low, but is increasing gradually.

  8. Minor Physical Anomalies, Footprints, and Behavior: Was the Buddha Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Thomas W.; Munoz, Milagros M.

    1982-01-01

    A relationship between an anomaly of the footprint suggested by ancient Abhidhamma meditations and Minor Physical Anomalies Scale was observed in children. The footprint anomalies correlated with the activity levels of children in the same way as the scores on the scale and consistently with prior research using the scale. (Author/RD)

  9. The water footprint of Tunisia from an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Krol, Martinus S.; Mekonnen, Mesfin

    2015-01-01

    This paper quantifies and analyses the water footprint of Tunisia at national and sub-national level, assessing green, blue and grey water footprints for the period 1996–2005. It also assesses economic water and land productivities related to crop production for irrigated and rain-fed agriculture,

  10. Footprinting protein-DNA complexes using the hydroxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swapan S; Tullius, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical footprinting has been widely used for studying the structure of DNA and DNA-protein complexes. The high reactivity and lack of base specificity of the hydroxyl radical makes it an excellent probe for high-resolution footprinting of DNA-protein complexes; this technique can provide structural detail that is not achievable using DNase I footprinting. Hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments can be carried out using readily available and inexpensive reagents and lab equipment. This method involves using the hydroxyl radical to cleave a nucleic acid molecule that is bound to a protein, followed by separating the cleavage products on a denaturing electrophoresis gel to identify the protein-binding sites on the nucleic acid molecule. We describe a protocol for hydroxyl radical footprinting of DNA-protein complexes, along with a troubleshooting guide, that allows researchers to obtain efficient cleavage of DNA in the presence and absence of proteins. This protocol can be completed in 2 d.

  11. Analysis of computational footprinting methods for DNase sequencing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmao, Eduardo G; Allhoff, Manuel; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G

    2016-04-01

    DNase-seq allows nucleotide-level identification of transcription factor binding sites on the basis of a computational search of footprint-like DNase I cleavage patterns on the DNA. Frequently in high-throughput methods, experimental artifacts such as DNase I cleavage bias affect the computational analysis of DNase-seq experiments. Here we performed a comprehensive and systematic study on the performance of computational footprinting methods. We evaluated ten footprinting methods in a panel of DNase-seq experiments for their ability to recover cell-specific transcription factor binding sites. We show that three methods--HINT, DNase2TF and PIQ--consistently outperformed the other evaluated methods and that correcting the DNase-seq signal for experimental artifacts significantly improved the accuracy of computational footprints. We also propose a score that can be used to detect footprints arising from transcription factors with potentially short residence times.

  12. Surveying the Environmental Footprint of Urban Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Fernandez, John

    2017-01-01

    of the environmental footprint from urban food demand (“foodprint”) is necessary. This article reviews 43 UM assessments including 100 cities, and a total of 132 foodprints in terms of mass, carbon footprint, and ecological footprint and situates it relative to other significant environmental drivers (transport...... ecological footprints (average is 1.2 global hectares per capita per annum), with large deviations based on wealth, culture, and urban form. Meat and dairy are the primary drivers of both global warming and ecological footprint impacts, with little relationship between their consumption and city wealth......Assessments of urban metabolism (UM) are well situated to identify the scale, components, and direction of urban and energy flows in cities and have been instrumental in benchmarking and monitoring the key levers of urban environmental pressure, such as transport, space conditioning...

  13. PECES DORADOS. UN AVANCE SOBRE RECIENTES DESCUBRIMIENTOS EN LA NECRÓPOLIS FENICIA Y PÚNICA DE GADIR (CÁDIZ, ESPAÑA (Golden Fishes. A Preliminary Report on Recent Discoveries about the Phoenician and Punic Necropolis of Gadir (Cadiz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Belizón Aragón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La necrópolis fenicia y púnica insular de Gadir es una de las más excavadas del Mediterráneo occidental, pero quedan aún muchos aspectos de sus características y evolución por definir sólidamente desde la perspectiva arqueológica. Recientes excavaciones preventivas, practicadas en un amplio solar de la ciudad de Cádiz, han revelado la existencia de varios conjuntos de enterramientos en un excepcional estado de conservación y con sus ajuares intactos, los cuales corresponden a los siglos VI-V a. C. Presentamos en este trabajo un breve avance de su análisis, así como algunas primeras propuestas acerca de la relación de estos enterramientos, vinculados a las élites gaditanas, con la economía marítima y el comercio conservero a larga distancia. ENGLISH: The Phoenician and Punic necropolis of Gadir is one of the most excavated in the Western Mediterranean, but many of the features and the development of the site are still waiting for a more solid archaeological foundation. Recent salvage excavations carried out in Cadiz have uncovered some exceptionally well-preserved funerary remains, including intact grave goods dating to the 6th–5th centuries BC. This paper focuses on the preliminary results of these excavations, the analysis of the Phoenician and Punic tombs, as well as the connections between the luxurious necropolis of the 5th century and the local elites involved in the maritime long-distance trade of salt-fish products.

  14. Water sustainability assessment in Brazilian sugarcane expansion area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Ruiz-Correa, S. T.; Hernandes, T. A.; Scanlon, B. R.; Picoli, M. C. A.; Bonomi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the increasing demand for ethanol, sugarcane is expanding into Cerrado (Savannahs), where edaphoclimatic characteristics differ significantly from traditional areas in South-eastern Brazil. It is expected that the sugarcane will be irrigated in those areas to increase yields and ensure stable production. The main objective is to assess the sugarcane land occupation and its dynamics relating its occurrence with the potential and actual yields, the irrigation needs, the production costs, and the water footprint in Paranaíba watershed (222,593 km2 drainage area). The Agroecological Zone Model - FAO was used in order to provide essential data for yield and water requirement assessment. For sugarcane stalk yield estimation, several improvements have been made allowing this tool to assess different irrigation scenarios. In this study, full irrigation which aims to replace 100% of the water deficit until senescence period was considered. The sugarcane occupation and expansion was assessed through EVI approach from 2009/2010 to 2012/2013 crop seasons. It was possible to identify that most part of sugarcane occupation is concentrated in the central area, which presents less potential for yield gain through irrigation and significant water availability issues. With regard to the expansion, an increase of 54% of cane occupation (from 616,899 to 946,589 ha) was detected during the assessed period showing that the main dynamic occurred in central part towards west side and at less extent, to southeaster side. The irrigation management were responsible for increase, on average, 108% of yields while decreasing 42% of water footprints. Simulated yields combine with CanaSoft model estimated a 30% decline in production cost. Although several aspects such as land price and infrastructure must to be considered, in conclusion, the expansion dynamic agrees to the areas with greater yield gain potential through irrigation, lower sugarcane production costs and water footprint

  15. The footprint of genome architecture in the largest genome expansion in RNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauber, C.; Goeman, J.J.; Mdel, C. Parquet; Nga, P.T.; Snijder, E.J.; Morita, K.; Gorbalenya, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The small size of RNA virus genomes (2-to-32 kb) has been attributed to high mutation rates during replication, which is thought to lack proof-reading. This paradigm is being revisited owing to the discovery of a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease (ExoN) in nidoviruses, a monophyletic group of

  16. The Water Footprint of Agriculture in Duero River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel de Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of crops in the Duero river basin. For this purpose CWUModel was developed. CWUModel is able to estimate the green and blue water consumed by crops and the water needed to assimilate the nitrogen leaching resulting from fertilizer application. The total WF of crops in the Spanish Duero river basin was simulated as 9473 Mm3/year (59% green, 20% blue and 21% grey. Cultivation of crops in rain-fed lands is responsible for 5548 Mm3/year of the WF (86% green and 14% grey, whereas the irrigated WF accounts for 3924 Mm3/year (20% green, 47% blue and 33% grey. Barley is the crop with the highest WF, with almost 37% of the total WF for the crops simulated for the basin, followed by wheat (17%. Although maize makes up 16% of the total WF of the basin, the blue and grey components comprise the 36% of the total blue and grey WF in the basin. The relevance of green water goes beyond the rain-fed production, to the extent that in long-cycle irrigated cereals it accounts for over 40% of the total water consumed. Nonetheless, blue water is a key component in agriculture, both for production and economically. The sustainability assessment shows that the current blue water consumption of crops causes a significant or severe water stress level in 2–5 months of the year. The anticipated expansion of irrigation in the coming years could hamper water management, despite the Duero being a relatively humid basin.

  17. Malaysian water footprint accounts: Blue and green water footprint of rice cultivation and the impact of water consumption in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadillah, M. G. Nor; Marlia, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    Following water footprint approach, this study estimates the blue and green water consumption of rice cultivation in 11 states located in Peninsular Malaysia. The latter part evaluates the potential of water deprivation for freshwater resources in Malaysia. Climate data such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, sunshine and wind speed were used to calculate evapotranspiration rate and crop water use. The water footprint for cultivating rice was estimated for both main and off seasons range between 1600 m3/ton to 3300 m3/ton. The result of this study showed that the green water footprint is higher compared to the blue water footprint for both seasons. In conclusion, the potential water deprivation can be determined by integrating the water footprint and water stress index of different watersheds of Malaysia.

  18. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Davis, Kyle F. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Emery, Kyle A. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); University of California, Santa Barbara. Marine Science Institute, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leach, Allison M. [University of New Hampshire, 107 Nesmith Hall, 131 Main Street, Durham, NH, 03824 (United States); Galloway, James N.; Pace, Michael L. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result

  19. Footprints of "experiment" in early Arabic optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Elaheh

    2009-01-01

    This study traces the early developments of the concept of experiment with a view of extending the subject in both content and approach. It extends the content of the subject slightly backward, prior to the methodological breakthroughs of the Optics of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen or Alhacen, d. ca. 1040), which are credited as a "significant landmark in the history of experimental science." And it extends the approach to the subject slightly forward, from the premise that early science was "largely carried out in books," to a close examination of the books through which the footprints of'experiment' may be traced. The point of departure is the Optics of Ahmad ibn 'Isă, a revealing text for the early developments of concepts such as 'demonstration' and 'experiment', and one through which some modern discussions are examined and extended with reference to this and other historical sources.

  20. Managing Carbon Footprints under the Trade Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how the retailer adjusts optimal ordering policy in the presence of cap-and-trade system and trade credit, and the corresponding changes of the retailer’s total costs and carbon footprint. Trade credit is one of the most used short-term financing tools. Our study shows that carbon emissions trading will shorten the ordering cycle for products that emit more carbon dioxide during the storage stage, and therefore reduce the buying behavior stimulation effect of trade credit on these products. Under the cap-and-trade system, the retailer’s total cost may increase or decrease, depending on the combination of carbon cap allocated to the retailer and the carbon price. Moreover, trade credit and the corresponding cost of capital affect the retailer’s carbon emission reduction strategy by changing the retailers’ consolidated cost during the ordering and inventory holding stages.

  1. Exonuclease III footprinting on immobilized DNA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalny, Patrizia; Thomm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    DNA footprinting is a widely used method to locate the binding sites of protein on the DNA. It is based on the observation that a protein bound to DNA protects it from degradation by an enzyme or chemical reagent.Exonuclease III is a suitable probe to analyze the boundaries of a protein when it is necessary to eliminate any excess unbound DNA from the reaction to avoid background problems. In combination with biotin-labeled DNA that is bound to streptavidin-coated magnetic particles, information on the precise position of a DNA bound protein is available within a few hours. The position of the archaeal RNA polymerase at different stages of transcription in the Pyrococcus furiosus in vitro transcription system was analyzed by this method.

  2. In Cellulo DNA Analysis: LMPCR Footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Régen; Bastien, Nathalie; Millau, Jean-François; Vigneault, François; Paradis, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The in cellulo analysis of protein-DNA interactions and chromatin structure is very important to better understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression. The nuclease-hypersensitive sites and sequences bound by transcription factors often correspond to genetic regulatory elements. Using the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LMPCR) technology, it is possible to precisely analyze these DNA sequences to demonstrate the existence of DNA-protein interactions or unusual DNA structures directly in living cells. Indeed, the ideal chromatin substrate is, of course, found inside intact cells. LMPCR, a genomic sequencing technique that map DNA single-strand breaks at the sequence level of resolution, is the method of choice for in cellulo footprinting and DNA structure studies because it can be used to investigate complex animal genomes, including human. The detailed conventional and automated LMPCR protocols are presented in this chapter.

  3. In cellulo DNA analysis (LMPCR footprinting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Régen; Bastien, Nathalie; Millau, Jean-François; Vigneault, François; Paradis, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The in cellulo analysis of DNA protein interactions and chromatin structure is very important to better understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression. The nuclease-hypersensitive sites and sequences bound by transcription factors often correspond to genetic regulatory elements. Using the Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LMPCR) technology, it is possible to precisely analyze these DNA sequences to demonstrate the existence of DNA-protein interactions or unusual DNA structures directly in living cells. Indeed, the ideal chromatin substrate is, of course, found inside intact cells. LMPCR, a genomic-sequencing, technique that map DNA single-strand breaks at the sequence level of resolution, is the method of choice for in cellulo footprinting and DNA structure studies because it can be used to investigate any complex genomes, including human. The detailed conventional and automated LMPCR protocols are presented in this chapter.

  4. Engineering AAV receptor footprints for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Victoria J; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently at the forefront of human gene therapy clinical trials as recombinant vectors. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the structure, biology and tropisms of different naturally occurring AAV isolates in the past decade. In particular, a spectrum of AAV capsid interactions with host receptors have been identified and characterized. These studies have enabled a better understanding of key determinants of AAV cell recognition and entry in different hosts. This knowledge is now being applied toward engineering new, lab-derived AAV capsids with favorable transduction profiles. The current review conveys a structural perspective of capsid-glycan interactions and provides a roadmap for generating synthetic strains by engineering AAV receptor footprints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Uk’e koley (no footprint) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnestaffer, Jessica E.D. [Chickaloon Native Village

    2014-03-30

    Chickaloon Native Village is a federally-recognized Alaska Native Tribe that has long been devoted to being a good steward to the environment, understanding that it is our responsibility to take care of the land that has been loaned to us for the short time we are here. The goal of this project was to conduct a feasibility study to assess the energy uses, loads, and efficiencies for all of our current Tribally owned and operated buildings and rental housing units, to determine if it makes economic and environmental sense to install renewable energy systems on each building to lower our carbon footprints and to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels. The goal was met and we have developed a plan for installing renewable energy systems on several Tribal buildings where the benefits will be most notable.

  6. Techniques for verifying human footprints: reappraisal of pre-Clovis footprints in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Sarita Amy; Bennett, Matthew R.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David

    2010-09-01

    Verification of human footprints within the geological record provides critical evidence of presence as well as information on the biomechanics of the individuals who made those prints. Consequently, the correct identification of human footprints is important, but is something for which critical and objective criteria do not exist. The current paper attempts to address this issue by presenting a new statistically based approach to the verification of human footprints. The importance of this is illustrated by the recent controversy surrounding a series of marks identified as human prints in the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico dated originally to 40 000 years ago. The dating of these marks remains highly controversial with some teams placing their age at 1.3 million years old. Irrespective of this debate the crucial question that must be addressed is whether or not they represent evidence of human presence. Using an objective statistically based methodology developed here, these controversial marks are re-examined and found to be of questionable origin, as they are inconsistent with a suite of other, known human and hominin prints. Consequently, we argue that they should be removed as evidence in the ongoing controversy surrounding the colonization of the Americas.

  7. Regional Per Capita Solar Electric Footprint for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this report, we quantify the state-by-state per-capita 'solar electric footprint' for the United States. We use state-level data on population, electricity consumption, economic activity and solar insolation, along with solar photovoltaic (PV) array packing density data to develop a range of estimates of the solar electric footprint. We find that the solar electric footprint, defined as the land area required to supply all end-use electricity from solar photovoltaics, is about 181 m2 per person in the United States. Two key factors that influence the magnitude of the state-level solar electric footprint include how industrial energy is allocated (based on location of use vs. where goods are consumed) and the assumed distribution of PV configurations (flat rooftop vs. fixed tilt vs. tracking). The solar electric footprint is about 0.6% of the total land area of the United States with state-level estimates ranging from less than 0.1% for Wyoming to about 9% for New Jersey. We also compare the solar electric footprint to a number of other land uses. For example, we find that the solar electric footprint is equal to less than 2% of the land dedicated to cropland and grazing in the United States.

  8. Product carbon footprints and their uncertainties in comparative decision contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik J G Henriksson

    Full Text Available In response to growing awareness of climate change, requests to establish product carbon footprints have been increasing. Product carbon footprints are life cycle assessments restricted to just one impact category, global warming. Product carbon footprint studies generate life cycle inventory results, listing the environmental emissions of greenhouse gases from a product's lifecycle, and characterize these by their global warming potentials, producing product carbon footprints that are commonly communicated as point values. In the present research we show that the uncertainties surrounding these point values necessitate more sophisticated ways of communicating product carbon footprints, using different sizes of catfish (Pangasius spp. farms in Vietnam as a case study. As most product carbon footprint studies only have a comparative meaning, we used dependent sampling to produce relative results in order to increase the power for identifying environmentally superior products. We therefore argue that product carbon footprints, supported by quantitative uncertainty estimates, should be used to test hypotheses, rather than to provide point value estimates or plain confidence intervals of products' environmental performance.

  9. Ecological Footprint in relation to Climate Change Strategy in Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belčáková, Ingrid; Diviaková, Andrea; Belaňová, Eliška

    2017-10-01

    Ecological footprint determines how much natural resources are consumed by an individual, city, region, state or all inhabitants of our planet in order to ensure their requirements and needs. It includes all activities, from food consumption, housing, transport to waste produced and allows us to compare particular activities and their impacts on the environment and natural resources. Ecological footprint is important issue for making sustainable development concept more popular using simplifications, which provide the public with basic information on situation on our planet. Today we know calculations of global (worldwide), national and local ecological footprints. During our research in cities, we were concentrated on calculation of city’s ecological footprint. The article tries to outline theoretical and assumptions and practical results of climate change consequences in cities of Bratislava and Nitra (Slovakia), to describe potential of mitigating adverse impacts of climate change and to provide information for general and professional public on theoretical assumptions in calculating ecological footprint. The intention is to present innovation of ecological footprint calculation, taking into consideration ecological stability of a city (with a specific focus on micro-climate functions of green areas). Present possibilities to reduce ecological footprint are presented.

  10. The nitrogen footprint tool network: a multi-institution program ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic sources of reactive nitrogen have local and global impacts on air and water quality and detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health. This paper uses the nitrogen footprint tool (NFT) to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) released as a result of institutional consumption. The sectors accounted for include food (consumption and the upstream production), energy, transportation, fertilizer, research animals, and agricultural research. The NFT is then used for scenario analysis to manage and track reductions to institution N footprints, which are driven by the consumption behaviors of both the institution itself and its constituent individuals. In this paper, the first seven institution N footprint results are presented. The institution NFT network aims to develop footprints for many institutions to encourage widespread upper-level management strategies that will create significant reductions in reactive N released to the environment. Energy use and food purchases are the two largest contributors to institution N footprints. Ongoing efforts by institutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also help to reduce the N footprint, but the impact of food production on N pollution has not been directly addressed by the higher-ed sustainability community. The NFT Network found that institutions could reduce their N footprints by optimizing food purchasing to reduce consumption of animal products and minimize food waste, as well as reducing dependence o

  11. Ancient human footprints in Ciur-Izbuc Cave, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David; Robu, Marius; Moldovan, Oana; Constantin, Silviu; Tomus, Bogdan; Neag, Ionel

    2014-09-01

    In 1965, Ciur-Izbuc Cave in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania was discovered to contain about 400 ancient human footprints. At that time, researchers interpreted the footprints to be those of a man, woman and child who entered the cave by an opening which is now blocked but which was usable in antiquity. The age of the prints (≈10-15 ka BP) was based partly on their association with cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) footprints and bones, and the belief that cave bears became extinct near the end of the last ice age. Since their discovery, the human and bear evidence and the cave itself have attracted spelunkers and other tourists, with the result that the ancient footprints are in danger of destruction by modern humans. In an effort to conserve the footprints and information about them and to reanalyze them with modern techiques, Ciur-Izbuc Cave was restudied in summer of 2012. Modern results are based on fewer than 25% of the originally described human footprints, the rest having been destroyed. It is impossible to confirm some of the original conclusions. The footprints do not cluster about three different sizes, and the number of individuals is estimated to be six or seven. Two cases of bears apparently overprinting humans help establish antiquity, and C-14 dates suggest a much greater age than originally thought. Unfortunately, insufficient footprints remain to measure movement variables such as stride length. However, detailed three-dimensional mapping of the footprints does allow a more precise description of human movements within the cave. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Direct and indirect urban water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Christopher M.; Konar, Megan; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-01-01

    The water footprint of the urban environment is not limited to direct water consumption (i.e., municipal supplies); embedded water in imported resources, or virtual water transfers, provides an additional component of the urban water footprint. Using empirical data, our analysis extends traditional urban water footprinting analysis to quantify both direct and indirect urban resources for the United States. We determine direct water volumes and their embedded energy through open records requests of water utilities. The indirect component of the urban water footprint includes water indirectly consumed through energy and food, relating to the food-energy-water nexus. We comprehensively quantify the indirect water footprint for 74 metropolitan statistical areas through the combination of various databases, including the Commodity Flow Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Water Footprint Network, and the Energy Information Administration. We then analyze spatial heterogeneity in both direct and indirect water footprints, determining the average urban water footprint in the United States to be 1.64 million gallons of water per person per year [6200 m3/person/yr or 17,000 L/person/d], dominated by indirect water. Additionally, our study of the urban water cycle extends beyond considering only water resources to include embedded energy and equivalent carbon dioxide emissions. The inclusion of multiple sectors of the urban water cycle and their underlying processes provides important insights to the overall urban environment, the interdependencies of the food-energy-water nexus, and water resource sustainability. Our results provide opportunities for benchmarking the urban energy-water nexus, water footprints, and climate change potential.

  13. Effects of Globalisation on Carbon Footprints of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    of manufactured products when production is moved from United Kingdom or Denmark to China and uses environmental input-output analysis to calculate the carbon footprint in the bilateral trade between these countries. The results show that differences between the European and Chinese production systems can lead......Outsourcing of production from the industrialised countries to the newly industrialised economies holds the potential to increase wealth in both places, but what are the environmental costs of the globalised manufacturing systems? This paper looks into the changes in carbon footprint...... to substantial increases in the carbon footprint of the traded products, even without including the CO2 emissions from the associated transportation....

  14. Potentials and limitations of footprints for gauging environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    To address the sustainability challenge, a large variety of footprints, aiming at capturing specific impacts of human activities on natural environment, have emerged. But, how do they fit into our addressing of environmental sustainability? Here, we build on a critical literature review to (1......) provide an overview of existing footprints; (2) define their roles; (3) position them within the broad spectrum of known environmental problems and control variables of the planetary boundaries; and (4) argue for the need of consistent thresholds to benchmark footprint scores against absolute...

  15. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J; Grunberg, G; Rathsman, J; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Gardi, Einan; Grunberg, Georges; Rathsman, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factoriallyincreasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increaseis not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations betweenobservables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infraredfixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion we study the effect of thelarge-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients.We find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing.However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalonintegral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect theconformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients willindeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previousobservations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specificobservables. We further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with theskeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. Th...

  16. Water Footprint of Cities: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willa Paterson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities are hotspots of commodity consumption, with implications for both local and systemic water resources. Water flows “virtually” into and out of cities through the extensive cross-boundary exchange of goods and services. Both virtual and real water flows are affected by water supply investments and urban planning decisions, which influence residential, commercial, and industrial development. This form of water “teleconnection” is being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of water decision-making. The role of trade and virtual water flows as an alternative to expanding a city’s “real” water supply is rarely acknowledged, with an emphasis placed instead on monotonic expansion of engineering potable water supplies. We perform a literature review of water footprint studies to evaluate the potential and importance of taking virtual flows into account in urban planning and policy. We compare and contrast current methods to assess virtual water flows. We also identify and discuss priorities for future research in urban water footprint analysis.

  17. The human footprint in the west: a large-scale analysis of human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Background Humans have dramatically altered wildlands in the western United States over the past 100 years by using these lands and the resources they provide. Anthropogenic changes to the landscape, such as urban expansion and development of rural areas, influence the number and kinds of plants and wildlife that remain. In addition, western ecosystems are also affected by roads, powerlines, and other networks and land uses necessary to maintain human populations. The cumulative impacts of human presence and actions on a landscape are called the "human footprint." These impacts may affect plants and wildlife by increasing the number of synanthropic (species that benefit from human activities) bird and mammal predators and facilitating their movements through the landscape or by creating unsuitable habitats. These actions can impact plants and wildlife to such an extent that the persistence of populations or entire species is questionable. For example, greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) once were widespread throughout the Great Basin, but now are a focus of conservation concern because populations have declined for the past three decades across most of their range. At the USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, we are developing spatial models to better understand potential influences of the human footprint on shrubland ecosystems and associated wildlife in the western United States.

  18. Steam sterilisation's energy and water footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGain, Forbes; Moore, Graham; Black, Jim

    2017-03-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to quantify hospital steam steriliser resource consumption to provide baseline environmental data and identify possible efficiency gains. We sought to find the amount of steriliser electricity and water used for active cycles and for idling (standby), and the relationship between the electricity and water consumption and the mass and type of items sterilised. Methods We logged a hospital steam steriliser's electricity and water meters every 5min for up to 1 year. We obtained details of all active cycles (standard 134°C and accessory or 'test' cycles), recording item masses and types. Relationships were investigated for both the weight and type of items sterilised with electricity and water consumption. Results Over 304 days there were 2173 active cycles, including 1343 standard 134°C cycles that had an average load mass of 21.2kg, with 32% of cycles steam sterilisation's environmental footprint and identify areas to improve efficiencies. What is known about the topic? There is increasing interest in the environmental effects of healthcare. Life cycle assessment ('cradle to grave') provides a scientific method of analysing environmental effects. Although data of the effects of steam sterilisation are integral to the life cycles of reusable items and procedures using such items, there are few data available. Further, there is scant information regarding the efficiency of the long-term in-hospital use of sterilisers. What does this paper add? We quantified, for the first time, long-term electricity and water use of a hospital steam steriliser. We provide useful input data for future life cycle assessments of all reusable, steam-sterilised equipment. Further, we identified opportunities for improved steriliser efficiencies, including rotating off idle sterilisers and reducing the number of light steriliser loads. Finally, others could use our methods to examine steam sterilisers and many other energy-intensive items of

  19. Surveying the Environmental Footprint of Urban Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Fernandez, John

    2017-01-01

    , energy, and so on) The foodprint was typically the third largest source of mass flows (average is 0.8 tonnes per capita per annum) and carbon footprint (average is 1.9 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents per capita per annum) in the reviewed cities, whereas it was generally the largest driver of urban......Assessments of urban metabolism (UM) are well situated to identify the scale, components, and direction of urban and energy flows in cities and have been instrumental in benchmarking and monitoring the key levers of urban environmental pressure, such as transport, space conditioning...... of the environmental footprint from urban food demand (“foodprint”) is necessary. This article reviews 43 UM assessments including 100 cities, and a total of 132 foodprints in terms of mass, carbon footprint, and ecological footprint and situates it relative to other significant environmental drivers (transport...

  20. Improving odour assessment in LCA—the odour footprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Gregory M.; Murphy, Kathleen R.; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    in the life cycle assessment (LCA) community. This article aims to redress this. Results and discussion: We produced a list of 33 linear characterisation factors based on hydrogen sulphide equivalents, analogous to the linear carbon dioxide equivalency factors in use in carbon footprinting......, or the dichlorobenzene equivalency factors developed for assessment of toxic impacts in LCA. Like the latter, this odour footprint method does not take local populations and exposure pathway analysis into account—its intent is not to assess regulatory compliance or detailed design. The case study showed that despite...... the need for materials and energy, large factor reductions in odour footprint and eutrophication potential were achieved at the cost of a smaller factor increase in greenhouse emissions. Conclusions: The odour footprint method is proposed as an improvement on the established midpoint method for odour...

  1. Anthropogenic footprints in the Amurum Forest Reserve and the Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identified anthropogenic footprints include logging, firewood collection, mining, burning, residential encroachment, grazing, farmland, indiscriminate defeacation, waste dumping, road encroachment and play ground. Of these, mining, waste dumping and play ground were not recorded in the Amurum Forest Reserve.

  2. Cooperative water network system to reduce carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-08-15

    Much effort has been made in reducing the carbon footprint to mitigate climate change. However, water network synthesis has been focused on reducing the consumption and cost of freshwater within each industrial plant. The objective of this study is to illustrate the necessity of the cooperation of industrial plants to reduce the total carbon footprint of their water supply systems. A mathematical optimization model to minimize global warming potentials is developed to synthesize (1) a cooperative water network system (WNS) integrated over two plants and (2) an individual WNS consisting of two WNSs separated for each plant. The cooperative WNS is compared to the individual WNS. The cooperation reduces their carbon footprint and is economically feasible and profitable. A strategy for implementing the cooperation is suggested for the fair distribution of costs and benefits. As a consequence, industrial plants should cooperate with their neighbor plants to further reduce the carbon footprint.

  3. [Ecological footprint and available ecological capacity in Chongqing region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan; Mong, Linbing

    2005-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of Chongqing, the ecological footprint of Chongqing was calculated in this paper. The results showed that the per capita ecological footprint was 1.653566 hm2, per capita ecological capacity was 0.280393 hm2, and ecological surplus of deficit was 1.373173 hm2. The per capita ecological footprint was 0.5335 hm2 (47.64%) higher but the per capita ecological capacity was 0.5196 hm2 (64.95%) lower, and the ecological surplus of deficit was about 3.43 times of the average national level. These results showed that the ecological footprint of Chongqing was beyond the available ecological capacity, and its social and economic development was not sustainable. The strategies on reducing ecological deficit in this region, such as reducing ecosystem population, increasing public finance income, and controlling environmental pollution, were also put forward.

  4. Application of a simplified ecological footprint at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological Footprint (EF) is a commonly used metric of environmental sustainability because it is straightforward in theory and easy to conceptualize. EF attempts to capture anthropogenic influence on resources by identifying the amount of biologically-productive land required t...

  5. Small Footprint Solar/Wind-powered CASTNET System Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In this Research Effort “Small Footprint Solar/Wind-Powered CASTNET System” there are two data sets. One data set contains atmospheric concentration measurements, at...

  6. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  7. Essential amino acids: master regulators of nutrition and environmental footprint?

    OpenAIRE

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna; Mosca, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The environmental footprint of animal food production is considered several-fold greater than that of crops cultivation. Therefore, the choice between animal and vegetarian diets may have a relevant environmental impact. In such comparisons however, an often neglected issue is the nutritional value of foods. Previous estimates of nutrients? environmental footprint had predominantly been based on either food raw weight or caloric content, not in respect to human requirements. Essential amino a...

  8. Hydroxyl radical footprinting of protein-DNA complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Indu; Hayes, Jeffrey J

    2009-01-01

    This unit details the use of hydroxyl radicals to characterize protein-DNA interactions. This method may be used to assess the exact location of contacts between a protein and its cognate DNA and details of the complex structure. We describe several methods to prepare DNA templates for footprinting and ways to avoid many of the pitfalls associated with the use of hydroxyl radical footprinting. In addition, we describe in detail one example of the application of this technique.

  9. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R.; de Oliveira, Sonaly D.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Neto, Jose Dantas; Campos, João Hugo B.C.; Braga, Celia C.; Araújo, Lincoln Eloi; Oliveira Aleixo, Danilo; de Brito, Jose Ivaldo B.; de Souza, Marcio Dionisio; de Holanda, Romildo M.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual w...

  10. The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr−1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ−1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  11. Resonant state expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.).

  12. Footprint Location Prediction Method of ZY3-02 Altimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Xinming

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On-orbit geometric calibration is an essential way to improve plane and elevation accuracy of laser altimeter data, and the laser footprint location prediction is a prerequisite for calibration based on land infrared detector. This paper builds a laser footprint location prediction model for China's first space-borne laser altimeter carried by ZY3-02, which refers to the satellite optical camera rigorous geometry imaging model. The model takes full account of the law of platform movement, and correlates laser emission center with ground footprint point. We get the precise predicted laser pointing by Pyramid terrain matching, ephemerisby acceleration prediction, and attitude by frequency analysis. The laser footprint location can be predicted. This laser footprint location prediction model were successfully applied in the calibration test of the laser altimeter on ZY3-02 satellite, and the maximum error between the predicted location and real footprint location obtained by triggered detectors is less than 150 m, which proves the validity of the proposed model. The proposed method provides the precise point-to-point prediction from satellite to ground for Chinese remote sensing satellite, and offers a technological support for the space-borne laser altimeter calibration in future.

  13. Comparative evaluation of DNase-seq footprint identification strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iros eBarozzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available DNase I is an enzyme preferentially cleaving DNA in highly accessible regions. Recently, Next-Generation Sequencing has been applied to DNase I assays (DNase-seq to obtain genome-wide maps of these accessible chromatin regions.With high-depth sequencing, DNase I cleavage sites can be identified with base-pair resolution, revealing the presence of protected regions (footprints, corresponding to bound molecules on the DNA. Integrating footprint positions close to transcription start sites with motif analysis can reveal the presence of regulatory interactions between specific transcription factors (TFs and genes. However, this inference heavily relies on the accuracy of the footprint call and on the sequencing depth of the DNase-seq experiment.Using ENCODE data, we comprehensively evaluate the performances of two recent footprint callers (Wellington and DNaseR and one metric (the Footprint Occupancy Score, or FOS, and assess the consequences of different footprint calls on the reconstruction of TF-TF regulatory networks. We rate Wellington as the method of choice among those tested: not only its predictions are the best in terms of accuracy, but also the properties of the inferred networks are robust against sequencing depth

  14. Water Footprint Assessment of Cotton Cultivation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoping; Safaya, Sameer; Methews, Ruth; Ercin, Ertug

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the water footprint of cotton production in 700 farms located in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh states in India. These farms grow cotton using one of three different agricultural practices: organic farming; conventional farming; or a hybrid method. The main difference between these farming practices relates to chemical inputs: hybrid farms are stricter in the use of synthetic chemical pesticides and fertilisers than conventional farms, and organic farms are the most strict on chemical inputs and use more compost, urea, neem and organic seeds. First, we calculated the green, blue and grey water footprint of cotton cultivation using the data collected from the farms, then established the relationship between cotton agricultural practices and technologies and the green, blue and grey water footprint. At a final step, we analyzed the potential for water footprint reduction through the transition from one practice to another and developing water efficiency benchmarks and targets for reduction. The results showed an impressive reduction of water pollution levels from organic farming. The grey water footprint ranged from 330,000 cubic metres per tonne of cotton for conventional farming in Madhya Pradesh to 178 cubic metres per tonne of cotton for organic farming in Gujarat. If all farms in this study performed as well as the organic farms in Gujarat, the grey water footprint (pollution) would be reduced by over 99%.

  15. Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: A response to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water footprinting has emerged as an important approach to assess water use related effects from consumption of goods and services. Assessment methods are proposed by two different communities, the Water Footprint Network (WFN) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community. The proposed methods are broadly similar and encompass both the computation of water use and its impacts, but differ in communication of a water footprint result. In this paper, we explain the role and goal of LCA and ISO-compatible water footprinting and resolve the six issues raised by Hoekstra (2016) in “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”. By clarifying the concerns, we identify both the overlapping goals in the WFN and LCA water footprint assessments and discrepancies between them. The main differing perspective between the WFN and LCA-based approach seems to relate to the fact that LCA aims to account for environmental impacts, while the WFN aims to account for water productivity of global fresh water as a limited resource. We conclude that there is potential to use synergies in research for the two approaches and highlight the need for proper declaration of the methods applied. This paper advances efforts to understand ways to accurately capture use of water in life cycle analysis in other contexts. As the paper indicates, there is a discussion about whether quantities of water should be weighted by some local stress factor. This paper attempts to brid

  16. Modelling the carbon footprint of reflux control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Piers A C

    2011-01-01

    The NHS is responsible for approximately 30% of all public sector carbon emissions. The Climate Change Act 2008 introduced legally binding targets to cut emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by at least 80% of the 1990 baseline by 2050. This paper seeks to examine two different strategies for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and their modelled costs and carbon emissions. This study uses data from the costs of care of patients in the REFLUX study and NHS England Carbon Emissions Carbon Footprinting Report to model the carbon emissions associated with medical and surgical treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The main outcome measures are modelled financial costs and carbon emissions for medical and surgical treatment pathways. There is a high initial cost (financially and carbon emissions) for surgery, however subsequent year-on-year financial spend and carbon emissions are lower in patients who have had surgical treatment such that the total modelled financial cost of surgery is lower in the 14th year and carbon emissions are lower in the 9th year. The model is sensitive to changes in the efficiency of pharmaceutical procurement and surgical failure rate. The model has demonstrated that in cases of equivalent clinical benefit one pathway may be preferred on the basis of other factors including carbon emissions. Copyright © 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  18. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  19. Mealworms for Food: A Water Footprint Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have explored the possibility of substituting traditional meat products with an alternative source of protein (insects in order to reduce human pressure on water. Insects, in fact, could represent a good alternative source of quality proteins and nutrients and they are already a very popular component of the diet of one third of the world’s population in approximately 80% of countries. In the study, we have taken into account only two species of edible insects (Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio mealworms, because they are already commercially produced even in Western countries, and for this reason it is possible to find specific data in literature about their diets. We have used the water footprint (WF as a reliable indicator to calculate the volume of water required for production and to compare different products. The final aim of the work is, in fact, to evaluate the WF of the production of edible insects with a focus on water consumption associated with protein content, in order to make a comparison with other animal protein sources. We have demonstrated that, from a freshwater resource perspective, it is more efficient to obtain protein through mealworms rather than other traditional farmed animals.

  20. Concerted drive to cut carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In 2013 Peter Sellars, head of Profession for Estates & Facilities Policy at the Department of Health, successfully bid for £50 million from the Treasury to help finance a range of 'spend-to-save' energy efficiency initiatives across the NHS in England. In all 117 energy efficiency projects were initiated across 48 English NHS organisations--funded through a dedicated NHS Energy Efficiency Fund. An independent analysis for the DH, NHS Energy Efficiency Fund Final Report, Summary 2014, by Professor Alan Short of Cambridge University's Department of Architecture, says the projects are already on track to save 100.6 million kg of CO2 annually, and some 2.4% of the entire 2012 NHS building energy-related carbon footprint, delivering annual energy savings of 160.5 million kWh (equivalent to boiling 3.34 billion cups of tea a year.) The Report--reproduced in large part here--summarises the schemes' preliminary outcomes, and makes recommendations for policy-makers implementing similar energy-saving funding schemes in the future.

  1. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  2. Comparative footprinting of DNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2006-07-15

    Comparative modelling is a computational method used to tackle a variety of problems in molecular biology and biotechnology. Traditionally it has been applied to model the structure of proteins on their own or bound to small ligands, although more recently it has also been used to model protein-protein interfaces. This work is the first to systematically analyze whether comparative models of protein-DNA complexes could be built and be useful for predicting DNA binding sites. First, we describe the structural and evolutionary conservation of protein-DNA interfaces, and the limits they impose on modelling accuracy. Second, we find that side-chains from contacting residues can be reasonably modeled and therefore used to identify contacting nucleotides. Third, the DNASITE protocol is implemented and different parameters are benchmarked on a set of 85 regulators from Escherichia coli. Results show that comparative footprinting can make useful predictions based solely on structural data, depending primarily on the interface identity with respect to the template used. DNASITE code available on request from the authors.

  3. Environmental footprint of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine environmentally friendlier construction materials for constructed wetland facilities treating wastewater. This is done by computing the environmental footprint of the facility based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA). This methodology reveals the dominant aggravating processes during the construction of a constructed wetland (CW) and can help to create alternative environmentally friendlier solutions. This methodology was applied for the determination of the overall environmental profile of a hybrid CW facility. The LCA was applied first to the facility as originally designed, where reinforced concrete was used in some components. Then, alternative construction materials to reinforced concrete were used, such as earth covered with high density polyethylene (HDPE) or clay, and LCA was applied again. Earth structures were found to have reduced environmental impact compared to concrete ones, and clay was found environmentally friendlier compared to HDPE. Furthermore, estimation of the construction costs of the three scenarios indicate that the last scenario is also the least expensive.

  4. The Water Footprint of Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Ristic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint (WF has so far received little to no attention. This article conducts a preliminary WF accounting for cooling and energy consumption in DCs. The WF of DCs is estimated to be between 1047 and 151,061 m3/TJ. Outbound DC data traffic generates a WF of 1–205 liters per gigabyte (roughly equal to the WF of 1 kg of tomatos at the higher end. It is found that, typically, energy consumption constitues by far the greatest share of DC WF, but the level of uncertainty associated with the WF of different energy sources used by DCs makes a comprehensive assessment of DCs’ water use efficiency very challenging. Much better understanding of DC WF is urgently needed if a meaningful evaluation of this rapidly spreading service technology is to be gleaned and response measures are to be put into effect.

  5. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  6. Integration of ecosystem services into the carbon footprint of milk of South German dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Kiefer, Lukas; Menzel, Friederike; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-04-01

    Allocation of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) is challenging especially when multi-functionality of dairy farms, which do not only produce milk but also meat is considered. Moreover, some farms fulfill a wide range of additional services for society such as management of renewable natural resources as well as preservation of biodiversity and cultural landscapes. Due to the increasing degradation of ecosystems many industrialized as well as developing countries designed payment systems for environmental services. This study examines different allocation methods of GHG for a comparatively large convenience sample of 113 dairy farms located in grassland-based areas of southern Germany. Results are carbon footprints of 1.99 kg CO2eq/kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) on average if "no allocation" for coupled products is performed. "Physical allocation" results in 1.53 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM and "conventional economic allocation" in 1.66 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average if emissions are apportioned between milk and meat. Economic allocation which includes ecosystem services for society based on the farm net income as a new aspect in this study results in a carbon footprint of 1.5 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average. System expansion that puts greater emphasis on coupled beef production accounts for a carbon footprint of 0.68 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average. Intense milk production systems with higher milk yields show better results based on "no allocation", "physical allocation" and "conventional economic allocation". By contrast, economic allocation, which takes into account ecosystem services favors extensive systems, especially in less favored areas. This shows that carbon footprints of dairy farms should not be examined one-dimensionally based on the amount of milk and meat that is produced on the farm. Rather, a broader perspective is necessary that takes into account the multi-functionality of dairy farms especially in countries where a wide

  7. The carbon footprint of an Australian satellite haemodialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Allan E K; Perkins, Anthony; Agar, John W M

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to better understand the carbon emission impact of haemodialysis (HD) throughout Australia by determining its carbon footprint, the relative contributions of various sectors to this footprint, and how contributions from electricity and water consumption are affected by local factors. Activity data associated with HD provision at a 6-chair suburban satellite HD unit in Victoria in 2011 was collected and converted to a common measurement unit of tonnes of CO2 equivalents (t CO2-eq) via established emissions factors. For electricity and water consumption, emissions factors for other Australian locations were applied to assess the impact of local factors on these footprint contributors. In Victoria, the annual per-patient carbon footprint of satellite HD was calculated to be 10.2t CO2-eq. The largest contributors were pharmaceuticals (35.7%) and medical equipment (23.4%). Throughout Australia, the emissions percentage attributable to electricity consumption ranged from 5.2% to 18.6%, while the emissions percentage attributable to water use ranged from 4.0% to 11.6%. State-by-state contributions of energy and water use to the carbon footprint of satellite HD appear to vary significantly. Performing emissions planning and target setting at the state level may be more appropriate in the Australian context. What is known about the topic? Healthcare provision carries a significant environmental footprint. In particular, conventional HD uses substantial amounts of electricity and water. In the UK, provision of HD and peritoneal dialysis was found to have an annual per-patient carbon footprint of 7.1t CO2-eq. What does this paper add? This is the first carbon-footprinting study of HD in Australia. In Victoria, the annual per-patient carbon footprint of satellite conventional HD is 10.2t CO2-eq. Notably, the contributions of electricity and water consumption to the carbon footprint varies significantly throughout Australia when local factors are taken into

  8. Regional water footprints of potential biofuel production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Liming; Huang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Development of biofuels is considered as one of the important ways to replace conventional fossil energy and mitigate climate change. However, rapid increase of biofuel production could cause other environmental concerns in China such as water stress. This study is intended to evaluate the life-cycle water footprints (WF) of biofuels derived from several potential non-edible feedstocks including cassava, sweet sorghum, and Jatropha curcas in China. Different water footprint types including blue water, green water, and grey water are considered in this study. Based on the estimated WF, water deprivation impact and water stress degree on local water environment are further analyzed for different regions in China. On the basis of the feedstock resource availability, sweet sorghum, cassava, and Jatropha curcas seeds are considered as the likely feedstocks for biofuel production in China. The water footprint results show that the feedstock growth is the most water footprint intensive process, while the biofuel conversion and transportation contribute little to total water footprints. Water footprints vary significantly by region with climate and soil variations. The life-cycle water footprints of cassava ethanol, sweet sorghum ethanol, and Jatropha curcas seeds biodiesel were estimated to be 73.9-222.2, 115.9-210.4, and 64.7-182.3 L of water per MJ of biofuel, respectively. Grey water footprint dominates the life-cycle water footprint for each type of the biofuels. Development of biofuels without careful water resource management will exert significant impacts on local water resources. The water resource impacts vary significantly among regions. For example, based on blue and grey water consumption, Gansu province in China will suffer much higher water stress than other regions do due to limited available water resources and large amount of fertilizer use in that province. In term of blue water, Shandong province is shown with the most severe water stress issue

  9. Wake Expansion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Different models of wake expansion are presented in this chapter: the 1D momentum theory model, the cylinder analog model and Theodorsen’s model. Far wake models such as the ones from Frandsen or Rathmann or only briefly mentioned. The different models are compared to each other. Results from thi...... this chapter are used in Chap. 16 to link near-wake and far-wake parameters and in Chap. 20 to study the influence of expansion on tip-losses....

  10. Nuclear expansion with excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, J.N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Samaddar, S.K. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Vinas, X. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centelles, M. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: mario@ecm.ub.es

    2006-07-06

    The expansion of an isolated hot spherical nucleus with excitation energy and its caloric curve are studied in a thermodynamic model with the SkM{sup *} force as the nuclear effective two-body interaction. The calted results are shown to compare well with the recent experimental data from energetic nuclear collisions. The fluctuations in temperature and density are also studied. They are seen to build up very rapidly beyond an excitation energy of {approx}9 MeV/u. Volume-conserving quadrupole deformation in addition to expansion indicates, however, nuclear disassembly above an excitation energy of {approx}4 MeV/u.

  11. Uniform gradient expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giovannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  12. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  13. Rethinking expansive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...

  14. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  15. Estimation of stature from static and dynamic footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reel, Sarah; Rouse, Simon; Vernon, Wesley; Doherty, Patrick

    2012-06-10

    The ability to estimate accurately from known parameters is a fundamental aspect of science and is evident as an emerging approach in the area of footprints and stature estimation within the field of forensic identification. There are numerous foot dimensions that have been measured in the literature to predict stature with varying degrees of confidence but few studies have tried to link the strength of estimation to anatomical landmarks. Such an approach is utilised in this study which estimates stature from the right footprints of sixty one adult male and female UK participants. Static and dynamic footprints were taken from each volunteer using the 'inkless paper system'. The prints were digitised and twelve length, width and angle measurements were chosen for the analysis. The highest correlations with stature were shown to be the heel to fourth toe print for the static group of footprints (r=0.786, pestimation of stature for the dynamic prints. Linear regression equations for this measurement presented the smallest standard error of estimate (SEE) and highest shared variance (R(2)) of all included variables (SEE 4.16, R(2) 0.74). Our study discusses a potential anatomical explanation as to why the lateral border of the foot and hence the impression it makes upon a hard surface, is a more stable indicator in the estimation of stature. The investigation recommends the use of Calc_A4 and Calc_A5 length measurements when estimating stature from footprint impressions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bivariate Genomic Footprinting Detects Changes in Transcription Factor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjoon Baek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to activating signals, transcription factors (TFs bind DNA and regulate gene expression. TF binding can be measured by protection of the bound sequence from DNase digestion (i.e., footprint. Here, we report that 80% of TF binding motifs do not show a measurable footprint, partly because of a variable cleavage pattern within the motif sequence. To more faithfully portray the effect of TFs on chromatin, we developed an algorithm that captures two TF-dependent effects on chromatin accessibility: footprinting and motif-flanking accessibility. The algorithm, termed bivariate genomic footprinting (BaGFoot, efficiently detects TF activity. BaGFoot is robust to different accessibility assays (DNase-seq, ATAC-seq, all examined peak-calling programs, and a variety of cut bias correction approaches. BaGFoot reliably predicts TF binding and provides valuable information regarding the TFs affecting chromatin accessibility in various biological systems and following various biological events, including in cases where an absolute footprint cannot be determined.

  17. Bivariate Genomic Footprinting Detects Changes in Transcription Factor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Songjoon; Goldstein, Ido; Hager, Gordon L

    2017-05-23

    In response to activating signals, transcription factors (TFs) bind DNA and regulate gene expression. TF binding can be measured by protection of the bound sequence from DNase digestion (i.e., footprint). Here, we report that 80% of TF binding motifs do not show a measurable footprint, partly because of a variable cleavage pattern within the motif sequence. To more faithfully portray the effect of TFs on chromatin, we developed an algorithm that captures two TF-dependent effects on chromatin accessibility: footprinting and motif-flanking accessibility. The algorithm, termed bivariate genomic footprinting (BaGFoot), efficiently detects TF activity. BaGFoot is robust to different accessibility assays (DNase-seq, ATAC-seq), all examined peak-calling programs, and a variety of cut bias correction approaches. BaGFoot reliably predicts TF binding and provides valuable information regarding the TFs affecting chromatin accessibility in various biological systems and following various biological events, including in cases where an absolute footprint cannot be determined. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  19. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A., E-mail: Marilyn.Brown@pubpolicy.gatech.ed [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  20. Essential amino acids: master regulators of nutrition and environmental footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna; Mosca, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The environmental footprint of animal food production is considered several-fold greater than that of crops cultivation. Therefore, the choice between animal and vegetarian diets may have a relevant environmental impact. In such comparisons however, an often neglected issue is the nutritional value of foods. Previous estimates of nutrients’ environmental footprint had predominantly been based on either food raw weight or caloric content, not in respect to human requirements. Essential amino acids (EAAs) are key parameters in food quality assessment. We re-evaluated here the environmental footprint (expressed both as land use for production and as Green House Gas Emission (GHGE), of some animal and vegetal foods, titrated to provide EAAs amounts in respect to human requirements. Production of high-quality animal proteins, in amounts sufficient to match the Recommended Daily Allowances of all the EAAs, would require a land use and a GHGE approximately equal, greater o smaller (by only ±1-fold), than that necessary to produce vegetal proteins, except for soybeans, that exhibited the smallest footprint. This new analysis downsizes the common concept of a large advantage, in respect to environmental footprint, of crops vs. animal foods production, when human requirements of EAAs are used for reference. PMID:27221394

  1. Carbon footprint calculation model for the Mexican food equivalent system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Ruiz Cerrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the impact environment trough the anthropogenic action has been contributed to the fast production of greenhouse gases effect (GHG, a way to estimate the quantity of these substances is the carbon footprint (CF, nowadays it does not exist enough models for the calculation of food carbon footprint. Objective: the aim of this study was to design a calculation model for the measurement of the carbon footprint on the Mexican food equivalent system. Methods: it was about a retrospective study, a bibliographic review was made with original and review articles in different specialized researchers, there were included publications in English and Spanish, also published from 2000 to 2016. Results: a reference table was proposed for the food carbon footprint calculation on the Mexican food equivalent system trough the carbon intensity indicator, which is determined by the grams of emissions equivalents of carbon dioxide (CO2 in relation with the energetic contribution of each food equivalent. Conclusion: in a conclusion manner, estimating food carbon footprint is still a challenge, mean while the calculation models proposal is important to estimate the production of GHG trough a more sustainable food system.

  2. Baseline ecological footprint of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, Amy K.; Mizner, Jack Harry,; Ubechel, Norion M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint Model is a mechanism for measuring the environmental effects of operations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). This analysis quantifies environmental impact associated with energy use, transportation, waste, land use, and water consumption at SNL/NM for fiscal year 2005 (FY05). Since SNL/NMs total ecological footprint (96,434 gha) is greater than the waste absorption capacity of its landholdings (338 gha), it created an ecological deficit of 96,096 gha. This deficit is equal to 886,470lha, or about 3,423 square miles of Pinyon-Juniper woodlands and desert grassland. 89% of the ecological footprint can be attributed to energy use, indicating that in order to mitigate environmental impact, efforts should be focused on energy efficiency, energy reduction, and the incorporation of additional renewable energy alternatives at SNL/NM.

  3. Protein footprinting by pyrite shrink-wrap laminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Micheal; Pegan, Jonathan; El Makkaoui, Mohammed; Schlatterer, Joerg C; Khine, Michelle; Law, Matt; Brenowitz, Michael

    2015-04-07

    The structure of macromolecules and their complexes dictate their biological function. In "footprinting", the solvent accessibility of the residues that constitute proteins, DNA and RNA can be determined from their reactivity to an exogenous reagent such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH). While ·OH generation for protein footprinting is achieved by radiolysis, photolysis and electrochemistry, we present a simpler solution. A thin film of pyrite (cubic FeS2) nanocrystals deposited onto a shape memory polymer (commodity shrink-wrap film) generates sufficient ·OH via Fenton chemistry for oxidative footprinting analysis of proteins. We demonstrate that varying either time or H2O2 concentration yields the required ·OH dose-oxidation response relationship. A simple and scalable sample handling protocol is enabled by thermoforming the "pyrite shrink-wrap laminate" into a standard microtiter plate format. The low cost and malleability of the laminate facilitates its integration into high throughput screening and microfluidic devices.

  4. Beyond Safe Operating Space: Finding Chemical Footprinting Feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Leo; Bjørn, Anders; Zijp, Michiel C.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental overshoot occurs when human demands exceed the biosphere’s regenerative capacities. Earth Overshoot Day (EOD) marks the day that humanity’s footprint exhausts the Earth’s annual regenerative capacity. The EOD of 2013, on August 20th, was memorable for the f irst author as it fell...... undefined boundary in their selection of planetary boundaries delineating the “safe operating space for humanity”. Can we use the well-known concept of “ecological footprints” to express a chemical pollution boundary aimed at preventing the overshoot of the Earth’s capacity to assimilate environmental...... of chemical footprinting that is feasible, relevant, and necessary for expressing the overshoot of the Earth’s capacity. With widespread “chemical overshoot” leading to adverse effects of pollution, we argue for implementing a solution-focused assessment paradigm: Chemical footprinting helps identify...

  5. Surveying the Environmental Footprint of Urban Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Fernandez, John

    2017-01-01

    Assessments of urban metabolism (UM) are well situated to identify the scale, components, and direction of urban and energy flows in cities and have been instrumental in benchmarking and monitoring the key levers of urban environmental pressure, such as transport, space conditioning......, and electricity. Hitherto, urban food consumption has garnered scant attention both in UM accounting (typically lumped with “biomass”) and on the urban policy agenda, despite its relevance to local and global environmental pressures. With future growth expected in urban population and wealth, an accounting...... of the environmental footprint from urban food demand (“foodprint”) is necessary. This article reviews 43 UM assessments including 100 cities, and a total of 132 foodprints in terms of mass, carbon footprint, and ecological footprint and situates it relative to other significant environmental drivers (transport...

  6. Human footprints on greenhouse gas fluxes in cryogenic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, D. V.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Zamolodchikov, D. G.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zazovskaya, E. P.; Shishkov, V. A.; Kraev, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Various human footprints on the flux of biogenic greenhouse gases from permafrost-affected soils in Arctic and boreal domains in Russia are considered. Tendencies of significant growth or suppression of soil CO2 fluxes change across types of human impact. Overall, the human impacts increase the mean value and variance of local soil CO2 flux. Human footprint on methane exchange between soil and atmosphere is mediated by drainage. However, all the types of human impact suppress the sources and increase sinks of methane to the land ecosystems. N2O flux grew under the considered types of human impact. Based on the results, we suggest that human footprint on soil greenhouse gases fluxes is comparable to the effect of climate change at an annual to decadal timescales.

  7. IKEA's International Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Harapiak, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    This case concerns a global retailing firm that is dealing with strategic management and marketing issues. Applying a scenario of international expansion, this case provides a thorough analysis of the current business environment for IKEA. Utilizing a variety of methods (e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, McKinsey Matrix) the overall objective is to provide students with the opportunity to apply their research skills and knowledge regarding a highly competitive industry to develop strategic marketing strateg...

  8. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Martha; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Arroja, Luís; Dias, Ana Cláudia

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Building Footprints, Building footprints, building dimensions, and building data to coincide with Lyon County Appraiser's Office data. This data is NOT complete., Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia / Lyon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Building Footprints dataset current as of 2010. Building footprints, building dimensions, and building data to coincide with Lyon County Appraiser's Office data....

  10. Metaheuristics for a tectonic development of hospital design footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    The present paper presents a model for footprint generation of hospital design based on functionalities. The model takes point of departure in layout generation for hospitals by use of a metaheuristic approach. The hospital functionalities with respective constraints lead a decomposition of the h......The present paper presents a model for footprint generation of hospital design based on functionalities. The model takes point of departure in layout generation for hospitals by use of a metaheuristic approach. The hospital functionalities with respective constraints lead a decomposition...

  11. Nanoplasmonic molecular ruler for nuclease activity and DNA footprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fanqing Frank; Liu, Gang L; Lee, Luke P

    2013-10-29

    This invention provides a nanoplasmonic molecular ruler, which can perform label-free and real-time monitoring of nucleic acid (e.g., DNA) length changes and perform nucleic acid footprinting. In various embodiments the ruler comprises a nucleic acid attached to a nanoparticle, such that changes in the nucleic acid length are detectable using surface plasmon resonance. The nanoplasmonic ruler provides a fast and convenient platform for mapping nucleic acid-protein interactions, for nuclease activity monitoring, and for other footprinting related methods.

  12. DNase I footprinting of small molecule binding sites on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Christian; Kluza, Jérôme; Martin, Christopher; Ellis, Thomas; Waring, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Nuclease footprinting techniques were initially developed to investigate protein-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) interactions but these tools of molecular biology have also become instrumental for probing sequence-selective binding of small molecules to DNA. Here, the method is described and technical details are given for performing deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I footprinting with DNA-binding drugs. An example is presented where DNase I is used (as well as DNase II and micrococcal nuclease) to probe the patterns of sequence-selective recognition of DNA by the anticancer antibiotic actinomycin D. DNase I is a convenient endonuclease for detecting and locating the position of actinomycin-binding sites within GC-rich sequences.

  13. Analysis of different methods to evaluate the footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lara Diéguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Static methods are a useful tool to analize the footprint, more simple and less expensive tran the dynamic methos to study the structure of the foot. Dynamic methods are often used to stydy foot´s funcionality. Through static methods we can provide a solution, among other problems like foot injuries, which could impact on future lower limb problems, or even to prescribe orthotics, etc. The aim of this study is to perform an analysis criteria for these methos of static analysis of the footprint. To conclude, static methos give more advanteges over the dynamics, however they could provide specific information

  14. Measuring your water footprint: What's next in water strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footprint, is still under the radar. It’s time to take note: In a landscape where the demand for water is fast outstripping supply, focusing on water neutrality is a key corporate strategy in managing wa...

  15. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demertzi, Martha, E-mail: marthademertzi@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Paulo, Joana Amaral, E-mail: joanaap@isa.ulisboa.pt [Center of Forest Studies (CEF), Superior Institute of Agronomy (ISA), Tapada da Ajuda, University of Lisbon, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Arroja, Luís, E-mail: arroja@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Dias, Ana Cláudia, E-mail: acdias@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved. - Highlights: • A carbon footprint simulation model (CCFM) for

  16. Consumer Footprint. Basket of Products indicator on Food

    OpenAIRE

    CASTELLANI VALENTINA; FUSI ALESSANDRA; SALA SERENELLA

    2017-01-01

    The EU Consumer Footprint aims at assessing the potential environmental impacts due to consumption. The calculation of the Consumer footprint is based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of representative products (or services) purchased and used in one year by an EU citizen. This report is about the subset indicator of the basket of product (BoP) on food. The BoP food is built to assess the impact associated to food consumption in Europe from raw material extraction to end of life. The re...

  17. Character expansion of matrix integrals

    OpenAIRE

    van de Leur, J. W.; Orlov, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We consider character expansion of tau functions and multiple integrals in characters of orhtogonal and symplectic groups. In particular we consider character expansions of integrals over orthogonal and over symplectic matrices.

  18. Comparing Institution Nitrogen Footprints: Metrics for Assessing and Tracking Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    When multiple institutions with strong sustainability initiatives use a new environmental impact assessment tool, there is an impulse to compare. The first seven institutions to calculate their nitrogen footprints using the nitrogen footprint tool have worked collaboratively to i...

  19. Chemical Footprint Method for Improved Communication of Freshwater Ecotoxicity Impacts in the Context of Ecological Limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Diamond, Miriam; Birkved, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The ecological footprint method has been successful in communicating environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities in the context of ecological limits. We introduce a chemical footprint method that expresses ecotoxicity impacts from anthropogenic chemical emissions as the dilution needed to a...

  20. Manufacturing footprint optimisation: a necessity for manufacturing network in changing business environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    Facing the unpredictable financial crisis, optimising the footprint can be the biggest and most important transformation a manufacturer can undertake. In order to realise the optimisation, fundamental understanding on manufacturing footprint is required. Different elements of manufacturing footpr...

  1. The external water footprint of the Netherlands: Quantification and impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    van Oel, P.R.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    This study quantifies the external water footprint of the Netherlands by partner country and import product and assesses the impact of this footprint by contrasting the geographically explicit water footprint with water scarcity in the different parts of the world. Hotspots are identified as the places where the external water footprint of Dutch consumers is significant on the one hand and where water scarcity is serious on the other hand. The study shows that Dutch consumption implies the us...

  2. Mapping the Expansion of Boom Crops in Mainland Southeast Asia Using Dense Time Stacks of Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Hurni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed a multi-date composite change detection technique using a dense-time stack of Landsat data to map land-use and land-cover change (LCLUC in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA with a focus on the expansion of boom crops, primarily tree crops. The supervised classification was performed using Support Vector Machines (SVM, which are supervised non-parametric statistical learning techniques. To select the most suitable SMV classifier and the related parameter settings, we used the training data and performed a two-dimensional grid search with a three-fold internal cross-validation. We worked in seven Landsat footprints and found the linear kernel to be the most suitable for all footprints, but the most suitable regularization parameter C varied across the footprints. We distinguished a total of 41 LCLUCs (13 to 31 classes per footprint in very dynamic and heterogeneous landscapes. The approach proved useful for distinguishing subtle changes over time and to map a variety of land covers, tree crops, and transformations as long as sufficient training points could be collected for each class. While to date, this approach has only been applied to mapping urban extent and expansion, this study shows that it is also useful for mapping change in rural settings, especially when images from phenologically relevant acquisition dates are included.

  3. Post No Photos, Leave No Trace: Children's Digital Footprint Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Rachel; Southgate, Erica; Smith, Shamus P.; Murray, Tiana; Noble, Brittany

    2017-01-01

    Given that today's children are prolific users of the internet, concern has been raised about the future impact of the digital footprints they are currently generating. Here, we report on the "Best Footprint Forward" project which utilised focus groups to investigate the digital footprint awareness of 33 children (ranging in age from 10…

  4. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a

  5. Dynamic footprint measurement collection technique and intrarater reliability: ink mat, paper pedography, and electronic pedography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fascione, Jeanna M; Crews, Ryan T; Wrobel, James S

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the variability of footprint measurement collection techniques and the reliability of footprint measurements would assist with appropriate clinical foot posture appraisal. We sought to identify relationships between these measures in a healthy population. On 30 healthy participants, midgait dynamic footprint measurements were collected using an ink mat, paper pedography, and electronic pedography. The footprints were then digitized, and the following footprint indices were calculated with photo digital planimetry software: footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak Index, and Staheli Index. Differences between techniques were identified with repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc test of Scheffe. In addition, to assess practical similarities between the different methods, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. To assess intrarater reliability, footprint indices were calculated twice on 10 randomly selected ink mat footprint measurements, and the ICC was calculated. Dynamic footprint measurements collected with an ink mat significantly differed from those collected with paper pedography (ICC, 0.85-0.96) and electronic pedography (ICC, 0.29-0.79), regardless of the practical similarities noted with ICC values (P = .00). Intrarater reliability for dynamic ink mat footprint measurements was high for the footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak Index, and Staheli Index (ICC, 0.74-0.99). Footprint measurements collected with various techniques demonstrate differences. Interchangeable use of exact values without adjustment is not advised. Intrarater reliability of a single method (ink mat) was found to be high.

  6. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of

  7. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computers and the Environment: Minimizing the Carbon Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Computers can be good and bad for the environment; one can maximize the good and minimize the bad. When dealing with environmental issues, it's difficult to ignore the computing infrastructure. With an operations carbon footprint equal to the airline industry's, computer energy use is only part of the problem; everyone is also dealing with the use…

  9. Water footprint of growing vegetables in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. Water footprint of ... 2Soil Science Programme, Agricultural Research Council-Institute of Soil Climate and Water, Private Bag X79 Pretoria 0001, South Africa. ABSTRACT .... and irrigation requirements based on soil, climate and crop data, was ...

  10. First perissodactyl footprints from Flysch deposits of the Barail Group ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two pes imprints of a perissodactyl mammal constituting a single step of a trackway have recently been discovered in Oligocene Flysch deposits of the Barail Group in Manipur, India. The tridactyl, mesaxonic imprints (∼7 cm in length) show strong similarities to footprints known from the Paleogene of China and can be ...

  11. Water footprint assessment to inform water management and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One method to inform decisions with respect to sustainable, efficient and equitable water allocation and use is water footprint assessment (WFA). This paper presents a preliminary WFA of South Africa (SA) based on data for the period 1996–2005. Crop production was found to contribute about 75% of the total water ...

  12. Reliability of a two-dimensional footprint measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reel, Sarah; Rouse, Simon; Vernon, Wesley; Doherty, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Although footprint evidence can be taken from the scene of a crime, the science underpinning such measurement in forensic science has not been fully explored. A literature search revealed various measuring approaches, all of which demonstrated either little or no measurement rigour in terms of reliability. The aim of this study was to apply a robust measurement approach for testing the reliability of two-dimensional footprint impressions. Three dynamic and three static footprints were taken from the right foot of thirty female and thirty one male volunteers using the 'Inkless Shoeprint Kit'. The images were digitised. Lengths, widths and angles were measured using a selection of currently employed methods. An investigation of the reliability of the chosen measuring method suggested high intra-rater agreement: for example, the length measurement suggested an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.99, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.28 to 0.01, standard error of measurement (SEM) 0.07, Limits of Agreement (LOA) -0.91 to 0.65. Inter-rater reliability between three operators was also high: SEM ranged from 0.05 mm to 0.07 mm, ICC 0.99. Our study has established a reliable two-dimensional measuring technique that could be used for footprint comparison in further research. Copyright © 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The water footprint: a tool for governments, companies and investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    The water footprint of Europe – the total volume of water used for producing all commodities consumed by European citizens – has been significantly externalised to other parts of the world. Europe is for example a large importer of cotton, one of the most thirsty crops. Coffee is imported from

  14. ZY3-02 Laser Altimeter Footprint Geolocation Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junfeng; Tang, Xinming; Mo, Fan; Li, Guoyuan; Zhu, Guangbin; Wang, Zhenming; Fu, Xingke; Gao, Xiaoming; Dou, Xianhui

    2017-09-21

    Successfully launched on 30 May 2016, ZY3-02 is the first Chinese surveying and mapping satellite equipped with a lightweight laser altimeter. Calibration is necessary before the laser altimeter becomes operational. Laser footprint location prediction is the first step in calibration that is based on ground infrared detectors, and it is difficult because the sample frequency of the ZY3-02 laser altimeter is 2 Hz, and the distance between two adjacent laser footprints is about 3.5 km. In this paper, we build an on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model referenced to the rigorous geometric model of optical remote sensing satellites. The model includes three kinds of data that must be predicted: pointing angle, orbit parameters, and attitude angles. The proposed method is verified by a ZY3-02 laser altimeter on-orbit geometric calibration test. Five laser footprint prediction experiments are conducted based on the model, and the laser footprint prediction accuracy is better than 150 m on the ground. The effectiveness and accuracy of the on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model are confirmed by the test results. The geolocation is predicted precisely by the proposed method, and this will give a reference to the geolocation prediction of future land laser detectors in other laser altimeter calibration test.

  15. Carbon footprint of urban source separation for nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Spångberg, J; Davidsson, Å

    2017-07-15

    Source separation systems for the management of domestic wastewater and food waste has been suggested as more sustainable sanitation systems for urban areas. The present study used an attributional life cycle assessment to investigate the carbon footprint and potential for nutrient recovery of two sanitation systems for a hypothetical urban area in Southern Sweden. The systems represented a typical Swedish conventional system and a possible source separation system with increased nutrient recovery. The assessment included the management chain from household collection, transport, treatment and final return of nutrients to agriculture or disposal of the residuals. The results for carbon footprint and nutrient recovery (phosphorus and nitrogen) concluded that the source separation system could increase nutrient recovery (0.30-0.38 kg P capita(-1) year(-1) and 3.10-3.28 kg N capita(-1) year(-1)), while decreasing the carbon footprint (-24 to -58 kg CO2-eq. capita(-1) year(-1)), compared to the conventional system. The nutrient recovery was increased by the use of struvite precipitation and ammonium stripping at the wastewater treatment plant. The carbon footprint decreased, mainly due to the increased biogas production, increased replacement of mineral fertilizer in agriculture and less emissions of nitrous oxide from wastewater treatment. In conclusion, the study showed that source separation systems could potentially be used to increase nutrient recovery from urban areas, while decreasing the climate impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  17. New reagent for protein-DNA contacts footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, O A; Oleinikova, S B; Chernolovskaya, E L; Litvak, V V; Vlassov, V V

    2003-01-01

    We have found, that the reaction of o-bromobenzoic acid with Cu2+ ions can be used as a source of activated oxygen species capable of cleaving DNA. Possibility to apply this reaction for footprinting the nucleosome core in the reconstituted chromatin was demonstrated.

  18. Protein-DNA footprinting by endcapped duplex oligodeoxyribonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pei-Sze; Bergstrom, Donald E

    2004-07-19

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (5'-phosphorylated) of varying lengths were capped using a polyamide linker to form thermodynamically stable, endcapped DNA duplexes containing 8-14 bp. We have employed these endcapped DNA duplexes as tools to determine the DNA footprint of T4 DNA ligase. By high-performance liquid chromatography and PAGE analysis of the ligation mixtures of the endcapped DNA duplexes, we have found that by varying the lengths and the position of the nick, we can determine the minimal DNA-binding site as well as the mode of binding (symmetrical or asymmetrical binding) by the enzyme. The results of the study revealed that a 11 bp endcapped duplex was the shortest duplex effectively ligated. Dependence of ligation efficiency on nick position demonstrates that T4 DNA ligase bound asymmetrically to its DNA substrate. The use of a set of thermodynamically stable endcapped deoxyribonucleoside duplexes as a tool to elucidate the DNA footprint provides an efficient strategy for footprinting, which avoids ambiguities associated with chemical and biochemical footprinting methods.

  19. Genome-wide footprinting: ready for prime time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Myong-Hee; Baek, Songjoon; Hager, Gordon L

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed many gene locus-level molecular biology assays to become genome-wide profiling methods. DNA-cleaving enzymes such as DNase I have been used to probe accessible chromatin. The accessible regions contain functional regulatory sites, including promoters, insulators and enhancers. Deep sequencing of DNase-seq libraries and computational analysis of the cut profiles have been used to infer protein occupancy in the genome at the nucleotide level, a method introduced as 'digital genomic footprinting'. The approach has been proposed as an attractive alternative to the analysis of transcription factors (TFs) by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), and in theory it should overcome antibody issues, poor resolution and batch effects. Recent reports point to limitations of the DNase-based genomic footprinting approach and call into question the scope of detectable protein occupancy, especially for TFs with short-lived chromatin binding. The genomics community is grappling with issues concerning the utility of genomic footprinting and is reassessing the proposed approaches in terms of robust deliverables. Here we summarize the consensus as well as different views emerging from recent reports, and we describe the remaining issues and hurdles for genomic footprinting.

  20. Visualising DNA: footprinting and 1-2D gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Adam R; Waring, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    The study of molecular recognition of DNA by natural and synthetic ligands has made enormous progress due in large part to the discovery and development of methods for separating DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis in one and two dimensions, and for characterizing DNA-ligand complexes by footprinting techniques.

  1. Application of the water footprinting method and water accounting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    43 No. 4 October 2017. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. 723. Council of Australia (MCA) Water Accounting Framework. (WAF) and Hoekstra's Water Footprinting (WF) methods were used. The aim of the WAF is to obtain a deeper under- standing of water usage in the mining industry and allow sites.

  2. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrescu, A.J.; Lohila, A.; Tuovinen, J.P.; Baldocchi, D.D.; Desai, A.R.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Schrier-Uijl, A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant climate risks are associated with a positive carbon–temperature feedback in northern latitude carbon-rich ecosystems, making an accurate analysis of human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands a priority. Here, we provide a coherent assessment of the climate footprint of

  3. ZY3-02 Laser Altimeter Footprint Geolocation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Successfully launched on 30 May 2016, ZY3-02 is the first Chinese surveying and mapping satellite equipped with a lightweight laser altimeter. Calibration is necessary before the laser altimeter becomes operational. Laser footprint location prediction is the first step in calibration that is based on ground infrared detectors, and it is difficult because the sample frequency of the ZY3-02 laser altimeter is 2 Hz, and the distance between two adjacent laser footprints is about 3.5 km. In this paper, we build an on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model referenced to the rigorous geometric model of optical remote sensing satellites. The model includes three kinds of data that must be predicted: pointing angle, orbit parameters, and attitude angles. The proposed method is verified by a ZY3-02 laser altimeter on-orbit geometric calibration test. Five laser footprint prediction experiments are conducted based on the model, and the laser footprint prediction accuracy is better than 150 m on the ground. The effectiveness and accuracy of the on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model are confirmed by the test results. The geolocation is predicted precisely by the proposed method, and this will give a reference to the geolocation prediction of future land laser detectors in other laser altimeter calibration test.

  4. galstreams: Milky Way streams footprint library and toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Cecilia

    2017-11-01

    galstreams provides a compilation of spatial information for known stellar streams and overdensities in the Milky Way and includes Python tools for visualizing them. ASCII tables are also provided for quick viewing of the stream's footprints using TOPCAT (ascl:1101.010).

  5. Measuring your water footprint: What's next in water strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water

  6. Environmental footprints : assessing anthropogenic effects on the planet's environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this thesis are to conduct a comprehensive investigation into the theoretical and methodological aspects of environmental footprints and into the disciplinary relationship with the latest science in defining planetary boundaries for human activities. Main conclusions are as follows: (1)

  7. Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R; Possingham, Hugh P; Laurance, William F; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M; Levy, Marc A; Watson, James E M

    2016-08-23

    Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquired or developed for: 1) built environments, 2) population density, 3) electric infrastructure, 4) crop lands, 5) pasture lands, 6) roads, 7) railways, and 8) navigable waterways. Pressures were then overlaid to create the standardized Human Footprint maps for all non-Antarctic land areas. A validation analysis using scored pressures from 3114×1 km(2) random sample plots revealed strong agreement with the Human Footprint maps. We anticipate that the Human Footprint maps will find a range of uses as proxies for human disturbance of natural systems. The updated maps should provide an increased understanding of the human pressures that drive macro-ecological patterns, as well as for tracking environmental change and informing conservation science and application.

  8. A Simplified Ecological Footprint At A Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    We calculated an Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) at a regional scale. EFA captures the human impact on the environmental system by identifying the amount of biologically productive land necessary to support a person’s level of consumption and waste generation. EFA is a comm...

  9. Calculating CO2 footprint of the organic greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the horticultural sector has been confronted with questions about the carbon footprint of its products. However, the global standards used to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have some gaps that do not address the sector specific issues for horticulture, such as crop

  10. The water footprint of the EU for different diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the EU28 (EU27 and Croatia) water footprint of consumption (WFcons) for different diets is analysed: the current diet (REF, period 1996–2005), a healthy diet (DGE), a vegetarian (VEG) and combined (COM) diet. By far the largest fraction of the total WFcons (4815 lcd) relates to the

  11. Water footprint of growing vegetables in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop water footprint (WF) is the volume of fresh water used to produce a certain crop in all the steps in the production line. The CROPWAT model was used to calculate crop evapotranspiration, differentiating green and blue water in Zanyokwe (ZIS), Thabina (TIS) and Tugela Ferry (TFIS) Irrigation Schemes. Green beans ...

  12. Definition and applications of a versatile chemical pollution footprint methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; van de Meent, Dik

    2014-09-16

    Because of the great variety in behavior and modes of action of chemicals, impact assessment of multiple substances is complex, as is the communication of its results. Given calls for cumulative impact assessments, we developed a methodology that is aimed at expressing the expected cumulative impacts of mixtures of chemicals on aquatic ecosystems for a region and subsequently allows to present these results as a chemical pollution footprint, in short: a chemical footprint. Setting and using a boundary for chemical pollution is part of the methodology. Two case studies were executed to test and illustrate the methodology. The first case illustrates that the production and use of organic substances in Europe, judged with the European water volume, stays within the currently set policy boundaries for chemical pollution. The second case shows that the use of pesticides in Northwestern Europe, judged with the regional water volume, has exceeded the set boundaries, while showing a declining trend over time. The impact of mixtures of substances in the environment could be expressed as a chemical footprint, and the relative contribution of substances to that footprint could be evaluated. These features are a novel type of information to support risk management, by helping prioritization of management among chemicals and environmental compartments.

  13. Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and embodied energy of construction materials: A comparative analysis of three South African Bus ... This article investigates the role that architecture can play in mitigating climate change by comparing the environmental impact of construction material use in two ...

  14. Impeding Sustainability? The Ecological Footprint of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that universities must strive to reduce the ecological footprints of both their own operations and, more importantly, of the growth-oriented materialistic worldview they promote. Suggests that the real challenge for higher education is to help articulate an alternative life-sustaining worldview. (EV)

  15. The carbon footprint and embodied energy of construction material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4.4 Material choices. Low-carbon footprint and embodied energy-intensive materials have been identified and selected through an iterative simulation process. The design proposes minimal use of precast concrete and steel, while extensively using recycled materials such as aggregate and composite timber and resin slats.

  16. Water footprint benchmarks for crop production: A first global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    In the coming few decades, global freshwater demand will increase to meet the growing demand for food, fibre and biofuel crops. Raising water productivity in agriculture, that is reducing the water footprint (WF) per unit of production, will contribute to reducing the pressure on the limited global

  17. Burning water: The water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims to replace 10 percent of total transport fuels by biofuels by 2020. This study calculates the water footprint (WF) of different transport modes using bio-ethanol, biodiesel or

  18. Promoting global population health while constraining the environmental footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J; Butler, C D

    2011-01-01

    Populations today face increasing health risks from human-induced regional and global environmental changes and resultant ecological nonsustainability. Localized environmental degradation that has long accompanied population growth, industrialization, and rising consumerism has now acquired a global and often systemic dimension (e.g., climate change, disrupted nitrogen cycling, biodiversity loss). Thus, the economic intensification and technological advances that previously contributed to health gains have now expanded such that humanity's environmental (and ecological) footprint jeopardizes global population health. International data show, in general, a positive correlation of a population's health with level of affluence and size of per-person footprint. Yet, beyond a modest threshold, larger footprints afford negligible health gain and may impair health (e.g., via the rise of obesity). Furthermore, some lower-income countries have attained high levels of health. Many changes now needed to promote ecological (and social) sustainability will benefit local health. Continued improvement of global health could thus coexist with an equitably shared global environmental footprint.

  19. Water Footprint Assessment : Evolvement of a New Research Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolvement of water footprint assessment (WFA) as a new research field over the past fifteen years. The research is rooted in four basic thoughts: (1) there is a global dimension to water management because water-intensive commodities are internationally traded, so we must

  20. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R.; de Oliveira, Sonaly D.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Neto, Jose Dantas; Campos, João Hugo B.C.; Braga, Celia C.; Araújo, Lincoln Eloi; Oliveira Aleixo, Danilo; de Brito, Jose Ivaldo B.; de Souza, Marcio Dionisio; de Holanda, Romildo M.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international

  1. Visualisation of interaction footprints for enagement in online communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2009). Visualisation of interaction footprints for engagement in online communities [Special issue]. In M. Kalz, R. Koper & V. Hornung-Prähauser (Eds.), Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(3), 44-57.

  2. Carbon footprint of construction using industrialised building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P. Y.; Yahya, K.; Aminudin, E.; Zakaria, R.; Haron, Z.; Mohamad Zin, R.; Redzuan, A. A. H.

    2017-11-01

    Industrialised Building System (IBS) is more sustainable to the environment as compared to the conventional construction methods. However, the construction industry in Malaysia has low acceptance towards IBS due to the resistance to change and also lack of awareness towards sustainability development. Therefore, it is important to study the amount carbon footprint produced by IBS during its manufacturing and construction stage, and also the amount of carbon footprint produced by one meter square of gross floor area of IBS construction using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to ease future research through the comparison of the carbon footprint of IBS with the conventional building system. As a result, a case study on a residential type of construction in the vicinity of Johor Bahru, Malaysia was carried out to obtain the necessary data and result. From the data analysis, the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for a residential type IBS construction based on the raw materials and resources involved to manufacture and construct IBS components is 0.127 tonnes fossil CO2Eq per meter square. Raw material that contributed to the most amount of carbon footprint is Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), followed by steel bars, autoclaved aerated blocks and diesel. The LCA data acquired will be very useful in implementing IBS in the residential type construction. As a result, the awareness towards sustainable construction using IBS can be improved.

  3. [Provincial ecological footprint of China in the year of 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Rusong; Zhang, Lijun; Huai, Baoguang

    2006-03-01

    Based on the calculation of actual yield per unit area in 2002, this paper analyzed the ecological footprint and its composition of each province in China. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the ecological footprint and its composition among different provinces, e. g., cropland changed from 0. 078 hm2 x cap(-1) in Shaanxi to 0.126 hm2 x cap(-1) in Beijing, grazing land changed from 0.020 hm2 x cap(-1) in Jiangxi to 0.372 hm2 x cap(-1) in Xizang, forestland changed from 0.020 hm2 x cap(-1) in Guizhou to 0.209 hm2 x cap(-1) in Beijing, fishery area changed from 0.001 hm2 x cap(-1) in Xizang to 0.011 hm2 x cap(-1) in Shanghai, built-up area changed from 0.013 hm2 x cap(-1) in Guizhou to 0.045 hm2 x cap(-1) in Neimenggu, and fossil energy changed from 0.251 hm2 x cap(-1) in Guangxi to 2.854 hm2 x cap(-1) in Shanxi. The eastern and southern provinces were mostly in a state of ecological deficit, while the western and northern provinces were mostly in a state of ecological remainder. As for the relationships among ecological footprint, economic development and technological progress, great difference existed in different provinces, e. g. , the ecological footprint was about 1 hm2 x cap(-1) in Fujian, Henan, Sichuan, Anhui, Yunnan, Shaanxi and Guizhou, while the GDP per capita changed from 1.35 x 10(4) yuan in Fujian to 0.3 x 10(4) yuan in Guizhou, and the ecological footprint per 1 x 10(4) yuan GDP changed from 0.74 hm2 in Fujian to 3.51 hm2 in Guizhou. Therefore, to resolve the conflicts between the shortage of natural resources and the economic development of China, emphasis should be put on the provinces with big ecological footprint per capita, low GDP per capita, and high ecological footprint per 1 x 10(4) yuan GDP. In these provinces, economic growth mode and industrial structure should be changed, dependence of economy on natural resources should be decreased, use efficiency and economic output of natural resources should be improved

  4. Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Carlos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogeographic distribution of human mitochondrial DNA variations allows a genetic approach to the study of modern Homo sapiens dispersals throughout the world from a female perspective. As a new contribution to this study we have phylogenetically analysed complete mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA sequences from 42 human lineages, representing major clades with known geographic assignation. Results We show the relative relationships among the 42 lineages and present more accurate temporal calibrations than have been previously possible to give new perspectives as how modern humans spread in the Old World. Conclusions The first detectable expansion occurred around 59,000–69,000 years ago from Africa, independently colonizing western Asia and India and, following this southern route, swiftly reaching east Asia. Within Africa, this expansion did not replace but mixed with older lineages detectable today only in Africa. Around 39,000–52,000 years ago, the western Asian branch spread radially, bringing Caucasians to North Africa and Europe, also reaching India, and expanding to north and east Asia. More recent migrations have entangled but not completely erased these primitive footprints of modern human expansions.

  5. Consequential Implications of Municipal Energy System on City Carbon Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Laine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation is an important goal for cities globally. Energy production contributes more than half of the global greenhouse gas emissions, and thus the mitigation potential of local municipal energy systems is important for cities to recognize. The purpose of the study is to analyze the role of local municipal energy systems in the consumption-based carbon footprint of a city resident. The research supplements the previous carbon footprint assessments of city residents with an energy system implication analysis. The study includes 20 of the largest cities in Finland. The main findings of the study are as follows: first, the municipal combined heat and power energy system contributes surprisingly little (on average 18% to the direct carbon footprint of city residents, supporting some previous findings about a high degree of outsourcing of emissions in cities in developed countries. Second, when indirect emissions (i.e., the implication of a municipal energy system on the national energy system are allocated to city residents, the significance of the local energy system increases substantially to 32%. Finally, without the benefits of local combined heat and power technology based electricity consumption, the carbon footprints would have increased by an additional 13% to 47% due to the emissions from compensatory electricity production. The results also show that the direct application of consumption-based carbon assessment would imply a relatively low significance for municipal energy solutions. However, with a broader understanding of energy system dynamics, the significance of municipal energy increases substantially. The results emphasize the importance of the consequential energy system implications, which is typically left out of the evaluations of consumption-based carbon footprints.

  6. The human footprint in Mexico: physical geography and historical legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo; Kolb, Melanie; Bezaury Creel, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic transformation of the land surface. We developed a map of the human footprint for the whole country and identified the ecological regions that have most transformed by human action. Additionally, we analyzed the extent to which (a) physical geography, expressed spatially in the form of biomes and ecoregions, compared to (b) historical geography, expressed as the spatial distribution of past human settlements, have driven the patterns of human modification of the land. Overall Mexico still has 56% of its land surface with low impact from human activities, but these areas are not evenly distributed. The lowest values are on the arid north and northwest, and the tropical southeast, while the highest values run along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and from there inland along an east-to-west corridor that follows the Mexican transversal volcanic ranges and the associated upland plateau. The distribution of low- and high footprint areas within ecoregions forms a complex mosaic: the generally well-conserved Mexican deserts have some highly transformed agro-industrial areas, while many well-conserved, low footprint areas still persist in the highly-transformed ecoregions of central Mexico. We conclude that the spatial spread of the human footprint in Mexico is both the result of the limitations imposed by physical geography to human development at the biome level, and, within different biomes, of a complex history of past civilizations and technologies, including the 20th Century demographic explosion but also the spatial pattern of ancient settlements that were occupied by the Spanish Colony.

  7. Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F P; van Beek, Ludovicus P H

    2012-08-09

    Groundwater is a life-sustaining resource that supplies water to billions of people, plays a central part in irrigated agriculture and influences the health of many ecosystems. Most assessments of global water resources have focused on surface water, but unsustainable depletion of groundwater has recently been documented on both regional and global scales. It remains unclear how the rate of global groundwater depletion compares to the rate of natural renewal and the supply needed to support ecosystems. Here we define the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services) and show that humans are overexploiting groundwater in many large aquifers that are critical to agriculture, especially in Asia and North America. We estimate that the size of the global groundwater footprint is currently about 3.5 times the actual area of aquifers and that about 1.7 billion people live in areas where groundwater resources and/or groundwater-dependent ecosystems are under threat. That said, 80 per cent of aquifers have a groundwater footprint that is less than their area, meaning that the net global value is driven by a few heavily overexploited aquifers. The groundwater footprint is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the use, renewal and ecosystem requirements of groundwater at an aquifer scale. It can be combined with the water footprint and virtual water calculations, and be used to assess the potential for increasing agricultural yields with renewable groundwaterref. The method could be modified to evaluate other resources with renewal rates that are slow and spatially heterogeneous, such as fisheries, forestry or soil.

  8. Reducing Students' Carbon Footprints Using Personal Carbon Footprint Management System Based on Environmental Behavioural Theory and Persuasive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-ming

    2016-01-01

    This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…

  9. Water footprint assessment of oil palm in Malaysia: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad-Muaz, A.; Marlia, M. H.

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the water footprint of growing oil palm in Malaysia based on the water footprint method. The crop water use was determined using the CROPWAT 8.0 model developed by the Land and Water Development Division of FAO. The total water footprint for growing oil palm is 243 m3/ton. The result of this study showed that the green water footprint is 1.5 orders of magnitude larger compared to the blue water footprint. Besides providing updated status of total water used from the oil palm plantation, our result also shows that this baseline information helps in identifying which areas need to be conserved and what type of recommendation that should be drawn. As the results of the water footprint can differ between locations, the inclusion of local water stress index should be considered in the calculation of water footprint.

  10. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E; Gardi, Einan; Grunberg, Georges

    2001-01-01

    The large-order behaviour of QCD is dominated by renormalons. On the other hand renormalons do not occur in conformal theories, such as the one describing the infrared fixed-point of QCD at small beta_0 (the Banks--Zaks limit). Since the fixed-point has a perturbative realization, all-order perturbative relations exist between the conformal coefficients, which are renormalon-free, and the standard perturbative coefficients, which contain renormalons. Therefore, an explicit cancellation of renormalons should occur in these relations. The absence of renormalons in the conformal limit can thus be seen as a constraint on the structure of the QCD perturbative expansion. We show that the conformal constraint is non-trivial: a generic model for the large-order behaviour violates it. We also analyse a specific example, based on a renormalon-type integral over the two-loop running-coupling, where the required cancellation does occur.

  11. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  12. An urban metabolism and ecological footprint assessment of Metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennie; Kissinger, Meidad; Rees, William E

    2013-07-30

    As the world urbanizes, the role of cities in determining sustainability outcomes grows in importance. Cities are the dominant form of human habitat, and most of the world's resources are either directly or indirectly consumed in cities. Sustainable city analysis and management requires understanding the demands a city places on a wider geographical area and its ecological resource base. We present a detailed, integrated urban metabolism of residential consumption and ecological footprint analysis of the Vancouver metropolitan region for the year 2006. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the application of a bottom-up ecological footprint analysis using an urban metabolism framework at a metropolitan, regional scale. Our specific objectives are: a) to quantify energy and material consumption using locally generated data and b) to relate these data to global ecological carrying capacity. Although water is the largest material flow through Metro Vancouver (424,860,000 m(3)), it has the smallest ecological footprint (23,100 gha). Food (2,636,850 tonnes) contributes the largest component to the ecological footprint (4,514,400 gha) which includes crop and grazing land as well as carbon sinks required to sequester emissions from food production and distribution. Transportation fuels (3,339,000 m(3)) associated with motor vehicle operation and passenger air travel comprises the second largest material flow through the region and the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (7,577,000 tonnes). Transportation also accounts for the second largest component of the EF (2,323,200 gha). Buildings account for the largest electricity flow (17,515,150 MWh) and constitute the third largest component of the EF (1,779,240 gha). Consumables (2,400,000 tonnes) comprise the fourth largest component of the EF (1,414,440 gha). Metro Vancouver's total Ecological Footprint in 2006 was 10,071,670 gha, an area approximately 36 times larger than the region itself. The EFA reveals that

  13. Permissible limit for mandibular expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Shirai, Sawa; Yano, Shinya; Nakanishi, Kotoe; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, mandibular expansion has been increasingly performed in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Lateral tipping of the molars associated with mandibular expansion should, however, be considered, because excessive expansion may result in excessive buccal tooth inclination, which may disturb the occlusal relationship. This study was conducted to quantitatively clarify molar movement during mandibular expansion using the Schwarz appliance to determine the permissible limit of mandibular expansion as a clinical index for inclination movement. Inclinations in the masticatory surface of the first molar and intermolar width were measured before expansion (T1), after expansion (T2), and before edgewise treatment (T3). Lower plaster models from 29 subjects treated with expansion plates were used and compared with models from 11 control subjects with normal occlusion. The average treatment change (T1-T2) in intermolar width was 5.42 mm (standard deviation 1.98), and the average angle of buccal tooth inclination was 10.16 degrees (standard deviation 3.83). No significant correlation was found between age prior to treatment and the treatment period when they were compared with the intermolar width increments and inclination angles. There was a significant positive correlation between retention duration and the amount of expansion. The regression coefficient of the angle of buccal tooth inclination during expansion to the increment of the intermolar width was approximately 0.2. This means that 1 mm of expansion is accompanied by 5 degrees of molar lateral tipping. This coefficient is clinically useful for estimating the permissible limit for mandibular expansion.

  14. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  15. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....... conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production...

  16. Ganymede and Europa and their Jovian polar footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejkora, N.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.

    2017-09-01

    The interactions between the Galilean moons Europa and Ganymede and the Jovian magnetosphere are studied. The focus lies on the satellites' auroral footprints observable in the polar regions of Jupiter. The work encompasses case studies of UV observations, obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), showing auroral features potentially triggered by either Europa or Ganymede. For those situations the footprint lead angles are determined, using different magnetic field models. The aim is to estimate the relationship between satellite longitude and lead angle. The delay between the local interaction at the satellite and the resulting auroral emission, which is implied by the obtained lead angles, is compared to the travel time of an Alfvén wave along a magnetic field line from the satellite to the planet.

  17. Ethylation interference footprinting of DNA-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, Iain W; Stockley, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Structural studies of DNA-protein complexes reveal networks of contacts between proteins and the phosphates, sugars and bases of DNA. A range of biochemical methods, termed chemical footprinting, aim to determine the functional groups on DNA which are protected in solution by bound protein against modification or where chemical pre-modification interferes with subsequent protein binding. One of these approaches, termed ethylation interference footprinting, reveals which backbone phosphate groups are contacted by protein and the positions where the DNA-protein interface is so tight that the modification cannot be accommodated. This chapter describes the steps necessary to perform an ethylation interference experiment, including modification of DNA using ethylnitrosourea, fractionation of the products based on their affinities for a DNA-binding protein and analysis of the "bound" and "free" fractions to reveal sites critical for complex formation. This is illustrated using results from our experiments with the Escherichia coli methionine repressor, MetJ.

  18. Fool's Gold Footprinting: microfluidic probing of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher D.; Schlatterer, Joerg C.; Brenowitz, Michael; Pollack, Lois

    2012-02-01

    We describe a microfluidic device containing a mineral matrix capable of rapidly generating hydroxyl radicals that enables high-resolution structural studies of nucleic acids. Hydroxyl radicals cleave the solvent accessible backbone of DNA and RNA; the cleavage products can be detected with as fine as single nucleotide resolution. Protection from hydroxyl radical cleavage (footprinting) can identify sites of protein binding or the presence of tertiary structure. Here we report preparation of micron sized particles of iron sulfide (pyrite) and fabrication of a microfluidic prototype that together generate enough hydroxyl radicals within 20 ms to cleave DNA sufficiently for a footprinting analysis to be conducted. This prototype enables the development of high-throughput and/or rapid reaction devices with which to probe nucleic acid folding dynamics and ligand binding.

  19. Geochronology: age of Mexican ash with alleged 'footprints'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, Paul R; Feinberg, Joshua M; Waters, Michael R; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Ochoa-Castillo, Patricia; Perez-Campa, Mario; Knight, Kim B

    2005-12-01

    A report of human footprints preserved in 40,000-year-old volcanic ash near Puebla, Mexico (http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/exhibit.asp?id=3616&tip=1), was the subject of a press conference that stirred international media attention. If the claims (http://www.mexicanfootprints.co.uk) of Gonzalez et al. are valid, prevailing theories about the timing of human migration into the Americas would need significant revision. Here we show by 40Ar/39Ar dating and corroborating palaeomagnetic data that the basaltic tuff on which the purported footprints are found is 1.30+/-0.03 million years old. We conclude that either hominid migration into the Americas occurred very much earlier than previously believed, or that the features in question were not made by humans on recently erupted ash.

  20. Limitations of Carbon Footprint as Indicator of Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    show that some environmental impacts, notably those related to emissions of toxic substances, often do not covary with climate change impacts. In such situations, carbon footprint is a poor representative of the environmental burden of products, and environmental management focused exclusively on CFP......Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate...... change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model...

  1. Collecting a citizen's digital footprint for health data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Oguzhan; Simila, Heidi; Honko, Harri; Isomursu, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a case study for collecting digital footprint data for the purpose of health data mining. The case study involved 20 subjects residing in Finland who were instructed to collect data from registries which they evaluated to be useful for understanding their health or health behaviour, current or past. 11 subjects were active, sending 100 data requests to 49 distinct organizations in total. Our results indicate that there are still practical challenges in collecting actionable digital footprint data. Our subjects received a total of 75 replies (reply rate of 75.0%) and 61 datasets (reception rate of 61%). Out of the received data, 44 datasets (72.1%) were delivered in paper format, 4 (6.6%) in portable document format and 13 (21.3%) in structured digital form. The time duration between the sending of the information requests and reception of a reply was 26.4 days on the average.

  2. Ecological footprint in of dwelling construction in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Larralde, Lucía; González-Vallejo, Patricia; Marrero Meléndez, Madelyn; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar (Coordinador)

    2015-01-01

    In present day, Mexico has a very important urban development. In a near future buildings will become more important than what they are now. There will be more demand of urban land as it becomes scarcer, and also as the environmental impacts intensify. Currently, Mexico does not have a national certification program for sustainability of buildings of any kind. The present work evaluates impacts associated with construction using the Ecological Footprint indicator, by means of a...

  3. The footprint of urban heat island effect in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decheng Zhou; Shuqing Zhao; Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/ rural temperature “cliff”, and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (...

  4. The water footprint: a tool for governments, companies and investors

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    The water footprint of Europe – the total volume of water used for producing all commodities consumed by European citizens – has been significantly externalised to other parts of the world. Europe is for example a large importer of cotton, one of the most thirsty crops. Coffee is imported from Colombia, soybean from Brazil, rice from Thailand, etcetera. European consumption strongly relies on the water resources available outside Europe. Since the pressure on freshwater resources outside Euro...

  5. Genomic footprinting in mammalian cells with ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M.M.; Wang, Z.; Grossmann, G.; Becherer, K.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1989-07-01

    A simple and accurate genomic primer extension method has been developed to detect ultraviolet footprinting patterns of regulatory protein-DNA interactions in mammalian genomic DNA. The technique can also detect footprinting or sequencing patterns introduced into genomic DNA by other methods. Purified genomic DNA, containing either damaged bases or strand breaks introduced by footprinting or sequencing reactions, is first cut with a convenient restriction enzyme to reduce its molecular weight. A highly radioactive single-stranded DNA primer that is complementary to a region of genomic DNA whose sequence or footprint one wishes to examine is then mixed with 50 micrograms of restriction enzyme-cut genomic DNA. The primer is approximately 100 bases long and contains 85 radioactive phosphates, each of specific activity 3000 Ci/mmol (1 Ci = 37 GBq). A simple and fast method for preparing such primers is described. Following brief heat denaturation at 100 degrees C, the solution of genomic DNA and primer is cooled to 74 degrees C and a second solution containing Taq polymerase (Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase) and the four deoxynucleotide triphosphates is added to initiate primer extension of genomic DNA. Taq polymerase extends genomic hybridized primer until its polymerization reaction is terminated either by a damaged base or strand break in genomic DNA or by the addition of dideoxynucleotide triphosphates in the polymerization reaction. The concurrent primer hybridization-extension reaction is terminated after 5 hr and unhybridized primer is digested away by mung bean nuclease. Primer-extended genomic DNA is then denatured and electrophoresed on a polyacrylamide sequencing gel, and radioactive primer extension products are revealed by autoradiography.

  6. Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W.; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R.; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Laurance, William F.; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M.; Levy, Marc A.; Watson, James E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquired or developed for: 1) built environments, 2) population density, 3) electric infrastructure, 4) crop lands, 5) pasture lands, 6) roads, 7) railwa...

  7. Modeling carbon footprint of the Chilean apple production

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Villalobos, Pablo; Yañez, Pablo; Huenchuleo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Purpose: The main objective of this study is to evaluate, using a life–cycle approach, the carbon footprint of the intensive apple orchard system in Chile. Additional objective is to identify the factors that contributed significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions of this agricultural system. Methods: The method used in this study is according to the ISO 14040 framework and the main recommendations in the Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 2050. The system bounda...

  8. Geographic Information Technologies for analysing the digital footprint of tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Toni; Sitjar, Josep; Olivella, Rosa; Vicens, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Ponencias, comunicaciones y pósters presentados en el 17th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science "Connecting a Digital Europe through Location and Place", celebrado en la Universitat Jaume I del 3 al 6 de junio de 2014. As part of a study on the use of the city by visitors, this paper discusses the technical solution adopted in order to analyse and exploit the geo-digital footprint generated by the said visitors using GPS devices.

  9. Integrating ecological, carbon and water footprint into a "footprint family" of indicators: Definition and role in tracking human pressure on the planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, A.; Wiedmann, T.O.; Ercin, Ertug; Knoblauch, D.; Ewing, B.R.; Giljum, S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to develop an integrated Footprint approach for the assessment of the environmental impacts of production and consumption. In this paper, we provide for the first time a definition of the “Footprint Family” as a suite of indicators to track human pressure on

  10. Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: A response to Hoekstra (2016) “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water footprinting has emerged as an important approach to assess water use related effects from consumption of goods and services. Assessment methods are proposed by two different communities, the Water Footprint Network (WFN) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community. The p...

  11. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.

  12. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  13. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo R. da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual water trade focused on virtual water importers or water-scarce countries, this is the first study to concentrate on a water-abundant virtual water-exporting country. Besides, it is the first study establishing international virtual water trade balances per state, which is relevant given the fact that water scarcity varies across states within the country, so the origin of virtual water exports matters. The results show that the average water footprint of Brazilian food consumption is 1619 m3/person/year. Beef contributes most (21% to this total. We find a net virtual water export of 54.8 billion m3/year, mainly to Europe, which imports 41% of the gross amount of the virtual water exported from Brazil. The northeast, the region with the highest water scarcity, has a net import of virtual water. The southeast, next in terms of water scarcity, shows large virtual water exports, mainly related to the export of sugar. The north, which has the most water, does not show a high virtual water export rate.

  14. The first Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian dinosaur footprints from Transylvania (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Vremir

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Uppermost Cretaceous (Maastrichtian site exposing dinosaur footprints is reported from the Sebes̡ area (Transylvanian Depression. This is the first dinoturbated layer discovered in our country, containing also numerous bones belonging to various dinosaurs. The track-site is located near Lancrăm village and provides only two quite well preserved footprints (one track. The medium sized (FL = 23,3 cm; FW = 17,8 cm; pace = 103 cm; ST = 200 cm plantigrad-tridactyle footprints belong to Ornithopedoidei, according to their morphology. An assignment to the Iguanodontichnus CASAMIQUELA & FASOLA, 1968 group seems to be appropriate (tentatively, associated to the “Rhabdodon” iguanodontian dinosaur. The importance of this discovery lies in the stratigraphical significance, confirming the Uppermost Cretaceous age of these dinosaur-bearing continental deposits exposed between Sebes̡ and Alba-Iulia (as well as the autochthon/ paraautochon status of some vertebrate assemblages identified there, which previously were considered Oligocene or even Miocene. Additional data regarding size, speed and locomotion of the Transylvanian Iguanodontian ”Rhabdodon” dinosaurs are added.

  15. Biodiversity Loss and the Ecological Footprint of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Lazarus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human pressure on ecosystems is among the major drivers of biodiversity loss. As biodiversity plays a key role in supporting the human enterprise, its decline puts the well-being of human societies at risk. Halting biodiversity loss is therefore a key policy priority, as reflected in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets under strategic goal A. The Ecological Footprint has become a widely used metric for natural capital and ecosystem accounting, and is frequently cited in the sustainability debate, where it is often used for tracking human-induced pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity. Given its potential role as an indirect metric for biodiversity-related policies, this paper breaks down the Ecological Footprint into its components and analyzes resource and ecosystem service flows at an international level. We discuss its usefulness in tracking the underlying drivers of habitat impacts and biodiversity loss. We find that: China is a major net importer of all biomass biocapacity components; the largest net exporters of forest biocapacity are not low-income countries; a very high proportion of the Ecological Footprint of fishing grounds is traded internationally; Singapore and at least three Middle East countries are almost wholly reliant on net imports for the cropland biocapacity they consume.

  16. Estimating Green Water Footprints in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hess

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The “green” water footprint (GWF of a product is often considered less important than the “blue” water footprint (BWF as “green” water generally has a low, or even negligible, opportunity cost. However, when considering food, fibre and tree products, is not only a useful indicator of the total appropriation of a natural resource, but from a methodological perspective, blue water footprints are frequently estimated as the residual after green water is subtracted from total crop water use. In most published studies, green water use (ETgreen has been estimated from the FAO CROPWAT model using the USDA method for effective rainfall. In this study, four methods for the estimation of the ETgreen of pasture were compared. Two were based on effective rainfall estimated from monthly rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, and two were based on a simulated water balance using long-term daily, or average monthly, weather data from 11 stations in England. The results show that the effective rainfall methods significantly underestimate the annual ETgreen in all cases, as they do not adequately account for the depletion of stored soil water during the summer. A simplified model, based on annual rainfall and reference evapotranspiration (ETo has been tested and used to map the average annual ETgreen of pasture in England.

  17. Using carbon footprint to evaluate environmental issues of food transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczny P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international trade of food commodities is still growing and food products are transported sometimes for a long distance using  various modes. Food transportation issues should be discussed  not only in respect to quality and safety concerns but also from environmental point of view.  Numerous approaches are  proposed to study impacts of food transportation along typical food chain on environment. Carbon footprint based on seems to be an interesting indicator for such analysis.  Material and methods: The analysis carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in paper and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites.    Results and conclusions:  The greenhouse gas emissions associated food transport along whole food supply chain. Carbon footprint  can be used to study various environmental impacts on each chain stage including primary production, food processing, fuel and energy consumption in food distribution, retail issues and product use  by consumer during household consumption. Adding these together all of the greenhouse gas emissions gives the total carbon footprint for a product useful to affect consumer nutritional behaviors.  

  18. Sustainability of the city and its ecological footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Jasna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some agreed sustainability indicators, even some agreed target values regarding a sustainable city, but they still have to be underpinned by empirical evidence. The common starting point of definitions is generally the destructive impact of the city on its regional and global environment which can be observed in form of the depletion of natural resources and the pollution of soil, water and air. A sustainable city is therefore generally regarded to be the one that is compact and preserves land, has mixed use to increase access and reduce need to travel, is socially and economically balanced, uses clean and renewable energy and recycles all its waste. However, the sustainable city cannot exist as a self-sufficient unit, in ignorance of relationship with its hinterland. The ecological footprint which is the amount of land required to produce resources to sustain our quality of life is a yardstick for measuring the ecological bottom line of sustainability. With a sustainable city target to relieve pressure on the countryside, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of calculating city’s ecological footprint and see how it relates to the target global average. Although problem of reducing ecological footprints primarily concerns the wealthiest countries, it has to be fully acknowledged in the less economically developed part of the world, while recognising that cities themselves provide many potential solutions.

  19. Building footprint extraction from digital surface models using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, Ksenia; Cui, Shiyong; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional building footprints are a basis for many applications: from cartography to three-dimensional building models generation. Although, many methodologies have been proposed for building footprint extraction, this topic remains an open research area. Neural networks are able to model the complex relationships between the multivariate input vector and the target vector. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology using neural networks and Markov Random Fields (MRF) for automatic building footprint extraction from normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM) and satellite images within urban areas. The proposed approach has mainly two steps. In the first step, the unary terms are learned for the MRF energy function by a four-layer neural network. The neural network is learned on a large set of patches consisting of both nDSM and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Then prediction is performed to calculate the unary terms that are used in the MRF. In the second step, the energy function is minimized using a maxflow algorithm, which leads to a binary building mask. The building extraction results are compared with available ground truth. The comparison illustrates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm which can extract approximately 80% of buildings from nDSM with high accuracy.

  20. Embedded Volttron specification - benchmarking small footprint compute device for Volttron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodworth, Ken [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuruganti, Teja [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-17

    An embedded system is a small footprint computing unit that typically serves a specific purpose closely associated with measurements and control of hardware devices. These units are designed for reasonable durability and operations in a wide range of operating conditions. Some embedded systems support real-time operations and can demonstrate high levels of reliability. Many have failsafe mechanisms built to handle graceful shutdown of the device in exception conditions. The available memory, processing power, and network connectivity of these devices are limited due to the nature of their specific-purpose design and intended application. Industry practice is to carefully design the software for the available hardware capability to suit desired deployment needs. Volttron is an open source agent development and deployment platform designed to enable researchers to interact with devices and appliances without having to write drivers themselves. Hosting Volttron on small footprint embeddable devices enables its demonstration for embedded use. This report details the steps required and the experience in setting up and running Volttron applications on three small footprint devices: the Intel Next Unit of Computing (NUC), the Raspberry Pi 2, and the BeagleBone Black. In addition, the report also details preliminary investigation of the execution performance of Volttron on these devices.

  1. Dependence of national consumption on unsustainable blue water footprints: A global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The water footprint of consumers in a country is generally partly in other countries. For example, 10% of the water footprint of Chinese consumers is outside China; in the US this is 20%, and in the UK even 75%. National consumption thus always depends, partly, on water resources outside the national territory. Earlier research has resulted in global water footprint maps for all countries in the world, showing for each country where in the world water resources are being consumed and polluted in relation to consumption within the country considered. Recent research shows at a high spatial and temporal resolution level in which catchments in the world, the blue water footprint exceeds the maximum sustainable blue water footprint. The current study overlays the global water footprint maps per country with the global map showing locations of unsustainable water use in order to estimate, per country, the dependence of national consumption on unsustainable water footprints. Countries are ranked according to their fraction of their water footprint that is unsustainable and an in-depth analysis of the implications of this dependence is carried out for the top-10 of the list. The in-depth analysis explores which commodities are behind the unsustainable parts of a country's water footprint, where these footprints are located and what options a country has to reduce its dependence on unsustainable water use.

  2. [Ecological footprint calculation and development capacity analysis of China in 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongmin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Guodong; Chen, Dongjing

    2003-02-01

    The ecological footprint method put forward and improved by William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel presents a methodologically simple but integrated framework for national natural capital accounting, which is capable of measuring the impact of Human's consumption on ecosystem. Based on the ecological footprint theory and calculation method, a flow network analysis method was introduced to illuminate the structure of complex ecological economic system, and the relationship among ecological footprint, diversity and development capacity was analyzed. In this paper, the ecological footprints of China and its provinces was calculated and compared with the national and local ecological carrying capacity. The results showed that the ecological footprints of China and most of its provinces were beyond the available ecological capacity, and China and its most provinces run 'national or regional ecological deficit'. In case of China, the national ecological deficit was 0.645 hm2 per cap in 1999. Secondly, we introduced a flow network analysis method, taking various ecological productive area as note, and adopted Ulanowicz's development capacity formula to analyze the relationship among ecological footprint diversity, development capacity and output. The results demonstrated that Ulanowicz's development capacity was a good predictor of economic system output. At the same time, two distinct ways to change development capacity were produced. Increasing ecological footprint or increasing ecological footprint's diversity would both increase development capacity. Due to the fact that the ecological footprints had already been beyond bio-capacities, the only way to increase development capacity was to increase ecological footprint's diversity. The positive relationship between ecological footprint diversity and resources utilization efficiency demonstrated that there was no conflict between increasing ecological footprint's diversity and reducing footprints while not comprising our

  3. Uncovering the Green, Blue, and Grey Water Footprint and Virtual Water of Biofuel Production in Brazil: A Nexus Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Munoz Castillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil plays a major role in the global biofuel economy as the world’s second largest producer and consumer and the largest exporter of ethanol. Its demand is expected to significantly increase in coming years, largely driven by national and international carbon mitigation targets. However, biofuel crops require significant amounts of water and land resources that could otherwise be used for the production of food, urban water supply, or energy generation. Given Brazil’s uneven spatial distribution of water resources among regions, a potential expansion of ethanol production will need to take into account regional or local water availability, as an increased water demand for irrigation would put further pressure on already water-scarce regions and compete with other users. By applying an environmentally extended multiregional input-output (MRIO approach, we uncover the scarce water footprint and the interregional virtual water flows associated with sugarcane-derived biofuel production driven by domestic final consumption and international exports in 27 states in Brazil. Our results show that bio-ethanol is responsible for about one third of the total sugarcane water footprint besides sugar and other processed food production. We found that richer states such as São Paulo benefit by accruing a higher share of economic value added from exporting ethanol as part of global value chains while increasing water stress in poorer states through interregional trade. We also found that, in comparison with other crops, sugarcane has a comparative advantage when rainfed while showing a comparative disadvantage as an irrigated crop; a tradeoff to be considered when planning irrigation infrastructure and bioethanol production expansion.

  4. Convergence of generalized eigenfunction expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Sakata

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a simplified theory of generalized eigenfunction expansions for a commuting family of bounded operators and with finitely many unbounded operators. We also study the convergence of these expansions, giving an abstract type of uniform convergence result, and illustrate the theory by giving two examples: The Fourier transform on Hecke operators, and the Laplacian operators in hyperbolic spaces.

  5. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  6. On the Bantu expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowold, Daine J; Perez-Benedico, David; Stojkovic, Oliver; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2016-11-15

    Here we report the results of fine resolution Y chromosomal analyses (Y-SNP and Y-STR) of 267 Bantu-speaking males from three populations located in the southeast region of Africa. In an effort to determine the relative Y chromosomal affinities of these three genotyped populations, the findings are interpreted in the context of 74 geographically and ethnically targeted African reference populations representing four major ethno-linguistic groups (Afro-Asiatic, Niger Kordofanin, Khoisan and Pygmoid). In this investigation, we detected a general similarity in the Y chromosome lineages among the geographically dispersed Bantu-speaking populations suggesting a shared heritage and the shallow time depth of the Bantu Expansion. Also, micro-variations in the Bantu Y chromosomal composition across the continent highlight location-specific gene flow patterns with non-Bantu-speaking populations (Khoisan, Pygmy, Afro-Asiatic). Our Y chromosomal results also indicate that the three Bantu-speaking Southeast populations genotyped exhibit unique gene flow patterns involving Eurasian populations but fail to reveal a prevailing genetic affinity to East or Central African Bantu-speaking groups. In addition, the Y-SNP data underscores a longitudinal partitioning in sub-Sahara Africa of two R1b1 subgroups, R1b1-P25* (west) and R1b1a2-M269 (east). No evidence was observed linking the B2a haplogroup detected in the genotyped Southeast African Bantu-speaking populations to gene flow from contemporary Khoisan groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Footprinting: a method for determining the sequence selectivity, affinity and kinetics of DNA-binding ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Andrew J; Rusling, David A; Broughton-Head, Victoria J; Fox, Keith R

    2007-06-01

    Footprinting is a simple method for assessing the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding ligands. The method is based on the ability of the ligand to protect DNA from cleavage at its binding site. This review describes the use of DNase I and hydroxyl radicals, the most commonly used footprinting probes, in footprinting experiments. The success of a footprinting experiment depends on using an appropriate DNA substrate and we describe how these can best be chosen or designed. Although footprinting was originally developed for assessing a ligand's sequence selectivity, it can also be employed to estimate the binding strength (quantitative footprinting) and to assess the association and dissociation rate constants for slow binding reactions.

  8. Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideaki; Galloway, James N; Leach, Allison M; Cattaneo, Lia R; Cattell Noll, Laura; Erisman, Jan Willem; Gu, Baojing; Liang, Xia; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ma, Lin; Dalgaard, Tommy; Graversgaard, Morten; Chen, Deli; Nansai, Keisuke; Shindo, Junko; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Oita, Azusa; Su, Ming-Chien; Mishima, Shin-Ichiro; Bleeker, Albert

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) management presents a sustainability dilemma: N is strongly linked to energy and food production, but excess reactive N causes environmental pollution. The N footprint is an indicator that quantifies reactive N losses to the environment from consumption and production of food and the use of energy. The average per capita N footprint (calculated using the N-Calculator methodology) of ten countries varies from 15 to 47 kg N capita-1 year-1. The major cause of the difference is the protein consumption rates and food production N losses. The food sector dominates all countries' N footprints. Global connections via trade significantly affect the N footprint in countries that rely on imported foods and feeds. The authors present N footprint reduction strategies (e.g., improve N use efficiency, increase N recycling, reduce food waste, shift dietary choices) and identify knowledge gaps (e.g., the N footprint from nonfood goods and soil N process).

  9. High resolution hydroxyl radical footprinting of the binding of mithramycin and related antibiotics to DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Cons, B M; Fox, K R

    1989-01-01

    The preferred binding sites for mithramycin on three different DNA fragments have been determined by hydroxyl radical footprinting. Sequences which appear as one long protected region using DNAase I as a footprinting probe are resolved into several discrete binding domains. Each drug molecule protects three bases from radical attack, though adjacent regions show attenuated cleavage. Mithramycin and the other related compounds induce similar footprinting patterns and appear to recognise GC ric...

  10. A 96-well DNase I footprinting screen for drug-DNA interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, T.; Evans, D. A.; Martin, C. R. H.; Hartley, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The established protocol for DNase I footprinting has been modified to allow multiple parallel reactions to be rapidly performed in 96-well microtitre plates. By scrutinizing every aspect of the traditional method and making appropriate modifications it has been possible to considerably reduce the time, risk of sample loss and complexity of footprinting, whilst dramatically increasing the yield of data (30-fold). A semi-automated analysis system has also been developed to present footprinting...

  11. A global assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the world’s freshwater resources. This paper provides a comprehensive account of the water footprint of animal products, considering different production systems and feed composition per animal type and country. Nearly one-third of the total water footprint of agriculture in the world is related to the production of animal products. The water footprint of any animal product is larger than the water footpri...

  12. Ecological footprint as an indicator of sustainability at Lisbon School of Health Technology, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    de Francisco, Sara; Costa, Gonçalo; Manteigas, Vítor

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions, has an active role in the development of a sustainable future and for this reason, it is essential that they became environmentally sustainable institutions, applying methods such as the Ecological Footprint analysis. This study intent is to strengthen the potential of the ecological footprint as an indicator of the sustainability of students of Lisbon School of Health Technology, and identify the relationship between the ecological footprint and the different s...

  13. Dinosaur footprints in the Upper Turonian-Coniacian limestone in the Krnica Bay (NE Istria, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Mauko

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Three isolated footprints and one trackway that can be attributed to bipedal dinosaur, from a limestone bed in vicinity of Požara promontory, Krnica Bay, are described. According to the stratigraphic position the footprints are late Turonian to Coniacian in age.This is the first record of dinosaur remains in the Turonian-Coniacian and the youngest footprint site on the Adriatic-Dinaric Carbonate Platform described thus far.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Negative thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, G. D.; Bruno, J. A. O.; Barron, T. H. K.; Allan, N. L.

    2005-02-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW2O8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials.

  15. Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2006-01-01

    Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal

  16. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  17. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  18. CARVE: L4 Gridded Footprints from WRF-STILT model, 2012-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) Footprint data products for particle receptors...

  19. A low-cost FMCW radar for footprint detection from a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, David; Taylor, Paul; Hunt, Allan

    2015-05-01

    Footprint and human trail detection in rugged all-weather environments is an important and challenging problem for perimeter security, passive surveillance and reconnaissance. To address this challenge a low-cost, wideband, frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operating at 33.4GHz - 35.5GHz is being developed through a Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate Phase I SBIR and has been experimentally demonstrated to be capable of detecting footprints and footprint trails on unimproved roads in an experimental setting. It uses a low-cost digital signal processor (DSP) that makes important operating parameters reconfigurable and allows for frequency sweep linearization, a key technique developed to increase footprint signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper discusses the design, DSP implementation and experimental results of a low-cost FMCW radar for mobile footprint detection. A technique for wideband sweep linearization is detailed along with system performance metrics and experimental results showing receive-SNR from footprint trails in sand and on unimproved dirt roads. Results from a second stepped frequency CW (SFCW) Ka-band system are also shown, verifying the ability of both systems to detect footprints and footprint trails in an experimental setting. The results show that there is sufficient receive-SNR to detect even shallow footprints (~1cm) using a radar based detection system in Ka-band. Field experimental results focus on system proof of concept from a static position with mobile results also presented highlighting necessary improvements to both systems.

  20. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  2. Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....

  3. Estimates of expansion time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. M.

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy.

  4. Metabolic footprinting for investigation of antifungal properties of Lactobacillus paracasei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, Anders Hans; Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Ebrahimi, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    screening have identified compounds as antifungal. Although these are active, the compounds have been found in concentrations that are too low to account for the observed antifungal effect. It has been hypothesized that the formation of metabolites and consumption of nutrients during bacterial fermentations...... footprinting proved to be a supplement to bioassay-guided fractionation for investigation of antifungal properties of bacterial ferments. Additionally, three previously identified and three novel antifungal metabolites from Lb. paracasei and their potential precursors were detected and assigned using...

  5. Water Use and Quality Footprints of Biofuel Crops in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Hendricks, G.; Helsel, Z.; Knowles, J.

    2013-12-01

    The use of biofuel crops for future energy needs will require considerable amounts of water inputs. Favorable growing conditions for large scale biofuel production exist in the sub-tropical environment of South Florida. However, large-scale land use change associated with biofuel crops is likely to affect the quantity and quality of water within the region. South Florida's surface and ground water resources are already stressed by current allocations. Limited data exists to allocate water for growing the energy crops as well as evaluate the accompanying hydrologic and water quality impacts of large-scale land use changes. A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the water supply and quality impacts of three energy crops: sugarcane, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum (with a winter crop). Six lysimeters were used to collect the data needed to quantify crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels in groundwater and discharge (drainage and runoff). Each lysimeter (4.85 x 3.65 x 1.35 m) was equipped to measure water input, output, and storage. The irrigation, runoff, and drainage volumes were measured using flow meters. Groundwater samples were collected bi-weekly and drainage/runoff sampling was event based; samples were analyzed for nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) species. Data collected over the three years revealed that the average annual ETc was highest for sugarcane (1464 mm) followed by switchgrass and sweet sorghum. Sweet sorghum had the highest total N (TN) concentration (7.6 mg/L) in groundwater and TN load (36 kg/ha) in discharge. However, sweet sorghum had the lowest total P (TP) concentration (1.2 mg/L) in groundwater and TP load (9 kg/ha) in discharge. Water use footprint for ethanol (liter of water used per liter of ethanol produced) was lowest for sugarcane and highest for switchgrass. Switchgrass had the highest P-load footprint for ethanol. No differences were observed for the TN load footprint for ethanol. This is the

  6. Ribosome Footprint Profiling of Translation throughout the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingolia, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a technique for measuring translation comprehensively and quantitatively by deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments. By identifying the precise positions of ribosomes, footprinting experiments have unveiled key insights into the composition and regulation of the expressed proteome, including delineating potentially functional micropeptides, revealing pervasive translation on cytosolic RNAs, and identifying differences in elongation rates driven by codon usage or other factors. This Primer looks at important experimental and analytical concerns for executing ribosome profiling experiments and surveys recent examples where the approach was developed to explore protein biogenesis and homeostasis. PMID:27015305

  7. In vitro footprinting of promoter regions within supercoiled plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daekyu

    2010-01-01

    Polypurine/polypyrimidine (pPu/pPy) tracts, which exist in the promoter regions of many growth-related genes, have been proposed to be very dynamic in their conformation. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for DNase I and S1 nuclease footprinting experiments with supercoiled plasmid DNA containing the promoter regions to probe whether there are conformational transitions to B-type DNA, melted DNA, and G-quadruplex structures within this tract. This is demonstrated with the proximal promoter region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, which also contains multiple binding sites for Sp1 and Egr-1 transcription factors.

  8. IMPLICATIONS OF ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT VALUES FOR SELECTED EU MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Saveanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the state of the environment for 24 EU member states, using the concept of ecological footprint. Findings suggest that 20 of the 24 analysed states are pushing their environment past its yearly regenerative limits. Of these, 10 have surpassed this value by at least two-fold. A few outliers have gone well beyond even this mark. Four member states have yet to reach the regenerative limit of their lands, and could thusly be viewed as faring better, in terms of the health of their environment. The mechanism that allows overtly ecologicaly unsustainable countries to thrive is discussed.

  9. Using extant taxa to inform studies of fossil footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Peter; Gatesy, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Attempting to use the fossilized footprints of extinct animals to study their palaeobiology and palaeoecology is notoriously difficult. The inconvenient extinction of the trackmaker makes direct correlation between footprints and foot far from straightforward. However, footprints are the only direct evidence of vertebrate motion recorded in the fossil record, and are potentially a source of data on palaeobiology that cannot be obtained from osteological remains alone. Our interests lie in recovering information about the movements of dinosaurs from their tracks. In particular, the Hitchcock collection of early Jurassic tracks held at the Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst, provide a rare look into the 3D form of tracks at and below the surface the animal walked on. Breaking naturally along laminations into 'track books', the specimens present sediment deformation at multiple levels, and in doing so record more of the foot's motion than a single surface might. In order to utilize this rich information source to study the now extinct trackmakers, the process of track formation must be understood at a fundamental level; the interaction of the moving foot and compliant substrate. We used bi-planar X-ray techniques (X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology) to record the limb and foot motions of a Guineafowl traversing both granular and cohesive substrates. This data was supplemented with photogrammetric records of the resultant track surfaces, as well as the motion of metal beads within the sediment, to provide a full experimental dataset of foot and footprint formation. The physical experimental data was used to generate computer simulations of the process using high performance computing and the Discrete Element Method. The resultant simulations showed excellent congruence with reality, and enabled visualization within the sediment volume, and throughout the track-forming process. This physical and virtual experimental set-up has provided major insight into

  10. Carbon footprints and legitimation strategies: Symbolism or action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrasky, S. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    The term 'carbon footprint' is now firmly entrenched in the common vernacular where it tends to function ideographically, representing a range of concerns about environmental impacts and degradation. Political and consumer concern about the related issues of carbon emissions, climate change and global warming has been heightened by a number of factors. It is often claimed that, along with the US, Australia has one of the heaviest carbon footprints. However, according to KPMG's (2008) survey results only 32 per cent of the Australian companies included in its survey report specifically on their carbon footprints. Nonetheless, KPMG (2007) reports that around 85 per cent of the 500 largest listed Australian companies do report on the related issues of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Motivations for making such disclosures can vary widely but legitimacy theory has been used extensively to explain environmental disclosure decisions in the context of maintaining an implicit social contract between the company and its stakeholders. While, prima facie, increased levels of voluntary disclosures may be a constructive outcome there is the associated risk that, in pursuit of legitimation, such disclosure can actually 'thicken' the corporate veil. This can occur because organizational action to maintain the social contact can be both symbolic and behavioral. That is, the disclosure response might be calculated to create a positive impression of the firm's activities with no associated change in operations (symbolism) or it might convey a message about how operational changes have been effected that are more consistent with societal expectations. This study examines the disclosure strategies of large Australian companies in light of the heightened societal awareness and concern about issues related to carbon footprints. This first aim is to determine whether, consistent with a general need for legitimation, companies are addressing

  11. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  12. Parametric optimization of thermoelectric elements footprint for maximum power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The development studies in thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems are mostly disconnected to parametric optimization of the module components. In this study, optimum footprint ratio of n- and p-type thermoelectric (TE) elements is explored to achieve maximum power generation, maximum cost......-performance, and variation of efficiency in the uni-couple over a wide range of the heat transfer coefficient on the cold junction. The three-dimensional (3D) governing equations of the thermoelectricity and the heat transfer are solved using the finite element method (FEM) for temperature dependent properties of TE...

  13. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-05-01

    This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996-2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid. We have used a grid-based dynamic water balance model to calculate crop water use over time, with a time step of one day. The model takes into account the daily soil water balance and climatic conditions for each grid cell. In addition, the water pollution associated with the use of nitrogen fertilizer in crop production is estimated for each grid cell. The crop evapotranspiration of additional 20 minor crops is calculated with the CROPWAT model. In addition, we have calculated the water footprint of more than two hundred derived crop products, including various flours, beverages, fibres and biofuels. We have used the water footprint assessment framework as in the guideline of the Water Footprint Network. Considering the water footprints of primary crops, we see that the global average water footprint per ton of crop increases from sugar crops (roughly 200 m3 ton-1), vegetables (300 m3 ton-1), roots and tubers (400 m3 ton-1), fruits (1000 m3 ton-1), cereals (1600 m3 ton-1), oil crops (2400 m3 ton-1) to pulses (4000 m3 ton-1). The water footprint varies, however, across different crops per crop category and per production region as well. Besides, if one considers the water footprint per kcal, the picture changes as well. When considered per ton of product, commodities with relatively large water footprints are: coffee, tea, cocoa, tobacco, spices, nuts, rubber and fibres. The analysis of water footprints of different biofuels shows that bio-ethanol has a lower water footprint (in m3 GJ-1) than biodiesel, which supports earlier analyses. The crop used matters significantly as well: the global average water footprint of bio-ethanol based on sugar beet amounts to 51 m3 GJ-1

  14. Preservation and analysis of footprint evidence within the archaeological record: examples from Valsequillo and Cuatrocienegas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M.; Huddart, D.; Gonzalez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Human footprints provide a direct record of human occupation and can be used to make a range of biometric inferences about the individuals which left them. In this paper we describe the application of three-dimensional optical laser scanning in the preservation and analysis both human and animal footprints. Optical laser scanning provides a digital elevation model of a print or surface with a vertical accuracy typically less than + 0.01 mm. Not only does this provide a procedure for recording fragile footprint evidence but allows digital measurements to be made. It is also possible to use the techniques developed for rapid proto-typing to recreate the print as solid models for visualisation. The role of optical laser scanning in the preservation of footprint evidence is explored with specific reference to the controversial footprints of the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico which may provide some of the earliest evidence of human colonization of the Americas. More importantly, digital footprint scans provide a basis for the numerical analysis of footprints allowing the tools of geometric morphometrics to be applied. These tools have been widely developed in the fields of biology and physical anthropology and used to explore the anatomical significance of shape. One key question that can be addressed using this approach is to develop a statistical approach to the objective recognition of a human footprint thereby helping to verify their interpretation and archaeological significance. Using footprint data from sites across the World a statistical model for the recognition of human footprints is presented and used to evaluate the controversial footprint site of Valsequillo, (Puebla State) preserved in volcanic ash and those in the Cuatrocienegas Basin, (Coahuila State) preserved in travertine.

  15. Limitations of carbon footprint as indicator of environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2012-04-03

    Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model and analyze the life cycle impacts from about 4000 different products, technologies, and services taken from several sectors, including energy generation, transportation, material production, infrastructure, and waste management. By investigating the correlations between the CFP and 13 other impact scores, we show that some environmental impacts, notably those related to emissions of toxic substances, often do not covary with climate change impacts. In such situations, carbon footprint is a poor representative of the environmental burden of products, and environmental management focused exclusively on CFP runs the risk of inadvertently shifting the problem to other environmental impacts when products are optimized to become more "green". These findings call for the use of more broadly encompassing tools to assess and manage environmental sustainability.

  16. Carbon nanotube transistors scaled to a 40-nanometer footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Tersoff, Jerry; Farmer, Damon B.; Zhu, Yu; Han, Shu-Jen

    2017-06-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors challenges the device research community to reduce the transistor footprint containing all components to 40 nanometers within the next decade. We report on a p-channel transistor scaled to such an extremely small dimension. Built on one semiconducting carbon nanotube, it occupies less than half the space of leading silicon technologies, while delivering a significantly higher pitch-normalized current density—above 0.9 milliampere per micrometer at a low supply voltage of 0.5 volts with a subthreshold swing of 85 millivolts per decade. Furthermore, we show transistors with the same small footprint built on actual high-density arrays of such nanotubes that deliver higher current than that of the best-competing silicon devices under the same overdrive, without any normalization. We achieve this using low-resistance end-bonded contacts, a high-purity semiconducting carbon nanotube source, and self-assembly to pack nanotubes into full surface-coverage aligned arrays.

  17. Carbon footprint and cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Rengaraj; van Landingham, Suzanne W; Khodifad, Ashish M; Haripriya, Aravind; Thiel, Cassandra L; Ramulu, Pradeep; Robin, Alan L

    2016-01-01

    This article raises awareness about the cost-effectiveness and carbon footprint of various cataract surgery techniques, comparing their relative carbon emissions and expenses: manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS), phacoemulsification, and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. As the most commonly performed surgical procedure worldwide, cataract surgery contributes significantly to global climate change. The carbon footprint of a single phacoemulsification cataract surgery is estimated to be comparable to that of a typical person's life for 1 week. Phacoemulsification has been estimated to be between 1.4 and 4.7 times more expensive than MSICS; however, given the lower degree of postoperative astigmatism and other potential complications, phacoemulsification may still be preferable to MSICS in relatively resource-rich settings requiring high levels of visual function. Limited data are currently available regarding the environmental and financial impact of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery; however, in its current form, it appears to be the least cost-effective option. Cataract surgery has a high value to patients. The relative environmental impact and cost of different types of cataract surgery should be considered as this treatment becomes even more broadly available globally and as new technologies are developed and implemented.

  18. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana; Lohila, Annalea; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Vesala, Timo; Dolman, Albertus Johannes; Oechel, Walter C.; Marcolla, Barbara; Friborg, Thomas; Rinne, Janne; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Merbold, Lutz; Meijide, Ana; Kiely, Gerard; Sottocornola, Matteo; Sachs, Torsten; Zona, Donatella; Varlagin, Andrej; Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Veenendaal, Elmar; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Skiba, Ute; Lund, Magnus; Hensen, Arjan; van Huissteden, Jacobus; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Grünwald, Thomas; Humphreys, Elyn R.; Jackowicz-Korczyński, Marcin; Aurela, Mika A.; Laurila, Tuomas; Grüning, Carsten; Corradi, Chiara A. R.; Schrier-Uijl, Arina P.; Christensen, Torben R.; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Verma, Shashi B.; Bernhofer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Significant climate risks are associated with a positive carbon–temperature feedback in northern latitude carbon-rich ecosystems, making an accurate analysis of human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands a priority. Here, we provide a coherent assessment of the climate footprint of a network of wetland sites based on simultaneous and quasi-continuous ecosystem observations of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Experimental areas are located both in natural and in managed wetlands and cover a wide range of climatic regions, ecosystem types, and management practices. Based on direct observations we predict that sustained CH4 emissions in natural ecosystems are in the long term (i.e., several centuries) typically offset by CO2 uptake, although with large spatiotemporal variability. Using a space-for-time analogy across ecological and climatic gradients, we represent the chronosequence from natural to managed conditions to quantify the “cost” of CH4 emissions for the benefit of net carbon sequestration. With a sustained pulse–response radiative forcing model, we found a significant increase in atmospheric forcing due to land management, in particular for wetland converted to cropland. Our results quantify the role of human activities on the climate footprint of northern wetlands and call for development of active mitigation strategies for managed wetlands and new guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) accounting for both sustained CH4 emissions and cumulative CO2 exchange. PMID:25831506

  19. Footprint traversal by adenosine-triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeler motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Ashok; Mani, Jesrael; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-04-01

    Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes (CREs) are biomolecular motors in eukaryotic cells. These are driven by a chemical fuel, namely, ATP. CREs actively participate in many cellular processes that require accessibility of specific segments of DNA which are packaged as chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin is a nucleosome where 146 bp ˜ 50 nm of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is wrapped around a spool formed by histone proteins. The helical path of histone-DNA contact on a nucleosome is also called “footprint.” We investigate the mechanism of footprint traversal by a CRE that translocates along the dsDNA. Our two-state model of a CRE captures effectively two distinct chemical (or conformational) states in the mechanochemical cycle of each ATP-dependent CRE. We calculate the mean time of traversal. Our predictions on the ATP dependence of the mean traversal time can be tested by carrying out in vitro experiments on mononucleosomes.

  20. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We further developed the existing water footprint methodology, by globally resolving virtual water flows from production to consumption regions for major food crops at 5 arcmin spatial resolution. We distinguished domestic and international flows, and assessed local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2 and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to the water volumes abstracted in these two cities for domestic water use. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However, for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  1. Determining the Metabolic Footprints of Hydrocarbon Degradation Using Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Renee. J.; Jeffries, Thomas C.; Adetutu, Eric M.; Fairweather, Peter G.; Mitchell, James G.

    2013-01-01

    The functional dynamics of microbial communities are largely responsible for the clean-up of hydrocarbons in the environment. However, knowledge of the distinguishing functional genes, known as the metabolic footprint, present in hydrocarbon-impacted sites is still scarcely understood. Here, we conducted several multivariate analyses to characterise the metabolic footprints present in a variety of hydrocarbon-impacted and non-impacted sediments. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) showed a clear distinction between the two groups. A high relative abundance of genes associated with cofactors, virulence, phages and fatty acids were present in the non-impacted sediments, accounting for 45.7 % of the overall dissimilarity. In the hydrocarbon-impacted sites, a high relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy and sporulation, motility, metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell signalling were observed, accounting for 22.3 % of the overall dissimilarity. These results suggest a major shift in functionality has occurred with pathways essential to the degradation of hydrocarbons becoming overrepresented at the expense of other, less essential metabolisms. PMID:24282619

  2. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana; Lohila, Annalea; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Desai, Ankur R; Roulet, Nigel T; Vesala, Timo; Dolman, Albertus Johannes; Oechel, Walter C; Marcolla, Barbara; Friborg, Thomas; Rinne, Janne; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Merbold, Lutz; Meijide, Ana; Kiely, Gerard; Sottocornola, Matteo; Sachs, Torsten; Zona, Donatella; Varlagin, Andrej; Lai, Derrick Y F; Veenendaal, Elmar; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Skiba, Ute; Lund, Magnus; Hensen, Arjan; van Huissteden, Jacobus; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Shurpali, Narasinha J; Grünwald, Thomas; Humphreys, Elyn R; Jackowicz-Korczyński, Marcin; Aurela, Mika A; Laurila, Tuomas; Grüning, Carsten; Corradi, Chiara A R; Schrier-Uijl, Arina P; Christensen, Torben R; Tamstorf, Mikkel P; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Martikainen, Pertti J; Verma, Shashi B; Bernhofer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-04-14

    Significant climate risks are associated with a positive carbon-temperature feedback in northern latitude carbon-rich ecosystems, making an accurate analysis of human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands a priority. Here, we provide a coherent assessment of the climate footprint of a network of wetland sites based on simultaneous and quasi-continuous ecosystem observations of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Experimental areas are located both in natural and in managed wetlands and cover a wide range of climatic regions, ecosystem types, and management practices. Based on direct observations we predict that sustained CH4 emissions in natural ecosystems are in the long term (i.e., several centuries) typically offset by CO2 uptake, although with large spatiotemporal variability. Using a space-for-time analogy across ecological and climatic gradients, we represent the chronosequence from natural to managed conditions to quantify the "cost" of CH4 emissions for the benefit of net carbon sequestration. With a sustained pulse-response radiative forcing model, we found a significant increase in atmospheric forcing due to land management, in particular for wetland converted to cropland. Our results quantify the role of human activities on the climate footprint of northern wetlands and call for development of active mitigation strategies for managed wetlands and new guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) accounting for both sustained CH4 emissions and cumulative CO2 exchange.

  3. The water footprint of Austria for different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the Austrian water footprint of consumption (WF(cons)) for different diets: the current diet, a healthy diet (based upon the dietary recommendations issued by the German nutrition society, or DGE), a vegetarian diet and a combined diet between both latter diets. As in many western countries, the current Austrian diet consists of too many products from the groups sugar, crop oils, meat, animal fats, milk, milk products and eggs and not enough products from the groups cereals, rice, potatoes, vegetables and fruit. Especially the consumption of animal products accounts for high WF amounts. These diets result in a substantial reduction (range 922-1,362 l per capita per day (lcd)) of the WF(cons) for agricultural products, which is currently 3,655 lcd. However, the Austrian water footprint of agricultural production (WF(prod) = 2,066 lcd) still remains lower than even the WF(cons) for a vegetarian diet (2,293 lcd). As a result the country is a net virtual water importer regarding agricultural products for all analysed scenarios.

  4. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2013-02-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We have further developed the existing water footprint methodology by globally resolving virtual water flows and import and source regions at 5 arc minutes spatial resolution, and by assessing local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2% and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to local drinking water abstractions of these cities. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  5. Ecological footprint model using the support vector machine technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haibo; Chang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangbai

    2012-01-01

    The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is one of the most widely recognized measures of environmental sustainability. It aims to quantify the Earth's biological resources required to support human activity. In this paper, we summarize relevant previous literature, and present five factors that influence per capita EF. These factors are: National gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization (independent of economic development), distribution of income (measured by the Gini coefficient), export dependence (measured by the percentage of exports to total GDP), and service intensity (measured by the percentage of service to total GDP). A new ecological footprint model based on a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method based on the structural risk minimization principle from statistical learning theory was conducted to calculate the per capita EF of 24 nations using data from 123 nations. The calculation accuracy was measured by average absolute error and average relative error. They were 0.004883 and 0.351078% respectively. Our results demonstrate that the EF model based on SVM has good calculation performance.

  6. Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

    2010-08-15

    The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING FOOTPRINTS USING SPACEBORNE TOMOSAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahzad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach that automatically (but parametrically reconstructs 2-D/3-D building footprints using 3-D synthetic aperture radar (SAR tomography (TomoSAR point clouds. These point clouds are generated by processing SAR image stacks via SAR tomographic inversion. The proposed approach reconstructs the building outline by exploiting both the roof and façade points. Initial building footprints are derived by applying the alpha shapes method on pre-segmented point clusters of individual buildings. A recursive angular deviation based refinement is then carried out to obtain refined/smoothed 2-D polygonal boundaries. A robust fusion framework then fuses the information pertaining to building façades to the smoothed polygons. Afterwards, a rectilinear building identification procedure is adopted and constraints are added to yield geometrically correct and visually aesthetic building shapes. The proposed approach is illustrated and validated using TomoSAR point clouds generated from a stack of TerraSAR-X high-resolution spotlight images from ascending orbit covering approximately 1.5 km2 area in the city of Berlin, Germany.

  8. Reconstruction of Building Footprints Using Spaceborne Tomosar Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, M.; Zhu, X. X.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an approach that automatically (but parametrically) reconstructs 2-D/3-D building footprints using 3-D synthetic aperture radar (SAR) tomography (TomoSAR) point clouds. These point clouds are generated by processing SAR image stacks via SAR tomographic inversion. The proposed approach reconstructs the building outline by exploiting both the roof and façade points. Initial building footprints are derived by applying the alpha shapes method on pre-segmented point clusters of individual buildings. A recursive angular deviation based refinement is then carried out to obtain refined/smoothed 2-D polygonal boundaries. A robust fusion framework then fuses the information pertaining to building façades to the smoothed polygons. Afterwards, a rectilinear building identification procedure is adopted and constraints are added to yield geometrically correct and visually aesthetic building shapes. The proposed approach is illustrated and validated using TomoSAR point clouds generated from a stack of TerraSAR-X high-resolution spotlight images from ascending orbit covering approximately 1.5 km2 area in the city of Berlin, Germany.

  9. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crops products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996-2005. The assessment is global and improves upon earlier research by taking a highresolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc

  10. Estimation of stature from the width of static footprints-insight into an Indian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Geriani, Disha; Khan, Iman Sajid

    2013-12-01

    Footprints give an estimate of the height of an individual using gender-dependent models derived for different population and ethnic groups. However, estimation of ethnicity, age and gender from a footprint may not always be possible in forensic case work. The present study is done to develop models for stature (height) estimation from the width of footprints in the Indian population that are independent of the age and gender of individuals. The present research was conducted on 100 young adults from different regions of India. Footprints were obtained from both feet using standard techniques. Stature, and metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) Width (distance across the widest part of the forefoot) and calcaneal (Calc) Width (distance across the widest section of the heel) were measured on 200 footprints. Regression models were derived for estimation of stature. A positive correlation is observed between footprint measurements and stature. Regression models derived from the forefoot region give a more accurate estimate of stature than the heel region of the footprint. Multiple linear regression models gave more accurate estimates of stature than the single linear regression models. Regression models derived in the study for Indian population may be valuable in establishing the stature of a footprint in practical scenario when the age and gender are unknown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Future electricity: the challenge of reducing both carbon and water footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat in 2035 for the four energy scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a fifth scenario with a larger percentage of solar energy. Counter-intuitively, the ‘greenest’ IEA scenario (with the smallest carbon footprint)

  12. Kinetic Footprinting of an RNA-Folding Pathway Using Peroxynitrous Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulk; MacMillan

    2000-02-01

    Following footprints to discover a path is easier with peroxynitrous acid. The folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme was studied using this readily available reagent to generate hydroxyl radicals for kinetic footprinting studies. The different domains of the ribozyme appear to assemble at different rates following an ordered, hierarchical pathway (see scheme).

  13. Comparison of the carbon footprint of different patient diets in a Spanish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Rosario; Moliner, Enrique; Pikula, Andrej; Mena-Nieto, Angel; Ortega, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating climate change requires management strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in any sector, including the health system. Carbon footprint calculations should play a key role in quantifying and communicating these emissions. Food is among the categories with low accuracy because the carbon footprint for food is still under development. We aimed to quantify the carbon footprint of different diets. Average carbon footprint for a normal diet was based on detailed composition data in Juan Ramón Jiménez Hospital (Huelva, Spain). In addition, the carbon footprints of 17 other therapeutic diets were estimated using a streamlined variation of each diet published by Benidorm Clinical Hospital (Spain). The carbon footprint was calculated for 18 hospital diets for a variety of patients. The reference menu corresponds to the normal diet provided to patients who do not have special dietary requirements. This menu has a low carbon footprint of 5.083 CO₂ eq/day. Hospital diets contribute to the carbon footprint of a hospital. The type of diet has a significant impact on the greenhouse gas emissions. A Mediterranean diet is associated with lower environmental impact than diets with more meat, in particular red meat. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Barriers to Mitigate Carbon Footprint in a Selected Academic Institution in Bacoor City, Cavite, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanza, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon footprint is an environmental menace that needs to be addressed at once. Various mitigating measures were proposed and yet manifestations of its proliferation are very much observable. This study seeks to determine primarily the barriers of non-adherence to identified measures to mitigate carbon footprint in the environment. Using the mixed…

  15. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from a production and consumption perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    The paper makes a global assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of rice, using a higher spatial resolution and local data on actual irrigation. The national water footprint of rice production and consumption is estimated using international trade and domestic production data. The

  16. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996–2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid.

  17. Extracting structural land cover components using small-footprint waveform LDAR data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGlinchy, J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available (resulting in 1.5m and 4.5 m footprint, respectively), were used to examine scale effects of larger footprints. It was found that composite waveforms resembling plot sizes (9x9) most often are able to describe more than 80% of the woody biomass variability...

  18. The Ecological Footprint: A New Way To Look at Our Impact on the Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Tim

    1995-01-01

    Describes a tool used at an outdoor school to demonstrate human impact on ecology. The ecological footprint is a measure in hectares of the land used by an individual to meet needs and receive waste materials, or of the land required to sustain a city, region or country. The footprint helps students understand the concept of sustainability. (AIM)

  19. A product-process approach for development of the manufacturing footprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Sami; Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of manufacturing footprint from a product-process approach. The paper starts with a brief introduction followed by a literature review aimed at classifying and clarifying the concept of manufacturing footprint from different perspectives. A comprehensive case study...

  20. Water footprint, extended water footprint and virtual water trade of the Cantabria region, Spain. A critical appraisal of results, uncertainties and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Alcaide, Silvia; Martinez-Santos, Pedro; Willaarts, Barbara; Hernández-Moreno, Enrique; Llamas, M. Ramon

    2015-04-01

    Water footprint assessments have gradually gained recognition as valuable tools for water management, to the point that they have been officially incorporated to water planning in countries such as Spain. Adequate combinations of the virtual water and water footprint concepts present the potential to link a broad range of sectors and issues, thus providing appropriate frameworks to support optimal water allocation and to inform production and trade decisions from the water perspective. We present the results of a regional study carried out in Cantabria, a 5300 km2 autonomous region located in northern Spain. Our approach deals with the municipal, shire and regional scales, combining different methods to assess each of the main components of Cantabria's water footprint (agriculture, livestock, forestry, industry, mining, tourism, domestic use and reservoirs), as well as exploring the significance of different approaches, assumptions and databases in the overall outcomes. The classic water footprint method is coupled with extended water footprint analyses in order to provide an estimate of the social and economic value of each sector. Finally, virtual water imports and exports are computed between Cantabria and the rest of Spain and between Cantabria and the world. The outcome of our work (a) highlights the paramount importance of green water (mostly embedded in pastures) in the region's water footprint and virtual water exports; (b) establishes the role of the region as a net virtual water exporter; (c) shows the productivity of water (euro/m3 and jobs/m3) to be highest in tourism and lowest in agriculture and livestock; and (d) demonstrates that statistical databases are seldom compiled with water footprint studies in mind, which is likely to introduce uncertainties in the results. Although our work shows that there is still plenty of room for improvement in regional-scale water footprint assessments, we contend that the available information is sufficient to

  1. Reed's Conjecture on hole expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Fouquet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    In 1998, Reed conjectured that for any graph $G$, $\\chi(G) \\leq \\lceil \\frac{\\omega(G) + \\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil$, where $\\chi(G)$, $\\omega(G)$, and $\\Delta(G)$ respectively denote the chromatic number, the clique number and the maximum degree of $G$. In this paper, we study this conjecture for some {\\em expansions} of graphs, that is graphs obtained with the well known operation {\\em composition} of graphs. We prove that Reed's Conjecture holds for expansions of bipartite graphs, for expansions of odd holes where the minimum chromatic number of the components is even, when some component of the expansion has chromatic number 1 or when a component induces a bipartite graph. Moreover, Reed's Conjecture holds if all components have the same chromatic number, if the components have chromatic number at most 4 and when the odd hole has length 5. Finally, when $G$ is an odd hole expansion, we prove $\\chi(G)\\leq\\lceil\\frac{\\omega(G)+\\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil+1$.

  2. High-resolution genome-wide in vivo footprinting of diverse transcription factors in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Alan P; Song, Lingyun; Lee, Bum-Kyu; London, Darin; Keefe, Damian; Birney, Ewan; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Crawford, Gregory E; Furey, Terrence S

    2011-03-01

    Regulation of gene transcription in diverse cell types is determined largely by varied sets of cis-elements where transcription factors bind. Here we demonstrate that data from a single high-throughput DNase I hypersensitivity assay can delineate hundreds of thousands of base-pair resolution in vivo footprints in human cells that precisely mark individual transcription factor-DNA interactions. These annotations provide a unique resource for the investigation of cis-regulatory elements. We find that footprints for specific transcription factors correlate with ChIP-seq enrichment and can accurately identify functional versus nonfunctional transcription factor motifs. We also find that footprints reveal a unique evolutionary conservation pattern that differentiates functional footprinted bases from surrounding DNA. Finally, detailed analysis of CTCF footprints suggests multiple modes of binding and a novel DNA binding motif upstream of the primary binding site.

  3. DNase footprint signatures are dictated by factor dynamics and DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Myong-Hee; Guertin, Michael J; Baek, Songjoon; Hager, Gordon L

    2014-10-23

    Genomic footprinting has emerged as an unbiased discovery method for transcription factor (TF) occupancy at cognate DNA in vivo. A basic premise of footprinting is that sequence-specific TF-DNA interactions are associated with localized resistance to nucleases, leaving observable signatures of cleavage within accessible chromatin. This phenomenon is interpreted to imply protection of the critical nucleotides by the stably bound protein factor. However, this model conflicts with previous reports of many TFs exchanging with specific binding sites in living cells on a timescale of seconds. We show that TFs with short DNA residence times have no footprints at bound motif elements. Moreover, the nuclease cleavage profile within a footprint originates from the DNA sequence in the factor-binding site, rather than from the protein occupying specific nucleotides. These findings suggest a revised understanding of TF footprinting and reveal limitations in comprehensive reconstruction of the TF regulatory network using this approach.

  4. Beam Footprint Detection and Tracking for Non-cooperative Bistatic SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In non-cooperative bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR, the position of transmitter’s beam footprint should be detected and tracked in real-time to perform beam synchronization. Theoretical analysis shows that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the reflected echoes from the observational scene is too low to apply the conventional detection and tracking method. According to the cross correlation and Doppler frequency information of the backscattering echo, a beam footprint detection and tracking method is proposed in this paper. This method can realize accumulation of signal energy, therefore enormously improve the performance of beam footprint detection and tracking. Meanwhile, vehicle-based bistatic SAR experiment and airborne bistatic SAR experiment are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed beam footprint detection and tracking method. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs well for real-time transmitter beam footprint detection and tracking.

  5. An enigmatic, diminutive theropod footprint in the shallow marine Pliensbachian Hasle Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Surlyk, Finn

    2015-01-01

    A well-preserved three-toed footprint, measuring 34 mm in length from a very small predatory dinosaur with an estimated hip height of 153 mm and a total body length around 50 cm including tail, is reported from the type section of the marine Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian), Hasle Formation...... on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. The morphology of the footprint is similar to the ichnogenus Stenonyx Lull 1904 from the contemporaneous Pliensbachian Szydlowek site in Poland. Apart from the Polish material, footprints from diminutive dinosaurs are rare and reported from few other...... localities around the world. The occurrence of a diminutive dinosaur footprint in a shallow marine sandstone is enigmatic. The well-defined morphology of the footprint, together with the very small size of the trackmaker, excludes the possibility that the track was emplaced by a swimming or wading animal...

  6. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting......Chemical pulp is one of the most important raw materials used in the paper industry. This material is known to make a significant contribution to the water footprint and cost of final paper products; therefore, chemical pulp is crucial in determining the competitiveness of final products'. Several...

  7. Protein Footprinting by Carbenes on a Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bojie; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.

    2016-03-01

    Protein footprinting combined with mass spectrometry provides a method to study protein structures and interactions. To improve further current protein footprinting methods, we adapted the fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) platform to utilize carbenes as the footprinting reagent. A Nd-YAG laser provides 355 nm laser for carbene generation in situ from photoleucine as the carbene precursor in a flow system with calmodulin as the test protein. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is appropriate to analyze the modifications produced in this footprinting. By comparing the modification extent of apo and holo calmodulin on the peptide level, we can resolve different structural domains of the protein. Carbene footprinting in a flow system is promising.

  8. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  9. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  10. Thermal Expansion of Hafnium Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1960-01-01

    Since hafnium carbide (HfC) has a melting point of 7029 deg. F, it may have many high-temperature applications. A literature search uncovered very little information about the properties of HfC, and so a program was initiated at the Lewis Research Center to determine some of the physical properties of this material. This note presents the results of the thermal expansion investigation. The thermal-expansion measurements were made with a Gaertner dilatation interferometer calibrated to an accuracy of +/- 1 deg. F. This device indicates expansion by the movement of fringes produced by the cancellation and reinforcement of fixed wave-length light rays which are reflected from the surfaces of two parallel quartz glass disks. The test specimens which separate these disks are three small cones, each approximately 0.20 in. high.

  11. Repeated expansion in burn sequela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of burn sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in area at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the burned patient is the reconstruction of extensive areas with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars.

  12. Analysis of footprint and its parts for stature estimation in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; ShyamSundar, S; Aparna, K R; Jaiswal, Sankalp

    2012-09-01

    Most often, forensic podiatrists are called upon in crime scene investigations where pedal evidence is encountered at the crime scenes. The main aim of the forensic podiatrist is such case is to contribute towards the establishment of the identity of the suspects on the basis of the evidence. One form of the pedal evidence is footprints that are often recovered at the crime scenes. Estimation of stature from footprints forms a major parameter of personal identification in forensic examinations. The main aim of the present study is to make stature estimation standards based on detailed analysis of length measurements of footprints in Indian population using statistical considerations. A sample of 100 young adults (50 males and 50 females) was included in the study conducted at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. Footprints were obtained from both the feet of each subject. Besides stature, five length measurements i.e. T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were measured on both the footprints of each subject using international standards. Bilateral asymmetry in the measurements on footprints was calculated and tested using paired t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between stature and various footprint length measurements and the stature was estimated using linear and multiple regression analysis. Our study observes a statistically significant sex difference (pstature in both the sexes. Males show relatively higher values of correlation coefficients than females. Bilateral differences (right-left differences) were also observed in some of the footprint length measurements among males and females. Linear and multiple regression models are derived for estimation of stature from various footprint length measurements in males, females and for the pooled sample. The footprints can provide a reliable estimate of stature in forensic investigations. Sex specific regression models give a more accurate estimate of stature

  13. Estimation of Water Footprint Compartments in National Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ababaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water use and pollution have raised to a critical level in many compartments of the world. If humankind is to meet the challenges over the coming fifty years, the agricultural share of water use has to be substantially reduced. In this study, a modern yet simple approach has been proposed through the introduction concept ‘Water Footprint’ (WF. This concept can be used to study the connection between each product and the water allocation to produce that product. This research estimates the green, blue and gray WF of wheat in Iran. Also a new WF compartment (white is used that is related about irrigation water loss. Materials and Methods: The national green (Effective precipitation, blue (Net irrigation requirement, gray (For diluting chemical fertilizers and white (Irrigation water losses water footprints (WF of wheat production were estimated for fifteen major wheat producing provinces of Iran. Evapotranspiration, irrigation requirement, gross irrigation requirement and effective rainfall were got using the AGWAT model. Yields of irrigated and rain-fed lands of each province were got from Iran Agricultural-Jihad Ministry. Another compartment of the wheat production WF is related about the volume of water required to assimilate the fertilizers leached in runoff (gray WF. Moreover, a new concept of white water footprint was proposed here and represents irrigation water losses, which was neglected in the original calculation framework. Finally, the national WF compartments of wheat production were estimated by taking the average of each compartment over all the provinces weighted by the share of each province in total wheat production of the selected provinces. Results and Discussion: In 2006-2012, more than 67% of the national wheat production was irrigated and 32.3% were rain-fed, on average, while 37.9% of the total wheat-cultivated lands were irrigated and 62.1% was rain-fed from more than 6,568 -ha. The total national WF of

  14. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incremental expansions... incremental facilities to be rolled-in to the pipeline's rates. For every expansion that has an at-risk...

  15. From Phoenician Nora to Punic Nora and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Finocchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulla base dei risultati conseguiti dalla missione dell’Università della Tuscia a Nora si esaminano i dati circa le più antiche fasi dell’insediamento fenicio di Nora in Sardegna e le prime forme di organizzazione urbana (fine dell’VIII - seconda metà del VI secolo a.C.. Si illustrano quindi gli aspetti urbanistici legati all’affermazione dell’egemonia cartaginese a Nora (dall’ultimo quarto del VI secolo a.C. e le trasformazioni urbanistiche e topografiche che interessano un settore della città, il “Colle di Tanit”, tra l’età ellenistica e le ultime fasi di vita dell’età repubblicana. Grazie ai dati delle ricognizioni territoriali, si esaminano le modalità della diffusione e dello sfruttamento delle relative risorse tra l’età fenicia e punica prima, quella romana repubblicana e imperiale poi e quella di età bizantina e basso medievale in seguito.

  16. The water footprint of hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Li, Jian; Kondash, Andrew; Coyte, Rachel; Lauer, Nancy; Cui, Huiying; Liao, Fengrong; Vengosh, Avner

    2018-02-23

    Shale gas is likely to play a major role in China's transition away from coal. In addition to technological and infrastructural constraints, the main challenges to China's sustainable shale gas development are sufficient shale gas production, water availability, and adequate wastewater management. Here we present, for the first time, actual data of shale gas production and its water footprint from the Weiyuan gas field, one of the major gas fields in Sichuan Basin. We show that shale gas production rates during the first 12 months (24 million m 3 per well) are similar to gas production rates in U.S. shale basins. The amount of water used for hydraulic fracturing (34,000 m 3 per well) and the volume of flowback and produced (FP) water in the first 12 months (19,800 m 3 per well) in Sichuan Basin are also similar to the current water footprints of hydraulic fracturing in U.S. basins. We present salinity data of the FP water (5000 to 40,000 mgCl/L) in Sichuan Basin and the treatment operations, which include sedimentation, dilution with fresh water, and recycling of the FP water for hydraulic fracturing. We utilize the water use data, empirical decline rates of shale gas and FP water productions in Sichuan Basin to generate two prediction models for water use for hydraulic fracturing and FP water production upon achieving China's goals to generate 100 billion m 3 of shale gas by 2030. The first model utilizes the current water use and FP production data, and the second assumes a yearly 5% intensification of the hydraulic fracturing process. The predicted water use for hydraulic fracturing in 2030 (50-65 million m 3 per year), FP water production (50-55 million m 3 per year), and fresh water dilution of FP water (25 million m 3 per year) constitute a water footprint that is much smaller than current water consumption and wastewater generation for coal mining, but higher than those of conventional gas production in China. Given estimates

  17. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  18. Soil Respiration in Eddy Covariance Footprints using Forced Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, N.; Gabriel, C. E.; Creelman, C.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) has been widely used across the globe for more than 20 years, offering researchers invaluable measurements of parameters including Net Ecosystem Exchange and ecosystem respiration. However, research suggests that EC assumptions and technical obstacles can cause biased gas exchange estimates. Measurements of soil respiration (RS) at the ground level may help alleviate these biases; for example, by allowing researchers to reconcile nocturnal EC flux data with RS or by providing a means to inform gap-filling models. RS measurements have been used sparingly alongside EC towers because of the large cost required to scale chamber systems to the EC footprint and data integration and processing burdens. Here we present the Forced Diffusion (FD) method for the measurement of RS at EC sites. The FD method allows for inexpensive and autonomous measurements, providing a scalable approach to matching the EC footprint compared to other RS systems. A pilot study at the Howland Forest AmeriFlux site was carried out from July 15, 2016 to Dec., 2016 using EC, custom-made automated chambers, and FD chambers in tandem. These results emphasize how RS measurements, like those from the eosFD, can identify decoupling of above and below canopy air masses and assist in informing and parameterizing gap-filling techniques. Uncertainty in nocturnal EC fluxes has been extensively characterized at Howland Forest with EC measurements spanning more than 20 years. Similarly, long term automated measurements of RS are also made at Howland, and have already been used to inform EC gap-filling models, making Howland the ideal site for such a study. This study has been designed to reproduce previous findings from Howland using the FD approach, aiming to demonstrate that the measurements taken using the eosFD correlate well with the existing chamber systems and can be used with equal efficacy to inform gap filling models or for other other eddy covariance QA/QC procedures, including

  19. Introduction of the Water Footprint Theme in Science Education: Perceptions and Perspectives of Changes from the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira da Luz Culpi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of discussions about water consumptions in Science classes highlights the need of contextualization and expansion of the theme, in particular the need to deal with the theme according to more updated approaches due to the current water crisis lived in Brazil and in many other places around the world so that more profound discussions are carried out in the educational context; examples of this are discussions that focus on water footprint. This article refers to a study which main research question was: how does the use of didactic-methodological strategies based on elements of water footprint contribute to students´ understanding of issues related to the use and water preservation considering the current crisis of this natural resource? This qualitative investigation was carried out at a post-graduate level – Master´s degree – with the participation of 35 (thirty-five 6th grade students at a Basic Education school in the city of Curitiba, Paraná state, Brazil. The methodology involved participants and the use of multiple tools for data generation. In order to structure the teaching strategies, before the work in class, a survey was developed about issues related to water, especially students´ perception about the level of water consumption in various contexts (agriculture, industry and by the population in general. The survey supported the design of an investigative questionnaire about how students perceive, relate to and understand aspects related to water resources. In addition to the survey, tools that facilitate the generation of data such as: field diary (similar to memos, participants´ manuscripts and audio recordings were used. From this perspective, content analysis proposed by Laurence Bardin, seemed the appropriate approach for the data analysis, as this method represents a pre-analysis followed by the exploration of the material for later treatment of the data and, finally, the interpretation. The results of

  20. Assessing water scarcity in agricultural production system based on the generalized water resources and water footprint framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinchun, Cao; Mengyang, Wu; Xiangping, Guo; Yalian, Zheng; Yan, Gong; Nan, Wu; Weiguang, Wang

    2017-12-31

    An indicator, agricultural water stress index (AWSI), was established based blue-green water resources and water footprint framework for regional water scarcity in agricultural production industry evaluation. AWSI is defined as the ratio of the total agricultural water footprint (AWF) to water resources availability (AWR) in a single year. Then, the temporal and spatial patterns of AWSI in China during 1999-2014 were analyzed based on the provincial AWR and AWF quantification. The results show that the annual AWR in China has been maintained at approximately 2540Gm3, of which blue water accounted for >70%. The national annual AWF was approximately 1040Gm3 during the study period and comprised 65.6% green, 12.7% blue and 21.7% grey WFs The space difference in both the AWF for per unit arable land (AWFI) and its composition was significant. National AWSI was calculated as 0.413 and showed an increasing trend in the observed period. This index increased from 0.320 (mid-water stress level) in 2000 to 0.490 (high water stress level) in the present due to the expansion of the agricultural production scale. The Northern provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (PAMs) have been facing high water stress, particularly the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, which was at a very high water stress level (AWSI>0.800). Humid South China faces increasingly severe water scarcity, and most of the PAMs in the region have converted from low water stress level (AWSI=0.100-0.200) to mid water stress level (AWSI=0.200-0.400). The AWSI is more appropriate for reflecting the regional water scarcity than the existing water stress index (WSI) or the blue water scarcity (BWS) indicator, particularly for the arid agricultural production regions due to the revealed environmental impacts of agricultural production. China should guarantee the sustainable use of agricultural water resources by reducing its crop water footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-thermal expansion infrared glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Philip

    2009-05-01

    L2 Tech, Inc. is in development of an innovative infrared-transparent glass ceramic material with low-thermal expansion (ZrW2O8) which has Negative Thermal Expansion (NTE). The glass phase is the infrared-transparent germanate glass which has positive thermal expansion (PTE). Then glass ceramic material has a balanced thermal expansion of near zero. The crystal structure is cubic and the thermal expansion of the glass ceramic is isotropic or equal in all directions.

  2. How China’s nitrogen footprint of food has changed from 1961 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengchu; Chen, Xiaohui; Bai, Zhaohai; Jiang, Rongfeng; Galloway, James N.; Leach, Allison M.; Cattaneo, Lia R.; Oenema, Oene; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Fusuo

    2017-10-01

    People have increased the amount of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment as a result of food production methods and consumption choices. However, the connection between dietary choices and environmental impacts over time has not yet been studied in China. Here we combine a nitrogen footprint tool, the N-Calculator, with a food chain model, NUFER (NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use), to analyze the N footprint of food in China. We use the NUFER model to provide a detailed estimation of the amounts and forms of Nr released to the environment during food production, which is then used to calculate virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs, unit: kg N released/kg N in product) of major food items. The food N footprint consists of the food consumption N footprint and food production N footprint. The average per capita food N footprint increased from 4.7 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 1960s to 21 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 2000s, and the national food N footprint in China increased from 3.4 metric tons (MT) N yr-1 in the 1960s to 28 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. The proportion of the food N footprint that is animal-derived increased from 37% to 54% during this period. The food production N footprint accounted for 84% of the national food N footprint in the 2000s, compared to 62% in the 1960s. More Nr has been added to the food production systems to produce enough food for a growing population that is increasing its per-capita food consumption. The increasing VNFs in China indicate that an increasing amount of Nr is being lost per unit of N embedded in food products consumed by humans in the past five decades. National N losses from food production increased from 6 MT N yr-1 in the 1960s to 23 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. N was lost to the environment in four ways: ammonia (NH3) emissions and dinitrogen (N2) emissions through denitrification (each account for nearly 40%), N losses to water systems (20%), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (1%). The average per

  3. Accelerating separable footprint (SF) forward and back projection on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; McGaffin, Madison G.; Long, Yong; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Wen, Minhua; Lin, James

    2017-03-01

    Statistical image reconstruction (SIR) methods for X-ray CT can improve image quality and reduce radiation dosages over conventional reconstruction methods, such as filtered back projection (FBP). However, SIR methods require much longer computation time. The separable footprint (SF) forward and back projection technique simplifies the calculation of intersecting volumes of image voxels and finite-size beams in a way that is both accurate and efficient for parallel implementation. We propose a new method to accelerate the SF forward and back projection on GPU with NVIDIA's CUDA environment. For the forward projection, we parallelize over all detector cells. For the back projection, we parallelize over all 3D image voxels. The simulation results show that the proposed method is faster than the acceleration method of the SF projectors proposed by Wu and Fessler.13 We further accelerate the proposed method using multiple GPUs. The results show that the computation time is reduced approximately proportional to the number of GPUs.

  4. Optimal energy planning models with carbon footprint constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, Lukasz M.; Jezowski, Jacek M. [Rzeszow University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Tan, Raymond R. [Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, 1004 Manila (Philippines); Foo, Dominic C.Y. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Broga Road, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes a general modeling approach for optimal planning of energy systems subject to carbon and land footprint constraints. The methodology makes use of the source-sink framework derived from the analogies with resource conservation networks used in process integration. Two variants of the modeling approach are developed for some of the important technologies for carbon emissions abatement: liquid biofuels in transportation, and carbon dioxide capture and storage in power generation. Despite the positive impact on environment, widespread use of these technologies has certain disadvantages. In case of biofuels, their production may strain agricultural resources, that are needed also for satisfying food demands. At the same time, carbon capture and storage is rather expensive technology and its practical implementation in power facilities must be carefully considered and planned. Optimum utilization of both technologies is identified with flexible and expandable mathematical modeling framework. Case studies are used to illustrate the variants of the methodology. (author)

  5. Reducing health care's carbon footprint--the power of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Aliria

    2012-11-01

    Global warming and environmentalism continue to be national and international issues as their complexities and implications become better understood. One ironic contributor to the degradation of the environment is the health care system. Serving as clinical laboratories, hotels, restaurants, and offices that never close, U.S. hospitals produce more than 2 million tons of waste annually. Although the consequences and significance of health care's carbon footprint are undeniable, strategies to reduce this impact are challenging. This article discusses how the role, traits, and knowledge of nurses combined with their positions in the health care system make them key players in creating an environmentally sustainable health care industry. With an analysis of environmental action versus inaction, this article explores how nurses at the forefront of health care are equipped to change practice that will reach far beyond the bedside.

  6. Can dendrochronology procedures estimate historical Tree Water Footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tarcísio J. G.; Del Campo, Antonio D.; Molina, Antonio J.

    2013-04-01

    Whole estimates of tree water use are becoming increasingly important in forest science and forest scientists have long sought to develop reliable techniques to estimate tree water use. In this sense accurately determining or estimate the quantity of water transpired by trees and forests is important and can be used to determine "green" water footprint. The use of dendrochronology is relative common in the study of effects and interactions between growth and climatic variables, but few studies deal with the relationship with water footprint. The main objective of this study is determining the historical tree water-use in a planted stand by dendrochronological approaches. This study was performed in South-eastern Spain, in an area covered by 50-60 years old Pinus halepensis Mil. plantations with high tree density (ca.1288/ha) due to low forest management. The experimental set-up consisted of two plots (30x30m), one corresponding to a thinning treatment performed in 2008 (t10) and the other thinned in 1998 (t1) to assess the mid-term effects of thinning. After one year of thinning four representative trees were select in each plot to measure transpiration by heat pulse sensor (sapflow velocity, vs). The accumulated daily values of transpiration (L day-1) were estimated multiplying the values of vs by sapwood area of each selected tree. After transpiration measurements two cores per tree were taken for establishing the tree-rings chronologies. The cores were prepared, their ring-width were measured and standardised in basal area increment index (BAI-i) following usual dendrochronological methods. The dendrochronology analyses showed a general variability in ring width during the initial growth (15 years), while in the following years the width rings were very small, conditioned by climate. The year after thinning (1999 or 2009) all trees in the treatments showed significant increases in ring width. The average vs for t1 and t10 were 3.59 cm h-1 and 1.95 cm h-1, and

  7. DNase I footprinting of the nucleosome in whole nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staynov, D Z

    2008-07-18

    DNase I was used to footprint the 147 bp DNA fragment of the nucleosome in whole chicken erythrocyte nuclei. It was found that the higher-order structure imposes an additional protection on nucleosomes at sites close to the entry and exit points of the linker DNA, around the dyad axis (site S 0). The observed protection is extended up to 20 bp on either side of S 0. It is partial (approximately 50%) and most probably reflects a full protection of different regions in alternatively oriented nucleosomes. These are the same regions which interact with linker histones. The results strongly support the findings by simulation of DNase I digests of unlabelled oligonucleosome fragments in the 30 nm fibre that in all nucleosomes sites S -5 to S -3 and S +3 to S +5 ara on the outside of the fibre exposed to DNase I.

  8. The Transaction Footprints of Scottish Food And Drink SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copus Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey approach to measuring the “transaction footprints” of rural small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Combined with a graphical presentation of results, this contributes to the evidence base on the roles of local and global linkages. Findings suggest that the food and drink industry of Scotland is relatively localised in its input and sales interaction pattern, although substantial variations, associated with product specialisms, remoteness/accessibility, input purchasing and marketing strategies, exist. Localised SMEs have weathered the recession slightly better, but more outward-looking in firms tend to have greater optimism about the future. Transaction footprint analysis should be viewed as component of an ongoing process of re-mapping the network infrastructure of the rural economy, alongside analysis of untraded interdependencies, and institutional networks in the realm of governance.

  9. The footprint of urban heat island effect in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Zhang, Liangxia; Sun, Ge; Liu, Yongqiang

    2015-06-10

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/rural temperature "cliff", and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (FP, including urban area) was 2.3 and 3.9 times of urban size for the day and night, respectively, with large spatiotemporal heterogeneities. We further revealed that ignoring the FP may underestimate the UHI intensity in most cases and even alter the direction of UHI estimates for few cities. Our results provide new insights to the characteristics of UHI effect and emphasize the necessity of considering city- and time-specific FP when assessing the urbanization effects on local climate.

  10. Shrink and share: humanity's present and future Ecological Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzes, Justin; Wackernagel, Mathis; Loh, Jonathan; Peller, Audrey; Goldfinger, Steven; Cheng, Deborah; Tea, Kallin

    2008-02-12

    Sustainability is the possibility of all people living rewarding lives within the means of nature. Despite ample recognition of the importance of achieving sustainable development, exemplified by the Rio Declaration of 1992 and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the global economy fails to meet the most fundamental minimum condition for sustainability--that human demand for ecosystem goods and services remains within the biosphere's total capacity. In 2002, humanity operated in a state of overshoot, demanding over 20% more biological capacity than the Earth's ecosystems could regenerate in that year. Using the Ecological Footprint as an accounting tool, we propose and discuss three possible global scenarios for the future of human demand and ecosystem supply. Bringing humanity out of overshoot and onto a potentially sustainable path will require managing the consumption of food, fibre and energy, and maintaining or increasing the productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  11. [Evolvement of ecological footprint model representing ecological carrying capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shu-yan; Xie, Gao-di

    2007-06-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) is an important index of ecological carrying capacity. The original EF model is excellent in simplicity, aggregation, comparability, and lifelikeness in presenting results, but short in predictability, configuration, and applicability. To overcome these shortcomings, many researches were conducted to modify and promote the EF model, and developed it from static with single time scale to diversified ones, which included: 1) time series EF model, 2) input-output analysis based EF model, 3) integrated assessment incorporated EF model, 4) land disturbance degree based EF model, and 5) life cycle analysis based EF model, or component EF model. The function of EF as a measurement of ecological carrying capacity was significantly improved, but its accuracy and integrality still need to be advanced.

  12. Revised coordinates of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, S.; Stark, A.; Gwinner, K.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.

    2017-09-01

    We revised the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) footprint locations (i.e. areocentric body-fixed latitude and longitude), using updated trajectory models for the Mars Global Surveyor and updated rotation parameters of Mars, including precession, nutation and length-of-day variation. We assess the impact of these updates on the gridded MOLA maps. A first comparison reveals that even slight corrections to the rotational state of Mars can lead to height differences up to 100 m (in particular in regions with high slopes, where large interpolation effects are expected). Ultimately, we aim at independent measurements of the rotation parameters of Mars. We co-register MOLA profiles to digital terrain models from stereo images (stereo DTMs) and measure offsets of the two data sets.

  13. Expansive Openness in Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Royce

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Previous work on the use of open educational resources in K-12 classrooms has generally focused on issues related to cost. The current study takes a more expansive view of openness that also accounts for adaptation and sharing in authentic classroom contexts. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study The study seeks to…

  14. On Fourier re-expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Liflyand, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.

  15. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  16. The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This monograph addresses two quite different topics, in the belief that each can shed light on the other. Firstly, it lays the foundation for a particular view of the bootstrap. Secondly, it gives an account of Edgeworth expansion. Chapter 1 is about the bootstrap, witih almost no mention of Edgeworth expansion; Chapter 2 is about Edgeworth expansion, with scarcely a word about the bootstrap; and Chapters 3 and 4 bring these two themes together, using Edgeworth expansion to explore and develop the properites of the bootstrap. The book is aimed a a graduate level audience who has some exposure to the methods of theoretical statistics. However, technical details are delayed until the last chapter (entitled "Details of Mathematical Rogour"), and so a mathematically able reader without knowledge of the rigorous theory of probability will have no trouble understanding the first four-fifths of the book. The book simultaneously fills two gaps in the literature; it provides a very readable graduate level account of t...

  17. Multiscale expansions in discrete world

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... multiscale expansions discretely. The power of this manageable method is confirmed by applying it to two selected nonlinear Schrödinger evolution equations. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear discrete evolution equations. All the computations have been made with Maple computer packet program.

  18. Large N Expansion. Vector Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary version of a contribution to the "Quantum Field Theory. Non-Perturbative QFT" topical area of "Modern Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics" (SELECTA), eds. Aref'eva I, and Sternheimer D, Springer (2007). Consists of two parts - "main article" (Large N Expansion. Vector Models) and a "brief article" (BPHZL Renormalization).

  19. Energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratima; Kansal, Arun; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating at different scales and using different technology options based on primary data from 50 STPs operating in India and the UK. The study used a combination of fundamental mass-balance approach for energy consumption and the methodology defined by IPCC for the carbon emissions. Small-scale institutional STPs consume twelve times the energy consumed by large-scale municipal STPs, the corresponding energy intensities being 4.87 kWh/m(3) and 0.40 kWh/m(3) respectively. Embodied energy from construction material and chemicals accounted for 46% and 33% of the total energy intensity of the municipal and institutional STPs respectively. The average carbon footprint of large-scale STPs is 0.78 kgCO2eq/m(3) and for small-scale STPs it is 3.04 kgCO2eq/m(3). However, fugitive emissions from large-scale STPs constituted 74% of the total carbon emissions whereas the figure was only 0.05% for small-scale STPs. Average electrical energy intensity in STPs in India is much lower (0.14 kWh/m(3)) than that in the UK (0.46 kWh/m(3)). This is due to the reason that STPs in India do not have resource recovery processes and use solar heat for sludge drying. The paper offers information and insights for designing low carbon strategies for urban waste infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2012-04-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring Carbon Footprint of Flexible Pavement Construction Project in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utomo Dwi Hatmoko Jati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Road infrastructure in Indonesia is mainly dominated by flexible pavement type. Its construction process, however, has raised concerns in terms of its environment impacts. This study aims to track and measure the carbon footprint of flexible pavement. The objectives are to map the construction process in relation to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, to quantify them in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e as generated by the process of production and transportation of raw materials, and the operation of plant off-site and on-site project. Data collection was done by having site observations and interviews with project stakeholders. The results show a total emissions of 70.888 tonnes CO2e, consisting of 34.248 tonnes CO2e (48.31% off-site activities and 36.640 tonnes CO2e (51.687% on-site activities. The two highest CO2e emissions were generated by the use of plant for asphalt concrete laying activities accounted 34.827 tonnes CO2e (49.130%, and material transportation accounted 24.921 (35.155%. These findings provide a new perspective of the carbon footprint in flexible pavement and suggest the urgent need for the use of more efficient and environmentally friendly plant in construction process as it shows the most significant contribution on the CO2e. This study provides valuable understanding on the environmental impact of typical flexible pavement projects in Indonesia, and further can be used for developing green road framework.

  2. CARBON FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF A T-45 HOUSE IN KUPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAPENANGGA Apridus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and CO2e concentration in the atmosphere steadily increases and, in some places, has passed 360ppm, which is the limiting point agreed by world leaders to slow down and stop global warming. Housing sectors have been claimed to emit significant amounts of CO2. This paper reports a research on the carbon footprint of a T-45 house in Kupang. The research calculated in detail the carbon emission of the house since its pre-construction stage (design process, construction stage, to the post-construction stage (house operation from year one to year 25. The T-45 house was selected as this type is the smallest standard house for a family of three in Indonesia. Literature, survey and analytical methods were adopted. The research found that the longer the house was used, the lower the carbon emission borne by each occupant per year. From year one to year 25, the total carbon emission borne by each occupant decreased from 3,590,793.44 to 145,568.38 kgCO2 per year. The construction stage emits a considerable amount of CO2 so that its carbon footprint still dominates the proportion of carbon emission per year per occupant, 98.61%. In the construction stage, use of cement in the wall and concrete structure works contributes the largest proportion of carbon emission, 96.7%. Therefore, using locally available construction materials, in particular, natural ones with less or zero carbon emission, is highly recommended.

  3. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  4. The greenhouse emissions footprint of free-range eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R C; Omed, H; Edwards-Jones, G

    2014-01-01

    Eggs are an increasingly significant source of protein for human consumption, and the global poultry industry is the single fastest-growing livestock sector. In the context of international concern for food security and feeding an increasingly affluent human population, the contribution to global greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from animal protein production is of critical interest. We calculated the GHG emissions footprint for the fastest-growing sector of the UK egg market: free-range production in small commercial units on mixed farms. Emissions are calculated to current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UK standards (PAS2050): including direct, indirect, and embodied emissions from cradle to farm gate compatible with a full product life-cycle assessment. We present a methodology for the allocation of emissions between ruminant and poultry enterprises on mixed farms. Greenhouse gas emissions averaged a global warming potential of 2.2 kg of CO2e/dozen eggs, or 1.6 kg of CO2equivalent (e)/kg (assuming average egg weight of 60 g). One kilogram of protein from free-range eggs produces 0.2 kg of CO2e, lower than the emissions from white or red meat (based on both kg of meat and kg of protein). Of these emissions, 63% represent embodied carbon in poultry feed. A detailed GHG emissions footprint represents a baseline for comparison with other egg production systems and sources of protein for human consumption. Eggs represent a relatively low-carbon supply of animal protein, but their production is heavily dependent on cereals and soy, with associated high emissions from industrial nitrogen production, land-use change, and transport. Alternative sources of digestible protein for poultry diets are available, may be produced from waste processing, and would be an effective tool for reducing the industry's GHG emissions and dependence on imported raw materials.

  5. The Digital Footprint of Academic Urologists: Where Do we Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Ericson, Kyle J; Hemal, Sij; Babbar, Paurush; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the digital footprint of academic urologists by examining their web search results and identifying patterns within them. Faculty lists were obtained from the top 10 ranked Urology residency program websites. A standardized Google search for "First Name Last Name Degree" was then completed for each staff physician. The total number of results and type of sites returned were recorded and patterns contained within identified. A total of 247 staff physicians were identified, with 13-36 per institution. A median of 11 (interquartile range: 10-12) search results returned for each person. Most (number = 231) staff had at least 1 rating site returned, with a mean of 3.50 (standard deviation: 1.45) noted. Overall, 3.44 (1.39) pages related to the practice were listed. Social media use was poorly visible, with a median 0 [0-1] results listed and only 7 Twitter accounts observed. More than half of sites, 6.34 (1.87) on average, were physician-controllable content. Having certain types of results was significantly associated with fewer ratings sites. Having an additional degree was also associated with significantly fewer ratings sites and more sites with physician-controllable content. The digital footprint of academic urologists contains more physician-controllable content than noncontrollable information; however, social media visibility in this group is poor. Optimization of the digital identity of academic urologists may be possible by exploiting the patterns observed in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective Expansion: Balance between Shrinkage and Hygroscopic Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, E A; Watson, L E; Tantbirojn, D; Lou, J S B; Versluis, A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hygroscopic expansion and polymerization shrinkage for compensation of polymerization shrinkage stresses in a restored tooth. One resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) (Ketac Nano, 3M ESPE), 2 compomers (Dyract, Dentsply; Compoglass, Ivoclar), and a universal resin-based composite (Esthet•X HD, Dentsply) were tested. Volumetric change after polymerization ("total shrinkage") and during 4 wk of water storage at 37°C was measured using an optical method (n= 10). Post-gel shrinkage was measured during polymerization using a strain gauge method (n= 10). Extracted human molars with large mesio-occluso-distal slot preparations were restored with the tested restorative materials. Tooth surfaces at baseline (preparation), after restoration, and during 4 wk of 37°C water storage were scanned with an optical scanner to determine cuspal flexure (n= 8). Occlusal interface integrity was measured using dye penetration. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and post hoc tests (significance level 0.05). All tested materials shrunk after polymerization. RMGI had the highest total shrinkage (4.65%) but lowest post-gel shrinkage (0.35%). Shrinkage values dropped significantly during storage in water but had not completely compensated polymerization shrinkage after 4 wk. All restored teeth initially exhibited inward (negative) cuspal flexure due to polymerization shrinkage. Cuspal flexure with the RMGI restoration was significantly less (-6.4 µm) than with the other materials (-12.1 to -14.1 µm). After 1 d, cuspal flexure reversed to +5.0 µm cuspal expansion with the RMGI and increased to +9.3 µm at 4 wk. After 4 wk, hygroscopic expansion compensated cuspal flexure in a compomer (Compoglass) and reduced flexure with Dyract and resin-based composite. Marginal integrity (93.7% intact restoration wall) was best for the Compoglass restorations and lowest (73.1%) for the RMGI restorations. Hygroscopic

  7. Association of footprint measurements with plantar kinetics: a linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fascione, Jeanna M; Crews, Ryan T; Wrobel, James S

    2014-03-01

    The use of foot measurements to classify morphology and interpret foot function remains one of the focal concepts of lower-extremity biomechanics. However, only 27% to 55% of midfoot variance in foot pressures has been determined in the most comprehensive models. We investigated whether dynamic walking footprint measurements are associated with inter-individual foot loading variability. Thirty individuals (15 men and 15 women; mean ± SD age, 27.17 ± 2.21 years) walked at a self-selected speed over an electronic pedography platform using the midgait technique. Kinetic variables (contact time, peak pressure, pressure-time integral, and force-time integral) were collected for six masked regions. Footprints were digitized for area and linear boundaries using digital photo planimetry software. Six footprint measurements were determined: contact area, footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak index, and Staheli index. Linear regression analysis with a Bonferroni adjustment was performed to determine the association between the footprint measurements and each of the kinetic variables. The findings demonstrate that a relationship exists between increased midfoot contact and increased kinetic values in respective locations. Many of these variables produced large effect sizes while describing 38% to 71% of the common variance of select plantar kinetic variables in the medial midfoot region. In addition, larger footprints were associated with larger kinetic values at the medial heel region and both masked forefoot regions. Dynamic footprint measurements are associated with dynamic plantar loading kinetics, with emphasis on the midfoot region.

  8. Carbon footprint assessment for a local branded pure milk product: a lifecycle based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui ZHAO

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a simplified life cycle based assessment for a local branded pure milk product, to measure its related carbon footprint, including production of raw milk, dairy processing, transportation of milk product and disposal of packaging waste. The results show that the total carbon footprint of the pure milk is 1120g CO2/L. The production of raw milk is identified as the major contributor to the carbon footprint. This contribution has amounted to 843 g of CO2 per liter of pure milk, accounted for 75.27% of the total carbon footprint. The carbon footprint of product transportation is 38 g of CO2 per liter, which accounts for 3.39% of the total. The carbon footprint related to the dairy processing and disposal of waste packaging is 173 g of CO2 per liter and 66 g of CO2 per liter, accounting for 15.45% and 5.89% of the total, respectively. The carbon footprint assessment intends to help dairy enterprises identify the intensive sectors of carbon emissions, and provides insight into improvement of product environmental performances.

  9. Three-dimensional analysis of elbow soft tissue footprints and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, John T; Collins, Christopher; Beutel, Bryan G; Danna, Natalie R; Manigrasso, Michaele; Uko, Linda A; Chen, Linda Y

    2014-11-01

    Tendinous and ligamentous injuries commonly occur in the elbow. This study characterized the location, surface areas, and origin and insertional footprints of major elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures in relation to bony landmarks with the use of a precision 3-dimensional modeling system. Nine unpaired cadaveric elbow specimens were dissected and mounted on a custom jig. Mapping of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL), triceps, biceps, brachialis, and capsular reflections was then performed with 3-dimensional digitizing technology. The location, surface areas, and footprints of the soft tissues were calculated. The MCL had a mean origin (humeral) footprint of 216 mm(2), insertional footprint of 154 mm(2), and surface area of 421 mm(2). The LUCL had a mean origin footprint of 136 mm(2), an insertional footprint of 142 mm(2), and a surface area of 532 mm(2). Of the tendons, the triceps maintained the largest insertional footprint, followed by the brachialis and the biceps (P anatomy of key elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures is crucial for effective reconstruction after bony or soft tissue trauma. This study provides the upper extremity surgeon with information that may aid in restoring elbow biomechanics and preserving range of motion in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A full value-chain Water Footprint Assessment to help informed decision in corporate sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoping; Chico Zamanilo, Daniel; Bai, Xue; Ren, Xiajing; Chen, Rong; Qin, Jun

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the water footprint (WF) of five production facilities along Muyuan Foodstuff Co. Ltd's (Muyuan) value chain, and assessed the sustainability and impact of their water footprints at the river catchment level. Muyuan, a large-scale, integrated pig breeder and producer in China, is keen to fulfil its corporate social responsibilities and committed to ensuring food quality and security, promoting environmental protection, and participating in catchment water resources management. Formulating corporate water related sustainability strategies, however, has been challenging. This study carried out a comprehensive Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) for Muyuan's full value chain to assist in formulating such strategies and setting up action plans with water footprint reduction targets. The study showed that that the water footprint of the supply chain, resulting from crops and crop products used in Muyuan's feed production facility is a major contributor to Muyuan's facilities' water footprint. From the perspective of the direct WF at the facilities, addressing the impact on water quality from effluents (i.e. the grey water footprint) at hog farms is a critical component of any water sustainability strategy. From the blue WF perspective, there are opportunities to reduce blue water consumption at hog farms through improved technology and implementation of best practices. The water footprint sustainability assessment in this study indicated that Muyuan operates in a catchment which is already under water stress and is a hotspot in terms of both blue water scarcity and water pollution level. The study helped identify potential water-related risks and opportunities for improving Muyuan's water use efficiency as well as ways Muyuan could contribute to sustainable water resources management in the catchment within which it operates. This is an innovative application of WFA in the livestock sector and supports the development of Muyuan's corporate water

  11. New footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early hominins

    OpenAIRE

    Masao, Fidelis T; Ichumbaki, Elgidius B; Cherin, Marco; Barili, Angelo; Boschian, Giovanni; Iurino, Dawid A; Menconero, Sofia; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest Fossil footprints are extremely useful tools in the palaeontological record. Their physical features can help to identify their makers, but can also be used to infer biological information. How did the track-maker move? How large was it? How fast was it going? Footprints of hominins (namely the group to which humans and our ancestors belong) are pretty rare. Nearly all of the hominin footprints discovered so far are attributed to species of the genus Homo, to which modern humans ...

  12. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  13. A recommended workflow for DNase I footprinting using a capillary electrophoresis genetic analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Smitha; Pande, Anuja; Grove, Anne

    2015-07-15

    Fragment analysis was developed to determine the sizes of DNA fragments relative to size standards of known lengths using a capillary electrophoresis genetic analyzer. This approach has since been adapted for use in DNA footprinting. However, DNA footprinting requires accurate determination of both fragment length and intensity, imposing specific demands on the experimental design. Here we delineate essential considerations involved in optimizing the fragment analysis workflow for use in DNase I footprinting to ensure that changes in DNase I cleavage patterns may be reliably identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  15. Expansion of the main auroral oval at Jupiter : evidence for Io’s control over the Jovian magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfond, Bertrand; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Tom, Stallard; John, Clarke; Mizuki, Yoneda; Radioti, Aikaterini; Gustin, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    In spring 2007, New Horizons' Jupiter fly-by provided a unique opportunity for the largest observation campaign dedicated to the Jovian aurora ever carried out by the Hubble Space Telescope. UV images of the aurora have been acquired on a quasi-daily basis from mid-February to mid-June 2007. Polar projection of the auroral emissions clearly show a continuous long-term expansion of main oval additionally to day by day variations. The main oval moved so much that the Ganymede footprint, which i...

  16. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    , and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... including only undisturbed sites. Shrub cover increased most on E and SE facing slopes, in sites with stable substrate, in areas characterised by human disturbance and in areas without muskoxen grazing. Aspect and human disturbances had the strongest effect on shrub expansion, followed by muskoxen...... locations. A. viridis represents an interesting case to study these effects. SW Greenland is a subarctic to low-arctic region with only limited increases in temperatures during the past decades, and observed climate trends being largely dependent on the observation period. In this region there is limited...

  17. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... by factors like grazing and human disturbance; II. which climatic factors control shrub growth in SW Greenland and whether these have improved sufficiently over the past century to allow shrub expansion; III. whether growth of A. viridis is promoted by experimental warming; IV. and whether plant genotypes...

  18. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  19. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: 2006 National Footprint Accounts (NFA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2006 National Footprint Accounts (NFA) portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections, version 1.1 is a data set that measures...

  20. FOOTPRINT: A Screening Model for Estimating the Area of a Plume Produced From Gasoline Containing Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOOTPRINT is a screening model used to estimate the length and surface area of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes in groundwater, produced from a gasoline spill that contains ethanol.

  1. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, Steven C; Stern, Paul C; Carmichael, Scott P; Joseph, Karun M; Arent, Douglas J

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the "soft costs" to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult.

  2. Food Trade and Its Water Footprint Under Climate and Policy Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Hussein, Z.; Hanasaki, N.

    2014-12-01

    Trade has become increasingly important in the global redistribution of food, with important ramifications for food security, water resources, and transportation infrastructure, among others. Thus, it essential to understand how food trade and its water footprint may change in the future. To this end, we project international food trade, as well as its water footprint, under climate and policy scenarios for the year 2030. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to staple crop yields and evapotranspiration. Using the yield changes projected with the H08 model, we estimate the bilateral trade of staple crops using the Global Trade Analysis Project model. We combine these projections to obtain the water footprint of food trade, global network properties, and trade-based water savings across scenarios. Our findings indicate the relative importance of near-future climate and policy scenarios for food trade and its water footprint.

  3. Stature and body weight estimation from various footprint measurements among Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Irene Atef; Kamal, Nashwa Nabil

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of footprints can reveal very important clues which can be used as a forensic evidence and help in the estimation of stature and body weight of an individual. In this work, bilateral footprints were obtained from 50 male Egyptian medical students ranging in age between 18 and 25. Nine measurements were taken on each footprint. The result revealed significant bilateral asymmetry (p stature were shown by toe-5 length on right side (R = 0.58) and with body weight by foot breadth at ball on left side (R = -0.52). Regression equations presented smaller standard errors of estimate (3.52-4.69) in determination of stature than those in estimation of body weight (4.05-5.28). In conclusion, this study has provided equations that help to estimate stature and body weight from footprint measurements among Egyptians.

  4. Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1): Global Human Footprint Dataset (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Human Footprint Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1) is the Human Influence Index (HII) normalized by biome and realm. The HII...

  5. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; Joseph, Karun M.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers’ incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products’ environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers’ contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the “soft costs” to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult. PMID:27528670

  6. Maintaining a stationary laser footprint during angular scan in internal-reflection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Eduardo; Cavalcanti, Gustavo Oliveira

    2013-11-10

    In internal-reflection metrology using prisms, the prism is usually mounted on a rotation/translation stage to enable adjusting angle and location of the laser footprint on the surface. If a visual inspection method is used to find the laser footprint, the task becomes impossible if invisible radiation in the near infrared is employed. In addition, it may be desirable to perform angular scan experiments with a stationary footprint on the surface during scans, or even to automatically probe specific points on an extended prism face for predetermined incidence angles. In this paper, a formulation is developed to determine the required translation along the prism face to allow maintaining the laser footprint stationary under a given rotation. A web-based app developed under the scope of this work demonstrates the applicability of the approach for silica, BK7 and SF2 glasses, in the wavelength range from 500 to 1500 nm and for an arbitrary geometry of the glass prism.

  7. Area of Concern: A new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Bradley G.; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    operating under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a universal footprint definition and related......As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplace. In response, a task force...... terminology as well as to discuss modelling implications. The task force has worked from the perspective that footprints should be based on LCA methodology, underpinned by the same data systems and models as used in LCA. However, there are important differences in purpose and orientation relative to LCA...

  8. MESSENGER H XRS 5 REDUCED DATA RECORD (RDR) FOOTPRINTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER XRS reduced data record (RDR) footprints which are derived from the navigational meta-data for each...

  9. Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) for the Chicago Metropolitan Area: Initial Estimation - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of its computational simplicity, Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) has been extensively deployed for assessing the sustainability of various environmental systems. In general, EFA aims at capturing the impacts of human activity on the environment by computing the amount...

  10. Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R; Possingham, Hugh P; Laurance, William F; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M; Levy, Marc A; Watson, James E M

    2016-01-01

    .... Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestrial environment at 1 km(2...

  11. Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2): Global Human Footprint Dataset (IGHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Human Footprint Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is the Human Influence Index (HII) normalized by biome. The HII is a...

  12. Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1): Global Human Footprint Dataset (IGHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Human Footprint Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1) is the Human Influence Index (HII) normalized by biome and realm. The HII...

  13. Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2): Global Human Footprint Dataset (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Human Footprint Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is the Human Influence Index (HII) normalized by biome and realm. The HII...

  14. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuo, L; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    .... A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered...

  15. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, ecological, and water footprints (CF, EF, and WF) are accounting tools that can be used to understand the connection between consumption activities and environmental pressures on the Earth?s atmosphere, bioproductive areas, and freshwater resources. These indicators have ...

  16. Area of Concern: a new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplac...

  17. Carbon footprint monitoring a step to energy efficiency in mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadra, Sebastian; Melo, Gonzalo; Galleguillos, Enrique; Olmedo, Juan C. [GSUR S.A. (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses the processes by which carbon footprint can be monitored for energy efficiency in the mining industry. Technology today is characterized by its micro-miniaturization, with high integration and process capabilities combined with the availability of universal systems of communication. The technological concept of wide communication through flexible, reliable units allows for smart grids carrying measurements, collecting data and saving energy. The same network also allows energy consumption to be estimated and carbon footprint to be monitored. Additionally, it provides information to help decision-making with respect to improved energy consumption and environmental performance. Some of the energy networks include wireless, IP networks, GPRS, distributed networks, and the integration of energy with fuel or water. A flow diagram shows how a carbon footprint can be managed with a GPRS system. It is clearly important to know an operation's consumption of resources so that its carbon footprint and energy efficiency can be calculated.

  18. The Human Footprint in Mexico: Physical Geography and Historical Legacies: e0121203

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charlotte González-Abraham; Exequiel Ezcurra; Pedro P Garcillán; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Melanie Kolb; Juan E Bezaury Creel

    2015-01-01

      Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic...

  19. Simplifying Bridge Expansion Joint Design and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    This report presents a study focused on identifying the most durable expansion joints for the South : Carolina Department of Transportation. This is performed by proposing a degradation model for the : expansion joints and updating it based on bridge...

  20. Carbon and energy footprint analysis of tannery wastewater treatment: A Global overview

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Giaccherini; Giulio Munz; Thomas Dockhorn; Claudio Lubello; Diego Rosso

    2017-01-01

    In this study the carbon footprint and power demand of tannery wastewater treatment processes for the largest bovine leather producing regions were quantified and analysed. Moreover, we present a case in which we benchmarked the carbon footprint and energy demand analysis of tannery wastewater treatment to municipal wastewater treatment. We quantified the greenhouse gas direct and indirect emissions from tannery wastewater treatment facilities. Our results show that the total CO2-equivalent e...

  1. Effects of Digital Footprint on Career Management: Evidence from Social Media in Business Education

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Vladlena; Filippaios, Fragkiskos

    2010-01-01

    As online social media gain immense popularity among Internet users, we would like to explore the implication of social networking on career management. This paper links social capital theories and the impact of online social networks on ties between individuals in social and business uses. Social media contributes to building up individual digital footprint, or Internet content linked to individual names. We then propose a typology of the digital footprint based on the evidence from a survey...

  2. The green, blue and grey water footprint of animals and animal products

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    The projected increase in the production and consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the globe’s freshwater resources. The size and characteristics of the water footprint vary across animal types and production systems. The current study provides a comprehensive account of the global green, blue and grey water footprints of different sorts of farm animals and animal products, distinguishing between different production systems and considering the conditions in all ...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF SOLE DESIGN AND COMPOSITION UPON THE LENGTH OF THE FOOTPRINT LEFT DURING WALKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    assume that longer step might be the result of a momentary elongation of the outsole during walking, it was decided to measure the length of footprints...made by various types of outsoles in standing and walking. Significant differences were obtained with ripple and Tru-glide outsoles . The footprints...were longer than the outsoles . The mechanism responsible for this increase in length probably depends on a forward glide of the shoe as the weight of

  4. DNA sequence preferences for an intercalating porphyrin compound revealed by footprinting.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, K; Fox, K R; Neidle, S; Waring, M J

    1987-01-01

    The DNA sequence preferences of the compound meso-tetra-(4-N-methyl(pyridyl) porphyrin and its nickel complex have been investigated by means of footprinting experiments on several DNA fragments, using DNAase I and micrococcal nuclease as footprinting agents. A complex pattern of both AT and GC-protected sites was found. Ligand-induced long-range conformational changes were inferred in several instances to be related to the observed large-scale blockages of enzymatic cutting.

  5. Personal Water Footprint in Taiwan: A Case Study of Yunlin County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jaan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather events have affected the environment and water resources in Taiwan for the last two decades. Heavy rainfall, typhoons, and rising sea levels have caused severe flooding along the Southwest Coast in Taiwan. Yunlin County, an important agricultural region, will be significantly affected by climate changes, especially in coastal areas with severe land subsidence. Therefore, using the concept of the water footprint and questionnaire surveys, this study examines personal water footprints in townships in Yunlin County to explore the effectiveness and sustainability of water management. The purpose of the water footprint concept is to quantify environmental burdens imposed by individuals’ demand for water. An individual water footprint involves direct and indirect water usage that is associated with personal habits. Analytical results show that the most individual water consumption is highest along coastal areas, such as Kouhu and Taixi, and mountainous areas, such as Gukeng, Douliu, and Linnei. Furthermore, one-way ANOVA of individuals’ daily water footprint reveals that individual water footprints vary significantly among Douliu, Gukeng, and Mailiao. The mean daily water footprint per capita in Douliu and Gukeng significantly exceeds that in Mailiao. This study considers the location quotients of industries in these three townships, which indicate that the location quotients of the accommodation and food and beverage industries in Douliu and Gukeng significantly exceed those of Mailiao. The individual virtual water use that is associated with the aforementioned industries is large. Clearly, individual water use habits in townships are related to the industry type. Douliu and Gukeng are major centers of the tertiary industry, which has a higher location quotient than in Mailiao. Mailiao is a major center of manufacturing as a secondary industry. Therefore, flourishing regions with tertiary industries have high virtual water

  6. Aliphatic peptidyl hydroperoxides as a source of secondary oxidation in hydroxyl radical protein footprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Saladino, Jessica; Liu, Mian; Live, David; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical footprinting is a technique for studying protein structure and binding that entails oxidizing a protein system of interest with diffusing hydroxyl radicals, and then measuring the amount of oxidation of each amino acid. One important issue in hydroxyl radical footprinting is limiting amino acid oxidation by secondary oxidants to prevent uncontrolled oxidation which can cause amino acids to appear more solvent accessible than they really are. Previous work suggested that hydro...

  7. [Preliminary study on ecological footprint in Bashang region of Zhangjiakou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengchun; Zhang, Yongchun; Miao, Xubo; Shen, Weishou; Ma, Ronghua

    2003-02-01

    The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity in Bashang region of Zhangjiakou city were calculated with the statistical data of the region in 1999. Based on calculation, the balance between ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity was analyzed, and the threshold values of the ecological carrying capacity and population capacity of the region at the current production level were determined. Strategies on reducing ecological deficit in this region were also brought forward.

  8. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  9. Symmetry of healthy adult feet: role of orthostatic footprint at computerized baropodometry and of digital formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridola, C; Palma, A; Cappello, F; Gravante, G; Russo, G; Truglio, G; Pomara, F; Amato, G

    2001-01-01

    Morphological aspects of orthostatic footprints (anterior heel, isthmus, posterior heel), using computerized baropodometry and of the digital formula were studied in 97 subjects (37 males, 60 females; median age: 20.9+/-1.56) at the Medical School of Palermo, Italy. The aim of this study was to contribute to our knowledge of the bilateral symmetry and asymmetry of the human feet in ethnically similar groups. We evaluated the length of the footprints (FL) and the widths of the anterior heel (AHW), isthmus (IW), and the posterior heel (PHW). Values were compared in the left and right feet of each subjects. The general morphology of the footprints was considered to determine bilateral correspondence or divergence. We also evaluated the digital formula to verify any bilateral correspondence. The linear measurements of the footprints did not show any particular bilateral conformity. The general morphology of the footprint showed bilateral correspondence in 76 subjects (78%): in 21 subjects (22%) it did not show any. Typological results of the bilateral orthostatic footprints showed normalfootprints in 54 subjects (55.5%): the isthmus included 1/3 to 2/3 of the AHW. Hollow footprints were found in 20 subjects (20.5%): the isthmus was less than 1/3 of the AHW. At clinical examination, using the digital formula, we found that Egyptian foot (1 degree > 2 degrees) was the most frequent (68%). The standard foot (1 degree = 2 degrees) and the Greek foot (1 degree digital formulas: 1 degree > 2 degrees in 59 subjects (62%), 1 degree = 2 degrees in 9 subjects (9%), and 1 degree footprints and of the digital formulas showed that bilateral correspondence was prevalent.

  10. Ecological Footprint of Research University Students: A Pilot Case Study in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    See Tan Ang; Wai Choong Weng; Zen Irina Safitri

    2016-01-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) is potential to be applied in universities to assist building management units to coordinate in order to reduce environmental impact and to achieve sustainable resource consumption from its main activities including teaching-learning, research and operations. As many Malaysian universities declare to become sustainability campus, the adoption of ecological footprint in measuring campus sustainability will provide insight and better understanding about the performance...

  11. Decomposition of the Urban Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Case Study of Xiamen City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of the urban water footprint can provide insight for water management. In this paper, a new decomposition method based on the log-mean Divisia index model (LMDI was developed to analyze the driving forces of water footprint changes, attributable to food consumption. Compared to previous studies, this new approach can distinguish between various factors relating to urban and rural residents. The water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen City, from 2001 to 2012, was calculated. Following this, the driving forces of water footprint change were broken down into considerations of the population, the structure of food consumption, the level of food consumption, water intensity, and the population rate. Research shows that between 2001 and 2012, the water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen increased by 675.53 Mm3, with a growth rate of 88.69%. Population effects were the leading contributors to this change, accounting for 87.97% of the total growth. The food consumption structure also had a considerable effect on this increase. Here, the urban area represented 94.96% of the water footprint increase, driven by the effect of the food consumption structure. Water intensity and the urban/rural population rate had a weak positive cumulative effect. The effects of the urban/rural population rate on the water footprint change in urban and rural areas, however, were individually significant. The level of food consumption was the only negative factor. In terms of food categories, meat and grain had the greatest effects during the study period. Controlling the urban population, promoting a healthy and less water-intensive diet, reducing food waste, and improving agriculture efficiency, are all elements of an effective approach for mitigating the growth of the water footprint.

  12. Spectroscopy in the analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic cell footprints on implant surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    E Kaivosoja; Virtanen, S.; Rautemaa, R.; Lappalainen, R.; YT Konttinen

    2012-01-01

    We tested the suitability of two spectroscopic methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), in the recognition of bacterial and eukaryotic cell footprints on implant surfaces. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and Staphylococcus aureus were cultured on sample surfaces and detached using trypsin. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the processed surfaces did not contain any human or microbial cells. The footprints were...

  13. The UK′s Emissions and Employment Footprints: Exploring the Trade-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, M; Owen, A; Barrett, J

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, the UK economy has increasingly relied on foreign markets to fulfil its material needs, becoming a net importer of both emissions and employment. While the emissions footprint reflects the pressure that consumption exerts on the planet’s climate, the labour footprint represents the employment that is created across the globe associated with the demand for products and services. This paper has a two-fold objective. First, it focuses on analysing the behaviour over time...

  14. 48 CFR 570.403 - Expansion requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expansion requests. 570.403 Section 570.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL... Continued Space Requirements 570.403 Expansion requests. (a) If the expansion space is in the general scope...

  15. Research on the influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint under sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    With the concerns of ecological and circular economy along with sustainable development, reverse logistics has attracted the attention of enterprise. How to achieve sustainable development of reverse logistics has important practical significance of enhancing low carbon competitiveness. In this paper, the system boundary of reverse logistics carbon footprint is presented. Following the measurement of reverse logistics carbon footprint and reverse logistics carbon capacity is provided. The influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint are classified into five parts such as intensity of reverse logistics, energy structure, energy efficiency, reverse logistics output, and product remanufacturing rate. The quantitative research methodology using ADF test, Johansen co-integration test, and impulse response is utilized to interpret the relationship between reverse logistics carbon footprint and the influencing factors more accurately. This research finds that energy efficiency, energy structure, and product remanufacturing rate are more capable of inhibiting reverse logistics carbon footprint. The statistical approaches will help practitioners in this field to structure their reverse logistics activities and also help academics in developing better decision models to reduce reverse logistics carbon footprint.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Analysis of Sustainable Development in China Based on the Footprint Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ma, Caihong; Zhao, Xiangui; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The existing index systems on sustainable evaluation are mostly based on a multi index comprehensive evaluation method. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the selection and assignment of evaluation indexes are greatly influenced by subjective factors, which can result in poor comparability of results. By contrast, the Footprint Family (including ecological footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint) is not affected by subjective factors. The Footprint Family also covers the basic tenets of sustainable development. This paper proposes use of a sustainable development evaluation index system based on the principle of the Footprint Family, and including the ecological pressure index ( EPI ), the ecological occupancy index ( EOI ), the ecological economic coordination index ( EECI ), the GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission index ( CEI ), the water resources stress index ( WSI ), and the sustainable development index ( SDI ). Furthermore, a standard for grading the evaluated results based on global benchmarks is formulated. The results of an empirical study in China were the following. The development situation deteriorated from 1990 to 2015. The results showed that the SDI decreased from a medium level (grade 5) to a lower-medium level (grade 4). The results of this empirical study also showed that the method of evaluation can avoid the influence of subjective factors and can be used in the evaluation of sustainable development for various temporal and spatial conditions.

  17. Adding a nitrogen footprint to Colorado State University’s sustainability plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiecik, Jacob; Baron, Jill; Weinmann, Timothy; Taylor, Emily

    2017-01-01

    As a large land grant university with more than 32,000 students, Colorado State University has both on-campus non-agricultural and agricultural sources of nitrogen (N) released to the environment. We used the Nitrogen Footprint Tool to estimate the amount of N released from different sectors of the university for the CSU 2014 academic year. The largest on campus sources were food production, utilities (heating, cooling, electricity), and research animals. The total on-campus N footprint in 2014 was 287 metric tons. This value was equivalent to the nitrogen footprint of agricultural experiment stations and other agricultural facilities, whose nitrogen footprint was 273 metric tons. CSU has opportunities to reduce its on-campus footprint through educational programs promoting low-meat diets and commuting by bicycle or bus. There is also an opportunity to advance ideas of agricultural best management practices, including precision farming and better livestock management. This article describes the planned and ongoing efforts to educate CSU about how societal activities release nitrogen to the environment, contributing to global change. It offers personal and institutional options for taking action, which would ultimately reduce CSU’s excess reactive nitrogen loss to the environment. The N-footprint for CSU, including scenarios of possible future nitrogen reductions, is also discussed.

  18. Defining the functional footprint for recognition and repair of deaminated DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Michael R; O'Brien, Patrick J

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous deamination of DNA is mutagenic, if it is not repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Crystallographic data suggest that each BER enzyme has a compact DNA binding site. However, these structures lack information about poorly ordered termini, and the energetic contributions of specific protein-DNA contacts cannot be inferred. Furthermore, these structures do not reveal how DNA repair intermediates are passed between enzyme active sites. We used a functional footprinting approach to define the binding sites of the first two enzymes of the human BER pathway for the repair of deaminated purines, alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) and AP endonuclease (APE1). Although the functional footprint for full-length AAG is explained by crystal structures of truncated AAG, the footprint for full-length APE1 indicates a much larger binding site than is observed in crystal structures. AAG turnover is stimulated in the presence of APE1, indicating rapid exchange of AAG and APE1 at the abasic site produced by the AAG reaction. The coordinated reaction does not require an extended footprint, suggesting that each enzyme engages the site independently. Functional footprinting provides unique information relative to traditional footprinting approaches and is generally applicable to any DNA modifying enzyme or system of enzymes.

  19. Dinosaur Footprints in Lower Cretaceous Beds in San Juan Raya, Southern Mexico and the Paleoenvironmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves, D.

    2008-12-01

    Dinosaur footprints were traced at San Juan Raya, an important site in Mexico, a world fossil site. This site is found at South-west of the State of Puebla, within the Biosphere Reserve of Tehuacan-Cuitcatlán, to the southwest of the Tehuacan valley. These footprints were recorded by tracing them on transparent paper at Barranca Agua Nueva, at point 18°18.56´N 97°37´W. Using Jacob´s staff a stratigraphic register was generated from 50 m ascending and descending in stratigraphically direction from the bed where footprints were founded. Bivalbes, nerineas, shell fragments, and trigonias were founded in this sequence as well as cross bedding of clays and fine grain sand, some which display ripples. Fifty two footprints were recorded and five different tracks identified, observing two different sizes. The tracks of dinosaur footprints present the common Teropode ichnites. The succession where dinosaur footprints have been found, are interpreted as a peritidal environment. This investigation contributes to an eco-tourism project of San Juan Raya.

  20. U Th ages constraining the Neanderthal footprint at Vârtop Cave, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onac, Bogdan P.; Viehmann, Iosif; Lundberg, Joyce; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik; Stringer, Chris; Popiţă, Vasile

    2005-05-01

    Early human footprints are rare in the fossil record. A survey of the literature reveals very few well documented and dated cases. Here, we report the first clear Homo neanderthalensis footprint. It was found in Vârtop Cave, Romania. The individual stepped into calcareous mud that later hardened. The 22 cm long print suggests a body height of ˜1.46 m; a gap of 1.6 cm marks the separation of big and second toes. The date of the footprint is constrained by three coeval dates of ˜62 kyr on sub-samples from the basal layer of a nearby stalagmite that grew on top of the layer of calc-tufa covering the footprint. The lower constraint is a poorly constrained uranium (U)-thorium (Th) isochron date of ˜97 kyr on the calc-tufa layer in which the footprint is embedded. Thus, the Vârtop Cave individual lived in Romania sometime before 62 kyr, long before the appearance of Homo sapiens in Central and Eastern Europe, the earliest records of which date from only ˜35 kyr. To our knowledge, this is the first recognised and dated Homo neanderthalensis footprint.