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Sample records for expansion nodal method

  1. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  2. Stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion analysis of nodal expansion method for steady convection diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiafeng, E-mail: zhou-xf11@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Guo, Jiong, E-mail: guojiong12@tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Fu, E-mail: lifu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • NEMs are innovatively applied to solve convection diffusion equation. • Stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion for NEM are analyzed for the first time. • Stability and numerical diffusion depend on the NEM expansion order and its parity. • NEMs have higher accuracy than both second order upwind and QUICK scheme. • NEMs with different expansion orders are integrated into a unified discrete form. - Abstract: The traditional finite difference method or finite volume method (FDM or FVM) is used for HTGR thermal-hydraulic calculation at present. However, both FDM and FVM require the fine mesh sizes to achieve the desired precision and thus result in a limited efficiency. Therefore, a more efficient and accurate numerical method needs to be developed. Nodal expansion method (NEM) can achieve high accuracy even on the coarse meshes in the reactor physics analysis so that the number of spatial meshes and computational cost can be largely decreased. Because of higher efficiency and accuracy, NEM can be innovatively applied to thermal-hydraulic calculation. In the paper, NEMs with different orders of basis functions are successfully developed and applied to multi-dimensional steady convection diffusion equation. Numerical results show that NEMs with three or higher order basis functions can track the reference solutions very well and are superior to second order upwind scheme and QUICK scheme. However, the false diffusion and unphysical oscillation behavior are discovered for NEMs. To explain the reasons for the above-mentioned behaviors, the stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion properties of NEM are analyzed by the Fourier analysis, and by comparing with exact solutions of difference and differential equation. The theoretical analysis results show that the accuracy of NEM increases with the expansion order. However, the stability and numerical diffusion properties depend not only on the order of basis functions but also on the parity of

  3. Development of MOX fueled core analysis code based on the refined analytic function expansion nodal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. Y.; Noh, J. M.; Joo, H. G. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Since the plutonium isotopes have a relatively high thermal neutron absorption cross sections, the spatial thermal neutron transient occurs at the interface between MOX and UO{sub 2} fuel assemblies. In order to predict the spatial thermal neutron transient accurately, the reactor core analysis code, NUREC (Nuclear Reactor Analysis Code), has been developed especially for MOX fueled core analysis based on the refined-AFEN method. In addition to the basic neutron flux calculation module, burnup correction model and heterogeneous control rod model are also incorporated in the NUREC. The NUREC can perform the transient calculation such as rod ejection accident as well as the steady-state calculation. The NUREC was verified against the NEACRP-L336 MOX benchmark problem and the experimental value of Yeongkwang Unit 3 and 4. The accuracy of the calculated results with NUREC was similar to those of design code for Yeongkwang Unit 3 and 4 loaded with only UO{sub 2} fuel and was improved for the NEACRP-L336 MOX benchmark problem. The transient calculation capability of the NUREC was also tested against the NEACRP C1 problem without large discrepancy.

  4. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we shall apply the (G /G)-expansion method to obtain the exact travelling wave solution of the two-dimensional ... In §3, we apply our method to the mentioned equations. In §4, some conclusions are ..... The exact solution obtained by this method can be used to check computer codes or as initial condition for ...

  5. Nodal methods in numerical reactor calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennart, J.P. [UNAM, IIMAS, A.P. 20-726, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jean_hennart@hotmail.com; Valle, E. del [National Polytechnic Institute, School of Physics and Mathematics, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The present work describes the antecedents, developments and applications started in 1972 with Prof. Hennart who was invited to be part of the staff of the Nuclear Engineering Department at the School of Physics and Mathematics of the National Polytechnic Institute. Since that time and up to 1981, several master theses based on classical finite element methods were developed with applications in point kinetics and in the steady state as well as the time dependent multigroup diffusion equations. After this period the emphasis moved to nodal finite elements in 1, 2 and 3D cartesian geometries. All the thesis were devoted to the numerical solution of the neutron multigroup diffusion and transport equations, few of them including the time dependence, most of them related with steady state diffusion equations. The main contributions were as follows: high order nodal schemes for the primal and mixed forms of the diffusion equations, block-centered finite-differences methods, post-processing, composite nodal finite elements for hexagons, and weakly and strongly discontinuous schemes for the transport equation. Some of these are now being used by several researchers involved in nuclear fuel management. (Author)

  6. Error estimation and adaptive order nodal method for solving multidimensional transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamonsky, O.M.; Gho, C.J. [Bariloche Atomic Center, Rio Negro (Argentina). Instituto Balseiro; Azmy, Y.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The authors propose a modification of the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Nodal method whereby they solve each node and each direction using different expansion order. With this feature and a previously proposed a posteriori error estimator they develop an adaptive order scheme to automatically improve the accuracy of the solution of the transport equation. They implemented the modified nodal method, the error estimator and the adaptive order scheme into a discrete-ordinates code for solving monoenergetic, fixed source, isotropic scattering problems in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. They solve two test problems with large homogeneous regions to test the adaptive order scheme. The results show that using the adaptive process the storage requirements are reduced while preserving the accuracy of the results.

  7. Status of the Development of an Embedded Transport Treatment of Control Rods and of Radial Flux Expansion in Cylindrical Nodal Diffusion Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick N. Gleicher II; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2009-09-01

    A new diffusion-transport hybrid nodal method in R-Z is presented that can effectively treat non-multiplying zones in pebble bed reactors. The new method seamlessly combines the analytic coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) diffusion formulation and a transport theory based response matrix formulation while retaining the properties and structure of the CMFD diffusion solver. The resulting combined formulation is utilized in selected non-multiplying nodes to capture angular effects on the flux. Test results indicate that the method has been implemented correctly into the CYNOD reactor kinetics code. This document also presents a status report on the development of a better source approximation for the Green’s function nodal solution in the radial direction of cylindrical geometry. The basic theory has been developed, including obtaining polynomials that are orthonormal over the domain of integration and the derivation of approximately half of the required matrix elements (single and double integrals in the source expansions).

  8. Evaluation of the use of nodal methods for MTR neutronic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsma, F.; Mueller, E.Z.

    1997-08-01

    Although modern nodal methods are used extensively in the nuclear power industry, their use for research reactor analysis has been very limited. The suitability of nodal methods for material testing reactor analysis is investigated with the emphasis on the modelling of the core region (fuel assemblies). The nodal approach`s performance is compared with that of the traditional finite-difference fine mesh approach. The advantages of using nodal methods coupled with integrated cross section generation systems are highlighted, especially with respect to data preparation, simplicity of use and the possibility of performing a great variety of reactor calculations subject to strict time limitations such as are required for the RERTR program.

  9. Improving the Accuracy of High-Order Nodal Transport Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Buscaglia, G.C.; Zamonsky, O.M.

    1999-09-27

    This paper outlines some recent advances towards improving the accuracy of neutron transport calculations using the Arbitrarily High Order Transport-Nodal (AHOT-N) Method. These advances consist of several contributions: (a) A formula for the spatial weights that allows for the polynomial order to be raised arbitrarily high without suffering adverse effects from round-off error; (b) A reconstruction technique for the angular flux, based upon a recursive formula, that reduces the pointwise error by one ordeq (c) An a posterior error indicator that estimates the true error and its distribution throughout the domain, so that it can be used for adaptively refining the approximation. Present results are mainly for ID, extension to 2D-3D is in progress.

  10. Improving the Accuracy of High-Order Nodal Transport Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Buscaglia, G.C.; Zamonsky, O.M.

    1999-09-27

    This paper outlines some recent advances towards improving the accuracy of neutron calculations using the Arbitrarily High Order Transport-Nodal (AHOT-N) Method. These transport advances consist of several contributions: (a) A formula for the spatial weights that allows for the polynomial order to be raised arbitrarily high without suffering from pollution from round-off, error; (b) A reconstruction technique for the angular flux, based upon a recursive formula, that reduces the pointwise error by one order; (c) An a posterior error indicator that estimates the true error and its distribution throughout the domain, so that it can be used for adaptively reftig the approximation. Present results are mainly for ID, extension to 2D-3D is in progress.

  11. Neutron transport in hexagonal reactor cores modeled by trigonal-geometry diffusion and simplified P{sub 3} nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerigen, Susan

    2013-05-15

    The superior advantage of a nodal method for reactor cores with hexagonal fuel assemblies discretized as cells consisting of equilateral triangles is its mesh refinement capability. In this thesis, a diffusion and a simplified P{sub 3} (or SP{sub 3}) neutron transport nodal method are developed based on trigonal geometry. Both models are implemented in the reactor dynamics code DYN3D. As yet, no other well-established nodal core analysis code comprises an SP{sub 3} transport theory model based on trigonal meshes. The development of two methods based on different neutron transport approximations but using identical underlying spatial trigonal discretization allows a profound comparative analysis of both methods with regard to their mathematical derivations, nodal expansion approaches, solution procedures, and their physical performance. The developed nodal approaches can be regarded as a hybrid NEM/AFEN form. They are based on the transverse-integration procedure, which renders them computationally efficient, and they use a combination of polynomial and exponential functions to represent the neutron flux moments of the SP{sub 3} and diffusion equations, which guarantees high accuracy. The SP{sub 3} equations are derived in within-group form thus being of diffusion type. On this basis, the conventional diffusion solver structure can be retained also for the solution of the SP{sub 3} transport problem. The verification analysis provides proof of the methodological reliability of both trigonal DYN3D models. By means of diverse hexagonal academic benchmark and realistic detailed-geometry full-transport-theory problems, the superiority of the SP{sub 3} transport over the diffusion model is demonstrated in cases with pronounced anisotropy effects, which is, e.g., highly relevant to the modeling of fuel assemblies comprising absorber material.

  12. A quasi-static polynomial nodal method for nuclear reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Modern nodal methods are currently available which can accurately and efficiently solve the static and transient neutron diffusion equations. Most of the methods, however, are limited to two energy groups for practical application. The objective of this research is the development of a static and transient, multidimensional nodal method which allows more than two energy groups and uses a non-linear iterative method for efficient solution of the nodal equations. For both the static and transient methods, finite-difference equations which are corrected by the use of discontinuity factors are derived. The discontinuity factors are computed from a polynomial nodal method using a non-linear iteration technique. The polynomial nodal method is based upon a quartic approximation and utilizes a quadratic transverse-leakage approximation. The solution of the time-dependent equations is performed by the use of a quasi-static method in which the node-averaged fluxes are factored into shape and amplitude functions. The application of the quasi-static polynomial method to several benchmark problems demonstrates that the accuracy is consistent with that of other nodal methods. The use of the quasi-static method is shown to substantially reduce the computation time over the traditional fully-implicit time-integration method. Problems involving thermal-hydraulic feedback are accurately, and efficiently, solved by performing several reactivity/thermal-hydraulic updates per shape calculation.

  13. Application of the SPH method in nodal diffusion analyses of SFR cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Evgeny; Fridman, Emil [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Reactor Safety; Mikityuk, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The current study investigated the potential of the SPH method, applied to correct the few-group XS produced by Serpent, to further improve the accuracy of the nodal diffusion solutions. The procedure for the generation of SPH-corrected few-group XS is presented in the paper. The performance of the SPH method was tested on a large oxide SFR core from the OECD/NEA SFR benchmark. The reference SFR core was modeled with the DYN3D and PARCS nodal diffusion codes using the SPH-corrected few-group XS generated by Serpent. The nodal diffusion results obtained with and without SPH correction were compared to the reference full-core Serpent MC solution. It was demonstrated that the application of the SPH method improves the accuracy of the nodal diffusion solutions, particularly for the rodded core state.

  14. Nodal Green’s Function Method Singular Source Term and Burnable Poison Treatment in Hexagonal Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Bingham; R.M. Ferrer; A.M. ougouag

    2009-09-01

    An accurate and computationally efficient two or three-dimensional neutron diffusion model will be necessary for the development, safety parameters computation, and fuel cycle analysis of a prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design under Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP). For this purpose, an analytical nodal Green’s function solution for the transverse integrated neutron diffusion equation is developed in two and three-dimensional hexagonal geometry. This scheme is incorporated into HEXPEDITE, a code first developed by Fitzpatrick and Ougouag. HEXPEDITE neglects non-physical discontinuity terms that arise in the transverse leakage due to the transverse integration procedure application to hexagonal geometry and cannot account for the effects of burnable poisons across nodal boundaries. The test code being developed for this document accounts for these terms by maintaining an inventory of neutrons by using the nodal balance equation as a constraint of the neutron flux equation. The method developed in this report is intended to restore neutron conservation and increase the accuracy of the code by adding these terms to the transverse integrated flux solution and applying the nodal Green’s function solution to the resulting equation to derive a semi-analytical solution.

  15. Least squares principle unifying finite element, finite difference and nodal methods for diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackroyd, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    A least squares principle is described which uses a penalty function treatment of boundary and interface conditions. Appropriate choices of the trial functions and vectors employed in a dual representation of an approximate solution established complementary principles for the diffusion equation. A geometrical interpretation of the principles provides weighted residual methods for diffusion theory, thus establishing a unification of least squares, variational and weighted residual methods. The complementary principles are used with either a trial function for the flux or a trial vector for the current to establish for regular meshes a connection between finite element, finite difference and nodal methods, which can be exact if the mesh pitches are chosen appropriately. Whereas the coefficients in the usual nodal equations have to be determined iteratively, those derived via the complementary principles are given explicitly in terms of the data. For the further development of the connection between finite element, finite difference and nodal methods, some hybrid variational methods are described which employ both a trial function and a trial vector.

  16. An effective method for the linearization of nodal stress components to apply ASME criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Wan; Choi, Suhn; Park, Keun Bae; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The code of ASME Sec. III prescribes the general rules upon the design of a NSSS (nuclear steam supply system). The code provides further flexibility to the design of the nuclear structures by introducing a design by analysis concept. But it still preserves the conservatisms in design works by imposing strict failure mechanism and controlling material properties in use. A designer should prove the integrity of a structure under consideration by comparing the stress intensity, which was driven from the linearization of stress at concerning section, with the prescribed one. The recent development in computing system has enabled the commercial finite element programs to be a prevailing way to structural analysis field. But only few programs provide the procedure for stress linearization through the post-processing stage. Therefore, the simplified method which uses nodal stresses over the concerning section is introduced instead. But the issues related to the accuracy of nodal stress and the stability of linearized results according to the number of nodes on a section are raised so far. In this report, an effective method utilizing the sub-structuring technique is proposed to resolve the inherent problems emerged from the linearization process using the nodal stress. 7 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  17. Spectral Method with the Tensor-Product Nodal Basis for the Steklov Eigenvalue Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses spectral method with the tensor-product nodal basis at the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points for solving the Steklov eigenvalue problem. A priori error estimates of spectral method are discussed, and based on the work of Melenk and Wohlmuth (2001, a posterior error estimator of the residual type is given and analyzed. In addition, this paper combines the shifted-inverse iterative method and spectral method to establish an efficient scheme. Finally, numerical experiments with MATLAB program are reported.

  18. A Posteriori Error Estimation for a Nodal Method in Neutron Transport Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Buscaglia, G.C.; Zamonsky, O.M.

    1999-11-03

    An a posteriori error analysis of the spatial approximation is developed for the one-dimensional Arbitrarily High Order Transport-Nodal method. The error estimator preserves the order of convergence of the method when the mesh size tends to zero with respect to the L{sup 2} norm. It is based on the difference between two discrete solutions that are available from the analysis. The proposed estimator is decomposed into error indicators to allow the quantification of local errors. Some test problems with isotropic scattering are solved to compare the behavior of the true error to that of the estimated error.

  19. A stabilised nodal spectral element method for fully nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, C.; Bigoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global L2 projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions......We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al. (1998) [5], although...... can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively...

  20. A Stabilised Nodal Spectral Element Method for Fully Nonlinear Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bigoni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al (1998) \\cite{CaiEtAl1998}, although the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global $L^2$ projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively removes any aliasing driven instabilities while retaining the high-order accuracy of the numerical...

  1. Higher order analytical nodal methods in response-matrix formulation for the multigroup neutron diffusion equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guessous, N. E-mail: guessous_najib@hotmail.com; Akhmouch, M

    2002-10-01

    A higher analytical nodal method for the multigroup neutron diffusion equations, based on the transverse integration procedure, is presented. The discrete 1D equations are cast with the interface partial current techniques in response matrix formalism. The remaining Legendre coefficients of the transverse leakage moment are determined exactly in terms of the different neutron flux moments order in the reference node. In the weighted balance equations, the transverse leakage moments are linearly written in terms of the partial currents, facial and centered fluxes moments. The self-consistent is guaranteed. Furthermore, as the order k increase the neutronic balance in each node and the copulate between the adjacent cell are reinforced. The convergence order in L{sup 2}-norm is of O(h{sup k+3-{delta}k{sub 0}}) under smooth assumptions. The efficacy of the method is showed for 2D-PWR, 2D-IAEA LWR and 2D-LMFBR benchmark problems.

  2. The Asymptotic Expansion Method via Symbolic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  3. Improvement of neutron kinetics module in TRAC-BF1code: one-dimensional nodal collocation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambrina, Ana; Barrachina, Teresa; Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail: ajambrina@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: tbarrachina@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: rmiro@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universidade Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia (Spain); Soler, Amparo, E-mail: asoler@iberdrola.es [SEA Propulsion S.L., Madrid (Spain); Concejal, Alberto, E-mail: acbe@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construcion S.A.U., Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The TRAC-BF1 one-dimensional kinetic model is a formulation of the neutron diffusion equation in the two energy groups' approximation, based on the analytical nodal method (ANM). The advantage compared with a zero-dimensional kinetic model is that the axial power profile may vary with time due to thermal-hydraulic parameter changes and/or actions of the control systems but at has the disadvantages that in unusual situations it fails to converge. The nodal collocation method developed for the neutron diffusion equation and applied to the kinetics resolution of TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulics, is an adaptation of the traditional collocation methods for the discretization of partial differential equations, based on the development of the solution as a linear combination of analytical functions. It has chosen to use a nodal collocation method based on a development of Legendre polynomials of neutron fluxes in each cell. The qualification is carried out by the analysis of the turbine trip transient from the NEA benchmark in Peach Bottom NPP using both the original 1D kinetics implemented in TRAC-BF1 and the 1D nodal collocation method. (author)

  4. [Method for optimal sensor placement in water distribution systems with nodal demand uncertainties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Ming; Wu, Xue; Ouyang, Le-Yan

    2013-08-01

    The notion of identification fitness was proposed for optimizing sensor placement in water distribution systems. Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II was used to find the Pareto front between minimum overlap of possible detection times of two events and the best probability of detection, taking nodal demand uncertainties into account. This methodology was applied to an example network. The solutions show that the probability of detection and the number of possible locations are not remarkably affected by nodal demand uncertainties, but the sources identification accuracy declines with nodal demand uncertainties.

  5. A Hybrid Interpolation Method for Geometric Nonlinear Spatial Beam Elements with Explicit Nodal Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on geometrically exact beam theory, a hybrid interpolation is proposed for geometric nonlinear spatial Euler-Bernoulli beam elements. First, the Hermitian interpolation of the beam centerline was used for calculating nodal curvatures for two ends. Then, internal curvatures of the beam were interpolated with a second interpolation. At this point, C1 continuity was satisfied and nodal strain measures could be consistently derived from nodal displacement and rotation parameters. The explicit expression of nodal force without integration, as a function of global parameters, was founded by using the hybrid interpolation. Furthermore, the proposed beam element can be degenerated into linear beam element under the condition of small deformation. Objectivity of strain measures and patch tests are also discussed. Finally, four numerical examples are discussed to prove the validity and effectivity of the proposed beam element.

  6. Verification of the Advanced Nodal Method on BWR Core Analyses by Whole-Core Heterogeneous Transport Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinya Kosaka

    2000-11-12

    Recent boiling water reactor (BWR) core and fuel designs have become more sophisticated and heterogeneous to improve fuel cycle cost, thermal margin, etc. These improvements, however, tend to lead to a strong interference effect among fuel assemblies, and it my cause some inaccuracies in the BWR core analyses by advanced nodal codes. Furthermore, the introduction of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel will lead to a much stronger interference effect between MOX and UO{sub 2} fuel assemblies. However, the CHAPLET multiassembly characteristics transport code was developed recently to solve two-dimensional cell-heterogeneous whole-core problems efficiently, and its results can be used as reference whole-core solutions to verify the accuracy of nodal core calculations. In this paper, the results of nodal core calculations were compared with their reference whole-core transport solutions to verify their accuracy (in k{sub eff}, assembly power and pin power via pin power reconstruction) of the advanced nodal method on both UO{sub 2} and MOX BWR whole-core analyses. Especially, it was investigated if there were any significant differences in the accuracy between MOX and UO{sub 2} results.

  7. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy: an effective method of detecting axillary nodal metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solon, Jacqueline G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary nodal status is an important prognostic predictor in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided core biopsy (Ax US-CB) at detecting axillary nodal metastases in patients with primary breast cancer, thereby determining how often sentinel lymph node biopsy could be avoided in node positive patients. STUDY DESIGN: Records of patients presenting to a breast unit between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who underwent axillary ultrasonography with or without preoperative core biopsy were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy were evaluated. RESULTS: Records of 718 patients were reviewed, with 445 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Forty-seven percent (n = 210\\/445) had nodal metastases, with 110 detected by Ax US-CB (sensitivity 52.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 70.1%). Axillary ultrasonography without biopsy had sensitivity and specificity of 54.3% and 97%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of nodal metastases (sensitivity 60.8%, specificity 80%). Ultrasound-guided core biopsy detected more than half of all nodal metastases, sparing more than one-quarter of all breast cancer patients an unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography, when combined with core biopsy, is a valuable component of the management of patients with primary breast cancer. Its ability to definitively identify nodal metastases before surgical intervention can greatly facilitate a patient\\'s preoperative integrated treatment plan. In this regard, we believe our study adds considerably to the increasing data, which indicate the benefit of Ax US-CB in the preoperative detection of nodal metastases.

  8. Hybrid nodal methods in the solution of the diffusion equations in X Y geometry; Metodos nodales hibridos en la solucion de las ecuaciones de difusion en geometria XY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, N. [CFE, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 43.5, 91680 Veracruz (Mexico); Alonso V, G.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: nhmiranda@mexico.com

    2003-07-01

    In 1979, Hennart and collaborators applied several schemes of classic finite element in the numerical solution of the diffusion equations in X Y geometry and stationary state. Almost two decades then, in 1996, himself and other collaborators carried out a similar work but using nodal schemes type finite element. Continuing in this last direction, in this work a group it is described a set of several Hybrid Nodal schemes denominated (NH) as well as their application to solve the diffusion equations in multigroup in stationary state and X Y geometry. The term hybrid nodal it means that such schemes interpolate not only Legendre moments of face and of cell but also the values of the scalar flow of neutrons in the four corners of each cell or element of the spatial discretization of the domain of interest. All the schemes here considered are polynomials like they were it their predecessors. Particularly, its have developed and applied eight different hybrid nodal schemes that its are very nearby related with those developed by Hennart and collaborators in the past. It is treated of schemes in those that nevertheless that decreases the number of interpolation parameters it is conserved the accurate in relation to the bi-quadratic and bi-cubic schemes. Of these eight, three were described and applied in a previous work. It is the bi-lineal classic scheme as well as the hybrid nodal schemes, bi-quadratic and bi-cubic for that here only are described the other 5 hybrid nodal schemes although they are provided numerical results for several test problems with all them. (Author)

  9. Wielandt method applied to the diffusion equations discretized by finite element nodal methods; Metodo de Wielandt aplicado a las ecuaciones de difusion discretizadas por metodos nodales de elemento finito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica R, A.; Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: mugica@esfm.ipn.mx

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays the numerical methods of solution to the diffusion equation by means of algorithms and computer programs result so extensive due to the great number of routines and calculations that should carry out, this rebounds directly in the execution times of this programs, being obtained results in relatively long times. This work shows the application of an acceleration method of the convergence of the classic method of those powers that it reduces notably the number of necessary iterations for to obtain reliable results, what means that the compute times they see reduced in great measure. This method is known in the literature like Wielandt method and it has incorporated to a computer program that is based on the discretization of the neutron diffusion equations in plate geometry and stationary state by polynomial nodal methods. In this work the neutron diffusion equations are described for several energy groups and their discretization by means of those called physical nodal methods, being illustrated in particular the quadratic case. It is described a model problem widely described in the literature which is solved for the physical nodal grade schemes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in three different ways: to) with the classic method of the powers, b) method of the powers with the Wielandt acceleration and c) method of the powers with the Wielandt modified acceleration. The results for the model problem as well as for two additional problems known as benchmark problems are reported. Such acceleration method can also be implemented to problems of different geometry to the proposal in this work, besides being possible to extend their application to problems in 2 or 3 dimensions. (Author)

  10. The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2013-01-01

    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wave-field extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media, because of its dispersion and artifact free, as well as highly accurate, solutions of the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number of inverse FFT required per time extrapolation step, and thus, a lower rank admits faster extrapolations. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its low rank representation.Thus,we obtain more accurate wave-fields using lower rank representation, and thus cheaper extrapolations. The optimization operation to define the low rank representation depends only on the velocity model, and this is done only once, and valid for a full reverse time migration (many shots) or one iteration of full waveform inversion. Applications on the BP model yielded superior results than those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, the solutions were free of the shear wave artifacts, and does not require that eta>0.

  11. Advances in Spectral Nodal Methods applied to S{sub N} Nuclear Reactor Global calculations in Cartesian Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, R.C.; Filho, H.A.; Oliveira, F.B.S. [Departamento de Modelagem Computacional, Instituto Politecnico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro- UERJ, Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, 28630-050 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Silva, F.C. da [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. e-mail: dickbarros@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Presented here are the advances in spectral nodal methods for discrete ordinates (SN) eigenvalue problems in Cartesian geometry. These coarse-mesh methods are based on three ingredients: (i) the use of the standard discretized spatial balance SN equations; (ii) the use of the non-standard spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations in the multiplying regions of the domain, e.g. fuel assemblies; and (iii) the use of the non-standard spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations in the non-multiplying regions of the domain, e.g., the reflector. In slab-geometry the hybrid SD-SGF method generates numerical results that are completely free of spatial truncation errors. In X,Y-geometry, we obtain a system of two 'slab-geometry' SN equations for the node-edge average angular fluxes by transverse-integrating the X,Y-geometry SN equations separately in the y- and then in the x-directions within an arbitrary node of the spatial grid set up on the domain. In this paper, we approximate the transverse leakage terms by constants. These are the only approximations considered in the SD-SGF-constant nodal method, as the source terms, that include scattering and eventually fission events, are treated exactly. Moreover, we describe in this paper the progress of the approximate SN albedo boundary conditions for substituting the non-multiplying regions around the nuclear reactor core. We show numerical results to typical model problems to illustrate the accuracy of spectral nodal methods for coarse-mesh SN criticality calculations. (Author)

  12. A high-order nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for nonlinear fractional Schrödinger type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelenen, Tarek

    2018-01-01

    We propose a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the nonlinear Riesz space fractional Schrödinger equation and the strongly coupled nonlinear Riesz space fractional Schrödinger equations. These problems have been expressed as a system of low order differential/integral equations. Moreover, we prove, for both problems, L2 stability and optimal order of convergence O(h N + 1) , where h is space step size and N is polynomial degree. Finally, the performed numerical experiments confirm the optimal order of convergence.

  13. Nodal-knot semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ren; Yan, Zhongbo; Lu, Ling; Wang, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Topological nodal-line semimetals are characterized by one-dimensional lines of band crossing in the Brillouin zone. In contrast to nodal points, nodal lines can be in topologically nontrivial configurations. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce the concept of "nodal-knot semimetals," whose nodal lines form topologically nontrivial knots in the Brillouin zone. We introduce a generic construction of nodal-knot semimetals, which yields the simplest trefoil nodal knot and other more complicated nodal knots. The knotted-unknotted transitions by nodal-line reconnections are also studied. Our work brings the knot theory to the subject of topological semimetals.

  14. Extrudate Expansion Modelling through Dimensional Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A new model framework is proposed to correlate extrudate expansion and extrusion operation parameters for a food extrusion cooking process through dimensional analysis principle, i.e. Buckingham pi theorem. Three dimensionless groups, i.e. energy, water content and temperature, are suggested...... to describe the extrudates expansion. From the three dimensionless groups, an equation with three experimentally determined parameters is derived to express the extrudate expansion. The model is evaluated with whole wheat flour and aquatic feed extrusion experimental data. The average deviations...... of the correlation are respectively 5.9% and 9% for the whole wheat flour and the aquatic feed extrusion. An alternative 4-coefficient equation is also suggested from the 3 dimensionless groups. The average deviations of the alternative equation are respectively 5.8% and 2.5% in correlation with the same set...

  15. Explicit formulation of a nodal transport method for discrete ordinates calculations in two-dimensional fixed-source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Prolo Filho, Joao Francisco [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei; Basso Barichello, Liliane [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica

    2014-04-15

    In this work a study of two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, is reported. The approach reduces the complexity of the multidimensional problem using a combination of nodal schemes and the Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method (ADO). The unknown leakage terms on the boundaries that appear from the use of the derivation of the nodal scheme are incorporated to the problem source term, such as to couple the one-dimensional integrated solutions, made explicit in terms of the x and y spatial variables. The formulation leads to a considerable reduction of the order of the associated eigenvalue problems when combined with the usual symmetric quadratures, thereby providing solutions that have a higher degree of computational efficiency. Reflective-type boundary conditions are introduced to represent the domain on a simpler form than that previously considered in connection with the ADO method. Numerical results obtained with the technique are provided and compared to those present in the literature. (orig.)

  16. A modified nodal pressure method for calculating flow distribution in hydraulic circuits for the case of unconventional closing relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor M. Mikhailovsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a method for numerically solving the problem of flow distribution in hydraulic circuits with lumped parameters for the case of random closing relations. The conventional and unconventional types of relations for the laws of isothermal steady fluid flow through the individual hydraulic circuit components are studied. The unconventional relations are presented by those given implicitly by the flow rate and dependent on the pressure of the working fluid. In addition to the unconventional relations, the formal conditions of applicability were introduced. These conditions provide a unique solution to the flow distribution problem. A new modified nodal pressure method is suggested. The method is more versatile in terms of the closing relation form as compared to the unmodified one, and has lower computational costs as compared to the known technique of double-loop iteration. The paper presents an analysis of the new method and its algorithm, gives a calculated example of a gas transportation network, and its results.

  17. Development of a new two-dimensional Cartesian geometry nodal multigroup discrete-ordinates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pevey, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of this work is the development and testing of a new family of methods for calculating the spatial dependence of the neutron density in nuclear systems described in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The energy and angular dependence of the neutron density is approximated using the multigroup and discrete ordinates techniques, respectively. The resulting FORTRAN computer code is designed to handle an arbitrary number of spatial, energy, and angle subdivisions. Any degree of scattering anisotropy can be handled by the code for either external source or fission systems. The basic approach is to (1) approximate the spatial variation of the neutron source across each spatial subdivision as an expansion in terms of a user-supplied set of exponential basis functions; (2) solve analytically for the resulting neutron density inside each region; and (3) approximate this density in the basis function space in order to calculate the next iteration flux-dependent source terms. In the general case the calculation is iterative due to neutron sources which depend on the neutron density itself, such as scattering interactions.

  18. Long-time stability effects of quadrature and artificial viscosity on nodal discontinuous Galerkin methods for gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Bradford; Hackl, Jason; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan

    2017-11-01

    Nodal discontinuous Galerkin schemes present an attractive approach to robust high-order solution of the equations of fluid mechanics, but remain accompanied by subtle challenges in their consistent stabilization. The effect of quadrature choices (full mass matrix vs spectral elements), over-integration to manage aliasing errors, and explicit artificial viscosity on the numerical solution of a steady homentropic vortex are assessed over a wide range of resolutions and polynomial orders using quadrilateral elements. In both stagnant and advected vortices in periodic and non-periodic domains the need arises for explicit stabilization beyond the numerical surface fluxes of discontinuous Galerkin spectral elements. Artificial viscosity via the entropy viscosity method is assessed as a stabilizing mechanism. It is shown that the regularity of the artificial viscosity field is essential to its use for long-time stabilization of small-scale features in nodal discontinuous Galerkin solutions of the Euler equations of gas dynamics. Supported by the Department of Energy Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program Contract DE-NA0002378.

  19. A Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Shepard and Least-Squares Method Based on Duo Nodal Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The meshless Shepard and least-squares (MSLS interpolation is a newly developed partition of unity- (PU- based method which removes the difficulties with many other meshless methods such as the lack of the Kronecker delta property. The MSLS interpolation is efficient to compute and retain compatibility for any basis function used. In this paper, we extend the MSLS interpolation to the local Petrov-Galerkin weak form and adopt the duo nodal support domain. In the new formulation, there is no need for employing singular weight functions as is required in the original MSLS and also no need for background mesh for integration. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the present method.

  20. A GPU-accelerated nodal discontinuous Galerkin method with high-order absorbing boundary conditions and corner/edge compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modave, A.; Atle, A.; Chan, J.; Warburton, T.

    2017-12-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin finite element schemes exhibit attractive features for accurate large-scale wave-propagation simulations on modern parallel architectures. For many applications, these schemes must be coupled with non-reflective boundary treatments to limit the size of the computational domain without losing accuracy or computational efficiency, which remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a combination of a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method with high-order absorbing boundary conditions (HABCs) for cuboidal computational domains. Compatibility conditions are derived for HABCs intersecting at the edges and the corners of a cuboidal domain. We propose a GPU implementation of the computational procedure, which results in a multidimensional solver with equations to be solved on 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D spatial regions. Numerical results demonstrate both the accuracy and the computational efficiency of our approach.

  1. A spectral nodal method for eigenvalue S{sub N} transport problems in two-dimensional rectangular geometry for energy multigroup nuclear reactor global calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Davi Jose M.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    A spectral nodal method is developed for multigroup x,y-geometry discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) eigenvalue problems for nuclear reactor global calculations. This method uses the conventional multigroup SN discretized spatial balance nodal equations with two non-standard auxiliary equations: the spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations for the discretization nodes inside the fuel regions, and the spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations for the non-multiplying regions, such as the baffle and the reactor. This spectral nodal method is derived from the analytical general solution of the SN transverse integrated nodal equations with constant approximations for the transverse leakage terms within each discretization node. The SD and SGF auxiliary equations have parameters, which are determined to preserve the homogeneous and the particular components of these local general solutions. Therefore, we refer to the offered method as the hybrid SD-SGF-Constant Nodal (SD-SGF-CN) method. The S{sub N} discretized spatial balance equations, together with the SD and the SGF auxiliary equations form the SD-SGF-CN equations. We solve the SD-SGF-CN equations by using the one-node block inversion inner iterations (NBI), wherein the most recent estimates for the incoming group node-edge average or prescribed boundary conditions are used to evaluate the outgoing group node-edge average fluxes in the directions of the S{sub N} transport sweeps, for each estimate of the dominant eigenvalue in the conventional Power outer iterations. We show in numerical calculations that the SD-SGF-CN method is very accurate for coarse-mesh multigroup S{sub N} eigenvalue problems, even though the transverse leakage terms are approximated rather simply. (author)

  2. Solution of the transport equation in stationary state, in one and two dimensions, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte en estado estacionario, en 1 y 2 dimensiones, para ensambles tipo BWR usando metodos nodales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J.V

    2002-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to solve the neutron transport equation in one and two dimensions (slab geometry and X Y geometry, respectively), with no time dependence, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods. In slab geometry, the nodal methods here used are the polynomial continuous (CMPk) and discontinuous (DMPk) families but only the Linear Continuous (also known as Diamond Difference), the Quadratic Continuous (QC), the Cubic Continuous (CC), the Step Discontinuous (also known as Backward Euler), the Linear Discontinuous (LD) and the Quadratic Discontinuous (QD) were considered. In all these schemes the unknown function, the angular neutron flux, is approximated as a sum of basis functions in terms of Legendre polynomials, associated to the values of the neutron flux in the edges (left, right, or both) and the Legendre moments in the cell, depending on the nodal scheme used. All these schemes were implemented in a computer program developed in previous thesis works and known with the name TNX. This program was modified for the purposes of this work. The program discreetizes the domain of concern in one dimension and determines numerically the angular neutron flux for each point of the discretization when the number of energy groups and regions are known starting from an initial approximation for the angular neutron flux being consistent with the boundary condition imposed for a given problem. Although only problems with two-energy groups were studied the computer program does not have limitations regarding the number of energy groups and the number of regions. The two problems analyzed with the program TNX have practically the same characteristics (fuel and water), with the difference that one of them has a control rod. In the part corresponding to two-dimensional problems, the implemented nodal methods were those designated as hybrids that consider not only the edge and cell Legendre moments, but also the values of the neutron flux in the corner points

  3. Initial system design method for non-rotationally symmetric systems based on Gaussian brackets and Nodal aberration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Gross, Herbert

    2017-05-01

    Freeform surfaces play important roles in improving the imaging performance of off-axis optical systems. However, for some systems with high requirements in specifications, the structure of the freeform surfaces could be very complicated and the number of freeform surfaces could be large. That brings challenges in fabrication and increases the cost. Therefore, to achieve a good initial system with minimum aberrations and reasonable structure before implementing freeform surfaces is essential for optical designers. The already existing initial system design methods are limited to certain types of systems. A universal tool or method to achieve a good initial system efficiently is very important. In this paper, based on the Nodal aberration theory and the system design method using Gaussian Brackets, the initial system design method is extended from rotationally symmetric systems to general non-rotationally symmetric systems. The design steps are introduced and on this basis, two off-axis three-mirror systems are pre-designed using spherical shape surfaces. The primary aberrations are minimized using the nonlinear least-squares solver. This work provides insight and guidance for initial system design of off-axis mirror systems.

  4. Behavior of the Diamond Difference and Low-Order Nodal Numerical Transport Methods in the Thick Diffusion Limit for Slab Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Daniel Fury [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the thick diffusion limit of various spatial discretizations of the one-dimensional, steady-state, monoenergetic, discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. This work specifically addresses the two lowest order nodal methods, AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1, as well as reconsiders the asymptotic limit of the Diamond Difference method. The asymptotic analyses of the AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1 nodal methods show that AHOT-N0 does not possess the thick diffusion limit for cell edge or cell average fluxes except under very limiting conditions, which is to be expected considering the AHOT-N0 method limits to the Step method in the thick diffusion limit. The AHOT-N1 method, which uses a linear in-cell representation of the flux, was shown to possess the thick diffusion limit for both cell average and cell edge fluxes. The thick diffusion limit of the DD method, including the boundary conditions, was derived entirely in terms of cell average scalar fluxes. It was shown that, for vacuum boundaries, only when σt, h, and Q are constant and σa = 0 is the asymptotic limit of the DD method close to the finite-differenced diffusion equation in the system interior, and that the boundary conditions between the systems will only agree in the absence of an external source. For a homogeneous medium an effective diffusion coefficient was shown to be present, which was responsible for causing numeric diffusion in certain cases. A technique was presented to correct the numeric diffusion in the interior by altering certain problem parameters. Numerical errors introduced by the boundary conditions and material interfaces were also explored for a two-region problem using the Diamond Difference method. A discrete diffusion solution which exactly solves the one-dimensional diffusion equation in a homogeneous region with constant cross sections and a uniform external source was also developed and shown to be equal to the finite

  5. A Local Incident Flux Response Expansion Transport Method for Coupling to the Diffusion Method in Cylindrical Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingkang Zhang; Farzad Rahnema; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2013-09-01

    A local incident flux response expansion transport method is developed to generate transport solutions for coupling to diffusion theory codes regardless of their solution method (e.g., fine mesh, nodal, response based, finite element, etc.) for reactor core calculations in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cylindrical geometries. In this approach, a Monte Carlo method is first used to precompute the local transport solution (i.e., response function library) for each unique transport coarse node, in which diffusion theory is not valid due to strong transport effects. The response function library is then used to iteratively determine the albedo coefficients on the diffusion-transport interfaces, which are then used as the coupling parameters within the diffusion code. This interface coupling technique allows a seamless integration of the transport and diffusion methods. The new method retains the detailed heterogeneity of the transport nodes and naturally constructs any local solution within them by a simple superposition of local responses to all incoming fluxes from the contiguous coarse nodes. A new technique is also developed for coupling to fine-mesh diffusion methods/codes. The local transport method/module is tested in 2-D and 3-D pebble-bed reactor benchmark problems consisting of an inner reflector, an annular fuel region, and a controlled outer reflector. It is found that the results predicted by the transport module agree very well with the reference fluxes calculated directly by MCNP in both benchmark problems.

  6. Thermal expansion method for lining tantalum alloy tubing with tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Mattson, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A differential-thermal expansion method was developed to line T-111 (tantalum - 8 percent tungsten - 2 percent hafnium) tubing with a tungsten diffusion barrier as part of a fuel element fabrication study for a space power nuclear reactor concept. This method uses a steel mandrel, which has a larger thermal expansion than T-111, to force the tungsten against the inside of the T-111 tube. Variables investigated include lining temperature, initial assembly gas size, and tube length. Linear integrity increased with increasing lining temperature and decreasing gap size. The method should have more general applicability where cylinders must be lined with a thin layer of a second material.

  7. Application of potential harmonic expansion method to BEC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We adopt the potential harmonics expansion method for an ab initio solution of the many-body system in a Bose condensate containing interacting bosons. Unlike commonly adopted mean-field theories, our method is capable of handling two-body correlation properly. We disregard three- and higher-body correlations.

  8. Prony's method and the connected-moments expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco M.

    2013-02-01

    We show that Prony's method provides the full solution to the nonlinear equations of the connected-moments expansion (CMX). Knowledge of all the parameters in the CMX ansatz is useful for the analysis of the convergence properties of the approach. Prony's method may also be suitable for the calculation of the correlation function for simple quantum-mechanical models.

  9. expansion method and travelling wave solutions for the perturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we construct the travelling wave solutions to the perturbed nonlinear. Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law non-linearity by the extended (G /G)-expansion method. Based on this method, we obtain abundant exact travelling wave solutions of NLSE with. Kerr law nonlinearity with arbitrary ...

  10. The extended (G/G)-expansion method and travelling wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we construct the travelling wave solutions to the perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law non-linearity by the extended (′/)-expansion method. Based on this method, we obtain abundant exact travelling wave solutions of NLSE with Kerr law nonlinearity with arbitrary parameters.

  11. NEXD: A Software Package for High Order Simulation of Seismic Waves using the Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxberg, Marc S.; Lamert, Andre; Möller, Thomas; Lambrecht, Lasse; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Numerical simulations are a key tool to improve the knowledge of the interior of the earth. For example, global simulations of seismic waves excited by earthquakes are essential to infer the velocity structure within the earth. Numerical investigations on local scales can be helpful to find and characterize oil and gas reservoirs. Moreover, simulations help to understand wave propagation in boreholes and other complex geological structures. Even on laboratory scales, numerical simulations of seismic waves can help to increase knowledge about the behaviour of materials, e.g., to understand the mechanisms of attenuation or crack propagation in rocks. To deal with highly complex heterogeneous models, the Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method (NDG) is used to calculate synthetic seismograms. The main advantage of this method is the ability to mesh complex geometries by using triangular or tetrahedral elements together with a high order spatial approximation of the wave field. The presented simulation tool NEXD has the capability of simulating elastic, anelastic, and poroelastic wave fields for seismic experiments for one-, two- and three-dimensional settings. In addition, fractures can be modelled using linear slip interfaces. NEXD also provides adjoint kernel capabilities to invert for seismic wave velocities. External models provided by, e.g., Trelis can be used for parallelized computations. For absorbing boundary conditions, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) can be used. Examples are presented to validate the method and to show the capability of the software for complex models such as the simulation of a tunnel reconaissance experiment. The software is available on GitHub: https://github.com/seismology-RUB

  12. Stellarator expansion methods for MHD equilibrium and stability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, V.E.; Charlton, L.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Hender, T.C.; Garcia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Two methods for performing stellarator expansion, or average method, MHD calculations are described. The first method includes the calculation of vacuum, equilibrium, and stability, using the Greene and Johnson stellarator expansion in which the equilibrium is reduced to a 2-D problem by averaging over the geometric toroidal angle in real space coordinates. In the second method, the average is performed in a system of vacuum magnetic coordinates. Both methods are implemented to utilize realistic vacuum field information, making them applicable to configuration studies and machine design, as well as to basic research. Illustrative examples are presented to detail the sensitivities of the calculations to physical parameters and to show numerical convergence and the comparison of these methods with each other and with other methods.

  13. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for reverse-time migration on GPU clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modave, A.; St-Cyr, A.; Mulder, W. A.; Warburton, T.

    2015-11-01

    Improving both accuracy and computational performance of numerical tools is a major challenge for seismic imaging and generally requires specialized implementations to make full use of modern parallel architectures. We present a computational strategy for reverse-time migration (RTM) with accelerator-aided clusters. A new imaging condition computed from the pressure and velocity fields is introduced. The model solver is based on a high-order discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for the pressure-velocity system with unstructured meshes and multirate local time stepping. We adopted the MPI+X approach for distributed programming where X is a threaded programming model. In this work we chose OCCA, a unified framework that makes use of major multithreading languages (e.g. CUDA and OpenCL) and offers the flexibility to run on several hardware architectures. DGTD schemes are suitable for efficient computations with accelerators thanks to localized element-to-element coupling and the dense algebraic operations required for each element. Moreover, compared to high-order finite-difference schemes, the thin halo inherent to DGTD method reduces the amount of data to be exchanged between MPI processes and storage requirements for RTM procedures. The amount of data to be recorded during simulation is reduced by storing only boundary values in memory rather than on disk and recreating the forward wavefields. Computational results are presented that indicate that these methods are strong scalable up to at least 32 GPUs for a three-dimensional RTM case.

  14. Arbitrary Order Mixed Mimetic Finite Differences Method with Nodal Degrees of Freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaroshenko, Oleksandr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Manzini, Gianmarco [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    In this work we consider a modification to an arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method (MFD) for a diffusion equation on general polygonal meshes [1]. The modification is based on moving some degrees of freedom (DoF) for a flux variable from edges to vertices. We showed that for a non-degenerate element this transformation is locally equivalent, i.e. there is a one-to-one map between the new and the old DoF. Globally, on the other hand, this transformation leads to a reduction of the total number of degrees of freedom (by up to 40%) and additional continuity of the discrete flux.

  15. High-order nodal discontinuous Galerkin particle-in-cell method on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. B.; Hesthaven, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    We present a high-order particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm for the simulation of kinetic plasmas dynamics. The core of the algorithm utilizes an unstructured grid discontinuous Galerkin Maxwell field solver combining high-order accuracy with geometric flexibility. We introduce algorithms in the Lagrangian framework that preserve the favorable properties of the field solver in the PIC solver. Fast full-order interpolation and effective search algorithms are used for tracking individual particles on the general grid and smooth particle shape functions are introduced to ensure low noise in the charge and current density. A pre-computed levelset distance function is employed to represent the geometry and facilitates complex particle-boundary interaction. To enforce charge conservation we consider two different techniques, one based on projection and one on hyperbolic cleaning. Both are found to work well, although the latter is found be too expensive when used with explicit time integration. Examples of simple plasma phenomena, e.g., plasma waves, instabilities, and Landau damping are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions and/or results found by other computational methods. We also discuss generic well known problems such as numerical Cherenkov radiation and grid heating before presenting a few two-dimensional tests, showing the potential of the current method to handle fully relativistic plasma dynamics in complex geometries.

  16. Quality of potential harmonics expansion method for dilute Bose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present and examine an approximate but ab initio many-body approach, viz., potential harmonics expansion method (PHEM), which includes two-body correlations for dilute Bose–Einstein condensates. Comparing the total ground state energy for three trapped interacting bosons calculated in PHEM with the exact ...

  17. Statistical mechanics of self-gravitating system: Cluster expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, O.; Kurokawa, T.; Morikawa, M.; Nakamichi, A.; Sota, Y.; Tatekawa, T.; Maeda, K.-I.

    1999-09-01

    We study statistical mechanics of the self-gravitating system applying the cluster expansion method developed in solid state physics. By summing infinite series of diagrams, we derive a complex free energy whose imaginary part is related to the relaxation time of the system, and a two-point correlation function.

  18. Quality of potential harmonics expansion method for dilute Bose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present and examine an approximate but ab initio many-body approach, viz., potential harmonics expansion method (PHEM), which includes two-body correla- tions for dilute Bose–Einstein condensates. .... in coupled angular momentum representation. Now Y[K](Ω) must be totally sym- metric under any pair ...

  19. expansion method for the Burgers, Burgers–Huxley and modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematical physics. Keywords. (G /G)-expansion method; Burgers equation; Burgers–Huxley equation; modified. Burgers–KdV equation; travelling wave solutions. PACS Nos 02.30.Jr; 02.70.Wz; 05.45.Yv; 94.05.Fg. 1. Introduction. Most of the phenomena in real world can be described using nonlinear equations. In recent.

  20. Optimized t-expansion method for the Rabi Hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travenec, Igor, E-mail: fyzitrav@savba.sk [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Samaj, Ladislav [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-10-31

    A polemic arose recently about the applicability of the t-expansion method to the calculation of the ground state energy E{sub 0} of the Rabi model. For specific choices of the trial function and very large number of involved connected moments, the t-expansion results are rather poor and exhibit considerable oscillations. In this Letter, we formulate the t-expansion method for trial functions containing two free parameters which capture two exactly solvable limits of the Rabi Hamiltonian. At each order of the t-series, E{sub 0} is assumed to be stationary with respect to the free parameters. A high accuracy of E{sub 0} estimates is achieved for small numbers (5 or 6) of involved connected moments, the relative error being smaller than 10{sup -4} (0.01%) within the whole parameter space of the Rabi Hamiltonian. A special symmetrization of the trial function enables us to calculate also the first excited energy E{sub 1}, with the relative error smaller than 10{sup -2} (1%). -- Highlights: → We study the ground state energy of the Rabi Hamiltonian. → We use the t-expansion method with an optimized trial function. → High accuracy of estimates is achieved, the relative error being smaller than 0.01%. → The calculation of the first excited state energy is made. The method has a general applicability.

  1. Rayleigh-Ritz variation method and connected-moments expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2009-11-15

    We compare the connected-moments expansion (CMX) with the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method in the Krylov space (RRK). As a benchmark model we choose the same two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator already treated earlier by means of the CMX. Our results show that the RRK converges more smoothly than the CMX. We also discuss the fact that the CMX is size consistent while the RRK is not.

  2. Exploring Bayesian model selection methods for effective field theory expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Taylor; Yamauchi, Yukari; Furnstahl, Richard

    2017-09-01

    A fundamental understanding of the microscopic properties and interactions of nuclei has long evaded physicists due to the complex nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). One approach to modeling nuclear interactions is known as chiral effective field theory (EFT). Today, the method's greatest limitation lies in the approximation of interaction potentials and their corresponding uncertainties. Computing EFT expansion coefficients, known as Low-Energy Constants (LECs), from experimental data reduces to a problem of statistics and fitting. In the conventional approach, the fitting is done using frequentist methods that fail to evaluate the quality of the model itself (e.g., how many orders to use) in addition to its fit to the data. By utilizing Bayesian statistical methods for model selection, the model's quality can be taken into account, providing a more controlled and robust EFT expansion. My research involves probing different Bayesian model checking techniques to determine the most effective means for use with estimating the values of LECs. In particular, we are using model problems to explore the Bayesian calculation of an EFT expansion's evidence and an approximation to this value known as the WAIC (Widely Applicable Information Criterion). This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306250.

  3. Comparison between the new G'/G expansion method and the extended homogeneous balance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gozukizil

    2015-12-01

    some modifications using the Riccati equation and the reduced nonlinear ordinary differential equation, respectively, the new G'/G expansion method is straightforward and concise, and taking special values for parameters and using some hyperbolic identities, all the solutions obtained by the extended homogeneous balance method coincide with the solutions obtained by the new G'/G expansion method. Moreover, the new G'/G expansion method gives the general form of solutions and is applied to nonlinear partial differential equations directly without using tedious calculation instead of the extended homogeneous balance method.

  4. Optimized t-expansion method for the Rabi Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travěnec, Igor; Šamaj, Ladislav

    2011-10-01

    A polemic arose recently about the applicability of the t-expansion method to the calculation of the ground state energy E0 of the Rabi model. For specific choices of the trial function and very large number of involved connected moments, the t-expansion results are rather poor and exhibit considerable oscillations. In this Letter, we formulate the t-expansion method for trial functions containing two free parameters which capture two exactly solvable limits of the Rabi Hamiltonian. At each order of the t-series, E0 is assumed to be stationary with respect to the free parameters. A high accuracy of E0 estimates is achieved for small numbers (5 or 6) of involved connected moments, the relative error being smaller than 10 (0.01%) within the whole parameter space of the Rabi Hamiltonian. A special symmetrization of the trial function enables us to calculate also the first excited energy E1, with the relative error smaller than 10 (1%).

  5. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  6. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain); Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  7. Generalization of Spectral Green's Function nodal method for slab-geometry fixed-source adjoint transport problems in S{sub N} formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curbelo, Jesus P.; Silva, Odair P. da; Barros, Ricardo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Modelagem Computacional; Garcia, Carlos R., E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    Presented here is the application of the adjoint technique for solving source-detector discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) transport problems by using a spectral nodal method. For slab-geometry adjoint S-N model, the adjoint spectral Green's function method (SGF{sup †}) is extended to multigroup problems considering arbitrary L'th-order of scattering anisotropy, and the possibility of non-zero prescribed boundary conditions for the forward S{sub N} transport problems. The SGF{sup †} method converges numerical solutions that are completely free from spatial truncation errors. In order to generate numerical solutions of the SGF{sup †} equations, we use the partial adjoint one-node block inversion (NBI) iterative scheme. Partial adjoint NBI scheme uses the most recent estimates for the node-edge adjoint angular Fluxes in the outgoing directions of a given discretization node, to solve the resulting adjoint SN problem in that node for all the adjoint angular fluxes in the incoming directions, which constitute the outgoing adjoint angular fluxes for the adjacent node in the sweeping directions. Numerical results are given to illustrate the present spectral nodal method features and some advantages of using the adjoint technique in source-detector problems. author)

  8. Application of the Asymptotic Taylor Expansion Method to Bistable Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Ozer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent method called asymptotic Taylor expansion (ATEM is applied to determine the analytical expression for eigenfunctions and numerical results for eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation for the bistable potentials. Optimal truncation of the Taylor series gives a best possible analytical expression for eigenfunctions and numerical results for eigenvalues. It is shown that the results are obtained by a simple algorithm constructed for a computer system using symbolic or numerical calculation. It is observed that ATEM produces excellent results consistent with the existing literature.

  9. Breaking the link between environmental degradation and oil palm expansion: a method for enabling sustainable oil palm expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Harmen Smit

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance.

  10. Breaking the link between environmental degradation and oil palm expansion: a method for enabling sustainable oil palm expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmen Smit, Hans; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance.

  11. The Lost Foam method – pre-expansion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the study, a pre-expansion station, designed by authors, was presented. It consists of a batch pre-expander with a 90 liters capacity foaming chamber, equipped with fluidized-solid dryer of pre-expanded beads and a pneumatic transport system of granules to the silo. Steam is delivered to the pre-expander from the electric vapor generator type LW 40.1. In the study, work principle of the pre-expansion station and pre-expansion tests carried out on this position were presented.

  12. Application of the nodal method RTN-0 for the solution of the neutron diffusion equation dependent of time in hexagonal-Z geometry; Aplicacion del metodo nodal RTN-0 para la solucion de la ecuacion de difusion de neutrones dependiente del tiempo en geometria hexagonal-Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The solution of the neutron diffusion equation either for reactors in steady state or time dependent, is obtained through approximations generated by implementing of nodal methods such as RTN-0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec of zero index), which is used in this study. Since the nodal methods are applied in quadrangular geometries, in this paper a technique in which the hexagonal geometry through the transfinite interpolation of Gordon-Hall becomes the appropriate geometry to make use of the nodal method RTN-0 is presented. As a result, a computer program was developed, whereby is possible to obtain among other results the neutron multiplication effective factor (k{sub eff}), and the distribution of radial and/or axial power. To verify the operation of the code, was applied to three benchmark problems: in the first two reactors VVER and FBR, results k{sub eff} and power distribution are obtained, considering the steady state case of reactor; while the third problem a type VVER is analyzed, in its case dependent of time, which qualitative results are presented on the behavior of the reactor power. (Author)

  13. A Manifesto of Nodalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monty Adkins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the notion of Nodalism as a means describing contemporary culture and of understanding my own creative practice in electronic music composition. It draws on theories and ideas from Kirby, Bauman, Bourriaud, Deleuze, Guatarri, and Gochenour, to demonstrate how networks of ideas or connectionist neural models of cognitive behaviour can be used to contextualize, understand and become a creative tool for the creation of contemporary electronic music.

  14. Analytical reconstruction scheme for the coarse-mesh solution generated by the spectral nodal method for neutral particle discrete ordinates transport model in slab geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.b [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Instituto Politecnico (IPRJ/UERJ), Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, 28630-050 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Filho, Hermes Alves, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.b [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Instituto Politecnico (IPRJ/UERJ), Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, 28630-050 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Platt, Gustavo M., E-mail: gmplatt@iprj.uerj.b [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Instituto Politecnico (IPRJ/UERJ), Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, 28630-050 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Francisco Bruno S., E-mail: fbrunoso@uol.com.b [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Instituto Politecnico (IPRJ/UERJ), Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, 28630-050 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Militao, Damiano S., E-mail: mestredam@yahoo.com.b [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Instituto Politecnico (IPRJ/UERJ), Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, 28630-050 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Coarse-mesh numerical methods are very efficient in the sense that they generate accurate results in short computational time, as the number of floating point operations generally decrease, as a result of the reduced number of mesh points. On the other hand, they generate numerical solutions that do not give detailed information on the problem solution profile, as the grid points can be located considerably away from each other. In this paper we describe two steps for the analytical reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution generated by the spectral nodal method for neutral particle discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) transport model in slab geometry. The first step of the algorithm is based on the analytical reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution within each discretization cell of the grid set up on the spatial domain. The second step is based on the angular reconstruction of the discrete ordinates solution between two contiguous ordinates of the angular quadrature set used in the S{sub N} model. Numerical results are given so we can illustrate the accuracy of the two reconstruction techniques, as described in this paper.

  15. Visualization of mouse nodal cilia and nodal flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Shigenori

    2013-01-01

    The earliest left-right asymmetry in mouse development arises in 7.5 days, at the ventral surface of the embryonic node. The node cells possess monocilia beating in rotatory fashion to generate fluid flow from the right to the left (nodal flow). The direction of nodal flow will determine the side of expression of nodal, the responsible gene for "leftness." Nodal flow is visualized by combination of DIC (differential interference contrast) and microbeads in culture medium. Node cilia movement is visualized by DIC, a high-speed camera, and image processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An entropy stable nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for the two dimensional shallow water equations on unstructured curvilinear meshes with discontinuous bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermeyer, Niklas; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Kopriva, David A.

    2017-07-01

    We design an arbitrary high-order accurate nodal discontinuous Galerkin spectral element approximation for the non-linear two dimensional shallow water equations with non-constant, possibly discontinuous, bathymetry on unstructured, possibly curved, quadrilateral meshes. The scheme is derived from an equivalent flux differencing formulation of the split form of the equations. We prove that this discretization exactly preserves the local mass and momentum. Furthermore, combined with a special numerical interface flux function, the method exactly preserves the mathematical entropy, which is the total energy for the shallow water equations. By adding a specific form of interface dissipation to the baseline entropy conserving scheme we create a provably entropy stable scheme. That is, the numerical scheme discretely satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. Finally, with a particular discretization of the bathymetry source term we prove that the numerical approximation is well-balanced. We provide numerical examples that verify the theoretical findings and furthermore provide an application of the scheme for a partial break of a curved dam test problem.

  17. Model and Expansion Based Methods of Detection of Small Masses in Radiographs of Dense Breasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laine, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    .... During this year of the project we focused on an enhancement method to be carried out prior the detection algorithm and have begun to incorporate an expansion based method of detecting masses in digital radiographs. We showed that the method of adaptive multi-scale histogram equalization can be integrated into our existing expansion framework as a preprocessing step to assist detection. This method will be tested using a local database of digital mammograms during the final year of the project.

  18. Efficient method for AC transmission network expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran); Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Rashidinejad, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran); Carreno, E.M. [Centro de Engenharia, Universidade Estadual do Oeste de Parana, UNIOESTE, Foz do Iguacu - PR (Brazil); Romero, R. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    A combinatorial mathematical model in tandem with a metaheuristic technique for solving transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) using an AC model associated with reactive power planning (RPP) is presented in this paper. AC-TNEP is handled through a prior DC model while additional lines as well as VAr-plants are used as reinforcements to cope with real network requirements. The solution of the reinforcement stage can be obtained by assuming all reactive demands are supplied locally to achieve a solution for AC-TNEP and by neglecting the local reactive sources, a reactive power planning (RPP) will be managed to find the minimum required reactive power sources. Binary GA as well as a real genetic algorithm (RGA) are employed as metaheuristic optimization techniques for solving this combinatorial TNEP as well as the RPP problem. High quality results related with lower investment costs through case studies on test systems show the usefulness of the proposal when working directly with the AC model in transmission network expansion planning, instead of relaxed models. (author)

  19. expansion method and its applications to nonlinear evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . (NLEEs) are widely used as ... formation method [3], Hirota bilinear method [4], the tanh method [5], symmetry method. [6], Painlevé ... recent years, due to the availability of symbolic computation systems like Mathematica or Maple, direct ...

  20. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for site effects assessment in viscoelastic media—verification and validation in the Nice basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrusse, Fabien; Glinsky, Nathalie; Gélis, Céline; Lanteri, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method for site effects assessment. The P-SV seismic wave propagation is studied in 2-D space heterogeneous media. The first-order velocity-stress system is obtained by assuming that the medium is linear, isotropic and viscoelastic, thus considering intrinsic attenuation. The associated stress-strain relation in the time domain being a convolution, which is numerically intractable, we consider the rheology of a generalized Maxwell body replacing the convolution by a set of differential equations. This results in a velocity-stress system which contains additional equations for the anelastic functions expressing the strain history of the material. Our numerical method, suitable for complex triangular unstructured meshes, is based on centred numerical fluxes and a leap-frog time-discretization. The method is validated through numerical simulations including comparisons with a finite-difference scheme. We study the influence of the geological structures of the Nice basin on the surface ground motion through the comparison of 1-D and 2-D soil response in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil. At last, we compare numerical results with real recordings data. The computed multiple-sediment basin response allows to reproduce the shape of the recorded amplification in the basin. This highlights the importance of knowing the lithological structures of a basin, layers properties and interface geometry.

  1. The (′/-Expansion Method for Abundant Traveling Wave Solutions of Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the traveling wave solutions of the fifth-order Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon (CDG equation by the (/-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, the trigonometric, and the rational functions. It is shown that the (/-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

  2. On the comparsion of the Spherical Wave Expansion-to-Plane Wave Expansion and the Sources Reconstruction Method for Antenna Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Yuri; Cappellin, Cecilia; Las-Heras, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    A comparison between two recently developed methods for antenna diagnostics is presented. On one hand, the Spherical Wave Expansion-to-Plane Wave Expansion (SWE-PWE), based on the relationship between spherical and planar wave modes. On the other hand, the Sources Reconstruction Method (SRM), based...

  3. LATE ONSET ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL TACHYCARDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENTINGA, ML; MEEDER, JG; CRIJNS, HJGM; DEMUINCK, ED; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive

  4. Application of the RT-0 nodal methods and NRMPO matrix-response to the cycles 1 and 2 of the LVC; Aplicacion de los metodos nodal RT-0 y matriz respuesta NRMPO a los ciclos 1 y 2 de la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Hernandez L, H.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The nodal methods the same as that of matrix-response are used to develop numeric calculations, so much in static as dynamics of reactors, in one, two and three dimensions. The topic of this work is to apply the equations modeled in the RPM0 program, obtained when using the nodal scheme RT-0 (Raviart-Thomas index zero) in the neutron diffusion equation in stationary state X Y geometry, applying finite differences centered in mesh and lineal reactivity; also, to use those equations captured in the NRMPO program developed by E. Malambu that uses the matrix-response method in X Y geometry. The numeric results of the radial distribution of power by fuel assembly of the unit 1, in the cycles 1 and 2 of the CLV obtained by both methods, they are compared with the calculations obtained with the CM-PRESTO code that is a neutronic-thermo hydraulic simulator in three dimensions. The comparison of the radial distribution of power in the cycles 1 and 2 of the CLV with the CM-PRESTO code, it presents for RPM0 maximum errors of 8.2% and 12.4% and for NRMPO 31.2% and 61.3% respectively. The results show that it can be feasible to use the program RPM0 like a quick and efficient tool in the multicycle analysis in the fuel management. (Author)

  5. A reduced polynomial chaos expansion method for the stochastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stochastic finite element analysis of elliptic type partial differential equations is considered. A reduced method of the spectral stochastic finite element method using polynomial chaos is proposed. The method is based on the spectral decomposition of the deterministic system matrix. The reduction is achieved by ...

  6. expansion method and its application to Sharma–Tasso–Olver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The validity and advantage of the proposed method are illustrated by its application to the Sharma–Tasso–Olver equation. As a result, various ... method is introduced to construct exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The competitive point of this method is that there is no need to set a restriction to the function.

  7. A Time-domain incident field extrapolation technique based on the singularity expansion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasen, J.J.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, a method is presented to extrapolate measurements from Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) assessments directly in the time domain. This method is based on a time-domain extrapolation function which is obtained from the Singularity Expansion Method representation of the measured

  8. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2010-07-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  9. Internet Selling Expansion Inhibitors: A Mixed Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research based on providing five questions has tried to identify and prioritize the main and sub inhibitors of internet selling boosting in Iran. A mixed method research (QUAN has been used in this research. In the qualitative phase, individual in-depth interviews have been done with seven e-shop managers. In this phase, 45 detailed inhibitors have been detected. These 45 inhibitors have been categorized in nine sub categories and four main categories. In the quantitative phase a 51-items questionnaires has been designed including six demographical and 45 specialized questions. Findings of the quantitative phase reveal that the main obstacles include legal, cultural, infrastructural and managerial inhibitors. In addition, sub category inhibitors include legal, governmental, telecommunication, society, human resource, transportation, financial and customer related.     Keywords: e-selling, Iran, Inhibitors, Mixed method.

  10. Double helix nodal line superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Time-reversal invariant superconductors in three dimensions may contain nodal lines in the Brillouin zone, which behave exactly as Wilson loops of 3d momentum-space Chern-Simons theory of the Berry connection. Here we study the conditions of realizing linked nodal lines (Wilson loops), which yield a topological contribution to the thermal magnetoelectric coefficient that is given by the Chern-Simons action. We find the essential conditions are the existence of torus or higher genus fermi surf...

  11. Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors for steel reinforced concrete structures using a fiber optic coil winding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Gong, Peng; Qiao, Guofu; Lu, Jie; Lv, Xingjun; Ou, Jinping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a strain calibration experiment is designed and conducted to obtain the strain coefficient of single mode fiber optics. Results have shown that there is a good linear relationship between Brillouin frequency and applied strain. Then, three kinds of novel fiber optical Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors with different fiber optic coil winding packaging schemes are designed. Sensors were embedded into concrete specimens to monitor expansion strain caused by steel rebar corrosion, and their performance was studied in a designed electrochemical corrosion acceleration experiment. Experimental results have shown that expansion strain along the fiber optic coil winding area can be detected and measured by the three kinds of sensors with different measurement range during development the corrosion. With the assumption of uniform corrosion, diameters of corrosion steel rebars were obtained using calculated average strains. A maximum expansion strain of 6,738 με was monitored. Furthermore, the uniform corrosion analysis model was established and the evaluation formula to evaluate mass loss rate of steel rebar under a given corrosion rust expansion rate was derived. The research has shown that three kinds of Brillouin sensors can be used to monitor the steel rebar corrosion expansion of reinforced concrete structures with good sensitivity, accuracy and monitoring range, and can be applied to monitor different levels of corrosion. By means of this kind of monitoring technique, quantitative corrosion expansion monitoring can be carried out, with the virtues of long durability, real-time monitoring and quasi-distribution monitoring.

  12. Brillouin Corrosion Expansion Sensors for Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures Using a Fiber Optic Coil Winding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjun Lv

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a strain calibration experiment is designed and conducted to obtain the strain coefficient of single mode fiber optics. Results have shown that there is a good linear relationship between Brillouin frequency and applied strain. Then, three kinds of novel fiber optical Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors with different fiber optic coil winding packaging schemes are designed. Sensors were embedded into concrete specimens to monitor expansion strain caused by steel rebar corrosion, and their performance was studied in a designed electrochemical corrosion acceleration experiment. Experimental results have shown that expansion strain along the fiber optic coil winding area can be detected and measured by the three kinds of sensors with different measurement range during development the corrosion. With the assumption of uniform corrosion, diameters of corrosion steel rebars were obtained using calculated average strains. A maximum expansion strain of 6,738 με was monitored. Furthermore, the uniform corrosion analysis model was established and the evaluation formula to evaluate mass loss rate of steel rebar under a given corrosion rust expansion rate was derived. The research has shown that three kinds of Brillouin sensors can be used to monitor the steel rebar corrosion expansion of reinforced concrete structures with good sensitivity, accuracy and monitoring range, and can be applied to monitor different levels of corrosion. By means of this kind of monitoring technique, quantitative corrosion expansion monitoring can be carried out, with the virtues of long durability, real-time monitoring and quasi-distribution monitoring.

  13. The ( G /G, 1/G ) -expansion method for solving nonlinear space ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-06

    Jul 6, 2016 ... G /G,1/G. ) -expansion method for solving fractional differential equations based on a fractional complex transform. We apply this method for solving space–time fractional Cahn–Allen equation and space–time fractional Klein–Gordon equation. The fractional derivatives are described in the sense.

  14. Engineered high expansion glass-ceramics having near linear thermal strain and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Steve Xunhu; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Lyon, Nathanael L.

    2018-01-30

    The present invention relates to glass-ceramic compositions, as well as methods for forming such composition. In particular, the compositions include various polymorphs of silica that provide beneficial thermal expansion characteristics (e.g., a near linear thermal strain). Also described are methods of forming such compositions, as well as connectors including hermetic seals containing such compositions.

  15. Design of materials with extreme thermal expansion using a three-phase topology optimization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.

    1997-01-01

    We show how composites with extremal or unusual thermal expansion coefficients can be designed using a numerical topology optimization method. The composites are composed of two different material phases and void. The optimization method is illustrated by designing materials having maximum therma...

  16. Multiple (G/G)-expansion method and its applications to nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an extended multiple (′/)-expansion method is proposed to seek exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The validity and advantages of the proposed method is illustrated by its applications to the Sharma–Tasso–Olver equation, the sixth-order Ramani equation, the generalized shallow water ...

  17. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamically adjusting local routing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-03-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Each node implements a respective routing strategy for routing data through the network, the routing strategies not necessarily being the same in every node. The routing strategies implemented in the nodes are dynamically adjusted during application execution to shift network workload as required. Preferably, adjustment of routing policies in selective nodes is performed at synchronization points. The network may be dynamically monitored, and routing strategies adjusted according to detected network conditions.

  18. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by routing through transporter nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-11-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a destination. Some packets are constrained to be routed through respective designated transporter nodes, the automated routing strategy determining a path from a respective source node to a respective transporter node, and from a respective transporter node to a respective destination node. Preferably, the source node chooses a routing policy from among multiple possible choices, and that policy is followed by all intermediate nodes. The use of transporter nodes allows greater flexibility in routing.

  19. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by employing bandwidth shells at areas of overutilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-04-27

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a final destination. The default routing strategy is altered responsive to detection of overutilization of a particular path of one or more links, and at least some traffic is re-routed by distributing the traffic among multiple paths (which may include the default path). An alternative path may require a greater number of link traversals to reach the destination node.

  20. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamic global mapping of contended links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Musselman, Roy Glenn [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Swartz, Brent Allen [Chippewa Falls, WI; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul [Eden Prairie, MN

    2011-10-04

    A massively parallel nodal computer system periodically collects and broadcasts usage data for an internal communications network. A node sending data over the network makes a global routing determination using the network usage data. Preferably, network usage data comprises an N-bit usage value for each output buffer associated with a network link. An optimum routing is determined by summing the N-bit values associated with each link through which a data packet must pass, and comparing the sums associated with different possible routes.

  1. Plume expansion of a laser-induced plasma studied with the particle-in-cell method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Nedela, T; Urbassek, H

    2002-01-01

     The initial stage of laser-induced plasma plume expansion from a solid in vacuum and the effect of the Coulomb field have been studied. We have performed a one-dimensional numerical calculation by mapping the charge on a computational grid according to the particle-in-cell (PIC) method of Birdsall...

  2. Plume expansion of a laser-induced plasma studied with the particle-in-cell method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, O.; Nedelea, T.; Schou, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The initial stage of laser-induced plasma plume expansion from a solid in vacuum and the effect of the Coulomb field have been studied. We have performed a one-dimensional numerical calculation by mapping the charge on a computational grid according to the particle-in-cell (PIC) method of Birdsall...

  3. Exact solutions of some fractional differential equations by various expansion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, Muammer; Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet; Unsal, Omer

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we construct the exact solutions of some nonlinear spacetime fractional differential equations involving modified Riemann-Liouville derivative in mathematical physics and applied mathematics; namely the fractional modified Benjamin-Bona- Mahony (mBBM) and Kawahara equations by using G'/G and (G'/G, 1/G)-expansion methods.

  4. Comparative numerical solutions of stiff Ordinary differential equations using magnus series expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURE KÖME

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the effect of Magnus Series Expansion Method on homogeneous stiff ordinary differential equations with different stiffness ratios. A Magnus type integrator is used to obtain numerical solutions of two different examples of stiff problems and exact and approximate results are tabulated. Furthermore, absolute error graphics are demonstrated in detail.

  5. expansion method for a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An improved algorithm is devised for using the (G /G)-expansion method to solve nonlinear differential-difference equations. With the aid of symbolic computation, we choose a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation to illustrate the validity and advan- tages of the improved algorithm. As a result, hyperbolic ...

  6. Soliton solutions of coupled systems by improved (G'/G)-expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Shakeel, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    The paper witnesses the extension of improved (G'/G)-expansion method to generate traveling wave solutions of coupled systems. The proposed algorithm is extremely effective and is tested on two very important systems (namely coupled Higgs and Maccari equations) in mathematical physics. Numerical results reflect complete compatibility of suggested scheme.

  7. Double Helix Nodal Line Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Time-reversal invariant superconductors in three dimensions may contain nodal lines in the Brillouin zone, which behave as Wilson loops of 3D momentum-space Chern-Simons theory of the Berry connection. Here we study the conditions of realizing linked nodal lines (Wilson loops), which yield a topological contribution to the thermal magnetoelectric coefficient that is given by the Chern-Simons action. We find the essential conditions are the existence of torus or higher genus Fermi surfaces and spiral spin textures. We construct such a model with two torus Fermi surfaces, where a generic spin-dependent interaction leads to double-helix-like linked nodal lines as the superconductivity is developed.

  8. Double Helix Nodal Line Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-10-06

    Time-reversal invariant superconductors in three dimensions may contain nodal lines in the Brillouin zone, which behave as Wilson loops of 3D momentum-space Chern-Simons theory of the Berry connection. Here we study the conditions of realizing linked nodal lines (Wilson loops), which yield a topological contribution to the thermal magnetoelectric coefficient that is given by the Chern-Simons action. We find the essential conditions are the existence of torus or higher genus Fermi surfaces and spiral spin textures. We construct such a model with two torus Fermi surfaces, where a generic spin-dependent interaction leads to double-helix-like linked nodal lines as the superconductivity is developed.

  9. Hit expansion approaches using multiple similarity methods and virtualized query structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Andreas; Parel, Serge P

    2013-05-24

    Ligand-based virtual screening and computational hit expansion methods undoubtedly facilitate the finding of novel active chemical entities, utilizing already existing knowledge of active compounds. It has been demonstrated that the parallel execution of complementary similarity search methods enhances the performance of such virtual screening campaigns. In this article, we examine the use of virtualized template (query, seed) structures as an extension to common search methods, such as fingerprint and pharmacophore graph-based similarity searches. We demonstrate that template virtualization by bioisosteric enumeration and other rule-based methods, in combination with standard similarity search techniques, represents a powerful approach for hit expansion following high-throughput screening campaigns. The reliability of the methods is demonstrated by four different test data sets representing different target classes and two hit finding case studies on the epigenetic targets G9a and LSD1.

  10. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jethwa, Krishan R.; Kahila, Mohamed M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Hunt, Katie N. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brown, Lindsay C.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. Results: The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. Conclusions: In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met.

  11. The (G'/G)-expansion method for the nonlinear time fractional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Omer; Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet; Cevikel, Adem C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain exact solutions of two time fractional differential equations using Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville derivative which is encountered in mathematical physics and applied mathematics; namely (3 + 1)-dimensional time fractional KdV-ZK equation and time fractional ADR equation by using fractional complex transform and (G/'G )-expansion method. It is shown that the considered transform and method are very useful in solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  12. Exact Solutions of Fractional Burgers and Cahn-Hilliard Equations Using Extended Fractional Riccati Expansion Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Huizhang Yang; Bin He

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general fractional Riccati equation and with Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative to an extended fractional Riccati expansion method for solving the time fractional Burgers equation and the space-time fractional Cahn-Hilliard equation, the exact solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions are obtained. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  13. Exact Solutions of Fractional Burgers and Cahn-Hilliard Equations Using Extended Fractional Riccati Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general fractional Riccati equation and with Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative to an extended fractional Riccati expansion method for solving the time fractional Burgers equation and the space-time fractional Cahn-Hilliard equation, the exact solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions are obtained. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  14. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Microtubules Nonlinear Models Dynamics Investigations through the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Alam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research article, we present exact solutions with parameters for two nonlinear model partial differential equations(PDEs describing microtubules, by implementing the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method. The considered models, describing highly nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, can be reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. While the first PDE describes the longitudinal model of nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, the second one describes the nonlinear model of dynamics of radial dislocations in microtubules. The acquired solutions are then graphically presented, and their distinct properties are enumerated in respect to the corresponding dynamic behavior of the microtubules they model. Various patterns, including but not limited to regular, singular kink-like, as well as periodicity exhibiting ones, are detected. Being the method of choice herein, the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method not disappointing in the least, is found and declared highly efficient.

  16. A robust and efficient stepwise regression method for building sparse polynomial chaos expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Simon, E-mail: Simon.Abraham@ulb.ac.be [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Research Group Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Raisee, Mehrdad [School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbaniasl, Ghader; Contino, Francesco; Lacor, Chris [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Research Group Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-01

    Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions are widely used in various engineering fields for quantifying uncertainties arising from uncertain parameters. The computational cost of classical PC solution schemes is unaffordable as the number of deterministic simulations to be calculated grows dramatically with the number of stochastic dimension. This considerably restricts the practical use of PC at the industrial level. A common approach to address such problems is to make use of sparse PC expansions. This paper presents a non-intrusive regression-based method for building sparse PC expansions. The most important PC contributions are detected sequentially through an automatic search procedure. The variable selection criterion is based on efficient tools relevant to probabilistic method. Two benchmark analytical functions are used to validate the proposed algorithm. The computational efficiency of the method is then illustrated by a more realistic CFD application, consisting of the non-deterministic flow around a transonic airfoil subject to geometrical uncertainties. To assess the performance of the developed methodology, a detailed comparison is made with the well established LAR-based selection technique. The results show that the developed sparse regression technique is able to identify the most significant PC contributions describing the problem. Moreover, the most important stochastic features are captured at a reduced computational cost compared to the LAR method. The results also demonstrate the superior robustness of the method by repeating the analyses using random experimental designs.

  17. Comparison of Two Different PCR-based Methods for Detection of GAA Expansions in Frataxin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezam, Mona; Amirfiroozi, Akbar; Togha, Mansoureh; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats is the molecular basis of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Precise detection of the GAA expansion repeat in frataxin gene has always been a challenge. Different molecular methods have been suggested for detection of GAA expansion, including; short-PCR, long-PCR, Triplet repeat primed-PCR (TP-PCR) and southern blotting. The aim of study was to evaluate two PCR-based methods, TP-PCR and long-PCR, and to explore the use of TP-PCR accompanying with long-PCR for accurate genotyping of FRDA patients. Blood samples were collected from six Iranian patients suspected to FRDA, who referred to the Department of Medical Genetics at Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the year 2014. For one of these patients' four asymptomatic members of the family were also recruited for the analysis. DNA extraction was performed by two different methods. TP-PCR and long-PCR were carried out in all samples. The type of this study is assessment / investigation of methods. Using a combination of the above methods, the genotypes of all samples were confirmed as five homozygous mutants (expanded GAA repeats), two heterozygous and three homozygous normal (normal repeat size). The results obtained by TP-PCR are consistent with long-PCR results. The presence or absence of expanded alleles can be identified correctly by TP-PCR. Performing long-PCR and Fluorescent-long-PCR enables accurate genotyping in all samples. This approach is highly reliable. It could be successfully used for detection of GAA expansion repeats.

  18. Applicability of the polynomial chaos expansion method for personalization of a cardiovascular pulse wave propagation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberts, W; Donders, W P; Delhaas, T; van de Vosse, F N

    2014-12-01

    Patient-specific modeling requires model personalization, which can be achieved in an efficient manner by parameter fixing and parameter prioritization. An efficient variance-based method is using generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE), but it has not been applied in the context of model personalization, nor has it ever been compared with standard variance-based methods for models with many parameters. In this work, we apply the gPCE method to a previously reported pulse wave propagation model and compare the conclusions for model personalization with that of a reference analysis performed with Saltelli's efficient Monte Carlo method. We furthermore differentiate two approaches for obtaining the expansion coefficients: one based on spectral projection (gPCE-P) and one based on least squares regression (gPCE-R). It was found that in general the gPCE yields similar conclusions as the reference analysis but at much lower cost, as long as the polynomial metamodel does not contain unnecessary high order terms. Furthermore, the gPCE-R approach generally yielded better results than gPCE-P. The weak performance of the gPCE-P can be attributed to the assessment of the expansion coefficients using the Smolyak algorithm, which might be hampered by the high number of model parameters and/or by possible non-smoothness in the output space. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Reactivation of Embryonic Nodal Signaling is Associated with Tumor Progression and Promotes the Growth of Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mitchell G.; Margaryan, Naira V.; Loessner, Daniela; Collins, Angus; Kerr, Kris M.; Turner, Megan; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Stephens, Carson R.; Lai, John; BioResource, APC; Postovit, Lynne-Marie; Clements, Judith A.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nodal is a member of the Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) superfamily that directs embryonic patterning and promotes the plasticity and tumorigenicity of tumor cells, but its role in the prostate is unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize the expression and function of Nodal in prostate cancer and determine whether, like other TGFβ ligands, it modulates androgen receptor (AR) activity. Methods Nodal expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays and Western blots of prostate cell lines. The functional role of Nodal was examined using Matrigel and soft agar growth assays. Cross-talk between Nodal and AR signaling was assessed with luciferase reporter assays and expression of endogenous androgen regulated genes. Results Significantly increased Nodal expression was observed in cancer compared with benign prostate specimens. Nodal was only expressed by DU145 and PC3 cells. All cell lines expressed Nodal’s co-receptor, Cripto-1, but lacked Lefty, a critical negative regulator of Nodal signaling. Recombinant human Nodal triggered downstream Smad2 phosphorylation in DU145 and LNCaP cells, and stable transfection of pre-pro-Nodal enhanced the growth of LNCaP cells in Matrigel and soft agar. Finally, Nodal attenuated AR signaling, reducing the activity of a PSA promoter construct in luciferase assays and down-regulating the endogenous expression of androgen regulated genes. Conclusions An aberrant Nodal signaling pathway is re-expressed and functionally active in prostate cancer cells. PMID:21656830

  20. Many-body expansion of the Fock matrix in the fragment molecular orbital method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitri G.; Kitaura, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    A many-body expansion of the Fock matrix in the fragment molecular orbital method is derived up to three-body terms for restricted Hartree-Fock and density functional theory in the atomic orbital basis and compared to the expansion in the basis of fragment molecular orbitals (MOs). The physical nature of many-body corrections is revealed in terms of charge transfer terms. An improvement of the fragment MO expansion is proposed by adding exchange to the embedding. The accuracy of all developed methods is demonstrated in comparison to unfragmented results for polyalanines, a water cluster, Trp-cage (PDB: 1L2Y) and crambin (PDB: 1CRN) proteins, a zeolite cluster, a Si nano-wire, and a boron nitride ribbon. The physical nature of metallicity is discussed, and it is shown what kinds of metallic systems can be treated by fragment-based methods. The density of states is calculated for a fully closed and a partially open nano-ring of boron nitride with a diameter of 105 nm.

  1. Many-body expansion of the Fock matrix in the fragment molecular orbital method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitri G; Kitaura, Kazuo

    2017-09-14

    A many-body expansion of the Fock matrix in the fragment molecular orbital method is derived up to three-body terms for restricted Hartree-Fock and density functional theory in the atomic orbital basis and compared to the expansion in the basis of fragment molecular orbitals (MOs). The physical nature of many-body corrections is revealed in terms of charge transfer terms. An improvement of the fragment MO expansion is proposed by adding exchange to the embedding. The accuracy of all developed methods is demonstrated in comparison to unfragmented results for polyalanines, a water cluster, Trp-cage (PDB: 1L2Y) and crambin (PDB: 1CRN) proteins, a zeolite cluster, a Si nano-wire, and a boron nitride ribbon. The physical nature of metallicity is discussed, and it is shown what kinds of metallic systems can be treated by fragment-based methods. The density of states is calculated for a fully closed and a partially open nano-ring of boron nitride with a diameter of 105 nm.

  2. Spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Hirayama, Motoaki; Murakami, Shuichi

    2017-10-01

    Nodal-line semimetals, one of the topological semimetals, have degeneracy along nodal lines where the band gap is closed. In many cases, the nodal lines appear accidentally, and in such cases it is impossible to determine whether the nodal lines appear or not, only from the crystal symmetry and the electron filling. In this paper, for spinless systems, we show that in specific space groups at 4 N +2 fillings (8 N +4 fillings including the spin degree of freedom), presence of the nodal lines is required regardless of the details of the systems. Here, the spinless systems refer to crystals where the spin-orbit coupling is negligible and the spin degree of freedom can be omitted because of the SU(2) spin degeneracy. In this case the shape of the band structure around these nodal lines is like an hourglass, and we call this a spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetal. We construct a model Hamiltonian as an example and we show that it is always in the spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetal phase even when the model parameters are changed without changing the symmetries of the system. We also establish a list of all the centrosymmetric space groups, under which spinless systems always have hourglass nodal lines, and illustrate where the nodal lines are located. We propose that Al3FeSi2 , whose space-group symmetry is Pbcn (No. 60), is one of the nodal-line semimetals arising from this mechanism.

  3. Improvements in practical applicability of NSHEX: nodal transport calculation code for three-dimensional hexagonal-Z geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Kazuteru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-07-01

    As a tool to perform a fast reactor core calculations with high accuracy, NSHEX the nodal transport calculation code for three-dimensional hexagonal-Z geometry is under development. To improve the practical applicability of NSHEX, for instance, in its application to safety analysis and commercial reactor core design studies, we investigated the basic theory used in it, improved the program performance, and evaluated its applicability to the analysis of commercial reactor cores. The current studies show the following: (1) An improvement in the treatment of radial leakage in the radial nodal coupling equation bettered calculational convergence for safety analysis calculation, so the applicability of NSHEX to safety analysis was improved. (2) As a result of comparison of results from NSHEX and the standard core calculation code, it was confirmed that there was consistency between them. (3) According to the evaluation of the effect due to the difference of calculational condition, it was found that the calculation under appropriate nodal expansion orders and Sn orders correspond to the one under most detailed condition. However further investigation is required to reduce the uncertainty in calculational results due to the treatment of high order flux moments. (4) A whole core version of NSHEX enabling calculation for any FBR core geometry has been developed, this improved general applicability of NSHEX. (5) An investigation of the applicability of the rebalance method to acceleration clarified that this improved calculational convergence and it was effective. (J.P.N.)

  4. The impact of audit and feedback on nodal harvest in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Jingyu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate nodal harvest (≥ 12 lymph nodes in colorectal cancer has been shown to optimize staging and proposed as a quality indicator of colorectal cancer care. An audit within a single health district in Nova Scotia, Canada presented and published in 2002, revealed that adequate nodal harvest occurred in only 22% of patients. The goal of this current study was to identify factors associated with adequate nodal harvest, and specifically to examine the impact of the audit and feedback strategy on nodal harvest. Methods This population-based study included all patients undergoing resection for primary colorectal cancer in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 01 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. Linkage of the provincial cancer registry with other databases (hospital discharge, physician claims data, and national census data provided clinicodemographic, diagnostic, and treatment-event data. Factors associated with adequate nodal harvest were examined using multivariate logistic regression. The specific interaction between year and health district was examined to identify any potential effect of dissemination of the previously-performed audit. Results Among the 2,322 patients, the median nodal harvest was 8; overall, 719 (31% had an adequate nodal harvest. On multivariate analysis, audited health district (p Conclusions Improvements in colorectal cancer nodal harvest did occur over time. A published audit demonstrating suboptimal nodal harvest appeared to be an effective knowledge translation tool, though more so for the audited health district, suggesting a potentially beneficial effect of audit and feedback strategies.

  5. Solution of Nonlinear Space-Time Fractional Differential Equations Using the Fractional Riccati Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A.-B. Abdel-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional Riccati expansion method is proposed to solve fractional differential equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of the method, space-time fractional Korteweg-de Vries equation, regularized long-wave equation, Boussinesq equation, and Klein-Gordon equation are considered. As a result, abundant types of exact analytical solutions are obtained. These solutions include generalized trigonometric and hyperbolic functions solutions which may be useful for further understanding of the mechanisms of the complicated nonlinear physical phenomena and fractional differential equations. Among these solutions, some are found for the first time. The periodic and kink solutions are founded as special case.

  6. Design of materials with extreme thermal expansion using a three-phase topology optimization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.

    1997-01-01

    that optimizes an objective function (e.g. thermoelastic properties) subject to certain constraints, such as elastic symmetry or volume fractions of the constituent phases, within a periodic base cell. The effective properties of the material structures are found using the numerical homogenization method based......Composites with extremal or unusual thermal expansion coefficients are designed using a three-phase topology optimization method. The composites are made of two different material phases and a void phase. The topology optimization method consists in finding the distribution of material phases...... microstructures that realize the bounds. For three phases, the optimal microstructures are also compared with new rigorous bounds and again it is shown that the method yields designed materials with thermoelastic properties that are close to the bounds. The three-phase design method is illustrated by designing...

  7. Relativistic stars in Starobinsky gravity with the matched asymptotic expansions method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapoǧlu, Savaş; ćıkıntoǧlu, Sercan; Ekşi, K. Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    We study the structure of relativistic stars in R +α R2 theory using the method of matched asymptotic expansion to handle the higher order derivatives in field equations arising from the higher order curvature term. We find solutions, parametrized by α , for uniform density stars. We obtain the mass-radius relations and study the dependence of maximum mass on α . We find that Mmax is almost linearly proportional to α . For each α the maximum mass configuration has the biggest compactness parameter (η =G M /R c2), and we argue that the general relativistic stellar configuration corresponding to α =0 is the least compact among these.

  8. Vibration Analysis of Conical Shells by the Improved Fourier Expansion-Based Differential Quadrature Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyou Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved Fourier expansion-based differential quadrature (DQ algorithm is proposed to study the free vibration behavior of truncated conical shells with different boundary conditions. The original function is expressed as the Fourier cosine series combined with close-form auxiliary functions. Those auxiliary functions are introduced to ensure and accelerate the convergence of series expansion. The grid points are uniformly distributed along the space. The weighting coefficients in the DQ method are easily obtained by the inverse of the coefficient matrix. The derivatives in both the governing equations and the boundaries are discretized by the DQ method. Natural frequencies and modal shapes can be easily obtained by solving the numerical eigenvalue equations. The accuracy and stability of this proposed method are validated against the results in the literature and a very good agreement is observed. The centrosymmetric properties of these newly proposed weighting coefficients are also validated. Studies on the effects of semivertex angle and the ratio of length to radius are reported.

  9. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  10. Traveling Wave Solutions of the Nonlinear -Dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation Using the Two Variables -Expansion Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zayed, E. M. E; Hoda Ibrahim, S. A; Abdelaziz, M. A. M

    2012-01-01

      The two variables ([superscript]G[variant prime][/superscript] /G,1/G) -expansion method is proposed in this paper to construct new exact traveling wave solutions with parameters of the nonlinear (3+1...

  11. Time-domain incident-field extrapolation technique based on the singularity-expansion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaasen, J.J.

    1991-05-01

    In this report, a method presented to extrapolate measurements from Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) assessments directly in the time domain. This method is based on a time-domain extrapolation function which is obtained from the Singularity Expansion Method representation of the measured incident field of the NEMP simulator. Once the time-domain extrapolation function is determined, the responses recorded during an assessment can be extrapolated simply by convolving them with the time domain extrapolation function. It is found that to obtain useful extrapolated responses, the incident field measurements needs to be made minimum phase; otherwise unbounded results can be obtained. Results obtained with this technique are presented, using data from actual assessments.

  12. Shell energy in the heaviest nuclei using the Green's function oscillator expansion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwiok, S.; Dudek, W.; Kaszynski, P. [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warsaw University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-03-01

    The Green's function oscillator expansion method and the generalized Strutinsky smoothing procedure are applied to shell corrections in the heaviest elements. A macroscopic-microscopic method with a finite deformed Woods-Saxon potential is used. The stability condition for the shell correction is discussed in detail and the parameters defining the smoothing procedure are carefully determined. It is demonstrated that the spurious contribution to the total binding energy due to the unphysical particle gas that appears in the standard method can be as large as 1.5 MeV for weakly bound neutron-rich superheavy nuclei, but the effect on energy differences (e.g., alpha-decay values) is fairly small. (orig.)

  13. High-frequency shoot regeneration of nodal explants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... develop a rapid and efficient in vitro multiplication and regeneration system using nodal explants. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant material and initiation of in vitro shoot cultures. Young in vivo shoots with six to eight nodes of T. hemsleyanum were collected from wild population in Zhejiang Province, ...

  14. Application of the G'/G Expansion Method in Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xing-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing input power in optical fibers, the dispersion problem is becoming a severe restriction on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM. With the aid of solitons, in which the shape and speed can remain constant during propagation, it is expected that the transmission of nonlinear ultrashort pulses in optical fibers can effectively control the dispersion. The propagation of a nonlinear ultrashort laser pulse in an optical fiber, which fits the high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE, has been solved using the G'/G expansion method. Group velocity dispersion, self-phase modulation, the fourth-order dispersion, and the fifth-order nonlinearity of the high-order NLSE were taken into consideration. A series of solutions has been obtained such as the solitary wave solutions of kink, inverse kink, the tangent trigonometric function, and the cotangent trigonometric function. The results have shown that the G'/G expansion method is an effective way to obtain the exact solutions for the high-order NLSE, and it provides a theoretical basis for the transmission of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear optical fibers.

  15. About peculiarities of application of the method of fast expansions in the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of the method of fast expansions is given to solve nonlinear differential equations. Application  rules of the operator of fast expansions are specified for solving differential equations. According to the method of fast expansions, an unknown function can be represented as the sum of the boundary function and Fourier series sines and cosines for one variable. The special construction of the boundary functions leads to reasonably fast convergence of the Fourier series, so that for engineering calculations, it is sufficient to consider only the first three members. The method is applicable both to linear and nonlinear integro-differential systems. By means of applying the method of fast expansions to nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations the problem is reduced to a closed system of ordinary differential equations, which solution doesn't represent special difficulties. We can reapply the method of fast expansions to the resulting system of differential equations and reduce the original problem to a system of algebraic equations. If the problem is n-dimensional, then after n-fold application of the method of fast expansions the problem will be reduced to a closed algebraic system. Finally, we obtain an analytic-form solution of complicated boundary value problem in partial derivatives. The flow of an incompressible viscous fluid of Navier–Stokes is considered in a curvilinear pipe. The problem is reduced to solving a closed system of ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions by the method of fast expansions. The article considers peculiarities of finding the coefficients of boundary functions and Fourier coefficients for the zero-order and first-order operators of fast expansions. Obtaining the analytic-form solution is of great interest, because it allows to analyze and to investigate the influence of various factors on the properties of the viscous fluid in specific cases.

  16. An exponential expansion method and its application to the strain wave equation in microstructured solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Hafez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of wave propagation in microstructured materials should be able to account for various scales of microstructure. Based on the proposed new exponential expansion method, we obtained the multiple explicit and exact traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation for describing different types of wave propagation in microstructured solids. The solutions obtained in this paper include the solitary wave solutions of topological kink, singular kink, non-topological bell type solutions, solitons, compacton, cuspon, periodic solutions, and solitary wave solutions of rational functions. It is shown that the new exponential method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides an effective and straightforward mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering.

  17. Spherical Harmonic Expansion Method for Coupled Electron-Phonon Boltzmann Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santia, Marco; Albrecht, John

    2014-03-01

    Thermoelectric transport modeling often relies on independent Boltzmann transport equations (BTEs) for electrons and phonons which work best near equilibrium (linearized) and steady-state. Device design relies heavily on this baseline approximation. Monte Carlo methods can allow for complex physical interactions (e.g., anharmonicity) but their stochastic nature has practical limits. Distribution functions with wide disparities in population (e.g., ratios >108 between majority and minority carriers.[1]) are a computational challenge. We present a coupled BTE solver based on a k-space spherical harmonic expansion (SHE) of the distribution functions and eigenstates of electrons and phonons. The method is deterministic and allows for detailed treatments of scattering processes, yet ameliorates the issues with population disparity within phase space. We set the formalism and examine the accuracy of the SHE for phonon band structures, calculate scattering rates determined within that representation, and compare our preliminary results for distribution statistics in control examples such as thermal conductivity and drift velocity.

  18. Towards automatic global error control: Computable weak error expansion for the tau-leap method

    KAUST Repository

    Karlsson, Peer Jesper

    2011-01-01

    This work develops novel error expansions with computable leading order terms for the global weak error in the tau-leap discretization of pure jump processes arising in kinetic Monte Carlo models. Accurate computable a posteriori error approximations are the basis for adaptive algorithms, a fundamental tool for numerical simulation of both deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. These pure jump processes are simulated either by the tau-leap method, or by exact simulation, also referred to as dynamic Monte Carlo, the Gillespie Algorithm or the Stochastic Simulation Slgorithm. Two types of estimates are presented: an a priori estimate for the relative error that gives a comparison between the work for the two methods depending on the propensity regime, and an a posteriori estimate with computable leading order term. © de Gruyter 2011.

  19. Validation of the activity expansion method with ultrahigh pressure shock equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Forrest J.; Young, David A.

    1997-11-01

    Laser shock experiments have recently been used to measure the equation of state (EOS) of matter in the ultrahigh pressure region between condensed matter and a weakly coupled plasma. Some ultrahigh pressure data from nuclear-generated shocks are also available. Matter at these conditions has proven very difficult to treat theoretically. The many-body activity expansion method (ACTEX) has been used for some time to calculate EOS and opacity data in this region, for use in modeling inertial confinement fusion and stellar interior plasmas. In the present work, we carry out a detailed comparison with the available experimental data in order to validate the method. The agreement is good, showing that ACTEX adequately describes strongly shocked matter.

  20. Application of the Characteristic Time Expansion Method for Estimating Nonlinear Restoring Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Wei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a characteristic time expansion method (CTEM for estimating nonlinear restoring forces. Because noisy data and numerical instability are the main causes of numerical developing problems in an inverse field, a polynomial to identify restoring forces is usually adopted to eliminate these problems. However, results of the way doing are undesirable for a high order of polynomial. To overcome this difficulty, the characteristic length (CL is introduced into the power series, and a natural regularization technique is applied to ensure numerical stability and determine the existence of a solution. As compared to previous solutions presented in other researches, the proposed method is a desirable and accurate solver for the problem of restoring the force in the inverse vibration problems.

  1. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Zylinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

  2. Solution of the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck transport equation using exponential nodal schemes; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte de Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck usando esquemas nodales exponenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega J, R.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: roj@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2003-07-01

    There are carried out charge and energy calculations deposited due to the interaction of electrons with a plate of a certain material, solving numerically the electron transport equation for the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck approach of first order in plate geometry with a computer program denominated TEOD-NodExp (Transport of Electrons in Discreet Ordinates, Nodal Exponentials), using the proposed method by the Dr. J. E. Morel to carry out the discretization of the variable energy and several spatial discretization schemes, denominated exponentials nodal. It is used the Fokker-Planck equation since it represents an approach of the Boltzmann transport equation that is been worth whenever it is predominant the dispersion of small angles, that is to say, resulting dispersion in small dispersion angles and small losses of energy in the transport of charged particles. Such electrons could be those that they face with a braking plate in a device of thermonuclear fusion. In the present work its are considered electrons of 1 MeV that impact isotropically on an aluminum plate. They were considered three different thickness of plate that its were designated as problems 1, 2 and 3. In the calculations it was used the discrete ordinate method S{sub 4} with expansions of the dispersion cross sections until P{sub 3} order. They were considered 25 energy groups of uniform size between the minimum energy of 0.1 MeV and the maximum of 1.0 MeV; the one spatial intervals number it was considered variable and it was assigned the values of 10, 20 and 30. (Author)

  3. Expansion methods for solving integral equations with multiple time lags using Bernstein polynomial of the second kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Paripour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Bernstein polynomials are used to approximatethe solutions of linear integral equations with multiple time lags (IEMTL through expansion methods (collocation method, partition method, Galerkin method. The method is discussed in detail and illustrated by solving some numerical examples. Comparison between the exact and approximated results obtained from these methods is carried out

  4. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve load over many years or decades. CEMs can be computationally complex and are often forced to estimate key parameters using simplified methods to achieve acceptable solve times or for other reasons. In this paper, we discuss one of these parameters -- capacity value (CV). We first provide a high-level motivation for and overview of CV. We next describe existing modeling simplifications and an alternate approach for estimating CV that utilizes hourly '8760' data of load and VG resources. We then apply this 8760 method to an established CEM, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model (Eurek et al. 2016). While this alternative approach for CV is not itself novel, it contributes to the broader CEM community by (1) demonstrating how a simplified 8760 hourly method, which can be easily implemented in other power sector models when data is available, more accurately captures CV trends than a statistical method within the ReEDS CEM, and (2) providing a flexible modeling framework from which other 8760-based system elements (e.g., demand response, storage, and transmission) can be added to further capture important dynamic interactions, such as curtailment.

  5. Mode selection of modal expansion method estimating vibration field of washing machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B. K.; Jeong, W. B.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is about a study estimating the vibration and radiated noise of a washing machine by using a mode selection-applied modal expansion method (MEM). MEM is a technique that identifies the vibration field from a portion of eigenvectors (or mode shapes) of a structure, and thus, the selection of the eigenvectors has a big impact on the vibration results identified. However, there have been few studies about selecting the eigenvectors with respect to the structural vibration and radiated noise estimation. Accordingly, this paper proposes the use of a new mode selection method to identify the vibration based on the MEM and then calculate radiated noise of a washing machine. The results gained from the experiment were also compared. The vibration and noise results of numerical analysis using the proposed selection method are in line with the measured results. The selection method proposed in this paper corresponds well with the MEM and this process seems to be applicable to the estimation of various structure vibrations and radiated noise.

  6. An analytical method based on multipole moment expansion to calculate the flux distribution in Gammacell-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, P.; Ataenia, V.; Shafiei, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the flux of photons inside the irradiation cell of the Gammacell-220 is calculated using an analytical method based on multipole moment expansion. The flux of the photons inside the irradiation cell is introduced as the function of monopole, dipoles and quadruples in the Cartesian coordinate system. For the source distribution of the Gammacell-220, the values of the multipole moments are specified by direct integrating. To confirm the validation of the presented methods, the flux distribution inside the irradiation cell was determined utilizing MCNP simulations as well as experimental measurements. To measure the flux inside the irradiation cell, Amber dosimeters were employed. The calculated values of the flux were in agreement with the values obtained by simulations and measurements, especially in the central zones of the irradiation cell. In order to show that the present method is a good approximation to determine the flux in the irradiation cell, the values of the multipole moments were obtained by fitting the simulation and experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The present method leads to reasonable results for the all source distribution even without any symmetry which makes it a powerful tool for the source load planning.

  7. Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM analysis.Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal was were evaluated.The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively.The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model.

  8. Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar

    2014-01-01

    Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM) analysis. Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed) were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal) was were evaluated. The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA) model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA) model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively. The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model.

  9. An experimental study of arch perimeter and arch width increase with mandibular expansion: a finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baswaraj; Hemanth, M; Jayasudha; Patil, Chandrashekhargouda; Sunilkumar, P; Raghuveer, H P; Chandralekha, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the increase in arch perimeter associated with mandibular lateral expansion, To estimate the increase in intermolar width with mandibular lateral expansion and to find out the changes of tooth inclination with mandibular expansion. The mandibular bone with dentition of indian skeletal specimen was obtained. The computer tomogram (CT) slices of the mandible were taken. Finite element model (FEM): Numerical representation of the geometry was created by dividing the geometry into finite number of elements and the elements were connected together with nodes at the junction. The result of the study showed when 10° of lateral expansion was applied to the lower buccal segment at the center of rotation found at 4.3 mm below the root apex of first molar, a space of 1.3 mm between the canine and first premolar, and thus an increase in arch perimeter of 2.6 mm. The tip of the mesiolingual cusp of the first molar moved 4.2 mm laterally, resulting in a change in intermolar width by 8.4 mm. Three-dimensional simulation showed that 1 mm of intermolar expansion increased the arch perimeter by 0.30 mm. As the finite element method evolves and scientists are able to more clearly define physical properties of biological tissues, more accurate information can be generated at the level that other analytical methods cannot fully provide data.This result would be of value clinically for prediction of the effects of mandibular expansion.

  10. Comparison of FDTD numerical computations and analytical multipole expansion method for plasmonics-active nanosphere dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Anuj; Norton, Stephen J; Gerhold, Michael D; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-06-08

    This paper describes a comparative study of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and analytical evaluations of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of dimers of metallic nanospheres of plasmonics-active metals. The results of these two computational methods, to determine electromagnetic field enhancement in the region often referred to as "hot spots" between the two nanospheres forming the dimer, were compared and a strong correlation observed for gold dimers. The analytical evaluation involved the use of the spherical-harmonic addition theorem to relate the multipole expansion coefficients between the two nanospheres. In these evaluations, the spacing between two nanospheres forming the dimer was varied to obtain the effect of nanoparticle spacing on the electromagnetic fields in the regions between the nanostructures. Gold and silver were the metals investigated in our work as they exhibit substantial plasmon resonance properties in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectral regimes. The results indicate excellent correlation between the two computational methods, especially for gold nanosphere dimers with only a 5-10% difference between the two methods. The effect of varying the diameters of the nanospheres forming the dimer, on the electromagnetic field enhancement, was also studied.

  11. Traveling wave solutions of a biological reaction-convection-diffusion equation model by using $(G'/G$ expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Javadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the $(G'/G$-expansion method is applied to solve a biological reaction-convection-diffusion model arising in mathematical biology. Exact traveling wave solutions are obtained by this method. This scheme can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  12. The optimized expansion based low-rank method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2014-03-01

    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wavefield extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media because it tends to be dispersion and artifact free as well as highly accurate when solving the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain extrapolation operator efficiently. To solve this problem, we evaluated an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with a low-rank variable separation representation. The rank defines the number of inverse Fourier transforms for each time extrapolation step, and thus, the lower the rank, the faster the extrapolation. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its explicit low-rank representation. As a result, we obtain lower rank representations compared with the standard low-rank method within reasonable accuracy and thus cheaper extrapolations. Additional bounds set on the range of propagated wavenumbers to adhere to the physical wave limits yield unconditionally stable extrapolations regardless of the time step. An application on the BP model provided superior results compared to those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, because we used the pure P-wave dispersion relation, we obtained solutions that were free of the shear wave artifacts, and the algorithm does not require that n > 0. In addition, the required rank for the optimization approach to obtain high accuracy in anisotropic media was lower than that obtained by the decomposition approach, and thus, it was more efficient. A reverse time migration result for the BP tilted transverse isotropy model using this method as a wave propagator demonstrated the ability of the algorithm.

  13. An analytic method for S-expansion involving resonance and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipinza, M.C.; Penafiel, D.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy); Lingua, F. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Ravera, L. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper we describe an analytic method able to give the multiplication table(s) of the set(s) involved in an S-expansion process (with either resonance or 0{sub S}-resonant-reduction) for reaching a target Lie (super)algebra from a starting one, after having properly chosen the partitions over subspaces of the considered (super)algebras. This analytic method gives us a simple set of expressions to find the subset decomposition of the set(s) involved in the process. Then, we use the information coming from both the initial (super)algebra and the target one for reaching the multiplication table(s) of the mentioned set(s). Finally, we check associativity with an auxiliary computational algorithm, in order to understand whether the obtained set(s) can describe semigroup(s) or just abelian set(s) connecting two (super)algebras. We also give some interesting examples of application, which check and corroborate our analytic procedure and also generalize some result already presented in the literature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Incorporating spatial variation in housing attribute prices: a comparison of geographically weighted regression and the spatial expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Christopher; Mulligan, Gordon F.; Dall'Erba, Sandy

    2007-04-01

    Hedonic house price models typically impose a constant price structure on housing characteristics throughout an entire market area. However, there is increasing evidence that the marginal prices of many important attributes vary over space, especially within large markets. In this paper, we compare two approaches to examine spatial heterogeneity in housing attribute prices within the Tucson, Arizona housing market: the spatial expansion method and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Our results provide strong evidence that the marginal price of key housing characteristics varies over space. GWR outperforms the spatial expansion method in terms of explanatory power and predictive accuracy.

  15. Type-I and type-II topological nodal superconductors with s -wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beibing; Yang, Xiaosen; Xu, Ning; Gong, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Topological nodal superconductors with protected gapless points in momentum space are generally realized based on unconventional pairings. In this work we propose a minimal model to realize these topological nodal phases with only s -wave interaction. In our model the linear and quadratic spin-orbit couplings along the two orthogonal directions introduce anisotropic effective unconventional pairings in momentum space. This model may support different nodal superconducting phases characterized by either an integer winding number in BDI class or a Z2 index in D class at the particle-hole invariant axes. In the vicinity of the nodal points the effective Hamiltonian can be described by either type-I or type-II Dirac equations, and the Lifshitz transition from type-I nodal phases to type-II nodal phases can be driven by external in-plane magnetic fields. We show that these nodal phases are robust against weak impurities, which only slightly renormalizes the momentum-independent parameters in the impurity-averaged Hamiltonian, thus these phases are possible to be realized in experiments with real semi-Dirac materials. The smoking-gun evidences to verify these phases based on scanning tunneling spectroscopy method are also briefly discussed.

  16. Maternal Nodal inversely affects NODAL and STOX1 expression in the fetal placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Krishna Thulluru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nodal, a secreted signaling protein from the TGFβ-super family plays a vital role during early embryonic development. Recently, it was found that maternal decidua-specific Nodal knockout mice show intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preterm birth. As the chromosomal location of NODAL is in the same linkage area as the susceptibility gene STOX1, associated with the familial form of early-onset, IUGR-complicated pre-eclampsia, their potential maternal-fetal interaction was investigated. Pre-eclamptic mothers with children who carried the STOX1 susceptibility allele themselves all carried the NODAL H165R SNP, which causes a 50% reduced activity. Surprisingly, in decidua Nodal knockout mice the fetal placenta showed up-regulation of STOX1 and NODAL expression. Conditioned media of human first trimester decidua and a human endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESC treated with siRNAs against NODAL or carrying the H165R SNP were also able to induce NODAL and STOX1 expression when added to SGHPL-5 first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells. Finally, a human TGFß-BMP-Signaling-Pathway PCR-Array on decidua and the T-HESC cell line with Nodal knockdown revealed upregulation of Activin-A, which was confirmed in conditioned media by ELISA. We show that maternal decidua Nodal knockdown gives upregulation of NODAL and STOX1 mRNA expression in fetal extravillous trophoblast cells, potentially via upregulation of Activin-A in the maternal decidua. As both Activin-A and Nodal have been implicated in pre-eclampsia, being increased in serum of pre-eclamptic women and upregulated in pre-eclamptic placentas respectively, this interaction at the maternal-fetal interface might play a substantial role in the development of pre-eclampsia.

  17. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  18. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  19. Nodal Solutions of the SP{sub N} Transport Equation for the DeCART Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Joo, H. G

    2007-06-15

    This report discusses how to improve the axial solution of the DeCART code and how to introduce the transport solution effectively. This report includes: (1) The conventional solution using radial CMFD and axial NEM kernel for the diffusion approximation and its extension to the SPN transport equation. (2) The axial SANM kernel for the diffusion approximation within the conventional CMFD framework. This work is performed for the future application of the SANM solution to the SPN approximation (3) The axial lower order polynomial expansion nodal (LPEN) kernel for the diffusion and the SP3 transport equations. This work is performed to reduce the memory requirement and to remove the transverse leakage effect. (4) A new transverse leakage approximation using intra-nodal flux distribution to improve NEM and SANM solution accuracy. (5) Sub-plane scheme to obtain the DeCART solutions efficiently. (6) Radial MOC solution without the transverse leakage and its application to obtain the equivalent parameters. This work is performed to eliminate the negative scalar flux and finally to remove convergence problem of the DeCART code. (7) Examination of the DeCART solution for a demonstrative problem and the C5G7MOX 3-D Extension problems. The results of the examination can be summarized as: (1) The SANM solution with a new transverse leakage approximation shows a very good accuracy when comparing with the NEM solution. (2) Introduction of the sub-plane scheme eliminates most of the nodal error with a little bit increased computational burden. (3) Introduction of the NEM solution for the SP3 transport equation eliminate most of the diffusion effect. (4) NEM solution for the SP3 transport equation by using a few sub-planes and a new transverse leakage approximation produces a compatible solution with the MCNP code. (5) LPEN kernel requires about 3 times more sub-planes than the NEM or SANM kernels to remove the nodal errors. However, this method requires less computational memory

  20. Cycle-expansion method for the Lyapunov exponent, susceptibility, and higher moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Patrick; Li, Yue Cathy; Pfister, Henry D.; Yaida, Sho

    2017-09-01

    Lyapunov exponents characterize the chaotic nature of dynamical systems by quantifying the growth rate of uncertainty associated with the imperfect measurement of initial conditions. Finite-time estimates of the exponent, however, experience fluctuations due to both the initial condition and the stochastic nature of the dynamical path. The scale of these fluctuations is governed by the Lyapunov susceptibility, the finiteness of which typically provides a sufficient condition for the law of large numbers to apply. Here, we obtain a formally exact expression for this susceptibility in terms of the Ruelle dynamical ζ function for one-dimensional systems. We further show that, for systems governed by sequences of random matrices, the cycle expansion of the ζ function enables systematic computations of the Lyapunov susceptibility and of its higher-moment generalizations. The method is here applied to a class of dynamical models that maps to static disordered spin chains with interactions stretching over a varying distance and is tested against Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-06

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians.

  2. Some applications of the (G'/G, 1/G)-expansion method to find new exact solutions of NLEEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun Miah, M.; Shahadat Ali, H. M.; Ali Akbar, M.; Majid Wazwaz, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    The double (G'/G, 1/G)-expansion method is an influential, effective and well-suited method to examine closed form traveling wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). In this article, we extract abundant wave solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional typical breaking soliton equation and the (1+1)-dimensional classical Boussinesq equation through this method. The wave solutions are presented in terms of hyperbolic function, trigonometric function and rational function. By means of the wave transformation, the NLEEs are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) and then the nonlinear ODE is utilized to examine the necessary NLEE. The method can be considered as the generalization of the (G'/G-expansion method established by Wang et al. and it is shown that the suggested method is a powerful mathematical tool for investigating nonlinear evolution equations.

  3. New exact solutions for fractional Sine-Gordon equation by using the new version of generalized F-expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandir, Yusuf; Duzgun, Hasan Huseyin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigate some new analytical solutions to the fractional Sine-Gordon equation by using the new version of generalized F-expansion method. The fractional derivatives are defined in the modified Riemann-Liouville context. As a result, new analytical solutions were obtained in terms Jacobi elliptic functions.

  4. Long-Term Reserve Expansion of Power Systems With High Wind Power Penetration Using Universal Generating Function Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DING, YI; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    reliabilities. The effect of transmission network on customer reliabilities is also considered in the system UGF. The power output models of wind turbine generators in a wind farm considering wind speed correlation and un-correlation are developed, respectively. A reliability-based reserve expansion method......In a power system with high wind power penetration, reliability based reserve expansion is a major problem of system planning and operation due to the uncertainty and fast fluctuation of wind speeds. This paper studied the impact of high wind power penetration on the system reserve and reliability...

  5. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve demand over the evolution of many years or decades. Various CEM formulations are used to evaluate systems ranging in scale from states or utility service territories to national or multi-national systems. CEMs can be computationally complex, and to achieve acceptable solve times, key parameters are often estimated using simplified methods. In this paper, we focus on two of these key parameters associated with the integration of variable generation (VG) resources: capacity value and curtailment. We first discuss common modeling simplifications used in CEMs to estimate capacity value and curtailment, many of which are based on a representative subset of hours that can miss important tail events or which require assumptions about the load and resource distributions that may not match actual distributions. We then present an alternate approach that captures key elements of chronological operation over all hours of the year without the computationally intensive economic dispatch optimization typically employed within more detailed operational models. The updated methodology characterizes the (1) contribution of VG to system capacity during high load and net load hours, (2) the curtailment level of VG, and (3) the potential reductions in curtailments enabled through deployment of storage and more flexible operation of select thermal generators. We apply this alternate methodology to an existing CEM, the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Results demonstrate that this alternate approach provides more accurate estimates of capacity value and curtailments by explicitly capturing system interactions across all hours of the year. This approach could be applied more broadly to CEMs at many different scales where hourly resource and load data is available, greatly improving the representation of challenges

  6. A study of uniform stars using 1/d-expansions and numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, D. S.; Yu, T. C.

    2000-02-01

    We study a lattice model of an interacting uniform self-avoiding star polymer with f branches. A 1/d -expansion for the limiting reduced free energy is derived through order 1/d for general f and, for f = 3, to order 1/d 2 . The terms in the expansion are independent of f and agree term by term with the corresponding expansion for interacting self-avoiding walks. We also present a miscellany of numerical results obtained by more conventional series and Monte Carlo techniques. All our results, both past and present, support the conjecture that the limiting reduced free energies of f -stars, walks and polygons are identical for all values of the interaction parameter icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> .

  7. Maxillary Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Anirudh; Mathur, Rinku

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maxillary transverse discrepancy usually requires expansion of the palate by a combination of orthopedic and orthodontic tooth movements. Three expansion treatment modalities are used today: rapid maxillary expansion, slow maxillary expansion and surgically assisted maxillary expansion.This article aims to review the maxillary expansion by all the three modalities and a brief on commonly used appliances.

  8. Analytical solution of nonlinear space–time fractional differential equations using the improved fractional Riccati expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A-B. Abdel-Salam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the improved fractional Riccati expansion method is proposed to solve fractional differential equations. The method is applied to solve space–time fractional modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, space–time fractional modified regularized long-wave equation, time fractional biological population model, and space–time fractional Klein–Gordon equation. The obtained solutions include generalized trigonometric and hyperbolic functions solutions. Among these solutions, some are found for the first time.

  9. Exact Solutions of the Space-Time Fractional Bidirectional Wave Equations Using the (G′/G-Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, the fractional complex transformation is used to transform fractional differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Exact solutions including the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions, and the rational functions for the space-time fractional bidirectional wave equations are obtained using the (G′/G-expansion method. The method provides a promising tool for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  10. A Laguerre expansion method for the field particle portion in the linearized Coulomb collision operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shin, E-mail: nishimura.shin@lhd.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The spherical coordinates expressions of the Rosenbluth potentials are applied to the field particle portion in the linearized Coulomb collision operator. The Sonine (generalized Laguerre) polynomial expansion formulas for this operator allowing general field particles' velocity distributions are derived. An important application area of these formulas is the study of flows of thermalized particles in NBI-heated or burning plasmas since the energy space structure of the fast ions' slowing down velocity distribution cannot be expressed by usual orthogonal polynomial expansions, and since the Galilean invariant property and the momentum conservation of the collision must be distinguished there.

  11. Application of the mode-shape expansion based on model order reduction methods to a composite structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Humberto Peredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of different mode-shape expansion (MSE methods to a CFRP based on model order reduction (MOR and component mode synthesis (CMS methods is evaluated combining the updated stiffness parameters of the full FE model obtained with a mix-numerical experimental technique (MNET in a previous work. The eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies of the different MSE methods obtained are compared with respect to the experimental measurements and with a full FE model solutions using the modal assurance criteria (MAC. Furthermore, the stiffness and mass weighted coefficients (K-MAC and M-MAC respectively are calculated and compared to observe the influence of the different subspace based expansion methods applying the MAC criteria. The K-MAC and M-MAC are basically the MAC coefficients weighted by a partition of the global stiffness and mass matrices respectively. The best K-MAC and M-MAC results per paired mode-sensor are observed in the subspace based expansion MODAL/SEREP and MDRE-WE methods using the updated stiffness parameters. A strong influence of the subspace based on MOR using MSE methods is observed in the K-MAC and M-MAC criteria implemented in SDTools evaluating the stiffness parameters in a contrieved example.

  12. Two Integrator Loop Filters: Generation Using NAM Expansion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic synthesis method to generate a family of two integrator loop filters based on nodal admittance matrix (NAM expansion is given. Eight equivalent circuits are obtained; six of them are new. Each of the generated circuits uses two grounded capacitors and employs two current conveyors (CCII or two inverting current conveyors (ICCII or a combination of both. The NAM expansion is also used to generate eight equivalent grounded passive elements two integrator loop filters using differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC; six of them are new. Changing the input port of excitation, two new families of eight unity gain lowpass filter circuits each using two CCII or ICCII or combination of both or two DVCC are obtained.

  13. Aerodynamic optimization of wind turbine rotors using a blade element momentum method with corrections for wake rotation and expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Mads; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2012-01-01

    by the positive effect of wake rotation, which locally causes the efficiency to exceed the Betz limit. Wake expansion has a negative effect, which is most important at high tip speed ratios. It was further found that by using , it is possible to obtain a 5% reduction in flap bending moment when compared with BEM...... out using BEM as well. Validation of shows good agreement with the flow calculated using an advanced actuator disk method. The maximum power was found at a tip speed ratio of 7 using , and this is lower than the optimum tip speed ratio of 8 found for BEM. The difference is primarily caused......The blade element momentum (BEM) method is widely used for calculating the quasi-steady aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines. Recently, the BEM method has been expanded to include corrections for wake expansion and the pressure due to wake rotation (), and more accurate solutions can now...

  14. DNA aptamer generation by ExSELEX using genetic alphabet expansion with a mini-hairpin DNA stabilization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Ichiro; Kimoto, Michiko; Lee, Kyung Hyun

    2017-09-13

    A novel aptamer generation method to greatly augment the affinity and stability of DNA aptamers was developed by genetic alphabet expansion combined with mini-hairpin DNA technology. The genetic alphabet expansion increases the physicochemical and structural diversities of DNA aptamers by introducing extra components, unnatural bases, as a fifth base, allowing for the enhancement of DNA aptamer affinities. Furthermore, the mini-hairpin DNA technology stabilizes DNA aptamers against nuclease digestion and thermal denaturation, by introducing an extraordinarily stable mini-hairpin DNA containing a GCGAAGC sequence. This novel method provides stabilized high-affinity DNA aptamers for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Approximate Schur complement preconditioning of the lowest order nodal discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, J.D.; Ascher, U.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morel, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Particular classes of nodal methods and mixed hybrid finite element methods lead to equivalent, robust and accurate discretizations of 2nd order elliptic PDEs. However, widespread popularity of these discretizations has been hindered by the awkward linear systems which result. The present work exploits this awkwardness, which provides a natural partitioning of the linear system, by defining two optimal preconditioners based on approximate Schur complements. Central to the optimal performance of these preconditioners is their sparsity structure which is compatible with Dendy`s black box multigrid code.

  16. Nodal yield in selective neck dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Bradley, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The total lymph node yield in neck dissection is highly variable and depends on anatomical, surgical and pathological parameters. A minimum yield of six lymph nodes for a selective neck dissection (SND) as recommended in guidelines lies in the lower range of the reported clinical nodal yields...

  17. Comparison between 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Regional Lymph Nodal Staging in Patients with Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoletta Mirk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. to compare 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Methods. We performed a literature review discussing original articles which compared FDG-PET to SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Results and Conclusions. There is consensus in the literature that FDG-PET cannot replace SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma.

  18. Over-deterministic method: The influence of rounding numbers on the accuracy of the values of Williams expansion terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ru풞icka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on the accuracy of the values of Williams� expansion terms influenced by rounding numbers is presented. The results are presented taking into account a three-point bend single edge notched beam. Crack tip stress tensor components are expressed using the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM theory in this work, more precisely via its multi-parameter formulation, i.e. by Williams� power series (WPS. Determination of the coefficients of the terms of this series is performed using the least squaresbased regression technique known as the over-deterministic method (ODM, for which displacements data obtained numerically in software ANSYS are taken as inputs. The values of Williams� expansion terms based on the displacement data obtained are calculated by using various levels of rounding numbers and the results are compared and discussed

  19. Impacts of Contingency Reserve on Nodal Price and Nodal Reliability Risk in Deregulated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    in reliable operation, the CR commitment should be considered in operational reliability analysis. In this paper, a CR model based on customer reliability requirements has been formulated and integrated into power market settlement. A two-step market clearing process has been proposed to determine generation......The deregulation of power systems allows customers to participate in power market operation. In deregulated power systems, nodal price and nodal reliability are adopted to represent locational operation cost and reliability performance. Since contingency reserve (CR) plays an important role...... and CR allocation. Customers' nodal unit commitment risk and nodal energy interruption have been evaluated through contingency analysis. Customers' reliability cost including reserve service cost and energy interruption cost have also been evaluated....

  20. Nodal prices determination with wind integration for radial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a distribution system nodal pricing scheme is proposed for radial distribution system with integration of wind power in the system. The main objective of the paper is: (i) an optimal power flow based approach for determination of nodal prices for distribution system, (ii) impact of wind generation on nodal prices.

  1. Generalized and Improved (G′/G)-Expansion Method for (3+1)-Dimensional Modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsev Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Hasibun; Abdullah, Farah Aini; Akbar, M. Ali

    2013-01-01

    The generalized and improved -expansion method is a powerful and advantageous mathematical tool for establishing abundant new traveling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. In this article, we investigate the higher dimensional nonlinear evolution equation, namely, the (3+1)-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsev equation via this powerful method. The solutions are found in hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational function form involving more parameters and some of our constructed solutions are identical with results obtained by other authors if certain parameters take special values and some are new. The numerical results described in the figures were obtained with the aid of commercial software Maple. PMID:23741355

  2. Applications of extended F-expansion and projective Ricatti equation methods to (2+1)-dimensional soliton equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hitender; Chand, Fakir

    2013-03-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional Maccari and nonlinear Schrödinger equations are reduced to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) by using a simple transformation, various solutions of the nonlinear ODE are obtained by using extended F-expansion and projective Ricatti equation methods. With the aid of solutions of the nonlinear ODE more explicit traveling wave solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions are found out. It is shown that these methods provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  3. Applications of extended F-expansion and projective Ricatti equation methods to (2+1-dimensional soliton equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitender Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The (2+1-dimensional Maccari and nonlinear Schrödinger equations are reduced to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE by using a simple transformation, various solutions of the nonlinear ODE are obtained by using extended F-expansion and projective Ricatti equation methods. With the aid of solutions of the nonlinear ODE more explicit traveling wave solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions are found out. It is shown that these methods provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  4. Research on the Statistical Characteristics of Crosstalk in Naval Ships Wiring Harness Based on Polynomial Chaos Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Yaodan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosstalk in wiring harness has been studied extensively for its importance in the naval ships electromagnetic compatibility field. An effective and high-efficiency method is proposed in this paper for analyzing Statistical Characteristics of crosstalk in wiring harness with random variation of position based on Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE. A typical 14-cable wiring harness was simulated as the object of research. Distance among interfering cable, affected cable and GND is synthesized and analyzed in both frequency domain and time domain. The model of naval ships wiring harness distribution parameter was established by utilizing Legendre orthogonal polynomials as basis functions along with prediction model of statistical characters. Detailed mean value, mean square error, probability density function and reasonable varying range of crosstalk in naval ships wiring harness are described in both time domain and frequency domain. Numerical experiment proves that the method proposed in this paper, not only has good consistency with the MC method can be applied in the naval ships EMC research field to provide theoretical support for guaranteeing safety, but also has better time-efficiency than the MC method. Therefore, the Polynomial Chaos Expansion method.

  5. Evaluation of nodal reliability risk in a deregulated power system with photovoltaic power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent characteristic of solar radiation, power system reliability may be affected with high photovoltaic (PV) power penetration. To reduce large variation of PV power, additional system balancing reserve would be needed. In deregulated power systems, deployment of reserves...... simulation technique has been proposed to evaluate the reserve deployment and customers' nodal reliability with high PV power penetration. The proposed method can effectively model the chronological aspects and stochastic characteristics of PV power and system operation with high computation efficiency...... considered in the proposed method. Nodal reliability indices and reserve deployment have been evaluated by applying the proposed method to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers reliability test system....

  6. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...... prospectively analyzed, completely step sectioned, positive SLNs from 96 patients was examined using 3 theoretical protocols, evaluating respectively: (1) the 3 most central step sections only; (2) the 3 most peripheral step sections only; and (3) 3 step sections evenly distributed throughout the individual...

  7. A Study on Evaluation Method of Equipment Expansion in Power System under Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takuya; Oyama, Tsutomu

    The supply reliability of the power system strongly depends on the system planning and operation. Under the competitive environment, system planning and operation become more complicated and difficult due to the new uncertainties that have not been considered so far. Which may also results in the enlargement of difficulties in forecast in the planning stage, and causes the deterioration of supply reliability. In the competitive environment, the transmission network must be planned and operated with the economical rationality and fairness. However, it is difficult to realize the system planning and operation considering the economical rationality and fairness because of the uncertainties. Then, the high flexibility and robustness against the uncertainties are required for the system planning and operation. This paper evaluates the performance of system expansion planning from two points of views: the probabilistic supply reliability and transmission margin in power system. As indices, the Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) and Available Transmission Capability (ATC) are used in this study.

  8. Electron transport in nodal-line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzranov, S. V.; Skinner, B.

    2017-10-01

    We study the electrical conductivity in a nodal-line semimetal with charged impurities. The screening of the Coulomb potential in this system is qualitatively different from what is found in conventional metals or semiconductors, with the screened potential ϕ decaying as ϕ ∝1 /r2 over a wide interval of distances r . This unusual screening gives rise to a rich variety of conduction regimes as a function of temperature, doping level, and impurity concentration. In particular, nodal-line semimetals exhibit a diverging mobility ∝1 /|μ | in the limit of vanishing chemical potential μ , a linearly increasing dependence of the conductivity on temperature, σ ∝T , and a large weak-localization correction with a strongly anisotropic dependence on magnetic field.

  9. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    DEFINITION 2.5. Let C → S be an n-pointed nodal curve over a k-scheme S and let ξ be a principal G- bundle on Cgen. A chart (U, η, ) for ξ is called balanced, if for each ... branches is via multiplication with primitive roots of unity which are inverse to each other. ...... Condition (16) implies that A0 is a block matrix of the form.

  10. Block-diagonalization of the variational nodal response matrix using the symmetry group theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Wu, Hongchun; Li, Yunzhao; Cao, Liangzhi

    2017-12-01

    To further improve the efficiency of the Variational Nodal Method (VNM) for solving the neutron transport equation in hexagonal-z geometry, the nodal response matrix is further block-diagonalized by utilizing the symmetry group theory to decompose the surface basis functions into irreducible components. The block-diagonal property of the nodal response matrix is determined by the symmetry properties of the hexagonal node in geometry, material and basis functions, including both reflection and rotation symmetries. To fully utilize those properties, the symmetry group theory is employed to analyze the symmetry property of the nodal response matrices. It is mathematically proved that the nodal response matrix can be further block-diagonalized into 16 diagonal blocks instead of the current 4 ones by using the symmetry group theory. Numerical comparisons demonstrate that the new approach can reduce the memory storage and computing time by a factor of 2∼3 for P7 angular approximation, compared with the currently employed variables transformation algorithm.

  11. Computation of Steady State Nodal Voltages for Fast Security Assessment in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Development of a method for real-time assess-ment of post-contingency nodal voltages is introduced. Linear network theory is applied in an algorithm that utilizes Thevenin equivalent representation of power systems as seen from every voltage-controlled node in a network. The method is evaluated...

  12. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by semi-randomly varying routing policies for different packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-11-23

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Nodes vary a choice of routing policy for routing data in the network in a semi-random manner, so that similarly situated packets are not always routed along the same path. Semi-random variation of the routing policy tends to avoid certain local hot spots of network activity, which might otherwise arise using more consistent routing determinations. Preferably, the originating node chooses a routing policy for a packet, and all intermediate nodes in the path route the packet according to that policy. Policies may be rotated on a round-robin basis, selected by generating a random number, or otherwise varied.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Micronized Artemisinin via a Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The particle sizes of pharmaceutical substances are important for their bioavailability. Bioavailability can be improved by reducing the particle size of the drug. In this study, artemisinin was micronized by the rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS. The particle size of the unprocessed white needle-like artemisinin particles was 30 to 1200 µm. The optimum micronization conditions are determined as follows: extraction temperature of 62 °C, extraction pressure of 25 MPa, precipitation temperature 45 °C and nozzle diameter of 1000 μm. Under the optimum conditions, micronized artemisinin with a (mean particle size MPS of 550 nm is obtained. By analysis of variance (ANOVA, extraction temperature and pressure have significant effects on the MPS of the micronized artemisinin. The particle size of micronized artemisinin decreased with increasing extraction temperature and pressure. Moreover, the SEM, LC-MS, FTIR, DSC and XRD allowed the comparison between the crystalline initial state and the micronization particles obtained after the RESS process. The results showed that RESS process has not induced degradation of artemisinin and that processed artemisinin particles have lower crystallinity and melting point. The bulk density of artemisinin was determined before and after RESS process and the obtained results showed that it passes from an initial density of 0.554 to 0.128 g·cm−3 after the processing. The decrease in bulk density of the micronized powder can increase the liquidity of drug particles when they are applied for medicinal preparations. These results suggest micronized powder of artemisinin can be of great potential in drug delivery systems.

  14. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Regional Nodal Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Correlation with Nodal Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingsheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if the perfusion parameters by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI of regional nodal metastasis are helpful in characterizing nodal status and to understand the relationship with those of primary tumor of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Materials and Methods. Newly diagnosed patients imaged between August 2010 and January 2014 and who were found to have enlarged retropharyngeal/cervical lymph nodes suggestive of nodal disease were recruited. DCE-MRI was performed. Three quantitative parameters, Ktrans, ve, and kep, were calculated for the largest node in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the difference in the parameters of the selected nodes of different N stages. Spearman’s correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between the DCE-MRI parameters in nodes and in primary tumors. Results. Twenty-six patients (7 females; 25~67 years old were enrolled. Ktrans was significantly different among the patients of N stages (N1, n=3; N2, n=17; N3, n=6, P=0.015. Median values (range for N1, N2, and N3 were 0.24 min−1 (0.17~0.26 min−1, 0.29 min−1 (0.17~0.46 min−1, and 0.46 min−1 (0.29~0.70 min−1, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the parameters in nodes and primary tumors. Conclusion. DCE-MRI may play a distinct role in characterizing the metastatic cervical lymph nodes of NPC.

  15. SIRIUS - A one-dimensional multigroup analytic nodal diffusion theory code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, P. [Westinghouse Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    In order to evaluate relative merits of some proposed intranodal cross sections models, a computer code called Sirius has been developed. Sirius is a one-dimensional, multigroup analytic nodal diffusion theory code with microscopic depletion capability. Sirius provides the possibility of performing a spatial homogenization and energy collapsing of cross sections. In addition a so called pin power reconstruction method is available for the purpose of reconstructing 'heterogeneous' pin qualities. consequently, Sirius has the capability of performing all the calculations (incl. depletion calculations) which are an integral part of the nodal calculation procedure. In this way, an unambiguous numerical analysis of intranodal cross section models is made possible. In this report, the theory of the nodal models implemented in sirius as well as the verification of the most important features of these models are addressed.

  16. The G′G-expansion method using modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for some space-time fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fractional partial differential equations are defined by modified Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative. With the help of fractional derivative and traveling wave transformation, these equations can be converted into the nonlinear nonfractional ordinary differential equations. Then G′G-expansion method is applied to obtain exact solutions of the space-time fractional Burgers equation, the space-time fractional KdV-Burgers equation and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. These results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple in performing a solution to the fractional partial differential equation.

  17. Two-Dimensional Fourier Cosine Series Expansion Method for Pricing Financial Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, M.J.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2012-01-01

    The COS method for pricing European and Bermudan options with one underlying asset was developed in [F. Fang and C. W. Oosterlee, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 31 (2008), pp. 826--848] and [F. Fang and C. W. Oosterlee, Numer. Math., 114 (2009), pp. 27--62]. In this paper, we extend the method to higher

  18. Exact boundary controllability of nodal profile for quasilinear hyperbolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien; Gu, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the exact boundary controllability of nodal profile, a new kind of exact boundary controllability stimulated by some practical applications. This kind of controllability is useful in practice as it does not require any precisely given final state to be attained at a suitable time t=T by means of boundary controls, instead it requires the state to exactly fit any given demand (profile) on one or more nodes after a suitable time t=T by means of boundary controls. In this book we present a general discussion of this kind of controllability for general 1-D first order quasilinear hyperbolic systems and for general 1-D quasilinear wave equations on an interval as well as on a tree-like network using a modular-structure construtive method, suggested in LI Tatsien's monograph "Controllability and Observability for Quasilinear Hyperbolic Systems"(2010), and we establish a complete theory on the local exact boundary controllability of nodal profile for 1-D quasilinear hyp...

  19. Design method for low order two-degree-of-freedom controller based on Pade approximation of the denominator series expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Having advantages of setting independently feedback characteristics such as disturbance rejection specification and reference response characteristics, two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control is widely utilized to improve the control performance. The ordinary design method such as model matching usually derives high-ordered feedforward element of 2DOF controller. In this paper, we propose a new design method for low order feedforward element which is based on Pade approximation of the denominator series expansion. The features of the proposed method are as follows: (1) it is suited to realize reference response characteristics in low frequency region, (2) the order of the feedforward element can be selected apart from the feedback element. These are essential to the 2DOF controller design. With this method, 2DOF reactor power controller is designed and its control performance is evaluated by numerical simulation with reactor dynamics model. For this evaluation, it is confirmed that the controller designed by the proposed method possesses equivalent control characteristics to the controller by the ordinary model matching method. (author)

  20. Generalized Switch Functions in the Multilevel Many-Body Expansion Method and Its Application to Water Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo Dong; Weng, Jingwei; Song, Guoliang; Li, Zhen Hua

    2017-05-09

    The many-body expansion (MBE) method is the basis of many fragment-based methods and is widely applied to the computation of large molecular systems. To reach linear-scaling computation, a cutoff must be used to discard those subsystems with long interfragment distances. However, this leads to a discontinuous potential energy surface (PES) that would cause various problems in geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations. To solve this problem, we present a generalized-switch-function (GSF) approach to smooth the PES computed by the MBE method with the use of a cutoff distance. The GSFs are naturally normalized and are permutation invariant. This approach can be applied to adaptively computing any order of many-body correction energies with multilevel computational methods and is a dynamic subsystem approach. We have applied the two versions of our method, GSF-MBE(m)/L1 and GSF-MBE(m)/(L1:L2:L3), to water clusters. Thorough tests show that our method can indeed give smooth potential-energy surface and is linear scaling but without losing much accuracy for very large water clusters with appropriately chosen cutoff distances.

  1. A speech compression/expansion method based on subband filtering of the signal envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkvik, Aslak; Krokstad, Asbjorn; Resch, Barbara

    2003-10-01

    Compression algorithms are used in hearing aids for hearing-impaired listeners with recruitment, due to these listeners' loss of dynamic range. We propose a method for both compressing and expanding speech signals with the goal to improve speech intelligibility in reverberant conditions where the important rapid variations of the signal are inherently reduced. The method is based on dividing the envelope of the speech signal into two subbands with a division around modulation frequencies of 2 Hz, and compressing the signal based on the lower envelope subband, while expanding the signal based on the higher envelope subband. The sub-band division is accomplished by filtering the envelope of the signal and also by computing separate envelopes for each subband. A secondary goal is to develop low-delay algorithms. Various methods for calculating the envelope of the signal are evaluated, with a focus on the delay. a)Currently at KTH, Speech processing group, Stockholm, Sweden.

  2. Reproducing kernel method with Taylor expansion for linear Volterra integro-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizallah Alvandi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims of the present a new and single algorithm for linear integro-differential equations (LIDE. To apply the reproducing Hilbert kernel method, there is made an equivalent transformation by using Taylor series for solving LIDEs. Shown in series form is the analytical solution in the reproducing kernel space and the approximate solution $ u_{N} $ is constructed by truncating the series to $ N $ terms. It is easy to prove the convergence of $ u_{N} $ to the analytical solution. The numerical solutions from the proposed method indicate that this approach can be implemented easily which shows attractive features.

  3. The modified multiple (G/G)-expansion method and its application to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The validity and advantage of the proposed method are illustrated by its application to the Sharma–Tasso–Olver equation. As a result, various exact solutions including hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and their mixture with parameters are obtained. When some parameters are taken as special values, the known ...

  4. Application of the (G/G)-expansion method for the Burgers, Burgers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... travelling wave solutions of these sets of equations. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  5. Prognostic value of nodal micrometastases in patients with cancer of the gastro-oesophageal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, PAM; Kelder, W; Blondeel, [No Value; van Westreenen, HL; Hollema, H; Plukker, JT

    Aims. Aim of this study was to examine the presence and the prognostic impact of immunohistochemically identified nodal micrometastases in patients with astro-oesophageal junction (GEJ) carcinomas. Methods. Between January 1988 and December 2000, 148 patients underwent a radical (R0) resection with

  6. Existence of infinitely many nodal solutions for a superlinear Neumann boundary value problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixia Qian

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of a class of nonlinear elliptic equation with Neumann boundary condition, and obtain infinitely many nodal solutions. The study of such a problem is based on the variational methods and critical point theory. We prove the conclusion by using the symmetric mountain-pass theorem under the Cerami condition.

  7. Analysis of NEA-NSC PWR Uncontrolled Control Rod Withdrawal at Zero Power Benchmark Cases with NODAL3 Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor Malem Sembiring

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-house coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic (N/T-H code of BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, NODAL3, based on the few-group neutron diffusion equation in 3-dimensional geometry using the polynomial nodal method, has been verified with static and transient PWR benchmark cases. This paper reports the verification of NODAL3 code in the NEA-NSC PWR uncontrolled control rods withdrawal at zero power benchmark. The objective of this paper is to determine the accuracy of NODAL3 code in solving the continuously slow and fast reactivity insertions due to single and group of control rod bank withdrawn while the power and temperature increment are limited by the Doppler coefficient. The benchmark is chosen since many organizations participated using various methods and approximations, so the calculation results of NODAL3 can be compared to other codes’ results. The calculated parameters are performed for the steady-state, transient core averaged, and transient hot pellet results. The influence of radial and axial nodes number was investigated for all cases. The results of NODAL3 code are in very good agreement with the reference solutions if the radial and axial nodes number is 2 × 2 and 2 × 18 (total axial layers, respectively.

  8. Modification of mouse nodal flow by applying artificial flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Shigenori

    2009-01-01

    In mammalian development, the earliest left-right (L-R) asymmetry is nodal flow, which is a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow on the ventral surface of the node. The importance of nodal flow for L-R determination was demonstrated by experiments to modify nodal flow by imposing artificial fluid flow. In this system, cultured mouse embryos developed reversed L-R asymmetry when their node cavity had rightward flow, and normal L-R asymmetry when their node had leftward flow. This chapter describes details of the culture system that can modify nodal flow. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Robust doubly charged nodal lines and nodal surfaces in centrosymmetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Sigrist, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Weyl points in three spatial dimensions are characterized by a Z -valued charge—the Chern number—which makes them stable against a wide range of perturbations. A set of Weyl points can mutually annihilate only if their net charge vanishes, a property we refer to as robustness. While nodal loops are usually not robust in this sense, it has recently been shown using homotopy arguments that in the centrosymmetric extension of the AI symmetry class they nevertheless develop a Z2 charge analogous to the Chern number. Nodal loops carrying a nontrivial value of this Z2 charge are robust, i.e., they can be gapped out only by a pairwise annihilation and not on their own. As this is an additional charge independent of the Berry π -phase flowing along the band degeneracy, such nodal loops are, in fact, doubly charged. In this manuscript, we generalize the homotopy discussion to the centrosymmetric extensions of all Atland-Zirnbauer classes. We develop a tailored mathematical framework dubbed the AZ +I classification and show that in three spatial dimensions such robust and multiply charged nodes appear in four of such centrosymmetric extensions, namely, AZ +I classes CI and AI lead to doubly charged nodal lines, while D and BDI support doubly charged nodal surfaces. We remark that no further crystalline symmetries apart from the spatial inversion are necessary for their stability. We provide a description of the corresponding topological charges, and develop simple tight-binding models of various semimetallic and superconducting phases that exhibit these nodes. We also indicate how the concept of robust and multiply charged nodes generalizes to other spatial dimensions.

  10. New Anti-Nodal Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting the Nodal Pre-Helix Loop Involved in Cripto-1 Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalia Focà

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodal is a potent embryonic morphogen belonging to the TGF-β superfamily. Typically, it also binds to the ALK4/ActRIIB receptor complex in the presence of the co-receptor Cripto-1. Nodal expression is physiologically restricted to embryonic tissues and human embryonic stem cells, is absent in normal cells but re-emerges in several human cancers, including melanoma, breast, and colon cancer. Our aim was to obtain mAbs able to recognize Nodal on a major CBR (Cripto-Binding-Region site and to block the Cripto-1-mediated signalling. To achieve this, antibodies were raised against hNodal(44–67 and mAbs generated by the hybridoma technology. We have selected one mAb, named 3D1, which strongly associates with full-length rhNodal (KD 1.4 nM and recognizes the endogenous protein in a panel of human melanoma cell lines by western blot and FACS analyses. 3D1 inhibits the Nodal-Cripto-1 binding and blocks Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Data suggest that inhibition of the Nodal-Cripto-1 axis is a valid therapeutic approach against melanoma and 3D1 is a promising and interesting agent for blocking Nodal-Cripto mediated tumor development. These findings increase the interest for Nodal as both a diagnostic and prognostic marker and as a potential new target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Atrial tachycardia mimicking atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilbert, Wesley P; Patel, Neal

    2013-07-01

    The term supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is used to describe tachydysrhythmias that require atrial or atrioventricular nodal tissue for their initiation and maintenance. SVT can be used to describe atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, atrioventricular reentry tachycardia, and atrial tachycardia (AT). AT is the least common of these SVT subtypes, accounting for only 10% of cases. Although the suggested initial management of each SVT subtype is different, they all can present with similar symptoms and electrocardiographic findings. Discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of AT as compared with other types of SVT. We report a 56-year-old woman with symptoms and electrocardiographic findings consistent with SVT. Although standard treatment with intravenous adenosine failed to convert the SVT, it revealed AT as the cause of the tachydysrhythmia. The AT was successfully terminated with beta-blockade and the patient eventually underwent successful radioablation of three separate AT foci. AT frequently mimics other more common forms of SVT. AT might be recognized only when standard treatment of SVT has failed. Identification of AT in this setting is crucial to allow for more definitive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Versatility of nodal affiliation to communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Maxwell; Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Seidlitz, Jakob; Váša, František; Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward

    2017-06-27

    Graph theoretical analysis of the community structure of networks attempts to identify the communities (or modules) to which each node affiliates. However, this is in most cases an ill-posed problem, as the affiliation of a node to a single community is often ambiguous. Previous solutions have attempted to identify all of the communities to which each node affiliates. Instead of taking this approach, we introduce versatility, V, as a novel metric of nodal affiliation: V ≈ 0 means that a node is consistently assigned to a specific community; V > 0 means it is inconsistently assigned to different communities. Versatility works in conjunction with existing community detection algorithms, and it satisfies many theoretically desirable properties in idealised networks designed to maximise ambiguity of modular decomposition. The local minima of global mean versatility identified the resolution parameters of a hierarchical community detection algorithm that least ambiguously decomposed the community structure of a social (karate club) network and the mouse brain connectome. Our results suggest that nodal versatility is useful in quantifying the inherent ambiguity of modular decomposition.

  13. A maximal chromatic expansion method of mapping multichannel imagery into color space. [North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, R. D.; Abotteen, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A color film generation method that maximally expands the chromaticity and aligns Kauth brightness with the gray axis was presented. In comparison with the current LACIE film product, the new color film product has more contrast and more colors and appears to be brighter. The field boundaries in the new product were more pronounced than in the current LACIE product. The speckle effect was one problem in the new product. The yellowness speckle can be treated using an equation. This equation can be used to eliminate any speckle introduced by the greenness. This product leads logically toward another that will employ quantitative colorimetry which will account for some of the eye's perception of color stimuli.

  14. Nonlinear vibrations of non-uniform beams by the MTS asymptotic expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, F.; Demeio, L.; Mazzilli, C. E. N.; Lenci, S.

    2015-09-01

    The frequency response curves of a non-uniform beam undergoing nonlinear oscillations are determined analytically by the multiple time scale method, which provides approximate, but accurate results. The axial inertia in neglected, and so the equations of motion are statically condensed on the transversal displacement only. The nonlinearity due to the stretching of the axis of the beam is considered. The effects of variable cross-section, of variable material properties and of the distributed axial loading are taken into account in the formulation. They have been illustrated by means of two examples and are also compared with existing results. The main result of this work is that the effects of any type of non-uniformity can be detected by simple formulas.

  15. Potential Pitfall in the Assessment of Lung Cancer with FDG-PET/CT: Talc Pleurodesis Causes Intrathoracic Nodal FDG Avidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Talc pleurodesis is a common procedure performed to treat complications related to lung cancer. The purpose of our study was to characterize any thoracic nodal findings on FDG PET/CT associated with prior talc pleurodesis. Materials and Methods. The electronic medical record identified 44 patients who underwent PET/CT between January 2006 and December 2010 and had a history of talc pleurodesis. For each exam, we evaluated the distribution pattern, size, and attenuation of intrathoracic lymph nodes and the associated standardized uptake value. Results. High-attenuation intrathoracic lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients (25%, and all had corresponding increased FDG uptake (range 2–9 mm. Involved nodal groups were anterior peridiaphragmatic (100%, paracardiac (45%, internal mammary (25%, and peri-IVC (18% nodal stations. Seven of the 11 patients (63% had involvement of multiple lymph nodal groups. Mean longitudinal PET/CT and standalone CT followups of 15±11 months showed persistence of both high-attenuation and increased uptake at these sites, without increase in nodal size suggesting metastatic disease involvement. Conclusions. FDG avid, high-attenuation lymph nodes along the lymphatic drainage pathway for parietal pleura are a relatively common finding following talc pleurodesis and should not be mistaken for nodal metastases during the evaluation of patients with history of lung cancer.

  16. Travelling Wave Solutions of Coupled Burger’s Equations of Time-Space Fractional Order by Novel (Gʹ/G-Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Hussain

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Novel (Gʹ/G-expansion method is used to find new generalized exact travelling wave solutions of fractional order coupled Burger’s equations in terms of trigonometric functions, rational functions and hyperbolic functions with arbitrary parameters. For the conversion of the partial differential equation to the ordinary differential equation, complex transformation method is used. Novel (Gʹ/G-expansion method is very effective and provides a powerful mathematical tool to solve nonlinear equations. Moreover, for the representation of these exact solutions we have plotted graphs for different values of parameters which were in travelling waveform.

  17. Efficient in vitro Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) plantlets from nodal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient plant regeneration system has been developed from the nodal segments of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L). Nodal segments, after being sterilized with 1.0% mercuric chloride for three minutes, were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with varied concentrations of indole acetic acid ...

  18. FEATURES OF BILATERAL BREAST CANCER NODAL METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on issues related to the identification and investigation of the lymph node metastases with bilateral breast cancer. The presence of metastases in the lymph nodes determines the stage of the disease, and introducing a form of tumor progression, characterizes the course and prognosis for the future in a specific patient. Thus, the identification of possible morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor tissue and their comparison with the frequency and severity of regional lymph nodes would help to solve the problem of the identification of prognostic factors and markers associated with the risk of nodal metastasis in bilateral breast cancer. This work is relevant due to the fact that the literature on this issue to date are treated ambiguously, and answers to many questions, unfortunately, no.The authors performed a morphological study of the tumor tissue from 600 patients suffering from unilateral and bilateral breast cancer. To avoid false results were studied only cases corresponding to the histological type of invasive carcinoma of non-specific type. The study found that a greater number and a greater percentage of the affected lymph node metastases were observed in patients with bilaterally synchronous tumors. The patients of this group of metastatic lymph nodes was detected more frequently in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the presence of these discrete groups of tumor cells, and the observed maximum degree of inflammatory infiltration of the tumor stroma. In the group of patients with unilateral breast cancer nodal metastasis often detects when triple negative molecular genetic type of the lesion, with large amounts of tumor site, in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the obligatory presence of these microalveolar structures and discretely spaced groups of tumor cells and the highest severity of

  19. THE ROLE OF NODAL CENTERS IN ACHIEVING BALANCED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Živanović

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Uneven regional development is characteristic of a large part of the society, from micro to macro regional level. One of  the ways for overcoming this problem is effectively spatially and functionally connection of the largest nodal center of the region, among themselves and with the settlements in its gravitational sphere. In this paper, nodal centers are presented as poles of convergence of the population and functions, from which development impacts – the main factors of socio-economic transformation of the region - are spreading out. It also analyzed the possibilities for achieving balanced regional development presented through the prism of the functional impact of nodal centers in that process. Nodal (functional region is a theoretical basis of the work. Also, nodal region is starting point of functional-process paradigm, resulting from modern processes whose by their functional influence changing the structure of space.

  20. General traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation in microstructured solids via the new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method is significant, powerful and straightforward mathematical tool for finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs arise in the field of engineering, applied mathematics and physics. Dispersive effects due to microstructure of materials combined with nonlinearities give rise to solitary waves. In this article, the new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method has been applied to construct general traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation in microstructured solids. Abundant exact traveling wave solutions including solitons, kink, periodic and rational solutions have been found. These solutions might play important role in engineering fields.

  1. Nodal-line entanglement entropy: Generalized Widom formula from entanglement Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretko, Michael

    2017-06-01

    A system of fermions forming a Fermi surface exhibits a large degree of quantum entanglement, even in the absence of interactions. In particular, the usual case of a codimension one Fermi surface leads to a logarithmic violation of the area law for entanglement entropy as dictated by the Widom formula. We here generalize this formula to the case of arbitrary codimension, which is of particular interest for nodal lines in three dimensions. We first re-derive the standard Widom formula by calculating an entanglement Hamiltonian for Fermi-surface systems, obtained by repurposing a trick commonly applied to relativistic theories. The entanglement Hamiltonian will take a local form in terms of a low-energy patch theory for the Fermi surface, although it is nonlocal with respect to the microscopic fermions. This entanglement Hamiltonian can then be used to derive the entanglement entropy, yielding a result in agreement with the Widom formula. The method is then generalized to arbitrary codimension. For nodal lines, the area law is obeyed, and the magnitude of the coefficient for a particular partition is nonuniversal. However, the coefficient has a universal dependence on the shape and orientation of the nodal line relative to the partitioning surface. By comparing the relative magnitude of the area law for different partitioning cuts, entanglement entropy can be used as a tool for diagnosing the presence and shape of a nodal line in a ground-state wave function.

  2. Polynomial Chaos Expansion method as a tool to evaluate and quantify field homogeneities of a novel waveguide RF Wien filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, J.; Rathmann, F.; Nass, A.; Soltner, H.; Gebel, R.; Pretz, J.; Heberling, D.

    2017-07-01

    For the measurement of the electric dipole moment of protons and deuterons, a novel waveguide RF Wien filter has been designed and will soon be integrated at the COoler SYnchrotron at Jülich. The device operates at the harmonic frequencies of the spin motion. It is based on a waveguide structure that is capable of fulfilling the Wien filter condition (E → ⊥ B →) by design. The full-wave calculations demonstrated that the waveguide RF Wien filter is able to generate high-quality RF electric and magnetic fields. In reality, mechanical tolerances and misalignments decrease the simulated field quality, and it is therefore important to consider them in the simulations. In particular, for the electric dipole moment measurement, it is important to quantify the field errors systematically. Since Monte-Carlo simulations are computationally very expensive, we discuss here an efficient surrogate modeling scheme based on the Polynomial Chaos Expansion method to compute the field quality in the presence of tolerances and misalignments and subsequently to perform the sensitivity analysis at zero additional computational cost.

  3. Application of the finite-element method and the eigenmode expansion method to investigate the periodic and spectral characteristic of discrete phase-shift fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yue-Jing; Hung, Wei-Chih; Syu, Cheng-Jyun

    2017-12-01

    The finite-element method (FEM) and eigenmode expansion method (EEM) were adopted to analyze the guided modes and spectrum of phase-shift fiber Bragg grating at five phase-shift degrees (including zero, 1/4π, 1/2π, 3/4π, and π). In previous studies on optical fiber grating, conventional coupled-mode theory was crucial. This theory contains abstruse knowledge about physics and complex computational processes, and thus is challenging for users. Therefore, a numerical simulation method was coupled with a simple and rigorous design procedure to help beginners and users to overcome difficulty in entering the field; in addition, graphical simulation results were presented. To reduce the difference between the simulated context and the actual context, a perfectly matched layer and perfectly reflecting boundary were added to the FEM and the EEM. When the FEM was used for grid cutting, the object meshing method and the boundary meshing method proposed in this study were used to effectively enhance computational accuracy and substantially reduce the time required for simulation. In summary, users can use the simulation results in this study to easily and rapidly design an optical fiber communication system and optical sensors with spectral characteristics.

  4. The Verification of Coupled Neutronics Thermal-Hydraulics Code NODAL3 in the PWR Rod Ejection Benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surian Pinem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled neutronics thermal-hydraulics code NODAL3 has been developed based on the few-group neutron diffusion equation in 3-dimensional geometry for typical PWR static and transient analyses. The spatial variables are treated by using a polynomial nodal method while for the neutron dynamic solver the adiabatic and improved quasistatic methods are adopted. In this paper we report the benchmark calculation results of the code against the OECD/NEA CRP PWR rod ejection cases. The objective of this work is to determine the accuracy of NODAL3 code in analysing the reactivity initiated accident due to the control rod ejection. The NEACRP PWR rod ejection cases are chosen since many organizations participated in the NEA project using various methods as well as approximations, so that, in addition to the reference solutions, the calculation results of NODAL3 code can also be compared to other codes’ results. The transient parameters to be verified are time of power peak, power peak, final power, final average Doppler temperature, maximum fuel temperature, and final coolant temperature. The results of NODAL3 code agree well with the PHANTHER reference solutions in 1993 and 1997 (revised. Comparison with other validated codes, DYN3D/R and ANCK, shows also a satisfactory agreement.

  5. Topological semimetals with a double-helix nodal link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Hou, Jing-Min

    2017-07-01

    Topological nodal line semimetals are characterized by the crossing of the conduction and valence bands along one or more closed loops in the Brillouin zone. Usually, these loops are either isolated or touch each other at some highly symmetric points. Here, we introduce a different kind of nodal line semimetal, that contains a pair of linked nodal loops. A concrete two-band model was constructed, which supports a pair of nodal lines with a double-helix structure, which can be further twisted into a Hopf link because of the periodicity of the Brillouin zone. The nodal lines are stabilized by the combined spatial inversion P and time reversal T symmetry; the individual P and T symmetries must be broken. The band exhibits nontrivial topology that each nodal loop carries a π Berry flux. Surface flatbands emerge at the open boundary and are exactly encircled by the projection of the nodal lines on the surface Brillouin zone. The experimental implementation of our model using cold atoms in optical lattices is discussed.

  6. Meteorin regulates mesendoderm development by enhancing nodal expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Young Kim

    Full Text Available During gastrulation, distinct lineage specification into three germ layers, the mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm, occurs through an elaborate harmony between signaling molecules along the embryonic proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes, and Nodal signaling plays a key role in the early embryonic development governing embryonic axis formation, mesoderm and endoderm specification, and left-right asymmetry determination. However, the mechanism by which Nodal expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that Meteorin regulates Nodal expression and is required for mesendoderm development. It is highly expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts and further in the epiblast and extra-embryonic ectoderm during gastrulation. Genetic ablation of the Meteorin gene resulted in early embryonic lethality, presumably due to impaired lineage allocation and subsequent cell accumulation. Embryoid body culture using Meteorin-null embryonic stem (ES cells showed reduced Nodal expression and concomitant impairment of mesendoderm specification. Meteorin-null embryos displayed reduced levels of Nodal transcripts before the gastrulation stage, and impaired expression of Goosecoid, a definitive endoderm marker, during gastrulation, while the proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes and primitive streak formation were preserved. Our results show that Meteorin is a novel regulator of Nodal transcription and is required to maintain sufficient Nodal levels for endoderm formation, thereby providing new insights in the regulation of mesendoderm allocation.

  7. New solutions for conformable fractional Boussinesq and combined KdV-mKdV equations using Jacobi elliptic function expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasbozan, Orkun; Çenesiz, Yücel; Kurt, Ali

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method is proposed for the first time to construct the exact solutions of the time conformable fractional two-dimensional Boussinesq equation and the combined KdV-mKdV equation. New exact solutions are found. This method is based on Jacobi elliptic functions. The results obtained confirm that the proposed method is an efficient technique for analytic treatment of a wide variety of nonlinear conformable time-fractional partial differential equations.

  8. The Extended Fractional (DξαG/G-Expansion Method and Its Applications to a Space-Time Fractional Fokas Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunmei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a fractional subequation and the properties of the modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, we propose a new analytical method named extended fractional (DξαG/G-expansion method for seeking traveling wave solutions of fractional partial differential equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of the method, we discuss a space-time fractional Fokas equation, many types of exact analytical solutions are obtained, and the solutions include hyperbolic function and trigonometric and negative exponential solutions.

  9. Novel heat pulse extension-PCR-based method for detection of large CTG-repeat expansions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpana, Arto K; Ho, Tho H; Alagrund, Katariina; Ridanpää, Maaret; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Stenman, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant disease caused by an expansion of CTG repeats in the 3' untranslated region of the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene. Detection and accurate sizing of the CTG-repeat expansions is clinically important, because the number of CTG repeats correlates with the disease severity. Because difficulties in PCR amplification over large expansions, molecular diagnosis of DM1 is still primarily based on Southern blotting, which is technically demanding and time consuming and requires large amounts of genomic DNA samples. We have recently discovered that the use of multiple heat pulses during Heat Pulse Extension PCR (HPE-PCR) enables efficient amplification over repetitive and GC-rich sequences. Based on this principle, we have developed an assay for efficient amplification of large CTG-repeat expansions seen in DM1 patients. The HPE-PCR method was able to amplify different DMPK1 repeat expansions of up to 1750 CTG repeats in 78 clinical samples with a varying degree of tissue heterogeneity, even in the presence of the short wild-type allele. The CTG-repeat lengths and fragmentation patterns obtained with HPE-PCR were fully concordant with the original diagnostic Southern blotting results. This novel technique provides a PCR-based platform for molecular diagnosis of DM1, and it has been adopted for routine diagnostic use. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Method for Exploring the Link between Urban Area Expansion over Time and the Opportunity for Crime in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofza Algahtany

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban area expansion is one of the most critical types of worldwide change, and most urban areas are experiencing increased growth in population and infrastructure development. Urban change leads to many changes in the daily activities of people living within an affected area. Many studies have suggested that urbanization and crime are related. However, they focused particularly on land uses, types of land use, and urban forms, such as the physical features of neighbourhoods, roads, shopping centres, and bus stations. Understanding the correlation between urban area expansion and crime is very important for criminologists and urban planning decision-makers. In this study, we have used satellite images to measure urban expansion over a 10-year period and tested the correlations between these expansions and the number of criminal activities within these specific areas. The results show that there is a measurable relationship between urban expansion and criminal activities. Our findings support the crime opportunity theory as one possibility, which suggests that population density and crime are conceptually related. We found the correlations are stronger where there has been greater urban growth. Many other factors that may affect crime rate are not included in this paper, such as information on the spatial details of the population, city planning, economic considerations, the distance from the city centre, neighbourhood quality, and police numbers. However, this study will be of particular interest to those who aim to use remote sensing to study patterns of crime.

  11. Extracting distribution and expansion of rubber plantations from Landsat imagery using the C5.0 decision tree method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongchang; Leinenkugel, Patrick; Guo, Huadong; Huang, Chong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Natural tropical rainforests in China's Xishuangbanna region have undergone dramatic conversion to rubber plantations in recent decades, resulting in altering the region's environment and ecological systems. Therefore, it is of great importance for local environmental and ecological protection agencies to research the distribution and expansion of rubber plantations. The objective of this paper is to monitor dynamic changes of rubber plantations in China's Xishuangbanna region based on multitemporal Landsat images (acquired in 1989, 2000, and 2013) using a C5.0-based decision-tree method. A practical and semiautomatic data processing procedure for mapping rubber plantations was proposed. Especially, haze removal and deshadowing were proposed to perform atmospheric and topographic correction and reduce the effects of haze, shadow, and terrain. Our results showed that the atmospheric and topographic correction could improve the extraction accuracy of rubber plantations, especially in mountainous areas. The overall classification accuracies were 84.2%, 83.9%, and 86.5% for the Landsat images acquired in 1989, 2000, and 2013, respectively. This study also found that the Landsat-8 images could provide significant improvement in the ability to identify rubber plantations. The extracted maps showed the selected study area underwent rapid conversion of natural and seminatural forest to a rubber plantations from 1989 to 2013. The rubber plantation area increased from 2.8% in 1989 to 17.8% in 2013, while the forest/woodland area decreased from 75.6% in 1989 to 44.8% in 2013. The proposed data processing procedure is a promising approach to mapping the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of rubber plantations on a regional scale.

  12. Exact solutions for STO and (3+1-dimensional KdV-ZK equations using G′G2-expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Bibi

    Full Text Available This article deals with finding some exact solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations (NLFDEs by applying a relatively new method known as G′G2-expansion method. Solutions of space–time fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever (STO equation of fractional order and (3+1-dimensional KdV-Zakharov Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK equation of fractional order are reckoned to demonstrate the validity of this method. The fractional derivative version of modified Riemann–Liouville, linked with Fractional complex transform is employed to transform fractional differential equations into the corresponding ordinary differential equations. Keywords: Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO equation, (3+1-Dimensional KdV-Zakharov Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK equation, Exact solutions, G′G2-expansion method

  13. The nodal crisis in Iron based superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Piers; Tzen Ong, T.

    2013-03-01

    The recent observation of fully gapped high temperature superconductivity in an iron chalcogenide without a hole Fermi surface, combined with the observations that rule out a node-less d-wave state constitute a ``nodal crisis'' in iron based superconductivity, for we do not understand how the underlying singlet state avoids the strong Coulomb interactions on the iron site without some kind of node within the superconducting condensate. In this work, we re-analyze the allowed symmetries of the superconducting condensate in the iron superconductors, taking into account both orbital symmetries between the zx and zy orbitals and the presence of two equivalent Fe sites per unit cell. We argue that the additional orbital degrees of freedom provide for a much richer class of pairing symmetries than normally considered. A particularly interesting possibility, is a p-wave, spin singlet, orbital triplet state that is a fully gapped iron analog of the B-phase of superfluid He-3. We will discuss this interesting possibility. Research supported by Division of Materials Research contract number DE-FG02-99ER45790.

  14. Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Courtney H; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Yeomans, Stephen M; Hoffmann, Karon L; Moore, Antony S

    2016-11-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION 4 dogs with a slow-growing mass in the cervical region were evaluated. CLINICAL FINDINGS All dogs had no clinical signs at the time of the evaluation. There was no apparent evidence of visceral metastases or other primary tumor based on available CT or MRI data for any dog. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME For each dog, surgery to remove the mass was performed. Histologic examination of the excised tissue revealed a completely excised grade 1 or 2 lymph node hemangiosarcoma. All dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy; 2 dogs underwent curative intent chemotherapy, 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide, and 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with chlorambucil. The survival time was 259 days in 1 dog; 3 dogs were still alive 615, 399, and 365 days after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in dogs is a rare and, to the authors' knowledge, previously undescribed disease that appears to develop in the cervical lymph nodes as a slow-growing mass or masses. Surgical excision and adjunct treatment resulted in long survival times for 3 of the 4 dogs of the present report. Given the aggressive biologic behavior of hemangiosarcomas in other body locations, adjunct chemotherapy should be considered for affected dogs, although its role in the cases described in this report was unclear. Additional clinical information is required to further characterize the biologic behavior of this tumor type and determine the expected survival times and associated risk factors in dogs.

  15. In vitro Plant Regeneration of Cyphomandra betacea through Nodal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro Plant Regeneration of Cyphomandra betacea through Nodal Culture. Bancy Waweru, Rodrigue Ishimwe, Joëlle Kajuga, Boniface Kagiraneza, Peter Yao Kanze Sallah, Vedaste Ahishakiye, Safia Kalisa, Theodore Asiimwe, Jane Kahia, Daphrose Gahakwa ...

  16. Exact solutions of the nonlinear differential—difference equations associated with the nonlinear electrical transmission line through a variable-coefficient discrete (G'/G)-expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdou, Abdoulkary; Alidou, Mohamadou; Ousmanou, Dafounansou; Serge Yamigno, Doka

    2014-12-01

    We investigated exact traveling soliton solutions for the nonlinear electrical transmission line. By applying a concise and straightforward method, the variable-coefficient discrete (G'/G)-expansion method, we solve the nonlinear differential—difference equations associated with the network. We obtain some exact traveling wave solutions which include hyperbolic function solution, trigonometric function solution, rational solutions with arbitrary function, bright as well as dark solutions.

  17. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  18. A new nodal solver for the two dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corot, T.; Mercier, B.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a cell-centered Godunov type scheme for the Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations on general unstructured meshes with nodal fluxes. The nodal solver only depends on the angular repartition of the physical variables around the node and not on the length of the edges. The scheme verifies a weak consistency property. Numerical results are compared to EUCCLHYD and GLACE schemes which are also cell-centered schemes with node based fluxes for Lagrangian hydrodynamics.

  19. Role of Ultrasonography of Regional Nodal Basins in Staging Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Implications For Local-Regional Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaitelman, Simona F., E-mail: sfshaitelman@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tereffe, Welela [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dogan, Basak E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hess, Kenneth R. [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Caudle, Abigail S. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Valero, Vicente [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Stauder, Michael C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Krishnamurthy, Savitri [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Candelaria, Rosalind P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Strom, Eric A.; Woodward, Wendy A. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Whitman, Gary J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate at which regional nodal ultrasonography would increase the nodal disease stage in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) beyond the clinical stage determined by physical examination and mammography alone, and significantly affect the treatments delivered to these patients. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of women with stages I to III TNBC who underwent physical examination, mammography, breast and regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy of abnormal nodes, and definitive local-regional treatment at our institution between 2004 and 2011. The stages of these patients' disease with and without ultrasonography of the regional nodal basins were compared using the Pearson χ{sup 2} test. Definitive treatments of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged on the basis of ultrasonographic findings were compared to those of patients whose disease stage remained the same. Results: A total of 572 women met the study requirements. In 111 (19.4%) of these patients, regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy resulted in an increase in disease stage from the original stage by physical examination and mammography alone. Significantly higher percentages of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged by ultrasonographic findings compared to that in patients whose disease was not upstaged underwent neoadjuvant systemic therapy (91.9% and 51.2%, respectively; P<.0001), axillary lymph node dissection (99.1% and 34.5%, respectively; P<.0001), and radiation to the regional nodal basins (88.2% and 29.1%, respectively; P<.0001). Conclusions: Regional nodal ultrasonography in TNBC frequently changes the initial clinical stage and plays an important role in treatment planning.

  20. DYN3D thermal expansion models for SFR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Evgeny; Fridman, Emil [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Reactor Safety

    2016-07-01

    The nodal diffusion code DYN3D is under extension for SFR applications. As a part of the extension a new model for axial thermal expansion of fuel rods was developed. The new model provides a flexible way of handling the axial fuel rod expansion, because each sub-assembly and node can be treated independently. The performance of the model was tested on a large oxide SFR core, and the results were compared to the reference full core Serpent solution. The test results indicated that the proposed model can accurately account for the axial expansion effects on full core level.

  1. Clinical nodal staging scores for prostate cancer: a proposal for preoperative risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kluth, L A; Abdollah, F; Xylinas, E; Rieken, M; Fajkovic, H; Seitz, C.; Sun, M.; P. I. Karakiewicz; Schramek, P; Herman, M P; Becker, A.; Hansen, J.; Ehdaie, B; Loidl, W; Pummer, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pelvic lymph node dissection in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer is not without morbidity and its therapeutical benefit is still a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to develop a model that allows preoperative determination of the minimum number of lymph nodes needed to be removed at radical prostatectomy to ensure true nodal status. Methods: We analysed data from 4770 patients treated with radical prostatectomy and ...

  2. Cryopreservation method affects DNA fragmentation in trophectoderm and the speed of re-expansion in bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Yasushi; Miyashita, Satoshi; Somfai, Tamás; Geshi, Masaya; Matoba, Satoko; Dochi, Osamu; Nagai, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated re-expansion dynamics during culture of bovine blastocysts cryopreserved either by slow-freezing or vitrification. Also, the extent and localization of membrane damage and DNA fragmentation in re-expanded embryos were studied. Frozen-thawed embryos showed a significantly lower re-expansion rate during 24 h of post-thawing culture compared to vitrified embryos. Vitrified embryos reached the maximum level of re-expansion rate by 12 h of culture whereas frozen embryos showed a gradual increase in re-expansion rate by 24 h of culture. When assayed by Hoechst/propidium iodide staining there was no difference in the numbers and ratio of membrane damaged cells between re-expanded frozen and vitrified embryos; however, the extent of membrane damage in blastomeres was significantly higher in both groups compared with non-cryopreserved embryos (control). TUNEL assay combined with differential ICM and TE staining revealed a significantly higher number and ratio of TE cells showing DNA-fragmentation in frozen-thawed re-expanded blastocysts compared to vitrified ones; however, vitrification also resulted in an increased extent of DNA fragmentation in TE cells compared with control blastocysts. In frozen-thawed blastocysts increased extent of DNA fragmentation was associated with reduced numbers and proportion of TE cells compared with vitrified and control embryos. The number and ratio of ICM cells and the extent of DNA fragmentation in ICM did not differ among control, frozen and vitrified groups. In conclusion, compared with vitrified embryos, blastocysts preserved by slow-freezing showed a delayed timing of re-expansion which was associated with an increased frequency of DNA fragmentation in TE cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nodal signaling from the visceral endoderm is required to maintain Nodal gene expression in the epiblast and drive AVE migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Lualdi, Margaret; Lyozin, George T.; Sharma, Prashant; Loncarek, Jadranka; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Kuehn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    In the early mouse embryo, a specialized population of extraembryonic visceral endoderm (VE) cells called the anterior VE (AVE) establishes the anterior posterior (AP) axis by restricting gastrulation-inducing signals to the opposite pole. These cells arise at the distal tip of the egg cylinder stage embryo and then asymmetrically migrate to the prospective anterior following the path of an earlier arising and migrating population called the distal VE (DVE). The Nodal-signaling pathway has been shown to have a critical role in the generation of the DVE and AVE and in their migration. The Nodal gene is expressed in both the VE and in the pluripotent epiblast, which gives rise to the germ layers. Previous findings have provided conflicting evidence as to the relative importance of Nodal signaling from the epiblast vs. VE for AP patterning. Here we show that conditional mutagenesis of the Nodal gene specifically within the VE leads to reduced Nodal expression levels in the epiblast and incomplete or failed AVE migration. These results support a required role for VE Nodal to maintain normal levels of expression in the epiblast, and suggest signaling from both VE and epiblast is important for AVE migration. PMID:25536399

  4. Impact of receptor phenotype on nodal burden in patients with breast cancer who have undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boland, M. R.

    2017-07-31

    Optimal evaluation and management of the axilla following neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NAC) in patients with node-positive breast cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study wasto examine the impact of receptor phenotype in patients with nodal metastases who undergo NAC to seewhether this approach can identify those who may be suitable for conservative axillary management.Methods: Between 2009 and 2014, all patients with breast cancer and biopsy-proven nodal diseasewho received NAC were identied from prospectively developed databases. Details of patients who hadaxillary lymph node dissection (ALND) following NAC were recorded and rates of pathological completeresponse (pCR) were evaluated for receptor phenotype.

  5. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J; Grunberg, G; Rathsman, J; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Gardi, Einan; Grunberg, Georges; Rathsman, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factoriallyincreasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increaseis not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations betweenobservables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infraredfixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion we study the effect of thelarge-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients.We find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing.However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalonintegral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect theconformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients willindeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previousobservations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specificobservables. We further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with theskeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. Th...

  6. Study on the impact of electric vehicle charging load on nodal voltage deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Gang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The promotion and application of electric vehicles will contribute to the solution of several problems, such as energy shortage and environmental pollution, and the achievement of country economy and energy security. But a large-scale vehicle-to-grid system may cause adverse effects in the distribution network operation, the power network planning and such other parts. First, this paper collects the factors that influence the electric vehicle charging load and establishes the EV charging load model with a Monte-Carlo method. Then, we analyze the effect that the EV charging load made on the nodal voltage deviation under different permeability based on the IEEE30 node system. At last, this research gets the conclusion that the nodal voltage deviation is closely related to EV permeability, node type and node location. This research conclusion will provide practical guidance to the charging station planning.

  7. A cGMP-applicable expansion method for aggregates of human neural stem and progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Brandon C; Gowing, Geneviève; Svendsen, Clive N

    2014-06-15

    A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as "chopping" that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.

  8. Time-dependent boundary source term for advanced nodal diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, F.E.; Gho, C.J

    1999-08-01

    An extension to nodal diffusion theory was developed to deal with time-dependent boundary source terms. It is shown that this extension is easily introduced in advanced, full-functional diffusion theory by means of Dirac's delta spatially-dependent functions at the nodal boundaries, and allows the evaluation of reactor transients showing the propagation of neutron waves or the effects of pulsed neutron sources. A model problem with exact solutions for both the diffusion and the P{sub 1} (telegrapher's) equations was developed to test the capabilities of the theoretical extension. The larger discrepancies occur at the earliest times computed showing, at t=50 {mu}s, mean-square deviations between the exact diffusion solution and the numerical approximations of 2.95, 1.72, 0.32, and 0.16% for the fourth, sixth, eighth, and tenth polynomial expansion order, respectively. The availability of the exact telegrapher's solution, however, demonstrates that improved accuracy is meaningless since the mean-square deviation between the exact diffusion and exact telegrapher's solution is very similar to the mean-square deviation between the exact diffusion and the poorer (fourth-order) diffusion approximation.

  9. Multivariate Analysis of Prognostic Factors Among 2,313 Patients With Stage III Melanoma: Comparison of Nodal Micrometastases Versus Macrometastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Charles M.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Soong, Seng-jaw; Thompson, John F.; Ding, Shouluan; Byrd, David R.; Cascinelli, Natale; Cochran, Alistair J.; Coit, Daniel G.; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Johnson, Timothy; Kirkwood, John M.; Leong, Stanley P.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Mihm, Martin C.; Morton, Donald L.; Ross, Merrick I.; Sondak, Vernon K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the survival rates and independent predictors of survival using a contemporary international cohort of patients with stage III melanoma. Patients and Methods Complete clinicopathologic and follow-up data were available for 2,313 patients with stage III disease in an updated and expanded American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging database. Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate survival analyses were performed. Results Among all 2,313 patients with stage III disease, 81% had micrometastases, and 19% had clinically detectable macrometastases. The 5-year overall survival was 63%; it was 67% for patients with nodal micrometastases, and it was 43% for those with nodal macrometastases (P < .001). Tremendous heterogeneity in survival was observed, particularly in the microscopically detected nodal metastasis subset (from 23% to 87% for 5-year survival). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in patients with nodal micrometastases, number of tumor-containing lymph nodes, primary tumor thickness, patient age, ulceration, and anatomic site of the primary independently predicted survival (all P < .01). When added to the model, primary tumor mitotic rate was the second-most powerful predictor of survival after the number of tumor-containing nodes. In contrast, for patients with nodal macrometastases, the number of tumor-containing nodes, primary ulceration, and patient age independently predicted survival (P < .01). Conclusion In this multi-institutional analysis, we demonstrated remarkable heterogeneity of prognosis among patients with stage III melanoma, especially among those with nodal micrometastases. These results should be incorporated into the design and interpretation of future clinical trials involving patients with stage III melanoma. PMID:20368546

  10. Detection of Melanoma Nodal Metastases; Differences in Detection Between Elderly and Younger Patients Do Not Affect Survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, S.; Bastiaannet, E.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.; Hoekstra, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Melanoma lymph nodes metastases may be detected by patients or by physicians. Understanding the outcomes of self-detection or physician detection is essential for the design of follow-up studies. We evaluated the role of the method of detection in nodal disease in the prognosis of

  11. Treatment of local and nodal recurrences in carcinoma of the larynx; Leczenie nowotworow miejscowych i wezlowych raka krtani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalska, B.; Bulinska, H.; Debniak, E. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Methods of treatment in 93 cases of post surgery recurrences of laryngeal carcinoma have been presented. Treatment prospects and results in 80 patients with local and/or nodal recurrence have been discussed. Among those patients, 12 (15%) displayed a long-term survival rate with no symptoms. (author)

  12. Exclusion of elective nodal irradiation is associated with minimal elective nodal failure in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox James D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy still exists regarding the long-term outcome of patients whose uninvolved lymph node stations are not prophylactically irradiated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy. To determine the frequency of elective nodal failure (ENF and in-field failure (IFF, we examined a large cohort of patients with NSCLC staged with positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT and treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT that excluded uninvolved lymph node stations. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution with definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CHT. All patients were treated with 3D-CRT, including nodal regions determined by CT or PET to be disease involved. Concurrent platinum-based CHT was administered for locally advanced disease. Patients were analyzed in follow-up for survival, local regional recurrence, and distant metastases (DM. Results The median follow-up time was 18 months (3 to 44 months among all patients and 27 months (6 to 44 months among survivors. The median overall survival, 2-year actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival were 19 months, 38%, and 28%, respectively. The majority of patients died from DM, the overall rate of which was 36%. Of the 31 patients with local regional failure, 26 (22.6% had IFF, 5 (4.3% had ENF and 2 (1.7% had isolated ENF. For 88 patients with stage IIIA/B, the frequencies of IFF, any ENF, isolated ENF, and DM were 23 (26%, 3 (9%, 1 (1.1% and 36 (40.9%, respectively. The comparable rates for the 22 patients with early stage node-negative disease (stage IA/IB were 3 (13.6%, 1(4.5%, 0 (0%, and 5 (22.7%, respectively. Conclusion We observed only a 4.3% recurrence of any ENF and a 1.7% recurrence of isolated ENF in patients with NSCLC treated with definitive 3D-CRT without prophylactic irradiation of

  13. Comparison of Conjugate Gradient Density Matrix Search and Chebyshev Expansion Methods for Avoiding Diagonalization in Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kevin R.; Daniels, Andrew D.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    1998-01-01

    We report a comparison of two linear-scaling methods which avoid the diagonalization bottleneck of traditional electronic structure algorithms. The Chebyshev expansion method (CEM) is implemented for carbon tight-binding calculations of large systems and its memory and timing requirements compared to those of our previously implemented conjugate gradient density matrix search (CG-DMS). Benchmark calculations are carried out on icosahedral fullerenes from C60 to C8640 and the linear scaling memory and CPU requirements of the CEM demonstrated. We show that the CPU requisites of the CEM and CG-DMS are similar for calculations with comparable accuracy.

  14. A computational study of nodal-based tetrahedral element behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullerud, Arne S.

    2010-09-01

    This report explores the behavior of nodal-based tetrahedral elements on six sample problems, and compares their solution to that of a corresponding hexahedral mesh. The problems demonstrate that while certain aspects of the solution field for the nodal-based tetrahedrons provide good quality results, the pressure field tends to be of poor quality. Results appear to be strongly affected by the connectivity of the tetrahedral elements. Simulations that rely on the pressure field, such as those which use material models that are dependent on the pressure (e.g. equation-of-state models), can generate erroneous results. Remeshing can also be strongly affected by these issues. The nodal-based test elements as they currently stand need to be used with caution to ensure that their numerical deficiencies do not adversely affect critical values of interest.

  15. Quantum Coherent States and Path Integral Method to Stochastically Determine the Anisotropic Volume Expansion in Lithiated Silicon Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Boone

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This computational research study will analyze the multi-physics of lithium ion insertion into a silicon nanowire in an attempt to explain the electrochemical kinetics at the nanoscale and quantum level. The electron coherent states and a quantum field version of photon density waves will be the joining theories that will explain the electron-photon interaction within the lithium-silicon lattice structure. These two quantum particles will be responsible for the photon absorption rate of silicon atoms that are hypothesized to be the leading cause of breaking diatomic silicon covalent bonds that ultimately leads to volume expansion. It will be demonstrated through the combination of Maxwell stress tensor, optical amplification and path integrals that a stochastic analyze using a variety of Poisson distributions that the anisotropic expansion rates in the <110>, <111> and <112> orthogonal directions confirms the findings ascertained in previous works made by other research groups. The computational findings presented in this work are similar to those which were discovered experimentally using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and simulation models that used density functional theory (DFT and molecular dynamics (MD. The refractive index and electric susceptibility parameters of lithiated silicon are interwoven in the first principle theoretical equations and appears frequently throughout this research presentation, which should serve to demonstrate the importance of these parameters in the understanding of this component in lithium ion batteries.

  16. The analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES in multigroups for 3D rectangular geometry: Development and performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Juan-Andres [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Jose G. Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: lozano@din.upm.es; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Ahnert, Carol; Aragones, Jose-Maria [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Jose G. Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    In this work we address the development and implementation of the analytic coarse-mesh finite-difference (ACMFD) method in a nodal neutron diffusion solver called ANDES. The first version of the solver is implemented in any number of neutron energy groups, and in 3D Cartesian geometries; thus it mainly addresses PWR and BWR core simulations. The details about the generalization to multigroups and 3D, as well as the implementation of the method are given. The transverse integration procedure is the scheme chosen to extend the ACMFD formulation to multidimensional problems. The role of the transverse leakage treatment in the accuracy of the nodal solutions is analyzed in detail: the involved assumptions, the limitations of the method in terms of nodal width, the alternative approaches to implement the transverse leakage terms in nodal methods - implicit or explicit -, and the error assessment due to transverse integration. A new approach for solving the control rod 'cusping' problem, based on the direct application of the ACMFD method, is also developed and implemented in ANDES. The solver architecture turns ANDES into an user-friendly, modular and easily linkable tool, as required to be integrated into common software platforms for multi-scale and multi-physics simulations. ANDES can be used either as a stand-alone nodal code or as a solver to accelerate the convergence of whole core pin-by-pin code systems. The verification and performance of the solver are demonstrated using both proof-of-principle test cases and well-referenced international benchmarks.

  17. Final Report, NERI Project: ''An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK (B204) Final Report, NERI Project: ''An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model'' The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  18. Multi-domain/multi-method numerical approach for neutron transport equation; Couplage de methodes et decomposition de domaine pour la resolution de l'equation du transport des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, E

    2004-12-15

    A new methodology for the solution of the neutron transport equation, based on domain decomposition has been developed. This approach allows us to employ different numerical methods together for a whole core calculation: a variational nodal method, a discrete ordinate nodal method and a method of characteristics. These new developments authorize the use of independent spatial and angular expansion, non-conformal Cartesian and unstructured meshes for each sub-domain, introducing a flexibility of modeling which is not allowed in today available codes. The effectiveness of our multi-domain/multi-method approach has been tested on several configurations. Among them, one particular application: the benchmark model of the Phebus experimental facility at Cea-Cadarache, shows why this new methodology is relevant to problems with strong local heterogeneities. This comparison has showed that the decomposition method brings more accuracy all along with an important reduction of the computer time.

  19. Electrodynamics on Fermi Cyclides in Nodal Line Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seongjin; Mele, E. J.; Min, Hongki

    2017-10-01

    We study the frequency-dependent conductivity of nodal line semimetals (NLSMs), focusing on the effects of carrier density and energy dispersion on the nodal line. We find that the low-frequency conductivity has a rich spectral structure which can be understood using scaling rules derived from the geometry of their Dupin cyclide Fermi surfaces. We identify different frequency regimes, find scaling rules for the optical conductivity in each, and demonstrate them with numerical calculations of the inter- and intraband contributions to the optical conductivity using a low-energy model for a generic NLSM.

  20. Oddness of least energy nodal solutions on radial domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Grumiau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the Lane-Emden problem $$displaylines{ Delta u(x + |{u(x}mathclose|^{p-2}u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinOmega,cr u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinpartialOmega, }$$ where $2 < p < 2^{*}$ and $Omega$ is a ball or an annulus in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $Ngeq 2$. We show that, for p close to 2, least energy nodal solutions are odd with respect to an hyperplane -- which is their nodal surface. The proof ingredients are a constrained implicit function theorem and the fact that the second eigenvalue is simple up to rotations.

  1. Measurement method of compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients for density standard liquid at 2329 kg/m3 based on hydrostatic suspension principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintao; Liu, Ziyong; Xu, Changhong; Li, Zhanhong

    2014-07-01

    The accurate measurement on the compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients of density standard liquid at 2329kg/m3 (DSL-2329) plays an important role in the quality control for silicon single crystal manufacturing. A new method is developed based on hydrostatic suspension principle in order to determine the two coefficients with high measurement accuracy. Two silicon single crystal samples with known density are immersed into a sealed vessel full of DSL-2329. The density of liquid is adjusted with varying liquid temperature and static pressure, so that the hydrostatic suspension of two silicon single crystal samples is achieved. The compression and thermal expansion coefficients are then calculated by using the data of temperature and static pressure at the suspension state. One silicon single crystal sample can be suspended at different state, as long as the liquid temperature and static pressure function linearly according to a certain mathematical relationship. A hydrostatic suspension experimental system is devised with the maximal temperature control error ±50 μK; Silicon single crystal samples can be suspended by adapting the pressure following the PID method. By using the method based on hydrostatic suspension principle, the two key coefficients can be measured at the same time, and measurement precision can be improved due to avoiding the influence of liquid surface tension. This method was further validated experimentally, where the mixture of 1, 2, 3-tribromopropane and 1,2-dibromoethane is used as DSL-2329. The compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients were measured, as 8.5×10-4 K-1 and 5.4×1010 Pa-1, respectively.

  2. Resonant state expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.).

  3. Stress and displacement patterns in the craniofacial skeleton with rapid maxillary expansion-a finite element method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, J; Mahesh, C M; Chandrashekar, B S; Sundara, Abhishek; Arun, A V; Reddy, Vinay P

    2017-12-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME), indicated in the treatment of maxillary deficiency directs high forces to maxillary basal bone and to other adjacent skeletal bones. The aim of this study is to (i) evaluate stress distribution along craniofacial sutures and (ii) study the displacement of various craniofacial structures with rapid maxillary expansion therapy by using a Finite Element model. An analytical model was developed from a dried human skull of a 12 year old male. CT scan images of the skull were taken in axial direction parallel to the F-H plane at 1 mm interval, processed using Mimics software, required portion of the skull was exported into stereo-lithography model. ANSYS software was used to solve the mathematical equation. Contour plots of the displacement and stresses were obtained from the results of the analysis performed. At Node 47005, maximum X-displacement was 5.073 mm corresponding to the incisal edge of the upper central incisor. At Node 3971, maximum negative Y-displacement was -0.86 mm which corresponds to the anterior zygomatic arch, indicating posterior movement of craniofacial complex. At Node 32324, maximum negative Z-displacement was -0.92 mm representing the anterior and deepest convex portion of the nasal septum; indicating downward displacement of structures medial to the area of force application. Pyramidal displacement of maxilla was evident. Apex of pyramid faced the nasal bone and base was located on the oral side. Posterosuperior part of nasal cavity moved minimally in lateral direction and width of nasal cavity at the floor of the nose increased, there was downward and forward movement of maxilla with a tendency toward posterior rotation. Maximum von Mises stresses were found along midpalatal, pterygomaxillary, nasomaxillary and frontomaxillary sutures.

  4. Accidente cerebrovascular isquémico asociado con ablación por radiofrecuencia de reentrada nodal Ischemic stroke associated with radio frequency ablation for nodal reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Díaz Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La taquicardia por reentrada nodal es la causa más común de taquicardia supraventricular paroxística; en aquellos pacientes en quienes el manejo farmacológico no es efectivo o deseado la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un excelente método terapéutico dada su alta tasa de curación. Aunque en términos generales dichos procedimientos son rápidos y seguros, se han descrito varias complicaciones entre las que sobresale el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 41 años con episodios de taquicardia por reentrada nodal a repetición, que fue llevada a ablación por radiofrecuencia. En el post-operatorio inmediato se evidenció déficit neurológico focal con isquemia en el territorio de la arteria cerebral media derecha, tras lo cual se realizó angiografía con intento de angioplastia y abxicimab y posteriormente infusión local de activador de plasminógeno tisular (rtPA con adecuado resultado clínico y angiográfico.Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia is the most common type of paroxismal supraventricular tachycardia. In those patients in whom drug therapy is not effective or not desired, radio frequency ablation is an excellent therapeutic method. Although overall these procedures are fast and safe, several complications among which ischemic stroke stands out, have been reported. We present the case of a 41 year old female patient with repetitive episodes of tachycardia due to nodal reentry who was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Immediately after the procedure she presented focal neurologic deficit consistent with ischemic stroke in the right medial cerebral artery territory. Angiography with angioplastia and abxicimab was performed and then tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA was locally infused, with appropriate clinical and angiographic outcome.

  5. Robust determination of the chemical potential in the pole expansion and selected inversion method for solving Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weile; Lin, Lin

    2017-10-01

    Fermi operator expansion (FOE) methods are powerful alternatives to diagonalization type methods for solving Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT). One example is the pole expansion and selected inversion (PEXSI) method, which approximates the Fermi operator by rational matrix functions and reduces the computational complexity to at most quadratic scaling for solving KSDFT. Unlike diagonalization type methods, the chemical potential often cannot be directly read off from the result of a single step of evaluation of the Fermi operator. Hence multiple evaluations are needed to be sequentially performed to compute the chemical potential to ensure the correct number of electrons within a given tolerance. This hinders the performance of FOE methods in practice. In this paper, we develop an efficient and robust strategy to determine the chemical potential in the context of the PEXSI method. The main idea of the new method is not to find the exact chemical potential at each self-consistent-field (SCF) iteration but to dynamically and rigorously update the upper and lower bounds for the true chemical potential, so that the chemical potential reaches its convergence along the SCF iteration. Instead of evaluating the Fermi operator for multiple times sequentially, our method uses a two-level strategy that evaluates the Fermi operators in parallel. In the regime of full parallelization, the wall clock time of each SCF iteration is always close to the time for one single evaluation of the Fermi operator, even when the initial guess is far away from the converged solution. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method using examples with metallic and insulating characters, as well as results from ab initio molecular dynamics.

  6. Online single-factor measured active nodal load forecasting in an electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernenko, Pavlo O.; Shevchenko, Sviatoslav Yu.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Karnakova, Gaini; Kozhambardiyeva, Miergul; Iskakova, Aigul

    2017-08-01

    Two techniques for online nodal load (NL) forecasting using preliminary classification of training set data are proposed. In the first one, a pattern recognition method, the rate evaluation algorithm (REM), is applied to measured load values of the previous day to classify load diagram that is being forecasted. Diagrams from resulting class are used to calculate load predictions. In the second technique, measured load values of a diagram from training set, which is the closest to the one being predicted, are used as estimates of predicted load values. Online NL forecasting using the mentioned above methods has been conducted. The corresponding mean square errors are given.

  7. Comment on 'A novel method for fast and robust estimation of fluorescence decay dynamics using constrained least-square deconvolution with Laguerre expansion'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Li, David Day-Uei

    2017-02-21

    This comment is to clarify that Poisson noise instead of Gaussian noise shall be included to assess the performances of least-squares deconvolution with Laguerre expansion (LSD-LE) for analysing fluorescence lifetime imaging data obtained from time-resolved systems. Moreover, we also corrected an equation in the paper. As the LSD-LE method is rapid and has the potential to be widely applied not only for diagnostic but for wider bioimaging applications, it is desirable to have precise noise models and equations.

  8. Nodal prices determination with wind integration for radial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like transmission pricing, distribution network pricing must also be transparent and must include tile variations based on the change in the operating state of the system, integration of renewable sources and must be real time. In this paper, a distribution system nodal pricing scheme is proposed for radial distribution system ...

  9. Note on the nodal line of the p-Laplacian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel R. El Amrouss

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that the length of the nodal line of the eigenfunctions associated to the second eigenvalue of the problem $$ -Delta_p u = lambda ho (x |u|^{p-2}u quad hbox{in } Omega $$ with the Dirichlet conditions is not bounded uniformly with respect to the weight.

  10. CRY 1AB trangenic cowpea obtained by nodal electroporation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electroporation-mediated genetic transformation was used to introduce Cry 1 Ab insecticidal gene into cowpea. Nodal buds were electroporated in planta with a plasmid carrying the Cry 1Ab and antibiotic resistance npt II genes driven by a 35S CaMV promoter. T1 seeds derived from electroporated branches were selected ...

  11. Nodal anatomy of eight Nigeria species of Vigna savi (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the nodal anatomical features of eight Vigna species namely: V. ambacensis, V. gracills, V. racemosa, V. reticulata, V. subterranae, V. triloba, V. unguiculata and V. vexillata that are common in Eastern Nigeria were carried out. The model anatomy showed that these taxa possess useful taxonomic ...

  12. Nodal and FGF coordinate ascidian neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ignacio A; Levine, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Formation of the vertebrate neural tube represents one of the premier examples of morphogenesis in animal development. Here, we investigate this process in the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis Previous studies have implicated Nodal and FGF signals in the specification of lateral and ventral neural progenitors. We show that these signals also control the detailed cellular behaviors underlying morphogenesis of the neural tube. Live-imaging experiments show that FGF controls the intercalary movements of ventral neural progenitors, whereas Nodal is essential for the characteristic stacking behavior of lateral cells. Ectopic activation of FGF signaling is sufficient to induce intercalary behaviors in cells that have not received Nodal. In the absence of FGF and Nodal, neural progenitors exhibit a default behavior of sequential cell divisions, and fail to undergo the intercalary and stacking behaviors essential for normal morphogenesis. Thus, cell specification events occurring prior to completion of gastrulation coordinate the morphogenetic movements underlying the organization of the neural tube. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. High-frequency shoot regeneration of nodal explants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the shoot regeneration of nodal segments from a medicinal plant, Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg (Vitaceae). The highest number of shoots (7.27 shoots per explant) was observed in MS medium supplemented with 4 mg/l BA after six weeks of inoculation. 2 mg/l BA in combination with 0.1 mg/l ...

  14. Extra nodal growth as a prognostic factor in malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopal, SA; Tiebosch, ATMG; Daryanani, D; Plukker, JTM; Hoekstra, HJ

    Aim. Extra nodal growth (ENG) in lymph-node metastases may be an additional. indicator for poor prognosis and increased Loco-regional recurrence in patients with a cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Most studies analyzing prognostic factors tack a proper definition or description of the

  15. Optical techniques for the intraoperative assessment of nodal status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, Diederik; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The lymphatic system is an important pathway in the metastatic spread of many malignancies and a key prognostic indicator. Nondestructive assessment of the nodal status during surgery could limit the amount of lymph nodes that need to be resected and allow for immediate regional lymphadenectomy

  16. Dual Atrioventricular Nodal Pathways Physiology: A Review of Relevant Anatomy, Electrophysiology, and Electrocardiographic Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam; Pavri, Behzad B.

    2014-01-01

    More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the wides...

  17. Mathematical embryology: the fluid mechanics of nodal cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. J.; Smith, A. A.; Blake, J. R.

    2011-07-01

    Left-right symmetry breaking is critical to vertebrate embryonic development; in many species this process begins with cilia-driven flow in a structure termed the `node'. Primary `whirling' cilia, tilted towards the posterior, transport morphogen-containing vesicles towards the left, initiating left-right asymmetric development. We review recent theoretical models based on the point-force stokeslet and point-torque rotlet singularities, explaining how rotation and surface-tilt produce directional flow. Analysis of image singularity systems enforcing the no-slip condition shows how tilted rotation produces a far-field `stresslet' directional flow, and how time-dependent point-force and time-independent point-torque models are in this respect equivalent. Associated slender body theory analysis is reviewed; this approach enables efficient and accurate simulation of three-dimensional time-dependent flow, time-dependence being essential in predicting features of the flow such as chaotic advection, which have subsequently been determined experimentally. A new model for the nodal flow utilising the regularized stokeslet method is developed, to model the effect of the overlying Reichert's membrane. Velocity fields and particle paths within the enclosed domain are computed and compared with the flow profiles predicted by previous `membrane-less' models. Computations confirm that the presence of the membrane produces flow-reversal in the upper region, but no continuous region of reverse flow close to the epithelium. The stresslet far-field is no longer evident in the membrane model, due to the depth of the cavity being of similar magnitude to the cilium length. Simulations predict that vesicles released within one cilium length of the epithelium are generally transported to the left via a `loopy drift' motion, sometimes involving highly unpredictable detours around leftward cilia [truncated

  18. Development and verification of an efficient spatial neutron kinetics method for reactivity-initiated event analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hideaki [Toden Software, Inc., In-Core Fuel Management Department, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Nuclear Engineering Department, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A space/time nodal diffusion code based on the nodal expansion method (NEM), EPISODE, was developed in order to evaluate transient neutron behavior in light water reactor cores. The present code employs the improved quasistatic (IQS) method for spatial neutron kinetics, and neutron flux distribution is numerically obtained by solving the neutron diffusion equation with the nonlinear iteration scheme to achieve fast computation. A predictor-corrector (PC) method developed in the present study enabled to apply a coarse time mesh to the transient spatial neutron calculation than that applicable in the conventional IQS model, which improved computational efficiency further. Its computational advantage was demonstrated by applying to the numerical benchmark problems that simulate reactivity-initiated events, showing reduction of computational times up to a factor of three than the conventional IQS. The thermohydraulics model was also incorporated in EPISODE, and the capability of realistic reactivity event analyses was verified using the SPERT-III/E-Core experimental data. (author)

  19. Nodal Discontinuous Element Methods: Formulations, Analysis, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, Jan

    Part of concluding summary and outlook: "The focus of this thesis has been on the formulation, analysis, and application of high-order accurate computational techniques for solving rather general initial boundary value problems, emphasizing an analysis driven theoretical foundation. As such...

  20. Envelope periodic solutions for a discrete network with the Jacobi elliptic functions and the alternative (G'/G)-expansion method including the generalized Riccati equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala-Tebue, E.; Tsobgni-Fozap, D. C.; Kenfack-Jiotsa, A.; Kofane, T. C.

    2014-06-01

    Using the Jacobi elliptic functions and the alternative ( G'/ G-expansion method including the generalized Riccati equation, we derive exact soliton solutions for a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line in (2+1) dimension. More precisely, these methods are general as they lead us to diverse solutions that have not been previously obtained for the nonlinear electrical transmission lines. This study seeks to show that it is not often necessary to transform the equation of the network into a well-known differential equation before finding its solutions. The solutions obtained by the current methods are generalized periodic solutions of nonlinear equations. The shape of solutions can be well controlled by adjusting the parameters of the network. These exact solutions may have significant applications in telecommunication systems where solitons are used to codify or for the transmission of data.

  1. Nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) solution to a set of high-order Boussinesq-type equations for modelling highly nonlinear and dispersive water waves in one and two horizontal dimensions. The continuous equations are discretized using nodal polynomial basis...... and convergence of the model with both h (grid size) and p (order) refinement are verified for the linearized equations, and calculations are provided for two nonlinear test cases in one horizontal dimension: harmonic generation over a submerged bar; and reflection of a steep solitary wave from a vertical wall...

  2. Clinical implementation of coverage probability planning for nodal boosting in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Assenholt, Marianne S; Jensen, Maria F

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To implement coverage probability (CovP) for dose planning of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) of pathologic lymph nodes in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: CovP constraints for SIB of the pathological nodal target (PTV-N) with a central dose peak...... regression during EBRT. Total EBRT and BT D98 was >57 GyEQD2 in 98% of the visible nodes. Compared to treatment plans aiming for full PTV-N coverage, CovP significantly reduced V50 of body, bones and bowel (pclinically feasible for SIB of pathological nodes and significantly...

  3. Effects of enhanced parasympathetic tone on atrioventricular nodal conduction during atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, M K; Stambler, B S; Wood, M A; Pherson, C; Ellenbogen, K A

    1997-10-01

    The effects of various physiologic and pharmacologic stimuli on the anterograde slow pathway in patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia are well characterized. We sought to further characterize the nature of anterograde and retrograde conduction during tachycardia and to define the differential input of the parasympathetic nervous system to these pathways. A custom-made neck suction collar was placed to stimulate the carotid body baroreceptors during supraventricular tachycardia. Neck suction at -60 mm Hg was applied and changes in tachycardia cycle length, AH, and ventriculoatrial intervals were measured in 20 patients. These measurements were repeated after intravenous administration of 10 mg of edrophonium to enhance vagal tone. We observed a 15 +/- 6 ms increase in tachycardia cycle length from baseline (p <0.0001) and a 14 +/- 6 ms increase in AH interval (p <0.0001), but no change in the VA interval with neck suction alone. The tachycardia cycle length prolonged 26 +/- 55 ms (p <0.0001) with edrophonium and an additional 12 +/- 43 ms (p <0.001) with neck suction after edrophonium. There was no change in the VA interval before or after edrophonium during neck suction. There were 10 tachycardia terminations in 8 patients during anterograde slow pathway block during neck suction, with tachycardia cycle length prolongation and mean AH prolongation before termination of 45 +/- 37 ms (vs 15 +/- 7 ms increase in AH interval without tachycardia termination, p = 0.10). There were 12 tachycardia terminations in 4 patients with retrograde block during neck suction, only after edrophonium, without any preceding change in tachycardia cycle length during 11 episodes. We conclude that anterograde slow pathway demonstrates gradual conduction slowing with parasympathetic enhancement, whereas retrograde fast pathway responds with abrupt block.

  4. Analytical solutions of the planar cyclic voltammetry process for two soluble species with equal diffusivities and fast electron transfer using the method of eigenfunction expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Samin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry is a powerful tool that is used for characterizing electrochemical processes. Models of cyclic voltammetry take into account the mass transport of species and the kinetics at the electrode surface. Analytical solutions of these models are not well-known due to the complexity of the boundary conditions. In this study we present closed form analytical solutions of the planar voltammetry model for two soluble species with fast electron transfer and equal diffusivities using the eigenfunction expansion method. Our solution methodology does not incorporate Laplace transforms and yields good agreement with the numerical solution. This solution method can be extended to cases that are more general and may be useful for benchmarking purposes.

  5. New travelling wave solutions of the (1 + 1-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation using novel (G′/G-expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Hafez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the novel (G′/G-expansion method is applied to construct exact travelling wave solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation. This technique is straightforward and simple to use, and gives more new general solutions than the other existing methods. Various types of solitary and periodic wave solutions of this equation are derived. The obtained results may be helpful to describe the wave propagation in soliton physics, such as soliton propagation in optical fibers, modulus instability in plasma physics, etc. and provided us the firm mathematical foundation in soliton physics or any varied instances. Furthermore, three-dimensional modules plot of the solutions are also given to visualize the dynamics of the equation.

  6. Exact Solutions of the Time Fractional BBM-Burger Equation by Novel (G′/G-Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakeel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional derivatives are used in the sense modified Riemann-Liouville to obtain exact solutions for BBM-Burger equation of fractional order. This equation can be converted into an ordinary differential equation by using a persistent fractional complex transform and, as a result, hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions are attained. The performance of the method is reliable, useful, and gives newer general exact solutions with more free parameters than the existing methods. Numerical results coupled with the graphical representation completely reveal the trustworthiness of the method.

  7. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  8. Anomalous contagion and renormalization in networks with nodal mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Qi, Hong; Zheng, Minzhang; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2016-07-01

    A common occurrence in everyday human activity is where people join, leave and possibly rejoin clusters of other individuals —whether this be online (e.g. social media communities) or in real space (e.g. popular meeting places such as cafes). In the steady state, the resulting interaction network would appear static over time if the identities of the nodes are ignored. Here we show that even in this static steady-state limit, a non-zero nodal mobility leads to a diverse set of outbreak profiles that is dramatically different from known forms, and yet matches well with recent real-world social outbreaks. We show how this complication of nodal mobility can be renormalized away for a particular class of networks.

  9. IKEA's International Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Harapiak, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    This case concerns a global retailing firm that is dealing with strategic management and marketing issues. Applying a scenario of international expansion, this case provides a thorough analysis of the current business environment for IKEA. Utilizing a variety of methods (e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, McKinsey Matrix) the overall objective is to provide students with the opportunity to apply their research skills and knowledge regarding a highly competitive industry to develop strategic marketing strateg...

  10. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayabal Pandiaraja

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a malignancy that develops from melanocytes. Breast is an uncommon site for malignant melanoma. Melanoma of the breast occurs in various situations such as primary melanoma of breast skin, metastatic melanoma of breast, in-transit metastasis to the breast, and primary glandular breast melanoma. Most of the melanoma breast either cutaneous melanoma or metastatic melanoma. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal involvement is rarely reported compared to prima...

  11. Identification of nodal metastases in melanoma using sox-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Charay; Kim, Jinah

    2011-07-01

    The presence of S100-positive dendritic cells hinders the identification of isolated melanoma tumor cells and micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes. Sox-10, a transcription factor that plays an important role in schwannian and melanocytic cell development, is not expressed in dendritic cells. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Sox-10 in the identification of metastases in sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes for melanoma. We examined the expression pattern of Sox-10, as compared with S100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 in 93 lymph nodes (40 originally reported as positive and 53 originally reported as negative for metastasis) from 33 sentinel lymph node biopsies and regional lymphadenectomies. Sox-10 and S100 both highlighted metastases in 43 of 43 (100%) positive lymph nodes identified in this study; however, Sox-10 immunohistochemical staining significantly improved the detection of nodal metastases. The nuclear staining of Sox-10 promoted improved distinction between heavily pigmented melanophages and melanocytic metastases in 3 positive lymph nodes. In 2 lymph nodes, Sox-10 was critical in distinguishing S100-positive atypical nodal dendritic cells from tumor cells. Also, Sox-10 significantly improved the identification of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells as compared with S100 in 10 positive lymph nodes. Most importantly, Sox-10 identified micrometastases in 2 lymph nodes, originally reported as negative on S100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 immunostains. Therefore, Sox-10 is a comparable marker to S100 in identifying nodal metastases in melanoma and is especially useful in the setting of lymph nodes with heavily pigmented metastases, numerous S100-positive nodal dendritic cells, micrometastases, and isolated tumor cells.

  12. Imaging the paramagnetic nonlinear Meissner effect in nodal gap superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuravel, Alexander P.; Bae, Seokjin; Shevchenko, Sergey N.; Omelyanchouk, Alexander N.; Lukashenko, Alexander V.; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Boundary surfaces of nodal gap superconductors can host Andreev bound states (ABS) which develop a paramagnetic response under external RF field in contrast to the bulk diamagnetic response of the bulk superconductor. At low temperature this surface paramagnetic response dominates and enhances the nonlinear RF response of the sample. With a recently developed photoresponse imaging technique, the anisotropy of this "paramagnetic" nonlinear Meissner response, and its current direction (angular)...

  13. Micropropagation of Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm. Using Nodal Segment Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshetrimayum PUNYARANI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nodal segments of Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm. containing single axillary buds were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators for inducing plantlets. For breaking of axillary bud dormancy, nodal segments were cultured on 40-70gl-1 sucrose or 1-13 M adenine sulphate (AdS supplemented MS basal medium containing 5 M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 1M ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. The nodal segments cultured on 1-13 M AdS, 5 M BAP, 1 M NAA and 50gl-1 sucrose showed simultaneous production of shoots and roots while those cultured on 5 M BAP, 1 M NAA and 40-70gl-1 sucrose produced shoots only. The most effective media for breaking axillary bud dormancy was 5 M BAP, 1 M NAA, 50 gl-1 sucrose and 10 M AdS supplemented medium. The propagules from 40-70gl-1 sucrose produced roots in shoot multiplication medium, i.e.,10 M AdS, 1 M NAA, 50gl-1 sucrose and 3-11 M BAP supplemented medium. The best response for shoot multiplication was on 10 M AdS, 1 M NAA, 50gl-1 sucrose and 7 M BAP. The well-rooted shoots were hardened and transferred to the soil where they showed 95% survival rate. Results show that axillary bud can be used for micropropagation of Costus speciosus.

  14. Topological Phase Transitions in Line-nodal Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gil Young; Han, Sangeun; Moon, Eun-Gook

    Fathoming interplay between symmetry and topology of many-electron wave-functions deepens our understanding in quantum nature of many particle systems. Topology often protects zero-energy excitation, and in a certain class, symmetry is intrinsically tied to the topological protection. Namely, unless symmetry is broken, topological nature is intact. We study one specific case of such class, symmetry-protected line-nodal superconductors in three spatial dimensions (3d). Mismatch between phase spaces of order parameter fluctuation and line-nodal fermion excitation induces an exotic universality class in a drastic contrast to one of the conventional ϕ4 theory in 3d. Hyper-scaling violation and relativistic dynamic scaling with unusually large quantum critical region are main characteristics, and their implication in experiments is discussed. For example, continuous phase transition out of line-nodal superconductors has a linear phase boundary in a temperature-tuning parameter phase-diagram. This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government and KAIST start-up funding.

  15. New Statistical Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Landmark Configurations Obtained with Cone-Beam CT: Basic Features and Clinical Application for Rapid Maxillary Expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Jennifer; Lagravere, Manuel O.; Major, Paul W.; Heo, Giseon [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    To describe a statistical method of three-dimensional landmark configuration data and apply it to an orthodontic data set comparing two types of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatments. Landmark configurations obtained from cone beam CT scans were used to represent patients in two types (please describe what were two types) of RME groups and a control group over four time points. A method using tools from persistent homology and dimensionality reduction is presented and used to identify variability between the subjects. The analysis was in agreement with previous results using conventional methods, which found significant differences between treatment groups and the control, but no distinction between the types of treatment. Additionally, it was found that second molar eruption varied considerably between the subjects, and this has not been evaluated in previous analyses. This method of analysis allows entire configurations to be considered as a whole, and does not require specific inter-landmark distances or angles to be selected. Sources of variability present themselves, without having to be individually sought after. This method is suggested as an additional tool for the analysis of landmark configuration data.

  16. Three-body expansion of the fragment molecular orbital method combined with density-functional tight-binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yoshio; Fedorov, Dmitri G

    2017-03-15

    The three-body fragment molecular orbital (FMO3) method is formulated for density-functional tight-binding (DFTB). The energy, analytic gradient, and Hessian are derived in the gas phase, and the energy and analytic gradient are also derived for polarizable continuum model. The accuracy of FMO3-DFTB is evaluated for five proteins, sodium cation in explicit solvent, and three isomers of polyalanine. It is shown that FMO3-DFTB is considerably more accurate than FMO2-DFTB. Molecular dynamics simulations for sodium cation in water are performed for 100 ps, yielding radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interface matrix method in AFEN framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogosbekyan, Leonid; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In this study, we extend the application of the interface-matrix(IM) method for reflector modeling to Analytic Flux Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method. This include the modifications of the surface-averaged net current continuity and the net leakage balance conditions for IM method in accordance with AFEN formula. AFEN-interface matrix (AFEN-IM) method has been tested against ZION-1 benchmark problem. The numerical result of AFEN-IM method shows 1.24% of maximum error and 0.42% of root-mean square error in assembly power distribution, and 0.006% {Delta} k of neutron multiplication factor. This result proves that the interface-matrix method for reflector modeling can be useful in AFEN method. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  18. An Advanced Integrated Diffusion/Transport Method for the Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Very-High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzad Rahnema; Dingkang Zhang; Abderrafi Ougouag; Frederick Gleicher

    2011-04-04

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated diffusion/transport (IDT) method to substantially improve the accuracy of nodal diffusion methods for the design and analysis of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Because of the presence of control rods in the reflector regions in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR-VHTR), traditional nodal diffusion methods do not accurately model these regions, within which diffusion theory breaks down in the vicinity of high neutron absorption and steep flux gradients. The IDT method uses a local transport solver based on a new incident flux response expansion method in the controlled nodes. Diffusion theory is used in the rest of the core. This approach improves the accuracy of the core solution by generating transport solutions of controlled nodes while maintaining computational efficiency by using diffusion solutions in nodes where such a treatment is sufficient. The transport method is initially developed and coupled to the reformulated 3-D nodal diffusion model in the CYNOD code for PBR core design and fuel cycle analysis. This method is also extended to the prismatic VHTR. The new method accurately captures transport effects in highly heterogeneous regions with steep flux gradients. The calculations of these nodes with transport theory avoid errors associated with spatial homogenization commonly used in diffusion methods in reactor core simulators

  19. Shifting nodal-plane suppressions in high-order harmonic spectra from diatomic molecules in orthogonally polarized driving fields

    CERN Document Server

    Das, T

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the imprint of nodal planes in high-order harmonic spectra from aligned diatomic molecules in intense laser fields whose components exhibit orthogonal polarizations. We show that the typical suppression in the spectra associated to nodal planes is distorted, and that this distortion can be employed to map the electron's angle of return to its parent ion. This investigation is performed semi-analytically at the single-molecule response and single-active orbital level, using the strong-field approximation and the steepest descent method. We show that the velocity form of the dipole operator is superior to the length form in providing information about this distortion. However, both forms introduce artifacts that are absent in the actual momentum-space wavefunction. Furthermore, elliptically polarized fields lead to larger distortions in comparison to two-color orthogonally polarized fields. These features are investigated in detail for $\\mathrm{O}_2$, whose highest occupied molecular orbital provides...

  20. Expansion method of the three-dimensional viewing freedom of autostereoscopic 3D display with dynamic merged viewing zone (MVZ) under eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2017-05-01

    We studied expansion method of the three-dimensional viewing freedom of autostereoscopic 3D display with dynamic MVZ under tracking of viewer's eye. The dynamic MVZ technique can provide three dimensional images with minimized crosstalk when observer move at optimal viewing distance (OVD). In order to be extended to movement in the depth direction of the observer of this technology, it is provided a new pixel mapping method of the left eye and the right eye images at the time of the depth direction movement of the observer. When this pixel mapping method is applied to common autostereoscopic 3D display, the image of the 3D display as viewed from the observer position has the nonuniformed brightness distribution of a constant period in the horizontal direction depending on depth direction distance from OVD. It makes it difficult to provide a three-dimensional image of good quality to the observer who deviates from OVD. In this study, it is simulated brightness distribution formed by the proposed pixel mapping when it is moved in the depth direction away OVD and confirmed the characteristics with the captured photos of two cameras on observer position to simulated two eyes of viewer using a developed 3D display system. As a result, we found that observer can perceive 3D images of same quality as OVD position even when he moves away from it in the developed 3D display system.

  1. Radiotherapy studies and extra-nodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, progress and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L

    2012-01-01

    for the more common extra-nodal organs, e.g. stomach, Waldeyer's ring, skin and brain, are fairly well known and show significant variation. A few randomised trials have been carried out testing the role of radiotherapy in these lymphomas. However, for most extra-nodal lymphomas, randomised trials have...... not been carried out, and treatment decisions are made on small patient series and extrapolations from nodal lymphomas. Hopefully, wide international collaboration will make controlled clinical trials possible in the less common extra-nodal lymphomas. Modern highly conformal radiotherapy allows better...... coverage of extra-nodal lymphomatous involvement with better sparing of normal tissues. The necessary radiation doses and volumes need to be defined for the different extra-nodal lymphoma entities. The challenge is to optimise the use of radiotherapy in the modern multimodality treatment of extra...

  2. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: The multifaceted role of Nodal signaling during mammalian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C B; Dufort, D

    2011-03-01

    Nodal, a secreted signaling protein in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, has established roles in vertebrate development. However, components of the Nodal signaling pathway are also expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and have been implicated in many processes of mammalian reproduction. Emerging evidence indicates that Nodal and its extracellular inhibitor Lefty are expressed in the uterus and complex interactions between the two proteins mediate menstruation, decidualization and embryo implantation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that Nodal from both fetal and maternal sources may regulate trophoblast cell fate and facilitate placentation as both embryonic and uterine-specific Nodal knockout mouse strains exhibit disrupted placenta morphology. Here we review the established and prospective roles of Nodal signaling in facilitating successful pregnancy, including recent evidence supporting a potential link to parturition and preterm birth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Micropropagation of Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm. Using Nodal Segment Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshetrimayum PUNYARANI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nodal segments of Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm. containing single axillary buds were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators for inducing plantlets. For breaking of axillary bud dormancy, nodal segments were cultured on 40-70gl-1 sucrose or 1-13 �M adenine sulphate (AdS supplemented MS basal medium containing 5 �M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 1�M ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. The nodal segments cultured on 1-13 �M AdS, 5 �M BAP, 1 �M NAA and 50gl-1 sucrose showed simultaneous production of shoots and roots while those cultured on 5 �M BAP, 1 �M NAA and 40-70gl-1 sucrose produced shoots only. The most effective media for breaking axillary bud dormancy was 5 �M BAP, 1 �M NAA, 50 gl-1 sucrose and 10 �M AdS supplemented medium. The propagules from 40-70gl-1 sucrose produced roots in shoot multiplication medium, i.e.,10 �M AdS, 1 �M NAA, 50gl-1 sucrose and 3-11 �M BAP supplemented medium. The best response for shoot multiplication was on 10 �M AdS, 1 �M NAA, 50gl-1 sucrose and 7 �M BAP. The well-rooted shoots were hardened and transferred to the soil where they showed 95% survival rate. Results show that axillary bud can be used for micropropagation of Costus speciosus.

  4. Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia ablation and inferior vena cava agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galand, Vincent; Pavin, Dominique; Behar, Nathalie; Mabo, Philippe; Martins, Raphaël P

    2016-10-01

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare and very often diagnosed in asymptomatic patients during computed tomography performed for other purposes. These anomalies can have significant clinical implications, for example if electrophysiology procedures are needed. Diagnostic and ablation procedures are difficult since catheter manipulation and positioning are more complex. We present here a case of successful atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia ablation in a patient with unexpected IVC agenesis, using an azygos route. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Nodal Langerhans cell histiocytosis with prominent eosinophilic emperipolesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Srivastava, Shreya; Totadri, Sidharth; Srinivasan, Radhika; Trehan, Amita

    2015-12-01

    Multinucleated giant cells of osteoclastic type are known to occur in nodal and extranodal lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). These giant cells are thought to be derived from phagocytic histiocytes, which correlate with the degree of necrosis in LCH lesions. Emperipolesis commonly seen in Rosai-Dorfman disease is a distinct phenomenon characterized by intact phagocytosed cells in an intracytoplasmic vacuole protected from proteolytic digestion. We present a case of emperipolesis of inflammatory cells especially of eosinophils by multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type in a lymph node involved by LCH--a finding that has not been described previously in the literature. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nodal line optimization and its application to violin top plate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yonggyun; Jang, In Gwun; Kim, In Kyum; Kwak, Byung Man

    2010-10-01

    In the literature, most problems of structural vibration have been formulated to adjust a specific natural frequency: for example, to maximize the first natural frequency. In musical instruments like a violin; however, mode shapes are equally important because they are related to sound quality in the way that natural frequencies are related to the octave. The shapes of nodal lines, which represent the natural mode shapes, are generally known to have a unique feature for good violins. Among the few studies on mode shape optimization, one typical study addresses the optimization of nodal point location for reducing vibration in a one-dimensional beam structure. However, nodal line optimization, which is required in violin plate design, has not yet been considered. In this paper, the central idea of controlling the shape of the nodal lines is proposed and then applied to violin top plate design. Finite element model for a violin top plate was constructed using shell elements. Then, optimization was performed to minimize the square sum of the displacement of selected nodes located along the target nodal lines by varying the thicknesses of the top plate. We conducted nodal line optimization for the second and the fifth modes together at the same time, and the results showed that the nodal lines obtained match well with the target nodal lines. The information on plate thickness distribution from nodal line optimization would be valuable for tailored trimming of a violin top plate for the given performances.

  7. Itô-SDE MCMC method for Bayesian characterization of errors associated with data limitations in stochastic expansion methods for uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnst, M.; Abello Álvarez, B.; Ponthot, J.-P.; Boman, R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the characterization and the propagation of errors associated with data limitations in polynomial-chaos-based stochastic methods for uncertainty quantification. Such an issue can arise in uncertainty quantification when only a limited amount of data is available. When the available information does not suffice to accurately determine the probability distributions that must be assigned to the uncertain variables, the Bayesian method for assigning these probability distributions becomes attractive because it allows the stochastic model to account explicitly for insufficiency of the available information. In previous work, such applications of the Bayesian method had already been implemented by using the Metropolis-Hastings and Gibbs Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. In this paper, we present an alternative implementation, which uses an alternative MCMC method built around an Itô stochastic differential equation (SDE) that is ergodic for the Bayesian posterior. We draw together from the mathematics literature a number of formal properties of this Itô SDE that lend support to its use in the implementation of the Bayesian method, and we describe its discretization, including the choice of the free parameters, by using the implicit Euler method. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on a problem of uncertainty quantification in a complex nonlinear engineering application relevant to metal forming.

  8. Tbx6 regulates left/right patterning in mouse embryos through effects on nodal cilia and perinodal signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The determination of left/right body axis during early embryogenesis sets up a developmental cascade that coordinates the development of the viscera and is essential to the correct placement and alignment of organ systems and vasculature. Defective left-right patterning can lead to congenital cardiac malformations, vascular anomalies and other serious health problems. Here we describe a novel role for the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx6 in left/right body axis determination in the mouse. RESULTS: Embryos lacking Tbx6 show randomized embryo turning and heart looping. Our results point to multiple mechanisms for this effect. First, Dll1, a direct target of Tbx6, is down regulated around the node in Tbx6 mutants and there is a subsequent decrease in nodal signaling, which is required for laterality determination. Secondly, in spite of a lack of expression of Tbx6 in the node, we document a profound effect of the Tbx6 mutation on the morphology and motility of nodal cilia. This results in the loss of asymmetric calcium signaling at the periphery of the node, suggesting that unidirectional nodal flow is disrupted. To carry out these studies, we devised a novel method for direct labeling and live imaging cilia in vivo using a genetically-encoded fluorescent protein fusion that labels tubulin, combined with laser point scanning confocal microscopy for direct visualization of cilia movement. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the transcription factor gene Tbx6 is essential for correct left/right axis determination in the mouse and acts through effects on notch signaling around the node as well as through an effect on the morphology and motility of the nodal cilia.

  9. The Axillary Nodal Harvest in Breast Cancer Surgery Is Unchanged by Sentinel Node Biopsy or the Timing of Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Byrne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy may undergo delayed completion axillary dissection. Where intraoperative analysis is available, immediate completion axillary dissection can be performed. Alternatively, patients may undergo primary axillary dissection for breast cancer, historically or when preoperative assessment suggests axillary metastases. This study aims to determine if there is a difference in the total number of lymph nodes or the number of metastatic nodes harvested between the 3 possible approaches. Methods. Three consecutive comparable groups of 50 consecutive patients who underwent axillary dissection in each of the above contexts were identified from the Portsmouth Breast Unit Database. Patient demographics, clinicopathological variables, and surgical treatment were recorded. The total pathological nodal count and the number of metastatic nodes were compared between the groups. Results. There were no differences in clinico-pathological features between the three groups for all features studied with the exception of breast surgical procedure (P<0.001. There were no differences in total nodal harvest (P=0.822 or in the number of positive nodes harvested (P=0.157 between the three groups. Conclusion. The three approaches to axillary clearance yield equivalent nodal harvests, suggesting oncological equivalence and robustness of surgical technique.

  10. Decompositions of injection patterns for nodal flow allocation in renewable electricity networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Tranberg, Bo; Hempel, Sabrina; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The large-scale integration of fluctuating renewable power generation represents a challenge to the technical and economical design of a sustainable future electricity system. In this context, the increasing significance of long-range power transmission calls for innovative methods to understand the emerging complex flow patterns and to integrate price signals about the respective infrastructure needs into the energy market design. We introduce a decomposition method of injection patterns. Contrary to standard flow tracing approaches, it provides nodal allocations of link flows and costs in electricity networks by decomposing the network injection pattern into market-inspired elementary import/export building blocks. We apply the new approach to a simplified data-driven model of a European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation.

  11. Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2006-01-01

    expansion tests and the response of the microstructure. A novel optical method is described which is appropriate for measuring thermal expansion at high temperatures without influencing the thermal expansion measurement. Detailed microstructural investigations will also be described which show cell expansion as a function of temperature. Finally, a phenomenological model on thermal expansion will be described.

  12. Hereditary bone dysplasia with pathological fractures and nodal osteoarthropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendse, Regan [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Division of Rheumatology, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Brink, Paul [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Beighton, Peter [University of Cape Town, Division of Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    A father and daughter both had multiple pathological fractures and nodal osteoarthropathy. The father, aged 50 years, had at least 20 healed fractures of the axial and appendicular skeleton, sustained by minor trauma over his 50-year lifespan, many of which had been surgically fixed prior to his first presentation to us. Fractures of the clavicles, thoracic cage and long bones of the arms and legs, had healed with malalignment and deformity. Healed fractures were complicated by ankylosis of the cervical vertebrae and both elbows. He also had osteoarthritis of the hands, with exuberant osteophytosis, and profound perceptive deafness. His general health was good, his intellect and facies were normal, and his sclerae were white. The daughter, aged 27 years, had sustained at least seven fractures of the axial and appendicular skeleton following trivial injuries, in distribution similar to those of the father. She had also experienced painful swelling of the fingers, which preceded progressive development of nodal osteoarthropathy. Her hearing was normal. In both individuals, biochemical and immunological investigations yielded normal results. It was not possible for molecular studies to be undertaken. Pedigree data were consistent with autosomal dominant transmission, and this disorder appeared to be a previously undocumented heritable skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  13. Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-07-31

    In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L  ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM  < J L and possess chiral magnon edge modes.

  14. Serial Tissue Expansion at the Same Site in Pediatric Patients: Is the Subsequent Expansion Faster?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Ki Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Serial tissue expansion is performed to remove giant congenital melanocytic nevi. However, there have been no studies comparing the expansion rate between the subsequent and preceding expansions. In this study, we analyzed the rate of expansion in accordance with the number of surgeries, expander location, expander size, and sex. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in pediatric patients who underwent tissue expansion for giant congenital melanocytic nevi. We tested four factors that may influence the expansion rate: The number of surgeries, expander location, expander size, and sex. The rate of expansion was calculated by dividing the ‘inflation amount’ by the ‘expander size’. Results The expansion rate, compared with the first-time group, was 1.25 times higher in the second-or-more group (P=0.04 and 1.84 times higher in the third-or-more group (P<0.01. The expansion rate was higher at the trunk than at other sites (P<0.01. There was a tendency of lower expansion rate for larger expanders (P=0.03. Sex did not affect the expansion rate. Conclusions There was a positive correlation between the number of surgeries and the expansion rate, a positive correlation between the expander location and the expansion rate, and a negative correlation between the expander size and the expansion rate.

  15. Optimization of a water resource system expansion using the Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing methods; Optimizacion de la expansion de un sistema de recursos hidricos utilizados las metodologias del algoritmo genetico y el recocido simulado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Camacho, Enrique; Andreu Alvarez, Joaquin [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2001-06-01

    Two numerical procedures, based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Simulated Annealing (SA), are developed to solve the problem of the expansion of capacity of a water resource system. The problem was divided into two subproblems: capital availability and operation policy. Both are optimisation-simulation models, the first one is solved by means of the GA and SA, in each case, while the second one is solved using the Out-of-kilter algorithm (OKA), in both models. The objective function considers the usual benefits and costs in this kind of systems, such as irrigation and hydropower benefits, costs of dam construction and system maintenance. The strength and weakness of both models are evaluated by comparing their results with those obtained with the branch and bound technique, which was classically used to solve this kind of problems. [Spanish] Un par de metodos numericos fundamentados en dos tecnicas de busqueda globales. Algoritmos Genetico (AG) y Recocido Simulado (RS), son desarrollados para resolver el problema de expansion de capacidad de un sistema de recursos hidricos. La estrategia ha sido dividir al problema en dos subproblemas: el de disponibilidad de capital y el de la politica de operacion. Ambos modelos son de optimizacion-simulacion, el primero se realiza mediante los algoritmos del RS y el AG en cada caso, en tanto que el segundo lleva a cabo a traves del algoritmo del Out-of-kilter (AOK) en los dos modelos. La funcion objetivo con que se trabaja considera los beneficios y costos mas comunes en este tipo de sistema, tales como beneficios por riego, por hidroelectricidad y costos de construccion de los embalses y mantenimiento del sistema. La potencia y debilidades delos dos modelos se evaluan mediante la comparacion con los resultados obtenidos a traves de una de las tecnicas mas usadas en este tipo de problemas: la de ramificacion y acotacion.

  16. Undertreatment of patients with localized extranodal compared with nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper-Hommel, M.J.; Schans, S.A. van de; Vreugdenhil, G.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies analyzing clinical implications of nodal versus extranodal (EN) presentation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are scarce. We studied clinical differences and trends in incidence, treatment and survival of nodal and EN DLBCL in a population-based cohort. All

  17. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. I - Simula-3 Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-07-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the SIMULA-3 code, which is part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. SIMULA-3 is the main module of the system, it uses a modified nodal theory, with interface leakages equivalent to the diffusion theory. (Author) 4 refs.

  18. Paediatric nodal marginal zone B cell lymphadenopathy of the neck : a Haemophilus influenzae driven immune disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin, Philip M.; Langerak, Anton W.; Beverdam-Vincent, Jannetta; Geurts-Giele, Willemina R. R.; Visser, Lydia; Rutgers, Bea; Schuuring, Ed; Van Baarlen, Joop; Lam, King H.; Seldenrijk, Kees; Kibbelaar, Robby E.; de Wit, Peter; Diepstra, Arjan; Rosati, Stefano; van Noesel, Max M.; Zwaan, C. Michel; Hunting, Jarmo C. B.; Hoogendoorn, Mels; van der Gaag, Ellen J.; van Esser, Joost W. J.; de Bont, Eveline; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Winter, Rik H.; Lo ten Foe, Jerome R.; van der Zanden, Adri G. M.

    Many hyperplasias and lymphomas of marginal zone B-cells are associated with infection. We identified 6 children and 1 adolescent with cervical lymphadenopathy showing a prominent polyclonal nodal marginal zone hyperplasia (pNMZH) and 4 adolescents with monoclonal paediatric nodal marginal zone

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Oil Pipe Installation Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy D; Madsen, Søren B; Hyldahl, Per Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF) has shown promising results in dynamic analysis of structures that undergo large deformation. The method relaxes the assumption of infinitesimal rotations. Being based in a fixed inertial reference frame leads to a constant mass matrix and zero...... of offshore submerged oil pipes using oceangoing vessels. In this investigation such an oil pipe is modeled using ANCF beam elements to simulate the dynamic behavior of the pipe during the installation process. Multiple physical effects such as gravity, buoyancy, seabed contact, and fluid damping......, are included to mimic the external forces acting on the pipe during installation. The scope of this investigation is to demonstrate the ability using the ANCF to analyze the dynamic behavior of an offshore oil pipe during installation...

  20. Dynamic analysis of the tether transportation system using absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Xu, Ming; Zhong, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Long space tethers are becoming a rising concern as an alternate way for transportation in space. It benefits from fuel economizing. This paper focuses on the dynamics of the tether transportation system, which consists of two end satellites connected by a flexible tether, and a movable vehicle driven by the actuator carried by itself. The Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation is applied to the establishment of the equation of motion, so that the influence caused by the distributed mass and elasticity of the tether is introduced. Moreover, an approximated method for accelerating the calculation of the generalized gravitational forces on the tether is proposed by substituting the volume integral every step into summation of finite terms. Afterwards, dynamic evolutions of such a system in different configurations are illustrated using numerical simulations. The deflection of the tether and the trajectory of the crawler during the transportation is investigated. Finally, the effect on the orbit of the system due to the crawler is revealed.

  1. Nodal signaling from the visceral endoderm is required to maintain Nodal gene expression in the epiblast and drive DVE/AVE migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Lualdi, Margaret; Lyozin, George T; Sharma, Prashant; Loncarek, Jadranka; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Kuehn, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    In the early mouse embryo, a specialized population of extraembryonic visceral endoderm (VE) cells called the distal VE (DVE) arises at the tip of the egg cylinder stage embryo and then asymmetrically migrates to the prospective anterior, recruiting additional distal cells. Upon migration these cells, called the anterior VE (AVE), establish the anterior posterior (AP) axis by restricting gastrulation-inducing signals to the opposite pole. The Nodal-signaling pathway has been shown to have a critical role in the generation and migration of the DVE/AVE. The Nodal gene is expressed in both the VE and in the pluripotent epiblast, which gives rise to the germ layers. Previous findings have provided conflicting evidence as to the relative importance of Nodal signaling from the epiblast vs. VE for AP patterning. Here we show that conditional mutagenesis of the Nodal gene specifically within the VE leads to reduced Nodal expression levels in the epiblast and incomplete or failed DVE/AVE migration. These results support a required role for VE Nodal to maintain normal levels of expression in the epiblast, and suggest signaling from both VE and epiblast is important for DVE/AVE migration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Bridges Expansion Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-01-01

    The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  3. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  4. Dual atrioventricular nodal pathways physiology: a review of relevant anatomy, electrophysiology, and electrocardiographic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam; Pavri, Behzad B

    2014-01-01

    More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the widespread use of invasive electrophysiologic studies, there is still disagreement on the anatomy and physiology of the AV node that is the basis of discontinuous antegrade AV conduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of dual AV nodal pathways physiology and its varied electrocardiographic manifestations.

  5. Dual Atrioventricular Nodal Pathways Physiology: A Review of Relevant Anatomy, Electrophysiology, and Electrocardiographic Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam Mani, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the widespread use of invasive electrophysiologic studies, there is still disagreement on the anatomy and physiology of the AV node that is the basis of discontinuous antegrade AV conduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of dual AV nodal pathways physiology and its varied electrocardiographic manifestations.

  6. Computation of nodal surfaces in fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo calculations using a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilowski, Jordan A; Farrelly, David

    2010-10-21

    The fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm is a powerful way of computing excited state energies in a remarkably diverse number of contexts in quantum chemistry and physics. The main difficulty in implementing the procedure lies in obtaining a good estimate of the nodal surface of the excited state in question. Although the nodal surface can sometimes be obtained from symmetry or by making approximations this is not always the case. In any event, nodal surfaces are usually obtained in an ad hoc way. In fact, the search for nodal surfaces can be formulated as an optimization problem within the DMC procedure itself. Here we investigate the use of a genetic algorithm to systematically and automatically compute nodal surfaces. Application is made to the computation of excited states of the HCN-(4)He complex and to the computation of tunneling splittings in the hydrogen bonded HCl-HCl complex.

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Outcome Differences in Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiation With or Without Elective Nodal Irradiation for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Ming [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jang-Ming; Huang, Pei-Ming [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chia-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Yu-Chieh [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yung-Chie [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason, E-mail: jasoncheng@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and patterns of failure of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) undergoing preoperative concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) followed by radical surgery. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 118 patients with AJCC Stage II to III esophageal SCC undergoing preoperative CCRT (median, 36 Gy), followed by radical esophagectomy. Of them, 73 patients (62%) had ENI and 45 patients (38%) had no ENI. Patients with ENI received radiotherapy to either supraclavicular (n = 54) or celiac (n = 19) lymphatics. Fifty-six patients (57%) received chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus cisplatin. The 3-year progression-free survival, overall survival, and patterns of failure were analyzed. Distant nodal recurrence was classified into M1a and M1b regions. A separate analysis using matched cases was conducted. Results: The median follow-up was 38 months. There were no differences in pathological complete response rate (p = 0.12), perioperative mortality rate (p = 0.48), or delayed Grade 3 or greater cardiopulmonary toxicities (p = 0.44), between the groups. More patients in the non-ENI group had M1a failure than in the ENI group, with 3-year rates of 11% and 3%, respectively (p = 0.05). However, the 3-year isolated distant nodal (M1a + M1b) failure rates were not different (ENI, 10%; non-ENI, 14%; p = 0.29). In multivariate analysis, pathological nodal status was the only independent prognostic factor associated with overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.78, p = 0.045). The 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 45% and 45%, respectively, in the ENI group, and 52% and 43%, respectively, in the non-ENI group (p = 0.31 and 0.89, respectively). Matched cases analysis did not show a statistical difference in outcomes between the groups. Conclusions: ENI reduced the M1a failure rate but was not associated with improved outcomes in patients undergoing preoperative CCRT for esophageal

  8. Preoperative nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer using 99mTc-sestamibi spect/ct imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Muniz Miziara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The proper nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer is important for choosing the best treatment modality. Although computed tomography remains the first-line imaging test for the primary staging of lung cancer, its limitations for mediastinum nodal staging are well known. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography using 99mTc-sestamibi in the nodal staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and to identify potential candidates for surgical treatment. METHODS: Prospective data were collected for 41 patients from December 2006 to February 2009. The patients underwent chest computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography examinations with 99mTc-sestamibi within a 30-day time period before surgery. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography was considered positive when there was focal uptake of sestamibi in the mediastinum, and computed tomography scan when there was lymph nodes larger than 10 mm in short axis. The results of single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography were correlated with pathology findings after surgery. RESULTS: Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography correctly identified six out of 19 cases involving hilar lymph nodes and one out of seven cases involving nodal metastases in the mediastinum. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for 99mTc-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in the hilum assessment were 31.6%, 95.5%, 85.7%, and 61.8%, respectively. The same values for the mediastinum were 14.3%, 97.1%, 50%, and 84.6%, respectively. For the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes, chest tomography showed sensitivity values of 47.4% and 57.1%, specificity values of 95.5% and 91.2%, positive predictive values of 90% and 57.1% and negative

  9. Total Gross Tumor Volume Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients Treated With Selective Nodal Irradiation for Stage I to III Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymen, Bart, E-mail: bart.reymen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Loon, Judith; Baardwijk, Angela van; Wanders, Rinus; Borger, Jacques [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Dingemans, Anne-Marie C. [Department of Pulmonology, GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bootsma, Gerben [Department of Pulmonology, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen (Netherlands); Pitz, Cordula [Department of Pulmonology, Laurentius Hospital, Roermond (Netherlands); Lunde, Ragnar [Department of Pulmonology, St Jansgasthuis, Weert (Netherlands); Geraedts, Wiel [Department of Pulmonology, Orbis Medical Centre, Sittard (Netherlands); Lambin, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); De Ruysscher, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital Leuven/ KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: In non-small cell lung cancer, gross tumor volume (GTV) influences survival more than other risk factors. This could also apply to small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Analysis of our prospective database with stage I to III SCLC patients referred for concurrent chemo radiation therapy. Standard treatment was 45 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions twice daily concurrently with carboplatin-etoposide, followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in case of non-progression. Only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)-positive or pathologically proven nodal sites were included in the target volume. Total GTV consisted of post chemotherapy tumor volume and pre chemotherapy nodal volume. Survival was calculated from diagnosis (Kaplan-Meier ). Results: A total of 119 patients were included between May 2004 and June 2009. Median total GTV was 93 ± 152 cc (7.5-895 cc). Isolated elective nodal failure occurred in 2 patients (1.7%). Median follow-up was 38 months, median overall survival 20 months (95% confidence interval = 17.8-22.1 months), and 2-year survival 38.4%. In multivariate analysis, only total GTV (P=.026) and performance status (P=.016) significantly influenced survival. Conclusions: In this series of stage I to III small cell lung cancer patients treated with FDG-PET-based selective nodal irradiation total GTV is an independent risk factor for survival.

  10. Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiron, Yohai [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Spurzem, Rainer, E-mail: ymeiron@pku.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-09-10

    We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ∼0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.

  11. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  12. On skin expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cystic nodal metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma receiving chemoradiotherapy: Relationship with human papillomavirus status and failure patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Han Huang

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationships of cystic nodal metastasis, human papillomavirus (HPV status, and treatment failure patterns in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC treated with chemoradiotherapy.We retrospectively reviewed pretreatment MRI and clinical courses of patients with OPSCC whose tumors were tested for HPV-induced p16 expression via immunohistochemistry and who completed chemoradiotherapy. Cervical cystic nodal metastasis and necrotic nodal metastasis were classified on MRI.Of 98 patients eligible for analysis, 33 were p16-positive. Cystic nodal metastasis was significantly more prevalent in p16-positive than in p16-negative patients (39.4% versus 18.5%, respectively; p = 0.025. Necrotic nodal metastasis was significantly more prevalent in p16-negative than in p16-positive patients (73.8% versus 51.5%, respectively; p = 0.027. On multivariate analysis, necrotic nodal metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.310, p = 0.011 was an independent predictor of regional failure, while advanced nodal stage (OR = 4.119, p = 0.022 and cystic nodal metastases (OR = 0.087, p = 0.026 were independent positive and negative predictors of distant failure, respectively.Cervical cystic and necrotic nodal metastases are associated with HPV-induced p16-positive and p16-negative OPSCC, respectively. Patients with necrotic nodal metastasis at presentation have an increased risk of regional failure. Distant failure is directly and inversely correlated with advanced nodal stage and cystic nodal metastasis, respectively.

  14. Biorthogonal moment expansions in coupled-cluster theory: Review of key concepts and merging the renormalized and active-space coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    After reviewing recent progress in the area of the development of coupled-cluster (CC) methods for quasi-degenerate electronic states that are characterized by stronger non-dynamical correlation effects, including new generations of single- and multi-reference approaches that can handle bond breaking and excited states dominated by many-electron transitions, and after discussing the key elements of the left-eigenstate completely renormalized (CR) CC and equation-of-motion (EOM) CC methods, and the underlying biorthogonal method of moments of CC (MMCC) equations [P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 224105; P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J.R. Gour, A. Kinal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 418 (2006) 467; M. Włoch, M.D. Lodriguito, P. Piecuch, J.R. Gour, Mol. Phys. 104 (2006) 2149], it is argued that it is beneficial to merge the CR-CC/EOMCC and active-space CC/EOMCC [P. Piecuch, Mol. Phys. 108 (2010) 2987, and references therein] theories into a single formalism. In order to accomplish this goal, the biorthogonal MMCC theory, which provides compact many-body expansions for the differences between the full configuration interaction and CC or, in the case of excited states, EOMCC energies, obtained using conventional truncation schemes in the cluster operator T and excitation operator Rμ, is generalized, so that one can correct the CC/EOMCC energies obtained with arbitrary truncations in T and Rμ for the selected many-electron correlation effects of interest. The resulting moment expansions, defining the new, Flexible MMCC (Flex-MMCC) formalism, and the ensuing CC(P; Q) hierarchy, proposed in the present work, enable one to correct energies obtained in the active-space CC and EOMCC calculations, in which one selects higher many-body components of T and Rμ via active orbitals and which recover much of the relevant non-dynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects in applications involving potential energy surfaces (PESs) along bond breaking coordinates, for the

  15. The prognostic value of nodal skip metastasis in resectable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ge Song,1,2,* Wang Jing,3,* Song Xue,1,2 Hongbo Guo,4 Jinming Yu1,2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated with Shandong University, Jinan, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 4Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated with Shandong University, Jinan, China *These authors contributed equally to the work Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of nodal skip metastasis (NSM to identify the risk factors that influence NSM and to assess the prognostic value of NSM in patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC.Patients and methods: Between January 2009 and December 2013, 285 patients with ESCC with positive lymph nodes who underwent complete resection were enrolled.Results: For the entire group, NSM occurred in 32.3% (92/285 of patients. The median survival time and 5-year survival rate in the NSM group were 28 months and 12.0%, respectively, compared with 36.3 months and 25.0%, respectively, in the non-NSM group (P=0.008. Both N stage (P=0.001 and T stage (P=0.014 were associated with the incidence of NSM. NSM (P=0.008, T stage (P=0.000, and N stage (P=0.000 were independent prognostic factors for survival. In the NSM group, T stage (P=0.014 and N stage (P=0.000 were independent prognostic factors for survival.Conclusion: It was concluded that NSM is common in ESCC and is associated with poor survival. Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, surgery, nodal skip metastasis, incidence, risk factors, prognosis

  16. Influence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on the morphology and negative thermal expansion property of ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} powders synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Xiujuan; Yang Juan; Liu Qinqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Cheng Xiaonong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)], E-mail: xncheng@ujs.edu.cn

    2009-07-29

    ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} powders were prepared by hydrothermal thermal method using sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant. The products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra. Results indicate that the resulting powders are single cubic phase with high crystallinity. With increasing the amount of SDBS, morphology and particle size change from rod-like with an average dimension of 1.2 {mu}m x 1.2 {mu}m x 10 {mu}m to layered column with an average diameter of 0.4 {mu}m. ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} powders exhibit negative thermal expansion property. And the amount of SDBS is not influence on the average thermal expansion coefficients. The thermal expansion coefficients are about similar with an average value of -5.8 x 10{sup -6} deg. C{sup -1} from room temperature to 500 deg. C. However, the morphology has some effect on the thermal expansion coefficient of {alpha}-ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8}.

  17. Comparison and evaluation of stresses generated by rapid maxillary expansion and the implant-supported rapid maxillary expansion on the craniofacial structures using finite element method of stress analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Varun; Shyagali, Tarulatha R; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Rajpara, Yagnesh; Doshi, Jigar

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate and compare the stress distribution and 3-dimensional displacements along the craniofacial sutures in between the Rapid maxillary Expansion (RME) and Implant supported RME (I-RME). METHODS: Finite element model of the skull and the implants were created using ANSYS software. The finite element model thus built composed of 537692 elements and 115694 nodes in RME model & 543078 elements and 117948 nodes with implants model. The forces were applied on the palatal surface of the posterior teeth to cause 5mm of transverse displacement on either side of the palatal halves, making it a total of 10mm. The stresses and the displacement values were obtained and interpreted. Varying pattern of stress and the displacements with both positive and negative values were seen. The maximum displacement was seen in the case of plain RME model and that too at Pterygomaxillary suture and Mid-palatal suture in descending order. In the case of I-RME maximum displacement was seen at Zygomaticomaxillary suture followed by Pterygomaxillary suture. The displacements produced in all the three planes of space for the plain RME model were greater in comparison to the Implant Supported RME model. And the stresses remained high for all the sutures in case of an I-RME. There is a definite difference in the stress and the displacement pattern produced by RME and I-RME model and each can be used according to the need of the patient. The stresses generated in case of conventional RME were considerably less than that of the I-RME for all the sutures.

  18. Multiscale expansions in discrete world

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... multiscale expansions discretely. The power of this manageable method is confirmed by applying it to two selected nonlinear Schrödinger evolution equations. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear discrete evolution equations. All the computations have been made with Maple computer packet program.

  19. Characterization of the nodal slow pathway in patients with nodal reentrant tachycardia: clinical implications for guiding ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui-Abularach, Miguel E; Bazan, Victor; Martí-Almor, Julio; Cian, Debora; Vallès, Ermengol; Benito, Begoña; Meroño, Oona; Bruguera-Cortada, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Nodal slow pathway ablation is the treatment of choice for nodal reentrant tachycardia. No demographic, anatomic, or electrophysiologic variables have been reported to predict an exact location of the slow pathway in the atrioventricular node or its proximity to the fast pathway. The purpose of this study was to analyze these variables. The study prospectively included 54 patients (17 men; mean age, 55 [16] years) who had undergone successful slow pathway ablation. The refractory periods of both pathways and their differential conduction time were measured, and calculations were performed to obtain the distance from the His-bundle region (location of the fast pathway) to the coronary sinus ostium (to estimate the anteroposterior length of the triangle of Koch) and to the slow pathway area. The differential conduction time (139 [98] ms) did not correlate with the His-coronary sinus distance (19 [6] mm; P=.6) or the His-slow pathway distance (14 [4] mm; P=.4). When the His-coronary sinus distance was larger, the His-slow pathway distance was also larger (r=0.652; P<.01) and the anatomic correlation between the triangle dimensions and the separation between the two pathways was confirmed. In patients older than 70 years, smaller triangle sizes and a shorter distance between both pathways were observed (P<.001). A greater anteroposterior dimension of the triangle of Koch is associated with a slow-pathway location farther from the fast pathway. In elderly patients the two pathways are closer together (higher risk of atrioventricular block). Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [The effect of two different methods of rapid maxillary expansion on treatment results of skeletal Class III malocclusion patients with maxillary protraction in early permanent dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-hua; Xie, Xing-qian

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the effect of single rapid maxillary expansion and repetitive rapid expansion and constriction with maxillary protraction in treating early permanent skeletal Class III patients. Twenty children with skeletal Class III malocclusion were randomly divided into two groups.Ten patients received 1 week of rapid expansion,followed by maxillary protraction(group A) and the other ten patients received 5 weeks of repetitive rapid expansion and constriction followed by maxillary protraction (group B).Cephalometric analysis was performed before and after treatment. The data was analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package for paired t test. Significant changes in cranio-maxillofacial structures were observed in both groups after 6 months of treatment.Point A moved forward. SNA, ANB, UL-EP, U1-PP, SN-MP, ANS-Me/N-Me, Wit's value increased. L1-MP, LL-EP decreased. Significant differences were found in SNA,ANB,UL-EP between the two groups(PClass III malocclusion patients.

  1. Contrast Enhanced Microscopy Digital Image Correlation: A General Method to Contact-Free Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Measurement of Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairo A. Diaz; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    Thermal expansion represents a vital indicator of the processing history and dimensional stability of materials. Solvent-sensitive, thin, and compliant samples are particularly challenging to test. Here we describe how textures highlighted by contrast enhanced optical microscopy modes (i.e., polarized light (PL), phase contrast (PC)) and bright field (BF) can be used...

  2. Cerberus-Nodal-Lefty-Pitx signaling cascade controls left-right asymmetry in amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Xing, Chaofan; Zhang, Huayang; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Wang, Yiquan

    2017-04-04

    Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus , Nodal , Lefty , and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression. Knockout of Cerberus leads to ectopic right-sided expression of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx , whereas overexpression of Cerberus represses their left-sided expression. Overexpression of Nodal in turn represses Cerberus and activates Lefty and Pitx ectopically on the right side. We also show Lefty represses Nodal , whereas Pitx activates Nodal These data combine in a model in which Cerberus determines whether the left-sided gene expression cassette is activated or repressed. These regulatory steps are essential for normal left-right asymmetry to develop, as when they are disrupted embryos may instead form two phenotypic left sides or two phenotypic right sides. Our study shows the regulatory cassette controlling left-right asymmetry was in place in the ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates. This includes the Nodal inhibitors Cerberus and Lefty, both of which operate in feedback loops with Nodal and combine to establish asymmetric Pitx expression. Cerberus and Lefty are missing from most invertebrate lineages, marking this mechanism as an innovation in the lineage leading to modern chordates.

  3. Nodal-Dependent Mesendoderm Specification Requires the Combinatorial Activities of FoxH1 and Eomesodermin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Christopher E.; Aoki, Tsutomu; Burdine, Rebecca D.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate mesendoderm specification requires the Nodal signaling pathway and its transcriptional effector FoxH1. However, loss of FoxH1 in several species does not reliably cause the full range of loss-of-Nodal phenotypes, indicating that Nodal signals through additional transcription factors during early development. We investigated the FoxH1-dependent and -independent roles of Nodal signaling during mesendoderm patterning using a novel recessive zebrafish FoxH1 mutation called midway, which produces a C-terminally truncated FoxH1 protein lacking the Smad-interaction domain but retaining DNA–binding capability. Using a combination of gel shift assays, Nodal overexpression experiments, and genetic epistasis analyses, we demonstrate that midway more accurately represents a complete loss of FoxH1-dependent Nodal signaling than the existing zebrafish FoxH1 mutant schmalspur. Maternal-zygotic midway mutants lack notochords, in agreement with FoxH1 loss in other organisms, but retain near wild-type expression of markers of endoderm and various nonaxial mesoderm fates, including paraxial and intermediate mesoderm and blood precursors. We found that the activity of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin accounts for specification of these tissues in midway embryos. Inhibition of Eomesodermin in midway mutants severely reduces the specification of these tissues and effectively phenocopies the defects seen upon complete loss of Nodal signaling. Our results indicate that the specific combinations of transcription factors available for signal transduction play critical and separable roles in determining Nodal pathway output during mesendoderm patterning. Our findings also offer novel insights into the co-evolution of the Nodal signaling pathway, the notochord specification program, and the chordate branch of the deuterostome family of animals. PMID:21637786

  4. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  5. Bridges Expansion Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  6. Deflection and translation of a ray traversing an optical system, nodal rays and the optical axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expressions are derived for the deflection and transverse translation of a ray as it traverses an arbitrary optical system.  The system may be astigmatic and have relatively decentred refracting elements.  The expressions are in terms of the fundamental properties of the system.  Because nodal rays are rays that undergo no deflection the results lead immediately to expressions that define nodal rays through the system.  An optical axis of an optical system is a nodal ray that is a straight line through the system.  This allows one to write an expression that determines the optical axis of an arbitrary optical system.

  7. Cutaneous Vasculitis: An Unusual Presentation of a Biclonal Nodal Plasma Cell Dyscrasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Swan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an unusual case of a biclonal nodal plasma cell dyscrasia, presenting with a vasculitic rash, end-organ damage, and cytopenias. Serum protein electrophoresis demonstrated a biclonal kappa-restricted paraprotein, with a negative skeletal survey and no bone marrow disease. Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET-CT (FDG-PET-CT revealed nodal involvement, which was not appreciable clinically, and facilitated biopsy, confirming the diagnosis of a nodal plasmacytoma. Complete biochemical response and resolution of the vasculitic rash were achieved with bortezomib-based therapy.

  8. Regional nodal relapse in surgically staged Merkel cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeller, Ulrike; Mueller, Thomas; Schubert, Tina; Budach, Volker; Ghadjar, Pirus [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Brenner, Winfried [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Kiecker, Felix [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Dermatology, Berlin (Germany); Schicke, Bernd [Tumor Center Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Haase, Oliver [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-10-08

    The nodal relapse pattern of surgically staged Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with/without elective nodal radiotherapy (RT) was studied in a single institution. A total of 51 patients with MCC, 33 % UICC stage I, 14 % II, 53 % III (4 lymph node metastases of unknown primary) were eligible. All patients had surgical staging: 23 patients sentinel node biopsy (SNB), 22 patients SNB followed by lymphadenectomy (LAD) and 6 patients LAD. In all, 94 % of the primary tumors (PT) were completely resected; 57 % of patients received RT, 51 % of known PT sites, 33 % (8/24 patients) regional RT to snN0 nodes and 68 % (17/27 patients) to pN+ nodes, mean reference dose 51.5 and 50 Gy, respectively. Mean follow-up was 6 years (range 2-14 years). A total of 22 % (11/51) patients developed regional relapses (RR); the 5-year RR rate was 27 %. In snN0 sites (stage I/II), relapse occurred in 5 of 14 nonirradiated vs. none of 8 irradiated sites (p = 0.054), resulting in a 5-year RR rate of 33 % versus 0 % (p = 0.16). The crude RR rate was lower in stage I (12 %, 2/17 patients) than for stage II (43 %, 3/7 patients). In stage III (pN+), RR appeared to be less frequent in irradiated sites (18 %, 3/14 patients) compared with nonirradiated sites (33 %, 3/10 patients, p = 0.45) with 5-year RR rates of 23 % vs. 34 %, respectively. Our data suggest that adjuvant nodal RT plays a major role even if the sentinel nodes were negative. Adjuvant RT of the lymph nodes in patients with stage IIa tumors and RT after LAD in stage III tumors is proposed and should be evaluated prospectively. (orig.) [German] Untersucht wurde das regionaere Rezidivmuster des Merkelzell-Karzinoms (MCC) nach chirurgischem Staging und stadienadaptierter Therapie. Eingeschlossen wurden 51 Patienten mit lokalisiertem MCC: 33 % hatten UICC-Stadium-I-, 14 % -II-, 53 % -III-Tumoren (davon 4 Lymphknotenmetastasen eines unbekannten Primaertumors). Alle Patienten erhielten ein chirurgisches Staging: 23 Waechterlymphknotenbiopsien (SNB

  9. Bridges Expansion Joints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-01-01

    .... The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting...

  10. Virial expansion coefficients in the harmonic approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The virial expansion method is applied within a harmonic approximation to an interacting N-body system of identical fermions. We compute the canonical partition functions for two and three particles to get the two lowest orders in the expansion. The energy spectrum is carefully interpolated...

  11. Effect of the determination method of the material parameters on the accuracy of the hole expansion simulation for cold rolled steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hayato; Hakoyama, Tomoyuki; Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2017-10-01

    Hole expansion forming of a cold rolled steel sheet is investigated both experimentally and analytically to clarify the effects of material models on the predictive accuracy of finite element analyses (FEA). The multiaxial plastic deformation behavior of a cold rolled steel sheet with a thickness of 1.2 mm was measured using a servo-controlled multiaxial tube expansion testing machine for the range of strain from initial yield to fracture. Tubular specimens were fabricated from the sheet sample by roller bending and laser welding. Many linear stress paths in the first quadrant of stress space were applied to the tubular specimens to measure the contours of plastic work in stress space up to a reference plastic strain of 0.24 along with the directions of plastic strain rates. The anisotropic parameters and exponent of the Yld2000-2d yield function (Barlat et al., 2003) were optimized to approximate the contours of plastic work and the directions of plastic strain rates. The hole expansion forming simulations were performed using the different model identifications based on the Yld2000-2d yield function. It is concluded that the yield function best capturing both the plastic work contours and the directions of plastic strain rates leads to the most accurate predicted FEA.

  12. Regional nodal staging with {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT in non-small cell lung cancer: Additional diagnostic value of CT attenuation and dual-time-point imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meng, E-mail: caseylimeng@126.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Wu, Ning, E-mail: cjr.wuning@vip.163.com [PET-CT Center, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu, Ying, E-mail: liuyinggqw@sina.com [PET-CT Center, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Zheng, Rong, E-mail: zhengrong_2004@yahoo.com.cn [PET-CT Center, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Liang, Ying, E-mail: liangy_2000@sina.com [PET-CT Center, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Zhang, Wenjie, E-mail: winjiezh@163.com [PET-CT Center, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Zhao, Ping, E-mail: dr.zhaoping@263.net [PET-CT Center, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Background: [Fluorine-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) is widely performed in the regional nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG by tubercular granulomatous tissues may lead to false-positive diagnosis. This is of special concern in China, where tubercular granulomatous disease is epidemic. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of an additional CT attenuation and a dual-time-point scan in determining the status of lymph nodes. Methods: Eighty NSCLC patients underwent curative surgical resection after {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT and separate breath-hold CT examinations. The initial images were analyzed by two methods. In method 1, nodal status was determined by {sup 18}F-FDG uptake only. In Method 2, nodal status was determined by {sup 18}F-FDG uptake associated with CT attenuation. For dual-time-point imaging, the retention index (RI) of benign and malignant nodal groups with positive uptake in the initial scan was examined. Results: A total of 265 nodal groups were documented. On a per-nodal-group basis, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Method 1 were 66.7%, 89.7%, and 85.3%, respectively, whereas those of Method 2 were 64.7%, 96.7%, and 90.6%, respectively. The improvement in diagnostic specificity and accuracy associated with the addition of CT attenuation in Method 2 as compared to Method 1 was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Thirty-nine nodal groups with positive uptake in the initial scan underwent dual-time-point imaging and the difference in the RI between benign and malignant groups showed no statistical significance (p > 0.05). Conclusion: {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT has high diagnostic value for preoperative lymph-node (N) staging of NSCLC patients. We show that {sup 18}F-FDG uptake combined with CT attenuation improves the diagnostic specificity and accuracy of nodal diagnosis in NSCLC. For the lymph nodes with positive uptake in

  13. Impact of radiation dose and standardized uptake value of (18)FDG PET on nodal control in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlov, Anne; Kroon, Petra S; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M; De Leeuw, Astrid A C; Gormsen, Lars Christian; Fokdal, Lars Ulrik; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2015-01-01

    Despite local control now exceeding 90% with image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT), regional and distant metastases continue to curb survival in locally advanced cervical cancer. As regional lymph nodes often represent first site of metastatic spread, improved nodal control could improve survival. The aim of this study was to examine optimal volume and dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to maximize regional control including dose contribution from IGABT. In total 139 patients from the EMBRACE study were analyzed. Individual nodal dose was determined by dose-maps from EBRT and IGABT. All PET/CT scans were re-evaluated and nodal maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) was determined. Nodal failures were registered to planning scans and related to boosted nodes and treated volume. Relation between SUVmax and nodal control as well as the pattern of regional nodal failure were analyzed. Eighty-four patients were node positive. Nine patients had all metastatic nodes surgically removed. Seventy-five patients had 209 nodes boosted with EBRT. Median nodal boost dose was 62 Gy EQD2 (53-69 Gy EQD2). Median SUVmax was 6 (2-22). No patients had persistent nodal disease, but six patients recurred in a boosted node. SUVmax was significantly higher in nodes that recurred (p = 0.02). However, there was no correlation to nodal dose or volume. Twenty-one patients had a nodal failure including para-aortic nodal (PAN) metastases above the irradiated volume. Nine patients had a PAN-only failure. Patients receiving ≤ 4 cycles of weekly cisplatin had higher risk of nodal failure (p < 0.01). Current RT practice provides a high level of control in both boosted nodes and the elective irradiated regional target. However, a high nodal SUVmax is a negative prognostic predictor for nodal control. Attention should be raised to administration of a complete schedule of concurrent chemotherapy as well as treatment of para-aortic nodes.

  14. Thermal expansion: Metallic elements and alloys. [Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Kirby, R. K.; Taylor, R. E.; Desai, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The introductory sections of the work are devoted to the theory of thermal expansion of solids and to methods for the measurement of the linear thermal expansion of solids (X-ray methods, high speed methods, interferometry, push-rod dilatometry, etc.). The bulk of the work is devoted to numerical data on the thermal linear expansion of all the metallic elements, a large number of intermetallics, and a large number of binary alloy systems and multiple alloy systems. A comprehensive bibliography is provided along with an index to the materials examined.

  15. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin approach to 3-D viscoelastic wave propagation in complex geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, L.; Lamert, A.; Friederich, W.; Möller, T.; Boxberg, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    A nodal discontinuous Galerkin (NDG) approach is developed and implemented for the computation of viscoelastic wavefields in complex geological media. The NDG approach combines unstructured tetrahedral meshes with an element-wise, high-order spatial interpolation of the wavefield based on Lagrange polynomials. Numerical fluxes are computed from an exact solution of the heterogeneous Riemann problem. Our implementation offers capabilities for modelling viscoelastic wave propagation in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D settings of very different spatial scale with little logistical overhead. It allows the import of external tetrahedral meshes provided by independent meshing software and can be run in a parallel computing environment. Computation of adjoint wavefields and an interface for the computation of waveform sensitivity kernels are offered. The method is validated in 2-D and 3-D by comparison to analytical solutions and results from a spectral element method. The capabilities of the NDG method are demonstrated through a 3-D example case taken from tunnel seismics which considers high-frequency elastic wave propagation around a curved underground tunnel cutting through inclined and faulted sedimentary strata. The NDG method was coded into the open-source software package NEXD and is available from GitHub.

  16. Micropropagation Of Merremia Quinquefolia (L. Hallier F. From Nodal Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kher Mafatlal M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Merremia quinquefolia, is an important medicinal plant of the family Convolvulaceae known for its vasoconstrictor, uterotonic, neurohormonic, sympathicolytic and sedative effects. In the present investigation effect of cytokinins 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, kinetin (Kn and thidiazuron (TDZ, at concentrations 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg·dm−3 on in vitro shoot multiplication from nodal explants of M. quinquefolia was evaluated. Bud breaking and emergence of shoots started within 10-15 days of inoculation in all media containing cytokinin. Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 4.0 mg·dm−3 BAP resulted in maximum number of shoots from single node within 45 days. In vitro raised shoots were successfully rooted on ½ mineral salts of MS medium with 3% sucrose supplemented with 2.0 mg·dm−3 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. This is the first report on in vitro propagation of Merremia quinquefolia. This study can be useful for development of micropropagation protocols for related taxa.

  17. Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense (Cambess. from nodal segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative propagation of the species. Cultures were established using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from 1-2 year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse. Mercury chloride and Plant Preservative Mixture™ were used in the surface sterilizing stage, better results being achieved with Plant Preservative Mixture™ incorporation in culture medium, at any concentration. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric acid were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4.4 and 8.8 µM in Woody Plant Medium, resulting in an average of 4.43 and 4.68 shoots per explant, respectively, after 90 days. Indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid were used to induce root formation, reaching a maximum rooting rate of 24% with 20µM α-naphthalene acetic acid. For acclimatization. the rooted plants were transferred to Plantmax® substrate and cultured in a greenhouse, reaching 79% of survival after 30 days and 60% after one year.

  18. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for nodal staging in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Coutinho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer staging has recently evolved to include endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA for nodal assessment. Aim: Evaluate the performance and safety of EBUS-TBNA as a key component of a staging algorithm for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC and as a single investigation technique for diagnosis and staging of NSCLC. Methods: Patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA for NSCLC staging at our institution between April 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014 were consecutively included with prospective data collection. EBUS-TBNA was performed under general anesthesia through a rigid scope. Results: A total of 122 patients, 84.4% males, mean age 64.2 years. Histological type: 78 (63.9% adenocarcinoma, 33 (27.0% squamous cell carcinoma, 11 (8.9% undifferentiated/other NSCLC. A total of 435 lymph node stations were punctured. Median number of nodes per patient was 4. EBUS-TBNA nodal staging: 63 (51.6% N0; 8 (6.5% N1; 34 (27.9% N2, and 17 (13.9% N3. EBUS-TBNA was the primary diagnostic procedure in 27 (22.1% patients. EBUS-TBNA NSCLC staging had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy rate of 83.3, 100, 100, 86.1, and 91.8%, respectively. No complications were attributable to the procedure. Conclusion: A comprehensive lung cancer staging strategy that includes EBUS-TBNA seems to be safe and effective. Our EBUS-TBNA performance and safety in this particular setting was in line with previously published reports. Additionally, our study showed that, in selected patients, lung cancer diagnosis and staging are achievable with a single endoscopic technique. Keywords: EBUS-TBNA, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Nodal staging

  19. Nodal basin recurrence following lymph node dissection for melanoma: implications for adjuvant radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R J; Gibbs, J F; Proulx, G M; Kollmorgen, D R; Jia, C; Kraybill, W G

    2000-01-15

    To analyze patterns of failure in malignant melanoma patients with lymph node involvement who underwent complete lymph node dissection (LND) of the nodal basin. To determine prognostic factors predictive of local recurrence in the lymph node basin in order to select patients who may benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy. A retrospective analysis of 338 patients undergoing complete LND for melanoma between 1970 and 1996 who had pathologically involved lymph nodes was performed. Mean follow-up from the time of LND was 54 months (range: 12-306 months). Lymph node basins dissected included the neck (56 patients), axilla (160 patients), and groin (122 patients). Two hundred fifty-three patients (75%) underwent therapeutic LND for clinically involved nodes, while 85 patients (25%) had elective dissections. Forty-four percent of patients received adjuvant systemic therapy. No patients received adjuvant radiotherapy to the lymph node basin. Overall and disease-specific survival for all patients at 10 years was 30% and 36%, respectively. Overall nodal basin recurrence was 30% at 10 years. Mean time to nodal basin recurrence was 12 months (range: 2-78 months). Site of nodal involvement was prognostic with 43%, 28%, and 23% nodal basin recurrence at 10 years with cervical, axillary, and inguinal involvement, respectively (p = 0.008). Extracapsular extension (ECE) led to a 10-year nodal basin failure rate of 63% vs. 23% without ECE (p basin at 10 years, compared to 16% for patients found to have involved nodes after elective dissection (p = 0.002). Lymph nodes larger than 6 cm led to a failure rate of 80% compared to 42% for nodes 3-6 cm and 24% for nodes less than 3 cm (p basin failure with 25%, 46%, and 63% failure rates at 10 years for 1-3, 4-10, and > 10 nodes involved (p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in nodal basin control in patients with synchronous or metachronous lymph node metastases, nor in patients receiving or not receiving adjuvant systemic therapy

  20. Efficacy of neck dissection for locoregional failures versus isolated nodal failures in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Raymond King Yin; Chung, Joseph Chun Kit; Ng, Yiu Wing; To, Victor Shing Howe; Ho, Ambrose Chung Wai; Chan, Jimmy Yu Wai; Ho, Wai Kuen; Wei, William Ignace

    2012-05-01

    Neck dissection has been shown to be effective in controlling nodal failures in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Its efficacy in controlling the disease in patients with synchronous locoregional failure is, however, not documented. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent neck dissection for nodal failures with or without treated local failure within 6 months was conducted for this study. The survivals of these 2 groups of patients were analyzed. The 5-year overall survival of the whole cohort was 58%. There was no difference in 5-year disease specific survival (68% vs 40%; p = .121) and 5-year progression free survival (44% vs 36%; p = .334) when comparing patients with isolated nodal failures and synchronous locoregional failures. Multivariate analysis showed that only the initial N classification affects survival. Neck dissection is efficacious in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma with nodal failure, with or without synchronous local failures. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The. delta. expansion and local gauge invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.M. (Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (US)); Cooper, F. (Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexic o 87545); Milton, K.A. (Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklaho ma 73019)

    1989-08-15

    A recently proposed approximation method, called the {delta} expansion, was introduced in the context of a self-interacting scalar field theory. This approximation method offers the hope of obtaining nonperturbative information about a quantum field theory using perturbative techniques. In this paper we extend formally the {delta}-expansion methods to field theories having local gauge symmetry. We then compute the anomaly in the Schwinger model.

  2. An analytical approach for a nodal formulation of a two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problem in heterogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso Barichello, Liliane; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2015-05-15

    A nodal formulation of a fixed-source two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in Cartesian geometry, defined in a heterogeneous medium, is solved by an analytical approach. Explicit expressions, in terms of the spatial variables, are derived for averaged fluxes in each region in which the domain is subdivided. The procedure is an extension of an analytical discrete ordinates method, the ADO method, for the solution of the two-dimensional homogeneous medium case. The scheme is developed from the discrete ordinates version of the two-dimensional transport equation along with the level symmetric quadrature scheme. As usual for nodal schemes, relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown angular fluxes at the contours are introduced as auxiliary equations. Numerical results are in agreement with results available in the literature.

  3. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Elective Nodal Irradiation and Involved-Field Radiation in the Definitive Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Dosimetric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Ko, Christine J.; Ning, Holly; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Haglund, Karl E.; O’Meara, William P.; Simone, Charles B.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Photon involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT), the standard for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), results in favorable outcomes without increased isolated nodal failures, perhaps from scattered dose to elective nodal stations. Given the high conformality of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), proton IFRT could increase nodal failures. We investigated the feasibility of IMPT for elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in LA-NSCLC. Materials and Methods IMPT IFRT plans were generated to the same total dose of 66.6–72 Gy received by 20 LA-NSCLC patients treated with photon IFRT. IMPT ENI plans were generated to 46 CGE to elective nodal (EN) planning treatment volumes (PTV) plus 24 CGE to involved field (IF)-PTVs. Results Proton IFRT and ENI both improved D95 involved field (IF)-PTV coverage by 4% (pENI. Mean esophagus dose decreased 16% with IFRT and 12% with ENI; heart V25 decreased 63% with both (all pENI. Potential decreased toxicity indicates IMPT could allow ENI while maintaining a favorable therapeutic ratio compared to photon IFRT. PMID:25604729

  4. Cilia are required for asymmetric nodal induction in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisler, Matthias; Wetzel, Franziska; Mantino, Sabrina; Kremnyov, Stanislav; Thumberger, Thomas; Schweickert, Axel; Blum, Martin; Vick, Philipp

    2016-08-23

    Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages. Conservation of LRO and flow beyond the vertebrates has not been reported yet. Here we study sea urchin embryos, which use nodal to establish larval LR asymmetry as well. Cilia were found in the archenteron of embryos undergoing gastrulation. Expression of foxj1 and dnah9 suggested that archenteron cilia were motile. Cilia were polarized to the posterior pole of cells, a prerequisite of directed flow. High-speed videography revealed rotating cilia in the archenteron slightly before asymmetric nodal induction. Removal of cilia through brief high salt treatments resulted in aberrant patterns of nodal expression. Our data demonstrate that cilia - like in vertebrates - are required for asymmetric nodal induction in sea urchin embryos. Based on these results we argue that the anterior archenteron represents a bona fide LRO and propose that cilia-based symmetry breakage is a synapomorphy of the deuterostomes.

  5. Association of tumour stiffness on sonoelastography with axillary nodal status in T1 breast carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ann; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Kim, Seung Ja; Han, Wonshik; Park, In-Ae

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether tumour stiffness on sonoelastography is associated with axillary nodal metastasis in T1 breast carcinoma patients. Between May 2006 and December 2010, 200 consecutive women (mean age, 51.6; range, 27 - 81 years) who underwent B-mode ultrasound (US), sonoelastography, and curative surgery with axillary nodal evaluation for clinically node negative T1 breast carcinomas (mean invasive tumour size, 12.4; range, 3 - 20 mm at pathology) were identified. The association between the elasticity score of the tumour and histopathological axillary nodal status was evaluated using a logistic regression model after controlling for imaging and clinicopathological variables of the tumour. The overall incidence of axillary nodal metastasis was 15.5 % (31 of 200). Axillary nodal metastasis was significantly more frequent in tumours with elasticity scores ≥4 than in tumours with elasticity scores elasticity score ≥4 [odds ratio (OR), 6.95; P = 0.004], US size >10 mm (OR, 5.98; P = 0.022), and lymphovascular invasion (OR, 10.68; P breast carcinoma patients. • Prediction of axillary nodal status using imaging techniques is valuable. • High ultrasound elasticity scores of T1 tumours were associated with axillary metastasis • Node-positive T1 tumours frequently had elasticity scores 4 or 5. • Sonoelastography might render axillary surgery unnecessary in T1 breast carcinoma patients.

  6. Nodal Clearance Rate and Long-Term Efficacy of Individualized Sentinel Node–Based Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Arndt-Christian, E-mail: arndt-christian.mueller@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Eckert, Franziska; Paulsen, Frank; Zips, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Stenzl, Arnulf; Schilling, David [Department of Urology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Alber, Markus [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Bares, Roland [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Martus, Peter [Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biometry, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Weckermann, Dorothea [Department of Urology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of individual sentinel node (SN)-guided pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by determining nodal clearance rate [(n expected nodal involvement − n observed regional recurrences)/n expected nodal involvement] in comparison with surgically staged patients. Methods and Materials: Data on 475 high-risk prostate cancer patients were examined. Sixty-one consecutive patients received pelvic SN-based IMRT (5 × 1.8 Gy/wk to 50.4 Gy [pelvic nodes + individual SN] and an integrated boost with 5 × 2.0 Gy/wk to 70.0 Gy to prostate + [base of] seminal vesicles) and neo-/adjuvant long-term androgen deprivation therapy; 414 patients after SN–pelvic lymph node dissection were used to calculate the expected nodal involvement rate for the radiation therapy sample. Biochemical control and overall survival were estimated for the SN-IMRT patients using the Kaplan-Meier method. The expected frequency of nodal involvement in the radiation therapy group was estimated by imputing frequencies of node-positive patients in the surgical sample to the pattern of Gleason, prostate-specific antigen, and T category in the radiation therapy sample. Results: After a median follow-up of 61 months, 5-year OS after SN-guided IMRT reached 84.4%. Biochemical control according to the Phoenix definition was 73.8%. The nodal clearance rate of SN-IMRT reached 94%. Retrospective follow-up evaluation is the main limitation. Conclusions: Radiation treatment of pelvic nodes individualized by inclusion of SNs is an effective regional treatment modality in high-risk prostate cancer patients. The pattern of relapse indicates that the SN-based target volume concept correctly covers individual pelvic nodes. Thus, this SN-based approach justifies further evaluation, including current dose-escalation strategies to the prostate in a larger prospective series.

  7. Nodal Stage of Surgically Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Effect on Recurrence Patterns and Overall Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlotto, John M., E-mail: john.varlotto@umassmemorial.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Yao, Aaron N. [Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); DeCamp, Malcolm M. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Ramakrishna, Satvik [Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Recht, Abe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Flickinger, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Andrei, Adin [Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Reed, Michael F. [Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania (United States); Heart and Vascular Institute, Pennsylvania State University-Hershey, Hershey, Pennsylvania (United States); Toth, Jennifer W. [Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania (United States); Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University-Hershey, Hershey, Pennsylvania (United States); Fizgerald, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Higgins, Kristin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Zheng, Xiao [Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Shelkey, Julie [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); and others

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with N2 involvement. We investigated the relationship between nodal stage and local-regional recurrence (LR), distant recurrence (DR) and overall survival (OS) for patients having an R0 resection. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional database of consecutive patients undergoing R0 resection for stage I-IIIA NSCLC from 1995 to 2008 was used. Patients receiving any radiation therapy before relapse were excluded. A total of 1241, 202, and 125 patients were identified with N0, N1, and N2 involvement, respectively; 161 patients received chemotherapy. Cumulative incidence rates were calculated for LR and DR as first sites of failure, and Kaplan-Meier estimates were made for OS. Competing risk analysis and proportional hazards models were used to examine LR, DR, and OS. Independent variables included age, sex, surgical procedure, extent of lymph node sampling, histology, lymphatic or vascular invasion, tumor size, tumor grade, chemotherapy, nodal stage, and visceral pleural invasion. Results: The median follow-up time was 28.7 months. Patients with N1 or N2 nodal stage had rates of LR similar to those of patients with N0 disease, but were at significantly increased risk for both DR (N1, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-2.59; P=.001; N2, HR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.55-3.48; P<.001) and death (N1, HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81; P<.001; N2, HR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.78-3.04; P<.001). LR was associated with squamous histology, visceral pleural involvement, tumor size, age, wedge resection, and segmentectomy. The most frequent site of LR was the mediastinum. Conclusions: Our investigation demonstrated that nodal stage is directly associated with DR and OS but not with LR. Thus, even some patients with, N0-N1 disease are at relatively high risk of local recurrence. Prospective

  8. The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This monograph addresses two quite different topics, in the belief that each can shed light on the other. Firstly, it lays the foundation for a particular view of the bootstrap. Secondly, it gives an account of Edgeworth expansion. Chapter 1 is about the bootstrap, witih almost no mention of Edgeworth expansion; Chapter 2 is about Edgeworth expansion, with scarcely a word about the bootstrap; and Chapters 3 and 4 bring these two themes together, using Edgeworth expansion to explore and develop the properites of the bootstrap. The book is aimed a a graduate level audience who has some exposure to the methods of theoretical statistics. However, technical details are delayed until the last chapter (entitled "Details of Mathematical Rogour"), and so a mathematically able reader without knowledge of the rigorous theory of probability will have no trouble understanding the first four-fifths of the book. The book simultaneously fills two gaps in the literature; it provides a very readable graduate level account of t...

  9. TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Su-zhi [Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang (China); Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Jia-ming, E-mail: wzljm@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-β promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-β may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-β was added, whereas the TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-β addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-β weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-β more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-β and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.

  10. Solution of the Neutron transport equation in hexagonal geometry using strongly discontinuous nodal schemes; Solucion de la Ecuacion de transporte de neutrones en geometria hexagonal usando esquemas nodales fuertemente discontinuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica R, C.A.; Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmugica@ipn.mx

    2005-07-01

    In 2002, E. del Valle and Ernest H. Mund developed a technique to solve numerically the Neutron transport equations in discrete ordinates and hexagonal geometry using two nodal schemes type finite element weakly discontinuous denominated WD{sub 5,3} and WD{sub 12,8} (of their initials in english Weakly Discontinuous). The technique consists on representing each hexagon in the union of three rhombuses each one of which it is transformed in a square in the one that the methods WD{sub 5,3} and WD{sub 12,8} were applied. In this work they are solved the mentioned equations of transport using the same discretization technique by hexagon but using two nodal schemes type finite element strongly discontinuous denominated SD{sub 3} and SD{sub 8} (of their initials in english Strongly Discontinuous). The application in each case as well as a reference problem for those that results are provided for the effective multiplication factor is described. It is carried out a comparison with the obtained results by del Valle and Mund for different discretization meshes so much angular as spatial. (Author)

  11. Topological nodal superconductivity in the heavy fermion metal UPt3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevidomskyy, Andriy

    The concept of topological states of matter has captured the imagination of physicists in the last decade. Traditionally, such topological phases are predicted to occur in fully gapped insulating or superconducting materials and are characterized by topologically protected gapless excitations on the surface. Recently, it has been realized that such protected surface states may also exist in certain classes of metallic materials with gapless bulk excitations. Here, I will demonstrate the application of this concept, focusing in particular on the low-temperature B-phase of the heavy fermion superconductor UPt3. Josephson interferometry measurements provide strong evidence for the triplet, chiral pairing symmetry in UPt3, which endow the Cooper pairs with orbital angular momentum Lz = +/- 2 along the c-axis. Such pairing supports both line and point nodes in the superconducting gap, and we show that both types of nodal quasiparticles possess nontrivial topology in the momentum space. In particular, the point nodes located at the intersections of the closed Fermi surfaces with the c-axis act as the double monopoles and anti-monopoles of the Berry curvature. Consequently, we predict that the B phase of UPt3 should support an anomalous thermal Hall effect, various magneto-electric effects such as the polar Kerr effect, in addition to the topologically protected Majorana Fermi arcs on the (1,0,0) and (0,1,0) surfaces. At the transition from the B-phase to the A-phase upon increasing temperature, the time reversal symmetry is restored, and the surface Fermi arcs disappear. The effect of quenched disorder on the topologically non-trivial B-phase will also be discussed. This research is supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1350237.

  12. Method of generating q-expansion coefficients for conformal block and N=2 Nekrasov function by {beta}-deformed matrix model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoyama, H., E-mail: itoyama@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Osaka City University Advanced Mathematical Institute (OCAMI), 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Oota, T., E-mail: toota@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [Osaka City University Advanced Mathematical Institute (OCAMI), 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2010-10-21

    We observe that, at {beta}-deformed matrix models for the four-point conformal block, the point q=0 is the point where the three-Penner type model becomes a pair of decoupled two-Penner type models and where, in the planar limit, (an array of), two-cut eigenvalue distribution(s) coalesce into (that of) one-cut one(s). We treat the Dotsenko-Fateev multiple integral, with their paths under the recent discussion, as perturbed double-Selberg matrix model (at q=0, it becomes a pair of Selberg integrals) to construct two kinds of generating functions for the q-expansion coefficients and compute some. A formula associated with the Jack polynomial is noted. The second Nekrasov coefficient for SU(2) with N{sub f}=4 is derived. A pair of Young diagrams appears naturally. The finite N loop equation at q=0 as well as its planar limit is solved exactly, providing a useful tool to evaluate the coefficients as those of the resolvents. The planar free energy in the q-expansion is computed to the lowest non-trivial order. A free field representation of the Nekrasov function is given.

  13. Pelvic Nodal Dosing With Registration to the Prostate: Implications for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U., E-mail: aukishan@mednet.ucla.edu; Lamb, James M.; Jani, Shyam S.; Kang, Jung J.; Steinberg, Michael L.; King, Christopher R.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether image guidance with rigid registration (RR) to intraprostatic markers (IPMs) yields acceptable coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in the context of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) regimen. Methods and Materials: Four to seven kilovoltage cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) from 12 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were analyzed, allowing approximation of an SBRT regimen. The nodal clinical target volume (CTV{sub N}) and bladder were contoured on all kilovoltage CBCTs. The V{sub 100} CTV{sub N}, expressed as a ratio to the same parameter on the initial plan, and the magnitude of translational shift between RR to the IPMs versus RR to the pelvic bones, were computed. The ability of a multimodality bladder filling protocol to minimize bladder height variation was assessed in a separate cohort of 4 patients. Results: Sixty-five CBCTs were assessed. The average V{sub 100} CTV{sub N} was 92.6%, but for a subset of 3 patients the average was 80.0%, compared with 97.8% for the others (P<.0001). The average overall and superior–inferior axis magnitudes of the bony-to-fiducial translations were significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (8.1 vs 3.9 mm and 5.8 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P<.0001). Relative bladder height changes were also significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (42.9% vs 18.5%; P<.05). Use of a multimodality bladder-filling protocol minimized bladder height variation (P<.001). Conclusion: A majority of patients had acceptable nodal coverage after RR to IPMs, even when approximating SBRT. However, a subset of patients had suboptimal nodal coverage. These patients had large bony-to-fiducial translations and large variations in bladder height. Nodal coverage should be excellent if the superior–inferior axis bony-to-fiducial translation and the relative bladder height change (both easily measured on CBCT) are kept to a minimum. Implementation of a strict bladder filling

  14. Structural health monitoring of constrained tapered beamlike structures using natural frequencies and nodal points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Le; Yang Zhichun [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Waters, T P, E-mail: le.wang@nwpu.edu.cn, E-mail: tpw@isvr.soton.ac.uk [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    The integrity and safety of beam-like structures are dependent in part on their boundary conditions which can vary with time due to damage or aging. Structural health monitoring of such structures should therefore include attention to boundary conditions. Where the boundary conditions can be represented by a lumped spring then the identification of associated stiffness parameter values may be a means to quantifying the integrity of the support. This paper investigates such a method for identifying the equivalent translational and rotational stiffness of a constrained tapered beam-like structure. An analytical model of a beam of tapered width and thickness is adopted as a simplified representation of a tower-like structure. The model is used to explore in what scenarios natural frequencies and/or nodal points might be sufficiently sensitive to changes in support conditions to be measurable indicators of damage. The method is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations for a numerical example where the severity of noise can be controlled.

  15. Dynamic Contact between a Wire Rope and a Pulley Using Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Takehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire rope and pulley devices are used in various machines. To use these machines more safely, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of the contact between them. In this study, we represent a wire rope by a numerical model of a flexible body. This flexible body is expressed in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF, and the model includes the normal contact force and the frictional force between the wire rope and the pulley. The normal contact force is expressed by spring-damper elements, and the frictional force is expressed by the Quinn method. The advantage of the Quinn method is that it reduces the numerical problems associated with the discontinuities in Coulomb friction at zero velocity. By using the numerical model, simulations are performed, and the validity of this model is shown by comparing its results with those of an experiment. Through numerical simulations, we confirm the proposed model for the contact between the wire rope and the pulley. We confirmed that the behavior of the wire rope changes when both the bending elastic modulus of the wire rope and the mass added to each end of the wire rope are changed.

  16. Business information query expansion through semantic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiguo; Muyeba, Maybin; Guo, Jingzhi

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we propose a method for business information query expansions. In our approach, hypernym/hyponymy and synonym relations in WordNet are used as the basic expansion rules. Then we use WordNet Lexical Chains and WordNet semantic similarity to assign terms in the same query into different groups with respect to their semantic similarities. For each group, we expand the highest terms in the WordNet hierarchies with hypernym and synonym, the lowest terms with hyponym and synonym and all other terms with only synonym. In this way, the contradictory caused by full expansion can be well controlled. Furthermore, we use collection-related term semantic network to further improve the expansion performance. And our experiment reveals that our solution for query expansion can improve the query performance dramatically.

  17. Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Concha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2 leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM(N recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N. Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sMm+2 and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.

  18. Effective Expansion: Balance between Shrinkage and Hygroscopic Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, E A; Watson, L E; Tantbirojn, D; Lou, J S B; Versluis, A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hygroscopic expansion and polymerization shrinkage for compensation of polymerization shrinkage stresses in a restored tooth. One resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) (Ketac Nano, 3M ESPE), 2 compomers (Dyract, Dentsply; Compoglass, Ivoclar), and a universal resin-based composite (Esthet•X HD, Dentsply) were tested. Volumetric change after polymerization ("total shrinkage") and during 4 wk of water storage at 37°C was measured using an optical method (n= 10). Post-gel shrinkage was measured during polymerization using a strain gauge method (n= 10). Extracted human molars with large mesio-occluso-distal slot preparations were restored with the tested restorative materials. Tooth surfaces at baseline (preparation), after restoration, and during 4 wk of 37°C water storage were scanned with an optical scanner to determine cuspal flexure (n= 8). Occlusal interface integrity was measured using dye penetration. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and post hoc tests (significance level 0.05). All tested materials shrunk after polymerization. RMGI had the highest total shrinkage (4.65%) but lowest post-gel shrinkage (0.35%). Shrinkage values dropped significantly during storage in water but had not completely compensated polymerization shrinkage after 4 wk. All restored teeth initially exhibited inward (negative) cuspal flexure due to polymerization shrinkage. Cuspal flexure with the RMGI restoration was significantly less (-6.4 µm) than with the other materials (-12.1 to -14.1 µm). After 1 d, cuspal flexure reversed to +5.0 µm cuspal expansion with the RMGI and increased to +9.3 µm at 4 wk. After 4 wk, hygroscopic expansion compensated cuspal flexure in a compomer (Compoglass) and reduced flexure with Dyract and resin-based composite. Marginal integrity (93.7% intact restoration wall) was best for the Compoglass restorations and lowest (73.1%) for the RMGI restorations. Hygroscopic

  19. Characterization of nodal/TGF-lefty signaling pathway gene variants for possible roles in congenital heart diseases.

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    Xia Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nodal/TGF-Lefty signaling pathway has important effects at early stages of differentiation of human embryonic stem cells in directing them to differentiate into different embryonic lineages. LEFTY, one of transforming growth factors in the Nodal/TGF-Lefty signaling pathway, plays an important role in the development of heart. The aim of this work was to find evidence on whether Lefty variations are associated with congenital heart diseases (CHD. METHODS: We sequenced the Lefty gene for 230 Chinese Han CHD patients and evaluated SNPs rs2295418, rs360057 and g.G169A, which are located within the translated regions of the genes. The statistical analyses were conducted using Chi-Square Tests as implemented in SPSS (version 13.0. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test of the population was carried out using online software OEGE, and multiple-sequence alignments of LEFTY proteins were carried out using the Vector NTI software. RESULTS: Two heterozygous variants in Lefty1 gene, g.G169A and g.A1035C, and one heterozygous variant in Lefty2 gene, g.C925A, were identified. Statistical analyses showed that the rs2295418 (g.C925A variant in Lefty2 gene was obviously associated with the risk of CHD (P value = 0.0160.05. CONCLUSIONS: The SNP rs2295418 in the Lefty2 gene is associated with CHD in Chinese Han populations.

  20. An Improved Micropropagation Protocol by Ex Vitro Rooting of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. through Nodal Segment Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Mahipal S; Manokari, M; Ravindran, C P

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for rapid clonal propagation of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. (Passifloraceae) has been developed in this study. Nodal explants were sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The addition of 2.0 mgL(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to MS medium caused an extensive proliferation of multiple shoots (8.21 ± 1.13) primordial from the nodal meristems. Subculturing of these multiple shoots on the MS medium augmented with 1.0 mgL(-1) of each BAP and Kinetin (Kin) was successful for the multiplication of the shoots in vitro with maximum numbers of shoots (25.73 ± 0.06) within four weeks of incubation. Shoots were rooted best (7.13 ± 0.56 roots/shoots) on half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL(-1) indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). All in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted by ex vitro method, and this has achieved 6-7 roots per shoot by pulsing of cut ends of the shoots using 200 as well as 300 mgL(-1) IBA. The plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse for 4-5 weeks. The hardened plantlets were shifted to manure containing nursery polybags after five weeks and then transferred to a sand bed for another four weeks for acclimatization before field planting with 88% survival rate.

  1. Development of a phenotyping platform for high throughput screening of nodal root angle in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dinesh C; Singh, Vijaya; Hunt, Colleen; Mace, Emma; van Oosterom, Erik; Sulman, Richard; Jordan, David; Hammer, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    In sorghum, the growth angle of nodal roots is a major component of root system architecture. It strongly influences the spatial distribution of roots of mature plants in the soil profile, which can impact drought adaptation. However, selection for nodal root angle in sorghum breeding programs has been restricted by the absence of a suitable high throughput phenotyping platform. The aim of this study was to develop a phenotyping platform for the rapid, non-destructive and digital measurement of nodal root angle of sorghum at the seedling stage. The phenotyping platform comprises of 500 soil filled root chambers (50 × 45 × 0.3 cm in size), made of transparent perspex sheets that were placed in metal tubs and covered with polycarbonate sheets. Around 3 weeks after sowing, once the first flush of nodal roots was visible, roots were imaged in situ using an imaging box that included two digital cameras that were remotely controlled by two android tablets. Free software (openGelPhoto.tcl) allowed precise measurement of nodal root angle from the digital images. The reliability and efficiency of the platform was evaluated by screening a large nested association mapping population of sorghum and a set of hybrids in six independent experimental runs that included up to 500 plants each. The platform revealed extensive genetic variation and high heritability (repeatability) for nodal root angle. High genetic correlations and consistent ranking of genotypes across experimental runs confirmed the reproducibility of the platform. This low cost, high throughput root phenotyping platform requires no sophisticated equipment, is adaptable to most glasshouse environments and is well suited to dissect the genetic control of nodal root angle of sorghum. The platform is suitable for use in sorghum breeding programs aiming to improve drought adaptation through root system architecture manipulation.

  2. Churchill regulates cell movement and mesoderm specification by repressing Nodal signaling

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    Mentzer Laura

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell movements are essential to the determination of cell fates during development. The zinc-finger transcription factor, Churchill (ChCh has been proposed to regulate cell fate by regulating cell movements during gastrulation in the chick. However, the mechanism of action of ChCh is not understood. Results We demonstrate that ChCh acts to repress the response to Nodal-related signals in zebrafish. When ChCh function is abrogated the expression of mesodermal markers is enhanced while ectodermal markers are expressed at decreased levels. In cell transplant assays, we observed that ChCh-deficient cells are more motile than wild-type cells. When placed in wild-type hosts, ChCh-deficient cells often leave the epiblast, migrate to the germ ring and are later found in mesodermal structures. We demonstrate that both movement of ChCh-compromised cells to the germ ring and acquisition of mesodermal character depend on the ability of the donor cells to respond to Nodal signals. Blocking Nodal signaling in the donor cells at the levels of Oep, Alk receptors or Fast1 inhibited migration to the germ ring and mesodermal fate change in the donor cells. We also detect additional unusual movements of transplanted ChCh-deficient cells which suggests that movement and acquisition of mesodermal character can be uncoupled. Finally, we demonstrate that ChCh is required to limit the transcriptional response to Nodal. Conclusion These data establish a broad role for ChCh in regulating both cell movement and Nodal signaling during early zebrafish development. We show that chch is required to limit mesodermal gene expression, inhibit Nodal-dependant movement of presumptive ectodermal cells and repress the transcriptional response to Nodal signaling. These findings reveal a dynamic role for chch in regulating cell movement and fate during early development.

  3. Extra-nodal extension is a significant prognostic factor in lymph node positive breast cancer.

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    Sura Aziz

    Full Text Available Presence of lymph node (LN metastasis is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer, whereas the importance of extra-nodal extension and other nodal tumor features have not yet been fully recognized. Here, we examined microscopic features of lymph node metastases and their prognostic value in a population-based cohort of node positive breast cancer (n = 218, as part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program NBCSP (1996-2009. Sections were reviewed for the largest metastatic tumor diameter (TD-MET, nodal afferent and efferent vascular invasion (AVI and EVI, extra-nodal extension (ENE, number of ENE foci, as well as circumferential (CD-ENE and perpendicular (PD-ENE diameter of extra-nodal growth. Number of positive lymph nodes, EVI, and PD-ENE were significantly increased with larger primary tumor (PT diameter. Univariate survival analysis showed that several features of nodal metastases were associated with disease-free (DFS or breast cancer specific survival (BCSS. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an independent prognostic value of PD-ENE (with 3 mm as cut-off value in predicting DFS and BCSS, along with number of positive nodes and histologic grade of the primary tumor (for DFS: P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively; for BCSS: P = 0.02, P = 0.008, P = 0.02, respectively. To conclude, the extent of ENE by its perpendicular diameter was independently prognostic and should be considered in line with nodal tumor burden in treatment decisions of node positive breast cancer.

  4. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Seol, Ki Ho; Lee, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4-72 Gy (39.6-45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC.

  5. Fast algorithms for Quadrature by Expansion I: Globally valid expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachh, Manas; Klöckner, Andreas; O'Neil, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The use of integral equation methods for the efficient numerical solution of PDE boundary value problems requires two main tools: quadrature rules for the evaluation of layer potential integral operators with singular kernels, and fast algorithms for solving the resulting dense linear systems. Classically, these tools were developed separately. In this work, we present a unified numerical scheme based on coupling Quadrature by Expansion, a recent quadrature method, to a customized Fast Multipole Method (FMM) for the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. The method allows the evaluation of layer potentials in linear-time complexity, anywhere in space, with a uniform, user-chosen level of accuracy as a black-box computational method. Providing this capability requires geometric and algorithmic considerations beyond the needs of standard FMMs as well as careful consideration of the accuracy of multipole translations. We illustrate the speed and accuracy of our method with various numerical examples.

  6. Selective slow pathway ablation does not alter enhancement of vagal tone on sinus and atrioventricular nodal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsovsky, M R; Belz, M K; Stambler, B S; Gilligan, D M; Wood, M A; Ellenbogen, K A

    1996-12-01

    We studied the effects of edrophonium on sinus cycle length, atrioventricular (AV) nodal fast pathway refractoriness, and AV nodal Wenckebach cycle length in 21 patients with AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) who received edrophonium, and 8 patients who received phenylephrine before and after selective slow pathway ablation. Changes in sinus cycle length, fast pathway conduction, and refractoriness were not altered by radiofrequency ablation of the slow pathway, suggesting that parasympathetic denervation does not occur after slow pathway ablation of AVNRT.

  7. Nodal Status Assessment in Breast Cancer: Strategies of Clinical Grounds and Quality of Life Implications

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    Paolo Orsaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even in the era of gene-expression profiling, the nodal status still remains the primary prognostic discriminant in breast cancer patients. The exclusion of node involvement using noninvasive methods could reduce the rate of axillary surgery, thereby preventing from suffering complications. However, lymphatic mapping with sentinel node biopsy (SNB is one of the most interesting recent developments in surgical oncology. Optimization of procedure could be implemented by dual mapping injection site skills, resection of all hot or blue nodes through tracer combination, and improvement in atypical drainage patterns mapping. This anatomical analysis suggests safety measures in patients with high probability of node metastasis through a renewed interest in surgical management. The perspective of a guided axillary sampling (GAS could represent a potential development of recent anatomical and functional acquisitions, offering a dynamic technique shared according to clinical and anatomical disease parameters. Furthermore, the surgical staging procedures may adopt a conservative approach through the evaluation of upper arm lymphatics, thus defining a functional model aimed at the reduction of short- and long-term adverse events. Quality results in breast cancer surgery need to generate oncological safety devoid of complications through renewed clinical experience.

  8. Tumor Budding in Intestinal Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma is Associated with Nodal Metastasis and Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Stephen; Linda, Jin; Fields, Ryan C; Yan, Yan; Nalbantoglu, ILKe

    2017-04-17

    Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is a common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. GAC can be classified as intestinal or diffuse. Intestinal type cancers are common and reported to have a better prognosis compared to diffuse cancers. Studies have shown the presence and amount of tumor budding in intestinal carcinomas of the colon and esophagus to predict nodal metastasis and recurrence. Our aim is to determine if tumor budding in intestinal type GAC correlates with prognostic features. One hundred four patients treated with primary surgical excision between 1999-2013 were identified. Histologic type (intestinal, diffuse, or mixed), tumor grade, T-stage, and lymph node status were evaluated. Tumor bud scores were assigned to all intestinal type cancers using methods previously described for colorectal adenocarcinoma. Scores of Tumor characteristics were as follows: 52 intestinal (50%), 36 diffuse (35%) and 16 mixed (15%). Of the 52 cases with intestinal histology, 4 were well (8%), 28 were moderately (54%), and 20 were poorly differentiated (38%). Thirty-three (63%) of the intestinal tumors had high tumor bud scores. Cases with high scores were associated with higher T-stage, N-stage, and grade (Ptumor bud scores in intestinal type GAC have higher T-stage, N-stage, grade, and likelihood of recurrence. Assessment of tumor budding may guide clinical management in a subset of patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Presence of Anti-p53 Antibodies in Sera Prior to Thoracic Surgery in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Its Implications on Tumor Volume, Nodal Involvement, and Survival1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, Michael; Brattström, Daniel; Lamberg, Kristina; Hesselius, Patrik; Wernlund, Johan; Larsson, Anders; Wagenius, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background During recent years, a correlation between the presence of antibodies in sera against p53 and survival has been reported. The aim of the present study was to analyze anti-p53 antibodies in sera from patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prior to thoracic surgery and their correlation to survival, nodal involvement, and tumor volume. Patients and Methods Serum samples from 58 patients with NSCLC admitted to the Department of Pulmonary Medicine in Uppsala were collected between 1993 and 1995 and analyzed for the expression of anti-p53 antibodies. Results Antibodies against p53 were detected in 12 patients (21%). No association was found between increased levels of anti-p53 antibodies and tumor volume (P = .84). There was a numerical trend towards higher levels of anti-p53 antibodies in patients without nodal disease, when compared with patients with nodal involvement, although not statistically significant (P = .136). However, when patients with metastatic disease were included, statistically significantly lower levels of anti-p53 antibodies were demonstrated, in comparison to patients without any sign of nodal engagement or metastatic disease (P = .038). Anti-p53 antibodies and survival showed no correlation between increasing index levels of anti-p53 antibodies and survival (P = .18). Neither was a correlation found between using the cutoff (>1.1) described by the manufacturer and survival. CONCLUSION The presence of anti-p53 antibodies was correlated neither to survival nor to tumor volume in the present study. However, patients with either nodal or metastatic disease had lower levels of anti-p53 antibodies in comparison to patients without signs of either nodal or metastatic disease. These issues are discussed. PMID:14511399

  10. Results of a Phase 2 Study Examining the Effects of Omitting Elective Neck Irradiation to Nodal Levels IV and V{sub b} in Patients With N{sub 0-1} Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Chen, Jian-zhou [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Han, Fei; Lu, Li-Xia; Huang, Shao-Min; Lin, Cheng-Guang; Deng, Xiao-Wu; Cui, Nian-Ji [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhao, Chong, E-mail: gzzhaochong@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure and toxicity in clinically negative necks of N{sub 0-1} nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) but did not receive elective neck irradiation (ENI) to level IV and V{sub b} nodes. Methods and Materials: We conducted a phase 2 prospective study in N{sub 0-1} NPC patients treated with IMRT. ENI included the retropharyngeal nodes and levels II to V{sub a} but omitted levels IV and V{sub b} in clinically negative necks. Patterns of nodal failure, regional control (RC), and late toxicity were evaluated. Results: Between 2001 and 2008, a total of 212 patients (128 N{sub 0} and 84 N{sub 1}) were enrolled in the study. Seven patients (4 in-field and 3 out-of-field) developed nodal failure. One patient (0.5%) developed nodal failure at level V{sub b}, but no patients developed nodal failure at level IV. The 5-year RC rates of the entire group, N{sub 0} patients and N{sub 1} patients were 95.6%, 98.2%, and 91.3%, respectively. Fifteen patients (7.1%) developed distant metastases. The 5-year distant failure-free survival (DFFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 91.4% and 89.8%, respectively. The rates of grade 2 or greater skin dystrophy, subcutaneous fibrosis and xerostomia were 6.2%, 16.6%, and 17.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The rate of out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI to levels IV and V{sub b} in clinically negative necks of patients with N{sub 0-1} NPC was extremely low; therefore, a further phase 3 study is warranted.

  11. The Presence of Anti-p53 Antibodies in Sera Prior to Thoracic Surgery in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Its Implications on Tumor Volume, Nodal Involvement, and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bergqvist

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During recent years, a correlation between the presence of antibodies in sera against p53 and survival has been reported. The aim of the present study was to analyze anti-p53 antibodies in sera from patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC prior to thoracic surgery and their correlation to survival, nodal involvement, and tumor volume. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum samples from 58 patients with NSCLC admitted to the Department of Pulmonary Medicine in Uppsala were collected between 1993 and 1995 and analyzed for the expression of anti-p53 antibodies. RESULTS: Antibodies against p53 were detected in 12 patients (21%. No association was found between increased levels of anti-p53 antibodies and tumor volume (P = .84. There was a numerical trend towards higher levels of anti-p53 antibodies in patients without nodal disease, when compared with patients with nodal involvement, although not statistically significant (P = .136. However, when patients with metastatic disease were included, statistically significantly lower levels of anti-p53 antibodies were demonstrated, in comparison to patients without any sign of nodal engagement or metastatic disease (P = .038. Anti-p53 antibodies and survival showed no correlation between increasing index levels of anti-p53 antibodies and survival (P = .18. Neither was a correlation found between using the cutoff (>1.1 described by the manufacturer and survival. CONCLUSION: The presence of anti-p53 antibodies was correlated neither to survival nor to tumor volume in the present study. However, patients with either nodal or metastatic disease had lower levels of anti-p53 antibodies in comparison to patients without signs of either nodal or metastatic disease. These issues are discussed.

  12. The impact of surgical technique on neck dissection nodal yield: making a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lörincz, Balazs B; Langwieder, Felix; Möckelmann, Nikolaus; Sehner, Susanne; Knecht, Rainald

    2016-05-01

    The nodal yield of neck dissections is an independent prognostic factor in several types of head and neck cancer. The authors aimed to determine whether the applied dissection technique has a significant impact on nodal yield. This is a single-institution, prospective study with internal control group (level of evidence: 2A). Data of 150 patients undergoing 223 neck dissections between February 2011 and March 2013 have been collected in a comprehensive cancer centre. Eighty-two patients underwent neck dissection with unwrapping the cervical fascia from lateral to medial, while 68 patients were operated without specifically unwrapping the fascia, in a caudal to cranial fashion. The standardised, horizontal neck dissection technique along the fascial planes resulted in a significantly higher nodal count in Levels I, II, III and IV, as well as in terms of overall nodal yield (mean: n = 22.53) than that of the vertical dissection applied in the control group (mean: n = 15.00). This is the first publication showing a direct correlation between neck dissection nodal yield and surgical technique. Therefore, it is paramount to optimise the applied surgical concept to maximise the oncological benefit.

  13. Nodalization effects on RELAP5 results related to MTR research reactor transient scenarios

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    Khedr Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the anal y sis of RELAP5 results obtained from the evaluation study of the total loss of flow transient with the deficiency of the heat removal system in a research reactor using two different nodalizations. It focuses on the effect of nodalization on the thermal-hydraulic evaluation of the re search reactor. The analysis of RELAP5 results has shown that nodalization has a big effect on the predicted scenario of the postulated transient. There fore, great care should be taken during the nodalization of the reactor, especially when the avail able experimental or measured data are insufficient for making a complete qualification of the nodalization. Our analysis also shows that the research reactor pool simulation has a great effect on the evaluation of natural circulation flow and on other thermal-hydraulic parameters during the loss of flow transient. For example, the on set time of core boiling changes from less than 2000 s to 15000 s, starting from the beginning of the transient. This occurs if the pool is simulated by two vertical volumes in stead of one vertical volume.

  14. Role of Nodal-PITX2C signaling pathway in glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongmei; Jing, Sun; Guan, Lina; Li, Qian; Zhang, Huiling; Gao, Xiaobo; Ma, Xu

    2014-06-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that cardiomyocytes, in response to high glucose (HG) stimuli, undergo hypertrophic growth. While much work still needs to be done to elucidate this important mechanism of hypertrophy, previous works have showed that some pathways or genes play important roles in hypertrophy. In this study, we showed that sublethal concentrations of glucose (25 mmol/L) could induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with an increase in the cellular surface area and the upregulation of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene, a hypertrophic marker. High glucose (HG) treatments resulted in the upregulation of the Nodal gene, which is under-expressed in cardiomyocytes. We also determined that the knockdown of the Nodal gene resisted HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The overexpression of Nodal was able to induce hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with the upregulation of the PITX2C gene. We also showed that increases in the PITX2C expression, in response to Nodal, were mediated by the Smad4 signaling pathway. This study is highly relevant to the understanding of the effects of the Nodal-PITX2C pathway on HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as well as the related molecular mechanisms.

  15. Interplay between short-range correlated disorder and Coulomb interaction in nodal-line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Nandkishore, Rahul M.

    2017-09-01

    In nodal-line semimetals, Coulomb interactions and short-range correlated disorder are both marginal perturbations to the clean noninteracting Hamiltonian. We analyze their interplay using a weak-coupling renormalization group approach. In the clean case, the Coulomb interaction has been found to be marginally irrelevant, leading to Fermi liquid behavior. We extend the analysis to incorporate the effects of disorder. The nodal line structure gives rise to kinematical constraints similar to that for a two-dimensional Fermi surface, which plays a crucial role in the one-loop renormalization of the disorder couplings. For a twofold degenerate nodal loop (Weyl loop), we show that disorder flows to strong coupling along a unique fixed trajectory in the space of symmetry inequivalent disorder couplings. Along this fixed trajectory, all symmetry inequivalent disorder strengths become equal. For a fourfold degenerate nodal loop (Dirac loop), disorder also flows to strong coupling, however, the strengths of symmetry inequivalent disorder couplings remain different. We show that feedback from disorder reverses the sign of the beta function for the Coulomb interaction, causing the Coulomb interaction to flow to strong coupling as well. However, the Coulomb interaction flows to strong coupling asymptotically more slowly than disorder. Extrapolating our results to strong coupling, we conjecture that at low energies nodal line semimetals should be described by a noninteracting nonlinear sigma model. We discuss the relation of our results with possible many-body localization at zero temperatures in such materials.

  16. Statistical measures approximations for the Gaussian part of the stochastic nonlinear damped Duffing oscillator solution process under the application of Wiener Hermite expansion linked by the multi-step differential transformed method

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    R.A. Zait

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the stochastic Wiener Hermite expansion (WHE is used to find the statistical measures (mean and variance of the first order stochastic approximation (Gaussian part of the stochastic solution processes related to the nonlinear damped Duffing oscillator model which is excited randomly by white noise process. Under the application of WHE, a deterministic model is generated to simulate the statistical measures. In next stages, smi-analytical treatments are performed under applying multi-step differential transformed method (Ms-DTM and some cases study are illustrated related to the statistical properties using Mathematica10 software.

  17. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  18. Three-dimensional conformal radiation for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with involved-field irradiation may deliver considerable doses of incidental nodal irradiation

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    Ji Kai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To quantify the incidental irradiation dose to esophageal lymph node stations when irradiating T1-4N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC patients with a dose of 60 Gy/30f. Methods Thirty-nine patients with medically inoperable T1–4N0M0 thoracic ESCC were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation (3DCRT with involved-field radiation (IFI. The conformal clinical target volume (CTV was re-created using a 3-cm margin in the proximal and distal direction beyond the barium esophagogram, endoscopic examination and CT scan defined the gross tumor volume (GTV and a 0.5-cm margin in the lateral and anteroposterior directions of the CT scan-defined GTV. The PTV encompassed 1-cm proximal and distal margins and 0.5-cm radial margin based on the CTV. Nodal regions were delineated using the Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases (JSED guidelines and an EORTC-ROG expert opinion. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD and other dosimetric parameters were calculated for each nodal station. Nodal regions with a metastasis rate greater than 5% were considered a high-risk lymph node subgroup. Results Under a 60 Gy dosage, the median Dmean and EUD was greater than 40 Gy in most high-risk nodal regions except for regions of 104, 106tb-R in upper-thoracic ESCC and 101, 104-R, 105, 106rec-L, 2, 3&7 in middle-thoracic ESCC and 107, 3&7 in lower-thoracic ESCC. In the regions with an EUD less than 40Gy, most incidental irradiation doses were significantly associated with esophageal tumor length and location. Conclusions Lymph node stations near ESCC receive considerable incidental irradiation doses with involved-field irradiation that may contribute to the elimination of subclinical lesions.

  19. Development of LMR basic design technology - Development of 3-D. multi-group nodal kinetics code for liquid metal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    A development project of 3-dimensional kinetics code for ALMR has four level of works. In the first level, a multi-group, nodal kinetics code for the HEX-Z geometry has been developed. At this point code showed very good results for the static analysis. However, kinetics routine has not been benchmarked because exact benchmark problem was not found. For the artificial benchmark problem, code showed satisfying results. At the second level, a core thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed for the temperature feedback calculation ALMR transients analysis. A sodium property table was programmed and tested to the KAERI data. Benchmarking of T/H calculation has been performed and showed fairly good results. At the third level of research work, combining of two code should be done. A reactivity feedback model for structure thermal expansion is also developed at this stage. The third and fourth level is planned to be done next year. At this point, work progress is kept right on time. 24 refs., 12 tabs., 15 figs. (author)

  20. Fatty Acid Synthase and Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Are Expressed in Nodal Metastatic Melanoma But Not in Benign Intracapsular Nodal Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Jad; Santos-Zabala, Maria Laureana; Loda, Massimo; Stack, Edward C; Hollmann, Travis J

    2017-06-13

    Melanoma is a potentially lethal form of skin cancer for which the current standard therapy is complete surgical removal of the primary tumor followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy when indicated. Histologic identification of metastatic melanoma in a sentinel node has significant prognostic and therapeutic implications, routinely guiding further surgical management with regional lymphadenectomy. While melanocytes in a lymph node can be identified by routine histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination, the distinction between nodal nevus cells and melanoma can be morphologically problematic. Previous studies have shown that malignant melanoma can over-express metabolic genes such as fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). This immunohistochemical study aims to compare the utility of FASN and ACC in differentiating sentinel lymph nodes with metastatic melanomas from those with benign nodal nevi in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Using antibodies against FASN and ACC, 13 sentinel lymph nodes from 13 patients with metastatic melanoma and 14 lymph nodes harboring benign intracapsular nevi from 14 patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were examined. A diagnosis of nodal melanoma was based on cytologic atypia and histologic comparison with the primary melanoma. All nodal nevi were intracapsular and not trabecular. Immunohistochemistry for Melan-A, S100, human melanoma black 45 (HMB45), FASN, and ACC were performed. The percentage of melanocytes staining with HMB45, FASN, and ACC was determined and graded in 25% increments; staining intensity was graded as weak, moderate, or strong. All metastatic melanomas tested had at least 25% tumor cell staining for both FASN and ACC. Greater than 75% of the tumor cells stained with FAS in 7/13 cases and for ACC in 5/12 cases. Intensity of staining was variable; strong staining for FASN and ACC was observed in 69% and 50% of metastatic melanoma, respectively. HMB45 was negative in 40% of nodal

  1. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  2. Stochastic quantization and 1/N expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunelli, J.C. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mendes, R.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1992-10-01

    We study the 1/N expansion of field theories in the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu using the supersymmetric functional approach. This formulation provides a systematic procedure to implement the 1/N expansion which resembles the ones used in the equilibrium. The 1/N perturbation theory for the non linear sigma model in two dimensions is worked out as an example. (author). 19 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Single Nodal Loop of Accidental Degeneracies in Minimal Symmetry: Triclinic CaAs3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Y.; Yin, Z. P.; Pickett, W. E.

    2017-04-01

    The existence of closed loops of degeneracies in crystals has been intimately connected with associated crystal symmetries, raising the following question: What is the minimum symmetry required for topological character, and can one find an example? Triclinic CaAs3 , in the space group P 1 ¯ with only a center of inversion, has been found to display, without need for tuning, a nodal loop of accidental degeneracies with topological character, centered on one face of the Brillouin zone that is otherwise fully gapped. The small loop is very flat in energy, yet is cut four times by the Fermi energy, a condition that results in an intricate repeated touching of inversion related pairs of Fermi surfaces at Weyl points. Spin-orbit coupling lifts the fourfold degeneracy along the loop, leaving trivial Kramers pairs. With its single nodal loop that emerges without protection from any point group symmetry, CaAs3 represents the primal "hydrogen atom" of nodal loop systems.

  4. Wake Expansion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Different models of wake expansion are presented in this chapter: the 1D momentum theory model, the cylinder analog model and Theodorsen’s model. Far wake models such as the ones from Frandsen or Rathmann or only briefly mentioned. The different models are compared to each other. Results from thi...... this chapter are used in Chap. 16 to link near-wake and far-wake parameters and in Chap. 20 to study the influence of expansion on tip-losses....

  5. Nuclear expansion with excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, J.N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Samaddar, S.K. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Vinas, X. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centelles, M. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: mario@ecm.ub.es

    2006-07-06

    The expansion of an isolated hot spherical nucleus with excitation energy and its caloric curve are studied in a thermodynamic model with the SkM{sup *} force as the nuclear effective two-body interaction. The calted results are shown to compare well with the recent experimental data from energetic nuclear collisions. The fluctuations in temperature and density are also studied. They are seen to build up very rapidly beyond an excitation energy of {approx}9 MeV/u. Volume-conserving quadrupole deformation in addition to expansion indicates, however, nuclear disassembly above an excitation energy of {approx}4 MeV/u.

  6. Uniform gradient expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giovannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  7. Multigrid method applied to the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchalabi, R.M. [BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Turinsky, P.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the development of an efficient MG algorithm for the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem. The application is specifically applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation which is discretized by utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The underlying relaxation method is the Power Method, also known as the (Outer-Inner Method). The inner iterations are completed using Multi-color Line SOR, and the outer iterations are accelerated using Chebyshev Semi-iterative Method. Furthermore, the MG algorithm utilizes the consistent homogenization concept to construct the restriction operator, and a form function as a prolongation operator. The MG algorithm was integrated into the reactor neutronic analysis code NESTLE, and numerical results were obtained from solving production type benchmark problems.

  8. Outcomes of routine ilioinguinal lymph node dissection for palpable inguinal melanoma nodal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, A R; Allan, C P; Wilkinson, M J; Strauss, D C; Thomas, J M; Hayes, A J

    2014-06-01

    Patients who present with palpable inguinal melanoma nodal metastasis have two surgical options: inguinal or ilioinguinal lymph node dissection. Indications for either operation remain controversial. This study examined survival and recurrence outcomes following ilioinguinal dissection for patients with palpable inguinal nodal metastasis, and assessed the incidence and preoperative predictors of pelvic nodal metastasis. This was a retrospective clinicopathological analysis of consecutive surgical patients with stage III malignant melanoma. All patients underwent a standardized ilioinguinal dissection at a specialist tertiary oncology hospital over a 12-year period (1998-2010). Some 38.9 per cent of 113 patients had metastatic pelvic nodes. Over a median follow-up of 31 months, the 5-year overall survival rate was 28 per cent for patients with metastatic inguinal and pelvic nodes, and 51 per cent for those with inguinal nodal metastasis only (P = 0.002). The nodal basin control rate was 88.5 per cent. Despite no evidence of pelvic node involvement on preoperative computed tomography (CT), six patients (5.3 per cent) with a single metastatic inguinal lymph node had metastatic pelvic lymph nodes. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of metastatic inguinal nodes (odds ratio 1.56; P = 0.021) and suspicious CT findings (odds ratio 9.89; P = 0.001) were both significantly associated with metastatic pelvic nodes. The specificity of CT was good (89.2 per cent) in detecting metastatic pelvic nodes, but the sensitivity was limited (57.9 per cent). Metastatic pelvic nodes are common when palpable metastatic inguinal nodes are present. Long-term survival can be achieved following their resection by ilioinguinal dissection. As metastatic pelvic nodes cannot be diagnosed reliably by preoperative CT, patients presenting with palpable inguinal nodal metastasis should be considered for ilioinguinal dissection. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  9. [Does nodal irradiation (clavicular and internal mammary chains) increase the toxicity of adjuvant breast radiotherapy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, O; Bourgier, C; Fenoglietto, P; Azria, D

    2015-06-01

    Treatment volume is a major risk factor of radiation-induced toxicity. As nodal irradiation increases treatment volume, radiation toxicity should be greater. Nevertheless, scientific randomised data do not support this fact. However, a radiation-induced toxicity is possible outside tangential fields in the nodal volumes not related to breast-only treatment. Treatment should not be adapted only to the disease but personalized to the individual risk of toxicity for each patient. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual AV Nodal Nonreentrant Tachycardia Resulting in Inappropriate ICD Therapy in a Patient with Cardiac Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur A. Karnik, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual atrioventricular nodal nonreentrant tachycardia (DAVNNT occurs due to concurrent antegrade conduction over fast and slow atrioventricular nodal pathways and is treated by slow pathway modification. We describe a unique case of a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis who received inappropriate ICD shocks for DAVNNT. Atrial and ventricular device electrograms satisfied both rate and V>A criteria for ventricular tachycardia. We postulate that alterations in refractoriness and conduction as is seen in cardiac sarcoidosis (CS may have contributed to occurrence of DAVNNT.

  11. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  12. Rethinking expansive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...

  13. Impact of radiation dose and standardized uptake value of (18)FDG PET on nodal control in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Kroon, Petra S; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M

    2015-01-01

    . Nine patients had a PAN-only failure. Patients receiving ≤ 4 cycles of weekly cisplatin had higher risk of nodal failure (p level of control in both boosted nodes and the elective irradiated regional target. However, a high nodal SUVmax...

  14. Joint Estimation of Cardiac Toxicity and Recurrence Risks After Comprehensive Nodal Photon Versus Proton Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stick, Line B; Yu, Jen; Maraldo, Maja V

    2017-01-01

    providing evidence-based estimates of the heterogeneity of treatment effects in consecutive cases for the 2 radiation treatment modalities. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty-one patients referred for postlumpectomy comprehensive nodal photon irradiation for left-sided breast cancer were included. Comparative...... absolute risk of breast cancer recurrence after 10 years was 0.10% (range, 0.0%-0.9%) with photons and 0.02% (range, 0.0%-0.07%) with protons. The association between age of the patient and benefit from proton therapy was weak, almost non-existing (Spearman rank correlations of -0.15 and -0.......30 with and without cardiac risk factors, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Modern photon therapy yields limited risk of cardiac toxicity in most patients, but proton therapy can reduce the predicted risk of cardiac toxicity by up to 2.9% and the risk of breast cancer recurrence by 0.9% in individual patients. Predicted...

  15. Imaging the Anisotropic Nonlinear Meissner Effect in Nodal YBa2Cu3O7-δ Thin-Film Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravel, Alexander P.; Ghamsari, B. G.; Kurter, C.; Jung, P.; Remillard, S.; Abrahams, J.; Lukashenko, A. V.; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2013-02-01

    We have directly imaged the anisotropic nonlinear Meissner effect in an unconventional superconductor through the nonlinear electrodynamic response of both (bulk) gap nodes and (surface) Andreev bound states. A superconducting thin film is patterned into a compact self-resonant spiral structure, excited near resonance in the radio-frequency range, and scanned with a focused laser beam perturbation. At low temperatures, direction-dependent nonlinearities in the reactive and resistive properties of the resonator create photoresponse that maps out the directions of nodes, or of bound states associated with these nodes, on the Fermi surface of the superconductor. The method is demonstrated on the nodal superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ and the results are consistent with theoretical predictions for the bulk and surface contributions.

  16. Albedo-corrected Parameterized Equivalence Constants for Cross-section Update in Nodal Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woosong; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The main idea of the theory is to preserve the equivalency between an original heterogeneous assembly and a simplified homogenized assembly in terms of their reaction rates and node interface currents. Nowadays, simplified equivalence theory (SET) is one of the most widely used techniques due to its computational efficiency. However, the SET efficiency on a single assembly homogenization is quite limited when the node interface current is not close to zero and the neighborhood effect is rather strong. To overcome this limitation, several approaches to functionalize the equivalence constants have been suggested in order to achieve more accurate whole-core solution while maintaining the advantage of the conventional two-step procedure, such as boundary perturbation theory and functional interface discontinuity factors. In a recent study by W. Kim and Y. Kim, the albedo-corrected parameterized equivalence constants (APEC) method was proposed, in which fuel assembly two-group cross-sections are parameterized as a function of a node-average current-to-flux ratio (CFR), a unique way to represent the spatial leakage of node. In the two-group homogenization of PWR fuel assembly, both thermal-group and down-scattering cross sections can be well functionalized as a function of an albedo information on the boundary. The APEC method can be very effectively utilized in adjusting the thermal-group cross sections and improving the accuracy of the conventional nodal analysis for PWR cores. For accurate parameterization of the cross section, a color-set configuration should be also analyzed, and the additional computational cost is rather marginal.

  17. Preoperative nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miziara, Juliana Muniz; Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da; Miziara, Jose Elias Abrao; Garcia, Gustavo Fabene; Simoes, Maria Izilda Previato; Lopes, Marco Antonio; Kerr, Ligia Maria [Hospital de Cancer de Barretos, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto, E-mail: julimiziara@ig.com.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade da Sao Paulo, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Objectives: The proper nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer is important for choosing the best treatment modality. Although computed tomography remains the first-line imaging test for the primary staging of lung cancer, its limitations for mediastinum nodal staging are well known. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in the nodal staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and to identify potential candidates for surgical treatment. Methods: Prospective data were collected for 41 patients from December 2006 to February 2009. The patients underwent chest computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography examinations with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi within a 30-day time period before surgery. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography was considered positive when there was focal uptake of sestamibi in the mediastinum, and computed tomography scan when there was lymph nodes larger than 10 mm in short axis. The results of single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography were correlated with pathology findings after surgery. Results: Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography correctly identified six out of 19 cases involving hilar lymph nodes and one out of seven cases involving nodal metastases in the mediastinum. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in the hilum assessment were 31.6%, 95.5%, 85.7%, and 61.8%, respectively. The same values for the mediastinum were 14.3%, 97.1%, 50%, and 84.6%, respectively. For the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes, chest tomography showed sensitivity values of 47.4% and 57.1%, specificity values of 95.5% and 91.2%, positive predictive values of 90% and 57.1% and negative

  18. Effect of interfractional shoulder motion on low neck nodal targets for patients treated using volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Casey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of interfractional shoulder motion on targets in the low neck for head and neck patients treated with volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT.Methods: Three patients with head and neck cancer were selected. All three required treatment to nodal regions in the low neck in addition to the primary tumor site. The patients were immobilized during simulation and treatment with a custom thermoplastic mask covering the head and shoulders. One VMAT plan was created for each patient utilizing two full 360° arcs and a second plan was created consisting of two superior VMAT arcs matched to an inferior static AP supraclavicular field. A CT-on-rails alignment verification was performed weekly during each patient’s treatment course. The weekly CT images were registered to the simulation CT and the target contours were deformed and applied to the weekly CT. The two VMAT plans were copied to the weekly CT datasets and recalculated to obtain the dose to the deformed low neck contours.Results: The average observed shoulder position shift in any single dimension relative to simulation was 2.5 mm. The maximum shoulder shift observed in a single dimension was 25.7 mm. Low neck target mean doses, normalized to simulation and averaged across all weekly recalculations were 0.996, 0.991, and 1.033 (Full VMAT plan and 0.986, 0.995, and 0.990 (Half-Beam VMAT plan for the three patients, respectively. The maximum observed deviation in target mean dose for any individual weekly recalculation was 6.5%, occurring with the Full VMAT plan for Patient 3.Conclusion: Interfractional variation in dose to low neck nodal regions was quantified for three head and neck patients treated with VMAT. Mean dose was 3.3% higher than planned for one patient using a Full VMAT plan. A Half-Beam technique is likely a safer choice when treating the supraclavicular region with VMAT.-------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Casey K

  19. Status of the Regional Nodal Basin Remains Highly Prognostic in Melanoma Patients with In-Transit Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alexandra B; Jakub, James W; Harmsen, William S; Suman, Vera J; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2016-07-01

    The role of SLNB for in-transit (IT) melanoma is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the rate and prognostic significance of occult nodal disease in patients undergoing surgical nodal staging for IT disease. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with IT melanoma from May 2005 through September 2014. Analysis was limited to patients with a first-time IT event who underwent surgical excision. Associations between clinicopathologic characteristics, patterns of recurrence, and survival were analyzed. A total of 261 patients treated at our center were identified and 157 met inclusion criteria, of which 135 (86%) presented with no evidence of nodal disease. At the time of surgical excision of the IT lesion, 80 (58%) clinically node-negative patients underwent observation of the nodal basin and 55 (41%) surgical nodal staging. Twenty (36%) clinically node-negative but surgically staged patients were found to have nodal disease. Distant metastasis-free survival was 70.8 months for surgically staged node-negative patients, 19.2 months for surgically staged node-positive patients, 22.8 months for those staged node-negative by clinical examination only and 4.8 months for those with clinical nodal disease (p = 0.01). The regional nodal basin was the first site of failure in 14 of 66 (21%) clinically staged patients, 5 of 50 (10%) for those surgically staged, and 6 of 16 (38%) for those with clinical nodal disease. Patients with IT disease are at high risk for occult nodal metastasis. Because clinical staging is unreliable, SLNB should be considered. For patients with IT recurrence, the status of the regional basin is strongly prognostic and stratifies patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  1. File list: NoD.ALL.05.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: NoD.ALL.20.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. MicroRNA expression in nodal and extranodal Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Højfeldt, Anne Dirks

    of the manifestations, and no way to predict the potential progression from nodal to extranodal disease. miRNA are small regulatory RNA molecules with core function to repress/cleave sequence complementary mRNA targets. Abnormalities in miRNA genetics and expression are known to affect initiation and development...

  7. A difference-equation formalism for the nodal domains of separable billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunath, Naren; Samajdar, Rhine [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Jain, Sudhir R., E-mail: srjain@barc.gov.in [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Recently, the nodal domain counts of planar, integrable billiards with Dirichlet boundary conditions were shown to satisfy certain difference equations in Samajdar and Jain (2014). The exact solutions of these equations give the number of domains explicitly. For complete generality, we demonstrate this novel formulation for three additional separable systems and thus extend the statement to all integrable billiards.

  8. Effects of plant growth regulators on in vitro cultured nodal explants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... Smith et al. (1986) and Konan et al. (1997) were the first to report success in the production of an average of 5 to 6 shoots per bud from in vitro culture of ... also succeeded in in vitro nodal culture of cassava. (Konan et al., 2006; Medina et al., 2006; Escobar et al.,. 2009). Despite these reported successes, ...

  9. The Apelin receptor enhances Nodal/TGF beta signaling to ensure proper cardiac development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshwar, Ashish R.; Chng, Serene C.; Ho, Lena; Reversade, Bruno; Scott, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    The Apelin receptor (Apinr) is essential for heart development, controlling the early migration of cardiac progenitors. Here we demonstrate that in zebrafish Apinr modulates Nodal/TGF beta signaling, a key pathway essential for mesendoderm induction and migration. Loss of Apinr function leads to a

  10. Transport evidence of 3D topological nodal-line semimetal phase in ZrSiS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junran; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Jinglei; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Minhao; Niu, Wei; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Yongbing

    2018-02-01

    Topological nodal-line semimetal is a new emerging material, which is viewed as a three-dimensional (3D) analog of graphene with the conduction and valence bands crossing at Dirac nodes, resulting in a range of exotic transport properties. Herein, we report on the direct quantum transport evidence of the 3D topological nodal-line semimetal phase of ZrSiS with angular-dependent magnetoresistance (MR) and the combined de Hass-van Alphen (dHvA) and Shubnikov-de Hass (SdH) oscillations. Through fitting by a two-band model, the MR results demonstrate high topological nodal-line fermion densities of approximately 6 × 1021 cm-3 and a perfect electron/hole compensation ratio of 0.94, which is consistent with the semi-classical expression fitting of Hall conductance G xy and the theoretical calculation. Both the SdH and dHvA oscillations provide clear evidence of 3D topological nodal-line semimetal characteristic.

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  13. Photoacoustic intra-operative nodal staging using clinically approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, Diederik; Fratila, R.M.; Visscher, M.; ten Haken, Bernard; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of tumor metastases in the lymphatic system is essential for accurate staging of various malignancies, however fast, accurate and cost-effective intra-operative evaluation of the nodal status remains difficult to perform with common available medical imaging techniques. In recent years,

  14. Photoacoustic intra-operative nodal staging using clinically approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Fratila, Raluca M.; Visscher, Martijn; Ten Haken, Bennie; van Wezel, Richard; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2013-02-01

    Detection of tumor metastases in the lymphatic system is essential for accurate staging of various malignancies, however fast, accurate and cost-effective intra-operative evaluation of the nodal status remains difficult to perform with common available medical imaging techniques. In recent years, numerous studies have confirmed the additional value of superparamagnetic iron oxide dispersions (SPIOs) for nodal staging purposes, prompting the clearance of different SPIO dispersions for clinical practice. We evaluate whether a combination of photoacoustic (PA) imaging and a clinically approved SPIO dispersion, could be applied for intra-operative nodal staging. Metastatic adenocarcinoma was inoculated in Copenhagen rats for 5 or 8 days. After SPIO injection, the lymph nodes were photoacoustically imaged both in vivo and ex vivo whereafter imaging results were correlated with MR and histology. Results were compared to a control group without tumor inoculation. In the tumor groups clear irregularities, as small as 1 mm, were observed in the PA contrast pattern of the nodes together with an decrease of PA response. These irregularities could be correlated to the absence of contrast in the MR images and could be linked to metastatic deposits seen in the histological slides. The PA and MR images of the control animals did not show these features. We conclude that the combination of photoacoustic imaging with a clinically approved iron oxide nanoparticle dispersion is able to detect lymph node metastases in an animal model. This approach opens up new possibilities for fast intra-operative nodal staging in a clinical setting.

  15. Ultrasonography or palpation for detection of melanoma nodal invasion: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafounta, Marie-Lise; Beauchet, Alain; Chagnon, Sophie; Saiag, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    Because treatment of distant melanoma metastases is not very effective, nodal spread should be diagnosed early so that therapeutic lymphadenectomy can be started as early as possible. Physical examination alone often does not detect nodal metastases and palpable nodes cannot be clasified unambiguously. Whether lymph-node ultrasonography-an inexpensive procedure-improves detection of nodal invasion during the initial staging and follow-up of patients with melanoma is controversial. We used meta-analysis techniques for diagnostic tests to assess the merit of ultrasonography and palpation in detection of nodal invasion in patients with melanoma. Five databases were screened until December, 2003. 12 studies, including 6642 patients and 18?610 paired palpation and ultrasound examinations, were eligible. The main limitations were variations in the definition of false negatives, and verification bias. Ultrasonography had a higher discriminatory power (odds ratio 1755; 95% CI 726-4238) than did palpation (21 [4-111]; p=0.0001). Furthermore, positive-likelihood ratios were 41.9 (95% CI 29-75) for ultrasonography and 4.55 (2-18) for palpation; negative-likelihood ratios were 0.024 (0.01-0.03) and 0.22 (0.06-0.31), respectively. Our results showed clearly that ultrasonography detects lymph-node invasion more accurately than palpation, and should therefore probably be used routinely in patients with melanoma.

  16. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  17. Bifurcation from infinity and nodal solutions of quasilinear elliptic differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian-Xia Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we establish a unilateral global bifurcation theorem from infinity for a class of $N$-dimensional p-Laplacian problems. As an application, we study the global behavior of the components of nodal solutions of the problem $$\\displaylines{ \\operatorname{div}(\\varphi_p(\

  18. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine expression in metastatic melanoma versus nodal nevus in sentinel lymph node biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan J; Granter, Scott R; Laga, Alvaro C; Saavedra, Arturo P; Zhan, Qian; Guo, Weimin; Xu, Shuyun; Murphy, George F; Lian, Christine G

    2015-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsies are conducted to stage patients with newly diagnosed melanomas that have histopathological attributes conferring defined levels of metastatic potential. Because benign nevic cells may also form 'deposits' in lymph nodes (nodal nevus), the pathological evaluation for metastatic melanoma within sentinel lymph nodes can be challenging. Twenty-eight sentinel lymph node biopsy cases containing either metastatic melanoma (N=18) or nodal nevi (N=10) were retrieved from the archives of the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Pathology (2011-2014). In addition, two sentinel lymph node cases that were favored to represent metastatic disease but whose histopathological features were viewed as equivocal, with melanoma favored, were also included. Dual labeling for the melanocyte lineage marker, MART-1, and the epigenetic marker, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a functionally significant indicator that has been shown to distinguish benign nevi from melanoma, was performed on all cases using immunohistochemistry and/or direct immunofluorescence. All (18 of 18) metastatic melanoma cases showed complete loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine nuclear staining in MART-1-positive cells, and all (10 of 10) nodal nevus cases demonstrated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine nuclear staining in MART-1-positive cells. In addition, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine staining confirmed the favored diagnoses of metastatic melanoma in the two 'equivocal' cases. Thus, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine may be a useful adjunctive marker to distinguish between benign nodal nevi and metastatic melanoma during the evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsies for metastatic melanoma.

  19. Activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of human embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Randall, Shan M; Collier, Timothy S; Nero, Anthony; Russell, Teal A; Muddiman, David C; Rao, Balaji M

    2015-04-03

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been routinely treated with bone morphogenetic protein and/or inhibitors of activin/nodal signaling to obtain cells that express trophoblast markers. Trophoblasts can terminally differentiate to either extravillous trophoblasts or syncytiotrophoblasts. The signaling pathways that govern the terminal fate of these trophoblasts are not understood. We show that activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of these hESC-derived trophoblasts. Inhibition of activin/nodal signaling leads to formation of extravillous trophoblast, whereas loss of activin/nodal inhibition leads to the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts. Also, the ability of hESCs to form bona fide trophoblasts has been intensely debated. We have examined hESC-derived trophoblasts in the light of stringent criteria that were proposed recently, such as hypomethylation of the ELF5-2b promoter region and down-regulation of HLA class I antigens. We report that trophoblasts that possess these properties can indeed be obtained from hESCs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Activin/Nodal Signaling Switches the Terminal Fate of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Trophoblasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Randall, Shan M.; Collier, Timothy S.; Nero, Anthony; Russell, Teal A.; Muddiman, David C.; Rao, Balaji M.

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been routinely treated with bone morphogenetic protein and/or inhibitors of activin/nodal signaling to obtain cells that express trophoblast markers. Trophoblasts can terminally differentiate to either extravillous trophoblasts or syncytiotrophoblasts. The signaling pathways that govern the terminal fate of these trophoblasts are not understood. We show that activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of these hESC-derived trophoblasts. Inhibition of activin/nodal signaling leads to formation of extravillous trophoblast, whereas loss of activin/nodal inhibition leads to the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts. Also, the ability of hESCs to form bona fide trophoblasts has been intensely debated. We have examined hESC-derived trophoblasts in the light of stringent criteria that were proposed recently, such as hypomethylation of the ELF5-2b promoter region and down-regulation of HLA class I antigens. We report that trophoblasts that possess these properties can indeed be obtained from hESCs. PMID:25670856

  1. Vector bundles with a fixed determinant on an irreducible nodal curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sheaves with a fixed determinant in the moduli space of torsion-free sheaves on Y. The relation to Seshadri–Nagaraj conjecture is studied. Keywords. Nodal curves; torsion-free sheaves; fixed determinant. 1. Introduction. Generalized parabolic vector bundles (GPBs) on a smooth curve X are vector bundles on. X together ...

  2. Vector bundles with a fixed determinant on an irreducible nodal curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the correspondence between GPBs on and torsion-free sheaves on a nodal curve of which is a desingularization, we show that M L ¯ can be regarded as the compactified moduli scheme of vector bundles on with fixed determinant. We get a natural scheme structure on the closure of the subset consisting of ...

  3. Photoacoustic Nodal Metastases detection in a rat model using a clinical superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, Diederik; Fratila, R.M.; Visscher, M.; ten Haken, Bernard; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detection of tumor metastases in the lymphatic system is essential for accurate staging of different malignancies, however fast and accurate pre- or intra-operative evaluation of the nodal status remains difficult to perform with common available medical imaging techniques. In recent

  4. Solution of the transport equation in stationary state and X Y geometry, using continuous and discontinuous hybrid nodal schemes; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte en estado estacionario y geometria X Y, usando esquemas nodales hibridos continuos y discontinuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, V.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: xvicente@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    In this work it is described the development and the application of the NH-FEM schemes, Hybrid Nodal schemes using the Finite Element method in the solution of the neutron transport equation in stationary state and X Y geometry, of which two families of schemes were developed, one of which corresponds to the continuous and the other to the discontinuous ones, inside those first its are had the Bi-Quadratic Bi Q, and to the Bi-cubic BiC, while for the seconds the Discontinuous Bi-lineal DBiL and the Discontinuous Bi-quadratic DBiQ. These schemes were implemented in a program to which was denominated TNHXY, Transport of neutrons with Hybrid Nodal schemes in X Y geometry. One of the immediate applications of the schemes NH-FEM it will be in the analysis of assemblies of nuclear fuel, particularly of the BWR type. The validation of the TNHXY program was made with two test problems or benchmark, already solved by other authors with numerical techniques and to compare results. The first of them consists in an it BWR fuel assemble in an arrangement 7x7 without rod and with control rod providing numerical results. The second is a fuel assemble of mixed oxides (MOX) in an arrangement 10x10. This last problem it is known as the Benchmark problem WPPR of the NEA Data Bank and the results are compared with those of other commercial codes as HELIOS, MCNP-4B and CPM-3. (Author)

  5. A novel method for fast and robust estimation of fluorescence decay dynamics using constrained least-squares deconvolution with Laguerre expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Qi, Jinyi; Marcu, Laura

    2012-02-21

    We report a novel method for estimating fluorescence impulse response function (fIRF) from noise-corrupted time-domain fluorescence measurements of biological tissue. This method is based on the use of high-order Laguerre basis functions and a constrained least-squares approach that addresses the problem of overfitting due to increased model complexity. The new method was extensively evaluated on fluorescence data from simulation, fluorescent standard dyes, ex vivo tissue samples of atherosclerotic plaques and in vivo oral carcinoma. Current results demonstrate that this method allows for rapid and accurate deconvolution of multiple channel fluorescence decays without adaptively adjusting the Laguerre scale parameter. The appropriate choice of the scale parameter is essential for accurate estimation of the fIRF. The method described here is anticipated to play an important role in the development of computational techniques for real-time analysis of time-resolved fluorescence data from biological tissues and to support the advancement of fluorescence lifetime instrumentation for biomedical diagnostics by providing a means for on-line robust analysis of fluorescence decay.

  6. SLN melanoma micrometastasis predictivity of nodal status: a long term retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliano, Emilia; Bellei, Barbara; Govoni, Flavio Andrea; Paolino, Giovanni; Catricalà, Caterina; Bucher, Stefania; Donati, Pietro

    2013-08-01

    Completion lymph node dissection (CLND) is the gold standard treatment for patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. Considering the morbidity associated with CLND it is important to identify histological features of the primary tumor and/or of SLN metastasis that could help to spare from CLND a subset of patients who have a very low risk of non-SLN metastasis. The objective of this study is to identify patients with a very low risk to develop non-SLNs recurrences and to limit unnecessary CLND. A retrospective long-term study of 80 melanoma patients with positive SLN, undergone CLND, was assessed to define the risk of additional metastasis in the regional nodal basin, on the basis of intranodal distribution of metastatic cells, using the micro-morphometric analysis (Starz classification). This study demonstrates that among the demographic and pathologic features of primary melanoma and of SLN only the Starz classification shows prognostic significance for non-SLN status (p<0.0001). This parameter was also significantly associated with disease-free survival rate (p<0.0013). The Starz classification can help to identify, among SLN positive patients, those who can have a real benefit from CLND. From the clinical point of view this easy and reliable method could lead to a significant reduction of unnecessary CLND in association with a substantial decrease in morbidity. The study results indicate that most of S1 subgroup patients might be safely spared from completion lymphatic node dissection. Furthermore, our experience demonstrated that Starz classification of SLN is a safe predictive index for patient stratification and treatment planning.

  7. Oral-aboral axis specification in the sea urchin embryo, IV: hypoxia radializes embryos by preventing the initial spatialization of nodal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, James A; Wessels, Abigail; DeSchiffart, Carolyn; Rydlizky, Katarina

    2014-02-15

    The oral-aboral axis of the sea urchin embryo is specified conditionally via a regulated feedback circuit involving the signaling gene nodal and its antagonist lefty. In normal development nodal activity becomes localized to the prospective oral side of the blastula stage embryo, a process that requires lefty. In embryos of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a redox gradient established by asymmetrically distributed mitochondria provides an initial spatial input that positions the localized domain of nodal expression. This expression is perturbed by hypoxia, leading to development of radialized embryos lacking an oral-aboral axis. Here we show that this radialization is not caused by a failure to express nodal, but rather by a failure to localize nodal activity to one side of the embryo. This occurs even when embryos are removed from hypoxia at late cleavage stage when nodal is first expressed, indicating that the effect involves the initiation phase of nodal activity, rather than its positive feedback-driven amplification and maintenance. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy of MitoTracker Orange-labeled embryos expressing nodal-GFP reporter gene revealed that hypoxia abolishes the spatial correlation between mitochondrial distribution and nodal expression, suggesting that hypoxia eliminates the initial spatial bias in nodal activity normally established by the redox gradient. We propose that absent this bias, the initiation phase of nodal expression is spatially uniform, such that the ensuing Nodal-mediated community effect is not localized, and hence refractory to Lefty-mediated enforcement of localization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiotherapy for esthesioneuroblastoma: is elective nodal irradiation warranted in the multimodality treatment approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, O Kyu; Lee, Sang-wook; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Sung Bae; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Chang Jin; Jo, Kyung Ja; Choi, Eun Kyung; Song, Si Yeol; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do

    2011-02-01

    The role of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in radiotherapy for esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) has not been clearly defined. We analyzed treatment outcomes of patients with ENB and the frequency of cervical nodal failure in the absence of ENI. Between August 1996 and December 2007, we consulted with 19 patients with ENB regarding radiotherapy. Initial treatment consisted of surgery alone in 2 patients; surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in 4; surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy in 1; surgery, postoperative radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in 3; and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy in 5. Five patients did not receive planned radiotherapy because of disease progression. Including 2 patients who received salvage radiotherapy, 14 patients were treated with radiotherapy. Elective nodal irradiation was performed in 4 patients with high-risk factors, including 3 with cervical lymph node metastasis at presentation. Fourteen patients were analyzable, with a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 7-64 months). The overall 3-year survival rate was 73.4%. Local failure occurred in 3 patients (21.4%), regional cervical failure in 3 (21.4%), and distant failure in 2 (14.3%). No cervical nodal failure occurred in patients treated with combined systemic chemotherapy regardless of ENI. Three cervical failures occurred in the 4 patients treated with ENI or neck dissection (75%), none of whom received systemic chemotherapy. ENI during radiotherapy for ENB seems to play a limited role in preventing cervical nodal failure. Omitting ENI may be an option if patients are treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical nodal staging scores for prostate cancer: a proposal for preoperative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, L A; Abdollah, F; Xylinas, E; Rieken, M; Fajkovic, H; Seitz, C; Sun, M; Karakiewicz, P I; Schramek, P; Herman, M P; Becker, A; Hansen, J; Ehdaie, B; Loidl, W; Pummer, K; Lee, R K; Lotan, Y; Scherr, D S; Seiler, D; Ahyai, S A; Chun, F K-H; Graefen, M; Tewari, A; Nonis, A; Bachmann, A; Montorsi, F; Gönen, M; Briganti, A; Shariat, S F

    2014-07-15

    Pelvic lymph node dissection in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer is not without morbidity and its therapeutical benefit is still a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to develop a model that allows preoperative determination of the minimum number of lymph nodes needed to be removed at radical prostatectomy to ensure true nodal status. We analysed data from 4770 patients treated with radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection between 2000 and 2011 from eight academic centres. For external validation of our model, we used data from a cohort of 3595 patients who underwent an anatomically defined extended pelvic lymph node dissection. We estimated the sensitivity of pathological nodal staging using a beta-binomial model and developed a novel clinical (preoperative) nodal staging score (cNSS), which represents the probability that a patient has lymph node metastasis as a function of the number of examined nodes. In the development and validation cohorts, the probability of missing a positive lymph node decreases with increase in the number of nodes examined. A 90% cNSS can be achieved in the development and validation cohorts by examining 1-6 nodes in cT1 and 6-8 nodes in cT2 tumours. With 11 nodes examined, patients in the development and validation cohorts achieved a cNSS of 90% and 80% with cT3 tumours, respectively. Pelvic lymph node dissection is the only reliable technique to ensure accurate nodal staging in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer. The minimum number of examined lymph nodes needed for accurate nodal staging may be predictable, being strongly dependent on prostate cancer characteristics at diagnosis.

  10. An approach to model reactor core nodalization for deterministic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Mohd Faiz, E-mail: mohdfaizs@tnb.com.my; Samsudin, Mohd Rafie, E-mail: rafies@tnb.com.my [Nuclear Energy Department, Regulatory Economics & Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia); Mamat Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal, E-mail: m-rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Prototypes & Plant Development Center, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia); Roslan, Ridha, E-mail: ridha@aelb.gov.my; Sadri, Abd Aziz [Nuclear Installation Divisions, Atomic Energy Licensing Board (Malaysia); Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd [Reactor Technology Center, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Adopting good nodalization strategy is essential to produce an accurate and high quality input model for Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) using System Thermal-Hydraulic (SYS-TH) computer code. The purpose of such analysis is to demonstrate the compliance against regulatory requirements and to verify the behavior of the reactor during normal and accident conditions as it was originally designed. Numerous studies in the past have been devoted to the development of the nodalization strategy for small research reactor (e.g. 250kW) up to the bigger research reactor (e.g. 30MW). As such, this paper aims to discuss the state-of-arts thermal hydraulics channel to be employed in the nodalization for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor specifically for the reactor core. At present, the required thermal-hydraulic parameters for reactor core, such as core geometrical data (length, coolant flow area, hydraulic diameters, and axial power profile) and material properties (including the UZrH{sub 1.6}, stainless steel clad, graphite reflector) have been collected, analyzed and consolidated in the Reference Database of RTP using standardized methodology, mainly derived from the available technical documentations. Based on the available information in the database, assumptions made on the nodalization approach and calculations performed will be discussed and presented. The development and identification of the thermal hydraulics channel for the reactor core will be implemented during the SYS-TH calculation using RELAP5-3D{sup ®} computer code. This activity presented in this paper is part of the development of overall nodalization description for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor under the IAEA Norwegian Extra-Budgetary Programme (NOKEBP) mentoring project on Expertise Development through the Analysis of Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics for Malaysia, denoted as EARTH-M.

  11. The impact of nodal tumour burden on lymphoscintigraphic imaging in patients with melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Lutz; Bertsch, Hans Peter; Bardzik, Pawel; Meller, Johannes; Hellriegel, Simin; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Schön, Michael Peter; Sahlmann, Carsten Oliver

    2015-02-01

    To retrospectively study the influence of nodal tumour burden on lymphoscintigraphic imaging in 509 consecutive patients with melanomas. Bidirectional lymphatic drainage, the clear depiction of an afferent lymphatic vessel, time to depiction of the first sentinel lymph node (SLN) and number of depicted and excised nodes were recorded. Nodal tumour load was classified as SLN-negative, SLN micrometastases or macrometastases. In the overall population, using multivariate regression analysis, a short SLN depiction time was significantly associated with the depiction of a greater number of radioactive nodes, a short distance between the primary tumour site and the nodal basin, younger age and lower nodal tumour burden. The proportion of patients with clear depiction of an afferent lymphatic vessel depended on the nodal tumour load (46% in SLN-negative patients, 57% in SLN positive patients, and 69% in patients with macrometastases; P = 0.009). Macrometastasis was significantly associated with delayed depiction of the first radioactive node and a greater number of depicted hotspots. In patients with clinically nonsuspicious nodes, i.e. the classical target group for SLN biopsy, clear depiction of an afferent vessel was significantly associated with a higher number of SLNs during dynamic acquisition, SLN micrometastasis and a higher overall number of metastatic lymph nodes after SLN biopsy plus completion lymphadenectomy. The excision of more than two SLNs did not increase the metastasis detection rate. In patients with bidirectional or tridirectional lymphatic drainage, the SLN positivity rates for the first, second and third basin were 25.4%, 11.7% and 0.0 %, respectively (P = 0.002). In patients with clinically nonsuspicious lymph nodes, clear depiction of an afferent lymph vessel may be a sign of micrometastasis. Macrometastasis is associated with prominent afferent vessels, delayed depiction of the first radioactive node and a higher number of depicted

  12. Pig epiblast stem cells depend on activin/nodal signaling for pluripotency and self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberio, Ramiro; Croxall, Nicola; Allegrucci, Cinzia

    2010-10-01

    Activin/Nodal signaling is required for maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal of mouse epiblast stem cells and human embryonic stem cells (hESC). In this study, we investigated whether this signaling mechanism is also operative in cultured epiblasts derived from Days 10.5-12 pig embryos. Pig epiblast stem cell lines (pEpiSC) were established on mouse feeder layers and medium supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). pEpiSC express the core pluripotency factors OCT4 (or POU5F1), NANOG, SOX2, and NODAL, but they do not express REX1 or alkaline phosphatase activity. Blocking leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)/JAK/STAT3 pathway by adding the specific JAK I inhibitor 420099 and an anti-LIF antibody over 3 passages did not affect pluripotency of pEpiSC. In contrast, cells grown with the Alk-5 inhibitor SB431542, which blocks Activin/Nodal pathway, differentiated readily toward the neural lineage. pEpiSC are pluripotent, as established by their differentiation potential to ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These cells can be induced to differentiate toward trophectoderm and to germ cell precursors in response to bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that pig epiblasts express the core pluripotency genes and that the capacity for maintaining self-renewal in pEpiSC depends on Activin/Nodal signaling. This study provides further evidence that maintenance of pluripotency via Activin/Nodal signal is conserved in mammals.

  13. The impact of nodal tumour burden on lymphoscintigraphic imaging in patients with melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, Lutz; Bertsch, Hans Peter; Hellriegel, Simin; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Schoen, Michael Peter [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Goettingen (Germany); Bardzik, Pawel; Meller, Johannes; Sahlmann, Carsten Oliver [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To retrospectively study the influence of nodal tumour burden on lymphoscintigraphic imaging in 509 consecutive patients with melanomas. Bidirectional lymphatic drainage, the clear depiction of an afferent lymphatic vessel, time to depiction of the first sentinel lymph node (SLN) and number of depicted and excised nodes were recorded. Nodal tumour load was classified as SLN-negative, SLN micrometastases or macrometastases. In the overall population, using multivariate regression analysis, a short SLN depiction time was significantly associated with the depiction of a greater number of radioactive nodes, a short distance between the primary tumour site and the nodal basin, younger age and lower nodal tumour burden. The proportion of patients with clear depiction of an afferent lymphatic vessel depended on the nodal tumour load (46 % in SLN-negative patients, 57 % in SLN positive patients, and 69 % in patients with macrometastases; P = 0.009). Macrometastasis was significantly associated with delayed depiction of the first radioactive node and a greater number of depicted hotspots. In patients with clinically nonsuspicious nodes, i.e. the classical target group for SLN biopsy, clear depiction of an afferent vessel was significantly associated with a higher number of SLNs during dynamic acquisition, SLN micrometastasis and a higher overall number of metastatic lymph nodes after SLN biopsy plus completion lymphadenectomy. The excision of more than two SLNs did not increase the metastasis detection rate. In patients with bidirectional or tridirectional lymphatic drainage, the SLN positivity rates for the first, second and third basin were 25.4 %, 11.7 % and 0.0 %, respectively (P = 0.002). In patients with clinically nonsuspicious lymph nodes, clear depiction of an afferent lymph vessel may be a sign of micrometastasis. Macrometastasis is associated with prominent afferent vessels, delayed depiction of the first radioactive node and a higher number of depicted hotspots

  14. Character expansion of matrix integrals

    OpenAIRE

    van de Leur, J. W.; Orlov, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We consider character expansion of tau functions and multiple integrals in characters of orhtogonal and symplectic groups. In particular we consider character expansions of integrals over orthogonal and over symplectic matrices.

  15. Relação entre a persistência da condução pela via lenta nodal após ablação de taquicardia por reentrada nodal e a recorrência clínica Persistence of AV conduction over the slow pathway after AVRNT radiofrequency ablation and its relation to the recurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio A. Silva

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a persistência de salto nodal relaciona-se à taxa de recorrência de taquicardia por reentrada nodal (TRN após ablação com radiofreqüência (RF da via lenta do nó atrioventricular. MÉTODOS: Num seguimento de 20±12 meses, foi analisada a recorrência de TRN em 126 pacientes consecutivos submetidos a ablação com RF da via lenta nodal. O critério de interrupção do procedimento foi a não reindução da TRN, após estimulação atrial programada, com e sem isoproterenol intravenoso. Ao final do procedimento, 98 pacientes não apresentavam salto nodal, e em 28 persistia o salto nodal e/ou o eco atrial. RESULTADOS: Houve recorrência clínica de TRN em 15 (11% pacientes: 9 no grupo sem salto nodal e/ou eco atrial e em 6 do grupo que persistiu com salto e/ou eco atrial. A recorrência tendeu a ser maior no 2º grupo (9% vs 21%, mas não houve significância estatística entre os resultados (p=0,09. CONCLUSÃO: Desde que a TRN não possa ser induzida após a infusão de isoproterenol, a recorrência espontânea da arritmia após a ablação por RF da via lenta nodal não é diferente entre pacientes que persistem ou não com salto nodal e/ou eco atrial.PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to verify whether the persistence of conduction over the slow pathway is related to an increased trend for recurrence. METHODS: Recurrence rate was retrospectively analyzed in 126 patients who underwent slow pathway radiofrequency (RF catheter ablation during a follow-up of 20±12 months. The ablative procedure was interrupted when AVNRT was no longer induced by atrial stimulation after intravenous infusion of isoproterenol. Ninety-eight patients had no evidence of slow pathway whereas 28 patients persisted with AV node jump and atrial echo beat. RESULTS: There were 15 recurrences: 9% of those who had no evidence of slow pathway (9 of 98 patients and 21% of those with AV node jump and/or atrial echo beat but this difference was not

  16. Large J expansion in ABJM theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, H; Mladenov, S; Rashkov, R C

    Recently there has been progress in the computation of the anomalous dimensions of gauge theory operators at strong coupling by making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence. On the string theory side they are given by dispersion relations in the semiclassical regime. We revisit the problem of a large-charge expansion of the dispersion relations for simple semiclassical strings in an [Formula: see text] background. We present the calculation of the corresponding anomalous dimensions of the gauge theory operators to an arbitrary order using three different methods. Although the results of the three methods look different, power series expansions show their consistency.

  17. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  18. Prediction of ground-state structures and order-disorder phase transitions in II-III spinel oxides: A combined cluster-expansion method and first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Atsuto; Yuge, Koretaka; Oba, Fumiyasu; Kuwabara, Akihide; Tanaka, Isao

    2006-05-01

    Ground-state structures of six II-III spinel oxides are predicted by combining the cluster expansion method and first principles calculations. The ground states of MgGa2O4 and MgIn2O4 are found to be inverse spinels with a tetragonal lattice, whereas those of MgAl2O4 , ZnAl2O4 , ZnGa2O4 , and ZnIn2O4 are normal spinels with a cubic lattice. Order-disorder transition behaviors are examined using Monte Carlo simulations. The order-disorder transition to exchange octahedral and tetrahedral cations takes place as commonly accepted. In inverse spinels, a new kind of transition to exchange II and III cations in octahedral sites can be recognized, which has not been reported experimentally. Their transition temperatures are evaluated.

  19. Implementation of centrifuge testing of expansive soils for pavement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The novel centrifuge-based method for testing of expansive soils from project 5-6048-01 was implemented into : use for the determination of the Potential Vertical Rise (PVR) of roadways that sit on expansive subgrades. The : centrifuge method was mod...

  20. Nodal signaling is required for mesodermal and ventral but not for dorsal fates in the indirect developing hemichordate, Ptychodera flava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttinger, Eric; DuBuc, Timothy Q.; Amiel, Aldine R.; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nodal signaling plays crucial roles in vertebrate developmental processes such as endoderm and mesoderm formation, and axial patterning events along the anteroposterior, dorsoventral and left-right axes. In echinoderms, Nodal plays an essential role in the establishment of the dorsoventral axis and left-right asymmetry, but not in endoderm or mesoderm induction. In protostomes, Nodal signaling appears to be involved only in establishing left-right asymmetry. Hence, it is hypothesized that Nodal signaling has been co-opted to pattern the dorsoventral axis of deuterostomes and for endoderm, mesoderm formation as well as anteroposterior patterning in chordates. Hemichordata, together with echinoderms, represent the sister taxon to chordates. In this study, we analyze the role of Nodal signaling in the indirect developing hemichordate Ptychodera flava. In particular, we show that during gastrulation nodal transcripts are detected in a ring of cells at the vegetal pole that gives rise to endomesoderm and in the ventral ectoderm at later stages of development. Inhibition of Nodal function disrupts dorsoventral fates and also blocks formation of the larval mesoderm. Interestingly, molecular analysis reveals that only mesodermal, apical and ventral gene expression is affected while the dorsal side appears to be patterned correctly. Taken together, this study suggests that the co-option of Nodal signaling in mesoderm formation and potentially in anteroposterior patterning has occurred prior to the emergence of chordates and that Nodal signaling on the ventral side is uncoupled from BMP signaling on the dorsal side, representing a major difference from the molecular mechanisms of dorsoventral patterning events in echinoderms. PMID:25979707

  1. Spectral nodal methodology for multigroup slab-geometry discrete ordinates neutron transport problems with linearly anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Amaury M.; Filho, Hermes A.; Silva, Davi M.; Garcia, Carlos R., E-mail: aoliva@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional; Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a numerical methodology for the development of a method of the spectral nodal class that will generate numerical solutions free from spatial truncation errors. This method, denominated Spectral Deterministic Method (SDM), is tested as an initial study of the solutions (spectral analysis) of neutron transport equations in the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) formulation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, multigroup approximation, with linearly anisotropic scattering, considering homogeneous and heterogeneous domains with fixed source. The unknowns in the methodology are the cell-edge, and cell average angular fluxes, the numerical values calculated for these quantities coincide with the analytic solution of the equations. These numerical results are shown and compared with the traditional ne- mesh method Diamond Difference (DD) and the coarse-mesh method spectral Green's function (SGF) to illustrate the method's accuracy and stability. The solution algorithms problems are implemented in a computer simulator made in C++ language, the same that was used to generate the results of the reference work. (author)

  2. Uses and updating of the Benders method in the integer-mixed programming in the planning of the electric power systems expansion; Usos y actualizacion del metodo de Benders en la programacion entera-mixta y en la planeacion de la expansion de los sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre Vega, Eli

    1997-04-01

    In the first chapter the deduction of the Benders cuts are presented, departing from the properties of duality. Also the properties of the Benders cuts are presented, as well as the initial algorithm of Benders to solve any problem of lineal integer-mixed programming are presented. In the second chapter, of the planning of the expansion of means of generation and transmission in an electric power system is presented and the different structures of the mathematical programming it gives rise to and how the method of Benders can be adapted to these. In the third chapter the theoretical contributions of this work are presented: a) How to initialize the master problem to take advantage of the acquired experience after having solved a similar problem, so that it can be solved more efficiently, the succession of integer-mixed problems of linear programming that arise when solving the problem of the planning of the expansion of generation and transmission means in an electric power system. b) How to generate a master problem whose continuous optimal solution corresponds to the optimal continuous one of the integer-mixed problem, so that the search of integer solutions is made in the vicinity of the optimum continuous. c) How to generate an integer solution, close to the optimum continuous of the integer-mixed problem, that has high probability of being feasible, and that is perhaps the optimal integer solution, in a smaller time than that required to solve it in exact form. In addition, other ideas are presented that can be incorporated to the Benders method. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed ideas, in chapter 4 the results obtained when solving several problems are presented using: 1. The updated Benders method, 2. The branch and bound method, 3. The update of Benders when adding restrictions and 4. The update of Benders when considered as integer each time to more variables. Finally a summary is made of the achievements, of the conclusions obtained and

  3. Mapping of selected markets with Nodal pricing or similar systems. Australia, New Zealand and North American power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Vivi (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This report shows that the principals of nodal pricing can be implemented in different ways. A common denominator for markets with nodal pricing is a central market based nodal dispatch, where prices and flows are determined simultaneously close to real time. This stands apart from the European market design, which is based on a highly simplified version of the grid, and a physical point auction day ahead. Congestion management is handled by the TSO during the operational hour and not through the market as is the case in nodal pricing systems. Nodal pricing yields optimal dispatch and congestion management through the market, and as such an optimal utilisation of energy generation and network. However, whether this short term optimisation delivers the highest overall efficiency for the market in terms of competition in the wholesale and retail market, price discovery, possibilities for hedging, long term price signals etc. is difficult to determine. The markets investigated handle issues such as market power, risk management, investment signals and retail markets in very different ways. New Zealand and PJM are examples of markets with full nodal pricing, i.e. both generators and the demand side are exposed to nodal prices. The PJM market has more 'additional features' than the New Zealand market. Examples of these are separate capacity market to trigger investments in generation and generator price caps to deal with situations of market power. In addition PJM offers liquid and mature markets for risk management, such as aggregates of nodes where market participant can chose to be settled (rather than to be settled directly at the node). A general finding though, seems to be that risk management at peripheral nodes is challenging in nodal markets, particularly for independent retailers. In New Zealand generators and retailers were permitted to 'reintegrate' in order to cope with the nodal prices. The Australian market has central market based

  4. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children

    OpenAIRE

    Navya Ashok; N. K. Sapna Varma; Ajith, V. V.; Siby Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RME on sleep characteristics in children. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on children of 8-13 years of age before expansion (T0), after expansion (T1) and a...

  5. Expansion and contraction of finite states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, Allard

    2004-01-01

    We present a theory that copes with the dynamics of inconsistent information. A method is set forth to represent possibly inconsistent information by a *finite state*. Next, finite operations for expansion and contraction of finite states are given. No extra-logical element -- a choice function or

  6. Comparison of methods for modelling geomagnetically induced currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Boteler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the geomagnetic hazard to power systems requires reliable modelling of the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC produced in the power network. This paper compares the Nodal Admittance Matrix method with the Lehtinen–Pirjola method and shows them to be mathematically equivalent. GIC calculation using the Nodal Admittance Matrix method involves three steps: (1 using the voltage sources in the lines representing the induced geoelectric field to calculate equivalent current sources and summing these to obtain the nodal current sources, (2 performing the inversion of the admittance matrix and multiplying by the nodal current sources to obtain the nodal voltages, (3 using the nodal voltages to determine the currents in the lines and in the ground connections. In the Lehtinen–Pirjola method, steps 2 and 3 of the Nodal Admittance Matrix calculation are combined into one matrix expression. This involves inversion of a more complicated matrix but yields the currents to ground directly from the nodal current sources. To calculate GIC in multiple voltage levels of a power system, it is necessary to model the connections between voltage levels, not just the transmission lines and ground connections considered in traditional GIC modelling. Where GIC flow to ground through both the high-voltage and low-voltage windings of a transformer, they share a common path through the substation grounding resistance. This has been modelled previously by including non-zero, off-diagonal elements in the earthing impedance matrix of the Lehtinen–Pirjola method. However, this situation is more easily handled in both the Nodal Admittance Matrix method and the Lehtinen–Pirjola method by introducing a node at the neutral point.

  7. Traumatic Neuroma around the Celiac Trunk after Gastrectomy Mimicking a Nodal Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ryu, Seung Wan; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Traumatic neuroma is a well-known disorder that occurs after trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerve and develops from a nonneoplastic proliferation of the proximal end of a severed, partially transected, or injured nerve. However, in the abdomen, traumatic neuromas have been sporadically reported to occur in the bile duct. We present here a case of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk after gastrectomy that mimicks a nodal metastasis. In conclusion, the imaging finding of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk was a homogeneous hypovascular mass without narrowing or irregularity of encased arteries and without increased uptake on PET-CT. Although from a clinical standpoint, establishing an accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult to perform, the presence of a traumatic neuroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass around the celiac trunk in a patient that has undergone celiac nodal dissection.

  8. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Coexistent Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia and Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Pen Weng

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A healthy 15-year-old male patient presented with a 6-month history of recurrent attacks of palpitations. On multiple emergency room visits, a sustained wide QRS complex tachycardia with a right bundle branch block and northwest axis deviation was documented. The tachycardia was not terminated by intravenous adenosine, but was suppressed with intravenous verapamil. There was no evidence of structural heart disease, myocarditis, long QT syndrome, or electrolyte imbalance after a series of standard examinations. Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT was suspected. Electrophysiologic studies revealed 2 inducible tachycardias, which were shown to represent atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT and ILVT. Transformation from AVNRT to ILVT occurred spontaneously following atrial pacing. Successful ablation of ILVT and the slow atrioventricular nodal pathway resulted in cure of the double tachycardia.

  9. Probabilistic modeling of nodal electric vehicle load due to fast charging stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Difei; Wang, Peng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel dependence, Electric Vehicle (EV) has drawn increasing attention due to its zero emission and high efficiency. However, new problems such as range anxiety, long charging duration and high charging power may threaten the safe and efficient...... operation of both traffic and power systems. This paper proposes a probabilistic approach to model the nodal EV load at fast charging stations in integrated power and transport systems. Following the introduction of the spatial-temporal model of moving EV loads, we extended the model by taking fast charging......-temporal varying arrival and service rates. The time-varying nodal EV loads are obtained by the number of operating fast chargers at each node of the power system. System studies demonstrate that the combination of AC normal and DC charging may share the EV charging demand and alleviate the impact to power system...

  10. Engineering topological phases with a three-dimensional nodal-loop semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linhu; Yap, Han Hoe; Araújo, Miguel A. N.; Gong, Jiangbin

    2017-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) nodal-loop semimetal phase is exploited to engineer a number of intriguing phases featuring different peculiar topological surface states. In particular, by introducing various two-dimensional gap terms to a 3D tight-binding model of a nodal-loop semimetal, we obtain a rich variety of topological phases of great interest to ongoing theoretical and experimental studies, including a chiral insulator, degenerate-surface-loop insulator, and second-order topological insulator, as well as a Weyl semimetal with tunable Fermi arc profiles. The unique concept underlying our approach is to engineer topological surface states that inherit their dispersion relations from a gap term. The results provide one rather unified principle for the creation of novel topological phases and can guide the search for new topological materials. Two-terminal transport studies are also carried out to distinguish the engineered topological phases.

  11. File list: NoD.ALL.20.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.ALL.20.NA.AllCell sacCer3 No description NA All cell types SRX826027,ERX594029,...5827,ERX585840,ERX585843,ERX585818,ERX585821,ERX585788,ERX585769,SRX332069,ERX585857 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/NoD.ALL.20.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  12. The role of elective nodal irradiation for esthesioneuroblastoma patients with clinically negative neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Fuller, Clifton David; Kim, Betty Y S; Tang, Chad; Gunn, G Brandon; Hanna, Ehab Y; Frank, Steven J; Su, Shirley Y; Diaz, Eduardo; Kupferman, Michael E; Beadle, Beth M; Morrison, William H; Skinner, Heath; Lai, Stephen Y; El-Naggar, Adel K; DeMonte, Franco; Rosenthal, David I; Garden, Adam S; Phan, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Although adjuvant radiation to the tumor bed has been reported to improve the clinic outcomes of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) patients, the role of elective neck irradiation (ENI) in clinically node-negative (N0) patients remains controversial. Here, we evaluated the effects of ENI on neck nodal relapse risk in ENB patients treated with radiation therapy as a component of multimodality treatment. Seventy-one N0 ENB patients irradiated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1970 and 2013 were identified. ENI was performed on 22 of these patients (31%). Survival analysis was performed with focus on comparative outcomes of those patients who did and did not receive ENI. The median follow-up time for our cohort is 80.8 months (range, 6-350 months). Among N0 patients, 13 (18.3%) developed neck nodal relapses, with a median time to progression of 62.5 months. None of these 13 patients received prophylactic neck irradiation. ENI was associated with significantly improved regional nodal control at 5 years (regional control rate of 100% for ENI vs 82%, P ENI developed isolated neck recurrences. All had further treatment for their neck disease, including neck dissection (n = 10), radiation (n = 10), or chemotherapy (n = 5). Six of these 11 patients (54.5%) demonstrated no evidence of further recurrence with a median follow-up of 55.5 months. ENI significantly reduces the risk of cervical nodal recurrence in ENB patients with clinically N0 neck, but this did not translate to a survival benefit. Multimodality treatment for isolated neck recurrence provides a reasonable salvage rate. The greatest benefit for ENI appeared to be among younger patients who presented with Kadish C disease. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High critical temperature nodal superconductors as building block for time-reversal invariant topological superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Trani, Fabio; Campagnano, Gabriele; Tagliacozzo, Arturo; Lucignano, Procolo

    2016-01-01

    We study possible applications of high critical temperature nodal superconductors for the search for Majorana bound states in the DIII class. We propose a microscopic analysis of the proximity effect induced by d-wave superconductors on a semiconductor wire with strong spin-orbit coupling. We characterize the induced superconductivity on the wire employing a numerical self-consistent tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, and analytical considerations on the Green's function. The order ...

  14. Molecular characterization and patient outcome of melanoma nodal metastases and an unknown primary site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gos, Aleksandra; Jurkowska, Monika; van Akkooi, Alexander; Robert, Caroline; Kosela-Paterczyk, Hanna; Koljenović, Senada; Kamsukom, Nyam; Michej, Wanda; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Pluta, Piotr; Verhoef, Cornelis; Siedlecki, Janusz A; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma of unknown primary site (MUP) is not a completely understood entity with nodal metastases as the most common first clinical manifestation. The aim of this multicentric study was to assess frequency and type of oncogenic BRAF/NRAS/KIT mutations in MUP with clinically detected nodal metastases in relation to clinicopathologic features and outcome. We analyzed series of 103 MUP patients (period: 1992-2010) after therapeutic lymphadenectomy (LND): 40 axillary, 47 groin, 16 cervical, none treated with BRAF inhibitors. We performed molecular characterization of BRAF/NRAS/KIT mutational status in nodal metastases using direct sequencing of respective coding sequences. Median follow-up time was 53 months. BRAF mutations were detected in 55 cases (53 %) (51 V600E, 93 %; 4 others, 7 %), and mutually exclusive NRAS mutations were found in 14 cases (14 %) (7 p.Q61R, 4 p.Q61K, 2 p.Q61H, 1 p.Q13R). We have not detected any mutations in KIT. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 34 %; median was 24 months. We have not found significant correlation between mutational status (BRAF/NRAS) and OS; however, for BRAF or NRAS mutated melanomas we observed significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) when compared with wild-type melanoma patients (p = .04; 5-year DFS, 18 vs 19 vs 31 %, respectively). The most important factor influencing OS was number of metastatic lymph nodes >1 (p = .03). Our large study on molecular characterization of MUP with nodal metastases showed that MUPs had molecular features similar to sporadic non-chronic-sun-damaged melanomas. BRAF/NRAS mutational status had negative impact on DFS in this group of patients. These observations might have potential implication for molecular-targeted therapy in MUPs.

  15. Elective nodal irradiation is not necessary in chemoradiotherapy for postoperative loco-regional recurrent esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingu, Keiichi; Umezawa, Rei; Yamamoto, Takaya; Matsushita, Haruo; Ishikawa, Youjirou; Kozumi, Maiko; Kubozono, Masaki; Takahashi, Noriyoshi; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Takeda, Ken

    2017-03-01

    The purposes of the present study were to evaluate prognostic factors for patients with postoperative loco-regional recurrent esophageal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy by multivariate analysis and to determine which irradiation is better, involved field irradiation or elective nodal irradiation, by matched-pair analysis. We reviewed records for 80 patients with postoperative loco-regional recurrent esophageal cancer treated by chemoradiotherapy between 2000 and 2014. The median follow-up period was 62.0 months. Thirty-one cases were treated with elective nodal irradiation and were randomly matched by risk factors to 49 cases treated with involved field irradiation (1:1). Fifty-one patients had disease recurrence again, and irradiated-field failure was observed in 26 patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 30.5% with a median survival period of 26.5 months. Grade 3 or higher late toxicity was observed in only one patient. In multivariate analysis, short disease-free interval and anastomotic recurrence were statistically significant unfavorable prognostic factors for overall survival (hazard ratios: 2.1 and 2.5, respectively). Matched-pair analysis including disease-free interval, pattern of recurrence and number of recurrent regions revealed that overall survival rate and irradiated-field control rate in patients treated with involved field irradiation were significantly better than those in patients treated with elective nodal irradiation (P = 0.016 and P = 0.014, respectively). Short disease-free interval and anastomotic recurrence are unfavorable factors and elective nodal irradiation is not necessary in chemoradiotherapy for patients with postoperative loco-regional recurrent esophageal cancer.

  16. [Inhibition of the sodium inactivation of the nodal membrane by anemonia sulcata toxin II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, C; Dubois, J M; Rojas, E; Rathmayer, W

    1976-05-31

    A neurotoxin (ATX-II) extracted from the tentacles of Anemonia sulcata has been found to interact with the sodium channel of the nodal membrane in myelinated nerve fibres from Rana esculenta. If externally applied at low concentration (Kd = 20 muM), it reduces considerably the rate of inactivation of the sodium conductance without affecting the activation. At such concentrations, the potassium conductance is not affected. If internally applied ATX-II does not affect the membrane conductance.

  17. Disrupted nodal and hub organization account for brain network abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Koshimori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the healthy control and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with healthy controls, including the right pre-supplementary motor area, left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e. right pre-supplementary motor area and right mid-insula displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

  18. Effect of antibiotics selection on survival rate of nodal explant and gene transformation in Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of hygromycin antibiotic supplemented in modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS on the survival rate of nodal explant of Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate were determined.The use of hygromycin at 50 mg/l caused absolute death of nodal tissue after 4 weeks of culture. Dipping nodal explant with agrobacterium, EHA 105 containing pCAMBIA1301 for 15 min followed by co-cultureon filter paper laid on MMS with 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA, 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ and 200 mg/l cefotaxime for 2 days then transferring the explant to culture on MMS supplemented with the abovephytohormones and 50 mg/l hygromycin resulted in the highest survival rate at 26.6% with 4 shoots/callus. Histochemical analysis of gus activity was found in callus after 6 weeks of nodal culture and in leaf fromshoot derived from the callus.

  19. Effects of beta-blockade on atrial and atrioventricular nodal refractoriness, and atrial fibrillatory rate during atrial fibrillation in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, MP; van de Ven, LLM; Witting, W; Crijns, JGM; Haaksma, J; Bel, KJ; de Langen, CDJ; Lie, KI

    1997-01-01

    Despite their widespread use in atrial fibrillation, the effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockers on atrial and atrioventricular (AV) nodal refractoriness, and atrial fibrillatory rate during atrial fibrillation have been incompletely characterised. In particular, it is unknown whether additional

  20. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E; Gardi, Einan; Grunberg, Georges

    2001-01-01

    The large-order behaviour of QCD is dominated by renormalons. On the other hand renormalons do not occur in conformal theories, such as the one describing the infrared fixed-point of QCD at small beta_0 (the Banks--Zaks limit). Since the fixed-point has a perturbative realization, all-order perturbative relations exist between the conformal coefficients, which are renormalon-free, and the standard perturbative coefficients, which contain renormalons. Therefore, an explicit cancellation of renormalons should occur in these relations. The absence of renormalons in the conformal limit can thus be seen as a constraint on the structure of the QCD perturbative expansion. We show that the conformal constraint is non-trivial: a generic model for the large-order behaviour violates it. We also analyse a specific example, based on a renormalon-type integral over the two-loop running-coupling, where the required cancellation does occur.

  1. Theoretical and experimental evidence for a nodal energy gap in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agassi, Y. Dan; Oates, Daniel E.

    2017-11-01

    We present a phenomenological model that strongly suggests that the smaller of the two energy gaps in MgB2, the so-called π gap, contains nodal lines with a six-fold symmetry (i-wave). The model also indicates that the larger gap, the so-called σ gap, is conventional s-wave. The model is an extension of the BCS gap equation that accounts for the elastic anisotropy in MgB2 and the Coulomb repulsion. It is based on a phononic pairing mechanism and assumes no coupling between the two energy gaps in MgB2 at zero temperature. All of the parameters of the model, such as sound velocities and masses, are independently determined material constants. The results agree with a previous ad-hoc hypothesis that the π energy gap has six nodal lines. That hypothesis was motivated by low-temperature measurements of the surface impedance and intermodulation distortion in high-quality thin films. We briefly review experimental evidence in the literature that is relevant to the energy-gap symmetry. We find that the evidence from the literature for s-wave is inconclusive. Our finding is that the π gap has six nodal lines.

  2. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozawa, Masakatsu; Nihei, Keiji; Ishikura, Satoshi; Minashi, Keiko; Yano, Tomonori; Muto, Manabu; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ogino, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    There are some reports indicating that prophylactic three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal cancer can lead to improved survival. But the benefit of ENI in CRT for thoracic esophageal cancer remains controversial. The purpose of the present study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for thoracic esophageal cancer. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thoracic esophagus newly diagnosed between February 1999 and April 2001 in our institution was recruited from our database. Definitive chemoradiotherapy consisted of two cycles of cisplatin/5FU repeated every 5 weeks, with concurrent radiation therapy of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Up to 40 Gy radiation therapy was delivered to the cervical, periesophageal, mediastinal and perigastric lymph nodes as ENI. One hundred two patients were included in this analysis, and their characteristics were as follows: median age, 65 years; male/female, 85/17; T1/T2/T3/T4, 16/11/61/14; N0/N1, 48/54; M0/M1, 84/18. The median follow-up period for the surviving patients was 41 months. Sixty patients achieved complete response (CR). After achieving CR, only one (1.0%; 95% CI, 0-5.3%) patient experienced elective nodal failure without any other site of recurrence. In CRT for esophageal SCC, ENI is effective for preventing regional nodal failure. Further evaluation of whether ENI leads to an improved overall survival is needed.

  3. Disappearance of nodal gap across the insulator-superconductor transition in a copper-oxide superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingying; Meng, Jianqiao; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Yue; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; He, Shaolong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Peng, Qinjun; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shenjin; Yang, Feng; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Lee, T K; Zhou, X J

    2013-01-01

    The parent compound of the copper-oxide high-temperature superconductors is a Mott insulator. Superconductivity is realized by doping an appropriate amount of charge carriers. How a Mott insulator transforms into a superconductor is crucial in understanding the unusual physical properties of high-temperature superconductors and the superconductivity mechanism. Here we report high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurement on heavily underdoped Bi₂Sr₂-xLaxCuO(₆+δ) system. The electronic structure of the lightly doped samples exhibit a number of characteristics: existence of an energy gap along the nodal direction, d-wave-like anisotropic energy gap along the underlying Fermi surface, and coexistence of a coherence peak and a broad hump in the photoemission spectra. Our results reveal a clear insulator-superconductor transition at a critical doping level of ~0.10 where the nodal energy gap approaches zero, the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order disappears, and superconductivity starts to emerge. These observations clearly signal a close connection between the nodal gap, antiferromagnetism and superconductivity.

  4. Observation of nodal line in non-symmorphic topological semimetal InBi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhitia Ekahana, Sandy; Wu, Shu-Chun; Jiang, Juan; Okawa, Kenjiro; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingam; Hwang, Chan-Cuk; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Sasagawa, Takao; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Liu, Zhongkai; Chen, Yulin

    2017-06-01

    Topological nodal semimetal (TNS), characterized by its touching conduction and valence bands, is a newly discovered state of quantum matter which exhibits various exotic physical phenomena. Recently, a new type of TNS called topological nodal line semimetal (TNLS) is predicted where its conduction and valence band form a degenerate one-dimension line which is further protected by its crystal symmetry. In this work, we systematically investigated the bulk and surface electronic structure of the non-symmorphic, TNLS in InBi (which is also a type II Dirac semimetal) with strong spin-orbit coupling by using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By tracking the crossing points of the bulk bands at the Brillouin zone boundary, we discovered the nodal-line feature along the {{k}}{z} direction, in agreement with the ab initio calculations and confirmed it to be a new compound in the TNLS family. Our discovery provides a new material platform for the study of these exotic topological quantum phases and paves the way for possible future applications.

  5. Identification of a proliferation signature related to survival in nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Marta; Dave, Sandeep S; Jaffe, Elaine S; Honrado, Emiliano; Milne, Roger; Alves, Javier; Rodríguez, Jose; Zajac, Magdalena; Benitez, Javier; Staudt, Louis M; Martinez-Delgado, Beatriz

    2007-08-01

    Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, suggesting the existence of molecular differences contributing to their histologic and clinical variability. Initial expression profiling studies of T-cell lymphomas have been inconclusive in yielding clinically relevant insights. We applied DNA microarrays to gain insight into the molecular signatures associated with prognosis. We analyzed the expression profiles of 35 nodal PTCLs (23 PTCLs unspecified and 12 angioimmunoblastic) using two different microarray platforms, the cDNA microarray developed at the Spanish National Cancer Centre and an oligonucleotide microarray. We identified five clusters of genes, the expression of which varied significantly among the samples. Genes in these clusters seemed to be functionally related to different cellular processes such as proliferation, inflammatory response, and T-cell or B-cell lineages. Regardless of the microarray platform used, overexpression of genes in the proliferation signature was associated significantly with shorter survival of patients. This proliferation signature included genes commonly associated with the cell cycle, such as CCNA, CCNB, TOP2A, and PCNA. Moreover the PTCL proliferation signature showed a statistically significant inverse correlation with clusters of the inflammatory response (P < .0001), as well as with the percentage of CD68(+) cells. Our findings indicate that proliferation could be an important factor in evaluating nodal PTCL outcome and may help to define a more aggressive phenotype.

  6. Permissible limit for mandibular expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Shirai, Sawa; Yano, Shinya; Nakanishi, Kotoe; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, mandibular expansion has been increasingly performed in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Lateral tipping of the molars associated with mandibular expansion should, however, be considered, because excessive expansion may result in excessive buccal tooth inclination, which may disturb the occlusal relationship. This study was conducted to quantitatively clarify molar movement during mandibular expansion using the Schwarz appliance to determine the permissible limit of mandibular expansion as a clinical index for inclination movement. Inclinations in the masticatory surface of the first molar and intermolar width were measured before expansion (T1), after expansion (T2), and before edgewise treatment (T3). Lower plaster models from 29 subjects treated with expansion plates were used and compared with models from 11 control subjects with normal occlusion. The average treatment change (T1-T2) in intermolar width was 5.42 mm (standard deviation 1.98), and the average angle of buccal tooth inclination was 10.16 degrees (standard deviation 3.83). No significant correlation was found between age prior to treatment and the treatment period when they were compared with the intermolar width increments and inclination angles. There was a significant positive correlation between retention duration and the amount of expansion. The regression coefficient of the angle of buccal tooth inclination during expansion to the increment of the intermolar width was approximately 0.2. This means that 1 mm of expansion is accompanied by 5 degrees of molar lateral tipping. This coefficient is clinically useful for estimating the permissible limit for mandibular expansion.

  7. Tumour thickness as a predictor of nodal metastases in oral cancer: comparison between tongue and floor of mouth subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Gupta, Ruta; Gao, Kan; Elliott, Michael; Palme, Carsten E; Clark, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    To identify whether tumour thickness as a predictor of nodal metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma differs between tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) subsites. Retrospective review of 343 patients treated between 1987 and 2012. The neck was considered positive in the presence of pathologically proven nodal metastases on neck dissection or during follow-up. There were 222 oral tongue and 121 FOM tumours. In patients with FOM tumours 2.1-4mm thick, the rate of nodal metastases was 41.7%. In contrast, for tongue cancers of a similar thickness the rate was only 11.2%. This increased to 38.5% in patients with tongue cancers that were 4.1-6mm thick. Comparing these two subsites, FOM cancers cross the critical 20% threshold of probability for nodal metastases between 1 and 2mm whereas tongue cancers cross the 20% threshold just under 4mm thickness. On logistic regression adjusting for relevant covariates, there was a significant difference in the propensity for nodal metastases based on tumour thickness according to subsite (p=0.028). Thin FOM tumours (2.1-4mm) have a high rate of nodal metastases. Elective neck dissection is appropriate in FOM tumours ⩾2mm thick and in tongue tumours ⩾4mm thick. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crosstalk between Nodal/Activin and MAPK p38 Signaling Is Essential for Anterior-Posterior Axis Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Melanie; Pernaute, Barbara; Vella, Francis; Rodriguez, Tristan A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Nodal/activin signaling plays a key role in anterior-posterior (A-P) axis formation by inducing the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE), the extraembryonic signaling center that initiates anterior patterning in the embryo. Here we provide direct evidence that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 regulates AVE specification through a crosstalk with the Nodal/activin signaling pathway. We show that p38 activation is directly stimulated by Nodal/activin and fails to be maintained upon inhibition of this pathway both in vivo and in vitro. In turn, p38 strengthens the Nodal signaling response by phosphorylating the Smad2 linker region and enhancing the level of Smad2 activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this p38 amplification loop is essential for correct specification of the AVE in two ways: first, by showing that inhibiting p38 activity in 5.5 days postcoitum embryo cultures leads to a switch from AVE to an extraembryonic visceral endoderm cell identity, and second, by demonstrating that genetically reducing p38 activity in a Nodal-sensitive background leads to a failure of AVE specification in vivo. Collectively, our results reveal a novel role for p38 in regulating the threshold of Nodal signaling and propose a new mechanism by which A-P axis development can be reinforced during early embryogenesis. PMID:21802298

  9. High nodal positivity rates even in good clinical responders after chemoradiation of rectal cancer: is organ preservation feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallam, K C; Engineer, R; Desouza, A; Patil, P; Saklani, A

    2016-10-01

    Local excision (LE) is emerging as a treatment option for rectal cancer responding well to chemoradiation. However, it does not address the mesorectal nodal burden. We aimed to identify the factors influencing nodal positivity and subsequently defined a low-risk group by including only patients at low risk. A single-centre, retrospective database analysis was carried out of patients with radically resected rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. This study included 524 patients with predominantly low rectal tumours. Nodal positivity among ypT0, T1 and T2 groups was 14.7%, 28% and 30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis with stepwise logistic regression identified the following low-risk features: age ≥ 40 years, nonsignet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) histology and pathological complete response (pCR). Sixty-nine patients fulfilling all three criteria were analysed and the nodal positivity was found to be 10.1%, which implies that, if these patients had been selected for LE, one in 10 would have had positive mesorectal nodes. Even in patients with low-risk criteria (pCR, non-SRCC histology and age ≥ 40 years), the residual positive nodal disease burden is 10%. Whether this high incidence of residual nodal disease translates into a similar risk of locoregional recurrence if an organ-preservation strategy is adopted is unclear. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  11. FGFR-1 amplification in metastatic lymph-nodal and haematogenous lobular breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunello Eleonora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lobular breast carcinoma usually shows poor responsiveness to chemotherapies and often lacks targeted therapies. Since FGFR1 expression has been shown to play pivotal roles in primary breast cancer tumorigenesis, we sought to analyze the status of FGFR1 gene in a metastatic setting of lobular breast carcinoma, since promising FGFR1 inhibitors has been recently developed. Methods Fifteen tissue metastases from lobular breast carcinomas with matched primary infiltrative lobular breast carcinoma were recruited. Eleven cases showed loco-regional lymph-nodal and four haematogenous metastases. FGFR-1 gene (8p12 amplification was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis. Her-2/neu and topoisomerase-IIα gene status was assessed. E-cadherin and Hercept Test were also performed. We distinguished amplification (>6 or cluster of signals versus gains (3–6 signals of the locus specific FGFR-1 gene. Results Three (20% primary lobular breast carcinomas showed >6 or cluster of FGFR1 signals (amplification, six cases (40% had a mean of three (range 3–6 chromogenic signals (gains whereas in 6 (40% was not observed any abnormality. Three of 15 metastasis (20% were amplified, 2/15 (13,4% did not. The ten remaining cases (66,6% showed three chromogenic signals. The three cases with FGFR-1 amplification matched with those primary breast carcinomas showing FGFR-1 amplification. The six cases showing FGFR-1 gains in the primary tumour again showed FGFR-1 gains in the metastases. Four cases showed gains of FGFR-1 gene signals in the metastases and not in the primary tumours. Her-2/neu gene amplification was not observed in all cases but one (6% case. Topoisomerase-IIα was not amplified in all cases. Conclusions 1 a subset of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma harbors FGFR-1 gene amplification or gains of chromogenic signals; 2 a minor heterogeneity has been observed after matching primary and metastatic carcinomas; 3 in the

  12. Analysis of Factors Influencing Agritourism Businesses in Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kimberly; Bruch Leffew, Megan; Menard, Jamey; English, Burton C.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses how characteristics of agritourism operations may influence future expansion plans. Differences in barriers which agritourism operations face, as well as types of promotion methods used are examined for expansion-minded agritourism operators. This information will be useful to agritourism operators, as they look for contributors to future growth.

  13. Impact of size and temperature on thermal expansion of nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A theoretical method has been discussed to study the size dependency of thermal expansion of nanomaterials at higher temperature by considering the surface effect. A thermodynamical analysis of the equation of state (EoS) is studied from the knowledge of thermal expansion of nano-materials based on theoretical ...

  14. Expansion of U. S. uranium enrichment capacity. Final environmental statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    Reasonably foreseeable environmental, social, economic, and technological costs and benefits of postulated expansion of U. S. enrichment capacity through the year 2000 and reasonably available alternatives to such expansion are described. Both the gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion methods for the enrichment of uranium are considered in this impact assessment. (JGB)

  15. Does query expansion limit our learning? A comparison of social-based expansion to content-based expansion for medical queries on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentoney, Christopher; Harwell, Jeff; Leroy, Gondy

    2014-01-01

    Searching for medical information online is a common activity. While it has been shown that forming good queries is difficult, Google's query suggestion tool, a type of query expansion, aims to facilitate query formation. However, it is unknown how this expansion, which is based on what others searched for, affects the information gathering of the online community. To measure the impact of social-based query expansion, this study compared it with content-based expansion, i.e., what is really in the text. We used 138,906 medical queries from the AOL User Session Collection and expanded them using Google's Autocomplete method (social-based) and the content of the Google Web Corpus (content-based). We evaluated the specificity and ambiguity of the expansion terms for trigram queries. We also looked at the impact on the actual results using domain diversity and expansion edit distance. Results showed that the social-based method provided more precise expansion terms as well as terms that were less ambiguous. Expanded queries do not differ significantly in diversity when expanded using the social-based method (6.72 different domains returned in the first ten results, on average) vs. content-based method (6.73 different domains, on average).

  16. Extension of the analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES to triangular-Z geometry and coupling with COBRA-IIIc for hexagonal core analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Juan-Andres, E-mail: lozano@din.upm.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Jose G. Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, Javier; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Aragones, Jose-Maria [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Jose G. Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    In this paper the extension of the multigroup nodal diffusion code ANDES, based on the Analytic Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD) method, from Cartesian to hexagonal geometry is presented, as well as its coupling with the thermal-hydraulic (TH) code COBRA-IIIc for hexagonal core analysis. In extending the ACMFD method to hexagonal assemblies, triangular-Z nodes are used. In the radial plane, a direct transverse integration procedure is applied along the three directions that are orthogonal to the triangle interfaces. The triangular nodalization avoids the singularities, that appear when applying transverse integration to hexagonal nodes, and allows the advantage of the mesh subdivision capabilities implicit within that geometry. As for the thermal-hydraulics, the extension of the coupling scheme to hexagonal geometry has been performed with the capability to model the core using either assembly-wise channels (hexagonal mesh) or a higher refinement with six channels per fuel assembly (triangular mesh). Achieving this level of TH mesh refinement with COBRA-IIIc code provides a better estimation of the in-core 3D flow distribution, improving the TH core modelling. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupled code, ANDES/COBRA-IIIc, previously verified in Cartesian geometry core analysis, can also be applied now to full three-dimensional VVER core problems, as well as to other thermal and fast hexagonal core designs. Verification results are provided, corresponding to the different cases of the OECD/NEA-NSC VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmarks.

  17. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  18. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R) patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1), as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make Ablim1 a candidate for

  19. Extra-nodal lymphoma. A survey of Japan lymphoma radiation therapy group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, Masahiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital; Ikeda, Hiroshi [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). East Hospital; Nakamura, Shigeo [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital] [and others

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, retrospectively, national-wide clinical data of patients with localized extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who were treated by radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. The survey was carried out at 25 radiation oncology institutions in Japan in 1998. In 1999, according to the Revised European American Lymphoma (REAL) classification, central pathological review conducted at Aichi cancer center was carried out for the data from 7 radiation oncology institutions. The 5-year progression free survival rates (PFS) were calculated to identify prognostic factors. Survey: Data from 1, 141 patients with stage I and II NHL were recruited from 1988 through 1992. Of them, 787 patients, who were treated using definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for intermediate and high-grade lymphomas in Working Formulation, constituted the core of this study. Primary tumors arose mainly from extra-nodal organs (71%) in the head and neck (Waldeyer's ring: 41%, thyroid gland: 7%, nasal cavities: 5%, oral cavities: 4%, sinus: 3%, orbital structures: 3%, skin: 2% and etc.). The median age of 60 years for patients with extra-nodal NHL was higher than that of 56 years for patients with nodal NHL (p<0.01). Female were dominant in incidence of extra-nodal NHL arising from the thyroid gland, skin and gastrointestinal tract. The percentage of stage I to the extra-nodal NHL from orbit, sino-nasal presentation was higher than that of other NHLs. The percentage of stage II to the extra-nodal NHL from Waldeyer's ring and thyroid gland was higher than that of other NHLs. Central pathological review was carried out for pathological data from 79 patients (Waldeyer's ring: 45, thyroid gland: 19, sinonasal cavities: 15). Of these, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) composed 63% of all patients, mucosa associated lyumphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L): 16%, Natural Killer/T cell lymphoma (NK/T-L): 11%, and mantle cell

  20. Rapid palatal expansion: the role of microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilello, G; Currò, G; Messina, P; Scardina, G

    2015-08-01

    Transverse palate modifications fall under expansive orthopedic therapy of the upper maxilla. The only practical approach to the problem on the transverse plane is that of performing the expansion of the maxillary arch through an opening of the median palatal suture. It is important to understand the changes of the vascular network in midpalatal suture following the starting of rapid maxillary expansion. It is critical to maintain the blood supply and circulation for the osteogenesis and bone remodeling after the expansion. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of rapid orthopedic expansion (REP) at the microcirculatory level through capillaroscopic examination. Fifteen patients in their developing years between 9 and 15 years of age (average age 12.16 years) were examined. The application of the REP was the first step in the planning of orthopedic-orthodontic treatment which foresaw further stages in the odonto-osseous movement. The method of Biomicroscopic Video-Imaging of the microcirculation of oral mucosa is performed through the technique of computerized capillaroscopy and the related software. From the results it is evident that immediately after achieving the expansion of the upper maxilla (t1), a slight decrease in the number of vessels per mm² can be observed. In addition, a slight ectasia can be observed in these vessels in comparison to t0. Comparing the videocapillaroscopic images of t1 and t2, an increase in the capillaries per mm² can be observed. Ectasia of the capillaries, though subject to strictly individual variables, can be considered perfectly normal and it is compatible with the normal biology and physiology of vessel microcirculation.