WorldWideScience

Sample records for expanding crec protein

  1. Fibulin-1C, C1 Esterase Inhibitor and Glucose Regulated Protein 75 Interact with the CREC Proteins, Calumenin and Reticulocalbin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G. A. W.; Ludvigsen, M.; Jacobsen, C.

    2015-01-01

    with an affinity of approximately 3-7 nM with reticulocalbin as well as with calumenin. These interactions suggest functional participation of the CREC proteins in chaperone activity, cell proliferation and transformation, cellular aging, haemostasis and thrombosis as well as modulation of the complement system...... in fighting bacterial infection....

  2. The CREC family, a novel family of multiple EF-hand, low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins localised to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Vorum, H

    2000-01-01

    The CREC family consists of a number of recently discovered multiple (up to seven) EF-hand proteins that localise to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells. At present, the family includes reticulocalbin, ERC-55/TCBP-49/E6BP, Cab45, calumenin and crocalbin/CBP-50. Similar proteins are found...... in quite diverse invertebrate organisms such as DCB-45 and SCF in Drosophila melanogaster, SCF in Bombyx mori, CCB-39 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pfs40/PfERC in Plasmodium falciparum. The Ca(2+) affinity is rather low with dissociation constants around 10(-4)-10(-3) M. The proteins may participate in Ca......(2+)-regulated activities. Recent evidence has been obtained that some CREC family members are involved in pathological activities such as malignant cell transformation, mediation of the toxic effects of snake venom toxins and putative participation in amyloid formation. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-21...

  3. The CREC family, a novel family of multiple EF-hand, low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins localised to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Vorum, H

    2000-01-01

    The CREC family consists of a number of recently discovered multiple (up to seven) EF-hand proteins that localise to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells. At present, the family includes reticulocalbin, ERC-55/TCBP-49/E6BP, Cab45, calumenin and crocalbin/CBP-50. Similar proteins are found...... in quite diverse invertebrate organisms such as DCB-45 and SCF in Drosophila melanogaster, SCF in Bombyx mori, CCB-39 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pfs40/PfERC in Plasmodium falciparum. The Ca(2+) affinity is rather low with dissociation constants around 10(-4)-10(-3) M. The proteins may participate in Ca...

  4. Consumer evaluation of new tangerine hybrids from the UF-CREC citrus breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to conduct a consumer evaluation of new tangerine hybrids from the UF-CREC citrus breeding program, together with some commercial varieties. A total of 153 mall intercept interviews were conducted with a random sample of fresh citrus fruit consumers in three markets: ...

  5. Engineering bioluminescent proteins: expanding their analytical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura; Dikici, Emre; Daunert, Sylvia

    2009-11-01

    Bioluminescent proteins are used in a plethora of analytical methods, from ultrasensitive assay development to the in vivo imaging of cellular processes. This article reviews the most pertinent current bioluminescent-protein-based technologies and suggests the future direction of this vein of research. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).

  6. Engineering Bioluminescent Proteins: Expanding their Analytical Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Laura; Dikici, Emre; Daunert, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Bioluminescence has been observed in nature since the dawn of time, but now, scientists are harnessing it for analytical applications. Laura Rowe, Emre Dikici, and Sylvia Daunert of the University of Kentucky describe the origins of bioluminescent proteins and explore their uses in the modern chemistry laboratory. The cover features spectra of bioluminescent light superimposed on an image of jellyfish, which are a common source of bioluminescent proteins. Images courtesy of Emre Dikici and Sh...

  7. Quantification Assays for Total and Polyglutamine-Expanded Huntingtin Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Ivette; Smith, Melanie; Pulli, Kristiina; Szynol, Agnieszka; Albertus, Faywell; Lamers, Marieke B. A. C.; Dijkstra, Sipke; Kordt, Daniel; Reindl, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Frank; McAllister, George; Fischer, David F.; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene, which produces huntingtin protein with an expanded polyglutamine tract, is the cause of Huntington's disease (HD). Recent studies have reported that RNAi suppression of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin (mutant HTT) in HD animal models can ameliorate disease phenotypes. A key requirement for such preclinical studies, as well as eventual clinical trials, aimed to reduce mutant HTT exposure is a robust method to measure HTT protein levels in select tissues. We have developed several sensitive and selective assays that measure either total human HTT or polyglutamine-expanded human HTT proteins on the electrochemiluminescence Meso Scale Discovery detection platform with an increased dynamic range over other methods. In addition, we have developed an assay to detect endogenous mouse and rat HTT proteins in pre-clinical models of HD to monitor effects on the wild type protein of both allele selective and non-selective interventions. We demonstrate the application of these assays to measure HTT protein in several HD in vitro cellular and in vivo animal model systems as well as in HD patient biosamples. Furthermore, we used purified recombinant HTT proteins as standards to quantitate the absolute amount of HTT protein in such biosamples. PMID:24816435

  8. Beyond histones - the expanding roles of protein lysine methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhouran; Connolly, Justin; Biggar, Kyle K

    2017-09-01

    A robust signaling network is essential for cell survival. At the molecular level, this is often mediated by as many as 200 different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) that are made to proteins. These include well-documented examples such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Of these modifications, non-histone protein lysine methylation has only recently emerged as a prevalent modification occurring on numerous proteins, thus extending its role well beyond the histone code. To date, this modification has been found to regulate protein activity, protein-protein interactions and interplay with other PTMs. As a result, lysine methylation is now known to be a coordinator of protein function and is a key driver in several cellular signaling events. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have also allowed the characterization of a growing number of lysine methylation events on an increasing number of proteins. As a result, we are now beginning to recognize lysine methylation as a dynamic event that is involved in a number of biological processes, including DNA damage repair, cell growth, metabolism and signal transduction among others. In light of current research advances, the stage is now set to study the extent of lysine methylation that exists within the entire proteome, its dynamics, and its association with physiological and pathological processes. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Expanding the proteome: disordered and alternatively-folded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, H. Jane

    2011-01-01

    Proteins provide much of the scaffolding for life, as well as undertaking a variety of essential catalytic reactions. These characteristic functions have led us to presuppose that proteins are in general functional only when well-structured and correctly folded. As we begin to explore the repertoire of possible protein sequences inherent in the human and other genomes, two stark facts that belie this supposition become clear: firstly, the number of apparent open reading frames in the human genome is significantly smaller than appears to be necessary to code for all of the diverse proteins in higher organisms, and secondly that a significant proportion of the protein sequences that would be coded by the genome would not be expected to form stable three-dimensional structures. Clearly the genome must include coding for a multitude of alternative forms of proteins, some of which may be partly or fully disordered or incompletely structured in their functional states. At the same time as this likelihood was recognized, experimental studies also began to uncover examples of important protein molecules and domains that were incompletely structured or completely disordered in solution, yet remained perfectly functional. In the ensuing years, we have seen an explosion of experimental and genome-annotation studies that have mapped the extent of the intrinsic disorder phenomenon and explored the possible biological rationales for its widespread occurrence. Answers to the question “why would a particular domain need to be unstructured?” are as varied as the systems where such domains are found. This review provides a survey of recent new directions in this field, and includes an evaluation of the role not only of intrinsically disordered proteins but of partially structured and highly dynamic members of the disorder-order continuum. PMID:21729349

  10. Expanding the toolkit for membrane protein modeling in Rosetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler Leman, Julia; Mueller, Benjamin K; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2017-03-01

    A range of membrane protein modeling tools has been developed in the past 5-10 years, yet few of these tools are integrated and make use of existing functionality for soluble proteins. To extend existing methods in the Rosetta biomolecular modeling suite for membrane proteins, we recently implemented RosettaMP, a general framework for membrane protein modeling. While RosettaMP facilitates implementation of new methods, addressing real-world biological problems also requires a set of accessory tools that are used to carry out standard modeling tasks. Here, we present six modeling tools, including de novo prediction of single trans-membrane helices, making mutations and refining the structure with different amounts of flexibility, transforming a protein into membrane coordinates and optimizing its embedding, computing a Rosetta energy score, and visualizing the protein in the membrane bilayer. We present these methods with complete protocol captures that allow non-expert modelers to carry out the computations. The presented tools are part of the Rosetta software suite, available at www.rosettacommons.org . julia.koehler.leman@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Expanding the substantial interactome of NEMO using protein microarrays.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenner, Beau J

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction by the NF-kappaB pathway is a key regulator of a host of cellular responses to extracellular and intracellular messages. The NEMO adaptor protein lies at the top of this pathway and serves as a molecular conduit, connecting signals transmitted from upstream sensors to the downstream NF-kappaB transcription factor and subsequent gene activation. The position of NEMO within this pathway makes it an attractive target from which to search for new proteins that link NF-kappaB signaling to additional pathways and upstream effectors. In this work, we have used protein microarrays to identify novel NEMO interactors. A total of 112 protein interactors were identified, with the most statistically significant hit being the canonical NEMO interactor IKKbeta, with IKKalpha also being identified. Of the novel interactors, more than 30% were kinases, while at least 25% were involved in signal transduction. Binding of NEMO to several interactors, including CALB1, CDK2, SAG, SENP2 and SYT1, was confirmed using GST pulldown assays and coimmunoprecipitation, validating the initial screening approach. Overexpression of CALB1, CDK2 and SAG was found to stimulate transcriptional activation by NF-kappaB, while SYT1 overexpression repressed TNFalpha-dependent NF-kappaB transcriptional activation in human embryonic kidney cells. Corresponding with this finding, RNA silencing of CDK2, SAG and SENP2 reduced NF-kappaB transcriptional activation, supporting a positive role for these proteins in the NF-kappaB pathway. The identification of a host of new NEMO interactors opens up new research opportunities to improve understanding of this essential cell signaling pathway.

  12. Expanded functionality of modified whey protein dispersions after transglutaminase catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Debra A; Daubert, Christopher R

    2011-05-01

    The functionality of whey dispersions, prepared with a modified whey protein concentrate (mWPC) ingredient, was significantly altered after cross-linking with microbial transglutaminase (TGase) upon pH adjustment to 8. Test TGase-mWPC solutions, pH 8, gelled faster than control mWPC dispersions, as measured in real time; whereas, the gelling temperature of pretreated TGase-mWPC samples (37 °C, 2.5 h) increased from 67.8 to 74.8 °C with a minimal change in gel strength. Prolonged prior incubation with the enzyme (37 °C, 20 h) raised the gel strength in both control mWPC and TGase-mWPC dispersions, though these values were approximately 2.7 times lower in TGase-mWPC samples. Furthermore, the gelling temperature was raised by 9 °C after extensive polymerization. The water holding capacity was not impacted by enzymatic processing while emulsions prepared with TGase-mWPC dispersions proved very stable with no evidence of phase separation during storage at room temperature for 1 mo. Moreover, the apparent viscosity of TGase-mWPC emulsions exhibited a 10-fold increase compared to nonenzyme-treated mWPC samples. The particle size was nearly 11 μm in covalently linked TGase-mWPC test fractions compared with 8 μm in nonpolymerized mWPC dispersions. Ultimately, the functional characteristics of TGase-mWPC ingredients may be designed to deliver superior performance, especially with regard to improving heat and emulsion stability. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Bioconjugation of therapeutic proteins and enzymes using the expanded set of genetically encoded amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung In; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-10-01

    The last decade has witnessed striking progress in the development of bioorthogonal reactions that are strictly directed towards intended sites in biomolecules while avoiding interference by a number of physical and chemical factors in biological environment. Efforts to exploit bioorthogonal reactions in protein conjugation have led to the evolution of protein translational machineries and the expansion of genetic codes that systematically incorporate a range of non-natural amino acids containing bioorthogonal groups into recombinant proteins in a site-specific manner. Chemoselective conjugation of proteins has begun to find valuable applications to previously inaccessible problems. In this review, we describe bioorthogonal reactions useful for protein conjugation, and biosynthetic methods that produce proteins amenable to those reactions through an expanded genetic code. We then provide key examples in which novel protein conjugates, generated by the genetic incorporation of a non-natural amino acid and the chemoselective reactions, address unmet needs in protein therapeutics and enzyme engineering.

  14. Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riback, Joshua A.; Bowman, Micayla A.; Zmyslowski, Adam M.; Knoverek, Catherine R.; Jumper, John M.; Hinshaw, James R.; Kaye, Emily B.; Freed, Karl F.; Clark, Patricia L.; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2017-10-12

    A substantial fraction of the proteome is intrinsically disordered, and even well-folded proteins adopt non-native geometries during synthesis, folding, transport, and turnover. Characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is challenging, in part because of a lack of accurate physical models and the difficulty of interpreting experimental results. We have developed a general method to extract the dimensions and solvent quality (self-interactions) of IDPs from a single small-angle x-ray scattering measurement. We applied this procedure to a variety of IDPs and found that even IDPs with low net charge and high hydrophobicity remain highly expanded in water, contrary to the general expectation that protein-like sequences collapse in water. Our results suggest that the unfolded state of most foldable sequences is expanded; we conjecture that this property was selected by evolution to minimize misfolding and aggregation.

  15. A novel system for continuous protein refolding and on-line capture by expanded bed adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Henrik; Ruffet, E; Nielsen, L.L.B

    2005-01-01

    A novel two-step protein refolding strategy has been developed, where continuous renaturation-by-dilution is followed by direct capture on an expanded bed adsorption (EBA) column. The performance of the overall process was tested on a N-terminally tagged version of human beta(2)-microglobulin (HAT......-h beta(2)m) both at analytical, small, and preparative scale. In a single scalable operation, extracted and denatured inclusion body proteins from Escherichia coli were continuously diluted into refolding buffer, using a short pipe reactor, allowing for a defined retention and refolding time......, and then fed directly to an EBA column, where the protein was captured, washed, and finally eluted as soluble folded protein. Not only was the eluted protein in a correctly folded state, the purity of the HAT-h beta(2)m was increased from 34% to 94%, and the product was concentrated sevenfold. The yield...

  16. Exploring the potential impact of an expanded genetic code on protein function

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Han; Nasertorabi, Fariborz; Choi, Sei-hyun; Han, Gye Won; Reed, Sean A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a general strategy that begins to allow us to address the question of whether an expanded genetic code provides an evolutionary advantage to an organism. A large library of β-lactamase variants with distinct noncanonical amino acids substituted randomly at single sites throughout the protein was generated and then subjected to an antibiotic growth-based screen to identify mutants with enhanced catalytic activity. We show that a unique noncanonical mutation in the enzyme β-lactamas...

  17. The expanded octarepeat domain selectively binds prions and disrupts homomeric prion protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliveld, Sirik Rutger; Dame, Remus Thei; Wuite, Gijs J L; Stitz, Lothar; Korth, Carsten

    2006-02-10

    Insertion of additional octarepeats into the prion protein gene has been genetically linked to familial Creutzfeldt Jakob disease and hence to de novo generation of infectious prions. The pivotal event during prion formation is the conversion of the normal prion protein (PrPC) into the pathogenic conformer PrPSc, which subsequently induces further conversion in an autocatalytic manner. Apparently, an expanded octarepeat domain directs folding of PrP toward the PrPSc conformation and initiates a self-replicating conversion process. Here, based on three main observations, we have provided a model on how altered molecular interactions between wild-type and mutant PrP set the stage for familial Creutzfeldt Jakob disease with octarepeat insertions. First, we showed that wild-type octarepeat domains interact in a copper-dependent and reversible manner, a "copper switch." This interaction becomes irreversible upon domain expansion, possibly reflecting a loss of function. Second, expanded octarepeat domains of increasing length gradually form homogenous globular multimers of 11-21 nm in the absence of copper ions when expressed as soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Third, octarepeat domain expansion causes a gain of function with at least 10 repeats selectively binding PrPSc in a denaturant-resistant complex in the absence of copper ions. Thus, the combination of both a loss and gain of function profoundly influences homomeric interaction behavior of PrP with an expanded octarepeat domain. A multimeric cluster of prion proteins carrying expanded octarepeat domains may therefore capture and incorporate spontaneously arising short-lived PrPSc-like conformers, thereby providing a matrix for their conversion.

  18. Efficient expression of tyrosine-sulfated proteins in E. coli using an expanded genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang C; Cellitti, Susan E; Geierstanger, Bernhard H; Schultz, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine sulfation is an important post-translational modification that occurs in higher eukaryotes and is involved in cell-cell communication, viral entry and adhesion. We describe a protocol for the heterologous expression of selectively tyrosine-sulfated proteins in Escherichia coli through the use of an expanded genetic code that co-translationally inserts sulfotyrosine in response to the amber nonsense codon, TAG. The components required for this process, an orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase specific for sulfotyrosine and its cognate orthogonal tRNA that recognizes the amber codon, are encoded on the plasmid pSUPAR6-L3-3SY, and their use, along with a simple chemical synthesis of sulfotyrosine, are outlined in this protocol. Specifically, the gene for a protein of interest is mutated such that the codon corresponding to the desired location of tyrosine sulfate is TAG. Co-transformation of an expression vector containing this gene and pSUPAR6-L3-3SY into an appropriate E. coli strain allows the overexpression of the site-specifically sulfated protein with high efficiency and fidelity. The resulting protein contains tyrosine sulfate at any location specified by a TAG codon, making this method significantly simpler and more versatile than competing methods such as in vitro enzymatic sulfation, chemical sulfation and peptide synthesis. Once the proper expression vectors are cloned, our protocol should allow the production of the desired sulfated proteins in <1 week.

  19. Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins Coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT): Expanding Footprinting Strategies to Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinas, Aimee; Jones, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    Peptides containing the oxidation products of hydroxyl radical-mediated protein footprinting experiments are typically much less abundant than their unoxidized counterparts. This is inherent to the design of the experiment as excessive oxidation may lead to undesired conformational changes or unfolding of the protein, skewing the results. Thus, as the complexity of the systems studied using this method expands, the detection and identification of these oxidized species can be increasingly difficult with the limitations of data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and one-dimensional chromatography. Here we report the application of multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in combination with hydroxyl radical footprinting as a method to increase the identification of quantifiable peptides in these experiments. Using this method led to a 37% increase in unique peptide identifications as well as a 70% increase in protein group identifications over one-dimensional data-dependent acquisition on the same samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate the combination of these methods as a means to investigate megadalton complexes.

  20. An expanded evaluation of protein function prediction methods shows an improvement in accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuxiang; Oron, Tal Ronnen; Clark, Wyatt T; Bankapur, Asma R; D'Andrea, Daniel; Lepore, Rosalba; Funk, Christopher S; Kahanda, Indika; Verspoor, Karin M; Ben-Hur, Asa; Koo, Da Chen Emily; Penfold-Brown, Duncan; Shasha, Dennis; Youngs, Noah; Bonneau, Richard; Lin, Alexandra; Sahraeian, Sayed M E; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Profiti, Giuseppe; Casadio, Rita; Cao, Renzhi; Zhong, Zhaolong; Cheng, Jianlin; Altenhoff, Adrian; Skunca, Nives; Dessimoz, Christophe; Dogan, Tunca; Hakala, Kai; Kaewphan, Suwisa; Mehryary, Farrokh; Salakoski, Tapio; Ginter, Filip; Fang, Hai; Smithers, Ben; Oates, Matt; Gough, Julian; Törönen, Petri; Koskinen, Patrik; Holm, Liisa; Chen, Ching-Tai; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Bryson, Kevin; Cozzetto, Domenico; Minneci, Federico; Jones, David T; Chapman, Samuel; Bkc, Dukka; Khan, Ishita K; Kihara, Daisuke; Ofer, Dan; Rappoport, Nadav; Stern, Amos; Cibrian-Uhalte, Elena; Denny, Paul; Foulger, Rebecca E; Hieta, Reija; Legge, Duncan; Lovering, Ruth C; Magrane, Michele; Melidoni, Anna N; Mutowo-Meullenet, Prudence; Pichler, Klemens; Shypitsyna, Aleksandra; Li, Biao; Zakeri, Pooya; ElShal, Sarah; Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Das, Sayoni; Dawson, Natalie L; Lee, David; Lees, Jonathan G; Sillitoe, Ian; Bhat, Prajwal; Nepusz, Tamás; Romero, Alfonso E; Sasidharan, Rajkumar; Yang, Haixuan; Paccanaro, Alberto; Gillis, Jesse; Sedeño-Cortés, Adriana E; Pavlidis, Paul; Feng, Shou; Cejuela, Juan M; Goldberg, Tatyana; Hamp, Tobias; Richter, Lothar; Salamov, Asaf; Gabaldon, Toni; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Supek, Fran; Gong, Qingtian; Ning, Wei; Zhou, Yuanpeng; Tian, Weidong; Falda, Marco; Fontana, Paolo; Lavezzo, Enrico; Toppo, Stefano; Ferrari, Carlo; Giollo, Manuel; Piovesan, Damiano; Tosatto, Silvio C E; Del Pozo, Angela; Fernández, José M; Maietta, Paolo; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L; Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Politano, Gianfranco; Savino, Alessandro; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Re, Matteo; Mesiti, Marco; Valentini, Giorgio; Bargsten, Joachim W; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Gemovic, Branislava; Glisic, Sanja; Perovic, Vladmir; Veljkovic, Veljko; Veljkovic, Nevena; Almeida-E-Silva, Danillo C; Vencio, Ricardo Z N; Sharan, Malvika; Vogel, Jörg; Kansakar, Lakesh; Zhang, Shanshan; Vucetic, Slobodan; Wang, Zheng; Sternberg, Michael J E; Wass, Mark N; Huntley, Rachael P; Martin, Maria J; O'Donovan, Claire; Robinson, Peter N; Moreau, Yves; Tramontano, Anna; Babbitt, Patricia C; Brenner, Steven E; Linial, Michal; Orengo, Christine A; Rost, Burkhard; Greene, Casey S; Mooney, Sean D; Friedberg, Iddo; Radivojac, Predrag

    2016-09-07

    A major bottleneck in our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of life is the assignment of function to proteins. While molecular experiments provide the most reliable annotation of proteins, their relatively low throughput and restricted purview have led to an increasing role for computational function prediction. However, assessing methods for protein function prediction and tracking progress in the field remain challenging. We conducted the second critical assessment of functional annotation (CAFA), a timed challenge to assess computational methods that automatically assign protein function. We evaluated 126 methods from 56 research groups for their ability to predict biological functions using Gene Ontology and gene-disease associations using Human Phenotype Ontology on a set of 3681 proteins from 18 species. CAFA2 featured expanded analysis compared with CAFA1, with regards to data set size, variety, and assessment metrics. To review progress in the field, the analysis compared the best methods from CAFA1 to those of CAFA2. The top-performing methods in CAFA2 outperformed those from CAFA1. This increased accuracy can be attributed to a combination of the growing number of experimental annotations and improved methods for function prediction. The assessment also revealed that the definition of top-performing algorithms is ontology specific, that different performance metrics can be used to probe the nature of accurate predictions, and the relative diversity of predictions in the biological process and human phenotype ontologies. While there was methodological improvement between CAFA1 and CAFA2, the interpretation of results and usefulness of individual methods remain context-dependent.

  1. Structures of Adnectin/Protein Complexes Reveal an Expanded Binding Footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramamurthy, Vidhyashankar; Krystek, Jr., Stanley R.; Bush, Alexander; Wei, Anzhi; Emanuel, Stuart L.; Gupta, Ruchira Das; Janjua, Ahsen; Cheng, Lin; Murdock, Melissa; Abramczyk, Bozena; Cohen, Daniel; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul; Davis, Jonathan H.; Dabritz, Michael; McLaughlin, Douglas C.; Russo, Katie A.; Chao, Ginger; Wright, Martin C.; Jenny, Victoria A.; Engle, Linda J.; Furfine, Eric; Sheriff, Steven (BMS)

    2014-10-02

    Adnectins are targeted biologics derived from the tenth type III domain of human fibronectin ({sup 10}Fn3), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Target-specific binders are selected from libraries generated by diversifying the three {sup 10}Fn3 loops that are analogous to the complementarity determining regions of antibodies. The crystal structures of two Adnectins were determined, each in complex with its therapeutic target, EGFR or IL-23. Both Adnectins bind different epitopes than those bound by known monoclonal antibodies. Molecular modeling suggests that some of these epitopes might not be accessible to antibodies because of the size and concave shape of the antibody combining site. In addition to interactions from the Adnectin diversified loops, residues from the N terminus and/or the {beta} strands interact with the target proteins in both complexes. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis confirmed the calculated binding energies of these {beta} strand interactions, indicating that these nonloop residues can expand the available binding footprint.

  2. The Expanded FindCore Method for Identification of a Core Atom Set for Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David A.; Grullon, Jennifer; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Tejero, Roberto; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the scientific impact of NMR-based structure determination requires robust and statistically sound methods for assessing the precision of NMR-derived structures. In particular, a method to define a core atom set for calculating superimpositions and validating structure predictions is critical to the use of NMR-derived structures as targets in the CASP competition. FindCore (D.A. Snyder and G.T. Montelione PROTEINS 2005;59:673–686) is a superimposition independent method for identifying a core atom set, and partitioning that set into domains. However, as FindCore optimizes superimposition by sensitively excluding not-well-defined atoms, the FindCore core may not comprise all atoms suitable for use in certain applications of NMR structures, including the CASP assessment process. Adapting the FindCore approach to assess predicted models against experimental NMR structures in CASP10 required modification of the FindCore method. This paper describes conventions and a standard protocol to calculate an “Expanded FindCore” atom set suitable for validation and application in biological and biophysical contexts. A key application of the Expanded FindCore method is to identify a core set of atoms in the experimental NMR structure for which it makes sense to validate predicted protein structure models. We demonstrate the application of this Expanded FindCore method in characterizing well-defined regions of 18 NMR-derived CASP10 target structures. The Expanded FindCore protocol defines “expanded core atom sets” that match an expert’s intuition of which parts of the structure are sufficiently well-defined to use in assessing CASP model predictions. We also illustrate the impact of this analysis on the CASP GDT assessment scores. PMID:24327305

  3. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Expanding theUniverse of Protein Families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B.; Halpern,Aaron L.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S.; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A.; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael,Benjamin J.; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E.; Godzik,Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E.; Taylor, Susan S.; Strausberg,Robert L.; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J.Craig

    2006-03-23

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  4. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: expanding the universe of protein families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Yooseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  5. Expanding protein universe and its origin from the biological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Shakhnovich, Boris; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2002-10-29

    The bottom-up approach to understanding the evolution of organisms is by studying molecular evolution. With the large number of protein structures identified in the past decades, we have discovered peculiar patterns that nature imprints on protein structural space in the course of evolution. In particular, we have discovered that the universe of protein structures is organized hierarchically into a scale-free network. By understanding the cause of these patterns, we attempt to glance at the very origin of life.

  6. An expanded view of the protein folding landscape of PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Greta; Pedersen, Søren W; Chi, Celestine N.

    2012-01-01

    Most protein domains fold in an apparently co-operative and two-state manner with only the native and denatured states significantly populated at any experimental condition. However, the protein folding energy landscape is often rugged and different transition states may be rate limiting for the ......Most protein domains fold in an apparently co-operative and two-state manner with only the native and denatured states significantly populated at any experimental condition. However, the protein folding energy landscape is often rugged and different transition states may be rate limiting...

  7. An expanded evaluation of protein function prediction methods shows an improvement in accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; Jiang, Yuxiang; Oron, Tal Ronnen; Clark, Wyatt T; Bankapur, Asma R; Anea, D', Daniel; Lepore, Rosalba; Funk, Christopher S; Kahanda, Indika; Verspoor, Karin M; Ben-Hur, Asa; Koo, Da Chen Emily; Penfold-Brown, Duncan; Shasha, Dennis; Youngs, Noah; Bonneau, Richard; Lin, Alexana; Sahraeian, Sayed M.E; Martelli, Pier Luigi; ti, Giuseppe; Casadio, Rita; Cao, Renzhi; Zhong, Zhaolong; Cheng, Jianlin; Altenhoff, Aian; Skunca, Nives; Dessimoz, Christophe; Dogan, Tunca; Hakala, Kai; Kaewphan, Suwisa; Mehryary, Farrokh; Salakoski, Tapio; Ginter, Filip; Fang, Hai; Smithers, Ben; Oates, Matt; Gough, Julian; Törönen, Petri; Koskinen, Patrik; Holm, Liisa; Chen, Ching Tai; Hsu, Wen Lian; Bryson, Kevin; Cozzetto, Domenico; Minneci, Federico; Jones, David T; Chapman, Samuel; BKC, Dukka; Khan, Ishita K; Kihara, Daisuke; Ofer, Dan; Rappoport, Nadav; Stern, Amos; Cibrian-Uhalte, Elena; Denny, Paul; Foulger, Rebecca E; Hieta, Reija; Legge, Duncan; Lovering, Ruth C; Magrane, Michele; Melidoni, Anna N; Mutowo-Meullenet, Prudence; Pichler, Klemens; Shypitsyna, Aleksana; Li, Biao; Zakeri, Pooya; ElShal, Sarah; Tranchevent, Léon Charles; Das, Sayoni; Dawson, Natalie L; Lee, David; Lees, Jonathan G; Sillitoe, Ian; Bhat, Prajwal; Nepusz, Tamás; Romero, Alfonso E; Sasidharan, Rajkumar; Yang, Haixuan; Paccanaro, Alberto; Gillis, Jesse; Sedeño-Cortés, Aiana E; Pavlidis, Paul; Feng, Shou; Cejuela, Juan M; Goldberg, Tatyana; Hamp, Tobias; Richter, Lothar; Salamov, Asaf; Gabaldon, Toni; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Supek, Fran; Gong, Qingtian; Ning, Wei; Zhou, Yuanpeng; Tian, Weidong; Falda, Marco; Fontana, Paolo; Lavezzo, Enrico; Toppo, Stefano; Ferrari, Carlo; Giollo, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    .... While molecular experiments provide the most reliable annotation of proteins, their relatively low throughput and restricted purview have led to an increasing role for computational function prediction...

  8. An expanded evaluation of protein function prediction methods shows an improvement in accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yuxiang; Oron, Tal Ronnen; Clark, Wyatt T.; Bankapur, Asma R.; Andrea, D' Daniel; Lepore, Rosalba; Funk, Christopher S.; Kahanda, Indika; Verspoor, Karin M.; Ben-Hur, Asa; Koo, Da Chen Emily; Penfold-Brown, Duncan; Shasha, Dennis; Youngs, Noah; Bonneau, Richard; Lin, Alexandra; Sahraeian, Sayed M.E.; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Profiti, Giuseppe; Casadio, Rita; Cao, Renzhi; Zhong, Zhaolong; Cheng, Jianlin; Altenhoff, Adrian; Skunca, Nives; Dessimoz, Christophe; Dogan, Tunca; Hakala, Kai; Kaewphan, Suwisa; Mehryary, Farrokh; Salakoski, Tapio; Ginter, Filip; Fang, Hai; Smithers, Ben; Oates, Matt; Gough, Julian; Törönen, Petri; Koskinen, Patrik; Holm, Liisa; Chen, Ching Tai; Hsu, Wen Lian; Bryson, Kevin; Cozzetto, Domenico; Minneci, Federico; Jones, David T.; Chapman, Samuel; BKC, Dukka; Khan, Ishita K.; Kihara, Daisuke; Ofer, Dan; Rappoport, Nadav; Stern, Amos; Cibrian-Uhalte, Elena; Denny, Paul; Foulger, Rebecca E.; Hieta, Reija; Legge, Duncan; Lovering, Ruth C.; Magrane, Michele; Melidoni, Anna N.; Mutowo-Meullenet, Prudence; Pichler, Klemens; Shypitsyna, Aleksandra; Li, Biao; Zakeri, Pooya; ElShal, Sarah; Tranchevent, Léon Charles; Das, Sayoni; Dawson, Natalie L.; Lee, David; Lees, Jonathan G.; Sillitoe, Ian; Bhat, Prajwal; Nepusz, Tamás; Romero, Alfonso E.; Sasidharan, Rajkumar; Yang, Haixuan; Paccanaro, Alberto; Gillis, Jesse; Sedeño-Cortés, Adriana E.; Pavlidis, Paul; Feng, Shou; Cejuela, Juan M.; Goldberg, Tatyana; Hamp, Tobias; Richter, Lothar; Salamov, Asaf; Gabaldon, Toni; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Supek, Fran; Gong, Qingtian; Ning, Wei; Zhou, Yuanpeng; Tian, Weidong; Falda, Marco; Fontana, Paolo; Lavezzo, Enrico; Toppo, Stefano; Ferrari, Carlo; Giollo, Manuel; Piovesan, Damiano; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.; Pozo, del Angela; Fernández, José M.; Maietta, Paolo; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L.; Benso, Alfredo; Carlo, Di Stefano; Politano, Gianfranco; Savino, Alessandro; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Re, Matteo; Mesiti, Marco; Valentini, Giorgio; Bargsten, Joachim W.; Dijk, van Aalt-Jan; Gemovic, Branislava; Glisic, Sanja; Perovic, Vladmir; Veljkovic, Veljko; Veljkovic, Nevena; Almeida-e-Silva, Danillo C.; Vencio, Ricardo Z.N.; Sharan, Malvika; Vogel, Jörg; Kansakar, Lakesh; Zhang, Shanshan; Vucetic, Slobodan; Wang, Zheng; Sternberg, Michael J.E.; Wass, Mark N.; Huntley, Rachael P.; Martin, Maria J.; O'Donovan, Claire; Robinson, Peter N.; Moreau, Yves; Tramontano, Anna; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Brenner, Steven E.; Linial, Michal; Orengo, Christine A.; Rost, Burkhard; Greene, Casey S.; Mooney, Sean D.; Friedberg, Iddo; Radivojac, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Background: A major bottleneck in our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of life is the assignment of function to proteins. While molecular experiments provide the most reliable annotation of proteins, their relatively low throughput and restricted purview have led to an increasing role

  9. The expanded octarepeat domain selectively binds prions and disrupts homomeric prion protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, S. R.; Dame, R.T.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Stitz, L.; Korth, C.

    2006-01-01

    Insertion of additional octarepeats into the prion protein gene has been genetically linked to familial Creutzfeldt Jakob disease and hence to de novo generation of infectious prions. The pivotal event during prion formation is the conversion of the normal prion protein (PrP

  10. Site‐Selective Disulfide Modification of Proteins: Expanding Diversity beyond the Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Seah Ling; Wang, Tao; Weil, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The synthetic transformation of polypeptides with molecular accuracy holds great promise for providing functional and structural diversity beyond the proteome. Consequently, the last decade has seen an exponential growth of site‐directed chemistry to install additional features into peptides and proteins even inside living cells. The disulfide rebridging strategy has emerged as a powerful tool for site‐selective modifications since most proteins contain disulfide bonds. In this Revie...

  11. Expanding the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase Protein Family to the Fungal Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Anthony G.; Preiner, Chelsea S.

    2013-01-01

    The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria. PMID:24039269

  12. Expanding the Circuitry of Pluripotency by Selective Isolation of Chromatin-Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Mahmoud-Reza; Girardot, Charles; Sigismondo, Gianluca; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2016-11-03

    Maintenance of pluripotency is regulated by a network of transcription factors coordinated by Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog (OSN), yet a systematic investigation of the composition and dynamics of the OSN protein network specifically on chromatin is still missing. Here we have developed a method combining ChIP with selective isolation of chromatin-associated proteins (SICAP) followed by mass spectrometry to identify chromatin-bound partners of a protein of interest. ChIP-SICAP in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) identified over 400 proteins associating with OSN, including several whose interaction depends on the pluripotent state. Trim24, a previously unrecognized protein in the network, converges with OSN on multiple enhancers and suppresses the expression of developmental genes while activating cell cycle genes. Consistently, Trim24 significantly improved efficiency of cellular reprogramming, demonstrating its direct functionality in establishing pluripotency. Collectively, ChIP-SICAP provides a powerful tool to decode chromatin protein composition, further enhanced by its integrative capacity to perform ChIP-seq. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural genomics: keeping up with expanding knowledge of the protein universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Marek; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Minor, Wladek

    2010-01-01

    Structural characterization of the protein universe is the main mission of Structural Genomics (SG) programs. However, progress in gene sequencing technology, set in motion in the 1990s, has resulted in rapid expansion of protein sequence space — a twelvefold increase in the past seven years. For the SG field, this creates new challenges and necessitates a reassessment of its strategies. Nevertheless, despite the growth of sequence space, at present nearly half of the content of the Swiss-Prot database and over 40% of Pfam protein families can be structurally modeled based on structures determined so far, with SG projects making an increasingly significant contribution. The SG contribution of new Pfam structures nearly doubled from 27.2% in 2003 to 51.6% in 2006. PMID:17587562

  14. Expanding the Concepts in Protein Structure-Function Relationships and Enzyme Kinetics: Teaching Using Morpheeins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sarah H.; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2008-01-01

    A morpheein is a homo-oligomeric protein that can exist as an ensemble of physiologically significant and functionally distinct alternate quaternary assemblies. Morpheeins exist in nature and use conformational equilibria between different tertiary structures to form distinct oligomers as a means of regulating their function. Notably, alternate…

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis as a means of expanding the cold gelation conditions of soy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Alting, A.C.; Driehuis, F.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Acid-induced cold gelation of soy protein hydrolysates was studied. Hydrolysates with degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of up to 10% were prepared by using subtilisin Carlsberg. The enzyme was inhibited to uncouple the hydrolysis from the subsequent gelation; the latter was induced by the addition of

  16. Photoactivatable Mussel-Based Underwater Adhesive Proteins by an Expanded Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, Matthias; Richter, Florian; Schneider, Tobias; Faidt, Thomas; Martins, Berta M; Baumann, Tobias; Durkin, Patrick; Dobbek, Holger; Jacobs, Karin; Möglich, Andreas; Budisa, Nediljko

    2017-09-19

    Marine mussels exhibit potent underwater adhesion abilities under hostile conditions by employing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-rich mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). However, their recombinant production is a major biotechnological challenge. Herein, a novel strategy based on genetic code expansion has been developed by engineering efficient aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases (aaRSs) for the photocaged noncanonical amino acid ortho-nitrobenzyl DOPA (ONB-DOPA). The engineered ONB-DOPARS enables in vivo production of MAP type 5 site-specifically equipped with multiple instances of ONB-DOPA to yield photocaged, spatiotemporally controlled underwater adhesives. Upon exposure to UV light, these proteins feature elevated wet adhesion properties. This concept offers new perspectives for the production of recombinant bioadhesives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. An Expanding Range of Functions for the Copper Chaperone/Antioxidant Protein Atox1

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Yuta; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Antioxidant protein 1 (Atox1 in human cells) is a copper chaperone for the copper export pathway with an essential role in cellular copper distribution. In vitro, Atox1 binds and transfers copper to the copper-transporting ATPases, stimulating their catalytic activity. Inactivation of Atox1 in cells inhibits maturation of secreted cuproenzymes as well as copper export from cells. Recent Advances: Accumulating data suggest that cellular functions of Atox1 are not limited to its c...

  18. Beyond anchoring: the expanding role of the hendra virus fusion protein transmembrane domain in protein folding, stability, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Culler, Megan R; Hellman, Lance M; Fried, Michael G; Creamer, Trevor P; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-03-01

    While work with viral fusion proteins has demonstrated that the transmembrane domain (TMD) can affect protein folding, stability, and membrane fusion promotion, the mechanism(s) remains poorly understood. TMDs could play a role in fusion promotion through direct TMD-TMD interactions, and we have recently shown that isolated TMDs from three paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins interact as trimers using sedimentation equilibrium (SE) analysis (E. C. Smith, et al., submitted for publication). Immediately N-terminal to the TMD is heptad repeat B (HRB), which plays critical roles in fusion. Interestingly, addition of HRB decreased the stability of the trimeric TMD-TMD interactions. This result, combined with previous findings that HRB forms a trimeric coiled coil in the prefusion form of the whole protein though HRB peptides fail to stably associate in isolation, suggests that the trimeric TMD-TMD interactions work in concert with elements in the F ectodomain head to stabilize a weak HRB interaction. Thus, changes in TMD-TMD interactions could be important in regulating F triggering and refolding. Alanine insertions between the TMD and HRB demonstrated that spacing between these two regions is important for protein stability while not affecting TMD-TMD interactions. Additional mutagenesis of the C-terminal end of the TMD suggests that β-branched residues within the TMD play a role in membrane fusion, potentially through modulation of TMD-TMD interactions. Our results support a model whereby the C-terminal end of the Hendra virus F TMD is an important regulator of TMD-TMD interactions and show that these interactions help hold HRB in place prior to the triggering of membrane fusion.

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis as a means of expanding the cold gelation conditions of soy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Bas J H; van Koningsveld, Gerrit A; Alting, Arno C; Driehuis, Frank; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2005-02-23

    Acid-induced cold gelation of soy protein hydrolysates was studied. Hydrolysates with degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of up to 10% were prepared by using subtilisin Carlsberg. The enzyme was inhibited to uncouple the hydrolysis from the subsequent gelation; the latter was induced by the addition of glucono-delta-lactone. Visual observations, confocal scanning laser microscopy images, and the elasticity modulus showed that hydrolysates gelled at higher pH values with increasing DH. The nonhydrolyzed soy protein isolate gelled at pH approximately 6.0, whereas a DH = 5% hydrolysate gelled at pH approximately 7.6. Gels made from hydrolysates had a softer texture when manually disrupted and showed syneresis below a pH of 5-5.5. Monitoring of gelation by measuring the development of the storage modulus could be replaced by measuring the pH onset of aggregate formation (pH(Aggr-onset)) using turbidity measurements. The rate of acidification was observed to also influence this pH(Aggr-onset). Changes in ionic strength (0.03, 0.2, and 0.5 M) had only a minor influence on the pH(Aggr-onset), indicating that the aggregation is not simply a balance between repulsive electrostatic and attractive hydrophobic interactions, but is much more complex.

  20. Site-specifically arraying small molecules or proteins on DNA using an expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengtao; Lavergne, Thomas; Malyshev, Denis A; Zimmermann, Jörg; Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Dhami, Kirandeep; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Sun, Zhelin; Xiang, Jie; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2013-10-11

    A class of replicable unnatural DNA base pairs formed between d5SICS and either dMMO2, dDMO, or dNaM were developed. To explore the use of these pairs to produce site-specifically labeled DNA, the synthesis of a variety of derivatives bearing propynyl groups, an analysis of their polymerase-mediated replication, and subsequent site-specific modification of the amplified DNA by Click chemistry is reported. With the d5SICS scaffold a propynyl ether linker is accommodated better than its aliphatic analogue, but not as well as the protected propargyl amine linker explored previously. It was also found that with the dMMO2 and dDMO analogues, the dMMO2 position para to the glycosidic linkage is best suited for linker attachment and that although aliphatic and ether-based linkers are similarly accommodated, the direct attachment of an ethynyl group to the nucleobase core is most well tolerated. To demonstrate the utility of these analogues, a variety of them were used to site-selectively attach a biotin tag to the amplified DNA. Finally, we use d5SICS(CO) -dNaM to couple one or two proteins to amplified DNA, with the double labeled product visualized by atomic force microscopy. The ability to encode the spatial relationships of arrayed molecules in PCR amplifiable DNA should have important applications, ranging from SELEX with functionalities not naturally present in DNA to the production, and perhaps "evolution" of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Expanding the knowledge on dried blood spots and LC-MS-based protein analysis: two different sampling materials and six protein targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosting, Cecilie; Gjelstad, Astrid; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug

    2017-05-01

    The combination of dried blood spots (DBS) and bottom-up LC-MS-based protein analysis was investigated in the present paper using six model proteins (1 mg/mL of each protein) with different physicochemical properties. Two different materials for DBS were examined: a water-soluble DBS material (carboxymethyl cellulose, (CMC)) and a commercially available (non-soluble) material (DMPK-C). The sample preparation was optimised regarding the water-soluble material and achieving acceptable repeatability of the signal was emphasised. Five microlitres of whole blood were deposited and dried on either CMC or DMPK-C. The samples were dissolved (CMC) or extracted (DMPK-C) prior to tryptic digest and matrix precipitation. The optimization of the sample preparation showed that an increased buffer concentration (100 mM ammonium bicarbonate) for dissolving the DBS samples gave better repeatability combined with a decrease in analyte signal. CMC seemed to add extra variability (RSD 8-60%) into the analysis compared to sample prepared without CMC (RSD 6-36%), although equal performance compared to DMPK-C material (RSD 13-60%) was demonstrated. The stability of the analytes was examined for different storage periods (1 and 4 weeks) and different storage temperatures (-25, 25, and 40 °C). The stability on both CMC (> 70% compared to reference) and DMPK-C (> 50% compared to reference) was acceptable for most of the peptides. This paper shows that both DBS materials can be used in targeted LC-MS-based protein analysis of proteins with different physicochemical properties. Graphical Abstract Overview of the experimental set-up for expanding the knowledge of dried blood spots in LC-MS-based protein anaysis.

  2. Experiments and simulations show how long-range contacts can form in expanded unfolded proteins with negligible secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenli; Lyle, Nicholas; Luan, Bowu; Raleigh, Daniel P; Pappu, Rohit V

    2013-02-05

    The sizes of unfolded proteins under highly denaturing conditions scale as N(0.59) with chain length. This suggests that denaturing conditions mimic good solvents, whereby the preference for favorable chain-solvent interactions causes intrachain interactions to be repulsive, on average. Beyond this generic inference, the broader implications of N(0.59) scaling for quantitative descriptions of denatured state ensembles (DSEs) remain unresolved. Of particular interest is the degree to which N(0.59) scaling can simultaneously accommodate intrachain attractions and detectable long-range contacts. Here we present data showing that the DSE of the N-terminal domain of the L9 (NTL9) ribosomal protein in 8.3 M urea lacks detectable secondary structure and forms expanded conformations in accord with the expected N(0.59) scaling behavior. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements, however, indicate the presence of detectable long-range contacts in the denatured-state ensemble of NTL9. To explain these observations we used atomistic thermal unfolding simulations to identify ensembles whose properties are consistent with all of the experimental observations, thus serving as useful proxies for the DSE of NTL9 in 8.3 M urea. Analysis of these ensembles shows that residual attractions are present under mimics of good solvent conditions, and for NTL9 they result from low-likelihood, medium/long-range contacts between hydrophobic residues. Our analysis provides a quantitative framework for the simultaneous observation of N(0.59) scaling and low-likelihood long-range contacts for the DSE of NTL9. We propose that such low-likelihood intramolecular hydrophobic clusters might be a generic feature of DSEs that play a gatekeeping role to protect against aggregation during protein folding.

  3. Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP expands neural progenitors and regulates Pax3 expression in the neural plate border zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Gee

    Full Text Available Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP contains multiple protein-protein interaction domains and functions as both a transcriptional co-activator and as a scaffolding protein. Mouse embryos lacking YAP did not survive past embryonic day 8.5 and showed signs of defective yolk sac vasculogenesis, chorioallantoic fusion, and anterior-posterior (A-P axis elongation. Given that the YAP knockout mouse defects might be due in part to nutritional deficiencies, we sought to better characterize a role for YAP during early development using embryos that develop externally. YAP morpholino (MO-mediated loss-of-function in both frog and fish resulted in incomplete epiboly at gastrulation and impaired axis formation, similar to the mouse phenotype. In frog, germ layer specific genes were expressed, but they were temporally delayed. YAP MO-mediated partial knockdown in frog allowed a shortened axis to form. YAP gain-of-function in Xenopus expanded the progenitor populations in the neural plate (sox2(+ and neural plate border zone (pax3(+, while inhibiting the expression of later markers of tissues derived from the neural plate border zone (neural crest, pre-placodal ectoderm, hatching gland, as well as epidermis and somitic muscle. YAP directly regulates pax3 expression via association with TEAD1 (N-TEF at a highly conserved, previously undescribed, TEAD-binding site within the 5' regulatory region of pax3. Structure/function analyses revealed that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP contributes to the inhibition of epidermal and somitic muscle differentiation, but a complete, intact YAP protein is required for expansion of the neural plate and neural plate border zone progenitor pools. These results provide a thorough analysis of YAP mediated gene expression changes in loss- and gain-of-function experiments. Furthermore, this is the first report to use YAP structure-function analyzes to determine which portion of YAP is involved in specific gene expression changes and the

  4. The combined use of enamel matrix proteins and a tetracyclinecoated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barrier membrane in the treatment of intra-osseous defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipos, P.M.; Loos, B.G.; Abbas, F.; Timmerman, M.F.; Velden, U. van der

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this split-mouth study was to evaluate the clinical response of enamel matrix proteins (EMPs, Emdogain Gel) in intra-osseous defects with or without a combined application of a tetracycline-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barrier membrane (e-PTFE, Gore-Tex).

  5. The combined use of enamel matrix proteins and a tetracycline-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barrier membrane in the treatment of intra-osseous defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipos, PM; Loos, BG; Abbas, F; Timmerman, MF; van der Velden, U

    Objectives: The purpose of this split-mouth study was to evaluate the clinical response of enamel matrix proteins (EMPs, Emdogain Gel((R))) in intra-osseous defects with or without a combined application of a tetracycline-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barrier membrane (e-PTFE,

  6. High-capacity protein A affinity chromatography for the fast quantification of antibodies: Two-wavelength detection expands linear range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satzer, Peter; Jungbauer, Alois

    2018-01-13

    The high-throughput analysis of antibodies from processes can be enhanced when the linear range is expanded and sample preparation is kept to a minimum. We developed a fast chromatography method based on a hexameric variant of staphylococcal protein A immobilized on Toyopearl matrix, TSK 5 PW using two wavelengths. A protocol with 5 min runtime and a single-wavelength detection at 280 nm yielded an upper limit of quantification of 2.10 mg/mL and a lower limit of quantification of 0.06 mg/mL. The optimized method with a runtime of 2 min and two-wavelength detection at 280 and 300 nm allowed us to span a valid concentration range of 0.01-5.20 mg/mL using two calibration curves. Sample selectivity was tested using mock supernatant mixed with antibody concentrations of 0.1-2.1 mg/mL, sample stability in the autosampler was shown for at least 24 h. We also tested the capabilities of the method to determine purity of an antibody sample by calculating the ratio of peak area of elution to peak area of flow-through, which correlated well with the expected purity. The method will be very useful for process development and in-process control, spanning concentrations from seed fermentation to harvest and purification. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Increasing the production yield of recombinant protein in transgenic seeds by expanding the deposition space within the intracellular compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaiwa, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Seeds must maintain a constant level of nitrogen in order to germinate. When recombinant proteins are produced while endogenous seed protein expression is suppressed, the production levels of the foreign proteins increase to compensate for the decreased synthesis of endogenous proteins. Thus, exchanging the production of endogenous seed proteins for that of foreign proteins is a promising approach to increase the yield of foreign recombinant proteins. Providing a space for the deposition of recombinant protein in the intracellular compartment is critical, at this would lessen any competition in this region between the endogenous seed proteins and the introduced foreign protein. The production yields of several recombinant proteins have been greatly increased by this strategy.

  8. Three proteins, MBNL, MBLL and MBXL, co-localize in vivo with nuclear foci of expanded-repeat transcripts in DM1 and DM2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardaei, Majid; Rogers, Mark T; Thorpe, Helena M; Larkin, Kenneth; Hamshere, Marion G; Harper, Peter S; Brook, J David

    2002-04-01

    Myotonic dystrophy is a complex neuromuscular disorder associated with DNA expansion mutations in two different genes. In DM1 a CTG repeat in the 3'-untranslated region of DMPK is expanded, whereas in DM2 an intronic CCTG expansion occurs in the gene ZNF9. Transcripts containing expanded repeats form foci in the nuclei of DM1 and DM2 cells. Recent work using antibodies has shown that proteins related to Drosophila muscleblind co-localize with repeat foci in DM1 and DM2 cells. We show that rather than there being a single human muscleblind gene producing multiple proteins through alternative splicing, there are in fact three different muscleblind genes, MBNL, MBLL and MBXL, which map to chromosomes 3, 13 and X, respectively, and which show extensive alternative splicing. Two of the genes, MBNL and MBLL, are expressed in many adult tissues whereas MBXL is expressed predominantly in the placenta. Green fluorescent protein-tagged versions of MBNL, MBLL and MBXL co-localize with nuclear foci in DM1 and DM2 cells, suggesting that all three proteins may play a role in DM pathophysiology.

  9. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  10. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  11. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  12. UniPROBE, update 2011: expanded content and search tools in the online database of protein-binding microarray data on protein-DNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robasky, Kimberly; Bulyk, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    The Universal PBM Resource for Oligonucleotide-Binding Evaluation (UniPROBE) database is a centralized repository of information on the DNA-binding preferences of proteins as determined by universal protein-binding microarray (PBM) technology. Each entry for a protein (or protein complex) in UniPROBE provides the quantitative preferences for all possible nucleotide sequence variants ('words') of length k ('k-mers'), as well as position weight matrix (PWM) and graphical sequence logo representations of the k-mer data. In this update, we describe >130% expansion of the database content, incorporation of a protein BLAST (blastp) tool for finding protein sequence matches in UniPROBE, the introduction of UniPROBE accession numbers and additional database enhancements. The UniPROBE database is available at http://uniprobe.org.

  13. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  14. Expanding the druggable space of the LSD1/CoREST epigenetic target: new potential binding regions for drug-like molecules, peptides, protein partners, and chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Robertson

    Full Text Available Lysine specific demethylase-1 (LSD1/KDM1A in complex with its corepressor protein CoREST is a promising target for epigenetic drugs. No therapeutic that targets LSD1/CoREST, however, has been reported to date. Recently, extended molecular dynamics (MD simulations indicated that LSD1/CoREST nanoscale clamp dynamics is regulated by substrate binding and highlighted key hinge points of this large-scale motion as well as the relevance of local residue dynamics. Prompted by the urgent need for new molecular probes and inhibitors to understand LSD1/CoREST interactions with small-molecules, peptides, protein partners, and chromatin, we undertake here a configurational ensemble approach to expand LSD1/CoREST druggability. The independent algorithms FTMap and SiteMap and our newly developed Druggable Site Visualizer (DSV software tool were used to predict and inspect favorable binding sites. We find that the hinge points revealed by MD simulations at the SANT2/Tower interface, at the SWIRM/AOD interface, and at the AOD/Tower interface are new targets for the discovery of molecular probes to block association of LSD1/CoREST with chromatin or protein partners. A fourth region was also predicted from simulated configurational ensembles and was experimentally validated to have strong binding propensity. The observation that this prediction would be prevented when using only the X-ray structures available (including the X-ray structure bound to the same peptide underscores the relevance of protein dynamics in protein interactions. A fifth region was highlighted corresponding to a small pocket on the AOD domain. This study sets the basis for future virtual screening campaigns targeting the five novel regions reported herein and for the design of LSD1/CoREST mutants to probe LSD1/CoREST binding with chromatin and various protein partners.

  15. Increased recombinant protein production owing to expanded opportunities for vector integration in high chromosome number Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Noriko; Takahashi, Mai; Ali Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kumamoto, Toshitaka; Frank, Jana; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal instability is a characteristic of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cultures of these cells gradually develop heterogeneity even if established from a single cell clone. We isolated cells containing different numbers of chromosomes from a CHO-DG44-based human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF)-producing cell line and found that high chromosome number cells showed higher hGM-CSF productivity. Therefore, we focused on the relationship between chromosome aneuploidy of CHO cells and high recombinant protein-producing cell lines. Distribution and stability of chromosomes were examined in CHO-DG44 cells, and two cell lines expressing different numbers of chromosomes were isolated from the original CHO-DG44 cell line to investigate the effect of aneuploid cells on recombinant protein production. Both cell lines were stably transfected with a vector that expresses immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3), and specific antibody production rates were compared. Cells containing more than 30 chromosomes had higher specific antibody production rates than those with normal chromosome number. Single cell analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (Egfp)-gene transfected cells revealed that increased GFP expression was relative to the number of gene integration sites rather than the difference in chromosome numbers or vector locations. Our results suggest that CHO cells with high numbers of chromosomes contain more sites for vector integration, a characteristic that could be advantageous in biopharmaceutical production. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The expanding field of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions. 'Protein Modifications: Beyond the Usual Suspects' Review Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakmé, Antoinette; Wong, Heng-Kuan; Dantzer, Françoise; Schreiber, Valérie

    2008-11-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins that is mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Although the existence and nature of the nucleic acid-like molecule poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) has been known for 40 years, understanding its biological functions--originally thought to be only the regulation of chromatin superstructure when DNA is broken--is still the subject of intense research. Here, we review the mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of this complex macromolecule and some of its main biological functions, with an emphasis on the most recent advances and hypotheses that have developed in this rapidly growing field.

  17. Glycosylation and expanded utility of a modified whey protein ingredient via carbohydrate conjugation at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, J S; Clare, D A; Daubert, C R

    2009-01-01

    Whey protein, at one time considered a by-product of the cheese-making process, is now commonly used in foods for its thickening and emulsifying properties. Currently, approximately 30% of these proteinaceous resources remain under-utilized. Previously, an acidified, thermally treated whey protein concentrate (mWPC) was developed to produce a cold-set thickening ingredient. Mass spectroscopy revealed an approximate 2.5-fold decrease in the lactosylation of beta-lactoglobulin in mWPC starting materials compared with commercial whey protein concentrates, manufactured at a higher pH. Potentially, this should increase the number of reactive sites that remain available for carbohydrate attachment. With this study, the formation of glycoprotein complexes was demonstrated between the mWPC ingredient and lactose, naturally occurring in mWPC powders, or between mWPC protein components with dextran (35 to 45 and 100 to 200 kDa) materials at low pH. In fact, additional dry heating of mWPC powders showed a 3-fold increase in the amount of lactosylated beta-lactoglobulin. Evidence of Maillard reactivity was suggested using colorimetry, o-phthaldialdehyde assays, and sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE followed by glycoprotein staining. Resultant glycoprotein dispersions exhibited altered functionality, in which case steady shear and small amplitude oscillatory rheology parameters were shown to be dependent on the specific reducing sugar present. Furthermore, the emulsion stability of mWPC-dextran fractions was 2 to 3 times greater than either mWPC or commercial WPC dispersions based on creaming index values. The water-holding capacity of all test samples decreased with additional heating steps; however, mWPC-dextran powders still retained nearly 6 times their weight of water. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that mWPC-dextran conjugates formed a porous network that differed significantly from the dense network observed with mWPC samples. This porosity likely affected both the

  18. Expanded Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  19. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  20. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  1. The Protein Content of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Expanded Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived CD133+and Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Partially Explains Why both Sources are Advantageous for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulski, Addeli B B; Capriglione, Luiz G; Batista, Michel; Marcon, Bruna H; Senegaglia, Alexandra C; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Correa, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    Adult stem cells have beneficial effects when exposed to damaged tissue due, at least in part, to their paracrine activity, which includes soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Given the multiplicity of signals carried by these vesicles through the horizontal transfer of functional molecules, human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) and CD133 + cell-derived EVs have been tested in various disease models and shown to recover damaged tissues. In this study, we profiled the protein content of EVs derived from expanded human CD133 + cells and bone marrow-derived hMSCs with the intention of better understanding the functions performed by these vesicles/cells and delineating the most appropriate use of each EV in future therapeutic procedures. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified 623 proteins for expanded CD133 + -EVs and 797 proteins for hMSCs-EVs. Although the EVs from both origins were qualitatively similar, when protein abundance was considered, hMSCs-EVs and CD133 + -EVs were different. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis in CD133 + -EVs revealed proteins involved in a variety of angiogenesis-related functions as well proteins related to the cytoskeleton and highly implicated in cell motility and cellular activation. In contrast, when overrepresented proteins in hMSCs-EVs were analyzed, a GO cluster of immune response-related genes involved with immune response-regulating factors acting on phagocytosis and innate immunity was identified. Together our data demonstrate that from the point of view of protein content, expanded CD133 + -EVs and hMSCs-EVs are in part similar but also sufficiently different to reflect the main beneficial paracrine effects widely reported in pre-clinical studies using expanded CD133 + cells and/or hBM-MSCs.

  2. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  3. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  4. Did Androgen-Binding Protein Paralogs Undergo Neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp Gene Region Expanded in the Mouse Genome?: e115454

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert C Karn; Amanda G Chung; Christina M Laukaitis

    2014-01-01

      The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit...

  5. Did androgen-binding protein paralogs undergo neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp gene region expanded in the mouse genome?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karn, Robert C; Chung, Amanda G; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit...

  6. HIV-1 Env DNA vaccine plus protein boost delivered by EP expands B- and T-cell responses and neutralizing phenotype in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Muthumani

    Full Text Available An effective HIV vaccine will most likely require the induction of strong T-cell responses, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs, and the elicitation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC. Previously, we demonstrated the induction of strong HIV/SIV cellular immune responses in macaques and humans using synthetic consensus DNA immunogens delivered via adaptive electroporation (EP. However, the ability of this improved DNA approach to prime for relevant antibody responses has not been previously studied. Here, we investigate the immunogenicity of consensus DNA constructs encoding gp140 sequences from HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C and D in a DNA prime-protein boost vaccine regimen. Mice and guinea pigs were primed with single- and multi-clade DNA via EP and boosted with recombinant gp120 protein. Sera were analyzed for gp120 binding and induction of neutralizing antibody activity. Immunization with recombinant Env protein alone induced low-titer binding antibodies with limited neutralization breath. In contrast, the synthetic DNA prime-protein boost protocol induced significantly higher antibody binding titers. Furthermore, sera from DNA prime-protein boost groups were able to neutralize a broader range of viruses in a panel of tier 1 clade B viruses as well as multiple tier 1 clade A and clade C viruses. Further investigation of synthetic DNA prime plus adaptive EP plus protein boost appears warranted.

  7. Did androgen-binding protein paralogs undergo neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp gene region expanded in the mouse genome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Chung, Amanda G; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit. We endeavored to determine how many Abp genes are expressed as proteins in tears and saliva, and as transcripts in the exocrine glands producing them. Using standard PCR, we amplified Abp transcripts from cDNA libraries of C57BL/6 mice and found fifteen Abp gene transcripts in the lacrimal gland and five in the submandibular gland. Proteomic analyses identified proteins corresponding to eleven of the lacrimal gland transcripts, all of them different from the three salivary ABPs reported previously. Our qPCR results showed that five of the six transcripts that lacked corresponding proteins are expressed at very low levels compared to those transcripts with proteins. We found 1) no overlap in the repertoires of expressed Abp paralogs in lacrimal gland/tears and salivary glands/saliva; 2) substantial sex-limited expression of lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs in males but no sex-limited expression in females; and 3) that the lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs are found exclusively in ancestral clades 1, 2 and 3 of the five clades described previously while the salivary glands/saliva expressed-paralogs are found only in clade 5. The number of instances of extremely low levels of transcription without corresponding protein production in paralogs specific to tears and saliva suggested the role of subfunctionalization, a derived condition wherein genes that may have been expressed highly in both glands ancestrally were down-regulated subsequent to duplication. Thus, evidence for subfunctionalization can be seen in our data and we argue that the partitioning of paralog expression between lacrimal and salivary glands that we report here occurred as the result of adaptive evolution.

  8. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  9. Myxoma virus protein M029 is a dual function immunomodulator that inhibits PKR and also conscripts RHA/DHX9 to promote expanded host tropism and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masmudur M Rahman

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus (MYXV-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR and RNA helicase A (RHA/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication

  10. Myxoma virus protein M029 is a dual function immunomodulator that inhibits PKR and also conscripts RHA/DHX9 to promote expanded host tropism and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Masmudur M; Liu, Jia; Chan, Winnie M; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID) and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR) and RNA helicase A (RHA)/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication specifically in myeloid

  11. Expanding the horizons for structural analysis of fully protonated protein assemblies by NMR spectroscopy at MAS frequencies above 100 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struppe, Jochem; Quinn, Caitlin M; Lu, Manman; Wang, Mingzhang; Hou, Guangjin; Lu, Xingyu; Kraus, Jodi; Andreas, Loren B; Stanek, Jan; Lalli, Daniela; Lesage, Anne; Pintacuda, Guido; Maas, Werner; Gronenborn, Angela M; Polenova, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    The recent breakthroughs in NMR probe technologies resulted in the development of MAS NMR probes with rotation frequencies exceeding 100 kHz. Herein, we explore dramatic increases in sensitivity and resolution observed at MAS frequencies of 110-111 kHz in a novel 0.7 mm HCND probe that enable structural analysis of fully protonated biological systems. Proton- detected 2D and 3D correlation spectroscopy under such conditions requires only 0.1-0.5 mg of sample and a fraction of time compared to conventional (13)C-detected experiments. We discuss the performance of several proton- and heteronuclear- ((13)C-,(15)N-) based correlation experiments in terms of sensitivity and resolution, using a model microcrystalline fMLF tripeptide. We demonstrate the applications of ultrafast MAS to a large, fully protonated protein assembly of the 231-residue HIV-1 CA capsid protein. Resonance assignments of protons and heteronuclei, as well as (1)H-(15)N dipolar and (1)H(N) CSA tensors are readily obtained from the high sensitivity and resolution proton-detected 3D experiments. The approach demonstrated here is expected to enable the determination of atomic-resolution structures of large protein assemblies, inaccessible by current methodologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Chemical correction of pre-mRNA splicing defects associated with sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 protein by expanded r(CAG) transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Parkesh, Raman; Sznajder, Lukasz J.; Childs-Disney, Jessica; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Disney, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that expanded r(CAG) triplet repeats (r(CAG)exp) associated with untreatable neurological diseases cause pre-mRNA mis-splicing likely due to sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) splicing factor. Bioactive small molecules that bind the 5’CAG/3’GAC motif found in r(CAG)exp hairpin structure were identified by using RNA binding studies and virtual screening/chemical similarity searching. Specifically, a benzylguanidine-containing small molecule was found to improve pre-mRNA alternative splicing of MBNL1-sensitive exons in cells expressing the toxic r(CAG)exp. The compound was identified by first studying the binding of RNA 1×1 nucleotide internal loops to small molecules known to have affinity for nucleic acids. Those studies identified 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) as a specific binder to RNAs with the 5’CAG/3’GAC motif. DAPI was then used as a query molecule in a shape- and chemistry alignment-based virtual screen to identify compounds with improved properties, which identified 4-guanidinophenyl 4-guanidinobenzoate as small molecule capable of improving pre-mRNA splicing defects associated with the r(CAG)exp-MBNL1 complex. This compound may facilitate the development of therapeutics to treat diseases caused by r(CAG)exp and could serve as a useful chemical tool to dissect the mechanisms of r(CAG)exp toxicity. The approach used in these studies, defining the small RNA motifs that bind known nucleic acid binders and then using virtual screening to optimize them for bioactivity, may be generally applicable for designing small molecules that target other RNAs in human genomic sequence. PMID:22252896

  13. Chemical correction of pre-mRNA splicing defects associated with sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 protein by expanded r(CAG)-containing transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Parkesh, Raman; Sznajder, Lukasz J; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-03-16

    Recently, it was reported that expanded r(CAG) triplet repeats (r(CAG)(exp)) associated with untreatable neurological diseases cause pre-mRNA mis-splicing likely due to sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) splicing factor. Bioactive small molecules that bind the 5'CAG/3'GAC motif found in r(CAG)(exp) hairpin structure were identified by using RNA binding studies and virtual screening/chemical similarity searching. Specifically, a benzylguanidine-containing small molecule was found to improve pre-mRNA alternative splicing of MBNL1-sensitive exons in cells expressing the toxic r(CAG)(exp). The compound was identified by first studying the binding of RNA 1 × 1 nucleotide internal loops to small molecules known to have affinity for nucleic acids. Those studies identified 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) as a specific binder to RNAs with the 5'CAG/3'GAC motif. DAPI was then used as a query molecule in a shape- and chemistry alignment-based virtual screen to identify compounds with improved properties, which identified 4-guanidinophenyl 4-guanidinobenzoate, a small molecule that improves pre-mRNA splicing defects associated with the r(CAG)(exp)-MBNL1 complex. This compound may facilitate the development of therapeutics to treat diseases caused by r(CAG)(exp) and could serve as a useful chemical tool to dissect the mechanisms of r(CAG)(exp) toxicity. The approach used in these studies, defining the small RNA motifs that bind small molecules with known affinity for nucleic acids and then using virtual screening to optimize them for bioactivity, may be generally applicable for designing small molecules that target other RNAs in the human genomic sequence.

  14. Inference of expanded Lrp-like feast/famine transcription factor targets in a non-model organism using protein structure-based prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ashworth

    Full Text Available Widespread microbial genome sequencing presents an opportunity to understand the gene regulatory networks of non-model organisms. This requires knowledge of the binding sites for transcription factors whose DNA-binding properties are unknown or difficult to infer. We adapted a protein structure-based method to predict the specificities and putative regulons of homologous transcription factors across diverse species. As a proof-of-concept we predicted the specificities and transcriptional target genes of divergent archaeal feast/famine regulatory proteins, several of which are encoded in the genome of Halobacterium salinarum. This was validated by comparison to experimentally determined specificities for transcription factors in distantly related extremophiles, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, and cis-regulatory sequence conservation across eighteen related species of halobacteria. Through this analysis we were able to infer that Halobacterium salinarum employs a divergent local trans-regulatory strategy to regulate genes (carA and carB involved in arginine and pyrimidine metabolism, whereas Escherichia coli employs an operon. The prediction of gene regulatory binding sites using structure-based methods is useful for the inference of gene regulatory relationships in new species that are otherwise difficult to infer.

  15. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  16. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  17. TRIPLE ACTION PALATE EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yordanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  18. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2003-06-24

    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  19. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  20. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  1. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  2. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  3. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  4. Ex vivo expanded human regulatory T cells delay islet allograft rejection via inhibiting islet-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in CD34+ stem cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiao

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease caused by immune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting β cells of the pancreas. Near complete dependence on exogenous insulin makes T1DM very difficult to control, with the result that patients are exposed to high blood glucose and risk of diabetic complications and/or intermittent low blood glucose that can cause unconsciousness, fits and even death. Allograft transplantation of pancreatic islets restores normoglycemia with a low risk of surgical complications. However, although successful immediately after transplantation, islets are progressively lost, with most of the patients requiring exogenous insulin within 2 years post-transplant. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for the development of new strategies to prevent islet rejection. In this study, we explored the importance of human regulatory T cells in the control of islets allograft rejection. We developed a pre-clinical model of human islet transplantation by reconstituting NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice with cord blood-derived human CD34+ stem cells and demonstrated that although the engrafted human immune system mediated the rejection of human islets, their survival was significantly prolonged following adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded human Tregs. Mechanistically, Tregs inhibited the infiltration of innate immune cells and CD4+ T cells into the graft by down-regulating the islet graft-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Our findings might contribute to the development of clinical strategies for Treg therapy to control human islet rejection. We also show for the first time that CD34+ cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mouse model could be beneficial for investigating human innate immunity in vivo.

  5. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  6. Expanding roles for GILT in immunity

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura Ciaccia; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), a thioredoxin-related oxidoreductase, functions in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation by reducing disulfide bonds of endocytosed proteins and facilitating their unfolding and optimal degradation. However, recent reports have greatly expanded our understanding of GILT’s function. Several studies of GILT and antigen processing have shown that the influence of GILT on the peptide re...

  7. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  8. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  9. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  10. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting*

    OpenAIRE

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F.; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the −1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded re...

  11. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    . It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...... as a guideline for evaluating game design thinking and for measuring solutions made in the development process. To strengthen our model of expanded design space, we will present examples from our game design courses.......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...

  12. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  13. Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K

    2010-01-01

    The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion.

  14. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, affects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction.

  15. Sense-encoded poly-GR dipeptide repeat proteins correlate to neurodegeneration and uniquely co-localize with TDP-43 in dendrites of repeat-expanded C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Shahram; Stauffer, Jennifer E; Jiang, Jie; Garcia, Sandra Diaz; Taylor, Amy E; Schulte, Derek; Ohkubo, Takuya; Schloffman, Cheyenne L; Maldonado, Marcus; Baughn, Michael; Rodriguez, Maria J; Pizzo, Don; Cleveland, Don; Ravits, John

    2017-12-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9 ALS). The main hypothesized pathogenic mechanisms are C9orf72 haploinsufficiency and/or toxicity from one or more of bi-directionally transcribed repeat RNAs and their dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) poly-GP, poly-GA, poly-GR, poly-PR and poly-PA. Recently, nuclear import and/or export defects especially caused by arginine-containing poly-GR or poly-PR have been proposed as significant contributors to pathogenesis based on disease models. We quantitatively studied and compared DPRs, nuclear pore proteins and C9orf72 protein in clinically related and clinically unrelated regions of the central nervous system, and compared them to phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43), the hallmark protein of ALS. Of the five DPRs, only poly-GR was significantly abundant in clinically related areas compared to unrelated areas (p sense-encoded poly-GR DPR was unique, and localized to dendrites and pTDP43 in motor regions of C9 ALS CNS. This is consistent with new emerging ideas about TDP-43 functions in dendrites.

  16. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  17. Unintended Consequences of Expanding the Genetic Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollum, Marvin; Ashwood, Brennan; Jockusch, Steffen; Lam, Minh; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2016-09-14

    The base pair d5SICS·dNaM was recently reported to incorporate and replicate in the DNA of a modified strain of Escherichia coli, thus making the world's first stable semisynthetic organism. This newly expanded genetic alphabet may allow organisms to store considerably more information in order to translate proteins with unprecedented enzymatic activities. Importantly, however, there is currently no knowledge of the photochemical properties of d5SICS or dNaM-properties that are central to the chemical integrity of cellular DNA. In this contribution, it is shown that excitation of d5SICS or dNaM with near-visible light leads to efficient trapping of population in the nucleoside's excited triplet state in high yield. Photoactivation of these long-lived, reactive states is shown to photosensitize cells, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and to a marked decrease in cell proliferation, thus warning scientists of the potential phototoxic side effects of expanding the genetic alphabet.

  18. Expanding CEP290 mutational spectrum in ciliopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Lorena; Brancati, Francesco; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Audollent, Sophie; Bertini, Enrico; Kaplan, Josseline; Perrault, Isabelle; Iannicelli, Miriam; Mancuso, Brunella; Rigoli, Luciana; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Swistun, Dominika; Tolentino, Jerlyn; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gleeson, Joseph G; Valente, Enza Maria; Zankl, A; Leventer, R; Grattan-Smith, P; Janecke, A; D'Hooghe, M; Sznajer, Y; Van Coster, R; Demerleir, L; Dias, K; Moco, C; Moreira, A; Kim, C Ae; Maegawa, G; Petkovic, D; Abdel-Salam, G M H; Abdel-Aleem, A; Zaki, M S; Marti, I; Quijano-Roy, S; Sigaudy, S; de Lonlay, P; Romano, S; Touraine, R; Koenig, M; Lagier-Tourenne, C; Messer, J; Collignon, P; Wolf, N; Philippi, H; Kitsiou Tzeli, S; Halldorsson, S; Johannsdottir, J; Ludvigsson, P; Phadke, S R; Udani, V; Stuart, B; Magee, A; Lev, D; Michelson, M; Ben-Zeev, B; Fischetto, R; Benedicenti, F; Stanzial, F; Borgatti, R; Accorsi, P; Battaglia, S; Fazzi, E; Giordano, L; Pinelli, L; Boccone, L; Bigoni, S; Ferlini, A; Donati, M A; Caridi, G; Divizia, M T; Faravelli, F; Ghiggeri, G; Pessagno, A; Briguglio, M; Briuglia, S; Salpietro, C D; Tortorella, G; Adami, A; Castorina, P; Lalatta, F; Marra, G; Riva, D; Scelsa, B; Spaccini, L; Uziel, G; Del Giudice, E; Laverda, A M; Ludwig, K; Permunian, A; Suppiej, A; Signorini, S; Uggetti, C; Battini, R; Di Giacomo, M; Cilio, M R; Di Sabato, M L; Leuzzi, V; Parisi, P; Pollazzon, M; Silengo, M; De Vescovi, R; Greco, D; Romano, C; Cazzagon, M; Simonati, A; Al-Tawari, A A; Bastaki, L; Mégarbané, A; Sabolic Avramovska, V; de Jong, M M; Stromme, P; Koul, R; Rajab, A; Azam, M; Barbot, C; Martorell Sampol, L; Rodriguez, B; Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Teber, S; Anlar, B; Comu, S; Karaca, E; Kayserili, H; Yüksel, A; Akcakus, M; Al Gazali, L; Sztriha, L; Nicholl, D; Woods, C G; Bennett, C; Hurst, J; Sheridan, E; Barnicoat, A; Hennekam, R; Lees, M; Blair, E; Bernes, S; Sanchez, H; Clark, A E; DeMarco, E; Donahue, C; Sherr, E; Hahn, J; Sanger, T D; Gallager, T E; Dobyns, W B; Daugherty, C; Krishnamoorthy, K S; Sarco, D; Walsh, C A; McKanna, T; Milisa, J; Chung, W K; De Vivo, D C; Raynes, H; Schubert, R; Seward, A; Brooks, D G; Goldstein, A; Caldwell, J; Finsecke, E; Maria, B L; Holden, K; Cruse, R P; Swoboda, K J; Viskochil, D

    2009-10-01

    Ciliopathies are an expanding group of rare conditions characterized by multiorgan involvement, that are caused by mutations in genes encoding for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus. Among these genes, CEP290 bears an intriguing allelic spectrum, being commonly mutated in Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD), Meckel syndrome (MKS), Senior-Loken syndrome and isolated Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Although these conditions are recessively inherited, in a subset of patients only one CEP290 mutation could be detected. To assess whether genomic rearrangements involving the CEP290 gene could represent a possible mutational mechanism in these cases, exon dosage analysis on genomic DNA was performed in two groups of CEP290 heterozygous patients, including five JSRD/MKS cases and four LCA, respectively. In one JSRD patient, we identified a large heterozygous deletion encompassing CEP290 C-terminus that resulted in marked reduction of mRNA expression. No copy number alterations were identified in the remaining probands. The present work expands the CEP290 genotypic spectrum to include multiexon deletions. Although this mechanism does not appear to be frequent, screening for genomic rearrangements should be considered in patients in whom a single CEP290 mutated allele was identified.

  19. Neuroimmunology: an expanding frontier in autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana eHöftberger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-neuronal autoimmune encephalitis (AIE comprises a recently characterized group of immune-mediated disorders that result in limbic, multifocal, or diffuse encephalitis due to direct interaction of autoantibodies with neuronal surface or synaptic proteins. The pathological effects of the autoantibodies vary according to the target antigen but when they are removed neuronal dysfunction is commonly reversed. Ongoing research on AIE constantly increases the number of novel autoantibodies and expands the spectrum of neurological syndromes that are important in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric illness, dementia, or viral encephalitis. This review summarizes recent advances in AIE, focusing on pathogenetic mechanisms and novel associations with other CNS disorders such as neurodegeneration, relapsing symptoms post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis, and demyelinating diseases. In addition, an algorithmic approach to detect and characterize neuronal cell surface autoantibodies is proposed.

  20. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  1. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  2. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohrer, Jim [IBM, North Castle, NY (United States); Pierce, Brian M. [Raytheon Co., Waltham, MA (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Golledge, Reginald G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Horn, Robert E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Turkle, Sherry [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yonas, Gerold [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glicken Turnley, Jessica [Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollack, Jordan [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Burger, Rudy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinett, Warren; Wilson, Larry Todd [Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Bainbridge, W. S.; Canton, J.; Kuekes, P.; Loomis, J.; Penz, P.

    2013-01-01

    To be able to chart the most profitable future directions for societal transformation and corresponding scientific research, five multidisciplinary themes focused on major goals have been identified to fulfill the overall motivating vision of convergence described in the previous pages. The first, “Expanding Human Cognition and Communication,” is devoted to technological breakthroughs that have the potential to enhance individuals’ mental and interaction abilities. Throughout the twentieth century, a number of purely psychological techniques were offered for strengthening human character and personality, but evaluation research has generally failed to confirm the alleged benefits of these methods (Druckman and Bjork 1992; 1994). Today, there is good reason to believe that a combination of methods, drawing upon varied branches of converging science and technology, would be more effective than attempts that rely upon mental training alone.

  3. Expanding the Trilinos developer community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2010-10-01

    The Trilinos Project started approximately nine years ago as a small effort to enable research, development and ongoing support of small, related solver software efforts. The 'Tri' in Trilinos was intended to indicate the eventual three packages we planned to develop. In 2007 the project expanded its scope to include any package that was an enabling technology for technical computing. Presently the Trilinos repository contains over 55 packages covering a broad spectrum of reusable tools for constructing full-featured scalable scientific and engineering applications. Trilinos usage is now worldwide, and many applications have an explicit dependence on Trilinos for essential capabilities. Users come from other US laboratories, universities, industry and international research groups. Awareness and use of Trilinos is growing rapidly outside of Sandia. Members of the external research community are becoming more familiar with Trilinos, its design and collaborative nature. As a result, the Trilinos project is receiving an increasing number of requests from external community members who want to contribute to Trilinos as developers. To-date we have worked with external developers in an ad hoc fashion. Going forward, we want to develop a set of policies, procedures, tools and infrastructure to simplify interactions with external developers. As we go forward with multi-laboratory efforts such as CASL and X-Stack, and international projects such as IESP, we will need a more streamlined and explicit process for making external developers 'first-class citizens' in the Trilinos development community. This document is intended to frame the discussion for expanding the Trilinos community to all strategically important external members, while at the same time preserving Sandia's primary leadership role in the project.

  4. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  5. Retinoblastoma – to expand awareness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number, expression of oncogenes, and reduced expression of the senescence proteins. RB1 inactivation in developing retina induces genomic instability, but senescence can block transformation at the stage of the retinoma. However, stable retinoma is rarely clinically observed because of progressive genetic instability.3.

  6. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  7. Expanding cosmic horizons of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wainwright, Milton

    2003-02-01

    The conceptual boundaries of life are rapidly expanding far beyond the confines of our planet to encompass an ever-widening region of the universe. Complex organic molecules in interstellar dust and comets appear most plausibly to be biologically derived, or at least closely related spectroscopically and structurally to such material. A de novo origin of life from non-living material is reckoned to have so minuscule a probability that its occurrence once in the universe can be considered miracle enough. The widespread distribution of similar material (e.g with the characteristics of the diffuse infrared bands and 2175 absorption features) throughout the galaxy and in external galaxies adds weight to the theory of panspermia, where it is supposed that the components of life at a generic level are readily transferred from one place to another. Spectroscopic evidence consistent with life extends to redshifts z=0.5, and from elemental abundance studies alone (e.g, of C, O and metals) in distant galaxies the possibility of cosmic life extends to redshifts as high as z=3.

  8. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  9. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  10. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  11. Improving and expanding NGO programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A

    1993-06-01

    India has massive problems and is in need of improving and expanding non governmental organization (NGO) programs by broadening the scope of NGO activities, identifying successful NGO activities, and by moving closer to the community to participate in their activities. The problems and experience in the last few decades indicate that with expansion bureaucratization takes place. The institution begins to depend on donors and follows donor-driven agendas. As more money is given by the government, many more so called GONGO or Government-NGO projects materialize. Another problem is that the government almost always approaches the NGOs for the implementation of a project, and there is complete lack of cooperation at the planning stage. The government is considering a loan from the World Bank and UNICEF to launch a mother and child health program, but there has not been any discussion with the dozens of people who have worked on issues concerning mother and child health issues for many years. There is a need to be more demanding of the government about the various programs that are implemented for the government. Very few NGO health and family welfare projects are run by ordinary nurses or ordinary Ayurvedic doctors under ordinary conditions. Since successful NGO work has to be extended to other parts of the country, they will have to be run by ordinary people with very ordinary resources. Over the years, the NGO community has become preoccupied with its own agenda. Today, despite very sophisticated equipment and infrastructure, they are not able to reach the 60,000-70,000 workers and employees. Some of the ideas with respect to the strengthens and weaknesses of community participation have to be shared. NGOs should include all the existing non governmental organizations throughout the country, and have a dialogue with other nongovernmental bodies such as trade unions. The challenge is to adjust the current agenda, prevailing style, and present way of operating and move

  12. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  13. Time, space, and disorder in the expanding proteome universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minde, David-Paul; Dunker, A Keith; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-04-01

    Proteins are highly dynamic entities. Their myriad functions require specific structures, but proteins' dynamic nature ranges all the way from the local mobility of their amino acid constituents to mobility within and well beyond single cells. A truly comprehensive view of the dynamic structural proteome includes: (i) alternative sequences, (ii) alternative conformations, (iii) alternative interactions with a range of biomolecules, (iv) cellular localizations, (v) alternative behaviors in different cell types. While these aspects have traditionally been explored one protein at a time, we highlight recently emerging global approaches that accelerate comprehensive insights into these facets of the dynamic nature of protein structure. Computational tools that integrate and expand on multiple orthogonal data types promise to enable the transition from a disjointed list of static snapshots to a structurally explicit understanding of the dynamics of cellular mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. Proteomics Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: lysinuric protein intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Lysinuric protein intolerance Lysinuric protein intolerance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lysinuric protein intolerance is a disorder caused by the body's inability ...

  15. Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.

  16. Expanding Genomics of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eKuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant and soil health, and carbon and nutrient cycles. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphological types (e.g. arbuscular [AM], ectomycorrhizal [ECM] in multiple fungal clades (e.g. phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota. The accessibility and culturability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first 3 mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing 3 fungal phyla and 2 mycorrhizal types. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant-degrading enzymes (PDEs and expansion of lineage-specific gene families, including short secreted protein (SSP effectors and other symbiosis genes. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of gene families in contrast to Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other 2 fungi, the symbiosis can involve similar solutions as loss of PDEs and mycorrhiza-induced SSPs. The mycorrhizal community is building on these studies with 3 large-scale initiatives. The Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative (MGI is sequencing 35 genomes of multiple fungal clades and mycorrhizal types for phylogenomic and population analyses. 17 MGI species whose symbiosis is reconstitutable in vitro are targeted for comprehensive transcriptomics of mycorrhiza formation. MGI genomes are seeding a set of 50+ reference fungal genomes for annotating metatranscriptomes sampled from 7 diverse well-described soil sites. These 3 projects address fundamental questions about the nature and role of a

  17. A comparison of skin expansion and contraction between one expander and two expanders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhang, Jin-ming; Ji, Chen-yang; Meng, Hong; Huang, Jian-hua; Luo, He-yuan; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Liu, Xiao-tao; Hong, Xiao-fang

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the difference between the skin expansion and contraction rates for an expanded flap with one versus two expanders. The study cohort comprised 24 cases of two overlapping expanders and 15 cases of a single implanted expander involving 22 patients. The method of "wet-cloth sampling" was applied to measure the expanded flap area and the initial unexpanded area and to calculate the skin expansion rate. Two points 5 cm apart in the center of the expanded flap were selected before the second surgical stage. After removal of the expander, the distance between the two fixed points was measured and recorded. The contraction rate of the expanded flap then was calculated. During the same period of expansion in the two groups (p = 0.06, >0.01), the skin expansion rate was 3.5 ± 0.9 % in the group with two overlapping expanders and 2.6 ± 0.6 % in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002, 0.05). We fitted a linear regression model that was Y = 0.533 − 0.003X, where Y was the contraction rate of the expanded flap and X was the period of expansion. The contraction rate of the expanded flap was negatively correlated with the period of expansion. Compared with the traditional method of implanting a single expander, the new method of overlapping two expanders in a single cavity increased the skin expansion rate. The instantly expanded flap contraction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups, so the amount of expanded skin area absolutely increased. The clinical application of the new method is worth promoting. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  18. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwakeel, Eman A; Titgemeyer, Evan C; Cheng, Zongjia J; Nour, Abdelaziz M; Nasser, Mohamed Ea

    2012-03-20

    Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14) and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5) were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2) and mechanically extracted (heated) soybean meal (n = 2) from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant

  19. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwakeel Eman A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration

  20. Cryo-electron Microscopy Structures of Expanded Poliovirus with VHHs Sample the Conformational Repertoire of the Expanded State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M

    2017-02-01

    By using cryo-electron microscopy, expanded 80S-like poliovirus virions (poliovirions) were visualized in complexes with four 80S-specific camelid VHHs (Nanobodies). In all four complexes, the VHHs bind to a site on the top surface of the capsid protein VP3, which is hidden in the native virus. Interestingly, although the four VHHs bind to the same site, the structures of the expanded virus differ in detail in each complex, suggesting that each of the Nanobodies has sampled a range of low-energy structures available to the expanded virion. By stabilizing unique structures of expanded virions, VHH binding permitted a more detailed view of the virus structure than was previously possible, leading to a better understanding of the expansion process that is a critical step in infection. It is now clear which polypeptide chains become disordered and which become rearranged. The higher resolution of these structures also revealed well-ordered conformations for the EF loop of VP2, the GH loop of VP3, and the N-terminal extensions of VP1 and VP2, which, in retrospect, were present in lower-resolution structures but not recognized. These structural observations help to explain preexisting mutational data and provide insights into several other stages of the poliovirus life cycle, including the mechanism of receptor-triggered virus expansion. When poliovirus infects a cell, it undergoes a change in its structure in order to pass RNA through its protein coat, but this altered state is short-lived and thus poorly understood. The structures of poliovirus bound to single-domain antibodies presented here capture the altered virus in what appear to be intermediate states. A careful analysis of these structures lets us better understand the molecular mechanism of infection and how these changes in the virus lead to productive-infection events. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Cryo-electron Microscopy Structures of Expanded Poliovirus with VHHs Sample the Conformational Repertoire of the Expanded State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Filman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By using cryo-electron microscopy, expanded 80S-like poliovirus virions (poliovirions) were visualized in complexes with four 80S-specific camelid VHHs (Nanobodies). In all four complexes, the VHHs bind to a site on the top surface of the capsid protein VP3, which is hidden in the native virus. Interestingly, although the four VHHs bind to the same site, the structures of the expanded virus differ in detail in each complex, suggesting that each of the Nanobodies has sampled a range of low-energy structures available to the expanded virion. By stabilizing unique structures of expanded virions, VHH binding permitted a more detailed view of the virus structure than was previously possible, leading to a better understanding of the expansion process that is a critical step in infection. It is now clear which polypeptide chains become disordered and which become rearranged. The higher resolution of these structures also revealed well-ordered conformations for the EF loop of VP2, the GH loop of VP3, and the N-terminal extensions of VP1 and VP2, which, in retrospect, were present in lower-resolution structures but not recognized. These structural observations help to explain preexisting mutational data and provide insights into several other stages of the poliovirus life cycle, including the mechanism of receptor-triggered virus expansion. IMPORTANCE When poliovirus infects a cell, it undergoes a change in its structure in order to pass RNA through its protein coat, but this altered state is short-lived and thus poorly understood. The structures of poliovirus bound to single-domain antibodies presented here capture the altered virus in what appear to be intermediate states. A careful analysis of these structures lets us better understand the molecular mechanism of infection and how these changes in the virus lead to productive-infection events. PMID:27852863

  2. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Bray; Ivy Bourgault

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing...

  3. Efficacy of Nickel-Titanium Palatal Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Paul

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : To conclude, a Ni-Ti expander brings about expansion by a combination of orthodontic and orthopedic effects by an increase in maxillary intermolar, maxillary intercanine and mandibular intercanine widths as also the opening of the midpalatal suture.

  4. Effects of expanding on the nutritive value of wheat bran in pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NÄSI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient digestibility and protein utilization responses in pigs to the expanding process of wheat bran were evaluated. The digestibility and nitrogen balance study was conducted with nine finishing barrows (live weight of 75-93 kg using a two-period reversal design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Wheat bran,untreated or expanded with a Kahl expander at a temperature of 105-110ºC, was included at two levels of 150 or 300 g kg-1 in barley-based diet supplemented with minerals and vitamins and fortified with lysine. The level of wheat bran in the diet had a diminishing effect on organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, and hemicellulose (HQ digestibilities of the diet and tended to decrease those of crude protein (CP and ash. Expanding of the wheat bran affected a non-significant improvement on ether extract (EE, NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and HC digestibilities of the diet. Nutrient digestibilities of wheat bran and expanded wheat bran computed by regression were 0.64, 0.67 for OM; 0.70, 0.70 for CP; 0.47, 0.63 for EE; 0.35, 0.40 for NDF and 0.01, 0.16 for ADF, respectively. Feed values of untreated and expanded wheat bran were 11.45 and 12.08 MJ ME kg-1 DM, 7.84 and 8.02 MJ NE kg -1 DM and digestible crude protein 113 and 110 g kg-1 DM respectively. The expanding process had no effect on nitrogen retention or protein utilization parameters measured. Processing of wheat bran with an expander had only a slight improving effect on the nutritive value of bran in pig diets.;

  5. PD-1 Blockade Expands Intratumoral Memory T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribas, Antoni; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Zaretsky, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Tumor responses to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade therapy are mediated by T cells, which we characterized in 102 tumor biopsies obtained from 53 patients treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody to PD-1. Biopsies were dissociated, and single-cell infiltrates were analyzed by multi...... with regressing melanoma. In conclusion, PD-1 blockade increases the frequency of T cells, B cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumors, with the CD8+ effector memory T-cell subset being the major T-cell phenotype expanded in patients with a response to therapy....

  6. Design of laser afocal zoom expander system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lian; Zeng, Chun-Mei; Hu, Tian-Tian

    2018-01-01

    Laser afocal zoom expander system due to the beam diameter variable, can be used in the light sheet illumination microscope to observe the samples of different sizes. Based on the principle of afocal zoom system, the laser collimation and beam expander system with a total length of less than 110mm, 6 pieces of spherical lens and a beam expander ratio of 10 is designed by using Zemax software. The system is focused on laser with a wavelength of 532nm, divergence angle of less than 4mrad and incident diameter of 4mm. With the combination of 6 spherical lens, the beam divergence angle is 0.4mrad at the maximum magnification ratio, and the RMS values at different rates are less than λ/4. This design is simple in structure and easy to process and adjust. It has certain practical value.

  7. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving......Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... the materiality level or KAM. As a consequence, standard setters should carefully analyse the effect of additional information before making decisions on expanding the content of the audit report. Such expansions are not necessarily perceived as useful by stakeholders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd...

  8. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k...

  9. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures.

  10. Replicating an expanded genetic alphabet in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to replicate an unnatural base pair in living cells. This study highlights the technologies developed to create a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet and the potential challenges of moving forward. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  12. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  13. Expanding the Reader Landscape of Histone Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Bridgers, Joseph B; Strahl, Brian D

    2017-04-04

    In this issue of Structure,Klein et al. (2017) expand our understanding of what reader domains bind to by showing that MORF, a double PHD domain containing lysine acetyltransferase, is a preferential reader of histone lysine acylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  15. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  16. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic ...

  17. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  18. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 216-225. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0216-0225 ...

  19. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  20. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  1. Discrete Groups, Expanding Graphs and Invariant Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Presents the solutions to two problems: the first is the construction of expanding graphs - graphs which are of fundamental importance for communication networks and computer science, and the second is the Ruziewicz problem concerning the finitely additive invariant measures on spheres

  2. Expanding Educational Excellence: The Power of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Winn, Donna-Marie; Harradine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore four major barriers to academic success that must be addressed, briefly describe two projects that have worked to address these barriers, and make recommendations for moving forward as they work to expand educational excellence for all students. They provide examples of the myriad ways in which schools have the…

  3. Expanded Core Curriculum: 12 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Keri; Blankenship, Karen; Hatlen, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in teachers' and parents' understanding and implementation of or philosophy on the implementation of the content areas of the expanded core curriculum for students who are visually impaired. The results demonstrated some changes since the original survey results were reported in 1998 and a discrepancy between the…

  4. CLASSICS WHY THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (H. G. Wells, The Time Machine and other Stories). WHY IS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDING? Chemical Explosion and Astrophysical Explosion Similarities and Differences. The expansion of the Universe is a reliably established fact. There was the “Big Bang” about 15 billion years ago. But why did it happen? What are the ...

  5. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and the distances of galaxies. H ubble also did a lot of pioneering w ork on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at H ubble's law and discuss how it ...

  6. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  7. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    compositions and (b) unravelling of the contributions of stress-depth and composition-depth profiles in expanded austenite layers are summarised and discussed. It is shown through simulation of line profiles that the combined effects of composition gradients, stress gradients and stacking fault gradients can...

  8. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  9. Kibra and Merlin Activate the Hippo Pathway Spatially Distinct from and Independent of Expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting; Ludwig, Michael Z; Xu, Jiajie; Fehon, Richard G

    2017-03-13

    The Hippo pathway is emerging as a key evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism that controls organ size. Three membrane-associated proteins, Kibra, Merlin, and Expanded, regulate pathway activity, but the precise molecular mechanism by which they function is still poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that Merlin and Kibra activate Hippo signaling in parallel to Expanded at a spatially distinct cellular domain, the medial apical cortex. Merlin and Kibra together recruit the adapter protein Salvador, which in turn recruits the core kinase Hippo. In addition, we show that Crumbs has a dual effect on Hippo signaling. Crumbs promotes the ability of Expanded to activate the pathway but also sequesters Kibra to downregulate Hippo signaling. Together, our findings elucidate the mechanism of Hippo pathway activation by Merlin and Kibra, identify a subcellular domain for Hippo pathway regulation, and demonstrate differential activity of upstream regulators in different subcellular domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ex vivo expanded autologous polyclonal regulatory T cells suppress inhibitor formation in hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debalina Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cell therapy utilizing ex vivo expanded polyclonal CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg is in use in clinical trials for the treatment of type 1 diabetes and prevention of graft versus host disease in bone marrow transplantation. Here, we seek to evaluate this approach in the treatment of inherited protein deficiencies, i.e., hemophilia, which is often complicated by antibody formation against the therapeutic protein. Treg from mice that express green fluorescent protein–marked FoxP3 were highly purified by two-step magnetic/flow sorting and ex vivo expanded 50- to 100-fold over a 2-week culture period upon stimulation with antibody-coated microbeads. FoxP3 expression was maintained in >80% of expanded Treg, which also expressed high levels of CD62L and CTLA-4. Transplanted Treg suppressed inhibitory antibody formation against coagulation factors VIII and IX in protein and gene therapies in strain-matched hemophilia A and B mice, including in mice with pre-existing antibodies. Although transplanted Treg became undetectable within 2 weeks, suppression persisted for >2 months. Additional studies suggested that antigen-specific suppression emerged due to induction of endogenous Treg. The outcomes of these studies support the concept that cell therapy with ex vivo expanded autologous Treg can be used successfully to minimize immune responses in gene and protein replacement therapies.

  11. Parameter estimation for an expanding universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieci Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parameter estimation for excitations of Dirac fields in the expanding Robertson–Walker universe. We employ quantum metrology techniques to demonstrate the possibility for high precision estimation for the volume rate of the expanding universe. We show that the optimal precision of the estimation depends sensitively on the dimensionless mass m˜ and dimensionless momentum k˜ of the Dirac particles. The optimal precision for the ratio estimation peaks at some finite dimensionless mass m˜ and momentum k˜. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by choosing the probe state as an eigenvector of the hamiltonian. This occurs because the largest quantum Fisher information is obtained by performing projective measurements implemented by the projectors onto the eigenvectors of specific probe states.

  12. Microwave Energy for Expanding Perlite Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Aguilar-Garib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perlite is an igneous mineral composed by silicon, aluminum, oxygen and water. It can be expanded by heating it up at temperatures above 870 °C, then it becomes plastic, and the steam formed inside pressures out of the mineral. Maximum expansion is possible if the particles are heated up quickly, since the expansion degree strongly depends on the remaining water in the particles at the time that they reach the temperature where they become plastic. The typical expansion process consist in pouring the particles in rotary kilns operated with natural gas, but it is proposed in this research that the particles can be heated quickly with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. Particles of 0.08 cm and 0.018 cm of average diameter were expanded 10 to 20 times.

  13. Japan: Implications of an Expanded Military Role,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-03

    served by diplomatic, economic and foreign assistance strategies. The Fukuda and Ohira " doctrines " emphasized the role of non-military policy in...encourage it to expand economic assistance under the comprehensive security doctrine . Weinstein is criticizing U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union; he...the United States. The second category of opinion which developed centered -~ on support for a policy line orginally set forth In the Yoshida Doctrine

  14. Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter Wilhelm, E-mail: walter.focke@up.ac.za; Badenhorst, Heinrich; Mhike, Washington; Kruger, Hermanus Joachim; Lombaard, Dewan

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Expandable graphite is less well-ordered than its graphite bisulfate progenitor. • It includes graphite oxide as a randomly interstratified phase. • CO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} are released during thermal-driven exfoliation. - Abstract: Thermal analysis and other techniques were employed to characterize two expandable graphite samples. The expansion onset temperatures of the expandable graphite's were ca. 220 °C and 300 °C respectively. The key finding is that the commercial products are not just pure graphite intercalation compounds with sulfuric acid species intercalated as guest ions and molecules in between intact graphene layers. A more realistic model is proposed where graphite oxide-like layers are also randomly interstratified in the graphite flakes. These graphite oxide-like layers comprise highly oxidized graphene sheets which contain many different oxygen-containing functional groups. This model explains the high oxygen to sulfur atomic ratios found in both elemental analysis of the neat materials and in the gas generated during the main exfoliation event.

  15. Retuning Rieske-type Oxygenases to Expand Substrate Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Mahmood; Viger, Jean-François; Kumar, Pravindra; Barriault, Diane; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Sylvestre, Michel (INRS); (Purdue)

    2012-09-17

    Rieske-type oxygenases are promising biocatalysts for the destruction of persistent pollutants or for the synthesis of fine chemicals. In this work, we explored pathways through which Rieske-type oxygenases evolve to expand their substrate range. BphAE{sub p4}, a variant biphenyl dioxygenase generated from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 BphAE{sub LB400} by the double substitution T335A/F336M, and BphAE{sub RR41}, obtained by changing Asn{sup 338}, Ile{sup 341}, and Leu{sup 409} of BphAE{sub p4} to Gln{sup 338}, Val{sup 341}, and Phe{sup 409}, metabolize dibenzofuran two and three times faster than BphAE{sub LB400}, respectively. Steady-state kinetic measurements of single- and multiple-substitution mutants of BphAE{sub LB400} showed that the single T335A and the double N338Q/L409F substitutions contribute significantly to enhanced catalytic activity toward dibenzofuran. Analysis of crystal structures showed that the T335A substitution relieves constraints on a segment lining the catalytic cavity, allowing a significant displacement in response to dibenzofuran binding. The combined N338Q/L409F substitutions alter substrate-induced conformational changes of protein groups involved in subunit assembly and in the chemical steps of the reaction. This suggests a responsive induced fit mechanism that retunes the alignment of protein atoms involved in the chemical steps of the reaction. These enzymes can thus expand their substrate range through mutations that alter the constraints or plasticity of the catalytic cavity to accommodate new substrates or that alter the induced fit mechanism required to achieve proper alignment of reaction-critical atoms or groups.

  16. A peptidylic inhibitor for neutralizing expanded CAG RNA-induced nucleolar stress in polyglutamine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zhefan Stephen; An, Ying; Liu, Haizhen; Hou, Yonghui; Li, Wen; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Koon, Alex; Ngo, Jacky; Chan, Edwin

    2018-01-02

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a set of progressive neurodegenerative disorders ascribed by the expression of both expanded CAG RNA and misfolded polyQ protein. We previously reported that the direct interaction between expanded CAG RNA and nucleolar protein nucleolin (NCL) leads to impediment of pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) transcription, and eventually triggers nucleolar stress-induced apoptosis in polyQ diseases. Here, we report a 21-amino acid peptide, named beta-structured inhibitor for neurodegenerative disease (BIND), effectively suppresses expanded CAG RNA toxicity. When administrated to cell model, BIND potently inhibited expanded CAG RNA-induced cell death with an IC50 value of ~0.7 µM. We showed that Glu2, Lys13, Gly14, Ile18, Glu19 and Phe20 of BIND are essential for its function. BIND treatment restored the subcellular localization of nucleolar marker protein and the expression level of pre-45s rRNA. Our isothermal titration calorimetry analysis demonstrates that BIND suppresses nucleolar stress via a direct interaction with CAG RNA in a length preference manner. The mean binding constant (KD) of BIND to SCA2CAG22/42/55/72 RNA is 17.28, 5.60, 4.83 and 0.66 µM respectively. In vivo, BIND ameliorates eye degeneration, climbing defect and extends lifespan of Drosophila solely expressed expanded CAG RNA. It could also suppress neurodegeneration in diverse polyQ disease models in vivo and in vitro without eliciting any observed cytotoxicity. Collectively, BIND is considered as an effective inhibitor targeting expanded CAG RNA toxicity in polyQ diseases. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Expanding the genetic code of Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songmi; Yang, Aerin; Lee, Soonjang; Lee, Han-Woong; Park, Chan Bae; Park, Hee-Sung

    2017-02-21

    Here we report the expansion of the genetic code of Mus musculus with various unnatural amino acids including N(ɛ)-acetyl-lysine. Stable integration of transgenes encoding an engineered N(ɛ)-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS)/tRNA(Pyl) pair into the mouse genome enables site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into a target protein in response to the amber codon. We demonstrate temporal and spatial control of protein acetylation in various organs of the transgenic mouse using a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) as a model protein. This strategy will provide a powerful tool for systematic in vivo study of cellular proteins in the most commonly used mammalian model organism for human physiology and disease.

  18. Expanding Greenland’s Glacial Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and adjecent glaciers and ice caps has accelerated within the last decades, and these changes are accurately observed using a variety of different data products. However, the observational era is relatively short offering little insight into past dynamics....... On order to expand the glacial history of Greenland, this thesis explores physical and geological archives for evidence of the glaciers’ past response to climatic variations. Using aerial photographs, the dynamic history of the Greenland Ice Sheet is extended back to 1900 C.E. Glacier changes covering...

  19. Expanding the Bethe/Gauge dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Lukowski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We expand the Bethe/Gauge dictionary between the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and 2d N = (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories to include aspects of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We construct the wave functions of off-shell Bethe states as orbifold defects in the A-twisted supersymmetric gauge theory and study their correlation functions. We also present an alternative description of off-shell Bethe states as boundary conditions in an effective N = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we interpret spin chain R-matrices as correlation functions of Janus interfaces for mass parameters in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  20. FOAM: Expanding the horizons of climate modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobis, M.; Foster, I.T.; Schafer, C.M. [and others

    1997-10-01

    We report here on a project that expands the applicability of dynamic climate modeling to very long time scales. The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) is a coupled ocean atmosphere model that incorporates physics of interest in understanding decade to century time scale variability. It addresses the high computational cost of this endeavor with a combination of improved ocean model formulation, low atmosphere resolution, and efficient coupling. It also uses message passing parallel processing techniques, allowing for the use of cost effective distributed memory platforms. The resulting model runs over 6000 times faster than real time with good fidelity, and has yielded significant results.

  1. Expanding Slayer Statutes to Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Common law has a dictum that people must not benefit from their crimes. In years past, states have enacted slayer rules to prevent killers from inheriting from their victims. The specific criteria and applicability of slayer rules vary by jurisdiction. Recently, several states, including Washington, have expanded their slayer rules to disqualify persons from inheriting if they have been involved in abuse or financial exploitation of the deceased. Reviewed herein are the abuse disinheritance laws, the relationship of the laws to concepts of testamentary capacity and undue influence, and the relevance to forensic psychiatric evaluations. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  2. DNA binding during expanded bed adsorption and factors affecting adsorbent aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Mathiasen, N.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2008-01-01

    DNA-induced aggregation and contraction of expanded bed adsorption chromatography beds have been examined using strong anion exchanger Q HyperZ and calf thymus DNA in buffers containing added NaCl. Two batches of adsorbent with different ionic capacities were used allowing the effects of different...... tolerance of anion exchangers when binding DNA. However, more importantly. with the adsorbents examined here. attempts to reduce bed aggregation by feedstock conditioning with added salt may increase DNA binding leading to a reduction in expanded bed adsorption performance compromising protein capture...

  3. PCR with an expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Denis A; Seo, Young Jun; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2009-10-21

    Expansion of the genetic alphabet with a third base pair would lay the foundation for a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic code and also have immediate in vitro applications. Previously, the unnatural base pairs formed between d5SICS and either dNaM or dMMO2 were shown to be well-replicated by DNA polymerases under steady-state conditions and also transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase efficiently in either direction. We now demonstrate that DNA containing either the d5SICS-dNaM or d5SICS-dMMO2 unnatural base pair may be amplified by PCR with fidelities and efficiencies that approach those of fully natural DNA. These results further demonstrate that the determinants of a functional unnatural base pair may be designed into predominantly hydrophobic nucleobases with no structural similarity to the natural purines or pyrimidines. Importantly, the results reveal that the unnatural base pairs may function within an expanded genetic alphabet and make possible many in vitro applications.

  4. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  5. The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.; Nita, G. M.; White, S. M.; Tun, S. D.; Fleishman, G. D.; McTiernan, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is now under construction near Big Pine, CA as a solar-dedicated microwave imaging array operating in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The solar science to be addressed focuses on the 3D structure of the solar corona (magnetic field, temperature and density), on the sudden release of energy and subsequent particle acceleration, transport and heating, and on space weather phenomena. The project will support the scientific community by providing open data access and software tools for analysis of the data, to exploit synergies with on-going solar research in other wavelengths. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is expanding OVSA from its previous complement of 7 antennas to a total of 15 by adding 8 new antennas, and will reinvest in the existing infrastructure by replacing the existing control systems, signal transmission, and signal processing with modern, far more capable and reliable systems based on new technology developed for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The project will be completed in time to provide solar-dedicated observations during the upcoming solar maximum in 2013 and beyond. We provide an update on current status and our preparations for exploiting the data through modeling and data analysis tools. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-0908344, and AGS-0961867 and NASA grant NNX10AF27G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  6. Historical Notes on the Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.; Belenkyi, Ari; Nussbaumer, Harry; Peacock, John

    2014-01-01

    The article Measuring the Hubble constant by Mario Livio and Adam Riess (Physics Today, October 2013, page 41) reviewed studies of the expanding universe from the 1920s to the present. Although the history of the subject underwent considerable compression to fit the length of a magazine article, we think it may leave a misleading impression of some of the key steps to our current understanding. We therefore offer the following clarifications. Most significantly, papers by Arthur Eddington and by Willem de Sitter in 1930, who successfully promoted Georges Lematres 1927 article for the Scientific Society of Brussels, effected a paradigm shift in interpretation of extragalactic redshifts in 1930. Before then, the astronomical community was generally unaware of the existence of nonstatic cosmological solutions and did not broadly appreciate that redshifts could be thought of locally as Doppler shifts in an expanding matter distribution. Certainly, in 1929 Edwin Hubble referred only to the de Sitter solution of 1917. At the time, the relation between distance and redshift predicted in that model was generally seen purely as a manifestation of static spacetime curvature.

  7. Familiarity expands space and contracts time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Anna; Spiers, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map. We asked international students, who had lived at a college in London for 9 months, to sketch a south-up map of their college district, estimate travel-time to destinations within the area, and mark their everyday walking routes. We found that while estimates for sketched space were expanded with familiarity, estimates of the time to travel through the space were contracted with familiarity. Thus, we found dissociable responses to familiarity in representations of time and space. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Expanding the scale of molecular biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert

    2016-10-07

    Here, I argue that some of the secrets of complex biological function rely on assemblies of many heterogeneous proteins that together enable sophisticated sensing and actuating processes. Evolution seems to delight in making these structures and in continually elaborating upon their capabilities. Developing tools that can go beyond the few protein limit, both on the experimental frontier and from a theoretical, conceptual framework, should be an extremely high priority for the next generation of molecular biophysicists.

  9. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  10. Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    USAARL Report No. 2015-08 Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression By Mark S. Adams Frederick Brozoski Katie...13 iv This page is intentionally left blank. 1 Introduction Expanded bead polystyrene (EPS) is widely...steep rise in the stress-strain curve and little or no energy attenuation. When compressive stresses are removed, EPS foam will partially re- expand

  11. Expanding Global Mindedness through a 4-H International Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.; Peterson, Donna J.; Iwata, Chieko; Kobia, Caroline; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    With expanding global interdependence, it is vital that 4-H youths learn more about the ever-increasing diverse cultures in their own communities as well as expand their global mindedness and understanding of globalization. The 4-H International Village (a) offers a comfortable yet engaging avenue for youths to expand their knowledge of and…

  12. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experience or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable for the...

  13. Financing Expanded Learning Time in Schools: A Look at Five District-Expanded Time Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Claire; Farbman, David A.; Deich, Sharon; Padgette, Heather Clapp

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several years, public education in the U.S. has experienced a remarkable growth in the number of schools that have expanded their schedules beyond the conventional calendar of 180 6.5-hour days. Spurred by significant policy activity at the federal, state, and local levels, more and more educators have capitalized on opportunities to…

  14. Ergodic theory of expanding thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Thurston maps are topological generalizations of postcritically-finite rational maps. This book provides a comprehensive study of ergodic theory of expanding Thurston maps, focusing on the measure of maximal entropy, as well as a more general class of invariant measures, called equilibrium states, and certain weak expansion properties of such maps. In particular, we present equidistribution results for iterated preimages and periodic points with respect to the unique measure of maximal entropy by investigating the number and locations of fixed points. We then use the thermodynamical formalism to establish the existence, uniqueness, and various other properties of the equilibrium state for a Holder continuous potential on the sphere equipped with a visual metric. After studying some weak expansion properties of such maps, we obtain certain large deviation principles for iterated preimages and periodic points under an additional assumption on the critical orbits of the maps. This enables us to obtain general eq...

  15. The expanding world of DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingjian; Hongdilokkul, Narupat; Liu, Zhixia; Thirunavukarasu, Deepak; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2016-10-01

    DNA and RNA are remarkable because they can both encode information and possess desired properties, including the ability to bind specific targets or catalyze specific reactions. Nucleotide modifications that do not interfere with enzymatic synthesis are now being used to bestow DNA or RNA with properties that further increase their utility, including phosphate and sugar modifications that increase nuclease resistance, nucleobase modifications that increase the range of activities possible, and even whole nucleobase replacement that results in selective pairing and the creation of unnatural base pairs that increase the information content. These modifications are increasingly being applied both in vitro and in vivo, including in efforts to create semi-synthetic organisms with altered or expanded genetic alphabets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efforts to expand the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesberg, Floyd E

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to develop an unnatural base pair with which to expand the genetic code we have examined a wide variety of simple phenyl rings derivatized with methyl, fluoro, or nitrogen. The small aromatic surface of these base pairs should prevent inter-strand intercalation, which is thought to inhibit the polymerase-mediated synthesis of base pairs with larger aromatic surface area. Surprisingly, despite reduced aromatic surface area and hydrogen-bonding potential, some of these base pairs are stable and synthesized with reasonable efficiency. We have also been examining the use of activity-based selection systems to evolve DNA polymerases to more efficiently recognize the unnatural substrates, and our initial successes are described.

  17. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 371-374

  18. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 371-374

  19. Expanding Technological Frames Towards Mediated Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Scupola, Ada; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    of their work practices and use of technology. Finally the third step includes participants' commitment and practical enactment of groupware. One of the key findings is that in groupware adoption the alignment of the individual technological frames requires articulation and re-evaluation of experienced......This paper provides an in-depth analysis of technological and social factors leading to the successful adoption of groupware in a virtual team in educational setting. Drawing on a theoretical framework based on the concept of technological frames, we conducted an action research study to analyze...... the chronological sequence of events leading to groupware adoption. We argue that groupware adoption can be conceptualized as a three-step process of expanding and aligning individual technological frames towards groupware: The first step comprises activities facilitating participants in articulation and evaluation...

  20. Web Content Analysis: Expanding the Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.

    Are established methods of content analysis (CA) adequate to analyze web content, or should new methods be devised to address new technological developments? This article addresses this question by contrasting narrow and broad interpretations of the concept of web content analysis. The utility of a broad interpretation that subsumes the narrow one is then illustrated with reference to research on weblogs (blogs), a popular web format in which features of HTML documents and interactive computer-mediated communication converge. The article concludes by proposing an expanded Web Content Analysis (WebCA) paradigm in which insights from paradigms such as discourse analysis and social network analysis are operationalized and implemented within a general content analytic framework.

  1. The law's interface with expanding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    The role of the law in technology assessment is described in generalized terms of a legal system as it confronts expanding technology. The functions of a technology assessment are considered to be twofold; provide for legislative action designed to channel technological advance along lines which are regarded as optimal from the standpoint of society's interests; and encourage and promote legislative action which will deal decisively with the potential disruptions and injuries caused by technology at a much earlier stage of the growth of the technology than is feasible under the present legal system. It is concluded that since new law always has a disruptive effect on expectations and commitments arrived at under old law, it is generally desirable that new legislation should make the least possible change in the law consistant with accomplishing the desired objective.

  2. Particles formation in an expanding plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoute, E.; Hallo, L.; Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Stenz, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, CNRS-CEA, 33 - Talence (France); Hebert, D.; Chevalier, J.M.; Rullier, J.L.; Palmier, S. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2009-08-15

    Interaction of a laser beam with a target generates a high velocity expanding plasma plume, solid debris and liquid nano- and micro-particles. They are produced from plasma recombination and vapor condensation and can be deposited on optical elements located nearby the target. Two distinct kinds of particles were observed depending on the temperature achieved in the plasma plume: large micrometer-size fragments for temperatures lower than the critical temperature, and very small nanometer-size particles for higher temperatures. The paper presents experimental observations of fragments and nano-particles in plasma plumes and a comparison with models. A good agreement has been found for nano-particle sizes and distributions. This simple modeling can also be used for nuclei production in the nanosecond time scale. Our estimates show that particle size can be correlated to laser wavelength and fluences.

  3. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expanding the applicability of Heallth Technology Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to expand the foundations of input into policy decision making relying on health technology assessments (HTA). HTAs are primarily based on systematic reviews (SR) and thereby mostly on randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCTs can be distinguished on a continuum......-oriented perspective and aims at supporting health policy makers and therefore have to reflect policy applicable questions and answers. Simply relying on strictly controlled explanatory RCTs alone is too narrow to answer questions of relevance for policy making. It is suggested to supplement these highly controlled...... between explanatory and pragmatic trials according to their level of control over variables in the study besides the examined technology. In explanatory trials emphasis are placed on internal validity in order to test the efficacy of a technology under ideal conditions while pragmatic trials emphasizes...

  5. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination........ Three "fevers" are identified as involved in the narrowing of policy imagination and two "tonics" are offered to widen it. The three fevers are: 1. viewing the present as natural; 2. seeing history as overtly path dependent; and 3. viewing history as driven by "Great Men". These fevers limit our...

  6. Expanded uncertainty regions for complex quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B. D.

    2013-10-01

    The expanded measurement uncertainty of a complex quantity is a region in the complex plane surrounding the measured value. This paper considers different shaped uncertainty regions in the form of ellipses, circles, rectangles and parallelograms. The different types of region are compared, under a variety of measurement error conditions, with regard to coverage probability and relative area. Elliptical confidence regions are commonly used in multivariate statistics. However, this shape has not been adopted widely in metrology, perhaps because there is no simple way to report the extent of an elliptical region. The other shapes considered are easier to use. Unfortunately, the coverage probability of circular uncertainty regions is found to be sensitive to both the form of the distribution of measurement errors and to the number of degrees of freedom, making this shape a poor choice. Parallelograms and rectangles both performed well, with parallelograms giving the best results overall.

  7. Transcription of an expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Jun; Matsuda, Shigeo; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2009-04-15

    Expansion of the genetic alphabet with a third base pair would have immediate biotechnology applications and also lay the foundation for a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic code. A variety of unnatural base pairs have been shown to be formed efficiently and selectively during DNA replication, and the pairs formed between the unnatural nucleotide d5SICS and either dMMO2 or dNaM are particularly interesting because they have been shown to be replicated with efficiencies and fidelities that are beginning to approach those of a natural base pair. Not only are these unnatural base pairs promising for different applications, but they also demonstrate that nucleobase shape and hydrophobicity are sufficient to control replication. While a variety of unnatural base pairs have been shown to be substrates for transcription, none are transcribed in both possible strand contexts, and the transcription of a fully hydrophobic base pair has not been demonstrated. We show here that both of the unnatural base pairs d5SICS:dMMO2 and d5SICS:dNaM are selectively transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase and that the efficiency of d5SICS:dNaM transcription in both possible strand contexts is only marginally reduced relative to that of a natural base pair. Thus, as with replication, we find that hydrogen-bonding is not essential for transcription and may be replaced with packing and hydrophobic forces. The results also demonstrate that d5SICS:dNaM is both replicated and transcribed with efficiencies and fidelities that should be sufficient for use as part of an in vitro expanded genetic alphabet.

  8. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  9. Cohesion and Adhesion with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in bio-based adhesives, research on proteins has expanded because historically they have been used by both nature and humans as adhesives. A wide variety of proteins have been used as wood adhesives. Ancient Egyptians most likely used collagens tobond veneer to wood furniture, then came casein (milk), blood, fish scales, and soy adhesives, with...

  10. Expanding and exploring the bioconjugation toolbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety of biomolecules such as lipids, DNA, carbohydrates and proteins exist inside cells. Every biomolecule fulfills a different type of function and it is highly relevant to study these functions to eventually understand the development of certain diseases. In order to study the role of a

  11. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  12. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  13. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  14. Germany's expanding role in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Franz, Christian; Holzscheiter, Anna; Hunger, Iris; Jahn, Albrecht; Köhler, Carsten; Razum, Oliver; Schmidt, Jean-Olivier

    2017-08-26

    Germany has become a visible actor in global health in the past 10 years. In this Series paper, we describe how this development complements a broad change in perspective in German foreign policy. Catalysts for this shift have been strong governmental leadership, opportunities through G7 and G20 presidencies, and Germany's involvement in managing the Ebola virus disease outbreak. German global health engagement has four main characteristics that are congruent with the health agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals; it is rooted in human rights, multilateralism, the Bismarck model of social protection, and a link between development and investment on the basis of its own development trajectory after World War 2. The combination of momentum and specific characteristics makes Germany well equipped to become a leader in global health, yet the country needs to accept additional financial responsibility for global health, expand its domestic global health competencies, reduce fragmentation of global health policy making, and solve major incoherencies in its policies both nationally and internationally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  16. Phase-coded pulse expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. L.

    1985-04-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The adders are connected in N/2-fold cyclically permutated order to the frequency ports, where N is the number of frequency ports if that number is even, and N is the number of frequency ports less one if that number is odd. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  17. P2 polyphase code expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, F. F.

    1985-06-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every frequency port is phase-shifted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then phase-shifted at every frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  18. P1 polyphase code expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, F. F.

    1985-04-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding and input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this tme in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  19. Phase coded pulse expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. L.

    1985-06-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  20. Expanding the role of internal facility assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Levenson, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) is an effective and comprehensive system to evaluate environmental compliance at individual USAF installations. The ECAMP assessment is typically performed by a team of experts from the installation`s Major Command (MAJCOM) Headquarters, and is often augmented with technical contractor support. As directed by Air Force policy, an external ECAMP assessment is required at a minimum of every three years for each installation. In the intervening years, each installation is required to perform an internal ECAMP assessment, with its own personnel and resources. Even though team composition differs, the internal and external ECAMP assessments are likely to be very similar in scope, objectives, and deliverables. For over nine years, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has supported several Air Force MAJCOMs in performing their external ECAMP assessments. More recently, ANL has also had the opportunity to provide technical support and training at individual installations during their preparation and conduct of internal ECAMP assessments. From that experience, the authors have learned that the quality and value of the internal assessment is enhanced by making it a vehicle for training, planning, and interaction among organizations. Various strategies and techniques have been successfully employed to derive maximum benefit and insight from the internal assessment process. Experiences that involve expanding the scope and objectives of internal assessments to meet specific goals are presented. The expansion of scope and objectives include preassessment training, planning, and evaluator interactions as part of the overall internal assessment process.

  1. Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  2. Synthetic biology expands chemical control of microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Tyler J.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    The tools of synthetic biology allow researchers to change the ways engineered organisms respond to chemical stimuli. Decades of basic biology research and new efforts in computational protein and RNA design have led to the development of small molecule sensors that can be used to alter organism function. These new functions leap beyond the natural propensities of the engineered organisms. They can range from simple fluorescence or growth reporting to pathogen killing, and can involve metabol...

  3. Extending enzyme molecular recognition with an expanded amino acid alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Claire L; Simmons, Katie J; Ault, James R; Trinh, Chi H; Nelson, Adam; Pearson, Arwen R; Berry, Alan

    2017-03-07

    Natural enzymes are constructed from the 20 proteogenic amino acids, which may then require posttranslational modification or the recruitment of coenzymes or metal ions to achieve catalytic function. Here, we demonstrate that expansion of the alphabet of amino acids can also enable the properties of enzymes to be extended. A chemical mutagenesis strategy allowed a wide range of noncanonical amino acids to be systematically incorporated throughout an active site to alter enzymic substrate specificity. Specifically, 13 different noncanonical side chains were incorporated at 12 different positions within the active site of N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL), and the resulting chemically modified enzymes were screened for activity with a range of aldehyde substrates. A modified enzyme containing a 2,3-dihydroxypropyl cysteine at position 190 was identified that had significantly increased activity for the aldol reaction of erythrose with pyruvate compared with the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic investigation of a saturation library of the canonical amino acids at the same position showed that this increased activity was not achievable with any of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. Structural and modeling studies revealed that the unique shape and functionality of the noncanonical side chain enabled the active site to be remodeled to enable more efficient stabilization of the transition state of the reaction. The ability to exploit an expanded amino acid alphabet can thus heighten the ambitions of protein engineers wishing to develop enzymes with new catalytic properties.

  4. Expanding the List of Dysregulated Immunosuppressive Cells in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, David C; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been studied in regard to their increased numbers of circulating cells in cancer patients. Recent research efforts have also increased awareness of MDSC in non-malignant inflammatory diseases, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and arthritis. Psoriasis can now be added to the growing list of inflammatory disorders with an MDSC component. Cao et al. report increased numbers of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSC) in psoriasis patients and examine the implication of dysregulated Mo-MDSC function. Cao et al. describe psoriatic Mo-MDSC that produce increased IL-23, IL-1b, and CCL4 cytokines compared to Mo-MDSC from healthy controls. These results complement previous research demonstrating psoriatic Mo-MDSC are unable to suppress autologous and heterologous CD8 T-cell proliferations, display decreased expression levels of PD-1 as well as PD-L1, and fail to produce effective immuno-competent regulatory T cells (Tregs). Cao et al. also identify the unique expression of the surface protein DC-HIL on psoriatic Mo-MDSC. The expanded population of DC-HIL(+) Mo-MDSC in psoriasis patients, however, display inferior suppressive capabilities compared to DC-HIL(+) Mo-MDSC found in melanoma patients, suggesting contextual signaling as a potential contributing factor to Mo-MDSC function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira

    1996-10-01

    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  6. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; L. Massey Simonich, Staci; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-09-06

    In her letter to the editor1 regarding our recent Feature Article “Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework” 2, Dr. von Göetz expressed several concerns about terminology, and the perception that we propose the replacement of successful approaches and models for exposure assessment with a concept. We are glad to have the opportunity to address these issues here. If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The framework would support improved generation, organization, and interpretation of data as well as modeling and prediction, not replacement of models. The field of toxicology has seen the benefits of wide use of one or more organizational frameworks (e.g., mode and mechanism of action, adverse outcome pathway). These frameworks influence how experiments are designed, data are collected, curated, stored and interpreted and ultimately how data are used in risk assessment. Exposure science is poised to similarly benefit from broader use of a parallel organizational framework, which Dr. von Göetz correctly points out, is currently used in the exposure modeling community. In our view, the concepts used so effectively in the exposure modeling community, expanded upon in the AEP framework, could see wider adoption by the field as a whole. The value of such a framework was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences.3 Replacement of models, databases, or any application with the AEP framework was not proposed in our article. The positive role broader more consistent use of such a framework might have in enabling and advancing “general activities such as data acquisition, organization…,” and exposure modeling was discussed

  7. Expanding awareness of docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Rebecca; Akkersdyk, Shann; Yeatman, Heather; Meyer, Barbara J

    2013-04-02

    Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (≥200 mg/day). Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group) is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118) were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card) were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74). Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  8. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  9. AstroCom NYC: Expanding the Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Agueros, Marcel A.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Robbins, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. For our second cohort, we dramatically improved the application and screening process, implemented a number of tools to evaluate their potential for grad school, and began growing a network of potential hosts for summer internships around NY State and the US. We review these implementations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 3, when we expect many of our current students to compete for external summer REUs, and after greatly expanding the program reach through a NASA community college initiative.

  10. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  11. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  12. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  13. Exposing medical students to expanding populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindenthal JJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available JJ Lindenthal,1,2 JA DeLisa,3 GF Heinrich,4 WS Calderón Gerstein,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 5Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé, EsSalud, Huancayo, Peru Abstract: Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international “experience”, in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician–patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. Keywords: MiniMed program, equal access, underserved populations, Newark Renaissance House, Kintock Group, role modeling 

  14. The Phenix expandable prosthesis: early American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, R M; Soubeiran, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major dilemmas in limb preservation in skeletally immature children involves the ability to maintain leg length equality. Many attempts have been made to design a prosthesis that could be expanded easily either nonoperatively or through a minor surgical procedure. Most of these designs have had mechanical difficulty or the lengthening procedure becomes a major surgical endeavor. The Phenix technology has been used in France for several years. The basic principle involves storage of energy in a spring which is maintained compressed by an original locking system. Once implanted, prosthetic lengthening is achieved via exposure to an external electromagnetic field that pilots the locking system and allows controlled release of the spring energy. Seven Phenix prostheses have been implanted in six patients. All patients had been treated for Stage II-B osteosarcoma. Six of the seven prostheses were implanted during revision procedures in salvage situations; one prosthesis was implanted during an index procedure. The surgical procedures were completed without complications. One patient sustained a fracture of the prosthesis in a fall and had an infection develop after implantation of the second prosthesis. Twenty-one expansions have been performed in six patients (mean lengthening at each procedure, 8 mm). There were no acute complications attributable to the lengthening procedure. Prosthetic expansions required an average of 20 to 30 seconds and were accompanied by very mild discomfort, if any. Most patients were given an oral analgesic either before or during the lengthening procedure. The Phenix prosthesis shows promise in handling the difficult problem of limb preservation in a growing child. Additional investigation is underway regarding limb lengthening and other dynamic applications.

  15. Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (≥200 mg/day. Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118 were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74. Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  16. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants.

  17. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jianan; Lin, Haiyan; Wang, Kunbo; Cheng, Xiaomei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-18

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants.

  18. Applications of protein biochips in biomedical and biotechnological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinrich, Dirk; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Waldmann, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Progress in the development of protein-immobilization strategies and methods has made protein biochips increasingly accessible. The integration of these assay and analysis platforms into biomedical and biotechnological research has substantially expanded the repertoire of methods available for

  19. Lightweight High Strength Concrete with Expanded Polystyrene Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a literature study about lightweight high strength concrete by incorporating expanded polystyrene beads. Basically polystyrene is disposal material from packaging industry. However, after being processed in a special manner, polystyrene can be expanded and used as lightweight concrete making material. Therefore, the use of expanded polystyrene beads in concrete is not only beneficial for engineering studies but also provide solution for the environmental problem

  20. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs A Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The theory of expander graphs is a rapidly developing topic in mathematics and computer science, with applications to communication networks, error-correcting codes, cryptography, complexity theory, and much more. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs: A Beginner's Guide is a comprehensive introduction to expander graphs, designed to act as a bridge between classroom study and active research in the field of expanders. It equips those with little or no prior knowledge with the skills necessary to both comprehend current research articles and begin their own research. Central to this book are fou

  1. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  2. Year of Expanding into Circulating Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shidong; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This editorial article summarizes the achievements and current challenges for the Journal of Circulating Biomarkers (JCB) regarding a more strategic approach to branding and attracting a high quality variety of articles. More emphasis is placed on fostering engagement with academic and industry sources operating at the cutting-edge of translational technologies applied to the field of circulating biomarkers (interface between extracellular vesicles including exosomes and microvesicles, circulating tumour cells, cell-free circulating DNA and circulating protein markers) and with those in the investment arena seeking and providing private funding for this area of research. PMID:28936237

  3. Year of Expanding into Circulating Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidong Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This editorial article summarizes the achievements and current challenges for the Journal of Circulating Biomarkers (JCB regarding a more strategic approach to branding and attracting a high quality variety of articles. More emphasis is placed on fostering engagement with academic and industry sources operating at the cutting-edge of transla‐ tional technologies applied to the field of circulating biomarkers (interface between extracellular vesicles including exosomes and microvesicles, circulating tumour cells, cell-free circulating DNA and circulating protein markers and with those in the investment arena seeking and providing private funding for this area of research.

  4. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  5. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  6. Study and design of beam expander with wide aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Jin, Guangyong; Cai, Jixing; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the capacity of beam collimation for laser beam expander, it is necessary to design a more reasonable and feasible structure of beam expander system. Laser beam expander is used to compress the laser divergence angle, in order to reduce the energy losing in long distance scanning acquisition system. This paper introduces the working principle and design idea of the laser beam expander, the collimating multiplying power focal length and the collimated magnification formula of expander main, secondary mirror. According to the third-order aberration theory, Considering the spherical aberration, sine difference and divergence angle, the reasonable analysis of optical path, ZEMAX optical design software was used to design large-diameter laser beam expander and analysis and optimize, And given the actual design data and results. Display the maximum optical path difference is +/-0.01λ of the main light ray and each light ray. To combination the rear- group objective lens of Galileo and Kepler beam expander, a large-diameter(1.475m) laser beam expander was designed with 0.2m in the diameter, 1/2m in the relative caliber. In the objective lens System, a high-order aspherical was used to the aberration of extra-axial point. we can see that the image quality is close to the diffraction limit from the curves of wavefront. In addition to improve image quality effectively, the system has the characteristics of simple structure, less costly and less design difficulty to compare with the other beam expanding system. And make the output beam's divergence angle smaller, energy density higher, and the beam quality has been greatly improved. The results show that the beam expander is fully meet the design requirements, the use effect is good. Design and research of laser beam expanding system not only improves the quality of the laser beam in the laser system, but also enlarge the application field of laser technology in photoelectric system.

  7. Expanded polyglutamines in Caenorhabditis elegans cause axonal abnormalities and severe dysfunction of PLM mechanosensory neurons without cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J A; Connolly, J B; Wellington, C; Hayden, M; Dausset, J; Neri, C

    2001-11-06

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the protein huntingtin (htt). HD pathogenesis appears to involve the production of mutated N-terminal htt, cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregation of htt, and abnormal activity of htt interactor proteins essential to neuronal survival. Before cell death, neuronal dysfunction may be an important step of HD pathogenesis. To explore polyQ-mediated neuronal toxicity, we expressed the first 57 amino acids of human htt containing normal [19 Gln residues (Glns)] and expanded (88 or 128 Glns) polyQ fused to fluorescent marker proteins in the six touch receptor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Expanded polyQ produced touch insensitivity in young adults. Noticeably, only 28 +/- 6% of animals with 128 Glns were touch sensitive in the tail, as mediated by the PLM neurons. Similar perinuclear deposits and faint nuclear accumulation of fusion proteins with 19, 88, and 128 Glns were observed. In contrast, significant deposits and morphological abnormalities in PLM cell axons were observed with expanded polyQ (128 Glns) and partially correlated with touch insensitivity. PLM cell death was not detected in young or old adults. These animals indicate that significant neuronal dysfunction without cell death may be induced by expanded polyQ and may correlate with axonal insults, and not cell body aggregates. These animals also provide a suitable model to perform in vivo suppression of polyQ-mediated neuronal dysfunction.

  8. Synthetic biology expands chemical control of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tyler J; Silver, Pamela A

    2015-10-01

    The tools of synthetic biology allow researchers to change the ways engineered organisms respond to chemical stimuli. Decades of basic biology research and new efforts in computational protein and RNA design have led to the development of small molecule sensors that can be used to alter organism function. These new functions leap beyond the natural propensities of the engineered organisms. They can range from simple fluorescence or growth reporting to pathogen killing, and can involve metabolic coordination among multiple cells or organisms. Herein, we discuss how synthetic biology alters microorganisms' responses to chemical stimuli resulting in the development of microbes as toxicity sensors, disease treatments, and chemical factories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  10. Compressive and Tensile Strength of Expanded Polystyrene Beads Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2005-01-01

    Penelitian ini betujuan untuk mempelajari property dari beton ringan yang mengandung expanded polystyrene beads, yaitu kuat tekan (compressive strength) dan kuat tarik (tensile strength). Property tersebut kemudian dibandingkan dengan beton normal (beton tanpa expanded polystyrene beads) sebagai campuran pengontrol. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jumlah polystyrene beads yang dimasukkan sebagai campuran beton mempengaruhi property beton; yaitu dapat menurunkan kuat tekan beton. Tetapi...

  11. Principles of the fifth order tuning of beam expanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F.; Aniel, T.

    1995-12-31

    An analytical treatment of the third and fifth order optics of beam expanders is described, which allows precise tuning of the optical elements of the beam line, and efficient optimization of the beam uniformizing at the extended target. An application to a two-dimensional expander is given as an illustration. (authors). 4 refs.

  12. 21 CFR 878.5035 - Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene surgical suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... surgical suture. 878.5035 Section 878.5035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 878.5035 Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene surgical suture. (a) Identification. Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) surgical suture is a monofilament, nonabsorbable, sterile...

  13. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension Practice in Nigeria. ... The expanded scope could include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, service to farmers' associations, technical extension service and urban extension. These services should be provided at ...

  14. Comparision of the Expandable Nail with Locked Nail in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... fracture patterns as informed in a biomechanical study. Maher et al.[36] compared the expandable nail with a standard locked nail in fracture model, finding that spiral fracture patterns, rather than transverse fractures, were more suitable for expandable nail fixation.. However, in this study bending and ...

  15. New York: Expanding Time, Increasing Opportunities for Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tiffany D.

    2014-01-01

    New York is poised to take an important step to improve student achievement by expanding learning time for students attending high-poverty, low-performing schools. Recent district- and state-level investments in expanded learning time--a promising strategy to close achievement and opportunity gaps--will give students more time to learn core…

  16. Detection of tissue expander leakage by methylene blue instillation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue expansion is an important and widely used technique of soft tissue reconstruction. Leakage of the expanders is one of the complications and it might at times be difficult to detect. Method and Conclusion: We used methylene blue stained saline for inflation of tissue expanders in 42 cases and found it to ...

  17. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  18. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  19. [Reconstruction in plastic surgery using osmotic tissue expanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Retchkiman, Meir; Eizenman, Nirit; Lotan, Adi; Stuchiner, Barak; Tuchman, Izhak

    2015-03-01

    Tissue expander is a major reconstructive modality. Its main disadvantages include: long and inconvenient period of inflation with temporary deformity of the surrounding tissue. Osmotic expander was developed in order to eliminate some of these limitations. It is a self-filling device which absorbs fluids in order to achieve tissue expansion faster. We present our experience with 28 consecutive cases of tissue reconstruction using osmotic expanders. We wish to emphasize the main advantages and limitations of this device. The present study was launched in May 2008, until April 2014, for twenty eight patients, median age 26 years with reconstructions using an osmotic expander (total of 35 expanders). The reasons for using tissue expander included large congenital nevi (75%) and scars. In all of the cases, the operative and post-operative management was uneventful. During the expansion period, there were 2 outpatient clinical visits. The average expansion time was 9 weeks. In 11% (three patients) there was partial extrusion of the expander. In all other cases there were no complications and the final aesthetic results were satisfying. Osmotic expander is an advanced modality for tissue reconstruction. The final shape and size are precisely predictable. Its initial small size allows for a small surgical incision and short overall operating time. The expansion period is shorter and more convenient for the patient. Its main disadvantage includes the inability to control the filling rate and the need to remove the expander in case of damage to the overlying tissue. Osmotic expander is a reliable tool for tissue expansion. It allows for a satisfying aesthetic result in a shorter period of time and with less inconvenience to the patient.

  20. Surveying the expanding prokaryotic Rubisco multiverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Ramya, Ramaswamy Chettiyan Seetharaman; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    The universal, but catalytically modest, CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco is currently experiencing intense interest by researchers aiming to enhance crop photosynthesis. These efforts are mostly focused on the highly conserved hexadecameric enzyme found in land plants. In comparison, prokaryotic organisms harbor a far greater diversity in Rubisco forms. Recent work towards improving our appreciation of microbial Rubisco properties and harnessing their potential is surveyed. New structural models are providing informative glimpses into catalytic subtleties and diverse oligomeric states. Ongoing characterization is informing us about the conservation of constraints, such as sugar phosphate inhibition and the associated dependence on Rubisco activase helper proteins. Prokaryotic Rubiscos operate under a far wider range of metabolic contexts than the photosynthetic function of higher plant enzymes. Relaxed selection pressures may have resulted in the exploration of a larger volume of sequence space than permitted in organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. To tap into the potential of microbial Rubiscos, in vivo selection systems are being used to discover functional metagenomic Rubiscos. Various directed evolution systems to optimize their function have been developed. It is anticipated that this approach will provide access to biotechnologically valuable enzymes that cannot be encountered in the higher plant Rubisco space. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. More and Better Learning: Year Three Report on the National Demonstration of ExpandED Schools. A TASC Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie

    2015-01-01

    In the 2013-14 school year, TASC entered the third year of its national demonstration of ExpandED Schools. Ten elementary and middle schools in New York City, Baltimore and New Orleans continued their partnerships with youth-serving community organizations, such as settlement houses or community development corporations. Together, principals,…

  2. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ESO Astronomers Contribute towards Resolution of Cosmic Puzzle Since the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920's, by measurement of galaxy velocities, astronomers have tried to learn how this expansion changes with time. Until now, most scientists have been considering two possibilities: the expansion rate is slowing down and will ultimately either come to a halt - whereafter the Universe would start to contract, or it will continue to expand forever. However, new studies by two independent research teams, based on observations of exploding stars ( supernovae ) by ESO astronomers [1] with astronomical telescopes at the La Silla Observatory as well as those of their colleagues at other institutions, appear to show that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating . The results take the discovery of the cosmological expansion one step further and challenge recent models of the Universe. If the new measurements are indeed correct, they show that the elusive "cosmological constant" , as proposed by Albert Einstein , contributes significantly to the evolution of the Universe. The existence of a non-zero cosmological constant implies that a repulsive force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion , and consequently leads to an ever-expanding Universe. This new research is being named as the "Breakthrough of the Year" by the renowned US science journal Science in the December 18, 1998, issue. A Press Release is published by the journal on this occasion. "Fundamental Parameters" of the Universe Three fundamental parameters govern all cosmological models based on the theory of General Relativity. They are 1. the current expansion rate as described by Hubble's constant , i.e. the proportionality factor between expansion velocity and distance 2. the average matter density in the Universe, and 3. the amount of "other energy" present in space. From the measured values of these fundamental

  3. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  4. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  5. Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chu, Po-Chin; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon

    2010-01-01

    Expanded perlite has been assumed as simple nuisance, however during an accidental spill out in Taiwan, among 24 exposed workers followed for more than 6 months, three developed persisted respiratory symptoms and positive provocation tests were compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During simulation experiment expanded perlite is shown to be very dusty and greatly exceed current exposure permission level. Review of literature and evidence, though exposure of expanded perlite below permission level may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short term heavy exposure is warranted.

  6. DNA-induced inter-particle cross-linking during expanded bed adsorption chromatography - Impact on future support design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of adsorbent size, ionic capacity and surface immobilised polymers on dynamic capacity and changes occurring to beds of anion-exchangers during the binding of DNA. During application of low concentrations of "3-20 kilobase" calf thymus DNA feeds to expanded beds o...... exhibited a three-fold higher tendency to interact with neighbouring particles in the presence of DNA than that of the dextran DEAE support. The implications of these findings on the design of future expanded bed materials for separation of both proteins and nucleic acids are discussed....

  7. Expanding the Scope of Electrophiles Capable of Targeting K-Ras Oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Lynn M; Jenkins, Meredith L; Kerwin, Caitlin; Burke, John E; Shokat, Kevan M

    2017-06-27

    There is growing interest in reversible and irreversible covalent inhibitors that target noncatalytic amino acids in target proteins. With a goal of targeting oncogenic K-Ras variants (e.g., G12D) by expanding the types of amino acids that can be targeted by covalent inhibitors, we survey a set of electrophiles for their ability to label carboxylates. We functionalized an optimized ligand for the K-Ras switch II pocket with a set of electrophiles previously reported to react with carboxylates and characterized the ability of these compounds to react with model nucleophiles and oncogenic K-Ras proteins. Here, we report that aziridines and stabilized diazo groups preferentially react with free carboxylates over thiols. Although we did not identify a warhead that potently labels K-Ras G12D, we were able to study the interactions of many electrophiles with K-Ras, as most of the electrophiles rapidly label K-Ras G12C. We characterized the resulting complexes by crystallography, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and differential scanning fluorimetry. Our results both demonstrate the ability of a noncatalytic cysteine to react with a diverse set of electrophiles and emphasize the importance of proper spatial arrangements between a covalent inhibitor and its intended nucleophile. We hope that these results can expand the range of electrophiles and nucleophiles of use in covalent protein modulation.

  8. REGIONAL MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS. External Audit Reporting Could Be Expanded

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    While the traditional role of the external audit function is to express an independent opinion on an entity's financial statements, this role has increasingly been expanded to include reviews of internal control...

  9. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  10. Development of a New Air Liquide Cryogenic Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, G.; Courty, J. C.; Delcayre, F.; Drevard, L.; Durand, F.; Gianese, P.

    2006-04-01

    Air Liquide's Advanced Technology Division is a manufacturer of cryogenic expanders. More than 450 units are now working around the world, mainly dedicated to liquefiers, refrigerators and H2-CO purification units. In order to cope with the power increase of these units, a new expander called "TC7" has been developed and tested. This expander permits turbine wheel diameters up to 110 mm, while the other units of the range (from TC3 to TC6, by increasing wheel diameter) are limited to 78 mm. The maximum flow rate is therefore doubled. The main technical features of the existing range have been kept, and adapted in size: static radial and thrust bearings, low loss casing, variety of wheel shapes (radial-radial shrouded or un-shrouded, radial-axial). This paper describes the main design characteristics of this new expander, together with manufacturing aspects and test results.

  11. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  12. Self-Expanding, Tough Biodegradable Elastomers for Wound Stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    the civilian setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self- expanding polyurethane foam...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Arsenal...setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self-expanding polyurethane foam significantly

  13. Expanding the concept of sustainable seafood using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Friederike; Hornborg, Sara; Green, Bridget S

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global-scale environm......Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global...

  14. An Expanded Model of Distributed Leadership in Organizational Knowledge Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Cannatelli, B.; Smith, B. J.; Giudici, A.; Jones, J; Conger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a three-year qualitative, longitudinal case study of a social venture partnership, we extend the understanding of distributed leadership in organizational knowledge creation. We develop an expanded model of distributed leadership that identifies the antecedents, different forms, and enablers of distributed leadership in knowledge creation. Our findings move beyond a static and monolithic understanding of distributed leadership to illustrate how an expanded model informs the situation...

  15. Chronic expanding hematoma in the retroperitoneal space: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuto, Takahiro; Hatori, Motoaki; Masashi, Nomura; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-11-18

    Chronic expanding hematoma is a rare condition that develops after surgery, trauma, or injury. It can also develop at any location in the body in the absence of trauma. Clinical findings and various diagnostic imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of this condition. In general, hematomas are naturally reabsorbed and rarely cause serious problems. However, hematomas that develop slowly without a history of trauma, surgery, or bleeding disorders could be difficult to differentiate from soft tissue neoplasms. In the present case, we describe a patient, without any history or physical evidence of trauma, who exhibited a large chronic expanding hematoma in the retroperitoneal space that resulted in hydronephrosis because of the pressure exerted on the left ureter. A 69-year-old man presented to our hospital with a swollen lesion in the left flank. A mass, 19 cm in diameter, was detected in the retroperitoneal space by computed tomography. We suspected the presence of a chronic expanding hematoma, soft tissue tumor, or left renal artery aneurysm. Surgical treatment was performed. However, postoperative histopathological examination indicated that the mass was a nonmalignant chronic expanding hematoma. No recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. In patients without a history of trauma who present slowly growing masses, the differential diagnosis should include chronic expanding hematoma in addition to cysts and soft tissue tumors. Moreover, the use of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography is essential to differentiate between chronic expanding hematoma and soft tissue tumors.

  16. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of rapid palatal expander screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. Methods Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S”, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S” for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S.P., Target Baby REP Veltri, and Leone A 362113. A test expander with the mean dimensions taken from measurements on a sample of 100 expanders was constructed for each screw. The test expanders were connected to the supports of an Instron 4467 (Instron Corp., USA mechanical testing machine equipped with a 500 N load cell, and the compression force exerted after each activation was measured. The mean forces expressed by the two- and four-arm expanders were then compared. Results After five activations, the forces expressed by the two-arm devices were double than those expressed by the four-arm devices on average (224 ± 59.9 N vs. 103 ± 32.9 N, and such values remained high after subsequent activations. Conclusions The expanders tested demonstrated stiffness characteristics compatible with opening of the palatine sutures in pre-adolescent patients. The stiffness of such devices can be further increased during the construction phase.

  17. Protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byron, Olwyn; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Responsive formation of protein:protein interaction (PPI) upon diverse stimuli is a fundament of cellular function. As a consequence, PPIs are complex, adaptive entities, and exist in structurally heterogeneous interplays defined by the energetic states of the free and complexed protomers. The bi...

  18. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Soluble forms of polyQ-expanded huntingtin rather than large aggregates cause endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Julia; Ulrich Hartl, F.; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

    2013-11-01

    In Huntington’s disease, as in other neurodegenerative diseases, it was initially thought that insoluble protein aggregates are the toxic species. However, growing evidence implicates soluble oligomeric polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin in cytotoxicity. Here we show that pathogenic huntingtin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and induces ER stress before its aggregation into visible inclusions. All three branches of the unfolded protein response are activated. ER stress can be compensated by overexpression of p97/VCP, suggesting its sequestration by pathogenic huntingtin as a main cause. Stress correlates with the presence of huntingtin oligomers and is independent of continual huntingtin synthesis. Stress levels, measured in striatal neurons, are stabilized but only slowly subside on huntingtin aggregation into inclusions. Our results can be explained by the constant conversion of huntingtin monomers to toxic oligomers; large aggregates sequester the former, precluding further conversion, whereas pre-existing toxic oligomers are only gradually depleted.

  20. Understanding Protein Non-Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    This review describes the family of intrinsically disordered proteins, members of which fail to form rigid 3-D structures under physiological conditions, either along their entire lengths or only in localized regions. Instead, these intriguing proteins/regions exist as dynamic ensembles within which atom positions and backbone Ramachandran angles exhibit extreme temporal fluctuations without specific equilibrium values. Many of these intrinsically disordered proteins are known to carry out important biological functions which, in fact, depend on the absence of specific 3-D structure. The existence of such proteins does not fit the prevailing structure-function paradigm, which states that unique 3-D structure is a prerequisite to function. Thus, the protein structure-function paradigm has to be expanded to include intrinsically disordered proteins and alternative relationships among protein sequence, structure, and function. This shift in the paradigm represents a major breakthrough for biochemistry, biophysics and molecular biology, as it opens new levels of understanding with regard to the complex life of proteins. This review will try to answer the following questions: How were intrinsically disordered proteins discovered? Why don't these proteins fold? What is so special about intrinsic disorder? What are the functional advantages of disordered proteins/regions? What is the functional repertoire of these proteins? What are the relationships between intrinsically disordered proteins and human diseases? PMID:20117254

  1. Stabilization of expanded (CTG)•(CAG) repeats by antisense oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Masayuki; Gourdon, Geneviève; Thornton, Charles A

    2011-12-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the gene DMPK. The expansion is highly unstable in somatic cells, a feature that may contribute to disease progression. The RNA expressed from the mutant allele exerts a toxic gain of function, due to the presence of an expanded CUG repeat (CUG(exp)). This RNA dominant mechanism is amenable to therapeutic intervention with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). For example, CAG-repeat ASOs that bind CUG(exp) RNA are beneficial in DM1 models by altering the protein interactions or metabolism of the toxic RNA. Because CUG(exp) RNA has been shown to aggravate instability of expanded CTG repeats, we studied whether CAG-repeat ASOs may also affect this aspect of DM1. In human cells the instability of (CTG)(800) was suppressed by addition of CAG-repeat ASOs to the culture media. In mice that carry a DMPK transgene the somatic instability of (CTG)(800) was suppressed by direct injection of CAG-repeat ASOs into muscle tissue. These results raise the possibility that early intervention with ASOs to reduce RNA or protein toxicity may have the additional benefit of stabilizing CTG:CAG repeats at subpathogenic lengths.

  2. Expanded repertoire of AAV vector serotypes mediate unique patterns of transduction in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cearley, Cassia N; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Parente, Michael K; Carnish, Erin R; Wilson, James M; Wolfe, John H

    2008-10-01

    A wide diversity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) structural proteins uncovered from latent genomes in primate tissue has expanded the number of AAV vector serotypes, which can potentially confer unique cell tropism to the vector. We evaluated 17 of these vectors in the mouse brain using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. A rapid initial evaluation was performed by neonatal lateral ventricle injections. Vectors made with capsids hu.32, hu.37, pi.2, hu.11, rh.8, hu.48R3, and AAV9 for comparison were selected for further analysis based on their ability to transduce large numbers of cells and result in novel patterns of cell transduction. These vectors were injected into adult brains in four major structures (cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus), and all were found to transduce neurons. In addition, hu.32, hu.11, pi.2, hu.48R3, and rh.8 resulted in GFP expression in some astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. AAVs rh.8, pi.2, hu.32, and hu.11 also appeared to result in neuronal transport of the vector genome. Vector transport was studied by a single unilateral injection into the hippocampus and vector genome was found in projection sites of the hippocampus. These unique patterns of cell transduction expand the potential repertoire for targeting AAV vectors to selected subsets of brain cells.

  3. Improving washing strategies of human mesenchymal stem cells using negative mode expanded bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Bárbara; Silva, Ricardo J S; Aguiar, Tiago; Serra, Margarida; Daicic, John; Maloisel, Jean-Luc; Clachan, John; Åkerblom, Anna; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M

    2016-01-15

    The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in clinical applications has been increasing over the last decade. However, to be applied in a clinical setting hMSC need to comply with specific requirements in terms of identity, potency and purity. This study reports the improvement of established tangential flow filtration (TFF)-based washing strategies, further increasing hMSC purity, using negative mode expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with a new multimodal prototype matrix based on core-shell bead technology. The matrix was characterized and a stable, expanded bed could be obtained using standard equipment adapted from what is used for conventional packed bed chromatography processes. The effect of different expansion rates on cell recovery yield and protein removal capacity was assessed. The best trade-off between cell recovery (89%) and protein clearance (67%) was achieved using an intermediate expansion bed rate (1.4). Furthermore, we also showed that EBA chromatography can be efficiently integrated on the already established process for the downstream processing (DSP) of hMSC, where it improved the washing efficiency more than 10-fold, recovering approximately 70% of cells after global processing. This strategy showed not to impact cell viability (>95%), neither hMSC's characteristics in terms of morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation, adhesion capacity and multipotent differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plastic compressed collagen as a novel carrier for expanded human corneal endothelial cells for transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah J Levis

    Full Text Available Current treatments for reversible blindness caused by corneal endothelial cell failure involve replacing the failed endothelium with donor tissue using a one donor-one recipient strategy. Due to the increasing pressure of a worldwide donor cornea shortage there has been considerable interest in developing alternative strategies to treat endothelial disorders using expanded cell replacement therapy. Protocols have been developed which allow successful expansion of endothelial cells in vitro but this approach requires a supporting material that would allow easy transfer of cells to the recipient. We describe the first use of plastic compressed collagen as a highly effective, novel carrier for human corneal endothelial cells. A human corneal endothelial cell line and primary human corneal endothelial cells retained their characteristic cobblestone morphology and expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 and pump protein Na+/K+ ATPase α1 after culture on collagen constructs for up to 14 days. Additionally, ultrastructural analysis suggested a well-integrated endothelial layer with tightly opposed cells and apical microvilli. Plastic compressed collagen is a superior biomaterial in terms of its speed and ease of production and its ability to be manipulated in a clinically relevant manner without breakage. This method provides expanded endothelial cells with a substrate that could be suitable for transplantation allowing one donor cornea to potentially treat multiple patients.

  5. Plastic compressed collagen as a novel carrier for expanded human corneal endothelial cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Hannah J; Peh, Gary S L; Toh, Kah-Peng; Poh, Rebekah; Shortt, Alex J; Drake, Rosemary A L; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Daniels, Julie T

    2012-01-01

    Current treatments for reversible blindness caused by corneal endothelial cell failure involve replacing the failed endothelium with donor tissue using a one donor-one recipient strategy. Due to the increasing pressure of a worldwide donor cornea shortage there has been considerable interest in developing alternative strategies to treat endothelial disorders using expanded cell replacement therapy. Protocols have been developed which allow successful expansion of endothelial cells in vitro but this approach requires a supporting material that would allow easy transfer of cells to the recipient. We describe the first use of plastic compressed collagen as a highly effective, novel carrier for human corneal endothelial cells. A human corneal endothelial cell line and primary human corneal endothelial cells retained their characteristic cobblestone morphology and expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 and pump protein Na+/K+ ATPase α1 after culture on collagen constructs for up to 14 days. Additionally, ultrastructural analysis suggested a well-integrated endothelial layer with tightly opposed cells and apical microvilli. Plastic compressed collagen is a superior biomaterial in terms of its speed and ease of production and its ability to be manipulated in a clinically relevant manner without breakage. This method provides expanded endothelial cells with a substrate that could be suitable for transplantation allowing one donor cornea to potentially treat multiple patients.

  6. Expandable Total Humeral Replacement in a Child with Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Henderson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A right-handed 8-year-old female patient presented with a conventional, high-grade osteosarcoma involving her right humerus; through-shoulder amputation was recommended. After consultation, total humerus resection with expandable, total humeral endoprosthesis reconstruction was performed with a sleeve to encourage soft-tissue ingrowth. At three-year follow-up she has received one lengthening procedure and her functional scores are excellent. Conclusion. Total humeral resection and replacement in the pediatric population are rare and although early reports of expandable total humeral endoprosthesis outcomes demonstrate high failure rates, this patient’s success indicates that expandable total humeral replacement is a viable option.

  7. Expanded bed adsorption of an alkaline lipase from Pseudomona cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Padilha, Giovana; Curvelo-Santana, José Carlos; Alegre, Ranulfo Monte; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2009-02-15

    An extracellular lipase was isolated from Pseudomona cepacia by expanded bed adsorption on an Amberlite 410 ion-exchange resin. Enzyme characterization and hydrodynamic study of a chromatography column were done. Enzyme purification was done at three condition of expanded bed height (H): at one and half (6cm), at two (8cm) and at three (12cm) times the fixed bed height (H(0)=4cm). The results showed that the experimental data was fitted to the Richardson and Zaki equation, and the comparison between the experimental and calculated terminal velocities showed low relative error. In enzyme purification for better condition, a purification factor of about 80 times was found at 6cm of expanded bed height, or 1.5 times of expansion degree. Purified lipase had an optimal pH and a temperature of 8 and 37 degrees C, respectively.

  8. Financial Burdens and Economic Costs in Expanding Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David H.; Snyder, Thomas P.

    1987-07-01

    Rates of growth of demand, lengths of financing periods, real interest rates, and the types of facilities are shown to be important variables in evaluating the equity (or inequity) between established residents and new-development residents when urban water and sewer facilities are expanded with public financing. Established residents pay less than the economic cost of facilities when facilities that can be efficiently expanded in an incremental manner are subject to demands that are growing at rates that are less than the real interest rate. They pay more than the economic cost when growth occurs at higher rates. When facilities are expanded at multiyear intervals with excess capacity, payments are equated to costs at lower growth rates. Similarly, increasing real costs of facilities shift that breakpoint to lower growth rates. Modest one-time changes can be used to offset burdens on established residents when inequities do occur. Inflation has little effect on these results.

  9. Can microcarrier-expanded chondrocytes synthesize cartilaginous tissue in vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrao, Denver C; Khan, Aasma A; McGregor, Aaron J; Amsden, Brian G; Waldman, Stephen D

    2011-08-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising approach for articular cartilage repair; however, it is challenging to produce adequate amounts of tissue in vitro from the limited number of cells that can be extracted from an individual. Relatively few cell expansion methods exist without the problems of de-differentiation and/or loss of potency. Recently, however, several studies have noted the benefits of three-dimensional (3D) over monolayer expansion, but the ability of 3D expanded chondrocytes to synthesize cartilaginous tissue constructs has not been demonstrated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the properties of engineered cartilage constructs from expanded cells (monolayer and 3D microcarriers) to those developed from primary chondrocytes. Isolated bovine chondrocytes were grown for 3 weeks in either monolayer (T-Flasks) or 3D microcarrier (Cytodex 3) expansion culture. Expanded and isolated primary cells were then seeded in high density culture on Millicell™ filters for 4 weeks to evaluate the ability to synthesize cartilaginous tissue. While microcarrier expansion was twice as effective as monolayer expansion (microcarrier: 110-fold increase, monolayer: 52-fold increase), the expanded cells (monolayer and 3D microcarrier) were not effectively able to synthesize cartilaginous tissue in vitro. Tissues developed from primary cells were substantially thicker and accumulated significantly more extracellular matrix (proteoglycan content: 156%-292% increase; collagen content: 70%-191% increase). These results were attributed to phenotypic changes experienced during the expansion phase. Monolayer expanded chondrocytes lost their native morphology within 1 week, whereas microcarrier-expanded cells were spreading by 3 weeks of expansion. While the use of 3D microcarriers can lead to large cellular yields, preservation of chondrogenic phenotype during expansion is required in order to synthesize cartilaginous tissue.

  10. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Daria; Latosh, Boris

    2018-02-01

    In this review we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on a black hole, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the gaps that must be filled.

  11. Expanding the Model of Organizational Learning: Scope, Contingencies, and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper seeks to contribute to the understanding of organizational learning by (a integrating existing models of organizational learning into a single model and (b expanding the model to include inter-organizational learning, adding key contingencies suggested by the growing literature on neuroleadership, and incorporating a process dimension to reflect the fact that organizational learning is continuous and dynamic. The resulting expanded model of organizational learning encompasses four levels on which learning can occur: individual, team, organizational, and inter-organizational. The overall validity of the model is illustrated by applying it to two knowledge-intensive Slovenian firms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. Chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hitoshi; Baba, Hiromitsu; Ondo, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck. An 83-year-old man with a history of Lucite ball plombage and thoracoplasty of bilateral thorax was admitted with numbness of left upper extremity. In 6 months, left supraclavicular fossa was gradually bulged like tumor. The lesion was diagnosed as chronic expanding hematoma. Surgically, Lucite balls were removed with surrounding hematoma debris and fluid, and neck hematoma, which was slightly communicated to the thorax, was extirpated. We discussed the genesis of this hematoma and its extension to the neck.

  13. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tretyakova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on black holes, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the issues that are not fully investigated.

  14. Sound absorption study of raw and expanded particulate vermiculites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašina, Martin; Plachá, Daniela; Mikeska, Marcel; Hružík, Lumír; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2016-12-01

    Expanded and raw vermiculite minerals were studied for their ability to absorb sound. Phase and structural characterization of the investigated vermiculites was found similar for both types, while morphology and surface properties vary. Sound waves reflect in wedge-like structure and get minimized, and later are absorbed totally. We found that thanks to porous character of expanded vermiculite the principle of absorption of sound into layered vermiculite morphology is analogous to principle of sound minimization in "anechoic chambers." It was found in this study that the best sound damping properties of the investigated vermiculites were in general obtained at higher powder bed heights and higher excitation frequencies.

  15. Esophagojejunal anastomotic leak managed with self expandable metallic stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Madurandagam Annapillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophagealjejunal anastomotic leak after gastrectomy is a serious surgical emergency with high mortality. This report describes a 57-year-old male with esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer and was managed successfully with self-expandable metallic stent. To our knowledge this is the first such report from India. This case report highlights the need of interdisciplinary coordination in managing this difficult clinical situation. Endotherapy with self-expandable metallic stent (SEM provided twin benefits of improving respiratory embarrassment and the joy of eating. Therapy of such difficult cases must be individualized; however, and SEM stent usage is a viable option

  16. Predicting paravalvular leak after balloon-expandable TAVR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Amar; Tuzcu, E Murat

    2015-07-01

    Objective measurement of a Valve Calcification Index (calcium volume/BSA) may predict PVL after TAVR using a cutoff value > 418 mm(3) /mm(2) Oversizing the balloon-expandable SAPIEN valve with a goal ratio of valve diameter: average annulus diameter > 1.055 may reduce PVL after TAVR Single parameters are unlikely to provide adequate sensitivity to reduce PVL; a thorough analysis of root sizing, calcification, and morphology is important to balloon-expandable TAVR safety and efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  18. A framework to expand public services to children with biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study undertook the development of a framework for expanding the public services available to children with biomedical healthcare needs related to HIV in South Africa. The study consisted of various component projects which were depicted as phases. The first phase was a descriptive quantitative analysis of ...

  19. Expanded phenotype in a patient with spastic paraplegia 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jennifer; Blackburn, Patrick R; Jackson, Jessica; Macklin, Sarah; van Gerpen, Jay; Atwal, Paldeep S

    2017-10-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders, often characterized by weakness and spasticity in the lower limbs. In our study, we describe a spastic paraplegia type 7 patient with an expanded phenotype who was diagnosed after the discovery of pathogenic variants in SPG7.

  20. Expanding newborn screening programmes and strengthening informed consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsingh, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Part I offers the context to the claim that informed consent requirements need to be strengthened to the extent that newborn screening conveys more disadvantages relative to the advantages. This includes a discussion of the Dutch debate on expanding newborn screening. From this discussion it becomes

  1. 78 FR 37431 - Expanding America's Leadership in Wireless Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of June 14, 2013 Expanding America's Leadership in Wireless Innovation... innovation, private investment, and smart policy has positioned the United States as the global leader in... promoting innovation and economic growth. Although existing efforts will almost double the amount of...

  2. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, C.C.; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F.; Schiffman, E.L.; Alstergren, P.; Anderson, G.C.; De Leeuw, R.; Jensen, R.; Michelotti, A.; Ohrbach, R.; Petersson, A.; List, T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for

  3. Expanded Territories of "Literacy": New Literacies and Multiliteracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Facing the radical change in society in the 21st century, the conventional view of literacy and literacy education may no longer satisfy students' needs in working and social lives, especially beyond classroom settings. Therefore, expanded territories of literacy have been proposed to better support teachers' and students' literacy education and…

  4. Fire Resistance of Concrete Constructions with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes briefly a series of full-scale tests made as documentation for extending the field of application of the reduced cross section method from the structural codes to constructions based on expanded clay aggregate. As a special result the tests verify that slabs with a short...

  5. Expanding the Functional Assessment Model for Naturalistic Intervention Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ian M.

    2000-01-01

    This article comments on a study that used functional assessment to reduce behavior problems in a child with multiple disabilities (Kern and Vorndran, 2000). It suggests additional principles need to be incorporated into an expanded model if functional assessment is to have a truly positive influence on naturalistic treatment planning. (Contains…

  6. methanes using Expanded Perlite-PPA as a heterogeneous solid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    absorbed water molecules on the Expanded Perlite sur- face. The second step involves the decomposition of ..... (c) Fahy E, Potts B C M, Faulkner D J and Smith K. 1991 6-Bromotryptamine derivatives from the Gulf of ... Zhang C L and Du Z Q 2009 Synthesis of bis- indolylmethanes catalyzed by oxone Chin. Chem. Lett.

  7. THE USE OF TISSUE EXPANDERS IN HYPOSPADIAS CRIPPLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This procedure was introduced to evaluate the use of tissue expanders in pa- tients with complex anterior urethralstric- tures and hypospadias cripples where there is not enough healthy penile skin to bridge the urethral defect or to cover the neoure- thra. Patients and Methods: Six patients with a mean age of 23.3 ...

  8. Expanded clinical spectrum of enhanced S-cone syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, Suzanne; Barbazetto, Irene; Allikmets, Rando; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Bergen, Arthur; Tsang, Stephen H.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    New funduscopic findings in patients with enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) may help clinicians in diagnosing this rare autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy. To expand the clinical spectrum of ESCS due to mutations in the NR2E3 gene. Retrospective, noncomparative case series of 31 patients examined

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  10. Education Abroad for Students with Disabilities: Expanding Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Heidi M.; Fisher, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    Education abroad is a rapidly expanding opportunity for undergraduate students in the United States. Concurrent with this growth in total numbers is a growth in the diversity of participants. Students with different ethnic backgrounds, academic majors, age, socioeconomic status, and disabilities are increasingly seeking opportunities overseas. In…

  11. Gravitational Collapse and Structure Formation in an Expanding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. September 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Gravitational Collapse and Structure Formation in an. Expanding Universe. J S Bagla and Pritpal Kaur Sandhu. Keywords. Cosmology, gravitational col- lapse, galaxy formation. (left) Jasjeet Bagla works at IISER Mohali. His research is mainly in the area of cosmology.

  12. Expanding horizons. Integrating environmental health in occupational health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B; Cox, A R

    1998-01-01

    1. Environmental hazards are ubiquitous. Many exist in the workplace or occur as a result of work process exposures. 2. Environmental health is a natural component of the expanding practice of occupational health nursing. 3. AAOHN's vision for occupational and environmental health will continue to set the standard and provide leadership in the specialty.

  13. Enrichment in Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven, Meghan; Checkoway, Amy; Gamse, Beth; Luck, Rachel; Wu, Sally

    2012-01-01

    This brief highlights key information about enrichment activities, which represent one of the main components of the Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) initiative. Over time, the ELT initiative has supported over two dozen schools across the Commonwealth. A comprehensive evaluation of the ELT initiative found that implementation of the…

  14. Expanding Learning Opportunities for High School Students with Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beese, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Synchronous Interactive Video Conference Distance Learning pilot program was to use emerging technologies to expand learning opportunities for students at an urban public high school. Through grant funding, students were able to enroll in Advanced Placement and foreign language courses through an online learning provider. Using…

  15. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, poor health, and limited physical activity are major health concerns. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) improves the health and well-being of limited resource families and youth. Additionally, EFNEP leads to public savings. Research shows that better health is associated with reduced health care costs, less…

  16. New expanded bed adsorbents for the recovery of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Olander, M. A.; Sondergaard, M.

    2000-01-01

    A 20-40 mum pellicular high density (similar to3.7 g cm(-3)) expanded bed material has been designed for the capture of DNA and other large macromolecules. Anion exchangers fashioned out of these supports exhibited dramatically enhanced DNA binding capacities over commercial anion exchange...

  17. Diaspora, Migration, and Globalization: Expanding the Discourse of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how notions of diaspora, migration, and globalization intersect to inform identities and social realities of those who leave their homeland and resettle in other nations. It calls for expanding the discourse of adult education to incorporate critical studies of the diaspora to make visible the inequality and imbalance of…

  18. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility f...

  19. Stability of a bubble expanding and translating through an inviscid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A bubble expands adiabatically and translates in an incompressible and inviscid liquid. We investigate the number of equilibrium points of the bubble and the nature of stability of the bubble at these points. We find that there is only one equilibrium point and the bubble is stable there.

  20. Scaling up: Expanding the impact of food security and nutrition ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-06

    Oct 6, 2016 ... To increase food production; To raise incomes for farming families; To improve nutrition across the Global South. Together with its ... The social business is expanding from the 55 franchises currently serving 25,000 customers in Kenya to 150 franchises that will benefit 375,000 smallholder farmers by 2018.

  1. Validation of the Chinese Expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be…

  2. Apprenticeship Programs Expand with Help of Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The apprenticeship system, long considered an educational relic by some educators and policy makers, is gaining new attention as a model for improving job skills and meeting national college-completion goals. A number of states and community and technical colleges are working to strengthen and expand apprenticeship opportunities. They offer…

  3. Expanding the Role of Connectionism in SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how connectionism might expand its role in second language acquisition (SLA) theory by showing how some symbolic models of bilingual and second language lexical memory can be reduced to a biologically realistic (i.e., neurally plausible) connectionist model. This integration or hybridization of the two models follows the…

  4. Expanding the Spanish Classroom: The "Art" in Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Erin M.

    2016-01-01

    Supplementing the foreign language curriculum with the incorporation of art museum visits has benefits for students, faculty, the campus art gallery, and the institution. Such a collaborative program serves to expand the classroom and complement instruction by providing learners with a new space to engage in authentic practice in the target…

  5. Expanding Business Opportunities for African Youth in Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Business Opportunities for African Youth in Agricultural Value Chains in Southern Africa (CultiAF). This project will develop and test novel, creative, and bold business models that increase the participation of youth in fish and maize post-harvest value chains in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. African youth and ...

  6. A New Vertebral Body Replacement Strategy Using Expandable Polymeric Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Paulsen, Alex; Giambini, Hugo; Guo, Ji; Miller, A Lee; Lin, Po-Chun; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a novel polymeric expandable cage that can be delivered via a posterior-only surgical approach for the treatment of noncontained vertebral defects. This approach is less invasive than an anterior-only or combined approach and much more cost-effective than currently used expandable metal cages. The polymeric expandable cage is composed of oligo poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF), a hydrogel that has been previously shown to have excellent nerve and bone tissue biocompatibility. OPF hydrogel cages can expand to twice their original diameter and length within a surgical time frame following hydration. Modulation of parameters such as polymeric network crosslink density or the introduction of charge to the network allowed for precise expansion kinetics. To meet specific requirements due to size variations in patient vertebral bodies, we fabricated a series of molds with varied diameters and explored the expansion kinetics of the OPF cages. Results showed a stable expansion ratio of approximately twofold to the original size within 20 min, regardless of the absolute value of the cage size. Following implantation of a dried OPF cage into a noncontained vertebral defect and its in situ expansion with normal saline, other augmentation biomaterials, such as poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), can be injected to the lumen of the OPF cage and allowed to crosslink in situ. The OPF/PPF composite scaffold can provide the necessary rigidity and stability to the augmented spine.

  7. Response to "Expanding Access to Learning with Mobile Digital Devices"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Jen

    2017-01-01

    In his article "Expanding Access to Learning with Mobile Digital Devices" (EJ1150752), Jeff Carter recommended a balanced perspective when measuring the potential of mobile learning to redefine teaching and learning for adults with basic skills needs. In response to Carter's article, the author makes some recommendations that she thinks…

  8. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Asselberghs, Johan; Martel, An; Bales, Emma K.; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C.; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F.; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  9. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  10. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; et al, ...; Schmidt, B R

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010–2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  11. Lattice expansion of carbon-stabilized expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice parameter of expanded austenite was determined as a function of the content of interstitially dissolved carbon in homogeneous, carburized thin stainless steel foils. For the first time this expansion of the face-centered cubic lattice is determined on unstrained austenite. It is found...

  12. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...

  13. Introduction: Expanding the boundaries of psychological resource theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); J.R.B. Halbesleben (Jonathon); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article introduces JOOP’s special section on expanding the boundaries of resource theories in Occupational and Organizational Psychology. After an introduction of the most relevant resource theories and their current application in Occupational and Organizational Psychology

  14. CSU Standard for the CLSI Expanded Title Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen; And Others

    The revised system specifications described in this document were adopted by the 19 California State University and College (CSUC) libraries for a second test version of the CLSI "Expanded Title Record" public access online catalog at California State University at Chico. Should this pilot demonstration of the data format prove…

  15. CSUC Standard for the CLSI Expanded Title Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Barbara; And Others

    The system specifications described have been adopted by the 19 California State University and Colleges Libraries for use with the CL Systems "Expanded Title Record" format. It is anticipated that these specifications will be tested at California State University, Chico, beginning midyear 1981. Should this pilot demonstration prove…

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic self-expanding metal stents for palliation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancers of the pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts are the commonest causes of malignant biliary obstruction. .... markers on the delivery catheter allow fluoroscopic control of stent release after positioning across the .... percutaneous biliary transhepatic self-expanding metal stent insertion was technically successful in all ...

  17. Expanding the Lexicon: The Case of Jordanian Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'aida, Zainab

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore (non)morphological processes that native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic and Jordanian Rural Arabic use to expand their own lexicon. Three Jordanian female respondents were interviewed to collect data. The data consist of transcriptions of recorded tokens, which were categorised into groups according to the…

  18. Using Aesthetic Response, a Poetic Inquiry to Expand Knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerge, Anna; Warja, Margareta; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    Using Aesthetic Response, a Poetic Inquiry to Expand Knowing Abstract: The Rx6-Method A simple step-wise research procedure of arts-based research (ABR) called the Rx6 method is presented. This ABR method is grounded in expressive arts therapy, heuristic inquiry, attachment theory and contemporary...

  19. Educated Japanese English: Expanding Oral/Aural Core Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Having established the world's first undergraduate college of world Englishes, and in an "Expanding-Circle" setting, we have created the pilot environment for a new type of ELT curriculum. We must address the creation of a curriculum that is pervasively informed by the philosophy of world Englishes at both a macro and micro level.…

  20. Gravitational Clustering of Galaxies in an Expanding Universe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-12-08

    Dec 8, 2006 ... Abstract. We inquire the phenomena of clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe from a theoretical point of view on the basis of ther- modynamics and correlation functions. The partial differential equation is developed both for the point mass and extended mass structures of a two-point correlation ...

  1. Expanding the English Medical Schools: The Politics of Knowledge Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997 there have been two concerted attempts to expand the number of medical school students in England: by increasing the size of existing medical schools, and by creating new medical schools. These initiatives have been a direct result of government policy, although policy implementation was delegated to the state apparatus. They also led…

  2. Application of a high density adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of STREAMLINE Direct HST adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption of lipase from Burkholderia pseudomallei was explored in this study. Scouting of optimum binding and elution condition was performed in batch binding mode. The addition of 0.2 M salt in acetate buffer (pH 5) during adsorption has ...

  3. Expanding Applications of SERS through Versatile Nanomaterials Engineering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-22

    directions We expect that advances in synthetic chemistry and materials engineering will continue to provide new directions for answer- ing chemical...biologically relevant molecules by SERS. 6. Conclusions Advances in synthetic chemistry and materials engineering have helped expand the applications of SERS...ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE

  4. Dynamical 3-Space: Black Holes in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothall D. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Black holes are usually studied without including effects of the expanding universe. However in some recent studies black holes have been embedded in an expanding universe, in order to determine the interplay, if any, of these two dynamical processes. Dynamical 3-space theory contains time independent solutions for black holes, which are spatial in-flows, and separately the time dependent Hubble expansion. This theory has explained numerous puzzles in observational astrophysics and contains 3 constants; G, - which from experimental data turns out to be the fine structure constant, and - which is a small but nonzero distance, possibly a Planck-type length. The Hubble expansion in the dynamical 3-space theory cannot be “switched o”, forcing the study, first, of isolated black holes coexisting with the expanding universe. It is shown that a time dependent black hole and expanding universe solution exists. The nature and implications of these solutions are discussed as they evolve over time. A dynamical network of black holes and induced linking cosmic filaments forming bubble structures is discussed, as a consequence of dynamical 3-space undergoing a dynamical breakdown of homogeneity and isotropy, even in the absence of baryonic matter.

  5. Gravitational Clustering of Galaxies in an Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We inquire the phenomena of clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe from a theoretical point of view on the basis of thermodynamics and correlation functions. The partial differential equation is developed both for the point mass and extended mass structures of a two-point correlation function by using ...

  6. Strategies for Expanding Learning Opportunities for NESB Adult Literacy Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Marta; Foster, Lois

    1995-01-01

    Explores two strategies for expanding learning opportunities for adult literacy learners that are not tied to formal instruction and unlimited finance. These strategies are the creative use of technology and reading circles which draw on the adult's capacity for independent learning and the bilingualism of the learners. (18 references) (Author/CK)

  7. Staged repair of giant exomphalos major using tissue expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Shah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant exomphalos, also called hepato-omphalocele, is a major exodus of abdominal viscera. Due to the large discrepancy between abdominal domain and the volume of extra abdominal organs, these defects present a significant challenge to pediatric surgeons. A 10 month old boy with antenatally diagnosed exomphalos major had a giant exomphalos 15 × 15 × 10 cm in size. Investigations revealed significant visceroabdominal disproportion, in view of which staged repair of the exomphalos was planned. An intraperitoneal silicon tissue expander was inserted for this child in the infra-umbilical abdominal cavity with the flat surface in the recto-vesical pouch through pfannenstiel incision & gradually inflated. Subsequently, subcutaneous expanders were placed in both flanks using minimal access technique to get adequate healthy skin cover prior to final ventral hernia repair. At eight years of age, the patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with ventral hernia repair with meshplasty using dual surface mesh & had an excellent and prompt recovery. There are numerous surgical techniques for giant omphalocele closure, which fall into the categories of staged, and delayed closure. Uniqueness of this case is combined use of both intraperitoneal and subcutaneous tissue expansion with the aid of minimal access technique in placement of subcutaneous expanders. The combined use of both intra-abdominal & subcutaneous expanders has not yet been reported in children.

  8. Expanding Schooling Opportunities for 4-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Edwin; Lindahl, Mikael; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Webbink, Dinand

    2010-01-01

    We use a novel quasi-experimental strategy to estimate the effect of expanding early schooling enrollment possibilities on early achievement. It exploits two features of the school system in The Netherlands. The first is rolling admissions; children are allowed to start school immediately after their 4th birthday instead of at the beginning of the…

  9. 2010 Impacts: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Since 1969, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) has improved the diets and food-related behaviors of program participants. Each year EFNEP enrolls more than half a million new program participants. In 2010, EFNEP reached 137,814 adults and 463,530 youth directly and nearly 400,000 family members indirectly. This paper…

  10. [Latex covering and mechanical analysis of balloon expandable stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; von Segesser, L K; Carrel, T; Turina, M

    1996-01-01

    To the moment a few stents of metallic coils or meshes are available with a sealing coverage. In the present study balloon-expandable stents have been covered with a thin layer of natural rubber latex. The physical properties of these impervious stents were compared to the conventional stents. The expansion, the loss of expansion and the deformity during and after balloon inflation have been analyzed. In the pressure zone of 4-6 bar the mechanical characteristics of the impervious stents were similar to the conventional stents. The stents were expanded at 100% related on the balloon diameter used for expansion. Additional pressure of 1 bar was necessary to expand the impervious stents. At balloon pressure below 4 bar the stents tied the balloons in the midzone. The impervious stents, expanded at 6, 8 and 10mm, underwent a loss of expansion of 10% after withdrawal of the balloons. Their configuration was barrel-shaped (4% central enlargement) due to the latex rubber, constricting the wire meshes at both ends. These preliminary results are encouraging and allow further investigations.

  11. Expanding the repertoire of biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease: targeted and non-targeted approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eGalasko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first biofluid markers developed for Alzheimer’s disease (AD used targeted approaches for discovery. These initial biomarkers were directed at key protein constituents of the hallmark brain lesions in AD. Biomarkers for plaques targeted the amyloid beta protein (Aβ and for tangles, the microtubule-associated protein tau. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of Aβ and tau have excellent diagnostic utility and can be used to monitor aspects of therapeutic development. Recent research has extended our current concepts of AD, which now include a slow buildup of pathology during a long presymptomatic period, a complex cascade of pathological pathways in the brain that may accelerate once symptoms develop, the potential of aggregated proteins to spread across brain pathways, and interactions with vascular and other age-associated brain pathologies. There are many potential roles for biomarkers within this landscape. A more diverse set of biomarkers would provide a better picture of the staging and state of pathological events in the brain across the stages of AD. This aim of this review is to focus on methods of biomarker discovery that may help to expand the currently accepted biomarkers. Opportunities and approaches for targeted and non-targeted (or –omic biomarker discovery are highlighted, with examples from recent studies. How biomarker discoveries can be developed and integrated to become useful tools in diagnostic and therapeutic efforts is discussed.

  12. Expanding the yeast prion world: Active prion conversion of non-glutamine/asparagine-rich Mod5 for cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Genjiro; Tanaka, Motomasa

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian and fungal prion proteins form self-perpetuating β-sheet-rich fibrillar aggregates called amyloid. Prion inheritance is based on propagation of the regularly oriented amyloid structures of the prion proteins. All yeast prion proteins identified thus far contain aggregation-prone glutamine/asparagine (Gln/Asn)-rich domains, although the mammalian prion protein and fungal prion protein HET-s do not contain such sequences. In order to fill this gap, we searched for novel yeast prion proteins lacking Gln/Asn-rich domains via a genome-wide screen based on cross-seeding between two heterologous proteins and identified Mod5, a yeast tRNA isopentenyltransferase, as a novel non-Gln/Asn-rich yeast prion protein. Mod5 formed self-propagating amyloid fibers in vitro and the introduction of Mod5 amyloids into non-prion yeast induced dominantly and cytoplasmically heritable prion state [MOD (+) ], which harbors aggregates of endogenous Mod5. [MOD (+) ] yeast showed an increased level of membrane lipid ergosterol and acquired resistance to antifungal agents. Importantly, enhanced de novo formation of [MOD (+) ] was observed when non-prion yeast was grown under selective pressures from antifungal drugs. Our findings expand the family of yeast prions to non-Gln/Asn-rich proteins and reveal the acquisition of a fitness advantage for cell survival through active prion conversion.

  13. Text Mining for Protein Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Varsha D; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking). Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu). The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features) approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound benchmark set

  14. Text Mining for Protein Docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha D Badal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking. Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu. The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound

  15. The Potential for Health Monitoring in Expandable Space Modules: The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nathan D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2017-01-01

    Expandable modules for use in space and on the Moon or Mars offer a great opportunity for volume and mass savings in future space exploration missions. This type of module can be compressed into a relatively small shape on the ground, allowing them to fit into space vehicles with a smaller cargo/fairing size than a traditional solid, metallic structure based module would allow. In April 2016, the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) was berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). BEAM is the first human-rated expandable habitat/module to be deployed and crewed in space. BEAM is a NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. BEAM is intended to stay attached to ISS for an operational period of 2 years to help advance the technology readiness for future expandable modules. BEAM has been instrumented with a suite of space flight certified sensors systems which will help characterize the module's performance for thermal, radiation shielding and impact monitoring against potential Micro Meteoroid/Orbital Debris (MM/OD) providing fundamental information on the BEAM environment for potential health monitoring requirements and capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of how the sensors/instrumentation systems were developed, tested, installed and an overview of the current sensor system operations. It will also discuss how the MM/OD impact detection system referred to as the Distributed Impact Detection System (DIDS) data is being processed and reviewed on the ground by the principle investigators.

  16. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  17. Design of Modern Reactors for Synthesis of Thermally Expanded Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strativnov, Eugene V.

    2015-05-01

    One of the most progressive trends in the development of modern science and technology is the creation of energy-efficient technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Nanolayered graphite (thermally exfoliated graphite) is one of the key important nanomaterials of carbon origin. Due to its unique properties (chemical and thermal stability, ability to form without a binder, elasticity, etc.), it can be used as an effective absorber of organic substances and a material for seal manufacturing for such important industries as gas transportation and automobile. Thermally expanded graphite is a promising material for the hydrogen and nuclear energy industries. The development of thermally expanded graphite production is resisted by high specific energy consumption during its manufacturing and by some technological difficulties. Therefore, the creation of energy-efficient technology for its production is very promising.

  18. Expanding beyond individualism: Engaging critical perspectives on occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Alison J; Teachman, Gail; Laliberte-Rudman, Debbie; Aldrich, Rebecca M; Huot, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Perspectives that individualize occupation are poorly aligned with socially responsive and transformative occupation-focused research, education, and practice. Their predominant use in occupational therapy risks the perpetuation, rather than resolution, of occupational inequities. In this paper, we problematize taken-for-granted individualistic analyses of occupation and illustrate how critical theoretical perspectives can reveal the ways in which structural factors beyond an individual's immediate control and environment shape occupational possibilities and occupational engagement. Using a critically reflexive approach, we draw on three distinct qualitative research studies to examine the potential of critical theorizing for expanding beyond a reliance on individualistic analyses and practices. Our studies highlight the importance of addressing the socio-historical and political contexts of occupation and demonstrate the contribution of critical perspectives to socially responsive occupational therapy. In expanding beyond individualistic analyses of occupation, critical perspectives advance research and practices towards addressing socio-political mediators of occupational engagement and equity.

  19. Expanding Medicaid managed care: the right choice for Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Swapna; Finley, Marisa; Posey, Dan; Rohack, James J

    2012-10-01

    We set out to determine whether expanding Medicaid managed care in Texas is the solution to the challenges faced by the state of meeting the healthcare needs of a rapidly growing Medicaid population while addressing its own fiscal limitations. We reviewed the Texas Medicaid program, the potential effects of federal healthcare reform, and the state political climate through the perspectives (advantages and disadvantages) of the primary stakeholders: patients, practitioners, hospitals, and insurers. Research was performed through online, federal and state regulatory, and legislative review. In addition, we reviewed government and peer-reviewed reports and articles pertaining to issues related to Medicaid populations, healthcare practitioners, and hospitals that serve them. Each primary stakeholder had potential advantages and disadvantages associated with the expansion of Medicaid managed care. We conclude that expanding Medicaid managed care, if done in a manner responsive to the needs of recipients, can meet enrollees' healthcare needs while controlling the state's costs.

  20. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  1. Analysis of a Low-Angle Annular Expander Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyll Schomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of a low-angle annular expander nozzle is presented to observe the variance in shock structure within the flow field. A RANS-based axisymmetric numerical model was used to evaluate flow characteristics and the model validated using experimental pressure readings and schlieren images. Results were compared with an equivalent converging-diverging nozzle to determine the capability of the wake region in varying the effective area of a low-angle design. Comparison of schlieren images confirmed that shock closure occurred in the expander nozzle, prohibiting the wake region from affecting the area ratio. The findings show that a low angle of deflection is inherently unable to influence the effective area of an annular supersonic nozzle design.

  2. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogeneous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Einstein's fundamental equation also allowed dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Geroges Lemaitre, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaitre's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often repeated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  3. Opportunities for synthetic biology in antibiotics: expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Maulik N; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology offers a new path for the exploitation and improvement of natural products to address the growing crisis in antibiotic resistance. All antibiotics in clinical use are facing eventual obsolesce as a result of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms, yet there are few new drug leads forthcoming from the pharmaceutical sector. Natural products of microbial origin have proven over the past 70 years to be the wellspring of antimicrobial drugs. Harnessing synthetic biology thinking and strategies can provide new molecules and expand chemical diversity of known antibiotic scaffolds to provide much needed new drug leads. The glycopeptide antibiotics offer paradigmatic scaffolds suitable for such an approach. We review these strategies here using the glycopeptides as an example and demonstrate how synthetic biology can expand antibiotic chemical diversity to help address the growing resistance crisis.

  4. ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BIODEGRADABLE CHITOSAN/EXPANDED PERLITE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çabuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chitosan (CS/expanded perlite (EP composites with different chitosan fractions (10%, 20% and 50% were prepared by absorbing chitosan into porous networks of expanded perlite, as a new hybrid smart electrorheological (ER material. Structural and morphological characterizations of the composites were carried out by FTIR and SEM-EDS techniques. Also, apparent density, particle size, and conductivity of the CS/EP composites were determined. Finally, the effects of electric field strength (E, shear rate, shear stress, and temperature onto ER behavior of the CS/EP/silicone oil system were investigated. The CS/EP/SO ER fluid system showed reversible electrorheological activity when subjected to external electric field strength by showing shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behavior. The yield stress value reached to 1250 Pa under E = 3 kV/mm for CS/EP3 composite.

  5. A beam expander facility for studying x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.

    1992-01-01

    The detailed study of the performance of full scale x-ray optics often requires the illumination of large areas. This paper describes a beam expander facility at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It combines monochromatization and beam expansion in one dimension. The beam expansion...... x-ray telescope will be studied, is described in detail. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....... is obtained from an extremely asymmetric reflection in a large single crystal of Si. An expansion of a factor of 50 was obtained in one dimension. The expanded beam of ~85 mm is limited only by the crystal size. The facility is installed in a 12-m-long hutch. A specific application, in which a high throughput...

  6. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D’Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term “expanded Goldenhar complex” has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the “expanded Goldenhar complex.”

  7. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Gabriella; Marseglia, Lucia; Aversa, Salvatore; Manti, Sara; Cuppari, Caterina; Cutrupi, Mariaconcetta; Salpietro, Carmelo; Gitto, Eloisa

    2017-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term "expanded Goldenhar complex" has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the "expanded Goldenhar complex."

  8. Culture and meaning: expanding the metaphorical repertoire of family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, D A

    1996-03-01

    This essay proposes that a family therapy founded on a contemporary, postmodern perspective demands an expanded range of metaphors for the family and the work of therapy. It describes a perspective that emphasizes a view of the family as a culture, as opposed to a system. A cultural perspective naturally addresses issues of meaning and language, narrative, politics, and practices of power-critical contemporary concerns not adequately encompassed by traditional systemic formulations. The essay explores the relationship between theory and metaphor, and contrasts the views of persons and of the family offered by the metaphors of culture and system. Case illustrations demonstrate how a cultural view effectively fashions an expanded therapeutic discourse, shifting the focus of family therapy from normative prescriptions for family "functionality" to issues of intercultural harmony. This shift in emphasis also extends to individual work, where the therapeutic task is construed as a peace-making between conflicting stories that intersect in the client's life.

  9. Environmental CPT Violation in an Expanding Universe in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Sarkar, Sarben

    2013-01-01

    We consider a model of an expanding Universe in string theory that yields `environmental' CPT violation for fermions, in the sense of different dispersion relations for fermions and antifermions. These are induced by a cosmological background with constant torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field (axion) of the string gravitational multiplet. This effect induces different densities of neutrinos and antineutrinos while in chemical equilibrium, offering new scenarios for leptogenesis and baryogenesis even in the absence of CP violation.

  10. Insulation materials. Cellulose fiber and Expanded polystyrene Insulations

    OpenAIRE

    Viladot Bel, Cèlia

    2017-01-01

    The main role of thermal insulation materials in a building envelope are to prevent heat loss and provide thermal comfort for a building's interior. The factor that characterizes an insulation material's effectiveness is its thermal conductivity λ (measured in W/mK). The lower a material's thermal conductivity, the more effective it is as an insulator. Traditional insulation materials include glass fibre, stone wool, expanded polystyrene, and polyurethane foam. While these materials are effic...

  11. Insulation materials. Cellulose fiber and expanded polystyrene insulations

    OpenAIRE

    Viladot Bel, Cèlia

    2017-01-01

    The main role of thermal insulation materials in a building envelope are to prevent heat loss and provide thermal comfort for a building's interior. The factor that characterizes an insulation material's effectiveness is its thermal conductivity λ (measured in W/mK). The lower a material's thermal conductivity, the more effective it is as an insulator. Traditional insulation materials include glass fibre, stone wool, expanded polystyrene, and polyurethane foam. While these materials are effic...

  12. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F; Schiffman, E L; Alstergren, P; Anderson, G C; de Leeuw, R; Jensen, R; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R; Petersson, A; List, T

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Long-term implications of observing an expanding cosmological civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2018-01-01

    Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe. How does the presence of one limit the expansionistic ambitions of another, and what sort of boundary forms between their expanding domains? We describe a general scenario for any expansion speed, separation distance and time. We then specialize to a question of particular interest: What are the future prospects for a young and ambitious civilization if they can observe the presence of another at a cosmological distance? We treat cases involving the observation of one or two expanding domains. In the single-observation case, we find that almost any plausible detection will limit one's future cosmic expansion to some extent. Also, practical technological limits to expansion speed (well below the speed of light) play an interesting role. If a domain is visible at the time one embarks on cosmic expansion, higher practical limits to expansion speed are beneficial only up to a certain point. Beyond this point, a higher speed limit means that gains in the ability to expand are more than offset by the first-mover advantage of the observed domain. In the case of two visible domains, it is possible to be `trapped' by them if the practical speed limit is high enough and their angular separation in the sky is large enough, i.e. one's expansion in any direction will terminate at a boundary with the two visible civilizations. Detection at an extreme cosmological distance has surprisingly little mitigating effect on our conclusions.

  14. A Model of Foam Density Prediction for Expanded Perlite Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Arifuzzaman Md; Kim Ho Sung

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sets of variables associated with expanded perlite particle consolidation in foam manufacturing were analyzed to develop a model for predicting perlite foam density. The consolidation of perlite particles based on the flotation method and compaction involves numerous variables leading to the final perlite foam density. The variables include binder content, compaction ratio, perlite particle size, various perlite particle densities and porosities, and various volumes of perlite at dif...

  15. Expandable gastric port for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Kiyoshi; Siqueira, Pablo R; Brasil, Horus A; Moribe, Daniel; D'Assunção, Marco Aurélio

    2010-09-01

    The risk of intraabdominal contamination is a critical consideration during most natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures. The objective of this study was to determine a safe and efficient pathway for the endoscope in a transgastric NOTES procedure. A pilot experimental study in live pigs was performed. Five White Landrace pigs, weighing approximately 30-35 kg, underwent the placement of a device consisting of an expandable sheath, the distal portion of which was composed of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent, and an introducer made with an outer catheter, a pushing catheter, and an inner, guiding catheter. The sheath was attached to the stent by suturing it in place. The initial gastric opening was made by means of a needle knife papilotome with electrocoagulation, aimed to the anterior gastric wall. Then, it was dilated with an endoscopic 1.8-cm balloon. The set was introduced over a Savary guidewire. After the set placement, the outer tube was slowly retrieved. Finally, the delivery system was removed from the pig, leaving the entire endoscopic port in place. The expandable gastric port was placed without difficulty in all animals. Endoscope insertion into the expandable gastric port was very easily performed. The endoscope had a wide range of movement inside the peritoneal cavity. The gastric port sealed the gastric wall, avoiding gross contamination of the peritoneal cavity and maintaining the pneumoperitoneum without excessive inflation of the intestine. Use of a gastric port can minimize contamination of the peritoneal cavity due to the spillage of gastric contents during a transgastric NOTES procedure and can also facilitate performance of the procedure.

  16. India: When cities expand too rapidly | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... “If you walk around Bangalore,” she continues, “the first thing you notice is how much everything is expanding – roads, buildings, everything.” As a result, the inhabitants must gradually change their way of life. “No one wants to stay in agriculture because it's easier to find work in the city,” explains Srinivasan ...

  17. Ceftibuten: a new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D R

    1997-09-01

    To review the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of ceftibuten, a new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin. Literature was identified by a MEDLINE search (January 1983-June 1996) of the medical literature, review of English-language literature and bibliographies of these articles, and data on file. Clinical efficacy data were selected from all published and unpublished trials and abstracts that mentioned ceftibuten. Additional information concerning in vitro susceptibility, safety, chemistry, and pharmacokinetic profile of ceftibuten also was reviewed. Ceftibuten, an oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of activity against many gram-negative and selected gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Ceftibuten is stable to hydrolysis by many common beta-lactamases. Ceftibuten is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is primarily eliminated renally as unchanged drug. The elimination half-life of ceftibuten is slightly longer than 2 hours. Efficacy has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials in adults and children with upper and lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis) and urinary tract infections. The adverse effect profile is equal to that of comparator agents. Ceftibuten is an alternative to other antimicrobial agents with convenient once-daily dosing in the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Similar to other oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, ceftibuten has antimicrobial activity against common pathogens of the respiratory tract and is stable in the presence of many beta-lactamases. The clinical choice of an oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin will be based on patient acceptance, frequency of administration, and cost.

  18. Introduction: Expanding the boundaries of psychological resource theories

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, Marjan; Halbesleben, Jonathon; Bakker, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article introduces JOOP’s special section on expanding the boundaries of resource theories in Occupational and Organizational Psychology. After an introduction of the most relevant resource theories and their current application in Occupational and Organizational Psychology – Key resource theories, Conservation of Resources Theory, Resource Theory of Social exchange, and Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory – the opportunities and challenges for future res...

  19. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), pa...

  20. Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo (tm) Sandcontrol Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff A. Spray

    2007-09-30

    Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo{trademark} Sandscreen Technology was a successfully executed design-by-analysis through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a two-part progression of concept development and manufacturing activities. The first part, conceptual development activities, discusses novel specifications creation and non-linear analytical design generation. The second part, manufacturing, contains achievement related information for detailed-design, fabrication, mechanical testing, and field demonstration activities.

  1. The 3 S's of the Sapien balloon expandable valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornowski, Ran

    2016-09-01

    The Sapien 3 (S3) balloon expandable aortic valve equipped with an outer skirt to minimize paravalvular leakage (PVL) was built upon the predecessor Sapien XT (SXT) valve. There is scant comparative data of transcatheter aortic valve replacement using S3 versus SXT valve. The study shows that S3 valve is associated with reduced PVL rate compared with SXT, which is an important clinical advantage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Shower Water Reuse System-Expanded Operations to Laundry Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Laundry rinse water carries dilute soaps and dirt. Detergents, bleaches, and disinfectants are a significant risk to plants and soils, while some...sulfate is designated as a hazardous substance 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act...Footprint Camp Program September 2014 Shower Water Reuse System- Expanded Operations to Laundry Water Work Unit WW13-01 Prepared by Valerie H. Adams, Ph.D

  3. Expanding the Lexicon: The Case of Jordanian Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Zainab Sa'aida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore (non)morphological processes that native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic and Jordanian Rural Arabic use to expand their own lexicon. Three Jordanian female respondents were interviewed to collect data. The data consist of transcriptions of recorded tokens, which were categorised into groups according to the (non)morphological processes that they undergo. Findings of the study show that there is a number of (non)morphological processes that native speaker...

  4. The bibliometric behaviour of an expanding specialisation of medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelwall, M.; Levitt, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates macular disease research and cataract research, which are both specialisations of Ophthalmology. Macular disease and cataracts are amongst the three leading causes of blindness in the world. Macular research expanded between 1992 and 2006 in that the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as macular increased by over 300% in that period. By contrast, during that same period the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as ‘cataract’ decreased by over 20%. This study investigates the bibliometric differences between the rapidly expanding specialisation of ‘macular’ and the slightly contracting specialisation of ‘cataract’. Our rationale for investigating these bibliometric differences is that previous researchers have suggested that articles in expanding specialisations are likely to be more highly cited than articles in relatively static specialisations, and it seems important, when comparing specialisations, to try to ensure that articles in a relatively static specialisation are not penalised. This study first identifies substantial macro-level bibliometric differences between the two specialisations and then gauges the extent to which these differences were associated with the expansion of Macular compared with Cataract. The initial investigation uses coarse-grained delineations of the specialisation, formed from search terms frequently associated with macular (and cataract). It finds that articles in the relatively expanding specialisation were substantially more highly cited and that these differences were associated with the expansion of the specialisation rather than the size of the specialisation (the Matthew effect). A major limitation of this study is that its coarse-grained delineation of specialisations fails to identify substantial numbers of articles in the specialisation. A more fine-grained delineation using PubMed’s Medical Subject Headings (MESH) has been piloted and additional articles

  5. The Hubble party balloon and the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Rosi, T.; Oss, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the metaphor of the inflated balloon used to describe expanding space-time according to the Hubble law can be transformed into a simple laboratory experiment. We obtain, in terms of measured recession speeds and distances of ink dots drawn on a party balloon, easy renditions of various cosmological models, such as the static one and the Einstein-De Sitter universe.

  6. Strategies for an Expanded Use of Kidneys From Elderly Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Montero, Núria; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Crespo, Marta; Pascual, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The old-for-old allocation policy used for kidney transplantation (KT) has confirmed the survival benefit compared to remaining listed on dialysis. Shortage of standard donors has stimulated the development of strategies aimed to expand acceptance criteria, particularly of kidneys from elderly donors. We have systematically reviewed the literature on those different strategies. In addition to the review of outcomes of expanded criteria donor or advanced age kidneys, we assessed the value of the Kidney Donor Profile Index policy, preimplantation biopsy, dual KT, machine perfusion and special immunosuppressive protocols. Survival and functional outcomes achieved with expanded criteria donor, high Kidney Donor Profile Index or advanced age kidneys are poorer than those with standard ones. Outcomes using advanced age brain-dead or cardiac-dead donor kidneys are similar. Preimplantation biopsies and related scores have been useful to predict function, but their applicability to transplant or refuse a kidney graft has probably been overestimated. Machine perfusion techniques have decreased delayed graft function and could improve graft survival. Investing 2 kidneys in 1 recipient does not make sense when a single KT would be enough, particularly in elderly recipients. Tailored immunosuppression when transplanting an old kidney may be useful, but no formal trials are available.Old donors constitute an enormous source of useful kidneys, but their retrieval in many countries is infrequent. The assumption of limited but precious functional expectancy for an old kidney and substantial reduction of discard rates should be generalized to mitigate these limitations.

  7. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Velikovich, A L; Taylor, B D; Giuliani, J L; Zalesak, S T; Iwamoto, Y

    2016-01-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Y. Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [H. Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); M. Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic...

  8. On Dark Energy and Matter of the Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available At present the expanding universe is observed to be dominated by the not fully under- stood concepts of dark energy and matter, in a conceived almost flat Euclidian geometry. As one of the possible efforts to understand the global behaviour of the expanding uni- verse, the present paper attempts to explain these concepts in terms of the pressure force and gravity of a spherical photon gas cloud of zero point energy, in a flat geometry. A difficult point of the conventional theory concerns the frequency distribution of the zero point energy oscillations which leads to the unacceptable result of an infinite total en- ergy per unit volume. A modification of this distribution is therefore proposed which results in finite energy density. A corresponding equilibrium state is investigated, as well as small dynamic deviations from it, to form a basis for a model of the expanding universe. Provided that the crucial points of the present approach hold true, the model satisfies the requirements of cosmic linear dimensions, results in an estimated accelera- tion of the expansion being of the order of the observed one, presents a possible solution of the coincidence problem of dark energy and matter, and provides one of the possible explanations of the observed excess of high-energy electrons and positrons in recent balloon and satellite experiments.

  9. Enhancing microbial production of biofuels by expanding microbial metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Chen, Xingge; Li, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Fatty acid, isoprenoid, and alcohol pathways have been successfully engineered to produce biofuels. By introducing three genes, atfA, adhE, and pdc, into Escherichia coli to expand fatty acid pathway, up to 1.28 g/L of fatty acid ethyl esters can be achieved. The isoprenoid pathway can be expanded to produce bisabolene with a high titer of 900 mg/L in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Short- and long-chain alcohols can also be effectively biosynthesized by extending the carbon chain of ketoacids with an engineered "+1" alcohol pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that expanding microbial metabolic pathways has enormous potential for enhancing microbial production of biofuels for future industrial applications. However, some major challenges for microbial production of biofuels should be overcome to compete with traditional fossil fuels: lowering production costs, reducing the time required to construct genetic elements and to increase their predictability and reliability, and creating reusable parts with useful and predictable behavior. To address these challenges, several aspects should be further considered in future: mining and transformation of genetic elements related to metabolic pathways, assembling biofuel elements and coordinating their functions, enhancing the tolerance of host cells to biofuels, and creating modular subpathways that can be easily interconnected. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Waves and Fine Structure in Expanding Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, Andrew; Gekelman, Walter

    2009-11-01

    The behavior of expanding dense plasmas has long been a topic of interest in space plasma research, particularly in the case of expansion within a magnetized background. Previous laser-plasma experiments at the UCLA Large Plasma Device have observed the creation of strong (δBB > 50%) diamagnetic cavities, along with large-scale wave activity and hints of fine-scale structure. A new series of experiments conducted recently at the LaPD performs direct measurement of the fields inside the expanding plasma via a novel 2D probe drive system. This system combines small-scale (0.5mm-1mm) magnetic and electric field probes with high-accuracy vacuum ceramic motors, to allow measurement of the plasma volume over a 2000-point grid at 1mm resolution. The data reveal both coherent high-amplitude waves associated with the formation of these magnetic features, and complicated small-scale structure in both the magnetic field and floating potential. In addition, we will present correlation techniques using multiple independent B and E field probes. This reveals behavior of turbulent, non-phase-locked phenomena. Both the case of a single expanding plasma and two colliding plasmas were studied.

  11. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Taylor, B. D. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Iwamoto, Y. [Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime Pref. 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  12. Strain rate dependency and fragmentation pattern of expanding warheads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Moxnes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For the characterization of the behaviors of a metal material in events like expanding warheads, it is necessary to know its strength and ductility at high strain rates, around 104–105/s. The flyer plate impact testing produces the uniform stress and strain rates but the testing is expensive. The Taylor test is relatively inexpensive but produces non-uniform stress and strain fields, and the results are not so easily inferred for material modeling. In the split-Hopkinson bar (SHB, which may be used in compression, tension and torsion testing, the strain rates never exceeds 103/s. In the present work, we use the expanding ring test where the strain rate is 104–105/s. A streak camera is used to examine the expanding ring velocity, and a water tank is used to collect the fragments. The experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations using the hydrocodes AUTODYN, IMPETUS Afea and a regularized smooth particle (RSPH software. The number of fragments increases with the increase in the expansion velocity of the rings. The number of fragments is similar to the experimental results. The RSPH software shows much the same results as the AUTODYN where the Lagrangian solver is used for the ring. The IMPETUS Afea solver shows a somewhat different fragmentation characteristic due to the node splitting algorithm that induces pronounced tensile splitting.

  13. Expanded carrier screening in gamete donors of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Maria Teresa; Benjamin, Isaac; Medina, Randolfo; Jiménez, José; Trías, Laura; Lerner, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    To discuss the implications of expanded genetic carrier screening for preconception purposes based on our practice. One hundred and forty-three potential gamete donors aged 20-32 years old (µ=24, 127 females and 16 males), signed informed consent forms and were selected according to the REDLARA guidelines. Blood or saliva samples were examined by one of these genetic carrier screening methods: Genzyme screening for Cystic Fibrosis (CF), Fragile X and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA); Counsyl Universal panel or Recombine Carrier Map. Genotyping results for all donors were analyzed; 41% (58/143) of donors were identified as carriers for at least one condition. We found a carrier frequency of 1/24 for CF, 1/72 for SMA and 0/120 for Fragile X syndrome. Among the high-impact most prevalent conditions in our study (Carrier Map group) were: 21-Hydroxilase-Deficient Congenital Nonclassical Adrenal Hyperplasia (1/8), Factor V deficiency (1/12), Hemochromatosis: Type 1: HFE Related (1/12), Short Chain Acyl-CoA (1/14) and MTHFR deficiency 1/3 (39%). The rate of gamete donors identified as carriers of at least one condition was 41%, which supports the offering of expanded carrier screening to our population. Studies in Latin American populations could help customize screening panels. The ART patient population has a unique opportunity to be offered expanded carrier screening and appropriate counseling, to make its best-informed decisions.

  14. Spatial structure of ion beams in an expanding plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, E. M.; Scime, E. E.; Thompson, D. S.; Good, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    We report spatially resolved perpendicular and parallel, to the magnetic field, ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) measurements in an expanding argon helicon plasma. The parallel IVDFs, obtained through laser induced fluorescence (LIF), show an ion beam with v ≈ 8000 m/s flowing downstream and confined to the center of the discharge. The ion beam is measurable for tens of centimeters along the expansion axis before the LIF signal fades, likely a result of metastable quenching of the beam ions. The parallel ion beam velocity slows in agreement with expectations for the measured parallel electric field. The perpendicular IVDFs show an ion population with a radially outward flow that increases with distance from the plasma axis. Structures aligned to the expanding magnetic field appear in the DC electric field, the electron temperature, and the plasma density in the plasma plume. These measurements demonstrate that at least two-dimensional and perhaps fully three-dimensional models are needed to accurately describe the spontaneous acceleration of ion beams in expanding plasmas.

  15. Efficacy of different bone volume expanders for augmenting lumbar fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E

    2008-01-01

    A wide variety of bone volume expanders are being used in performing posterolateral lumbar noninstrumented and instrumented lumbar fusions. This article presents a review of their efficacy based on fusion rates, complications, and outcomes. Lumbar noninstrumented and instrumented fusions frequently use laminar autografts and different bone graft expanders. This review presents the utility of multiple forms/ratios of DBMs containing allografts. It also discusses the efficacy of artificial bone graft substitutes, including HA and B-TCP. Dynamic x-ray and/or CT examinations were used to document fusion in most series. Outcomes were variously assessed using Odom's criteria or different outcome questionnaires (Oswestry Questionnaire, SF-36, Dallas Pain Questionnaire, and/or Low Back Pain Rating Scale). Performing noninstrumented and instrumented lumbar posterolateral fusions resulted in comparable fusion rates in many series. Similar outcomes were also documented based on Odom's criteria or the multiple patient-based questionnaires. However, in some studies, the addition of spinal instrumentation increased the reoperation rate, operative time, blood loss, and cost. Various forms of DBMs, applied in different ratios to autografts, effectively supplemented spinal fusions in animal models and patient series. beta-Tricalcium phosphate, which is used to augment autograft fusions addressing idiopathic scoliosis or lumbar disease, also proved to be effective. Different types of bone volume expanders, including various forms of allograft-based DBMs, and artificial bone graft substitutes (HA and B-TCP) effectively promote posterolateral lumbar noninstrumented and instrumented fusions when added to autografts.

  16. Expanding the repertoire of plasmids for PCR-mediated epitope tagging in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Struhl, Kevin

    2008-04-01

    Epitope tagging of yeast proteins provides a convenient means of tracking proteins of interest in Western blots and immunoprecipitation experiments without the need to raise and test specific antibodies. We have constructed four plasmids for use as templates in PCR-based epitope tagging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These plasmids expand the range of epitopes available in a tag-URA3-tag context to include the FLAG, HSV, V5 and VSV-G epitopes. The cloning strategy used would be easily applicable to the construction of a similar tag-URA3-tag molecule for essentially any desired epitope. Oligonucleotides designed for PCR from one plasmid may be used interchangeably with any of the other template molecules to allow tagging with different epitopes without the need for new primer synthesis. We have tagged Tfc6 with each of the triple epitope tags and assessed the efficiency of these epitopes for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). For all the tagged alleles, ChIP occupancy signals are easily detectable at known Tfc6 target genes. These new tags provide additional options in experimental schemes requiring multiple tagged proteins. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  19. Noise Expands the Response Range of the Bacillus subtilis Competence Circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mugler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory circuits must contend with intrinsic noise that arises due to finite numbers of proteins. While some circuits act to reduce this noise, others appear to exploit it. A striking example is the competence circuit in Bacillus subtilis, which exhibits much larger noise in the duration of its competence events than a synthetically constructed analog that performs the same function. Here, using stochastic modeling and fluorescence microscopy, we show that this larger noise allows cells to exit terminal phenotypic states, which expands the range of stress levels to which cells are responsive and leads to phenotypic heterogeneity at the population level. This is an important example of how noise confers a functional benefit in a genetic decision-making circuit.

  20. Noise Expands the Response Range of the Bacillus subtilis Competence Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugler, Andrew; Kittisopikul, Mark; Hayden, Luke; Liu, Jintao; Wiggins, Chris H; Süel, Gürol M; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2016-03-01

    Gene regulatory circuits must contend with intrinsic noise that arises due to finite numbers of proteins. While some circuits act to reduce this noise, others appear to exploit it. A striking example is the competence circuit in Bacillus subtilis, which exhibits much larger noise in the duration of its competence events than a synthetically constructed analog that performs the same function. Here, using stochastic modeling and fluorescence microscopy, we show that this larger noise allows cells to exit terminal phenotypic states, which expands the range of stress levels to which cells are responsive and leads to phenotypic heterogeneity at the population level. This is an important example of how noise confers a functional benefit in a genetic decision-making circuit.

  1. Functional diversification of Argonautes in nematodes:an expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Amy H; Blaxter, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many diverse RNAi (RNA interference) pathways have been discovered that mediate gene silencing at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The diversity of RNAi pathways is inherently linked to the evolution of Ago (Argonaute) proteins, the central protein component of RISCs (RNA-induced silencing complexes). An increasing number of diverse Agos have been identified in different species. The functions of most of these proteins are not yet known, but the...

  2. Molecular logic behind the three-way stochastic choices that expand butterfly colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Saldi, Giuseppe; Huo, Lucy; Arikawa, Kentaro; Desplan, Claude

    2016-07-14

    Butterflies rely extensively on colour vision to adapt to the natural world. Most species express a broad range of colour-sensitive Rhodopsin proteins in three types of ommatidia (unit eyes), which are distributed stochastically across the retina. The retinas of Drosophila melanogaster use just two main types, in which fate is controlled by the binary stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless in R7 photoreceptors. We investigated how butterflies instead generate three stochastically distributed ommatidial types, resulting in a more diverse retinal mosaic that provides the basis for additional colour comparisons and an expanded range of colour vision. We show that the Japanese yellow swallowtail (Papilio xuthus, Papilionidae) and the painted lady (Vanessa cardui, Nymphalidae) butterflies have a second R7-like photoreceptor in each ommatidium. Independent stochastic expression of Spineless in each R7-like cell results in expression of a blue-sensitive (Spineless(ON)) or an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive (Spineless(OFF)) Rhodopsin. In P. xuthus these choices of blue/blue, blue/UV or UV/UV sensitivity in the two R7 cells are coordinated with expression of additional Rhodopsin proteins in the remaining photoreceptors, and together define the three types of ommatidia. Knocking out spineless using CRISPR/Cas9 (refs 5, 6) leads to the loss of the blue-sensitive fate in R7-like cells and transforms retinas into homogeneous fields of UV/UV-type ommatidia, with corresponding changes in other coordinated features of ommatidial type. Hence, the three possible outcomes of Spineless expression define the three ommatidial types in butterflies. This developmental strategy allowed the deployment of an additional red-sensitive Rhodopsin in P. xuthus, allowing for the evolution of expanded colour vision with a greater variety of receptors. This surprisingly simple mechanism that makes use of two binary stochastic decisions coupled with local coordination may prove

  3. Expanding the scope of cyclopropene reporters for the detection of metabolically engineered glycoproteins by Diels–Alder reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Katrin Späte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring glycoconjugates has been tremendously facilitated by the development of metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. Recently, the inverse-electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction between methylcyclopropene tags and tetrazines has become a popular ligation reaction due to the small size and high reactivity of cyclopropene tags. Attaching the cyclopropene tag to mannosamine via a carbamate linkage has made the reaction even more efficient. Here, we expand the application of cyclopropene tags to N-acylgalactosamine and N-acylglucosamine derivatives enabling the visualization of mucin-type O-glycoproteins and O-GlcNAcylated proteins through Diels–Alder chemistry. Whereas the previously reported cyclopropene-labeled N-acylmannosamine derivative leads to significantly higher fluorescence staining of cell-surface glycoconjugates, the glucosamine derivative gave higher labeling efficiency with protein preparations containing also intracellular proteins.

  4. MIS Expandable Interbody Spacers: A Literature Review and Biomechanical Comparison of an Expandable MIS TLIF With Conventional TLIF and ALIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannestra, Andrew F; Peterson, Mark D; Parker, Stephen R; Roush, Thomas F; Bundy, Justin V; Turner, Alexander W

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical study and review of literature on expandable lumbar interbody fusion constructs. To evaluate the biomechanical stability of expandable interbody devices. Lumbar interbody implants placed from an anterior or lateral approach are desirable due to their large size, providing a stable fusion environment. Posterior implants are typically limited by their access corridor. Expandable footprint transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) interbodies may allow for a minimally invasive TLIF approach with the biomechanical benefits of an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)-sized graft; however, this requires experimental investigation. Six cadaveric L1-sacrum segments were tested intact with pure moments of  ± 7.5  N m in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Specimens received at L4-5 either a medial-lateral expandable TLIF cage (MLX-TLIF) or a conventional polyether ether ketone (PEEK) banana-shaped TLIF cage (Conv-TLIF) first. Both were tested with unilateral and bilateral pedicle screw (PS) fixation. Testing was repeated with the alternate cage and fixation. Motion marker arrays were fixed to L4 and L5 to assess range of motion. Results were compared with published data for a PEEK ALIF cage with anterior plate and a PEEK ALIF cage with bilateral PS fixation, tested under the same conditions. The most rigid construct was ALIF with bilateral PS fixation in flexion-extension and axial rotation, whereas MLX with bilateral PS was most rigid in lateral bending. Conv-TLIF with unilateral PS was the least rigid construct. MLX-TLIF with unilateral PS provided similar range of motion to Conv-TLIF with bilateral PS in flexion-extension and lateral bending, and ALIF with anterior plate in lateral bending. The MLX-TLIF cage with unilateral PS fixation provided comparable stability to conventional TLIF with bilateral PS fixation and ALIF with anterior plate treatments. The large footprint of the expandable cage may reduce the TLIF

  5. Raw, extruded and expanded pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cows diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritive value of raw, extruded or expanded peas relative to soybean meal in lactating dairy cows feeding. Twenty four Italian Holstein cows (8 primiparous and 16 pluriparous, 604 ± 109 kg body weight, 34.5 ± 2.5 kg/d milk yield, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 4x4 Latin square arrangement with periods of four weeks and washout period of seven days. Diets were fed ad libitum(5% orts. The bulk of the base diet on a dry matter basis was corn silage (31.2%, alfalfa hay (16.7%, grass hay (4.1%, protein supplement (10.3%, whole cotton seed (8.5%, corn and barley mix (24.9%, soybean meal (3.4% and calcium soap (0.9%. The pea (2.5 kg/cow/day partially replaced the soybean meal and totally replaced the barley meal of the base diet. The unprocessed or differently processed pea did not affect the dry matter intake. The extruded pea group had a 3.2% increase (P< 0.05 of the milk yield compared to the control group. When estimated as contrast analysis, the technological treatment (extruded or expanded on peas did not modify the milk yield and composition. Among pea diets, animal fed the extruded pea had the higher (P< 0.05 milk protein content, although not different than that of the control group. The rumen acetate was reduced (P< 0.05 and the butyrate and valerate were increased (P< 0.05 in animals fed extruded pea compared to the control. No differences were observed among feeding groups on blood parameters except for the cholesterol level higher (P< 0.05 in animals fed the expanded pea diet. There were no effects of diets on milk rennet coagulation characteris- tics. Results support the partial substitution of soybean meal and the total substitution of barley meal with peas in diets for lactating cows with no negative effects on milk yield and composition.

  6. Expanding Access to Pro-Poor Energy Services in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleri, Ewah Otu; Ugwu, Okechukwu; Onuvae, Precious

    2012-10-15

    Nigeria experiences a remarkable paradox -- the abundance of energy resources and widespread energy poverty. Only about 40% of the population has access to the country’s grid electricity. About 72% of the population depends on traditional fuelwood for cooking. Despite this, government financing of energy services that benefits majority of Nigeria’s population has been grossly inadequate. Private sector investments and donor support have not fared better. This paper examines the current level of energy poverty in Nigeria. It analyses the level of government, private sector and donor funding for energy services that benefit the poor. It further reviews international best practices in expanding access for pro poor energy services. The paper finds a significant decline in political interest for expanding electricity services to rural areas. Even though ambitious policy reforms have commenced, agreed programmes are not implemented effectively. Not only are investments in rural electrification in decline, there is no history of annual budgeting for cooking energy programmes. The paper recommends a number of action points for expanding access to energy services that benefit the poor. These include the development and launching of a new national rural electrification strategy; establishment of a national cooking energy programme; and the development of clear policy incentives to support private sector investment in energy services for the poor. It calls on the Nigerian Central Bank of Nigeria to set aside 10% of the existing power intervention fund for pro poor energy financing; and the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission to establish a clear framework for the utilization of the Consumer Assistance Fund. Other recommendations include the use of a proportion of the Ecological Fund to finance cooking energy; establishment of a donor’s platform on pro poor energy; and the mobilization of civil society in providing community-level energy services.

  7. Malignant duodenal obstructions: palliative treatment with covered expandable nitinol stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung Min; Oh, Kyung Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Cho, Young Duk [College of Medicine, Kosin Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of using a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent in the palliative treatment of malignant duodenal obstruction. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent was placed in 12 consecutive patients with malignant duodenal obstructions. All presented with severe nausea and recurrent vomiting. The underlying causes of obstruction were duodenal carcinoma (n=4), pancreatic carcinoma (n=4), gall bladder carcinoma (n=2), distal CBD carcinoma (n=1), and uterine cervical carcinoma (n=1). The sites of obstruction were part I (n=1), part II (n=8), and III (n=3). Due to pre-existing jaundice, eight patients with part II obstructions underwent biliary decompression prior to stent placement. An introducer sheath with a 6-mm outer diameter and stents 16 mm in diameter were employed, and to place the stent, and after-loading technique was used. Stent placement was technically successful in ten patients, and no procedural complications occuured. In one of two patients in whom there was technical failure, and in whom the obstructions were located in part III, the stent was placed transgastrically. Stent migration occurred in one patient four days after the procedure, and treatment involved the palcement of a second, uncovered, nitinol stent. After stent placement, symptoms improved in all patients. During follow-up, obstructive symptoms due to stent stenosis (n=1), colonic obstruction (n=1), and multiple small bowel obstruction (n=1) recurred in three patients. Two of these were treated by placing additional stents in the duodenum and colon, respectively. One of the eight patients in whom a stent was placed in the second portion of the duodenum developed jaundice. The patients died a mean 14 (median, 9) weeks after stent placement. The placement of a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent seems to be technically feasible, safe and effective for the palliative treatment of malignant

  8. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  9. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  10. Simple scheme for expanding photonic cluster states for quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalasuwan, P.; Laing, A.; Coggins, J.; Callaway, M.; O' Brien, J. L. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Mendoza, G. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Nagata, T.; Takeuchi, S. [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Stefanov, A. [Federal Office of Metrology METAS, Laboratory Time and Frequency, Lindenweg 50, 3084 Wabern (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    We show how an entangled cluster state encoded in the polarization of single photons can be straightforwardly expanded by deterministically entangling additional qubits encoded in the path degree of freedom of the constituent photons. This can be achieved using a polarization-path controlled-phase gate. We experimentally demonstrate a practical and stable realization of this approach by using a Sagnac interferometer to entangle a path qubit and polarization qubit on a single photon. We demonstrate precise control over phase of the path qubit to change the measurement basis and experimentally demonstrate properties of measurement-based quantum computing using a two-photon, three-qubit cluster state.

  11. Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness: a personal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Gina C; Merryfeather, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate the value of using Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness for nurses and the clients they serve. A review of the conception and evolution of the theory and its link to spiritual ideology provides a multi-dimensional perspective of Newman's ideas. Additionally, an exploration of the central concepts of the theory offers an in-depth view of the philosophical and practical tenets on which the theory is based. The authors also chronicle one nurse's journey and evolution as a healthcare provider whose practice is rooted in Newman's theory.

  12. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  13. Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-01-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology. PMID:19395354

  14. Expanding the use of hepatitis C-viremic kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawinski, Deirdre; Wyatt, Christina M; Locke, Jayme E

    2017-11-01

    Direct-acting antivirals have revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with chronic kidney disease, with implications for the timing of antiviral treatment among kidney transplant candidates and for the use of HCV viremic donors. A recent consensus conference reviewed the available data on the safety and cost-effectiveness of expanding access to HCV-positive organs to HCV-negative recipients. Early trials are promising, but larger trials and a plan for obtaining HCV therapy in the posttransplantation period are needed. Implications for the larger transplant community also need to be considered. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrodynamization and transient modes of expanding plasma in kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michal P; Spalinski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We study the transition to hydrodynamics in a weakly-coupled model of quark-gluon plasma given by kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. Our studies uncover qualitative similarities to the results on hydrodynamization in strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we demonstrate that the gradient expansion in this model has vanishing radius of convergence. The asymptotic character of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion is crucial for the recently discovered applicability of hydrodynamics at large gradients. Furthermore, the analysis of the resurgent properties of the series provides, quite remarkably, indication for the existence of a novel transient, damped oscillatory mode of expanding plasmas in kinetic theory.

  16. Debate on expanding survey of near Earth objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA officials told a U.S. House of Representatives Science Subcommittee on 3 October that a ground-based survey to detect near-Earth objects (NEOs) is on target for achieving its goals. The NEOs that are the subject of the survey are those 1 km across or larger, and could therefore cause devastating damage if they collided with Earth.Representatives of NASA, the National Research Council, and other agencies also told the subcommittee that astronomers and policy-makers need to consider whether to expand the survey to scan for even smaller NEOs that also could inflict widespread damage to Earth on collision.

  17. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  18. MOPED: Model Organism Protein Expression Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kolker, Eugene; Higdon, Roger; Haynes, Winston; Welch, Dean; Broomall, William; Lancet, Doron; Stanberry, Larissa; Kolker, Natali

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of mass spectrometry proteomics studies are being conducted to understand all types of biological processes. The size and complexity of proteomics data hinders efforts to easily share, integrate, query and compare the studies. The Model Organism Protein Expression Database (MOPED, htttp://moped.proteinspire.org) is a new and expanding proteomics resource that enables rapid browsing of protein expression information from publicly available studies on humans and model organisms. M...

  19. Characterization of the Capsule Surrounding Smooth and Textured Tissue Expanders and Correlation with Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kuriyama, MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:. Capsular contracture is a common complication after breast augmentation surgery. This study pathologically evaluated the soft-tissue response to surface modifications in both smooth and textured tissue expander prostheses. Methods:. Smooth tissue expanders and textured tissue expanders in 5 cases each were used for breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Histological samples were harvested from the capsules when the tissue expanders were replaced by silicone implants. Collagen orientation and cellular responses were assessed histologically. Capsular contracture was evaluated using the Baker classification 6 months and 2 years after the removal of the tissue expander. Results:. The capsules surrounding the smooth tissue expanders tended to produce more contracture than those surrounding the textured tissue expanders. The collagen architecture of the capsules of the smooth tissue expanders showed random orientation with fragmentation. Conversely, the capsules of the textured tissue expanders showed parallel orientation with collagen bundles of almost normal structure. Significantly more fibrils of elastin and myofibroblasts were found in the capsules surrounding the smooth tissue than in those surrounding the textured ones. Conclusions:. The collagen fibers surrounding the smooth tissue expanders could be cracked during expansion, which may lead to scarring and contracture. Conversely, the collagen orientation surrounding the textured tissue expanders was excellent. Moreover, the increase in elastic fibers and myofibroblasts in the capsules surrounding the smooth tissue expanders may be associated with in vivo contraction patterns. Therefore, the surface type of tissue expanders affects capsular contraction after replacement with definitive implants.

  20. Biophysical characterisation of calumenin as a charged F508del-CFTR folding modulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Tripathi

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR is a cyclic-AMP dependent chloride channel expressed at the apical surface of epithelial cells lining various organs such as the respiratory tract. Defective processing and functioning of this protein caused by mutations in the CFTR gene results in loss of ionic balance, defective mucus clearance, increased proliferation of biofilms and inflammation of human airways observed in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The process by which CFTR folds and matures under the influence of various chaperones in the secretory pathway remains incompletely understood. Recently, calumenin, a secretory protein, belonging to the CREC family of low affinity calcium binding proteins has been identified as a putative CFTR chaperone whose biophysical properties and functions remain uncharacterized. We compared hydropathy, instability, charge, unfoldability, disorder and aggregation propensity of calumenin and other CREC family members with CFTR associated chaperones and calcium binding proteins, wild-type and mutant CFTR proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs. We observed that calumenin, along with other CREC proteins, was significantly more charged and less folded compared to CFTR associated chaperones. Moreover like IDPs, calumenin and other CREC proteins were found to be less hydrophobic and aggregation prone. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close link between calumenin and other CREC proteins indicating how evolution might have shaped their similar biophysical properties. Experimentally, calumenin was observed to significantly reduce F508del-CFTR aggregation in a manner similar to AavLEA1, a well-characterized IDP. Fluorescence microscopy based imaging analysis also revealed altered trafficking of calumenin in bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR, indicating its direct role in the pathophysiology of CF. In conclusion, calumenin is characterized as a charged protein exhibiting close similarity with

  1. The chiral magnetic wave in an expanding QCD fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of the chiral anomaly, the hydrodynamics of hot QCD matter coupled to QED allows for a long-wavelength mode of chiral charge density, the chiral magnetic wave (CMW), that provides for a mechanism of electric charge separation along the direction of an external magnetic field. Here, we investigate the efficiency of this mechanism for values of the time-dependent magnetic field and of the energy density attained in the hot QCD matter of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. To this end, we derive the CMW equations of motion for expanding systems by treating the CMW as a charge perturbation on top of an expanding Bjorken-type background field in the limit of small chemical potential. Both, approximate analytical and full numerical solutions to these equations of motion indicate that for the lifetime and thermodynamic conditions of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, the efficiency of CMW-induced electric charge separation decreases with increasing center of mass energy and that the effec...

  2. B-HEX pupil expander: Pupil expansion redefined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Suven

    2017-12-01

    The B-HEX® Pupil Expander (Med Invent Devices) is a disposable 6.5 mm flexible hexagonal device with notches at corners and flanges at sides. Alternate flanges with positioning holes are tucked under the iris to engage the notches to the margin of the pupil to provide a 5.5 mm expanded pupil. Unlike devices with scrolls or pockets which require an injector to avoid snagging the incision, the preloaded B-HEX is inserted and removed through a 1 mm or larger incision using a manipulator or 23-gauge micro-forceps. The thin profile and uniplanar design allow unhindered instrument movement during phacoemulsification, cortical cleaning, and intraocular lens implantation. The B-HEX is safely used even after capsulorhexis since the thin uniplanar notches are directly visualized to avoid the capsule margin. It is useful in coaxial phacoemulsification, coaxial sub 2.00 mm micro incision cataract surgery (MICS), biaxial 1.5 mm MICS, femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), small pupil pars plana vitrectomy, and shallow anterior chamber eyes.

  3. A Model of Foam Density Prediction for Expanded Perlite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuzzaman Md

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sets of variables associated with expanded perlite particle consolidation in foam manufacturing were analyzed to develop a model for predicting perlite foam density. The consolidation of perlite particles based on the flotation method and compaction involves numerous variables leading to the final perlite foam density. The variables include binder content, compaction ratio, perlite particle size, various perlite particle densities and porosities, and various volumes of perlite at different stages of process. The developed model was found to be useful not only for prediction of foam density but also for optimization between compaction ratio and binder content to achieve a desired density. Experimental verification was conducted using a range of foam densities (0.15 – 0.5 g/cm3 produced with a range of compaction ratios (1.5 – 3.5, a range of sodium silicate contents (0.05 – 0.35 g/ml in dilution, a range of expanded perlite particle sizes (1 – 4 mm, and various perlite densities (such as skeletal, material, bulk, and envelope densities. A close agreement between predictions and experimental results was found.

  4. Surprising shrinkage of expanding gels under an external load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Prosser, Shona; Whitten, Philip G; Wallace, Gordon G; Kim, Sun I

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogels are fascinating and useful in that they can show large volume changes in response to various stimuli, such as temperature or chemical environment. Here we report the peculiar observation that chemically crosslinked hydrogels that normally expand owing to a change in electrolyte pH can be made to shrink in certain circumstances. Specifically, these hydrogels contract when tested at a constant compressive force and subjected to a pH change that causes expansion in the absence of the applied load. When tested under tension, the gels always expand. Although the effects of external stress on the swelling of gels is known, the concomitant change in gel mechanical properties during pH switching was found to be a more dominant effect in our studies. However, existing mechanical models used to predict dimensional changes in actuator materials could not explain both the tensile and compression results. In addition, we show that the friction between metal plates of the apparatus and the gel is a key factor in explaining the contractile actuation under compressive loads. The observations reported in this paper are important for the successful design and use of hydrogel actuators in devices such as valves for microfluidics.

  5. Atypical expanded-spectrum hemifacial microsomia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magge, Keshav T; Kim, Jacqueline; Rogers, Gary F; Oh, Albert K

    2015-03-01

    Objective : To present the case report of a patient with expanded hemifacial microsomia (HFM) that illustrates the complex interactions of these embryogenic factors and to review current theories and mechanism regarding the etiopathogenesis of HFM. Design and Method : We present the case of an African American girl who was born at full term by cesarean section and transferred to our institution for systemic malformations. Her craniofacial findings include holoprosencephaly, cleft lip and palate, low set and posteriorly rotated ears, flat midfacial features, micrognathia, left HFM with grade 1 microtia, hypoplastic mandible, and a small preauricular pharyngeal arch remnant. Systemic anomalies included ectopic kidney, atrial-septal defect, bilateral hip dysplasia, bilateral humeroradial fusion, bilateral club feet, and bilateral low-set thumbs with the right side also being triphalangeal. Genetic evaluation did not identify a molecular diagnosis or other known syndrome. Conclusions : Although vasculogenic disruption of the stapedial artery during early fetal gestation has been implicated in the etiology of HFM, the grouping and bilateral findings seen in our patient argue against this relatively simple and localized phenomenon. Instead, such diverse and widespread anomalies in the setting of expanded spectrum HFM seem to support the theory of a disorder in blastogenesis as the cause of HFM.

  6. A Study of Flexible Composites for Expandable Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Payload volume for launch vehicles is a critical constraint that impacts spacecraft design. Deployment mechanisms, such as those used for solar arrays and antennas, are approaches that have successfully accommodated this constraint, however, providing pressurized volumes that can be packaged compactly at launch and expanded in space is still a challenge. One approach that has been under development for many years is to utilize softgoods - woven fabric for straps, cloth, and with appropriate coatings, bladders - to provide this expandable pressure vessel capability. The mechanics of woven structure is complicated by a response that is nonlinear and often nonrepeatable due to the discrete nature of the woven fiber architecture. This complexity reduces engineering confidence to reliably design and certify these structures, which increases costs due to increased requirements for system testing. The present study explores flexible composite materials systems as an alternative to the heritage softgoods approach. Materials were obtained from vendors who utilize flexible composites for non-aerospace products to determine some initial physical and mechanical properties of the materials. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed to obtain the stress-strain response of the flexible composites and the failure behavior. A failure criterion was developed from the data, and a space habitat application was used to provide an estimate of the relative performance of flexible composites compared to the heritage softgoods approach. Initial results are promising with a 25% mass savings estimated for the flexible composite solution.

  7. Controlled Shrinkage of Expanded Glass Particles in Metal Syntactic Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sahlani, Kadhim; Taherishargh, Mehdi; Kisi, Erich; Fiedler, Thomas

    2017-09-13

    Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG) with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles' strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF). The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20-0.26 g/cm³), the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1.03-1.19 g/cm³) that increases slightly due to particle shrinkage. Chemical and physical analyses of EG particles and the resulting foams were conducted. Furthermore, metal syntactic foam samples were tested in uni-axial compression tests. The stress-strain curves obtained exhibit three distinct regions: elastic deformation followed by a stress plateau and densification commencing at 70-80% macroscopic strain. Particle shrinkage increased the mechanical strength of the foam samples and their average plateau stress increased from 15.5 MPa to 26.7 MPa.

  8. Journal impact factor in the era of expanding literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Julia; Belmont, John; Cho, Cheng T

    2006-12-01

    The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of the Science Citation Index (SCI), published by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), provides a comprehensive database for analysis of journals. Recent use of JCR's journal impact factor for evaluation of journals and authors has provoked strongly mixed reactions among investigators. This paper examines the effects of the rapidly expanding literature on the impact factor over the past decade and examines the limitations of journal impact factor for evaluating individual author's contributions. The JCR analyzed 6088 journals in 2005, a 32% increase in new listings since 1995. During the same period, there was a 39% increase in new journal listings in the infectious diseases category. The phenomenon of journal proliferation has had a profound effect on the journal impact factor. During the past decade an increased impact factor was observed in 92% of the top ranking major journals, especially in young and rapidly expanding research fields. Certain highly cited new journals published primarily review articles - not original contributions. There was no increase in impact factor among some of the best known journals, such as Journal of Experimental Medicine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), and Journal of Infectious Diseases. Clearly, journal impact factor is an imperfect tool for measuring the quality of articles, and its use in evaluating authors has inherent risks. In spite of its limitations, journal impact factor can be used as a rough indicator of scientific quality in specific subject categories and for serious reading and learning.

  9. Dynamic Decompressive Craniotomy with a Novel Reversibly Expandable Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit

    2017-07-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of a dynamic craniotomy procedure with the use of a novel reversibly expandable cranial bone flap fixation plate. The expandable plate allows outward bone flap migration with an increase in intracranial volume or intracranial pressure (ICP). Methods Dynamic craniotomy intracranial hypertension compliance was evaluated in a skull model with progressive increase in intracranial volume and compared with the standard craniotomy with fixed plates. Results Dynamic craniotomy provided significant control of ICP with increasing intracranial volume compared with the standard craniotomy. With an incremental increase in intracranial volume from 360 mL to 600 mL, the ICP increased from 2.6 to 91.9 mm Hg with the standard craniotomy, whereas with the dynamic craniotomy the ICP for similar intracranial volume increased from 2.5 to 25 mm Hg (p < 0.00001). Conclusions The dynamic craniotomy procedure provides superior control of ICP with an abrupt intracranial volume increase when compared with the standard craniotomy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Expanding refractory rectus sheath hematoma: a therapeutic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Guo-Shiang; Liau, Guo-Shiou; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chu, Shi-Jye; Ko, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but well-described complication of a tussive paroxysm. It is an accumulation of blood within the sheath of the rectus abdominis secondary to disruption of the epigastric vessels or the rectus muscle and is often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen. Increases in the number of elderly patients and the use of therapeutic anticoagulation may increase the prevalence and severity of rectus sheath hematomas encountered in clinical practice. Expanding rectus sheath hematomas are occasionally refractory to conservative treatment and may require hemostatic intervention. Here, we describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with two separate rectus sheath hematomas that were precipitated by a paroxysm of coughing. Repeated computed tomography showed two separate expanding rectus sheath hematomas, which were not accompanied by obvious contrast extravasation on angiography. Empiric left inferior epigastric artery embolization resulted in rapid hemodynamic stabilization, and the hematomas shrank gradually. Early empiric transcatheter arterial embolization may be appropriate for patients who are poor surgical candidates and have enlarging hematomas that are refractory to conservative treatment.

  11. An expanded model of faculty vitality in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankoski, Mary E; Palmer, Megan M; Nelson Laird, Thomas F; Ribera, Amy K; Bogdewic, Stephen P

    2012-12-01

    Many faculty in today's academic medical centers face high levels of stress and low career satisfaction. Understanding faculty vitality is critically important for the health of our academic medical centers, yet the concept is ill-defined and lacking a comprehensive model. Expanding on previous research that examines vital faculty in higher education broadly and in academic medical centers specifically, this study proposes an expanded model of the unique factors that contribute to faculty vitality in academic medicine. We developed an online survey on the basis of a conceptual model (N = 564) and used linear regression to investigate the fit of the model. We examined the relationships of two predictor variables measuring Primary Unit Climate and Leadership and Career and Life Management with an overall Faculty Vitality index comprised of three measures: Professional Engagement, Career Satisfaction, and Productivity. The findings revealed significant predictive relationships between Primary Unit Climate and Leadership, Career and Life Management, and Faculty Vitality. The overall model accounted for 59% of the variance in the overall Faculty Vitality Index. The results provide new insights into the developing model of faculty vitality and inform initiatives to support faculty in academic medical centers. Given the immense challenges faced by faculty, now more than ever do we need reliable evidence regarding what sustains faculty vitality.

  12. Turbulent Flame Speed and Self Similarity of Expanding Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung

    2011-11-01

    In this study we present experimental turbulent flame speed data measured in constant-pressure expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogenous isotropic turbulence, in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. The cold flow is characterized by high speed particle image velocimetry while the flame propagation rate is obtained by tracking high speed Schlieren images of unity Lewis number methane-air flames over wide ranges of pressure and turbulence intensity. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from expanding flames and those from Bunsen geometries can be scaled by a single parameter: the turbulent Reynolds number utilizing recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the G equation, after correcting for gas expansion effects.

  13. Expanding the bovine milk proteome through extensive fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Asger; Bendixen, Emøke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine milk is an agricultural product of tremendous value worldwide. It contains proteins, fat, lactose, vitamins, and minerals. It provides nutrition and immunological protection (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract) to the newborn and young calf. It also forms an important part of human...... nutrition. The repertoire of proteins in milk (i.e., its proteome) is vast and complex. The milk proteome can be described in detail by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, the high concentration of dominating proteins in milk reduces mass spectrometry detection sensitivity and limits detection...... collected from documented healthy cows in early lactation. Four simple and industrially applicable techniques exploring the physical and chemical properties of milk, including acidification, filtration, and centrifugation, were used for separation of the proteins. This resulted in 5 different fractions...

  14. Expanding the landscape of chromatin modification (CM-related functional domains and genes in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuye Pu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modification (CM plays a key role in regulating transcription, DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, our knowledge of these processes in humans remains very limited. Here we use computational approaches to study proteins and functional domains involved in CM in humans. We analyze the abundance and the pair-wise domain-domain co-occurrences of 25 well-documented CM domains in 5 model organisms: yeast, worm, fly, mouse and human. Results show that domains involved in histone methylation, DNA methylation, and histone variants are remarkably expanded in metazoan, reflecting the increased demand for cell type-specific gene regulation. We find that CM domains tend to co-occur with a limited number of partner domains and are hence not promiscuous. This property is exploited to identify 47 potentially novel CM domains, including 24 DNA-binding domains, whose role in CM has received little attention so far. Lastly, we use a consensus Machine Learning approach to predict 379 novel CM genes (coding for 329 proteins in humans based on domain compositions. Several of these predictions are supported by very recent experimental studies and others are slated for experimental verification. Identification of novel CM genes and domains in humans will aid our understanding of fundamental epigenetic processes that are important for stem cell differentiation and cancer biology. Information on all the candidate CM domains and genes reported here is publicly available.

  15. Flexural Behaviour Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Containing Expanded Glass As Lightweight Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib Jamal; Jefimiuk Adrian; Khatib Sammy

    2015-01-01

    The flexural properties of reinforced concrete beams containing expanded glass as a partial fine aggregate (sand) replacement are investigated. Four concrete mixes were employed to conduct this study. The fine aggregate was replaced with 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% (by volume) expanded glass. The results suggest that the incorporation of 50% expanded glass increased the workability of the concrete. The compressive strength was decreasing linearly with the increasing amount of expanded glass. The du...

  16. EXPANDED PERLITE, EXPANDED VERMICULITE AND MICROSPHERES AS FILLERS IN NEW GENERATION PAPER PULP MIXTURES USED FOR CONTACT WITH LIQUID METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Zawieja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metal when filling sand casting mould while pouring it out from ladle at the first moment comes across the sprue/gate system of the mould the purpose of which is to transfer liquid metal and feed the mould recess. The materials presently used for the elements of the sprue/gate systems are based on ceramics or the mixtures based on paper pulp. In this study the use of alternative mineral additions such as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite, and microspheres as the fillers to paper pulp acquired from waste-paper for the use for the elements of mould sprue/gate systems or also other applications for the contact with liquid metal are presented. Experimental mould tube shapes made on the basis of the paper pulp based mixture patented by the authors were poured over with liquid metal. For the comparison, ceramic shapes and commercially available cellulose shapes were investigated in the same way. In order to compare the crystallization processes, a measurement of the cooling off liquid metal was carried out for all the analysed tube samples. From the so obtained metal samples metallographic microsections were made to compare cast iron microstructures. The results obtained from the investigations carried out have shown that the patented paper pulp based mixture may well be applied as an alternative material used for the elements of the sprue/gate systems for disposable sand moulds.

  17. Expanded Access Programme: looking for a common definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudicello, Antonella; Alberghini, Lucia; Benini, Giulia; Mosconi, Paola

    2016-01-12

    Therapeutic use of an unauthorised drug (or of an authorised drug for an unauthorised indication) for patients with a life-threating disease is permitted outside a clinical trial as an Expanded Access Programme (EAP).The regulations regarding EAPs is not the same all over the world. For example, the recommendation of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in EU countries also includes within EAPs patients who have been treated in a clinical trial and who wish to continue the treatment. Nevertheless, the patients treated in a clinical trial could have the option of continuing treatment for an extended period in an Open-label Extension study, aimed to generate long-term data on efficacy, safety, tolerability and administration.The aims of this paper - based on the difficulties and incoherence encountered by an Italian Ethic Committee (EC) during the authorisation process of EAPs - are: understanding the origin of this misclassification by analysing differences and similarities among USA, European and Italian regulations concerning EAPs; and showing difficulties in classifying international study protocols as a consequence of the lack of harmonisation of definitions.We performed a critical review of the current USA, European and Italian regulations and we analysed some practical cases by retrieving protocols from Clinicaltrials.gov and the Italian Clinical Trials Registry (OsSC) containing in the title the keywords 'Expanded Access Programme', "'Expanded Access', 'Open-label Extension study' or 'Early Access'.We observed that the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA) definition of EAP is very clear while the EMA definition is similar to that of an Open-label Extension study. This lack of a clear definition generates misclassification and it is possible to find an EAP with an efficacy or safety endpoint; or an EAP managed as a clinical trial; or an EAP classified in Clinical Trials Registries as a phase II, III or IV clinical trial.The internationalisation of the studies

  18. 24 CFR 3280.812 - Wiring of expandable units and dual units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wiring of expandable units and dual units. 3280.812 Section 3280.812 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... § 3280.812 Wiring of expandable units and dual units. (a) Expandable or multiple unit manufactured homes...

  19. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  20. Selection of nanoparticles using CO.sub.2-expanded liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher B; McLeod, Marshall Chandler; Anand, Madhu

    2013-02-19

    A method for size selection of nanostructures comprising utilizing a gas-expanded liquids (GEL) and controlled pressure to precipitate desired size populations of nanostructures, e.g., monodisperse. The GEL can comprise CO.sub.2 antisolvent and an organic solvent. The method can be carried out in an apparatus comprising a first open vessel configured to allow movement of a liquid/particle solution to specific desired locations within the vessel, a second pressure vessel, a location controller for controlling location of the particles and solution within the first vessel, a inlet for addition of antisolvent to the first vessel, and a device for measuring the amount of antisolvent added. Also disclosed is a method for forming nanoparticle thin films comprising utilizing a GEL containing a substrate, pressurizing the solution to precipitate and deposit nanoparticles onto the substrate, removing the solvent thereby leaving a thin nanoparticle film, removing the solvent and antisolvent, and drying the film.

  1. FDA Expands List of "Do Not Compound" Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    EDITOR'S ABSTRACT On October 3, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published in the Federal Register an expanded list of drug products that are not to be used in compounding extemporaneous dosage forms. This list contains numerous analgesic or anti-inflammatory agents and other chemicals sometimes used to manage pain and related symptoms. Because pharmacies are licensed by the states and other jurisdictions (districts, territories) as opposed to the federal government, regulation of extemporaneous compounding is inconsistent across the nation and minimal to nonexistent is some jurisdictions. Clinicians are urged to assure that pharmacies they and their patients use adhere to this list and compound only dosage forms for which there is good evidence of both safety and efficacy.

  2. Durability of Modified Expanded Polystyrene Concrete after Dynamic Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available EPS concrete was produced by mixing the expanded polystyrene spheres (EPS and polymer emulsion and thickener to the matrix concrete, and this concrete had good vibration energy absorption characteristics. Based on the experimental data obtained on EPS volume ratio of 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by replacing matrix or coarse aggregate, the two design styles had nearly the same compressive strength. By applying frequency of 5 Hz, 50000 or 100000 times, 40 KN, 50 KN, and 60 KN cyclic loading, it is shown that the higher the inclusion size was, the lower the compressive strength of the EPS concrete would be; the larger the applying dynamic cyclic load was, the more obvious the compressive strength changing would be. Meanwhile, the strength of EPS concrete had no evident change after durability test. The results of this research had practical significance on using EPS concrete in some long-term cyclic dynamic load engineering.

  3. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  4. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  5. Water extraction on Mars for an expanding human colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, M; Franz, B; Baker, T; Howe, S

    2015-11-01

    In-situ water extraction is necessary for an extended human presence on Mars. This study looks at the water requirements of an expanding human colony on Mars and the general systems needed to supply that water from the martian atmosphere and regolith. The proposed combination of systems in order to supply the necessary water includes a system similar to Honeybee Robotics' Mobile In-Situ Water Extractor (MISWE) that uses convection, a system similar to MISWE but that directs microwave energy down a borehole, a greenhouse or hothouse type system, and a system similar to the Mars Atmospheric Resource Recovery System (MARRS). It is demonstrated that a large water extraction system that can take advantage of large deposits of water ice at site specific locations is necessary to keep up with the demands of a growing colony. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of reinforcement corrosion in expanded clay concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Uglyanitsa

    2015-12-01

    The results of the studies conducted are the recommended design and technological measures for the reinforcement protection against corrosion in various fine aggregate-based (natural sand, ash and dry hydroremoval light-weight expanded clay concrete. Thus, the minimum concrete protective cover for main and distribution reinforcement of external walls must be at least 25 mm. It is necessary to inject additives – reinforcement corrosion inhibitors (sodium nitrite, sodium tetraborate to the concrete composition. The consumption of cement, and hence, the cement paste content of concrete mixture must be not lower than 220 kg/m3, and under the application of the active dry fly ash removal −200 kg/m3.

  7. Alternative approaches to expanding pediatric urology services and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon, Stephen; Basham, Kyle; Canon, Honor Lee; Purifoy, Jody Ann; Swearingen, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    We critically assessed the outcomes of a new model of pediatric urology delivery using alternative approaches to expand care without increasing the number of pediatric urologists. The approaches included the use of advanced practice nurse practitioners, pediatric physician specialists, part-time contract pediatric urologists from neighboring institutions and part-time contract adult urologists from our university. Data were collected from the Division of Pediatric Urology at Arkansas Children's Hospital during 2009 and 2010. The only pediatric urologist at our institution retired in December 2009 with an immediate transition to a new pediatric urologist in January 2010. Comparisons were made in the numbers of clinic visits, inpatient admissions/consultations, surgical volume and patient satisfaction scores. Average clinic monthly visits in 2009 and 2010 were 153 and 271, respectively (p productivity and maximize the quality of delivery of these services. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mode-locked laser autocollimator with an expanded measurement range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Shimizu, Yuki; Kudo, Yukitoshi; Ito, So; Gao, Wei

    2016-07-11

    A mode-locked laser is employed as the light source of a laser autocollimator, instead of the conventionally employed single-wavelength laser, for an expanded range of tilt angle measurement. A group of the spatially separated diffracted beams from a diffraction grating are focused by a collimator objective to form an array of light spots on the focal plane of the collimator objective where a light position-sensing photodiode is located for detecting the linear displacement of the light spot array corresponding to the tilt angle of the reflector. A prototype mode-locked femtosecond laser autocollimator is designed and constructed for achieving a measurement range of 11000 arc-seconds.

  9. The expanding universe of Sherlockian fandom and archival collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jerome Johnson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1887, in sometimes cosmic fashion, nearly every medium and format has been used in sharing the original 60 Sherlock Holmes adventures along with their pastiche and parodying offspring. Such creative energy is evidence of a literary big bang, and an expanding universe of creative possibilities, many of them now born digital or residing on digital platforms. We trace older and newer Sherlockian enthusiasms; their points of entry; the creative manifestations of these fandoms over time and through various media; and the emerging challenges and opportunities presented to library and archival professionals by the explosive growth of creative works, especially those produced during the last decade. Curatorial actions involving acquisition, preservation, description, and user discovery of these materials are considered alongside the relationship building necessary between curator and fan in acquiring evolving, dynamic new Sherlockian expressions and insights.

  10. Support for an expanded tripartite influence model with gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Andorka, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether an expanded tripartite influence model would represent gay men's experiences. This model was extended by adding partners and gay community involvement as sources of social influence and considering dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to muscularity enhancement and disordered eating behaviors. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses upheld this model for 346 gay men. Dual body image pathways to body change behaviors were supported, although three unanticipated interrelationships emerged, suggesting that muscularity and body fat concerns and behaviors may be more integrated for gay men. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, appearance comparison, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction were key mediators in the model. Of the sources of social influence, friend and media pressure to be lean, gay community involvement, and partner, friend, media, and family pressures to be muscular made incremental contributions. Unexpectedly, certain sources were directly connected to body change behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation in socially vulnerable patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. A research project performed at a university hospital in Denmark offered an expanded CR intervention to socially vulnerable patients. One-year follow-up showed significant improvements concerning medicine...... compliance, lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index when compared with socially vulnerable patients receiving standard CR. The aim of the study was to perform a long-term follow-up on the socially differentiated CR intervention and examine the impact of the intervention on all-cause mortality......, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal recurrent events and major cardiac events (MACE) 10 years after. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The cardiac ward at a university hospital in Denmark from 2000 to 2004. PARTICIPANTS: 379 patients aged

  12. Expanding Medicare and employer plans to achieve universal health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K

    1991-05-15

    This article presents a proposal for expanding Medicare and employer-based health insurance plans to achieve universal health insurance. Under this proposed health care financing system, employees would provide basic health insurance coverage to workers and dependents, or pay a payroll tax contribution toward the cost of their coverage under Medicare. States would have the option of buying all Medicaid beneficiaries and other poor individuals into Medicare by paying the Medicare premiums and cost sharing. Other uninsured individuals would be automatically covered by Medicare. Employer plans would incorporate Medicare's provider payment methods. This proposal would result in incremental federal governmental outlays on the order of $25 billion annually. These new federal budgetary costs would be met through a combination of premiums, employer payroll tax, income tax, and general tax revenues. The principal advantage of this plan is that it draws on the strengths of the current system while simplifying the benefit and provider payment structure and instituting innovations to promote efficiency.

  13. Expanding the Possibilities of AIS Data with Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Brende Smestad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Identification System (AIS is primarily used as a tracking system for ships, but with the launch of satellites to collect these data, new and previously untested possibilities are emerging. This paper presents the development of heuristics for establishing the specific ship type using information retrieved from AIS data alone. These heuristics expand the possibilities of AIS data, as the specific ship type is vital for several transportation research cases, such as emission analyses of ship traffic and studies on slow steaming. The presented method for developing heuristics can be used for a wider range of vessels. These heuristics may form the basis of large-scale studies on ship traffic using AIS data when it is not feasible or desirable to use commercial ship data registers.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Polyneoptera (Insecta) inferred from expanded mitogenomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The Polyneoptera represents one of the earliest insect radiations, comprising the majority of hemimetabolous orders, in which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group based on expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the major polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and the monophyly of Orthoptera. Sister taxon relationships Plecoptera + Dermaptera, and Zoraptera + Embioptera are also supported by most analyses. Within Dictyoptera, the Blattodea is consistently retrieved as paraphyly due to the sister group relationship of Cryptocercus with Isoptera. In addition, the results demonstrate that model selection, data treatment, and outgroup choice can have significant effects on the reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Polyneoptera. PMID:27782189

  15. Metagenome of a versatile chemolithoautotroph from expanding oceanic dead zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David A; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles G; Song, Young C; Wright, Jody J; Tringe, Susannah G; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-10-23

    Oxygen minimum zones, also known as oceanic "dead zones," are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding because of global warming. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, they support a cryptic microbiota whose metabolic activities affect nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here, we report metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated oxygen minimum zone microbe (SUP05) related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur oxidation, and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water-column redox states. Our analysis provides a genomic foundation for understanding the ecological and biogeochemical role of pelagic SUP05 in oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and its potential sensitivity to environmental changes.

  16. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  17. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  18. Disease mongering: expanding the boundaries of treatable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E; Henry, D

    2008-11-01

    Traditionally, the promotional activities of medical industries have been product specific. In recent years, however, there have been examples where companies have worked through partnerships, which have included clinicians, to expand the boundaries of treatable disorders. The main motivation appears to be to increase sales of commercial products. The term 'disease mongering' has been applied to these activities. Whereas some disease awareness programmes may bring benefits in the form of improved recognition and management of disorders, the presence of strong commercial interests probably distorts the traditional processes by which treatable diseases have been defined. This can result in individual patients being exposed to potential harms, with little expectation of benefit and will place an unwarranted burden on the publicly funded health-care system. None of this can happen without the collaboration of the medical profession that needs to be aware of the risks of becoming involved in commercially supported 'consensus' groups that are reviewing the definition and management of diseases.

  19. Expanding entrepreneurship opportunities through local governance: the case of Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pounder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the government and local governance structures of Barbados, arguing that local governance should be leveraged to expand entrepreneurship opportunities at the community level. It examines the links between local governance and entrepreneurship, and proposes a framework aimed at strengthening the relationship between Barbados’ newly formed constituency councils and its government institutions supporting entrepreneurship. The research concludes that there are many inefficiencies in the interaction between government agencies and constituency councils, which the proposed framework is a first step toward remedying.  The research suggests that local governance is a complex issue worldwide. More specifically in Barbados, even though the role of the constituency councils is defined, there are weak formal arrangements which undermine the processes and activities to support community entrepreneurship. The proposed framework highlighted in the research is a first step in formalising a way forward for entrepreneurship in the community. 

  20. The expanded Lagrangian system for constrained optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, A. B.; Al-Hassan, Q.

    1988-01-01

    Smooth penalty functions can be combined with numerical continuation/bifurcation techniques to produce a class of robust and fast algorithms for constrained optimization problems. The key to the development of these algorithms is the Expanded Lagrangian System which is derived and analyzed in this work. This parameterized system of nonlinear equations contains the penalty path as a solution, provides a smooth homotopy into the first-order necessary conditions, and yields a global optimization technique. Furthermore, the inevitable ill-conditioning present in a sequential optimization algorithm is removed for three penalty methods: the quadratic penalty function for equality constraints, and the logarithmic barrier function (an interior method) and the quadratic loss function (an interior method) for inequality constraints. Although these techniques apply to optimization in general and to linear and nonlinear programming, calculus of variations, optimal control and parameter identification in particular, the development is primarily within the context of nonlinear programming.

  1. Geometrical aspects of the interaction between expanding clouds and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Spineanu, F

    2015-01-01

    This work is intended to be a contribution to the study of the morphology of the rising convective columns, for a better representation of the processes of entrainment and detrainment. We examine technical methods for the description of the interface of expanding clouds and reveal the role of \\emph{fingering} instability which increases the effective length of the periphery of the cloud. Assuming Laplacian growth we give a detailed derivation of the time-dependent conformal transformation that solves the equation of the \\emph{fingering} instability. For the phase of slower expansion, the evolution of complex poles with a dynamics largely controlled by the Hilbert operator (acting on the function that represents the interface position) leads to \\emph{cusp} singularities but smooths out the smaller scale perturbations. We review the arguments that the rising column cannot preserve its integrity (seen as compacity in any horizontal section), because of the penetrative downdrafts or the incomplete repulsion of th...

  2. Expanding the Lexicon: The Case of Jordanian Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Sa'aida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore (nonmorphological processes that native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic and Jordanian Rural Arabic use to expand their own lexicon. Three Jordanian female respondents were interviewed to collect data. The data consist of transcriptions of recorded tokens, which were categorised into groups according to the (nonmorphological processes that they undergo. Findings of the study show that there is a number of (nonmorphological processes that native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic and Jordanian Rural Arabic use to enlarge their own lexicon. The morphological processes include affixation, suppletion, conversion, and vowel mark placement. The present study has also explored a number of non-morphological processes which include univerbation, borrowing, and word creation. Keywords: Lexicon, Jordanian Arabic, (nonmorphological processes, (nonconcatenative, word-formation

  3. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  4. Protein Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  5. Identifying protein complexes based on density and modularity in protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Wang, Jianxin; Li, Min; Wang, Lusheng

    2013-01-01

    Identifying protein complexes is crucial to understanding principles of cellular organization and functional mechanisms. As many evidences have indicated that the subgraphs with high density or with high modularity in PPI network usually correspond to protein complexes, protein complexes detection methods based on PPI network focused on subgraph's density or its modularity in PPI network. However, dense subgraphs may have low modularity and subgraph with high modularity may have low density, which results that protein complexes may be subgraphs with low modularity or with low density in the PPI network. As the density-based methods are difficult to mine protein complexes with low density, and the modularity-based methods are difficult to mine protein complexes with low modularity, both two methods have limitation for identifying protein complexes with various density and modularity. To identify protein complexes with various density and modularity, including those have low density but high modularity and those have low modularity but high density, we define a novel subgraph's fitness, fρ, as fρ= (density)(ρ*)(modularity)(1-ρ), and propose a novel algorithm, named LF_PIN, to identify protein complexes by expanding seed edges to subgraphs with the local maximum fitness value. Experimental results of LF-PIN in S.cerevisiae show that compared with the results of fitness equal to density (ρ = 1) or equal to modularity (ρ = 0), the LF-PIN identifies known protein complexes more effectively when the fitness value is decided by both density and modularity (0modularity. By considering both the density and the modularity, LF-PIN outperforms other protein complexes detection methods that only consider density or modularity, especially in identifying known protein complexes with low density or low modularity.

  6. A semi-synthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Denis A; Dhami, Kirandeep; Lavergne, Thomas; Chen, Tingjian; Dai, Nan; Foster, Jeremy M; Corrêa, Ivan R; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2014-05-15

    Organisms are defined by the information encoded in their genomes, and since the origin of life this information has been encoded using a two-base-pair genetic alphabet (A-T and G-C). In vitro, the alphabet has been expanded to include several unnatural base pairs (UBPs). We have developed a class of UBPs formed between nucleotides bearing hydrophobic nucleobases, exemplified by the pair formed between d5SICS and dNaM (d5SICS-dNaM), which is efficiently PCR-amplified and transcribed in vitro, and whose unique mechanism of replication has been characterized. However, expansion of an organism's genetic alphabet presents new and unprecedented challenges: the unnatural nucleoside triphosphates must be available inside the cell; endogenous polymerases must be able to use the unnatural triphosphates to faithfully replicate DNA containing the UBP within the complex cellular milieu; and finally, the UBP must be stable in the presence of pathways that maintain the integrity of DNA. Here we show that an exogenously expressed algal nucleotide triphosphate transporter efficiently imports the triphosphates of both d5SICS and dNaM (d5SICSTP and dNaMTP) into Escherichia coli, and that the endogenous replication machinery uses them to accurately replicate a plasmid containing d5SICS-dNaM. Neither the presence of the unnatural triphosphates nor the replication of the UBP introduces a notable growth burden. Lastly, we find that the UBP is not efficiently excised by DNA repair pathways. Thus, the resulting bacterium is the first organism to propagate stably an expanded genetic alphabet.

  7. Immediate breast reconstruction with expander in pregnant breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Martella, Stefano; Azim, Hatem A; Sarno, Maria Anna; Galimberti, Viviana; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Intra, Mattia; Sangalli, Claudia; Rotmensz, Nicole; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Renne, Giuseppe; Schorr, Mario Casales; Nevola Teixeira, Luiz Felipe; Rietjens, Mario; Giroda, Massimo; Gentilini, Oreste

    2013-10-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is currently considered an essential component in managing breast cancer patients, particularly those diagnosed at a young age. However, no studies have been published on the feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction in patients diagnosed and operated during the course of gestation. We retrospectively identified all breast cancer patients who were subjected to mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction during pregnancy at the European Institute of Oncology between 2002 and 2012. Patient demographics, gestational age at surgery, tumor stage, adjuvant treatment, details of the surgical procedures, surgical outcomes and fetal outcomes were analyzed. A total of 78 patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy were subjected to a surgical procedure during the course of gestation. Twenty-two patients had mastectomy; of whom 13 were subjected to immediate breast reconstruction. Twelve out of 13 patients had a two-stage procedure with tissue expander insertion. Median gestational age at surgery was 16 weeks. No major surgical complications were encountered. Only one patient elected to have an abortion, otherwise, no spontaneous abortions or pregnancy complications were reported. Median gestational age at delivery was 35 weeks (range: 32-40 weeks). No major congenital malformations were reported. At a median follow-up of 32 months, all patients are alive with no long-term surgical complications. This is the first study of immediate breast reconstruction in pregnant breast cancer patients. Tissue expander insertion appears to ensure a short operative time, and does not seem to be associated with considerable morbidity to the patient or the fetus. Hence, it could be considered in the multidisciplinary management of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expanding the Universe of "Astronomy on Tap" Public Outreach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Levine, Brian; Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Tyndall, Amy; Muna, Demitri; Garofali, Kristen; Morris, Brett; Byler, Nell; Fyhrie, Adalyn; Rehnberg, Morgan; Hart, Quyen N.; Connelly, Jennifer L.; Silvia, Devin W.; Morrison, Sarah J.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Tremblay, Grant; Schwamb, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT, astronomyontap.org) is free public outreach event featuring engaging science presentations in bars, often combined with music, games, and prizes, to encourage a fun, interactive atmosphere. AoT events feature several short astronomy-related presentations primarily by local professional scientists, but also by visiting scientists, students, educators, amatuer astronomers, writers, and artists. Events are held in social venues (bars, coffee shops, art galleries, etc.) in order to bring science directly to the public in a relaxed, informal atmosphere. With this we hope to engage a more diverse audience than typical lectures at academic and cultural institutions and to develop enthusiasm for science among voting, tax-paying adults. The flexible format and content of an AoT event is easy to adapt and expand based on the priorities, resources, and interests of local organizers. The social nature of AoT events provides important professional development and networking opportunities in science communication. Since the first New York City event in April 2013, Astronomy on Tap has expanded to more than ten cities globally, including monthly events in NYC, Austin, Seattle, and Tucson; semi-regular events in Columbus, New Haven, Santiago, Toronto, and Denver; occasional (so far) events in Rochester (NY), Baltimore, Lansing, and Washington, DC; and one-off events in Chicago and Taipei. Several venues regularly attract audiences of over 200 people. We have received media coverage online, in print, and occasionally even on radio and television. In this poster we describe the overarching goals and characteristics of AoT events, distinct adaptations of various locations, resources we have developed, and the methods we use to coordinate among the worldwide local organizers.

  9. Preliminary characterization of an expanding flow of siloxane vapor MDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A.; Cozzi, F.; Cammi, G.; Zocca, M.; Gaetani, P.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.

    2017-03-01

    The early experimental results on the characterization of expanding flows of siloxane vapor MDM (C8H24O2Si3, octamethyltrisiloxane) are presented. The measurements were performed on the Test Rig for Organic VApors (TROVA) at the CREA Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. The TROVA test-rig was built in order to investigate the non-ideal compressible-fluid behavior of typical expanding flows occurring within organic Rankine cycles (ORC) turbine passages. The test rig implements a batch Rankine cycle where a planar converging-diverging nozzle replaces the turbine and represents a test section. Investigations related to both fields of non-ideal compressible-fluid dynamics fundamentals and turbomachinery are allowed. The nozzle can be operated with different working fluids and operating conditions aiming at measuring independently the pressure, the temperature and the velocity field and thus providing data to verify the thermo-fluid dynamic models adopted to predict the behavior of these flows. The limiting values of pressure and temperature are 50 bar and 400 °C respectively. The early measurements are performed along the nozzle axis, where an isentropic process is expected to occur. In particular, the results reported here refer to the nozzle operated in adapted conditions using the siloxane vapor MDM as working fluid in thermodynamic regions where mild to medium non-ideal compressible-fluid effects are present. Both total temperature and total pressure of the nozzle are measured upstream of the test section, while static pressure are measured along the nozzle axis. Schlieren visualizations are also carried out in order to complement the pressure measurement with information about the 2D density gradient field. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique is planned to be used in the future for velocity measurements. The measured flow field has also been interpreted by resorting to the quasi-one-dimensional theory and two dimensional CFD viscous calculation. In both cases

  10. Expanding Group Peer Review: A Proposal for Medical Education Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenco, Luba; Engle, Deborah L; Goodell, Kristen; Nagler, Alisa; Ovitsh, Robin K; Whicker, Shari A

    2017-02-01

    After participating in a group peer-review exercise at a workshop presented by Academic Medicine and MedEdPORTAL editors at the 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical Education Meeting, the authors realized that the way their work group reviewed a manuscript was very different from the way by which they each would have reviewed the paper as an individual. Further, the group peer-review process yielded more robust feedback for the manuscript's authors than did the traditional individual peer-review process. This realization motivated the authors to reconvene and collaborate to write this Commentary to share their experience and propose the expanded use of group peer review in medical education scholarship.The authors consider the benefits of a peer-review process for reviewers, including learning how to improve their own manuscripts. They suggest that the benefits of a team review model may be similar to those of teamwork and team-based learning in medicine and medical education. They call for research to investigate this, to provide evidence to support group review, and to determine whether specific paper types would benefit most from team review (e.g., particularly complex manuscripts, those receiving widely disparate initial individual reviews). In addition, the authors propose ways in which a team-based approach to peer review could be expanded by journals and institutions. They believe that exploring the use of group peer review potentially could create a new methodology for skill development in research and scholarly writing and could enhance the quality of medical education scholarship.

  11. Structure-based function prediction of the expanding mollusk tyrosinase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ronglian; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosinase (Ty) is a common enzyme found in many different animal groups. In our previous study, genome sequencing revealed that the Ty family is expanded in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Here, we examine the larger number of Ty family members in the Pacific oyster by high-level structure prediction to obtain more information about their function and evolution, especially the unknown role in biomineralization. We verified 12 Ty gene sequences from Crassostrea gigas genome and Pinctada fucata martensii transcriptome. By using phylogenetic analysis of these Tys with functionally known Tys from other molluscan species, eight subgroups were identified (CgTy_s1, CgTy_s2, MolTy_s1, MolTy-s2, MolTy-s3, PinTy-s1, PinTy-s2 and PviTy). Structural data and surface pockets of the dinuclear copper center in the eight subgroups of molluscan Ty were obtained using the latest versions of prediction online servers. Structural comparison with other Ty proteins from the protein databank revealed functionally important residues (HA1, HA2, HA3, HB1, HB2, HB3, Z1-Z9) and their location within these protein structures. The structural and chemical features of these pockets which may related to the substrate binding showed considerable variability among mollusks, which undoubtedly defines Ty substrate binding. Finally, we discuss the potential driving forces of Ty family evolution in mollusks. Based on these observations, we conclude that the Ty family has rapidly evolved as a consequence of substrate adaptation in mollusks.

  12. Structure-based function prediction of the expanding mollusk tyrosinase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ronglian; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2017-11-01

    Tyrosinase (Ty) is a common enzyme found in many different animal groups. In our previous study, genome sequencing revealed that the Ty family is expanded in the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas). Here, we examine the larger number of Ty family members in the Pacific oyster by high-level structure prediction to obtain more information about their function and evolution, especially the unknown role in biomineralization. We verified 12 Ty gene sequences from Crassostrea gigas genome and Pinctada fucata martensii transcriptome. By using phylogenetic analysis of these Tys with functionally known Tys from other molluscan species, eight subgroups were identified (CgTy_s1, CgTy_s2, MolTy_s1, MolTy-s2, MolTy-s3, PinTy-s1, PinTy-s2 and PviTy). Structural data and surface pockets of the dinuclear copper center in the eight subgroups of molluscan Ty were obtained using the latest versions of prediction online servers. Structural comparison with other Ty proteins from the protein databank revealed functionally important residues (HA1, HA2, HA3, HB1, HB2, HB3, Z1-Z9) and their location within these protein structures. The structural and chemical features of these pockets which may related to the substrate binding showed considerable variability among mollusks, which undoubtedly defines Ty substrate binding. Finally, we discuss the potential driving forces of Ty family evolution in mollusks. Based on these observations, we conclude that the Ty family has rapidly evolved as a consequence of substrate adaptation in mollusks.

  13. Can the Expanding Circle Own English? Comments on Yoo's "Nonnative Teachers in the Expanding Circle and the Ownership of English"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Yoo's (2014) article raises a number of questions concerning local teachers' status and the ownership of English in the Expanding Circle. In this article, I address five issues that I see as most important relating to the ownership of English and empowering local teachers in the Expanding Circle. I provide up-to-date evidence of World…

  14. Post-translational tools expand the scope of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Evan J; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2012-08-01

    Synthetic biology is improving our understanding of and ability to control living organisms. To date, most progress has been made by engineering gene expression. However, computational and genetically encoded tools that allow protein activity and protein-protein interactions to be controlled on their natural time and length scales are emerging. These technologies provide a basis for the construction of post-translational circuits, which are capable of fast, robust and highly spatially resolved signal processing. When combined with their transcriptional and translational counterparts, synthetic post-translational circuits will allow better analysis and control of otherwise intractable biological processes such as cellular differentiation and the growth of tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequestration of DROSHA and DGCR8 by Expanded CGG RNA Repeats Alters MicroRNA Processing in Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Sellier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of 55–200 CGG repeats in the 5′ UTR of FMR1. These expanded CGG repeats are transcribed and accumulate in nuclear RNA aggregates that sequester one or more RNA-binding proteins, thus impairing their functions. Here, we have identified that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 binds to expanded CGG repeats, resulting in the partial sequestration of DGCR8 and its partner, DROSHA, within CGG RNA aggregates. Consequently, the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs is reduced, resulting in decreased levels of mature miRNAs in neuronal cells expressing expanded CGG repeats and in brain tissue from patients with FXTAS. Finally, overexpression of DGCR8 rescues the neuronal cell death induced by expression of expanded CGG repeats. These results support a model in which a human neurodegenerative disease originates from the alteration, in trans, of the miRNA-processing machinery.

  16. 1,003 reference genomes of bacterial and archaeal isolates expand coverage of the tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Seshadri, Rekha; Varghese, Neha J; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Göker, Markus; Coates, R Cameron; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Paez-Espino, David; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Visel, Axel; Whitman, William B; Garrity, George M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Hugenholtz, Philip; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2017-07-01

    We present 1,003 reference genomes that were sequenced as part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) initiative, selected to maximize sequence coverage of phylogenetic space. These genomes double the number of existing type strains and expand their overall phylogenetic diversity by 25%. Comparative analyses with previously available finished and draft genomes reveal a 10.5% increase in novel protein families as a function of phylogenetic diversity. The GEBA genomes recruit 25 million previously unassigned metagenomic proteins from 4,650 samples, improving their phylogenetic and functional interpretation. We identify numerous biosynthetic clusters and experimentally validate a divergent phenazine cluster with potential new chemical structure and antimicrobial activity. This Resource is the largest single release of reference genomes to date. Bacterial and archaeal isolate sequence space is still far from saturated, and future endeavors in this direction will continue to be a valuable resource for scientific discovery.

  17. Expanded Substrate Activity of OXA-24/40 in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Involves Enhanced Binding Loop Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, Michael W; Leonard, David A; Peng, Jeffrey W

    2016-11-29

    Gram-negative bacteria resist β-lactam antibiotics primarily by deploying β-lactamase proteins that hydrolytically destroy the antibiotics. In clinical settings, these bacteria are producing variant β-lactamases with "gain-of-activity" mutations that inactivate a broader range of β-lactams. Learning how these mutations broaden substrate activity is important for coping with β-lactam resistance. Here, we investigate a gain of activity mutation in OXA-24/40, a carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamase (CHDL) in Acinetobacter baumannii. OXA-24/40 was originally active against penicillin and carbapenem classes of β-lactams, but a clinical variant of OXA-24/40, the single-site substitution mutant P227S, has emerged with expanded activity that now includes advanced cephalosporins and the monobactam aztreonam. Using solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have compared the site-specific backbone dynamics of wild-type OXA-24/40 and the P227S variant. P227S changes local backbone flexibility in segments that are important for both binding and hydrolysis of carbapenem and cephalosporin substrates. Our results suggest that mutation-induced changes in sequence-specific dynamics can expand substrate activity and thus highlight the role of protein conformational dynamics in antibiotic resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first NMR study of CHDL conformational dynamics and its impact on the expansion of β-lactam antibiotic resistance.

  18. Global kinetic hybrid simulation for radially expanding solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyadechkin, S.; Semenov, V. S.; Kallio, E.; Erkaev, N. V.; Alho, M.; Lammer, H.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of a 1-D global kinetic simulation of the solar wind in spherical coordinates without a magnetic field in the region from the Sun to the Earth's orbit. Protons are considered as particles while electrons are considered as a massless fluid, with a constant temperature, in order to study the relation between the hybrid and hydrodynamic solutions. It is shown that the strong electric field in the hybrid model accelerates the protons. Since the electric field in the model is related to electron pressure, each proton in the initial Maxwellian velocity distribution function moves under the same forces as in the classical Parker Solar wind model. The study shows that the hybrid model results in very similar velocity and number density distributions along the radial distance as in the Parker model. In the hybrid simulations, the proton temperature is decreased with distance in 1 order of magnitude. The effective polytropic index of the proton population slightly exceeds 1 at larger distances with the maximum value ˜1.15 in the region near the Sun. A highly non-Maxwellian type of distribution function is initially formed. Further from the Sun, a narrow beam of the escaping protons is created which does not change much in later expansion. The results of our study indicates that already a nonmagnetized global hybrid model is capable of reproducing some fundamental features of the expanding solar wind shown in the Parker model and additional kinetic effects in the solar wind.

  19. Critical ignition in rapidly expanding self-similar flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Maxwell, Brian M.

    2010-06-01

    The generic problem of ignition of a particle undergoing an expansion given by a power law rate of decay behind a decaying shock is addressed in the present study. It is demonstrated, using a one-step Arrhenius irreversible reaction, that a sufficiently strong expansion wave can quench the reaction. The critical conditions for extinction are obtained in closed form in terms of the time scale for the expansion process and the thermochemical properties of the gas, yielding a critical Damkohler number, i.e., the ratio of the expansion time scale to the homogeneous ignition time scale, given by (γ -1)(Ea/RT)-1/n, where n is the power law exponent of the self-similar expansion. The critical ignition criteria, which are valid in the asymptotic limit n(γ -1)(Ea/RT)=O(1), were found in excellent agreement with numerical results. The applicability of the results obtained are discussed for ignition in rapidly expanding flows which occur behind decaying shock waves, as encountered in problems of detonation initiation by a Taylor-Sedov blast wave, and reacting jet startup, and for reactions in steady hypersonic flows around projectiles.

  20. Expanding marine protected areas to include degraded coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, A; Nelson, P A; Edgar, G J; Shashar, N; Reed, D C; Belmaker, J; Krause, G; Beck, M W; Brokovich, E; France, R; Gaines, S D

    2016-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a commonly applied solution to coral reef degradation, yet coral reefs continue to decline worldwide. We argue that expanding the range of MPAs to include degraded reefs (DR-MPA) could help reverse this trend. This approach requires new ecological criteria for MPA design, siting, and management. Rather than focusing solely on preserving healthy reefs, our approach focuses on the potential for biodiversity recovery and renewal of ecosystem services. The new criteria would help identify sites with the highest potential for recovery and the greatest resistance to future threats (e.g., increased temperature and acidification) and sites that contribute to MPA connectivity. The DR-MPA approach is a compliment rather than a substitute for traditional MPA design approaches. We believe that the DR-MPA approach can enhance the natural, or restoration-assisted, recovery of DRs and their ecosystem services; increase total reef area available for protection; promote more resilient and better-connected MPA networks; and improve conditions for human communities dependent on MPA ecosystem services. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Expanding the Cultural Adaptation Framework for Population-Level Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Attention to cultural diversity and cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) has been a longstanding priority in prevention science. However, EBIs for diverse populations present several challenges for broad dissemination and population impact. The five papers in this special issue underscore some of these challenges and offer new ways of thinking and recommendations for the next generation of type 2 translation research. This commentary underscores three broad recommendations, including the need for a more expanded conceptualization and empirical understanding of the core tension between fidelity and adaptation; greater focus on the systems of care that deliver EBIs to culturally diverse populations, including increased attention to such issues as access and engagement; and greater flexibility in strategies to adapt and evaluate interventions within and across communities and settings that serve diverse populations. By offering exemplars and suggestions to address these challenges, these papers collectively help to realign research on cultural adaptation with its ultimate goal of reducing health disparities by ensuring greater access, impact, and equity of prevention services in a dynamic, multicultural society. However, other fundamental challenges remain unaddressed, including the need to reduce inequalities that exist in the health, education, social service, and justice systems that will ultimately support broad diffusion of EBIs for diverse populations.

  2. Expanding Access with Satellite-Enabled Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Education and training became increasingly critical for citizens of every nation during the last century, and that paradigm will be no less true, throughout the 21st Century. As the world progresses fully into an information society, access to information and to a knowledge-based work force is a precondition for any country to remain competitive. Education, and increasingly distant education (DE, plays a vital role in turning human resources into knowledge workers. Information and communications technologies (ICT have provided new ways to educate and to disseminate information that is crucial for creating these competitive, knowledge-based work forces. Modern DE, enabled by ICT-based networks and the Internet tools, offers great advantages that are leveling the global playing field, in terms of providing access and opportunities for specialized training and education. Using satellite technology in DE may be imperative to developing countries, where the majority of their populations are scattered in rural and remote areas. Where the traditional brick and mortar classrooms cannot easily reach, satellite-powered DE systems can. Through literature review and rational analysis, this paper examines how satellite-assisted DE systems expand education access.

  3. Regulatory Considerations Associated with the Expanded Adoption of Distributed Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; McLaren, J.; Heeter, J.; Linvill, C.; Shenot, J.; Sedano, R.; Migden-Ostrander, J.

    2013-11-01

    Increased adoption of distributed PV, and other forms of distributed generation, have the potential to affect utility-customer interactions, system costs recovery, and utility revenue streams. If a greater number of electricity customers choose to self-generate, demand for system power will decrease and utility fixed costs will have to be recovered over fewer kilowatt hours of sales. As such, regulators will need to determine the value and cost of additional distributed PV and determine the appropriate allocation of the costs and benefits among consumers. The potential for new business models to emerge also has implications for regulation and rate structures that ensure equitable solutions for all electricity grid users. This report examines regulatory tools and rate designs for addressing emerging issues with the expanded adoption of distributed PV and evaluates the potential effectiveness and viability of these options going forward. It offers the groundwork needed in order for regulators to explore mechanisms and ensure that utilities can collect sufficient revenues to provide reliable electric service, cover fixed costs, and balance cost equity among ratepayers -- while creating a value proposition for customers to adopt distributed PV.

  4. Dynamic characteristics and seismic stability of expanded polystyrene geofoam embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Zahra A.

    Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geofoam has become a preferred material in various construction applications due to its light weight. Application of EPS accelerates the projects particularly on soft soils. The focus of this research is on the application of the EPS in embankments and its behavior mainly under harmonic vibration. The goal of this study was to investigate dynamic characteristics of freestanding vertical EPS geofoam embankment and address potential seismic issues that result from the distinguished dynamic behavior of such systems due to the layered and discrete block structure. A series of experimental studies on EPS 19 and a commercially available adhesive was conducted. Two-dimensional numerical analyses were performed to replicate the response of EPS geofoam embankment to horizontal and vertical harmonic motions. The results of the analyses have shown that for some acceleration amplitude levels interlayer sliding is expected to occur in EPS geofoam embankments almost immediately after the start of the base excitation; however, as a highly efficient energy dissipation mechanism sliding ceases rapidly. Shear keys and adhesive may be used to prevent interlayer sliding if they cover the proper extent of area of the embankment. EPS blocks placed in the corners of the embankment and at the edges of the segment prohibited from sliding may experience high stress concentrations. The embankment may show horizontal sway and rocking once sliding is prevented.

  5. Expanding the mutation and clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan H; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Eid, Maha M; Tosson, Angie M S; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; Abdel Azeem, Amira A; Farag, Mona K; Mehrez, Mennat I; Gaber, Khaled R

    2016-07-01

    Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia syndrome are rare autosomal recessive genetic disorders representing the extremes of the spectrum of severity of the same condition, caused by mutations in ESCO2 gene. We report three new patients with Roberts syndrome from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families. All patients presented with growth retardation, mesomelic shortening of the limbs more in the upper than in the lower limbs and microcephaly. Patients were subjected to clinical, cytogenetic and radiologic examinations. Cytogenetic analysis showed the characteristic premature separation of centromeres and puffing of heterochromatic regions. Further, sequencing of the ESCO2 gene identified a novel mutation c.244_245dupCT (p.T83Pfs*20) in one family besides two previously reported mutations c.760_761insA (p.T254Nfs*27) and c.764_765delTT (p.F255Cfs*25). All mutations were in homozygous state, in exon 3. The severity of the mesomelic shortening of the limbs and craniofacial anomalies showed variability among patients. Interestingly, patient 1 had abnormal skin hypopigmentation. Serial fetal ultrasound examinations and measurements of long bones diagnosed two affected fetuses in two of the studied families. A literature review and case comparison was performed. In conclusion, we report a novel ESCO2 mutation and expand the clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  6. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding the spectrum: 20 years of advances in MMW imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher A.; Lovberg, John A.; Kolinko, Valdimir G.

    2017-05-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging has expanded from the single-pixel swept imagers developed in the 1960s to large field-ofview real-time systems in use today. Trex Enterprises has been developing millimeter-wave imagers since 1991 for aviation and security applications, as well as millimeter-wave communications devices. As MMIC device development was stretching into the MMW band in the 1990s, Trex developed novel imaging architectures to create 2-D staring systems with large pixel counts and no moving parts while using a minimal number of devices. Trex also contributed to the device development in amplifiers, switches, and detectors to enable the next generation of passive MMW imaging systems. The architectures and devices developed continue to be employed in security imagers, radar, and radios produced by Trex. This paper reviews the development of the initial real-time MMW imagers and associated devices by Trex Enterprises from the 1990s through the 2000s. The devices include W-band MMIC amplifiers, switches, and detector didoes, and MMW circuit boards and optical processors. The imaging systems discussed include two different real-time passive MMW imagers flown on helicopters and a MMW radar system, as well as implementation of the devices and architectures in simpler stand-off and gateway security imagers.

  8. Charged black holes in expanding Einstein-de Sitter universes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Manuela G

    2015-01-01

    Inspired in a previous work by McClure and Dyer (Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 1971 (2006)), we analyze some solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which were originally written to describe charged black holes in cosmological backgrounds. A detailed analysis of the electromagnetic sources for a sufficiently general metric is performed, and then we focus on deriving the electromagnetic four-current as well as the conserved electric charge of each metric. The charged McVittie solution is revisited and a brief study of its causal structure is performed, showing that it may represent a charged black hole in an expanding universe, with the black hole horizon being formed at infinite late times. Charged versions of solutions originally put forward by Vaidya (Vd) and Sultana and Dyer (SD) are also analyzed. It is shown that the charged Sultana-Dyer metric requires a global electric current, besides a central (pointlike) electric charge. With the aim of comparing to the charged McVittie metric, new charged solut...

  9. The Expanded Public Works Programme: Perspectives of direct beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondli S. Hlatshwayo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship on the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP in South Africa tends to focus on quantitative evaluation to measure the progress made in the implementation of EPWP projects. The number of employment opportunities created by EPWP, demographic profiling, skills acquired by beneficiaries and training opportunities related to the Programme form the basis of typical statistical evaluations of it, but exclude comment by the workers who participate in its projects. Based on primary sources, including in-depth interviews, newspaper reports and internet sources, this article seeks to provide a qualitative review of the EPWP from the perspective of the beneficiaries of municipal EPWP projects. Various South African government sectors hire EPWP workers to provide local services such as cleaning and maintaining infrastructure, but the employment of these workers can still be regarded as precarious, in the sense that they have no job security, earn low wages and have no benefits such as medical aid or pension fund. The interviewees indicated that, although they appreciate the temporary employment opportunities provided by the EPWP, they also experience health and safety risks and lack the advantages of organised labour groupings. Their main disadvantage, however, is that they cannot access permanent employment, which offers better wages and concomitant benefits.

  10. Rotating black holes in an expanding Universe from fake supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimento, Samuele; Klemm, Dietmar

    2015-02-01

    Using the recipe of Meessen and Palomo-Lozano (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP05(2009)042), where all fake supersymmetric backgrounds of matter-coupled fake N = 2, d = 4 gauged supergravity were classified, we construct dynamical rotating black holes in an expanding FLRW Universe. This is done for two different prepotentials that are both truncations of the stu model and correspond to just one vector multiplet. In this scenario, the cosmic expansion is driven by two U(1) gauge fields and by a complex scalar that rolls down its potential. Generically, the solutions of Meessen and Palomo-Lozano are fibrations over a Gauduchon-Tod base space, and we make three different choices for this base, namely flat space, the three-sphere and the Berger sphere. In the first two cases, the black holes are determined by harmonic functions on the base, while in the last case they obey a deformed Laplace equation that contains the squashing parameter of the Berger sphere. This is the generalization to a cosmological context of the usual recipe in ungauged supergravity, where black holes are given in terms of harmonic functions on three-dimensional Euclidean space. The constructed solutions may be instrumental in addressing analytically certain aspects of black hole physics in a dynamical context.

  11. Are artificial satellites orbits influenced by an expanding Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Albeit in the past great theoretical and experimental efforts were made in proposing and searching for G time-decreasing, a major role could be played by an increase of M. A recent analysis (Scalera, 2003a converges toward an upper limit of the Earth’s mass variation in the order of magnitude of M/M=10-9 /yr. It is here discussed the possible role that can be played by parameters linked to the expanding Earth in the effects we observe in the orbital motion of the artificial satellites. The important result in this short note is the discrimination between the reality of the glacial rebound process and/or the relaxation of the 100m excess of equatorial bulge testified by the high rate of j2 , and the improbable role that glacial rebound can have in driving PM and TPW. It is recommended that the new technology of drag-free satellites be used (Gravity-Probe B is the first step to reveal possible residual orbital parameter variations ascribable to formerly unrecognized fictitious drag terms due to Earth radial increase.

  12. Expanding Access to Care: Scope of Practice Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Kathleen; Hexem, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Allied health professionals play an integral role in providing safe, affordable care to communities in need. Laws that define the permissible scope of practice for these professionals may take full advantage of these providers and may unnecessarily restrict safe and effective care. Nurse practitioners in many states may provide care independent of a physician; research reveals that this care is safe, affordable and accessible. Yet hurdles exist that prevent communities from securing the full benefit of NPs in independent practice. The scope of independent practice for allied dental providers varies greatly across the country, often including stringent supervision requirements. Emerging approaches to allowing allied dental providers to practice independently in certain settings or with dentist supervision via telemedicine and creating the intermediate provider, the dental therapist, may increase access to safe, affordable dental care. Research on the impact of laws that allow broader independent practice by NPs to ferret out the hurdles to full implementation of the spirit of such laws is needed. That research could support expanded independent scope for allied dental providers and other allied health care providers.

  13. New Aspects of Photon Propagation in Expanding Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, H -J

    2016-01-01

    According to present cosmological views the energy density of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) photons, freely propagating through the expanding cosmos, varies proportional to 1/S^4 with S being the scale factor of the universe. This behavior is expected, because General Theory of Relativity, in application to FLRW- (Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker) cosmological universes, leads to the conclusion that the photon wavelengths increase during their free passage through the spacetime metrics of the universe by the same factor as does the scale factor S. This appears to be a reasonable explanation for the presently observed Planckian CMB spectrum with its actual temperature of about 2.7 K, while at the time of its origin after the last scattering during the recombination phase its temperature should have been about 3000 K, at an epoch of about 380 ky after the Big Bang, when the scale of the universe S_r was smaller by roughly a factor of S/S_r = 1+z_r = 1100 compared to the present scale S = S_0 of the unive...

  14. Synthesis and Characteristics of Highly Oil-absorptive Expanded Polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.H. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea); Kim, W. [Dong Ah Chem. Co. Ltd., Kyungnam (Korea); Kim, W.H. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Oil-absorptive expanded polyurethane (EPU) was prepared with a lypophilic polyol, polypropyleneglycol (PPG) as the soft segment, and toluenediisocyanate (TDI) and H{sub 2}O as the hard segment. PPGs having various average molecular weights (M{sub n} : 1000, 2000, 3000) were employed to investigate that the soft segment content was consequent on the oil-absorptivity and the mechanical properties of the EPUs. As M{sub n} of PPG was decreased from 3000 to 1000, the oil-absorptivity and the tensile strength of the EPUs increased from 1460 to 3010% and from 0.26 to 0.55 kg{sub f}/cm{sup 2} respectively. As the hard segment content ratio, {gamma}([NCO]/[OH]) was increased from 1.0 to 1.2, the tensile strength of the EPUs increased from 0.56 to 0.95 kg{sub f}/cm{sup 2}, due to the formation of allophanate and/or biuret bondings. However, as the surfactant (S-A) content was increased from 1.0 to 2.5 pbw, the oil-absorptivity was decreased from 3634 to 3312%, due to the formation of closed cell structures. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanded carrier screening for monogenic disorders: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoshvili, Davit; Vears, Danya; Borry, Pascal

    2017-07-06

    Expanded carrier screening (ECS), which can identify carriers of a large number of recessive disorders in the general population, has grown in popularity and is now widely accessible to prospective parents. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the characteristics of currently available ECS tests. To identify relevant ECS providers, we employed a multi-step approach, which included online searching, review of the recent literature, and consultations with researchers familiar with the current landscape of ECS. As of January 2017, there were 16 providers of ECS tests: 13 commercial companies, 2 medical hospitals, and 1 academic diagnostic laboratory. We observed drastic differences in the characteristics of ECS tests, with the number of conditions ranging from 41 to 1792. Only three conditions (cystic fibrosis, maple syrup urine disease 1b, and Niemann-Pick disease) were screened for by all providers. Where the same disease gene was included by multiple providers, substantial differences existed in the mutations screened and/or variant interpretation/reporting strategies. Given the importance of carrier screening results in reproductive decision-making, the observed heterogeneity across ECS panels is concerning. Efforts should be made to ensure that clear and concrete criteria are in place to guide the development of ECS panels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Spatial Studies of Ion Beams in an Expanding Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Evan; Good, Timothy; Scime, Earl; Thompson, Derek

    2017-10-01

    We report spatially resolved perpendicular and parallel ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) measurements in an expanding argon helicon plasma. The parallel IVDFs, obtained through laser induced fluorescence (LIF), show an ion beam with v 8 km/s flowing downstream that is confined to the center of the discharge. The ion beam is confined to within a few centimeters radially and is measurable for tens of centimeters axially before the LIF signal fades, likely a result of metastable quenching of the beam ions. The axial ion beam velocity slows in agreement with collisional processes. The perpendicular IVDFs show an ion population with a radially outward flow that increases with radial location. The DC electric field, electron temperature, and the plasma density in the double layer plume are all consistent with magnetic field aligned structures. The upstream and downstream electric field measurements show clear evidence of an ion hole that maps along the magnetic field at the edge of the plasma. Current theories and simulations of double layers, which are one-dimensional, completely miss these critically important two-dimensional features.

  18. Adsorption Characteristics of Polyvinyl Alcohols in Solution on Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yan Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite (EG adsorbent was prepared with 50 mesh graphite as raw materials, potassium permanganate as oxidant, and vitriol as intercalation compound. Three kinds of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different degree of polymerization (DP in aqueous solution were used as adsorbates. We have studied the influence of initial PVA concentration, temperature and ionic strength on adsorption capacity. Langmuir constants and Gibbs free energy change (⊿G° were calculated according to experimental data respectively. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the equilibrium adsorbance of PVA on EG increase with the rise of SO42– concentration. Adsorption isotherms of PVA with different degree of polymerization are all types and we deduce PVA molecules lie flat on EG surface. Adsorption processes are all spontaneous. Kinetic studies show that the kinetic data can be described by pseudo second-order kinetic model. Second-order rate constants and the initial adsorption rate rise with the increasing of temperature and half-adsorption time decreases with the increasing of temperature. The adsorption activation energy of each PVA is less than 20 kJ•mol−1, physical adsorption is the major mode of the overall adsorption process.

  19. Health Information Technology: An Expanded Care Coordination in Rural Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S; Green, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    The Expanded Care Coordination through the Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Tennessee was a 3-year initiative implemented by The University of Tennessee Children's Mental Health Services Research Center and the Helen Ross McNabb Center Regional Mental Health System. The program targeted rural adults in the East Tennessee area. This intervention utilized the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST), and AC-COD screening tools. After the initial screening, the appropriate level of intervention was assessed. Clients completed modules on the program's website and met with a clinician for a minimum for four face-to-face meetings. Alcohol use and drug use declined significantly over the course of the program. Alcohol use and outpatient treatment for alcohol and substance abuse declined significantly over the course of the program. There were also significant decreases in days of probations, depression, physical complaints, and violent behaviors. Health information technology is becoming more common in mental health treatment facilities. However, more testing needs to be done with larger samples to assess the efficacy of the program.

  20. Expanding plasmas from anti de Sitter black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Giancarlo [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica Matematica, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We introduce a new foliation of AdS{sub 5} black holes such that the conformal boundary takes the form of a 4-dimensional FLRW spacetime with scale factor a(t). The foliation employs Eddington-Finkelstein-like coordinates and is applicable to a large class of AdS black holes, supported by matter fields or not, considerably extending previous efforts in the literature. We argue that the holographic dual picture of a CFT plasma on a FLRW background provides an interesting prototype to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of expanding plasmas and use holographic renormalization to extract the renormalized energy-momentum tensor of the dual plasma. We illustrate the procedure for three black holes of interest, namely AdS-Schwarzschild, AdS-Gauss-Bonnet, and AdS-Reissner-Nordstroem. For the latter, as a by-product, we show that the nonequilibrium dynamics of a CFT plasma subject to a quench in the chemical potential (i.e., a time-dependent chemical potential) resembles a cosmological evolution with the scale factor a(t) being inversely related to the quench profile μ(t). (orig.)

  1. Frame Creation and Design in the Expanded Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Dorst

    Full Text Available Design-trained people have access to a very broad range of professions. Yet there is something paradoxical about this development: ostensibly, many of these highly successful people have moved out of the field of “design.” This phenomenon deserves deeper consideration: how do design practices spread across society? What key design practices are particularly relevant to the problems of today's society? Should what these people do still be considered design? To answer these questions, first we need to understand various ways that practices can be adopted and adapted from one discipline to the other. Problem framing emerges as a key design practice that can be adopted and adapted to other fields, and one which provides a valuable alternative to conventional types of problem solving. An example will illustrate how this frame creation allows practitioners to approach today's open, complex, dynamic, networked problems in new and fruitful ways. The paper goes on to argue that the practice of frame creation is still part and parcel of the domain of design, and explores how design can develop into an expanded field of practice.

  2. Prediction of fragmentation of an aluminum expanding ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Andrew; Bonora, Nicola; Gentile, Domenico; Iannitti, Gianluca; Testa, Gabriel; di Stefano, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The fragmentation behavior of solid is important in a wide range of industrial and military applications. After Niordson, the electromagnetically launched expanding ring proved a useful technique for investigating tensile fracture and fragmentation at high strain rate and the method was largely exploited by many authors. Recently, Zhang and Ravi-Chandar reported the details of the experimental observations on Al 6061-O. In the present work, two approaches were used for predicting the fragmentation response in these tests. The first is an energy based fragmentation model derived from the Grady's theory. The method, already applied to cold drawn pure copper, adopts the dynamic crack tip opening displacement as the fracture parameter that allows accounting for plastic strain occurring prior fracture. The second is a Continuum Damage Mechanics approach. Numerical simulations of the rings expansion were performed through finite element method taking care to apply proper boundary conditions. The Lorentz force was calculated by imposing the measured currents and providing the inductances values as a function of the ring geometry. To predict the material failure, the Bonora's damage model was applied, considering a statistical variation of material parameters within the rings volume.

  3. Science with the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Gary, Dale E.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Chen, Bin; White, Stephen M.; Hurford, Gordon J.; McTiernan, James; Hickish, Jack; Yu, Sijie; Nelin, Kjell B.

    2017-08-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is a solar-dedicated radio array that makes images and spectra of the full Sun on a daily basis. Our main science goals are to understand the basic physics of solar activity, such as how the Sun releases stored magnetic energy on timescales of seconds, and how that solar activity, in the form of solar flares and coronal mass ejections, influences the Earth and near-Earth space environment, through disruptions of communication and navigation systems, and effects on satellites and systems on the ground. The array, which is composed out of thirteen 2.1 m dishes and two 27 m dishes (used only for calibration), has a footprint of 1.1 km EW x 1.2 km NS and it is capable of producing, every second, microwave images at two polarizations and 500 science channels spanning the 1-18 GHz frequency range. Such ability to make multi-frequency images of the Sun in this broad range of frequencies, with a frequency dependent resolution ranging from ˜53” at 1 GHz to ˜3”at 18 GHz, is unique in the world. Here we present an overview of the EOVSA instrument and a first set of science-quality active region and solar flare images produced from data taken during April 2017.This research is supported by NSF grant AST-1615807 and NASA grant NNX14AK66G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  4. New DEA rules expand options for controlled substance disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug abuse and overdose are rapidly growing problems in the United States. The United States federal Disposal of Controlled Substances Rule became effective 9 October 2014, implementing the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 (Disposal Act). These regulations target escalating prescription drug misuse by reducing accumulation of unused controlled substances that may be abused, diverted or accidentally ingested. Clinical areas that can now participate in collecting unused controlled substances include retail pharmacies, hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy, and narcotic treatment programs. Collection methods include placing a controlled substance collection receptacle or instituting a mail-back program. Because prompt onsite destruction of collected items is required of mail-back programs, collection receptacles are more likely to be used in clinical areas. Retail pharmacies and hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy may also place and maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. The Act and Rule are intended to increase controlled substance disposal methods and expand local involvement in collection of unused controlled substances. Potential barriers to participating in controlled substance collection include acquisition of suitable collection receptacles and liners, lack of available space meeting the necessary criteria, lack of employee time for verification and inventory requirements, and program costs.

  5. Expanding the scope of leadership training in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Stewart

    2014-06-01

    All physicians take a leadership role at some point in their career-some exert influence in their practices and communities as informal leaders, and others hold formal leadership roles to which they are appointed or elected. These formal leadership roles convey power to those individuals who hold such positions. Formal leadership, however, is limited in its influence unless it is accompanied by a series of personal and interpersonal competencies that characterize both formal and informal leaders.Many physicians who do not hold formal leadership roles will be called on to provide (or will wish to provide) informal leadership at various times in their careers. Both formal and informal leaders should be trained in the personal and interpersonal competencies necessary for effective leadership to advance the principles-driven and values-oriented goals inherent in the health care enterprise.In this article, the author defines leadership and describes the characteristics of formal and informal leaders, then discusses the types of leadership and the power derived from different leadership roles. He concludes by arguing in favor of expanding the scope of leadership training to include informal as well as formal leaders.

  6. Rotavirus vaccination within the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheri, L Mapaseka; Page, Nicola A; Mawela, Mothahadini P B; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Steele, A Duncan

    2012-09-07

    Diarrhoeal diseases are ranked the third major cause of childhood mortality in South African children less than 5 years, where the majority of deaths are among black children. Acute severe dehydrating rotavirus diarrhoea remains an important contributor towards childhood mortality and morbidity and has been well documented in South Africa. As the preventive strategy to control rotavirus diarrhoea, South Africa became the first country in the WHO African Region to adopt the rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood immunisation programme in August 2009. The rotavirus vaccine in use, Rotarix, GSK Biologicals, is given at 6 and 14 weeks of age, along with other vaccines as part of Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). Studies which facilitated the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in South Africa included the burden of rotavirus disease and strain surveillance, economic burden of rotavirus infection and clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates. This paper reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus in South Africa, outlines some of the steps followed to introduce rotavirus vaccine in the EPI, and highlights the early positive impact of vaccination in reducing the rotavirus burden of disease based on the post-marketing surveillance studies at Dr George Mukhari hospital, a sentinel site at University of Limpopo teaching hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance for >20 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional evolution of new and expanded attention networks in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gaurav H.; Yang, Danica; Jamerson, Emery C.; Snyder, Lawrence H.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Ferrera, Vincent P.

    2015-01-01

    Macaques are often used as a model system for invasive investigations of the neural substrates of cognition. However, 25 million years of evolution separate humans and macaques from their last common ancestor, and this has likely substantially impacted the function of the cortical networks underlying cognitive processes, such as attention. We examined the homology of frontoparietal networks underlying attention by comparing functional MRI data from macaques and humans performing the same visual search task. Although there are broad similarities, we found fundamental differences between the species. First, humans have more dorsal attention network areas than macaques, indicating that in the course of evolution the human attention system has expanded compared with macaques. Second, potentially homologous areas in the dorsal attention network have markedly different biases toward representing the contralateral hemifield, indicating that the underlying neural architecture of these areas may differ in the most basic of properties, such as receptive field distribution. Third, despite clear evidence of the temporoparietal junction node of the ventral attention network in humans as elicited by this visual search task, we did not find functional evidence of a temporoparietal junction in macaques. None of these differences were the result of differences in training, experimental power, or anatomical variability between the two species. The results of this study indicate that macaque data should be applied to human models of cognition cautiously, and demonstrate how evolution may shape cortical networks. PMID:26170314

  8. The Expanding Role for Retinoid Signaling in Heart Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta L. Hoover

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of retinoid signaling during cardiac development has long been appreciated, but recently has become a rapidly expanding field of research. Experiments performed over 50 years ago showed that too much or too little maternal intake of vitamin A proved detrimental for embryos, resulting in a cadre of predictable cardiac developmental defects. Germline and conditional knockout mice have revealed which molecular players in the vitamin A signaling cascade are potentially responsible for regulating specific developmental events, and many of these molecules have been temporally and spatially characterized. It is evident that intact and controlled retinoid signaling is necessary for each stage of cardiac development to proceed normally, including cardiac lineage determination, heart tube formation, looping, epicardium formation, ventricular maturation, chamber and outflow tract septation, and coronary arteriogenesis. This review summarizes many of the significant milestones in this field and particular attention is given to recently uncovered cross-talk between retinoid signaling and other developmentally significant pathways. It is our hope that this review of the role of retinoid signaling during formation, remodeling, and maturation of the developing heart will serve as a tool for future discoveries.

  9. EXPANDING ENDOPROSTHESIS FOR PEDIATRIC MUSCULOSKELETAL MALIGNANCY: CURRENT CONCEPTS AND RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Lukas M; Morcuende, Jose A

    2010-01-01

    Surgical treatment and reconstruction of a pediatric patient with a bone malignancy should consider many patient and tumor specific factors. Surgical treatment should be geared first and foremost towards obtaining wide margins. To that end the options can include amputation, rotationplasty and prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in adjuvant chemotherapy for musculoskeletal malignancy in pediatric patients has increased acceptance of limb-salvage procedures as a viable option for treatment, whereas limb ablation was formerly the only acceptable means for attaining disease eradication. The advent of the expandable prosthesis has gained significant interest due to the appeal of improved cosmesis and potential for equal limb length at skeletal maturity. The latest generation implants allow for non-invasive lengthening with an outpatient procedure and are generally very well-tolerated by the patient. Review of current literature demonstrates that this procedure has generally good patient reported outcomes but has a high complication rate. Aseptic loosening and mechanical dysfunction are common modes of failure and often necessitate one or more large revision surgeries. Further improvement in implant design and biomaterials may decrease the incidence of these complications and promising work in these areas is ongoing. When discussing this specific option, patients and family should be counseled regarding the likelihood of future surgeries to manage the expected complications. PMID:21045986

  10. Private developer expands pumped-storage project plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    A developer investigating the feasibility of a pumped-storage project on Grant Brook in Essex County, N.Y., is expanding its plans for the venture. Vineyard Road Associates, which already holds a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission preliminary permit for a 75-MW project at that site, has gone back to FERC and asked that the permit be amended to boost the project's capacity to 450 MW. In its application to amend the preliminary permit, Vineyard Road Associates said it wants to increase capacity and change the project's boundaries to encompass greater reservoir sizes. It noted that engineering studies determined the site has greater potential than originally thought. The larger project would produce an average annual generation of 1.3 gigawatt-hours. The closed-loop system will feature a lower pool made from a kettle-hole, left by a retreating glacier, that initially will be filled with ground water or water from Lake Champlain. The project also will include two upper reservoirs, a powerhouse, and a 115-kilovolt transmission line. The developer plans to build the project in stages, with the first stage to generate 200 MW.

  11. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Józef; Błasiak, Przemysław; Kolasiński, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  12. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Józef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  13. Protein recovery from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kerry A; Glatz, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous oil extraction from soybean is a "green" alternative to hexane extraction that must realize potential revenues from a value-added protein co-product. Three technologies were investigated to recover protein from the skim fraction of an aqueous extraction process. Ultrafiltration achieved overall protein yields between 60% and 64%, with solids protein content of 70%, and was effective in reducing stachyose content, with fluxes between 4 and 10 L/m(2) hr. Protein content was limited because of high retention of lipids and the loss of polypeptides below 13.6 kDa. Isoelectric precipitation was effective in recovering the minimally hydrolyzed proteins of skim, with a protein content of 70%, again limited by lipid content. However, protein recovery was only 30% because of the greater solubility of the hydrolyzed proteins. Recovery by the alternative of protein capture on dextran-grafted agarose quaternary-amine expanded bed adsorption resins decreased with decreasing polypeptide molecular weight. Proteins with molecular mass greater than 30 kDa exhibited slow adsorption rates. Expanded bed adsorption was most effective for recovery of proteins with molecular weight between 30 and 12 kDa. Overall, adsorption protein yields were between 14% and 17%.

  14. Engineering ancestral protein hyperstability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, M Luisa; Risso, Valeria A; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2016-10-15

    Many experimental analyses and proposed scenarios support that ancient life was thermophilic. In congruence with this hypothesis, proteins encoded by reconstructed sequences corresponding to ancient phylogenetic nodes often display very high stability. Here, we show that such 'reconstructed ancestral hyperstability' can be further engineered on the basis of a straightforward approach that uses exclusively information afforded by the ancestral reconstruction process itself. Since evolution does not imply continuous progression, screening of the mutations between two evolutionarily related resurrected ancestral proteins may identify mutations that further stabilize the most stable one. To explore this approach, we have used a resurrected thioredoxin corresponding to the last common ancestor of the cyanobacterial, Deinococcus and Thermus groups (LPBCA thioredoxin), which has a denaturation temperature of ∼123°C. This high value is within the top 0.1% of the denaturation temperatures in the ProTherm database and, therefore, achieving further stabilization appears a priori as a challenging task. Nevertheless, experimental comparison with a resurrected thioredoxin corresponding to the last common ancestor of bacteria (denaturation temperature of ∼115°C) immediately identifies three mutations that increase the denaturation temperature of LPBCA thioredoxin to ∼128°C. Comparison between evolutionarily related resurrected ancestral proteins thus emerges as a simple approach to expand the capability of ancestral reconstruction to search sequence space for extreme protein properties of biotechnological interest. The fact that ancestral sequences for many phylogenetic nodes can be derived from a single alignment of modern sequences should contribute to the general applicability of this approach. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Targeting protein-protein interactions for parasite control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Taylor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding new drug targets for pathogenic infections would be of great utility for humanity, as there is a large need to develop new drugs to fight infections due to the developing resistance and side effects of current treatments. Current drug targets for pathogen infections involve only a single protein. However, proteins rarely act in isolation, and the majority of biological processes occur via interactions with other proteins, so protein-protein interactions (PPIs offer a realm of unexplored potential drug targets and are thought to be the next-generation of drug targets. Parasitic worms were chosen for this study because they have deleterious effects on human health, livestock, and plants, costing society billions of dollars annually and many sequenced genomes are available. In this study, we present a computational approach that utilizes whole genomes of 6 parasitic and 1 free-living worm species and 2 hosts. The species were placed in orthologous groups, then binned in species-specific orthologous groups. Proteins that are essential and conserved among species that span a phyla are of greatest value, as they provide foundations for developing broad-control strategies. Two PPI databases were used to find PPIs within the species specific bins. PPIs with unique helminth proteins and helminth proteins with unique features relative to the host, such as indels, were prioritized as drug targets. The PPIs were scored based on RNAi phenotype and homology to the PDB (Protein DataBank. EST data for the various life stages, GO annotation, and druggability were also taken into consideration. Several PPIs emerged from this study as potential drug targets. A few interactions were supported by co-localization of expression in M. incognita (plant parasite and B. malayi (H. sapiens parasite, which have extremely different modes of parasitism. As more genomes of pathogens are sequenced and PPI databases expanded, this methodology will become increasingly

  16. Glucose Recognition Proteins for Glucose Sensing at Physiological Concentrations and Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Joel, Smita; Turner, Kendrick B.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in biotechnology have allowed for the preparation of designer proteins with a wide spectrum of unprecedented chemical and physical properties. A variety of chemical and genetic methods can be employed to tailor the protein?s properties, including its stability and various functions. Herein, we demonstrate the production of semisynthetic glucose recognition proteins (GRPs) prepared by truncating galactose/glucose binding protein (GBP) of E. coli and expanding the genetic code via ...

  17. Functional Analysis of Serially Expanded Human iPS Cell-Derived RPE Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchira; Phillips, M. Joseph; Kuai, David; Meyer, Jackelyn; Martin, Jessica M.; Smith, Molly A.; Perez, Enio T.; Shen, Wei; Wallace, Kyle A.; Capowski, Elizabeth E.; Wright, Lynda S.; Gamm, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effects of serial expansion on the cellular, molecular, and functional properties of human iPS cell (hiPSC)-derived RPE cultures. Methods. Fibroblasts obtained from four individuals were reprogrammed into hiPSCs and differentiated to RPE cells using previously described methods. Patches of deeply pigmented hiPSC-RPE were dissected, dissociated, and grown in culture until they re-formed pigmented monolayers. Subsequent passages were obtained by repeated dissociation, expansion, and maturation of RPE into pigmented monolayers. Gene and protein expression profiles and morphological and functional characteristics of hiPSC-RPE at different passages were compared with each other and to human fetal RPE (hfRPE). Results. RPE from all four hiPSC lines could be expanded more than 1000-fold when serially passaged as pigmented monolayer cultures. Importantly, expansion of hiPSC-RPE monolayers over the first three passages (P1–P3) resulted in decreased expression of pluripotency and neuroretinal markers and maintenance of characteristic morphological features and gene and protein expression profiles. Furthermore, P1 to P3 hiPSC-RPE monolayers reliably demonstrated functional tight junctions, G-protein–coupled receptor-mediated calcium transients, phagocytosis and degradation of photoreceptor outer segments, and polarized secretion of biomolecules. In contrast, P4 hiPSC-RPE cells failed to form monolayers and possessed altered morphological and functional characteristics and gene expression levels. Conclusions. Highly differentiated, pigmented hiPSC-RPE monolayers can undergo limited serial expansion while retaining key cytological and functional attributes. However, passaging hiPSC-RPE cultures beyond senescence leads to loss of such features. Our findings support limited, controlled passaging of patient-specific hiPSC-RPE to procure cells needed for in vitro disease modeling, drug screening, and cellular transplantation. PMID:24030465

  18. An expanded inventory of conserved meiotic genes provides evidence for sex in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehre-Banoo Malik

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a defining feature of eukaryotes but its phylogenetic distribution has not been broadly determined, especially among eukaryotic microorganisms (i.e. protists-which represent the majority of eukaryotic 'supergroups'. We surveyed genomes of animals, fungi, plants and protists for meiotic genes, focusing on the evolutionarily divergent parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. We identified homologs of 29 components of the meiotic recombination machinery, as well as the synaptonemal and meiotic sister chromatid cohesion complexes. T. vaginalis has orthologs of 27 of 29 meiotic genes, including eight of nine genes that encode meiosis-specific proteins in model organisms. Although meiosis has not been observed in T. vaginalis, our findings suggest it is either currently sexual or a recent asexual, consistent with observed, albeit unusual, sexual cycles in their distant parabasalid relatives, the hypermastigotes. T. vaginalis may use meiotic gene homologs to mediate homologous recombination and genetic exchange. Overall, this expanded inventory of meiotic genes forms a useful "meiosis detection toolkit". Our analyses indicate that these meiotic genes arose, or were already present, early in eukaryotic evolution; thus, the eukaryotic cenancestor contained most or all components of this set and was likely capable of performing meiotic recombination using near-universal meiotic machinery.

  19. Expanding Role of T Cells in Human Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Pilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is being increasingly recognized that a dysregulation of the immune system plays a vital role in neurological disorders and shapes the treatment of the disease. Aberrant T cell responses, in particular, are key in driving autoimmunity and have been traditionally associated with multiple sclerosis. Yet, it is evident that there are other neurological diseases in which autoreactive T cells have an active role in pathogenesis. In this review, we report on the recent progress in profiling and assessing the functionality of autoreactive T cells in central nervous system (CNS autoimmune disorders that are currently postulated to be primarily T cell driven. We also explore the autoreactive T cell response in a recently emerging group of syndromes characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins. Common methodology implemented in T cell biology is further considered as it is an important determinant in their detection and characterization. An improved understanding of the contribution of autoreactive T cells expands our knowledge of the autoimmune response in CNS disorders and can offer novel methods of therapeutic intervention.

  20. Expanded breadth of the T-cell response to mosaic HIV-1 envelope DNA vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fischer, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallstrom, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    An effective AIDS vaccine must control highly diverse circulating strains of HIV-1. Among HIV -I gene products, the envelope (Env) protein contains variable as well as conserved regions. In this report, an informatic approach to the design of T-cell vaccines directed to HIV -I Env M group global sequences was tested. Synthetic Env antigens were designed to express mosaics that maximize the inclusion of common potential Tcell epitope (PTE) 9-mers and minimize the inclusion of rare epitopes likely to elicit strain-specific responses. DNA vaccines were evaluated using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in inbred mice with a standardized panel of highly conserved 15-mer PTE peptides. I, 2 and 3 mosaic sets were developed that increased theoretical epitope coverage. The breadth and magnitude ofT-cell immunity stimulated by these vaccines were compared to natural strain Env's; additional comparisons were performed on mutant Env's, including gpl60 or gpl45 with or without V regions and gp41 deletions. Among them, the 2 or 3 mosaic Env sets elicited the optimal CD4 and CD8 responses. These responses were most evident in CD8 T cells; the 3 mosaic set elicited responses to an average of 8 peptide pools compared to 2 pools for a set of3 natural Env's. Synthetic mosaic HIV -I antigens can therefore induce T-cell responses with expanded breadth and may facilitate the development of effective T -cell-based HIV -1 vaccines.