WorldWideScience

Sample records for expanding comparative analysis

  1. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) System: An Expanding Comparative Analysis Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Chen, I-Min A.; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Anderson, Iain; Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-09-13

    The integrated microbial genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG contains both draft and complete microbial genomes integrated with other publicly available genomes from all three domains of life, together with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. Since its first release in 2005, IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been constantly expanded through regular releases. Several companion IMG systems have been set up in order to serve domain specific needs, such as expert review of genome annotations. IMG is available at .

  2. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants.

  3. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jianan; Lin, Haiyan; Wang, Kunbo; Cheng, Xiaomei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-18

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants.

  4. Diagnosis of asbestosis by a time expanded wave form analysis, auscultation and high resolution computed tomography: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Jarad, N; Strickland, B; Bothamley, G; Lock, S; Logan-Sinclair, R; Rudd, R M

    1993-04-01

    Crackles are a prominent clinical feature of asbestosis and may be an early sign of the condition. Auscultation, however, is subjective and interexaminer disagreement is a problem. Computerised lung sound analysis can visualise, store, and analyse lung sounds and disagreement on the presence of crackles is minimal. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior to chest radiography in detecting early signs of asbestosis. The aim of this study was to compare clinical auscultation, time expanded wave form analysis (TEW), chest radiography, and HRCT in detecting signs of asbestosis in asbestos workers. Fifty three asbestos workers (51 men and two women) were investigated. Chest radiography and HRCT were assessed by two independent readers for detection of interstitial opacities. HRCT was performed in the supine position with additional sections at the bases in the prone position. Auscultation for persistent fine inspiratory crackles was performed by two independent examiners unacquainted with the diagnosis. TEW analysis was obtained from a 33 second recording of lung sounds over the lung bases. TEW and auscultation were performed in a control group of 13 subjects who had a normal chest radiograph. There were 10 current smokers and three previous smokers. In asbestos workers the extent of pulmonary opacities on the chest radiograph was scored according to the International Labour Office (ILO) scale. Patients were divided into two groups: 21 patients in whom the chest radiograph was > 1/0 (group 1) and 32 patients in whom the chest radiograph was scored 1/0 auscultation and TEW revealed mid to late inspiratory crackles in all patients, whereas HRCT revealed gravity dependent subpleural lines in one patient and signs of definite interstitial fibrosis in the rest. In normal subjects crackles different from those detected in asbestosis were detected by TEW in three subjects but only in one subject by auscultation. These were early, fine inspiratory crackles. Mid to

  5. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  6. Lung crackle characteristics in patients with asbestosis, asbestos-related pleural disease and left ventricular failure using a time-expanded waveform analysis--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Jarad, N; Davies, S W; Logan-Sinclair, R; Rudd, R M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate lung crackle characteristics by time-expanded waveform (TEW) analysis in patients with asbestosis (AS), asbestos-related pleural disease (ARPD) and left ventricular failure (LVF). TEW was performed on a 33 s recording from each of 40 patients (12 AS, 17 ARPD and 11 LVF). They were 38 men and two women. Crackles on TEW were counted during inspiration and expiration, and the timing of clusters of crackles with respect to inspiration and expiration was noted. A total of 1117 crackles were identified. The initial deflection width (IDW) and the two cycle duration (2CD) were calculated for all crackles within one respiratory cycle for each patient (total of 298 crackles). Crackles were detected by TEW in all patients with AS, in seven patients with ARPD and in nine patients with LVF. Crackles in AS were mainly fine, mid- to late-inspiratory. Crackles in LVF took three patterns; in the first there were repetitive mid- to late inspiratory crackles similar to those seen in AS except that the crackles in LVF tended to be medium and coarse as well as fine (three patients); in the second crackles started early in inspiration followed by a crackle-free period then by another cluster of crackles lasting to the end of inspiration and to the early third of expiration (four patients) and in the third there were repetitive expiratory crackles with no or few inspiratory crackles (two patients). Crackles in ARPD generally took the configuration of fine crackles but another type of crackle preceded by a sharp deflection followed by an M-shape oscillation then by the largest oscillation was also found. IDW and 2CD for inspiratory crackles in ARPD were shorter than those in AS and LVF (for IDW P < 0.009 and P < 0.003 compared with AS and LVF respectively and for 2CD, P < 0.006 and P < 0.003 compared with AS and LVF respectively). IDW and 2CD in AS tended to be shorter than these for LVF but these results did not reach statistical significance. It

  7. Comparative analysis of adherence, viability, proliferation and morphology of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on different titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffolds

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    Hollweck, Trixi; Marschmann, Michaela; Hartmann, Isabel; Akra, Bassil; Meiser, Bruno; Reichart, Bruno; Eissner, Guenther [Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich, E-mail: Guenther.Eissner@med.uni-muenchen.d [Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Umbilical cord tissue comprises an attractive new source for mesenchymal stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) exhibit self-renewal, multipotency and immunological naivity, and they can be obtained without medical intervention. The transfer of UCMSC to the ischemic region of the heart may have a favorable impact on tissue regeneration. Benefit from typical cell delivery by injection to the infarcted area is often limited due to poor cell retention and survival. Another route of administration is to use populated scaffolds implanted into the infarcted zone. In this paper, the seeding efficiency of UCMSC on uncoated and titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffolds with different surface structures was determined. Dualmesh (registered) (DM) offers a corduroy-like surface in contrast to the comparatively planar surface of cardiovascular patch (CVP). The investigation of adherence, viability and proliferation of UCMSC demonstrates that titanium-coated scaffolds are superior to uncoated scaffolds, independent of the surface structure. Microscopic images reveal spherical UCMSC seeded on uncoated scaffolds. In contrast, UCMSC on titanium-coated scaffolds display their characteristic spindle-shaped morphology and a homogeneous coverage of CVP. In summary, titanium coating of clinically approved CVP enhances the retention of UCMSC and thus offers a potential cell delivery system for the repair of the damaged myocardium.

  8. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

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    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  9. Web Content Analysis: Expanding the Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.

    Are established methods of content analysis (CA) adequate to analyze web content, or should new methods be devised to address new technological developments? This article addresses this question by contrasting narrow and broad interpretations of the concept of web content analysis. The utility of a broad interpretation that subsumes the narrow one is then illustrated with reference to research on weblogs (blogs), a popular web format in which features of HTML documents and interactive computer-mediated communication converge. The article concludes by proposing an expanded Web Content Analysis (WebCA) paradigm in which insights from paradigms such as discourse analysis and social network analysis are operationalized and implemented within a general content analytic framework.

  10. Do expanded seven-day NHS services improve clinical outcomes? Analysis of comparative institutional performance from the "NHS Services, Seven Days a Week" project 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Hoong-Wei; Wong, Danny Jon Nian; Dean, Benjamin John Floyd; Hall, Alistair Scott

    2017-08-10

    The cause of adverse weekend clinical outcomes remains unknown. In 2013, the "NHS Services, Seven Days a Week" project was initiated to improve access to services across the seven-day week. Three years on, we sought to analyse the impact of such changes across the English NHS. Aggregated trust-level data on crude mortality rates, Summary Hospital-Level Mortality Indicator (SHMI), mean length of stay (LOS), A&E admission and four-hour breach rates were obtained from national Hospital Episode Statistics and A&E datasets across the English NHS, excluding mental and community health trusts. Trust annual reports were analysed to determine the presence of any seven-day service reorganisation in 2013-2014. Funnel plots were generated to compare institutional performance and a difference in differences analysis was performed to determine the impact of seven-day changes on clinical outcomes between 2013 and 2014, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Data was summarised as mean (SD). Of 159 NHS trusts, 79 (49.7%) instituted seven-day changes in 2013-2014. Crude mortality rates, A&E admission rates and mean LOS remained relatively stable between 2013 and 2016, whilst A&E four-hour breach rates nearly doubled from 5.3 to 9.7%. From 2013 to 2014 to 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, there were no significant differences in the change in crude mortality (2014-2015 p = 0.8, 2015-2016 p = 0.9), SHMI (2014-2015 p = 0.5, 2015-2016 p = 0.5), mean LOS (2014-2015 p = 0.5, 2015-2016 p = 0.4), A&E admission (2014-2015 p = 0.6, 2015-2016 p = 1.0) or four-hour breach rates (2014-2015 p = 0.06, 2015-2016 p = 0.6) between trusts that had implemented seven-day changes compared to those which had not. Adverse weekend clinical outcomes may not be ameliorated by large scale reorganisations aimed at improving access to health services across the week. Such changes may negatively impact care quality without additional financial investment, as demonstrated by worsening of some outcomes. Detailed

  11. Analysis of Lunar Highland Regolith Samples from Apollo 16 Drive Core 64001/2 and Lunar Regolith Simulants - An Expanding Comparative Database

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    Schrader, Christian M.; Rickman, Doug; Stoeser, Doug; Wentworth, Susan J.; Botha, Pieter WSK; Butcher, Alan R.; McKay, David; Horsch, Hanna; Benedictus, Aukje; Gottlieb, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We present modal data from QEMSCAN(registered TradeMark) beam analysis of Apollo 16 samples from drive core 64001/2. The analyzed lunar samples are thin sections 64002,6019 (5.0-8.0 cm depth) and 64001,6031 (50.0-53.1 cm depth) and sieved grain mounts 64002,262 and 64001,374 from depths corresponding to the thin sections, respectively. We also analyzed lunar highland regolith simulants NU-LHT-1M, -2M, and OB-1, low-Ti mare simulants JSC-1, -lA, -1AF, and FJS-1, and high-Ti mare simulant MLS-1. The preliminary results comprise the beginning of an internally consistent database of lunar regolith and regolith simulant mineral and glass information. This database, combined with previous and concurrent studies on phase chemistry, bulk chemistry, and with data on particle shape and size distribution, will serve to guide lunar scientists and engineers in choosing simulants for their applications. These results are modal% by phase rather than by particle type, so they are not directly comparable to most previously published lunar data that report lithic fragments, monomineralic particles, agglutinates, etc. Of the highland simulants, 08-1 has an integrated modal composition closer than NU-LHT-1M to that of the 64001/2 samples, However, this and other studies show that NU-LHT-1M and -2M have minor and trace mineral (e.g., Fe-Ti oxides and phosphates) populations and mineral and glass chemistry closer to these lunar samples. The finest fractions (0-20 microns) in the sieved lunar samples are enriched in glass relative to the integrated compositions by approx.30% for 64002,262 and approx.15% for 64001,374. Plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine are depleted in these finest fractions. This could be important to lunar dust mitigation efforts and astronaut health - none of the analyzed simulants show this trend. Contrary to previously reported modal analyses of monomineralic grains in lunar regolith, these area% modal analyses do not show a systematic increase in plagiociase

  12. Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    USAARL Report No. 2015-08 Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression By Mark S. Adams Frederick Brozoski Katie...13 iv This page is intentionally left blank. 1 Introduction Expanded bead polystyrene (EPS) is widely...steep rise in the stress-strain curve and little or no energy attenuation. When compressive stresses are removed, EPS foam will partially re- expand

  13. Comparative analysis of the predicted secretomes of Rosaceae scab pathogens Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina reveals expanded effector families and putative determinants of host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cecilia H; Plummer, Kim M; Jones, Darcy A B; Mesarich, Carl H; Shiller, Jason; Taranto, Adam P; Robinson, Andrew J; Kastner, Patrick; Hall, Nathan E; Templeton, Matthew D; Bowen, Joanna K

    2017-05-02

    Fungal plant pathogens belonging to the genus Venturia cause damaging scab diseases of members of the Rosaceae. In terms of economic impact, the most important of these are V. inaequalis, which infects apple, and V. pirina, which is a pathogen of European pear. Given that Venturia fungi colonise the sub-cuticular space without penetrating plant cells, it is assumed that effectors that contribute to virulence and determination of host range will be secreted into this plant-pathogen interface. Thus the predicted secretomes of a range of isolates of Venturia with distinct host-ranges were interrogated to reveal putative proteins involved in virulence and pathogenicity. Genomes of Venturia pirina (one European pear scab isolate) and Venturia inaequalis (three apple scab, and one loquat scab, isolates) were sequenced and the predicted secretomes of each isolate identified. RNA-Seq was conducted on the apple-specific V. inaequalis isolate Vi1 (in vitro and infected apple leaves) to highlight virulence and pathogenicity components of the secretome. Genes encoding over 600 small secreted proteins (candidate effectors) were identified, most of which are novel to Venturia, with expansion of putative effector families a feature of the genus. Numerous genes with similarity to Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm6 and the Verticillium spp. Ave1 were identified. Candidates for avirulence effectors with cognate resistance genes involved in race-cultivar specificity were identified, as were putative proteins involved in host-species determination. Candidate effectors were found, on average, to be in regions of relatively low gene-density and in closer proximity to repeats (e.g. transposable elements), compared with core eukaryotic genes. Comparative secretomics has revealed candidate effectors from Venturia fungal plant pathogens that attack pome fruit. Effectors that are putative determinants of host range were identified; both those that may be involved in race-cultivar and host

  14. Analysis of a Low-Angle Annular Expander Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyll Schomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of a low-angle annular expander nozzle is presented to observe the variance in shock structure within the flow field. A RANS-based axisymmetric numerical model was used to evaluate flow characteristics and the model validated using experimental pressure readings and schlieren images. Results were compared with an equivalent converging-diverging nozzle to determine the capability of the wake region in varying the effective area of a low-angle design. Comparison of schlieren images confirmed that shock closure occurred in the expander nozzle, prohibiting the wake region from affecting the area ratio. The findings show that a low angle of deflection is inherently unable to influence the effective area of an annular supersonic nozzle design.

  15. Pronounced biomaterial dependency in cartilage regeneration using nonexpanded compared with expanded chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuchida, A.I.; Bekkers, J.E.J.; Beekhuizen, M.; Vonk, L.A.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Creemers, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate freshly isolated compared with culture-expanded chondrocytes with respect to early regenerative response, cytokine production and cartilage formation in response to four commonly used biomaterials. Materials & methods: Chondrocytes were both directly and after expansion to

  16. [Latex covering and mechanical analysis of balloon expandable stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; von Segesser, L K; Carrel, T; Turina, M

    1996-01-01

    To the moment a few stents of metallic coils or meshes are available with a sealing coverage. In the present study balloon-expandable stents have been covered with a thin layer of natural rubber latex. The physical properties of these impervious stents were compared to the conventional stents. The expansion, the loss of expansion and the deformity during and after balloon inflation have been analyzed. In the pressure zone of 4-6 bar the mechanical characteristics of the impervious stents were similar to the conventional stents. The stents were expanded at 100% related on the balloon diameter used for expansion. Additional pressure of 1 bar was necessary to expand the impervious stents. At balloon pressure below 4 bar the stents tied the balloons in the midzone. The impervious stents, expanded at 6, 8 and 10mm, underwent a loss of expansion of 10% after withdrawal of the balloons. Their configuration was barrel-shaped (4% central enlargement) due to the latex rubber, constricting the wire meshes at both ends. These preliminary results are encouraging and allow further investigations.

  17. Expanding Comparative Literature into Comparative Sciences Clusters with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By using Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, the expansions of comparative literature include: comparative social sciences clusters, comparative natural sciences clusters, comparative interdisciplinary sciences clusters, and so on. Among them, comparative social sciences clusters include: comparative literature, comparative history, comparative philosophy, and so on; comparative natural sciences clusters include: comparative mathematics, comparative physics, comparative chemistry, comparative medicine, comparative biology, and so on.

  18. Expanding exergy analysis to account for ecosystem products and services.

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    Hau, Jorge L; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2004-07-01

    Exergy analysis is a thermodynamic approach used for analyzing and improving the efficiency of chemical and thermal processes. It has also been extended for life cycle assessment and sustainability evaluation of industrial products and processes. Although these extensions recognize the importance of capital and labor inputs and environmental impact, most of them ignore the crucial role that ecosystems play in sustaining all industrial activity. Decisions based on approaches that take nature for granted continue to cause significant deterioration in the ability of ecosystems to provide goods and services that are essential for every human activity. Accounting for nature's contribution is also important for determining the impact and sustainablility of industrial activity. In contrast, emergy analysis, a thermodynamic method from systems ecology, does account for ecosystems, but has encountered a lot of resistance and criticism, particularly from economists, physicists, and engineers. This paper expands the engineering concept of Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CEC) analysis to include the contribution of ecosystems, which leads to the concept of Ecological Cumulative Exergy Consumption (ECEC). Practical challenges in computing ECEC for industrial processes are identified and a formal algorithm based on network algebra is proposed. ECEC is shown to be closely related to emergy, and both concepts become equivalent if the analysis boundary, allocation method, and approach for combining global energy inputs are identical. This insight permits combination of the best features of emergy and exergy analysis, and shows that most of the controversial aspects of emergy analysis need not hinder its use for including the exergetic contribution of ecosystems. Examples illustrate the approach and highlight the potential benefits of accounting for nature's contribution to industrial activity.

  19. Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanenberg, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

  20. Comparative study between kidney transplantation with deceased donor expanded criteria and donor standard criteria in a single center in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Luana Soriano; Oliveira, Claudia Maria Costa de; Pinheiro, Francisco Martho Leal; Santos, Larissa Costa de Oliveira; Nóbrega, Danilo Gonçalves; Fernandes, Paula Fbc; Costa, Alda Angélica de Melo; Silva, Sônia Leite da

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplants with expanded criteria donor have been associated with improved patient survival compared to those who remain on dialysis. To compare renal function and survival of the kidney graft of deceased donor with expanded criteria and standard criteria over a year in a single transplant center. 255 kidney transplant recipients with deceased donor were included in the study between the years 2011 to 2013 and they were separated into two groups according to the type of donor (expanded criteria donor - ECD - and standard criteria donor - SCD). 231 deceased donor transplants (90.6%) were performed with standard criteria donor (SCD) and 24 (9.4%) with expanded criteria donor (ECD). There was no difference in the prevalence of delayed graft function - DGF - (62.9% vs. 70.8%; p = 0.44). Expanded criteria donor group had lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the end of the 1st year (56.8 ± 26.9 vs. 76.9 ± 23.7; p = 0.001). Patient survival was significantly lower in the ECD group, but the graft survival was not different after death-censored analysis. The ECD group was associated with significantly lower levels of GFR during the first year of transplant and a lower patient survival at the 1st year when compared to the SCD. A aceitação dos rins com critério expandido de doação tem sido associada com melhor sobrevida do paciente em comparação àqueles que permanecem em terapia dialítica. Comparar a função renal e a sobrevida do enxerto renal de doador falecido critério expandido com os de doador falecido critério padrão ao longo de um ano em um único centro de transplantes. Foram incluídos 255 receptores de transplante renal com doador falecido, realizados entre os anos de 2011 a 2013, sendo divididos em dois grupos segundo o tipo de doador (critério expandido - DCE - ou padrão -DCP). Foram avaliados 231 receptores com doador critério ideal (90,6%) e 24 com doador critério expandido (9,4%). Não houve diferença na prevalência de fun

  1. Multiscale analysis of structure development in expanded starch snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sman, R. G. M.; Broeze, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we perform a multiscale analysis of the food structuring process of the expansion of starchy snack foods like keropok, which obtains a solid foam structure. In particular, we want to investigate the validity of the hypothesis of Kokini and coworkers, that expansion is optimal at the moisture content, where the glass transition and the boiling line intersect. In our analysis we make use of several tools, (1) time scale analysis from the field of physical transport phenomena, (2) the scale separation map (SSM) developed within a multiscale simulation framework of complex automata, (3) the supplemented state diagram (SSD), depicting phase transition and glass transition lines, and (4) a multiscale simulation model for the bubble expansion. Results of the time scale analysis are plotted in the SSD, and give insight into the dominant physical processes involved in expansion. Furthermore, the results of the time scale analysis are used to construct the SSM, which has aided us in the construction of the multiscale simulation model. Simulation results are plotted in the SSD. This clearly shows that the hypothesis of Kokini is qualitatively true, but has to be refined. Our results show that bubble expansion is optimal for moisture content, where the boiling line for gas pressure of 4 bars intersects the isoviscosity line of the critical viscosity 106 Pa.s, which runs parallel to the glass transition line.

  2. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we explore energy storage and the role it is playing and could potentially play in increasing grid flexibility and renewable energy integration. We explore energy storage as one building block for a more flexible power system, policy and R and D as drivers of energy storage deployment, methods for valuing energy storage in grid applications, ways that energy storage supports renewable integration, and emerging opportunities for energy storage in the electric grid.

  3. Multiscale analysis of structure development in expanded starch snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Broeze, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we perform a multiscale analysis of the food structuring process of the expansion of starchy snack foods like keropok, which obtains a solid foam structure. In particular, we want to investigate the validity of the hypothesis of Kokini and coworkers, that expansion is optimal at the

  4. Linear stability analysis of the Noh expanding-shock solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Taylor, B. D.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The self-similar one-dimensional (1D) solution of the Noh problem has been used for verification of every code designed to model implosions, explosions and shock waves. The long experience of successful verification of two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) hydrocodes against the 1D Noh solution is an implicit confirmation of its hydrodynamic stability. Still, as far as we know, stability analysis of the Noh solution has never been done. Here, such analysis is reported for spherical and cylindrical geometry assuming small-amplitude perturbations. In either case stability of the Noh solution has been demonstrated, all initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time. The dispersion equation determining the complex eigenvalues of the problem, i. e. the power indices characteristic of this decay, has been derived. Its numerical solution is presented, and the particular and limiting cases when the eigenvalues can be calculated analytically are outlined. Explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented. The opportunities of using these new exact solutions for verification of hydrocodes in 2D and 3D are discussed. Work supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and by the US DOE/NNSA.

  5. A comparative study of the removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions by bentonite and expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakir, Achraf; Bessiere, Jacques; Kacemi, Kacem E L; Marouf, Bouchaïb

    2002-11-11

    Local bentonite and expanded perlite (Morocco) have been characterised and used for the removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The kinetic study had showed that the uptake of Cr(III) by bentonite is very rapid compared to expanded perlite. To calculate the sorption capacities of the two sorbents, at different pH, the experimental data points have been fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir models, respectively, for bentonite and expanded perlite. For both sorbents the sorption capacity increases with increasing the pH of the suspensions. The removal efficiency has been calculated for both sorbents resulting that bentonite (96% of Cr(III) was removed) is more effective in removing trivalent chromium from aqueous solution than expanded perlite (40% of Cr(III) was removed). In the absence of Cr(III) ions, both bentonite and expanded perlite samples yield negative zeta potential in the pH range of 2-11. The changes of expanded perlite charge, from negative to positive, observed after contact with trivalent chromium(III) solutions was related to Cr(III) sorption on the surface of the solid. Thus, it was concluded that surface complexation plays an important role in the sorption of Cr(III) species on expanded perlite. In the case of bentonite, cation-exchange is the predominate mechanism for sorption of trivalent chromium ions, wherefore no net changes of zeta potential was observed after Cr(III) sorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, at different pH values, were also made to corroborate the zeta potential results.

  6. Analysis of a rotating spool expander for Organic Rankine Cycle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Abhinav

    between the design expansion ratio and the system imposed pressure ratio has a large influence on the performance of the expander. Further exploration shows that from an operating perspective, under-expansion is preferable to over-expansion. The model is also able to provide insight on the dominant leakage paths in the expander and points to the fact that this is the primary loss mechanism in the current expander. Similar insights are obtained from assessing the sensitivity of various other design variables on expander performance. Based on the understanding provided by the sensitivity analysis, exercising the validated model showed that expander efficiencies on the order of 75% are imminently possible in an improved design. Therefore, with sufficient future development, adoption of the spool expander in ORC systems that span a 50 kW -- 200 kW range is broadly feasible.

  7. Dermal Autograft Using Donor Breast as Alternative to Acellular Dermal Matrices in Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, William Darden; Kubajak, Christopher S; St Martin, Brad; Rinker, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Shifting preference for implant-based breast reconstruction has resulted in an increased use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in tissue-expander breast reconstruction. The benefits afforded by ADM must be weighed against a potential increased risk for postoperative complications. Dermal autograft-assisted breast reconstruction using autograft harvest from the lower abdomen has been shown to result in equivalent aesthetics and patient satisfaction compared with ADM at a lower cost, with fewer complications. The purpose of this study was to review a series of patients who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate dermal autograft-assisted tissue expander (TE) breast reconstruction using the non-cancerous breast as a donor site, comparing the outcomes with a concurrent cohort of patients undergoing ADM-assisted reconstruction to determine the relative safety, cost, and effectiveness of the 2 procedures. The study population included all patients who underwent dermal autograft-assisted TE breast reconstruction, using the contralateral cancer-free breast as the source of dermal autograft, between 2010 and 2015. The ADM cohort consisted of patients who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate ADM-assisted TE breast reconstruction during the same period. Univariate analysis was performed for demographic data, complications, operative cost, and operative time. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for nonparametric data and χ analyses for continuous and categorical variables. Significance was defined as P value less than 0.05. Seventeen patients received dermal autograft using the non-cancerous breast donor site. Twenty-seven patients who underwent ADM-assisted reconstruction during the same period were identified. Significantly higher cost was demonstrated between groups (ADM, US $9999.87; autograft, US $3924.19; P autograft, 97 min; ADM, 120 min). No difference was found in wound healing complications (ADM, 14.8%; autograft, 23.53%; P = 0.47). No

  8. The self-expanding Symetis Acurate does not increase cerebral microembolic load when compared to the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien prosthesis: a transcranial Doppler study in patients undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Erdoes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify potential differences in count, frequency and pattern of high-intensity transient signals (HITS during transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI, by comparing the Symetis Acurate TA (SA with the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien XT (ES system. BACKGROUND: Recently, the Symetis Acurate TA revalving system has been introduced for TA-TAVI. The Symetis Acurate TA aortic bioprosthesis is self-expanding and is deployed by a specific two-step implantation technique. Whether this novel method increases the load of intraprocedural emboli, detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD as HITS, or not is not clear. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (n = 11 in each study arm, median logistic EuroScore 20%, median STS score 7% displayed continuous TCD signals of good quality throughout the entire TA-TAVI procedure and were included in the final analysis. Data are presented as median with interquartile ranges. RESULTS: No significant differences were detected in total procedural or interval-related HITS load (SA: 303 [200; 594], ES: 499 [285; 941]; p = 0.16. With both devices, HITS peaked during prosthesis deployment (PD, whereas significantly fewer HITS occurred during instrumentation (SA: p = 0.002; ES: < 0.001 or post-implantation PI (SA: p = 0.007; ES: < 0.001. PD-associated HITS amounted to almost half of the total HITS load. One patient suffered new disabling stroke at 30 days. Thirty-day mortality amounted to 13.6% (3 of 22 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified transapical delivery using the self-expanding SA device does not increase HITS, despite of a two-step deployment technique with more interactions with the native aortic valve, when compared to the balloon-expandable ES valve. The similarity in HITS count, frequency and pattern with the two systems suggests a common mechanism for the release of cerebral microemboli.

  9. The self-expanding Symetis Acurate does not increase cerebral microembolic load when compared to the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien prosthesis: a transcranial Doppler study in patients undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoes, Gabor; Huber, Christoph; Basciani, Reto; Stortecky, Stefan; Windecker, Stephan; Wenaweser, Peter; Carrel, Thierry; Eberle, Balthasar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify potential differences in count, frequency and pattern of high-intensity transient signals (HITS) during transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI), by comparing the Symetis Acurate TA (SA) with the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien XT (ES) system. Recently, the Symetis Acurate TA revalving system has been introduced for TA-TAVI. The Symetis Acurate TA aortic bioprosthesis is self-expanding and is deployed by a specific two-step implantation technique. Whether this novel method increases the load of intraprocedural emboli, detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) as HITS, or not is not clear. Twenty-two patients (n = 11 in each study arm, median logistic EuroScore 20%, median STS score 7%) displayed continuous TCD signals of good quality throughout the entire TA-TAVI procedure and were included in the final analysis. Data are presented as median with interquartile ranges. No significant differences were detected in total procedural or interval-related HITS load (SA: 303 [200; 594], ES: 499 [285; 941]; p = 0.16). With both devices, HITS peaked during prosthesis deployment (PD), whereas significantly fewer HITS occurred during instrumentation (SA: p = 0.002; ES: < 0.001) or post-implantation PI (SA: p = 0.007; ES: < 0.001). PD-associated HITS amounted to almost half of the total HITS load. One patient suffered new disabling stroke at 30 days. Thirty-day mortality amounted to 13.6% (3 of 22 patients). Simplified transapical delivery using the self-expanding SA device does not increase HITS, despite of a two-step deployment technique with more interactions with the native aortic valve, when compared to the balloon-expandable ES valve. The similarity in HITS count, frequency and pattern with the two systems suggests a common mechanism for the release of cerebral microemboli.

  10. Expanded Capabilities for the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc; Penev, Michael

    2016-06-08

    This presentation describes how NREL expanded the capabilities for the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) in FY16. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 8, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  11. Comparative study of organovermiculites using natural and expanded vermiculite; Estudo comparativo de organovermiculitas utilizando vermiculita natural e expandida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea, L.S.; Hudson, A.B.; Francisco, K.S.; Romualdo, R.M.; Gelmires, A.N.; Lisiane, N.L.S., E-mail: dea_lopes@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Organovermiculites were obtained using vermiculite clay in its natural state and expanded in order to use these new materials in the adsorption of organic contaminants from water. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were performed to obtain confirmation of these organovermiculites. Foster swelling and sorption tests were used to test the compatibility between the treated clay and organic solvents. The organophilization process has provided an increase in basal distance of vermiculite and it was observed an expressive increase in distance between the clay layers. The organovermiculite showed adsorption capacity by organic solvents tested, the best results were observed for diesel oil. (author)

  12. Ten years of maintaining and expanding a microbial genome and metagenome analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Victor M; Chen, I-Min A; Chu, Ken; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-11-01

    Launched in March 2005, the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system is a comprehensive data management system that supports multidimensional comparative analysis of genomic data. At the core of the IMG system is a data warehouse that contains genome and metagenome datasets sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute or provided by scientific users, as well as public genome datasets available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information Genbank sequence data archive. Genomes and metagenome datasets are processed using IMG's microbial genome and metagenome sequence data processing pipelines and are integrated into the data warehouse using IMG's data integration toolkits. Microbial genome and metagenome application specific data marts and user interfaces provide access to different subsets of IMG's data and analysis toolkits. This review article revisits IMG's original aims, highlights key milestones reached by the system during the past 10 years, and discusses the main challenges faced by a rapidly expanding system, in particular the complexity of maintaining such a system in an academic setting with limited budgets and computing and data management infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Series Cushioning System Made with Expanded Polyethylene and Corrugated Paperboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the constitutive models of expanded polyethylene (EPE and C-flute corrugated paperboard (CCP, the drop impact model for expanded polyethylene in series with CCP was established to consider the effect of cushioning action for CCP box. A numerical procedure was adopted for the optimization of the product packaging system by considering the action of the corrugated paperboard box. Then the optimal results were obtained and compared without considering the effect of CCP. Finally, the calculation reliability was proved by the comparison between calculated results and experimental data.

  14. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  15. Multispecies Analysis of Expression Pattern Diversification in the Recently Expanded Insect Ly6 Gene Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohtaro; Hazbun, Alexis; Hijazi, Assia; Vreede, Barbara; Sucena, Élio

    2015-01-01

    Gene families often consist of members with diverse expression domains reflecting their functions in a wide variety of tissues. However, how the expression of individual members, and thus their tissue-specific functions, diversified during the course of gene family expansion is not well understood. In this study, we approached this question through the analysis of the duplication history and transcriptional evolution of a rapidly expanding subfamily of insect Ly6 genes. We analyzed different insect genomes and identified seven Ly6 genes that have originated from a single ancestor through sequential duplication within the higher Diptera. We then determined how the original embryonic expression pattern of the founding gene diversified by characterizing its tissue-specific expression in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, and the mosquito Anopheles stephensi and those of its duplicates in three higher dipteran species, representing various stages of the duplication history (Megaselia abdita, Ceratitis capitata, and Drosophila melanogaster). Our results revealed that frequent neofunctionalization episodes contributed to the increased expression breadth of this subfamily and that these events occurred after duplication and speciation events at comparable frequencies. In addition, at each duplication node, we consistently found asymmetric expression divergence. One paralog inherited most of the tissue-specificities of the founder gene, whereas the other paralog evolved drastically reduced expression domains. Our approach attests to the power of combining a well-established duplication history with a comprehensive coverage of representative species in acquiring unequivocal information about the dynamics of gene expression evolution in gene families. PMID:25743545

  16. Contribution of sunflecks is minimal in expanding shrub thickets compared to temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Steven T; Young, Donald R

    2009-04-01

    Ecological consequences of shrub encroachment are emerging as a key issue in the study of global change. In mesic grasslands, shrub encroachment can result in a fivefold increase in ecosystem leaf area index (LAI) and a concurrent reduction in understory light and herbaceous diversity. LAI and light attenuation are often higher for shrub thickets than for forest communities in the same region, yet little is known about the contribution of sunflecks in shrub-dominated systems. Our objective was to compare fine-scale spatial and temporal dynamics of understory light in shrub thickets to the light environment in typical forest communities. We used an array of quantum sensors to examine variation in diffuse and direct light and determined the relative contribution of sunflecks during midday in Morella cerifera shrub thickets, a 30-yr-old abandoned Pinus taeda plantation, and a mature, second-growth, deciduous forest. Instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was measured at 1-s intervals at five sites in each community during midday. In summer, understory light during midday in shrub thickets was approximately 0.8% of above-canopy light, compared to 1.9% and 5.4% in pine and deciduous forests, respectively. During summer, PPFD was uncorrelated between sensors as close as 0.075 m in shrub thickets compared to 0.175 m and 0.900 m in pine and deciduous forests, respectively, indicating that sunflecks in shrub thickets were generally small compared to sunflecks in the two forests. Sunflecks in shrub thickets were generally short (all forest communities and Contributed 31% and 22% of understory light during midday in pine and deciduous forest, respectively. The combination of high LAI and relatively short-stature of M. cerifera shrub thickets produces a dense canopy that reduces both diffuse light and the occurrence of sunflecks. The lack of sunflecks may limit the number of microsites with a favorable light environment and contribute to the reduction in

  17. Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    S.TP OFR O T PEIDCV E Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis TRlES IS1j0’~fJ 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER AU TNOR( ) Sign . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...accidents. Perhaps because of an airline’s understandable sensitivity to public knowledge of its accidents, one has little assurance that each airline...62,169 0 Royal Air Maroc 81,451 0 80,861 0 (Morocco) Royal Nepal 11,885 0 19,785 0 SAA (South Africa) 57,226 0 61,618 0 SAHSA (Honduras) 32,658 0 34,894 0

  18. Factor Analysis of an Expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Structure of Neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Virginie M; Brown, Gregory G; Thomas, Michael L; Roesch, Scott C; Taylor, Michael J; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-05-13

    The structure of neurocognition is explored by examining the neurocognitive domains underlying comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of cognitively healthy individuals. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the adult normative dataset of an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery (eHRB), comprising Caucasian and African American participants. The factor structure contributions of the original HRB, eHRB expansion, and Wechsler intelligence scales were compared. Demographic effects were examined on composite factor scores calculated using confirmatory factor analysis. The full eHRB had an eight-factor structure, with latent constructs including: 'working memory', 'fluency', 'verbal episodic memory', 'visuospatial cognition' (visuospatial memory and problem solving), 'perceptual-motor speed' (speed for processing visual/tactile material and hand-motor execution), 'perceptual attention' (attention to sensory-perceptual information), 'semantic knowledge' (knowledge acquired through education and culturally-based experiences), and 'phonological decoding' (grapheme-phoneme processing essential for sounding-out words). 'Perceptual-motor speed' and 'perceptual attention' were most negatively associated with age, whereas 'semantic knowledge' and 'phonological decoding' were most resistant to aging. 'Semantic knowledge' showed the greatest dependence on demographic background, including education and ethnicity. Gender differences in cognitive performances were negligible across all domains except 'phonological decoding' with women slightly outperforming men. The original HRB contributed four neurocognitive domains, the eHRB expansion three domains, and the Wechsler scales one additional domain but with restructuring of verbal factors. Eight neurocognitive domains underlie performance of healthy cognitive individuals during comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. These domains serve as framework for understanding the constructs measured by commonly

  19. A Prospective Analysis of Dynamic Loss of Breast Projection in Tissue Expander-Implant Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Mioton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBreast projection is a critical element of breast reconstruction aesthetics, but little has been published regarding breast projection as the firm expander is changed to a softer implant. Quantitative data representing this loss in projection may enhance patient education and improve our management of patient expectations.MethodsFemale patients who were undergoing immediate tissue-expander breast reconstruction with the senior author were enrolled in this prospective study. Three-dimensional camera software was used for all patient photographs and data analysis. Projection was calculated as the distance between the chest wall and the point of maximal projection of the breast form. Values were calculated for final tissue expander expansion and at varying intervals 3, 6, and 12 months after implant placement.ResultsFourteen breasts from 12 patients were included in the final analysis. Twelve of the 14 breasts had a loss of projection at three months following the implant placement or beyond. The percentage of projection lost in these 12 breasts ranged from 6.30% to 43.4%, with an average loss of projection of 21.05%.ConclusionsThis study is the first prospective quantitative analysis of temporal changes in breast projection after expander-implant reconstruction. By prospectively capturing projection data with three-dimensional photographic software, we reveal a loss of projection in this population by three months post-implant exchange. These findings will not only aid in managing patient expectations, but our methodology provides a foundation for future objective studies of the breast form.

  20. [Comparative analysis in artificial nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomós, Akos; Okrös, Ilona

    2003-03-23

    It is well known to Hungarian experts in the field of nutrition that hospital inpatients in this country do not have the required nutrition. To compare data of intensive care national costing analysis from England and intensive care unit in County Hospital, Eger, Hungary in order to advise a cost effective nutrition protocol. English data were extracted from the report of Intensive Care National Cost Block Programme, year 1999. The Hungarian data were obtained by top down method from annual costing report of the same year. The authors used Purchasing Power Parity to make international cost comparison between these countries. In proportion to Purchasing Power Parity, the hospital budget per patient for nutrition is more than double in England than in the studied intensive care unit in Hungary. Intensive care units in England spend 1% on nutrition, 13% on drugs and 10% on disposables. There is only 0.2% spent on nutrition, 29.8% on drugs and 8% on disposables in the studied intensive care unit in Hungary. Cost of nutrition per patient day is HUF 117 in Hungary, which is even lower than the hospital budget per patient day for nutrition. On the basis of the above findings and literature review as well, the authors set up a cost effective nutrition guideline: 1. Identify malnourished patient. 2. Nutrition can be delayed for 4-5 days in not malnourished patient. 3. Enteral nutrition should always be the first choice. 4. Total parenteral nutrition is beneficial only if given over at least 7 days. 5) It is cost effective to prevent nosocomial infections even at higher cost.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of expander-based configurations for natural gas liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Matteo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2017-01-01

    W/K and 275 kW/K. A trade-off between the power consumption and heat transfer area is found, which justifies a further economic analysis. A simplified economic analysis is set based on a discounted cash flow model. The unitary profit ranges between 0.3 and 0.85 DKK per kg of produced LNG. The most profitable......The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a marine fuel is rapidly growing because of the possible economic advantages over conventional fuels and stricter environmental regulations. Production of LNG is energy-intensive because of the required temperature level of around -160°C. Three main types...... expander-based configuration is the dual-refrigerant cycle with nitrogen in the bottoming cycle. Finally, the influence of the cost correlations on the economic outcome is assessed: the compressors represent the major costs, which leads to the coincidence of the thermodynamic and economic optima....

  2. Comparative Chromatographic Analysis and Pharmacodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory analysis of the Garcinia Kolanuts extracts showed receptors inhibition of Beta adrenergic sites, adenosine, melatonin, opiate, purine, calcium channel L-type and 5HT5A. Conclusion: Garcinia kolanut extract exhibits a combined effects of all the known antiglaucoma drugs used in comparison. NQJHM Vol.

  3. Expanding comparative-advantage biological market models: contingency of mutualism on partners' resource requirements and acquisition trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D; Schwartz, Mark W

    2003-05-07

    We expand the comparative-advantage biological market-modelling framework to show how differences between partners, both in their abilities to acquire two resources and in their requirements for those resources, can affect the net benefit of participating in interspecific resource exchange. In addition, the benefits derived from resource trading depend strongly on the nature of the trade-off between the acquisition of one resource and the acquisition of another, described here by the shape (linear, convex or concave) of the resource acquisition constraints of the individuals involved. Combined with previous results, these analyses provide a suite of predictions about whether or not resource exchange is beneficial for two heterospecific individuals relative to a strategy of non-interaction. The benefit derived from resource exchange depends on three factors: (i) relative differences between the partners in their resource acquisition abilities; (ii) relative differences between the partners in their resource requirements; and (iii) variation in the shape of resource acquisition trade-offs. We find that such an explicit consideration of resource requirements and acquisition abilities can provide useful and sometimes non-intuitive predictions about the benefits of resource exchange, and also which resources should be traded by which species.

  4. An expanded self-antigen peptidome is carried by the human lymph as compared to the plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina C Clement

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The pre-nodal afferent lymph is the fluid which directly derives from the extracellular milieu from every parenchymal organ and, as it continues to circulate between the cells, it collects products deriving from the organ metabolism/catabolism. A comprehensive qualitative and quantitative investigation of the self-antigenic repertoire transported by the human lymph is still missing.A major difference between lymph and plasma could be visualized by FPLC and 2D gel in the amount of low molecular weight products corresponding to peptide fragments. Naturally processed peptides in normal pre-nodal human lymph were then fractionated by HPLC and characterized by multidimensional mass spectrometry. Analysis of more then 300 sequences identified self-peptides derived from both intracellular and extracellular proteins revealing the variety of catabolic products transported by human lymph. Quantitative analysis established that at least some of these peptides are present in the circulating lymph in nanomolar concentration.The peptidome, generated by physiological tissue catabolism and transported by the pre-nodal lymph, is in addition to the self-peptidome generated in endosomal compartment. Unlike self antigen processed by local or nodal APC, which mostly produce epitopes constrained by the endosomal processing activity, self antigens present in the lymph could derived from a wider variety of processing pathways; including caspases, involved in cellular apoptosis, and ADAM and other metalloproteinases involved in surface receptor editing, cytokines processing and matrix remodeling. Altogether, expanding the tissue-specific self-repertoire available for the maintenance of immunological tolerance.

  5. Patient Participation at Health Care Conferences: Engaged Patients Increase Information Flow, Expand Propagation, and Deepen Engagement in the Conversation of Tweets Compared to Physicians or Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care conferences present a unique opportunity to network, spark innovation, and disseminate novel information to a large audience, but the dissemination of information typically stays within very specific networks. Social network analysis can be adopted to understand the flow of information between virtual social communities and the role of patients within the network. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the impact engaged patients bring to health care conference social media information flow and how they expand dissemination and distribution of tweets compared to other health care conference stakeholders such as physicians and researchers. Methods From January 2014 through December 2016, 7,644,549 tweets were analyzed from 1672 health care conferences with at least 1000 tweets who had registered in Symplur’s Health Care Hashtag Project from 2014 to 2016. The tweet content was analyzed to create a list of the top 100 influencers by mention from each conference, who were then subsequently categorized by stakeholder group. Multivariate linear regression models were created using stepwise function building to identify factors explaining variability as predictor variables for the model in which conference tweets were taken as the dependent variable. Results Inclusion of engaged patients in health care conference social media was low compared to that of physicians and has not significantly changed over the last 3 years. When engaged patient voices are included in health care conferences, they greatly increase information flow as measured by total tweet volume (beta=301.6) compared to physicians (beta=137.3, Psocial media impressions created (beta=1,700,000) compared to physicians (beta=270,000, PSocial network analysis of hubs and authorities revealed that patients had statistically significant higher hub scores (mean 8.26×10-4, SD 2.96×10-4) compared to other stakeholder groups’ Twitter accounts (mean 7.19×10-4, SD 3.81×10-4; t

  6. [A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON TREATMENT OF SCAR CONTRACTURE ON FACE, NECK, AND JOINTS WITH PRE-EXPANDED FLAPS AND SKIN GRAFTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yashan; Zan, Tao; Li, Haizhou; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-09-01

    To study the treatment results of the pre-expanded flaps for scar contracture on face, neck, and joints by comparing with the skin grafts. A total of 240 cases of scar contracture between July 2004 and June 2014 were included in the study by random sampling; skin grafts were used in 120 cases (skin graft group), and pre-expanded flaps in 120 cases (pre-expanded flap group). There was no significant difference in age, sex, injury sites, and disease duration between 2 groups (P>0.05). Re-operation rate and A&F 0-6 quantization score were used to evaluate the treatment results. The patients were followed up 12 to 75 months (mean, 23.47 months) in the skin graft group, and 12 to 61 months (mean, 19.62 months) in the pre-expanded flap group. The re-operation rate of the skin graft group was 72.5% (87/120), and was significantly higher than that of the pre-expanded flap group (19.2%, 23/120) (P=0.000). The re-operation rate of the neck contracture in teenagers was the highest. It was 93.9% in the skin graft group and 35.0% in the pre-expanded flap group. In the patients who did not undergo re-operations, A&F 0-6 quantization score of the skin graft group was 2.85±1.12, and was significantly lower than that of the pre-expanded flap group (5.22±0.74) (t=13.830, P=0.000). Pre-expanded flap for scar contracture on face, neck, and joints has lower re-operation rate and better aesthetic and functional restoration than skin graft. It should be regarded as the preferred method for teenagers.

  7. Morphological and cytofluorimetric analysis of adult mesenchymal stem cells expanded ex vivo from periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiani, O; Di Primio, R; Traini, T; Pizzicannella, J; Scarano, A; Piattelli, A; Caputi, S

    2005-01-01

    Many adult tissues contain a population of stem cells that have the ability of regeneration after trauma, disease or aging. Recently, there has been great interest in mesenchymal stem cells and their roles in maintaining the physiological structure of tissues, and their studies have been considered very important and intriguing, after having shown that this cell population can be expanded ex vivo to regenerate tissues not only of the mesenchymal lineage, such as intervertebral disc cartilage, bone, tooth-associated tissue, cardiomyocytes, but also to differentiate into cells derived from other embryonic layers, including neurons. Currently, different efforts have been focused on the identification of odontogenic progenitors from oral tissues. In this study we isolated and characterized a population of homogeneous human mesenchymal stem cells proliferating in culture with an attached well-spread morphology derived from periodontal ligament, a tissue of ectomesenchymal origin, with the ability to form a specialized joint between alveolar bone and tooth. The adherent cells were harvested and expanded ex vivo under specific conditions and analysed by FACScan flow cytometer and morphological analysis was carried out by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Our results displayed highly evident cells with a fibroblast-like morphology and a secretory apparatus, probably indicating that the enhanced function of the secretory apparatus of the mesenchymal stem cells may be associated with the secretion of molecules that are required to survive and proliferate. Moreover, the presence in periodontal ligament of CD90, CD29, CD44,CD166, CD 105, CD13 positive cells, antigens that are also identified as stromal precursors of the bone marrow, indicate that the periodontal ligament may turn out to be a new efficient source of the cells with intrinsic capacity to self-renewal, high ability to proliferate and differentiate, that can be utilized for a new approach to

  8. Cloud Service Provider Methods for Managing Insider Threats: Analysis Phase 2, Expanded Analysis and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sharing and Analysis Center (CSP- ISAC ) could serve as a trusted entity, established by both government and commercial CSPs, to provide comprehensive...sector analysis. Results could then be shared within the sector and with other ISACs to provide risk mitigation, incident response, and relevant alerting...data points. ISACs have long been established in other sectors, such as financial services, higher education, and electric utilities. The

  9. A comparative study of dynamically expanding force-free, constant-alpha magnetic configurations with applications to magnetic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Lepping, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    We contrast two different solutions of the constant alpha, force-free MHD equation, both of which have been suggested as models for magnetic clouds: a solution in cylindrical coordinates and one in spherical coordinates. In line with the observation that magnetic clouds expand, we generalize these static models and construct their expanding counterparts. We find that expansion introduces in both cases a large asymmetry in the field strength signature which is in the same sense as that seen the the data, i.e. towards the leading edge of the cloud. We then do a least squares fit of the respective models to one-spacecraft data on a magnetic cloud. We find that the fitting routine converges in both cases. However, while purely formally we cannot distinguish between the two models using data from one spacecraft, the field components in the 'spherical' model have features not compatible with data on magnetic clouds.

  10. Analysis of Nigerian dentists' opinion and consequences on expanded function dental auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanah, A U; Azodo, C

    2015-06-01

    To examine Nigerian dentists' opinion on expanded function dental auxiliaries. This cross-sectional study of Nigerian dentists attending a dental conference was conducting in 2012 using self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. P opinion towards expanded duty dental auxiliaries. The mean scores on consequences, of expanded function dental auxiliaries ranked redundancy of dentist as highest. Males and non-specialist significantly reported expanded function dental auxiliaries would lead to redundancy of dentists. Practitioners working in other hospitals other than teaching hospital significantly reported that appropriate legislation are necessary before expansion of duties of the dental auxiliaries can be done. The dentists with favorable opinion significantly reported that expanded duty dental auxiliaries would not cause redundancy of dentist and the task are not too difficult for dental auxiliaries with necessary training but will increase service delivery and efficiency, increase job satisfaction, lead to dental auxiliary specialization with legislation. Data from this study revealed overall unfavorable opinion of Nigerian dentists on the expanded duty dental auxiliaries. However, those with favorable opinion were significantly supportive of expanded function dental auxiliaries. This information would serve as a useful tool for Nigerian oral healthcare policy formulators.

  11. Analysis motion of borehole-expander - device for densifying subsurface walls of boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, G. V.; Kalmova, M. A.; Pischulev, A. A.; Panfilov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper introduces an algorithm for analyzing the following solids of rotation and their motion: a bearing roller and a borehole-expander - a device for densifying subsurface walls of boreholes. These devices are moving in the environment with rheological properties typical for the Kelvin model, with nonholonomic constraints that impose restrictions on the velocity of the disk points. The research presents both mathematical models of the standard viscoelastic hereditary-deformed cylinder and a weakly singular model proposed by A.R. Rzhanitsin, representing a nonautonomous system of differential equations in the form of Routh. The fact that this system is nonautonomous complicates its sustainability analysis. The presentation of a rheological force in a differential form does not lead to a system of equations in the form of Chaplygin. The solution was found by numerical integration. The solution is multivariant as one initial value of generalized coordinates and generalized accelerations corresponds to a series of initial generalized speeds. It is shown that the disk is not able to fall in the course of motion because its point of contact being in a radial vibration is still within the tension region of the cylinder wall.

  12. A systematic analysis of online marketing materials used by providers of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoshvili, Davit; Borry, Pascal; Vears, Danya F

    2017-12-14

    PurposeExpanded carrier screening (ECS) for a large number of recessive disorders is available to prospective parents through commercial providers. This study aimed to analyze the content of marketing materials on ECS providers' websites.MethodsTo identify providers of ECS tests, we undertook a comprehensive online search, reviewed recent academic literature on commercial carrier screening, and consulted with colleagues familiar with the current ECS landscape. The identified websites were archived in April 2017, and inductive content analysis was performed on website text, brochures and educational materials, and video transcripts.ResultsWe identified 18 ECS providers, including 16 commercial genetic testing companies. Providers typically described ECS as an important family planning tool. The content differed in both the tone used to promote ECS and the accuracy and completeness of the test information provided. We found that most providers offered complimentary genetic counseling to their consumers, although this was often optional, limited to the posttest context, and, in some cases, appeared to be available only to test-positive individuals.ConclusionThe quality of ECS providers' websites could be improved by offering more complete and accurate information about ECS and their tests. Providers should also ensure that all carrier couples receive posttest genetic counseling to inform their subsequent reproductive decision making.Genet Med advance online publication, 14 December 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.222.

  13. A bibliometric analysis of recent energy efficiency literatures. An expanding and shifting focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Huibin; Wei, Linxue; Wang, Yangyang [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China); Brown, M.A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332, GA (United States); Shi, Zheng [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, 18015, PA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    To meet the energy requirements of sustainable economic growth, policymakers, analysts, and business leaders have increasingly turned to the role that energy efficiency might play. This has resulted in a growing energy efficiency literature, which is examined in this paper. Using bibliometric techniques, we analyze the database of Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index covering the 1991-2010 period. Of the 8,244 publications, 78.8 % were journal articles, and about 95.5 % were published in English. Based on the h-index, an evaluative indicator, the USA has produced the most influential set of publications on energy efficiency, followed by Canada, UK, Japan, and China. In contrast, China is second to the USA in the volume of its publications. Correspondingly, the University of California at Berkeley, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Tsinghua University were the most productive research organizations. The three most common subjects examined in this body of research were 'energy and fuels', 'environmental sciences', and 'electrical and electronic engineering'. Energy Policy has been the most productive journal, and 'A water and heat management model for proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cells', has had the most citations (587 through May 2012). Based on an analysis of article titles and keywords, we conclude that the hotspots of energy efficiency research have been green communications, renewable energy, and energy sustainability; green communications, in particular, has developed rapidly as a focus of energy efficiency publications in recent years.

  14. Performance Analysis of the Vehicle Diesel Engine-ORC Combined System Based on a Screw Expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve energy saving and emission reduction for vehicle diesel engines, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC was employed to recover waste heat from vehicle diesel engines, R245fa was used as ORC working fluid, and the resulting vehicle diesel engine-ORC combined system was presented. The variation law of engine exhaust energy rate under various operating conditions was obtained, and the running performances of the screw expander were introduced. Based on thermodynamic models and theoretical calculations, the running performance of the vehicle diesel engine-ORC combined system was analyzed under various engine operating condition scenarios. Four evaluation indexes were defined: engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC of the combined system, and improvement ratio of BSFC (IRBSFC. Results showed that when the diesel engine speed is 2200 r/min and diesel engine torque is 1200 N·m, the power output of the combined system reaches its maximum of approximately 308.6 kW, which is 28.6 kW higher than that of the diesel engine. ETEIR, WHRE, and IRBSFC all reach their maxima at 10.25%, 9.90%, and 9.30%, respectively. Compared with that of the diesel engine, the BSFC of the combined system is obviously improved under various engine operating conditions.

  15. Expanded Analysis of Hot Isostatic Pressed Iodine-Loaded Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R. T. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Patton, K. K. [ORNL

    2014-09-30

    Reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z) is being evaluated as a potential material to control the release of radioactive iodine that is released during the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel into the plant off-gas streams. The purpose of this study was to determine if hot pressing could directly convert this iodine loaded sorbent into a waste form suitable for long-term disposition. The minimal pretreatment required for production of pressed pellets makes hot pressing a technically and economically desirable process. Initial scoping studies utilized hot uniaxial pressing (HUPing) to prepare samples of non-iodine-loaded reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z). The resulting samples were very fragile due to the low pressure (~ 28 MPa) used. It was recommended that hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), performed at higher temperatures and pressures, be investigated. HIPing was carried out in two phases, with a third and final phase currently underway. Phase I evaluated the effects of pressure and temperature conditions on the manufacture of a pressed sample. The base material was an engineered form of silver zeolite. Six samples of Ag0Z and two samples of I-Ag0Z were pressed. It was found that HIPing produced a pressed pellet of high density. Analysis of each pressed pellet by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrophotometry (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that under the conditions used for pressing, the majority of the material transforms into an amorphous structure. The only crystalline phase observed in the pressed Ag0Z material was SiO2. For the samples loaded with iodine (I-Ag0Z) iodine was present as AgI clusters at low temperatures, and transformed into AgIO4 at high temperatures. Surface mapping and EDS demonstrate segregation between silver iodide phases and silicon dioxide phases. Based on the results of the Phase I study, an expanded test matrix was developed to examine the effects of multiple source materials, compositional

  16. Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachera, David; Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    A certified static analysis is an analysis whose semantic validity has been formally proved correct with a proof assistant. The recent increasing interest in using proof assistants for mechanizing programming language metatheory has given rise to several approaches for certification of static analysis. We propose a panorama of these techniques and compare their respective strengths and weaknesses.

  17. Análise comparativa da expansão maxilar com três marcas de parafusos com limitador posterior: ensaio laboratorial em Typodont Comparative analysis of rapid maxillary expansion using three brands of fan-type expander screw: laboratory trial using typodont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Damo Meneguzzi

    2011-10-01

    treatment generally involves the expansion of the arch. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expansion pattern obtained with three different fan-type expander screws. METHODS: Using Typodont, 18 expansions were executed, six for each group, according to the expander tested: G1- DentaurumTM; G2- LeoneTM and G3- MorelliTM. For each essay, 13 activations of 2/4 of a turn were done in each appliance, leading to a total activation of 5.2mm. Using a caliper, measurements were taken in the beginning of the testing (T1; in half the total turnings (T2 and in the end of the testing (T3. Different measures were considered: interpremolar width (IP1, intersecond premolar width (IP2, intermolar width (IM and also the arch length (CA. The data obtained was analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Tukey and Freeman tests as well as by ANOVA. RESULTS: It could be observed that all tested groups showed a "V" expansion pattern, with major expansion in the anterior region of the arch, that was even more expressive in G3 (IP1=29.85% and IM=9.73%. Increases in the CA measurements were similar for groups G1 and G3 (+12.65% and +12.13%, respectively, and lower for G2 (+8.23%. CONCLUSIONS: It could be concluded that all the fan-type expander screws tested in the present study can be used for treating transverse constriction of the maxilla. However, Morelli expander showed a greater expansion in the anterior region of the arch in relation to the posterior region, which is an important characteristic when treating cleft lip and palate patients. Clinical studies are also necessary to confirm the findings of the present study.

  18. Expanding the North American Breeding Bird Survey analysis to include additional species and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) contains data for >700 bird species, but analyses often focus on a core group of ∼420 species. We analyzed data for 122 species of North American birds for which data exist in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) database but are not routinely analyzed on the BBS Summary and Analysis Website. Many of these species occur in the northern part of the continent, on routes that fall outside the core survey area presently analyzed in the United States and southern Canada. Other species not historically analyzed occur in the core survey area with very limited data but have large portions of their ranges in Mexico and south. A third group of species not historically analyzed included species thought to be poorly surveyed by the BBS, such as rare, coastal, or nocturnal species. For 56 species found primarily in regions north of the core survey area, we expanded the scope of the analysis, using data from 1993 to 2014 during which ≥3 survey routes had been sampled in 6 northern strata (Bird Conservation regions in Alaska, Yukon, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and fitting log-linear hierarchical models for an augmented BBS survey area that included both the new northern strata and the core survey area. We also applied this model to 168 species historically analyzed in the BBS that had data from these additional northern strata. For both groups of species we calculated survey-wide trends for the both core and augmented survey areas from 1993 to 2014; for species that did not occur in the newly defined strata, we computed trends from 1966 to 2014. We evaluated trend estimates in terms of established credibility criteria for BBS results, screening for imprecise trends, small samples, and low relative abundance. Inclusion of data from the northern strata permitted estimation of trend for 56 species not historically analyzed, but only 4 of these were reasonably monitored and an additional 13 were questionably monitored; 39

  19. Functional Analysis of Serially Expanded Human iPS Cell-Derived RPE Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchira; Phillips, M. Joseph; Kuai, David; Meyer, Jackelyn; Martin, Jessica M.; Smith, Molly A.; Perez, Enio T.; Shen, Wei; Wallace, Kyle A.; Capowski, Elizabeth E.; Wright, Lynda S.; Gamm, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effects of serial expansion on the cellular, molecular, and functional properties of human iPS cell (hiPSC)-derived RPE cultures. Methods. Fibroblasts obtained from four individuals were reprogrammed into hiPSCs and differentiated to RPE cells using previously described methods. Patches of deeply pigmented hiPSC-RPE were dissected, dissociated, and grown in culture until they re-formed pigmented monolayers. Subsequent passages were obtained by repeated dissociation, expansion, and maturation of RPE into pigmented monolayers. Gene and protein expression profiles and morphological and functional characteristics of hiPSC-RPE at different passages were compared with each other and to human fetal RPE (hfRPE). Results. RPE from all four hiPSC lines could be expanded more than 1000-fold when serially passaged as pigmented monolayer cultures. Importantly, expansion of hiPSC-RPE monolayers over the first three passages (P1–P3) resulted in decreased expression of pluripotency and neuroretinal markers and maintenance of characteristic morphological features and gene and protein expression profiles. Furthermore, P1 to P3 hiPSC-RPE monolayers reliably demonstrated functional tight junctions, G-protein–coupled receptor-mediated calcium transients, phagocytosis and degradation of photoreceptor outer segments, and polarized secretion of biomolecules. In contrast, P4 hiPSC-RPE cells failed to form monolayers and possessed altered morphological and functional characteristics and gene expression levels. Conclusions. Highly differentiated, pigmented hiPSC-RPE monolayers can undergo limited serial expansion while retaining key cytological and functional attributes. However, passaging hiPSC-RPE cultures beyond senescence leads to loss of such features. Our findings support limited, controlled passaging of patient-specific hiPSC-RPE to procure cells needed for in vitro disease modeling, drug screening, and cellular transplantation. PMID:24030465

  20. Highly Cited Occupational Therapy Articles in the Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Fong, Kenneth N K

    A bibliometric analysis was completed of highly cited occupational therapy literature and authors published from 1991 to 2014 and accessible in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. Data were obtained from the SCI-Expanded and SSCI. Articles referenced >100 times were categorized as highly cited articles (HCA). Of 6,486 articles found, 31 were categorized as HCA. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy published the largest number of HCA (n = 8; 26%). The 31 HCA were distributed across seven countries: United States (20 articles), Canada (3), United Kingdom (3), Australia (2), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (1), and Sweden (1). The three authors with the highest Y-index were S. J. Page, F. Clark, and W. Dunn. A latency period of 4 to 5 yr post-publication appears to be needed for a journal article to gain citations.

  1. Patient Participation at Health Care Conferences: Engaged Patients Increase Information Flow, Expand Propagation, and Deepen Engagement in the Conversation of Tweets Compared to Physicians or Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utengen, Audun; Rouholiman, Dara; Gamble, Jamison G; Grajales Iii, Francisco Jose; Pradhan, Nisha; Staley, Alicia C; Bernstein, Liza; Young, Sean D; Clauson, Kevin A; Chu, Larry F

    2017-08-17

    Health care conferences present a unique opportunity to network, spark innovation, and disseminate novel information to a large audience, but the dissemination of information typically stays within very specific networks. Social network analysis can be adopted to understand the flow of information between virtual social communities and the role of patients within the network. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact engaged patients bring to health care conference social media information flow and how they expand dissemination and distribution of tweets compared to other health care conference stakeholders such as physicians and researchers. From January 2014 through December 2016, 7,644,549 tweets were analyzed from 1672 health care conferences with at least 1000 tweets who had registered in Symplur's Health Care Hashtag Project from 2014 to 2016. The tweet content was analyzed to create a list of the top 100 influencers by mention from each conference, who were then subsequently categorized by stakeholder group. Multivariate linear regression models were created using stepwise function building to identify factors explaining variability as predictor variables for the model in which conference tweets were taken as the dependent variable. Inclusion of engaged patients in health care conference social media was low compared to that of physicians and has not significantly changed over the last 3 years. When engaged patient voices are included in health care conferences, they greatly increase information flow as measured by total tweet volume (beta=301.6) compared to physicians (beta=137.3, Ptweeted during a conference as measured by social media impressions created (beta=1,700,000) compared to physicians (beta=270,000, Ptweet conversation as measured by replies to their tweets (beta=24.4) compared to physicians (beta=5.5, Pmean 8.26×10-4, SD 2.96×10-4) compared to other stakeholder groups' Twitter accounts (mean 7.19×10-4, SD 3.81×10-4; t273

  2. A comparative analysis of existing oligonucleotides selection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computational comparative analysis of the methods used to select oligos is important since the design and quality of the microarray probes are of critical importance for the hybridization experiments as well as subsequent analysis of the ... most are non-intuitive to use and lack important oligo design and software features.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous analysis showed that cavity size and number on one hand and combinations thickness affect the compressive strength of hollow sandcrete blocks. Series arrangement of the cavities is common but parallel arrangement has been recommended. This research performed a comparative analysis of the compressive ...

  4. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    students (N= 54 students from LU; and N= 33 students from AU) participating in the studies, among them 44 are 2nd-year students (n=28 from LU and n=16 from AU) and 43 3rd-year students (n=26 from LU and n=17 from AU). Students’ writing samples were first collected and the errors on the use of comparative...... of the grammatical errors with using comparative sentences is developed, which include comparative item-related errors, comparative result-related errors and blend errors. The results further indicate that these errors could attribute to negative L1 transfer and overgeneralization of grammatical rule and structures......Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...

  5. Determining the Differential Effects of Stretch and Growth in Tissue-Expanded Skin: Combining Isogeometric Analysis and Continuum Mechanics in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Chad A; Gart, Michael S; Buganza-Tepole, Adrián; Tomaszewski, Joanna P; Topczewska, Jolanta M; Kuhl, Ellen; Gosain, Arun K

    2017-07-06

    The relative effects of skin growth and stretch during tissue expansion have not been studied. The authors use novel analytic techniques that allow calculation of these factors at any point of a skin patch. The authors sought to determine how stretch and growth change with different expansion rates and to correlate these values with histologic and cellular changes in skin. Two minipigs were implanted with a total of 5 tissue expanders under tattooed skin grids. One pig was expanded over 35 days and the second over 15 days. Isogeometric analysis allowed calculation of growth and stretch. Expanders with similar total deformation were compared between protocols. Regression analysis determined predictive effects of stretch and growth on histologic data from the second animal. Deformation was more attributable to stretch in rapid than in slow expansion (1.40 vs1.12, p < .001). Growth was higher in slow expansion than in rapid (1.52 vs 1.07, p < .001). Both growth and stretch predicted epidermal thickness, dermal thinning, and keratinocyte proliferation. Growth predicted vascularity. Isogeometric analysis allows determination of precise surface area changes for correlation to microscopic-level data. Using the model, the authors identified that skin deformation in rapid expansion is more attributable to stretch.

  6. Biocompatibility of a new device of self-expandable covered and non-covered tracheal stent: comparative study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the compatibility of a new model of self-expandable tracheal stent in rats. METHODS: A new device of polyurethane covered and non - covered stent was placed in the trachea of Wistar rats. Animals were distributed in two groups: the polyurethane covered and non-covered group. Macroscopic parameters included position within the tracheal lumen, adherence to the mucosa, degree of dilatation, permeability and internal diameter. Microscopic findings evaluated were: incorporation, inflammatory activity, granulation tissue and epithelial revetment injuries. The observation follow-up was six weeks. All parameters were quantified based on determined score values. Incorporation of the stents was evaluated based on the observation if the stent was fixed into the trachea or if it could be removed. Degree of dilatation was performed by external diameter measurements. Granulation tissue was evaluated by measurements of height of the tissue growing into the tracheal lumen. RESULTS: 100% of non-covered stents had total attachment to mucosa and 100% of polyurethane covered type had adherence only. Regarding dilatation, granulation tissue, inflammatory activity and internal diameter measurements, there were no significant differences between the groups. Pathological tracheal wall injuries were present in both groups. CONCLUSION: Both models of stent demonstrated biocompatibility with the trachea. Rats are suitable for an experimental model of tracheal stent study.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Protein Domain Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Yuzhen; Godzik, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a set of graph theory-based tools, which we call Comparative Analysis of Protein Domain Organization (CADO), to survey and compare protein domain organizations of different organisms. In the language of CADO, the organization of protein domains in a given organism is shown as a domain graph in which protein domains are represented as vertices, and domain combinations, defined as instances of two domains found in one protein, are represented as edges. CADO provides a new way ...

  8. Analysis of holographic interferograms of the expanded cornea after refractive surgery procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Jaronski, Jaroslaw W.; Foerster, Werner; von Bally, Gert

    1994-12-01

    The paper presents results of holographic experiments of expanding bovine cornea in vitro, after different refractive surgery procedure (keratoplasty). The corneas of fresh, enucleated bovine eyes were subjected to different refractive procedures, such as: radial and tangential incisions, mechanical ablation of the corneal layers as well as ablation by means of excimer laser. After keratoplasty, the eyeball was placed into the holographic set-up and the needle connected to a pressure meter was inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye. Double exposure, as well as real time holographic interferograms of expanding corneas were recorded by means of photothermoplastic camera, due to small intraocular pressure differences in order of a few Pa. The holographic interferograms were stored and processed in the computer memory by use of CCD camera and the image processing board. Quantitative results are presented in the form of a 3-D surface plot of the displacement vectors of the corneal surface and respective changes of the corneal curvature.

  9. Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riback, Joshua A.; Bowman, Micayla A.; Zmyslowski, Adam M.; Knoverek, Catherine R.; Jumper, John M.; Hinshaw, James R.; Kaye, Emily B.; Freed, Karl F.; Clark, Patricia L.; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2017-10-12

    A substantial fraction of the proteome is intrinsically disordered, and even well-folded proteins adopt non-native geometries during synthesis, folding, transport, and turnover. Characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is challenging, in part because of a lack of accurate physical models and the difficulty of interpreting experimental results. We have developed a general method to extract the dimensions and solvent quality (self-interactions) of IDPs from a single small-angle x-ray scattering measurement. We applied this procedure to a variety of IDPs and found that even IDPs with low net charge and high hydrophobicity remain highly expanded in water, contrary to the general expectation that protein-like sequences collapse in water. Our results suggest that the unfolded state of most foldable sequences is expanded; we conjecture that this property was selected by evolution to minimize misfolding and aggregation.

  10. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Mortezai, Omid; Esmaily, Masomeh; Darvishpour, Hojat

    2015-04-01

    Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treatment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of unilateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM). Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs), cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The models were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2 N force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated. A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown. Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in molars, which increase by increasing the expansion.

  11. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treat- ment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of uni- lateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM.Materials and Methods: Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs, cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The mod- els were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2-Newton force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated.Results: A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown.Conclusion: Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in mo- lars, which increase by increasing the expansion.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics and Food Security Status in Urban and Rural Areas of Kwara and Kogi States ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2012) > ... Food security is a critical issue in Nigeria today as the country struggles with high rates of food prices and poverty.

  13. Teacher Policy: A Framework for Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatto, Maria Teresa

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for analysis of teacher focused policy studies within an international and comparative perspective. Using the notion of the professional life cycle of teachers, the article examines examples of key empirical studies that illustrate the impact of policy on addressing such issues as teacher recruitment, education,…

  14. MycoCAP - Mycobacterium Comparative Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Ang, Mia Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Tan, Shi Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah

    2015-12-15

    Mycobacterium spp. are renowned for being the causative agent of diseases like leprosy, Buruli ulcer and tuberculosis in human beings. With more and more mycobacterial genomes being sequenced, any knowledge generated from comparative genomic analysis would provide better insights into the biology, evolution, phylogeny and pathogenicity of this genus, thus helping in better management of diseases caused by Mycobacterium spp.With this motivation, we constructed MycoCAP, a new comparative analysis platform dedicated to the important genus Mycobacterium. This platform currently provides information of 2108 genome sequences of at least 55 Mycobacterium spp. A number of intuitive web-based tools have been integrated in MycoCAP particularly for comparative analysis including the PGC tool for comparison between two genomes, PathoProT for comparing the virulence genes among the Mycobacterium strains and the SuperClassification tool for the phylogenic classification of the Mycobacterium strains and a specialized classification system for strains of Mycobacterium abscessus. We hope the broad range of functions and easy-to-use tools provided in MycoCAP makes it an invaluable analysis platform to speed up the research discovery on mycobacteria for researchers. Database URL: http://mycobacterium.um.edu.my.

  15. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  16. A bibliometric analysis of eutrophication literatures: an expanding and shifting focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Nan, Ruiqi

    2017-07-01

    This paper examined the eutrophication literatures from 1998 to 2015 using bibliometric techniques basing on the database of Science Citation Index. Bibliometric techniques, social network analysis, and mapping knowledge domains in this paper were used. The results revealed that article was the most used document type accounting for 94.79% (14,006) of the records. With the rapid development of eutrophication domain after 2004, the annual article publishing amount also grew notably in each country, with the list of US tops. International cooperation was not enough to compare with that between institutions. An author keyword analysis showed that "phosphorus," "nutrients," "nitrogen," "water quality," "phytoplankton," and "sediment" were the most popular keywords. And it was also found that climate change, life cycle assessment, and chlorophyll a appear with high frequency in recent years, indicating that the eutrophication mechanism analysis might turn from uni-factor microresearch to multi-factor macroresearch, and the eutrophication management research tends to be whole-process management research. In addition, the future focuses of research directions, including (1) eutrophication and its ecosystem response, (2) eutrophication management, (3) eutrophication and climate change interactions, (4) eutrophication monitoring and forecast, and (5) ecological restoration of eutrophication. These findings are useful for the future endeavor of eutrophication academic research.

  17. Comparative and demographic analysis of orangutan genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.; Worley, Kim C.; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Muzny, Donna M.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Wang, Zhengyuan; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Minx, Pat; Mitreva, Makedonka; Cook, Lisa; Delehaunty, Kim D.; Fronick, Catrina; Schmidt, Heather; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Nelson, Joanne O.; Magrini, Vincent; Pohl, Craig; Graves, Tina A.; Markovic, Chris; Cree, Andy; Dinh, Huyen H.; Hume, Jennifer; Kovar, Christie L.; Fowler, Gerald R.; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Heger, Andreas; Ponting, Chris P.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Eichler, Evan E.; White, Simon; Searle, Stephen; Vilella, Albert J.; Chen, Yuan; Flicek, Paul; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; Suh, Bernard; Burhans, Richard; Herrero, Javier; Haussler, David; Faria, Rui; Fernando, Olga; Darré, Fleur; Farré, Domènec; Gazave, Elodie; Oliva, Meritxell; Navarro, Arcadi; Roberto, Roberta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Valle, Giuliano Della; Purgato, Stefania; Rocchi, Mariano; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Ullmer, Brygg; Batzer, Mark A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Hubley, Robert; Casola, Claudio; Schrider, Daniel R.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xose S.; Ordoñez, Gonzalo R.; López-Otín, Carlos; Vinar, Tomas; Brejova, Brona; Ratan, Aakrosh; Harris, Robert S.; Miller, Webb; Kosiol, Carolin; Lawson, Heather A.; Taliwal, Vikas; Martins, André L.; Siepel, Adam; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Ma, Xin; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien Y.; Hobolth, Asger; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A.; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J.; Weinstock, George M.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Mardis, Elaine R.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    “Orangutan” is derived from the Malay term “man of the forest” and aptly describes the Southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orangutan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orangutan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orangutan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orangutan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orangutan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe the first primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orangutan genome structure. Orangutans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal1, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400k years ago (ya), is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orangutan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (Ne) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral Ne after the split, while Bornean Ne declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities

  18. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  19. Analysis of a Hybrid DC Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Web

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional controllable saturation reactor (CSR consists of single toroidal core, DC (direct current controlled loop (including DC controlled winding and DC biasing source and AC (alternating current excitation loop (including excitation winding and AC source. A detection winding and secondary winding are added up to the CSR configuration and form a hybrid DC comparator. The excitation current is asymmetric waveform when the CSR core is commonly stimulated by both AC and DC biasing sources, which just is the fundamental characteristic for the proposed comparator. Research shows the terminal voltage of the detection winding is asymmetric waveform when the secondary winding of the comparator is open and the CSR core is stimulated both by AC and DC biasing sources. Both theory analysis and experiment verify the feasibility of the differential RMS (root-mean-square between positive and negative half waves of the terminal voltage from the detection winding fitting for the feedback variance to balance DC biasing magnetic potential and form a self-balancing comparator. The zero-flux technique that the primary ampere-turn is equal to the secondary is the function base for the comparator. The operation details of the comparator including the control characteristics both of open-loop and close loop, the satiability judgment criterion, static error property and test range are introduced. The experimental results testify to the truth of the principle of the proposed DC comparator.

  20. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  1. Stent migration following endoscopic suture fixation of esophageal self-expandable metal stents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ryan; Prabhu, Anoop; Fujii-Lau, Larissa; Shannon, Carol; Singh, Siddharth

    2018-02-01

    Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are utilized for the management of benign and malignant esophageal conditions; however, covered SEMS are prone to migration. Endoscopic suture fixation may mitigate the migration risk of covered esophageal SEMS. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic suture fixation for covered esophageal SEMS. Following PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review from 2011 to 2016 to identify studies (case control/case series) reporting the technical success and migration rate of covered esophageal SEMS following endoscopic suture fixation. We searched multiple electronic databases and conference proceedings. We calculated pooled rates (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of technical success and stent migration using a random effects model. We identified 14 studies (212 patients) describing covered esophageal SEMS placement with endoscopic suture fixation. When reported, SEMS indications included leak/fistula (n = 75), stricture (n = 65), perforation (n = 10), and achalasia (n = 4). The pooled technical success rate was 96.7% (95% CI 92.3-98.6), without heterogeneity (I 2  = 0%). We identified 29 SEMS migrations at rate of 15.9% (95% CI 11.4-21.6), without heterogeneity (I 2  = 0%). Publication bias was observed, and using the trim-and-fill method, a more conservative estimate for stent migration was 17.0%. Suture-related adverse events were estimated to occur in 3.7% (95% CI 1.6-8.2) of cases. Endoscopic suture fixation of covered esophageal SEMS appears to reduce stent migration when compared to published rates of non-anchored SEMS. However, SEMS migration still occurs in approximately 1 out of 6 cases despite excellent immediate technical success and low risk of suture-related adverse events.

  2. Survival in extreme environment by "preserve-expand-specialize" strategy: lessons from comparative genomics of an anhydrobiotic midge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Kikawada, Takahiro

    2012-07-01

    Anhydrobiotic chironomid larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera) can withstand prolonged complete desiccation as well as other external stresses including ionizing radiation. Recent experiments showed that this insect is able to survive long-tern exposure to real outer space. At the same time, we found that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. Analysis of several remote populations of the chironomid in Africa that desiccation-related DNA damage might be a driving genetic force for rapid radiation within the species. First results of ongoing genome project suggest that origin and evolution of anhydrobiosis in this single insect species related to rapid duplication of the genes, coding late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) and other molecular agents directly involved in desiccation resistance in the cells. Analysis of genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in the larvae subjected to desiccation shows that joint-activity of large multiple-genes coding regions in the genome involved in control of anhydrobiosis-related molecular adaptations in the chironomid.

  3. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  4. Parameter-expanded data augmentation for Bayesian analysis of capture-recapture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Data augmentation (DA) is a flexible tool for analyzing closed and open population models of capture-recapture data, especially models which include sources of hetereogeneity among individuals. The essential concept underlying DA, as we use the term, is based on adding "observations" to create a dataset composed of a known number of individuals. This new (augmented) dataset, which includes the unknown number of individuals N in the population, is then analyzed using a new model that includes a reformulation of the parameter N in the conventional model of the observed (unaugmented) data. In the context of capture-recapture models, we add a set of "all zero" encounter histories which are not, in practice, observable. The model of the augmented dataset is a zero-inflated version of either a binomial or a multinomial base model. Thus, our use of DA provides a general approach for analyzing both closed and open population models of all types. In doing so, this approach provides a unified framework for the analysis of a huge range of models that are treated as unrelated "black boxes" and named procedures in the classical literature. As a practical matter, analysis of the augmented dataset by MCMC is greatly simplified compared to other methods that require specialized algorithms. For example, complex capture-recapture models of an augmented dataset can be fitted with popular MCMC software packages (WinBUGS or JAGS) by providing a concise statement of the model's assumptions that usually involves only a few lines of pseudocode. In this paper, we review the basic technical concepts of data augmentation, and we provide examples of analyses of closed-population models (M 0, M h , distance sampling, and spatial capture-recapture models) and open-population models (Jolly-Seber) with individual effects.

  5. Costa Rica Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: A bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-01-01

    A pesar de su pequeño tamaño, el país centroamerica- no de Costa Rica es reconocido internacionalmente como uno de los líderes mundiales en la conservación y como el líder centroamericano en la ciencia. No se han realizado estudios recientes sobre la producción científica del país. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la producción científica de Costa Rica, tal como se representa en el Science Citation Index Expanded. Todos los documentos con “Costa Rica” en el campo de dirección de 1981 ...

  6. Classic articles in Psychology in the Science Citation Index Expanded: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuh-Shan; Hartley, James

    2016-11-01

    Who today are the most highly cited psychologists listed in the Web of Science? This paper reports answers to this question by using the Science Citation Index Expanded to find out. This index covers over 280,350 documents in the Psychology category of the Web of Science from 1900 to 2013 and lists the most highly cited papers published between 1927 and 2012. For example, in 2013, an article published by Jacob Cohen in 1992 obtained (1) the highest ranking with 1,068 citations, (2) the highest for total citations per year, and (3) was ranked 3rd for the total number of citations since publication by 2013. New technology thus provides a seismic shift in the ways that we can obtain and analyse data like these. Indeed, the results for the top 10 articles indicate that practical and methodological papers now receive more citations than the more theoretical papers usually found in earlier surveys. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Solar Energy Validation for Strategic Investment Planning via Comparative Data Mining Methods: An Expanded Example within the Cities of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya H. Yuregir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply together with the data management is one of the key challenges of our century. Specifically, to decrease the climate change effects as energy requirement increases day by day poses a serious dilemma. It can be adequately reconciled with innovative data management in (renewable energy technologies. The new environmental-friendly planning methods and investments that are discussed by researchers, governments, NGOs, and companies will give the basic and most important variables in shaping the future. We use modern data mining methods (SOM and K-Means and official governmental statistics for clustering cities according to their consumption similarities, the level of welfare, and growth rate and compare them with their potential of renewable resources with the help of Rapid Miner 5.1 and MATLAB software. The data mining was chosen to make the possible secret relations visible within the variables that can be unpredictable at first sight. Here, we aim to see the success level of the chosen algorithms in validation process simultaneously with the utilized software. Additionally, we aim to improve innovative approach for decision-makers and stakeholders about which renewable resource is the most suitable for an exact region by taking care of different variables at the same time.

  8. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  9. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  10. Comparative genome analysis of Enterobacter cloacae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Liu

    Full Text Available The Enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of bacteria that are associated with plants, soil and humans. Publication of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophytic E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 provided an opportunity to perform the first comparative genome analysis between strains of this dynamic species. Examination of the pan-genome of E. cloacae showed that the conserved core genome retains the general physiological and survival genes of the species, while genomic factors in plasmids and variable regions determine the virulence of the human pathogenic E. cloacae strain; additionally, the diversity of fimbriae contributes to variation in colonization and host determination of different E. cloacae strains. Comparative genome analysis further illustrated that E. cloacae strains possess multiple mechanisms for antagonistic action against other microorganisms, which involve the production of siderophores and various antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins, chitinases and antibiotic resistance proteins. The presence of Type VI secretion systems is expected to provide further fitness advantages for E. cloacae in microbial competition, thus allowing it to survive in different environments. Competition assays were performed to support our observations in genomic analysis, where E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 demonstrated antagonistic activities against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial species.

  11. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce-Johnson Patricio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  12. Inpatient care in Kazakhstan: A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ainur B; Izekenova, Aigulsum; Abikulova, Akmaral

    2013-07-01

    Reforms in inpatient care are critical for the enhancement of the efficiency of health systems. It still remains the main costly sector of the health system, accounting for more than 60% of all expenditures. Inappropriate and ineffective use of the hospital infrastructure is also a big issue. We aimed to analyze statistical data on health indices and dynamics of the hospital stock in Kazakhstan in comparison with those of developed countries. Study design is comparative quantitative analysis of inpatient care indicators. We used information and analytical methods, content analysis, mathematical treatment, and comparative analysis of statistical data on health system and dynamics of hospital stock in Kazakhstan and some other countries of the world [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), USA, Canada, Russia, China, Japan, and Korea] over the period 2001-2011. Despite substantial and continuous reductions over the past 10 years, hospitalization rates in Kazakhstan still remain high compared to some developed countries, including those of the OECD. In fact, the hospital stay length for all patients in Kazakhstan in 2011 is around 9.9 days, hospitalization ratio per 100 people is 16.3, and hospital beds capacity is 100 per 10,000 inhabitants. The decreased level of beds may adversely affect both medical organization and health system operations. Alternatives to the existing inpatient care are now being explored. The introduction of the unified national healthcare system allows shifting the primary focus on primary care organizations, which can decrease the demand on inpatient care as a result of improving the health status of people at the primary care level.

  13. Inpatient care in Kazakhstan: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur B Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reforms in inpatient care are critical for the enhancement of the efficiency of health systems. It still remains the main costly sector of the health system, accounting for more than 60% of all expenditures. Inappropriate and ineffective use of the hospital infrastructure is also a big issue. We aimed to analyze statistical data on health indices and dynamics of the hospital stock in Kazakhstan in comparison with those of developed countries. Materials and Methods: Study design is comparative quantitative analysis of inpatient care indicators. We used information and analytical methods, content analysis, mathematical treatment, and comparative analysis of statistical data on health system and dynamics of hospital stock in Kazakhstan and some other countries of the world [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, USA, Canada, Russia, China, Japan, and Korea] over the period 2001-2011. Results : Despite substantial and continuous reductions over the past 10 years, hospitalization rates in Kazakhstan still remain high compared to some developed countries, including those of the OECD. In fact, the hospital stay length for all patients in Kazakhstan in 2011 is around 9.9 days, hospitalization ratio per 100 people is 16.3, and hospital beds capacity is 100 per 10,000 inhabitants. Conclusion: The decreased level of beds may adversely affect both medical organization and health system operations. Alternatives to the existing inpatient care are now being explored. The introduction of the unified national healthcare system allows shifting the primary focus on primary care organizations, which can decrease the demand on inpatient care as a result of improving the health status of people at the primary care level.

  14. Comparative analysis of black carbon in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Skjemstad, Jan O.; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Glaser, Bruno; Prentice, Ken M.; Gelinas, Yves; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2001-03-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation, occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. BC exists as a continuum from partly charred material to highly graphitized soot particles, with no general agreement on clear-cut boundaries of definition or analysis. In a comparative analysis, we measured BC forms in eight soil samples by six established methods. All methods involved removal of the non-BC components from the sample by thermal or chemical means or a combination of both. The remaining carbon, operationally defined as BC, was quantified via mass balance, elemental composition or by exploiting benzenecarboxylic acids as molecular markers or applying 13C MAS NMR (magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. BC concentrations measured for individual samples vary over 2 orders of magnitude (up to a factor of 571). One possible explanation for this wide range of results is that the individual BC methods rely on operational definitions with clear-cut but different boundaries and developed for specific scientific questions, whereas BC represents a continuum of materials with widely contrasting physicochemical properties. Thus the methods are inherently designed to analytically determine different parts of the continuum, and it is crucial to know how measurements made by different techniques relate to each other. It is clear from this preliminary comparative analysis that a collection of BC reference materials should be established as soon as possible 1 ) to ensure long-term intralaboratory and interlaboratory data quality and 2) to facilitate comparative analyses between different analytical techniques and scientific approaches

  15. Finite element analysis of residual stress in cold expanded plate with different thickness and expansion ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin Shariffudin, Kamarul; Karuppanan, Saravanan; Patil, Santosh S.

    2017-10-01

    Cold expansion of fastener/rivet holes is a common way to generate beneficial compressive residual stress around the fastener hole. In this study, cold expansion process was simulated by finite-element method in order to determine the residual stress field around two cold expanded holes by varying the plate thickness and expansion ratio of the hole. The model was developed in ANSYS and assigned to aluminium alloy 7475-T61 material model. The results showed that the residual stress become more compressive as the plate thickness is increased up to t/d = 2.6 and decreased for further level of thickness. In addition, the residual stress at the edge of the hole become more compressive as the expansion ratio is increased up to 4.5% and decreased for further level of expansion. This study also found that the residual stresses near the entrance and the exit face of the plate are less compressive than the residual stresses on the mid-thickness of the plate.

  16. Comparative Analysis of 37 Acinetobacter Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dann Turner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Acinetobacter are ubiquitous in the environment and the multiple-drug resistant species A. baumannii is of significant clinical concern. This clinical relevance is currently driving research on bacterial viruses infecting A. baumannii, in an effort to implement phage therapy and phage-derived antimicrobials. Initially, a total of 42 Acinetobacter phage genome sequences were available in the international nucleotide sequence databases, corresponding to a total of 2.87 Mbp of sequence information and representing all three families of the order Caudovirales and a single member of the Leviviridae. A comparative bioinformatics analysis of 37 Acinetobacter phages revealed that they form six discrete clusters and two singletons based on genomic organisation and nucleotide sequence identity. The assignment of these phages to clusters was further supported by proteomic relationships established using OrthoMCL. The 4067 proteins encoded by the 37 phage genomes formed 737 groups and 974 orphans. Notably, over half of the proteins encoded by the Acinetobacter phages are of unknown function. The comparative analysis and clustering presented enables an updated taxonomic framing of these clades.

  17. Comparative analysis of solar photovoltaic monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeti, Siva Ramakrishna; Singh, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is focused on comparative analysis of photovoltaic (PV) monitoring system for observing the performance and stability of the system. The cost and complexity of existing PV monitoring systems restricted their use to large scale PV plants. Over the past decade, different aspects of the PV monitoring systems were reported in the wide range of literature. In this paper, a comparative analysis of various PV monitoring systems is presented for the first time. It is based on analyzing six main characteristics of PV monitoring system, such as data transfer mechanism, controller, monitoring parameters, sampling interval, program development software and monitoring methods. The comparison of methodologies and the description of implementation process are discussed in this context. The key findings of this study will contribute to the development of a new PV monitoring system. The acquaintance of all these aspects is crucial for the development of effective, low cost, and viable PV monitoring systems for the small and medium scale PV plants without compromising on the desired performance.

  18. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  19. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Koid

    Full Text Available Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koid, Amy E; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C; Caron, David A; Heidelberg, Karla B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists.

  2. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  3. Expanding Bicycle-Sharing Systems: Lessons Learnt from an Analysis of Usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Bike-sharing programs, with initiatives to increase bike use and improve accessibility of urban transit, have received increasing attention in growing number of cities across the world. The latest generation of bike-sharing systems has employed smart card technology that produces station-based data or trip-level data. This facilitates the studies of the practical use of these systems. However, few studies have paid attention to the changes in users and system usage over the years, as well as the impact of system expansion on its usage. Monitoring the changes of system usage over years enables the identification of system performance and can serve as an input for improving the location-allocation of stations. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of the expansion of a bicycle-sharing system on the usage of the system. This was conducted for a bicycle-sharing system in Zhongshan (China, using operational usage data of different years following system expansion. To this end, we performed statistical and spatial analyses to examine the changes in both users and system usage between before and after the system expansion. The findings show that there is a big variation in users and aggregate usage following the system expansion. However, the trend in spatial distribution of demand shows no substantial difference over the years, i.e. the same high-demand and low-demand areas appear. There are decreases in demand for some old stations over the years, which can be attributed to either the negative performance of the system or the competition of nearby new stations. Expanding the system not only extends the original users' ability to reach new areas but also attracts new users to use bike-sharing systems. In the conclusions, we present and discuss the findings, and offer recommendations for the further expansion of system.

  4. Costa Rica Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:: A bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country’s scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with “Costa Rica” in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications. Articles (79% were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%. Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%, followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%. The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484 with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican

  5. From Musical Detectives to DJs: Expanding Aural Skills and Analysis through Engaging Popular Music and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2015-01-01

    Many music educators address aural skills and analysis by drawing on strategies designed for the realm of Western classical music. Focusing solely on aural skills and analysis within paradigms of Western music can limit students' musical learning and engagement to particular ways of knowing music. To diversify and broaden the types of aural skills…

  6. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  7. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  8. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Media Competences Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the results of survey of university students’ media literacy competence (on the base of a classification of indicators of media literacy competence of the audience as an effective tool for comparative analysis of the levels of development of media competence of students of the control and experimental groups: the level of media competence of students who have a one-year training course in the framework of media literacy education courses four times higher than in similar indicators in the control group. Analysis of the results of this survey confirmed the general trend of media contacts of student audience – its orientation to entertainment genres of audiovisual media, visually appealing; positive, active, unmarried, childless, educated, highly qualified characters (primarily – male characters aged 19 to 35 years. These heroes are characteristic optimism, independence, intelligence, emotion. They have an excellent command of the life situation and have a positive impact on the development progress of the plot of a media text.

  10. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat.

  11. Costa Rica Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:: A bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country’s scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with “Costa Rica” in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications. Articles (79% were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%. Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%, followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%. The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484 with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican

  12. Moving beyond Citation Analysis: How Surveys and Interviews Enhance, Enrich, and Expand Your Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    deVries, Susann; Kelly, Robert; Storm, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional mixed methods research model of citation analysis, a survey, and interviews was selected to determine if the Bruce T. Halle Library at Eastern Michigan University owned the content that faculty cited in their research, if the collection was being utilized, and what library services the faculty used. The combination of objective data…

  13. Analysis of time in establishing synchronization radio communication system with expanded spectrum conditions for communication with mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinovic, T. S.; Kalabic, S. B.; Barz, C. R.; Petrica, P. Paul; Pop-Vădean, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of the Doppler Effect on the length of time to establish synchronization pseudorandom sequences in radio communications systems with an expanded spectrum. Also, this paper explores the possibility of using secure wireless communication for modular robots. Wireless communication could be used for local and global communication. We analyzed a radio communication system integrator, including the two effects of the Doppler signal on the duration of establishing synchronization of the received and locally generated pseudorandom sequence. The effects of the impact of the variability of the phase were analyzed between the said sequences and correspondence of the phases of these signals with the interval of time of acquisition of received sequences. An analysis of these impacts is essential in the transmission of signal and protection of the transfer of information in the communication systems with an expanded range (telecommunications, mobile telephony, Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS, and wireless communication). Results show that wireless communication can provide a safety approach for communication with mobile robots.

  14. PIIKA 2: an expanded, web-based platform for analysis of kinome microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Brett; Kindrachuk, Jason; Määttänen, Pekka; Napper, Scott; Kusalik, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Kinome microarrays are comprised of peptides that act as phosphorylation targets for protein kinases. This platform is growing in popularity due to its ability to measure phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling in a high-throughput manner. While software for analyzing data from DNA microarrays has also been used for kinome arrays, differences between the two technologies and associated biologies previously led us to develop Platform for Intelligent, Integrated Kinome Analysis (PIIKA), a software tool customized for the analysis of data from kinome arrays. Here, we report the development of PIIKA 2, a significantly improved version with new features and improvements in the areas of clustering, statistical analysis, and data visualization. Among other additions to the original PIIKA, PIIKA 2 now allows the user to: evaluate statistically how well groups of samples cluster together; identify sets of peptides that have consistent phosphorylation patterns among groups of samples; perform hierarchical clustering analysis with bootstrapping; view false negative probabilities and positive and negative predictive values for t-tests between pairs of samples; easily assess experimental reproducibility; and visualize the data using volcano plots, scatterplots, and interactive three-dimensional principal component analyses. Also new in PIIKA 2 is a web-based interface, which allows users unfamiliar with command-line tools to easily provide input and download the results. Collectively, the additions and improvements described here enhance both the breadth and depth of analyses available, simplify the user interface, and make the software an even more valuable tool for the analysis of kinome microarray data. Both the web-based and stand-alone versions of PIIKA 2 can be accessed via http://saphire.usask.ca.

  15. PIIKA 2: an expanded, web-based platform for analysis of kinome microarray data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Trost

    Full Text Available Kinome microarrays are comprised of peptides that act as phosphorylation targets for protein kinases. This platform is growing in popularity due to its ability to measure phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling in a high-throughput manner. While software for analyzing data from DNA microarrays has also been used for kinome arrays, differences between the two technologies and associated biologies previously led us to develop Platform for Intelligent, Integrated Kinome Analysis (PIIKA, a software tool customized for the analysis of data from kinome arrays. Here, we report the development of PIIKA 2, a significantly improved version with new features and improvements in the areas of clustering, statistical analysis, and data visualization. Among other additions to the original PIIKA, PIIKA 2 now allows the user to: evaluate statistically how well groups of samples cluster together; identify sets of peptides that have consistent phosphorylation patterns among groups of samples; perform hierarchical clustering analysis with bootstrapping; view false negative probabilities and positive and negative predictive values for t-tests between pairs of samples; easily assess experimental reproducibility; and visualize the data using volcano plots, scatterplots, and interactive three-dimensional principal component analyses. Also new in PIIKA 2 is a web-based interface, which allows users unfamiliar with command-line tools to easily provide input and download the results. Collectively, the additions and improvements described here enhance both the breadth and depth of analyses available, simplify the user interface, and make the software an even more valuable tool for the analysis of kinome microarray data. Both the web-based and stand-alone versions of PIIKA 2 can be accessed via http://saphire.usask.ca.

  16. Self-expanding metallic stent as a bridge to surgery in the treatment of left colon cancer obstruction: Cost-benefit analysis and oncologic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-Lorente, Blas; Báguena, Gloria; Frasson, Matteo; García-Granero, Alvaro; Cervantes, Andrés; Sanchiz, Vicente; Peña, Andres; Espí, Alejandro; Esclapez, Pedro; García-Granero, Eduardo

    2017-03-01

    The use of a self-expanding metallic stent as a bridge to surgery in acute malignant left colonic obstruction has been suggested as an alternative treatment to emergency surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the morbi-mortality, cost-benefit and long-term oncological outcomes of both therapeutic options. This is a prospective, comparative, controlled, non-randomized study (2005-2010) performed in a specialized unit. The study included 82 patients with left colon cancer obstruction treated by stent as a bridge to surgery (n=27) or emergency surgery (n=55) operated with local curative intention. The main outcome measures (postoperative morbi-mortaliy, cost-benefit, stoma rate and long-term oncological outcomes) were compared based on an "intention-to-treat" analysis. There were no significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of preoperative data and tumor characteristics. The technically successful stenting rate was 88.9% (11.1% perforation during stent placement) and clinical success was 81.4%. No difference was observed in postoperative morbi-mortality rates. The primary anastomosis rate was higher in the bridge to surgery group compared to the emergency surgery group (77.8% vs. 56.4%; P=.05). The mean costs in the emergency surgery group resulted to be €1,391.9 more expensive per patient than in the bridge to surgery group. There was no significant statistical difference in oncological long-term outcomes. The use of self-expanding metalllic stents as a bridge to surgery is a safe option in the urgent treatment of obstructive left colon cancer, with similar short and long-term results compared to direct surgery, inferior mean costs and a higher rate of primary anastomosis. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    paper a comparative analysis of selected models involving multiple users in an interaction is provided in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today's multi-user interaction task modeling. This comparative analysis is based on three families of criteria: information criteria, conceptual coverage, and expressiveness. Merging the meta-models of the selected models enables to come up with a broader meta-model that could be instantiated in most situations involving multi-user interaction, like workflow information systems, CSCW.

  18. Predictive and comparative analysis of Ebolavirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-01-01

    Ebolavirus is the pathogen for Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF). This disease exhibits a high fatality rate and has recently reached a historically epidemic proportion in West Africa. Out of the 5 known Ebolavirus species, only Reston ebolavirus has lost human pathogenicity, while retaining the ability to cause EHF in long-tailed macaque. Significant efforts have been spent to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Ebolavirus proteins, to study their interaction with host proteins, and to identify the functional motifs in these viral proteins. Here, in light of these experimental results, we apply computational analysis to predict the 3D structures and functional sites for Ebolavirus protein domains with unknown structure, including a zinc-finger domain of VP30, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic domain and a methyltransferase domain of protein L. In addition, we compare sequences of proteins that interact with Ebolavirus proteins from RESTV-resistant primates with those from RESTV-susceptible monkeys. The host proteins that interact with GP and VP35 show an elevated level of sequence divergence between the RESTV-resistant and RESTV-susceptible species, suggesting that they may be responsible for host specificity. Meanwhile, we detect variable positions in protein sequences that are likely associated with the loss of human pathogenicity in RESTV, map them onto the 3D structures and compare their positions to known functional sites. VP35 and VP30 are significantly enriched in these potential pathogenicity determinants and the clustering of such positions on the surfaces of VP35 and GP suggests possible uncharacterized interaction sites with host proteins that contribute to the virulence of Ebolavirus.

  19. Expanding the applicability of random regret minimization for route choice analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The discrete choice paradigm of random regret minimization (RRM) has been recently proposed in several choice contexts. In the route choice context, the paradigm has been used to model the choice among three routes and to formulate regret-based stochastic user equilibrium. However, in the same...... context the RRM literature has not confronted three major challenges: (i) accounting for similarities across alternative routes, (ii) analyzing choice set composition effects on choice probabilities, and (iii) comparing RRMbased models with advanced RUM-based models. This paper looks into RRM-based route...... choice models from these three perspectives by (i) proposing utility-based and regret-based correction terms to account for similarities across alternatives, (ii) analyzing the variation of choice set probabilities with the choice set composition, and (iii) comparing RRM-based route choice models with C...

  20. Comparative analysis of haplotype association mapping algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletcher Mathew T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding the genetic causes of quantitative traits is a complex and difficult task. Classical methods for mapping quantitative trail loci (QTL in miceuse an F2 cross between two strains with substantially different phenotype and an interval mapping method to compute confidence intervals at each position in the genome. This process requires significant resources for breeding and genotyping, and the data generated are usually only applicable to one phenotype of interest. Recently, we reported the application of a haplotype association mapping method which utilizes dense genotyping data across a diverse panel of inbred mouse strains and a marker association algorithm that is independent of any specific phenotype. As the availability of genotyping data grows in size and density, analysis of these haplotype association mapping methods should be of increasing value to the statistical genetics community. Results We describe a detailed comparative analysis of variations on our marker association method. In particular, we describe the use of inferred haplotypes from adjacent SNPs, parametric and nonparametric statistics, and control of multiple testing error. These results show that nonparametric methods are slightly better in the test cases we study, although the choice of test statistic may often be dependent on the specific phenotype and haplotype structure being studied. The use of multi-SNP windows to infer local haplotype structure is critical to the use of a diverse panel of inbred strains for QTL mapping. Finally, because the marginal effect of any single gene in a complex disease is often relatively small, these methods require the use of sensitive methods for controlling family-wise error. We also report our initial application of this method to phenotypes cataloged in the Mouse Phenome Database. Conclusion The use of inbred strains of mice for QTL mapping has many advantages over traditional methods. However, there are also

  1. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  2. Expanded Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  3. Using expanded real options analysis to evaluate capacity expansion decisions under uncertainty in the construction material industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momani, Amer Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Capacity expansion generally requires large capital expenditure on illiquid assets. Therefore, decisions to enlarge capacity must support the organisation’s strategic objectives and provide valuable input for the budgeting process. This paper applies an expanded form of Real Options Analysis (ROA to generate and evaluate capacity expansion strategies under uncertainty in the construction material industry. ROA is applied to different expansion strategies associated with different demand scenarios. Evaluating a wider variety of strategies can reduce risk and sponsor decisions that maximise the firm’s value. The case study shows that the execution of a lead expansion strategy with 10-year intervals under a 50 per cent demand satisfaction scenario produces superior results.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KURT

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed in two information categories as personal information and institutes and their virtual education applications. The English web design of the online questionnaire and the database has been prepared by Microsoft ASP codes which is the script language of Microsoft Front Page editor and has been tested on personal web site. The questionnaire has been pre applied in institutions providing virtual education in Australia. The English text of the questionnaire and web site design have been sent to educational technology and virtual education specialists in the countries of the study group. With the feedback received, the spelling mistakes have been corrected and concept and language validity have been completed. The application of the questionnaire has taken 40 weeks during March-November 2004. Only 135 institutes have replied. Two of the questionnaires have been discharged because they included mistaken coding, names of the institutions and countries. Valid 133 questionnaires cover approximately 44% of the study group. Questionnaires saved in the online database have been transferred to Microsoft Excel and then to SPSS by external database connection. In regards of the research objectives, the data collected has been analyzed on computer and by using SPSS statistics package program. In data analysis frequency (f, percentage (% and arithmetic mean ( have been used. In comparisons of country, institute, year, and other variables, che-square test, independent t

  5. Likelihood Analysis of Multivariate Probit Models Using a Parameter Expanded MCEM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiping; Craig, Bruce A

    2010-08-01

    Multivariate binary data arise in a variety of settings. In this paper, we propose a practical and efficient computational framework for maximum likelihood estimation of multivariate probit regression models. This approach uses the Monte Carlo EM (MCEM) algorithm, with parameter expansion to complete the M-step, to avoid the direct evaluation of the intractable multivariate normal orthant probabilities. The parameter expansion not only enables a closed-form solution in the M-step but also improves efficiency. Using the simulation studies, we compare the performance of our approach with the MCEM algorithms developed by Chib and Greenberg (1998) and Song and Lee (2005), as well as the iterative approach proposed by Li and Schafer (2008). Our approach is further illustrated using a real-world example.

  6. Likelihood Analysis of Multivariate Probit Models Using a Parameter Expanded MCEM Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiping; Craig, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate binary data arise in a variety of settings. In this paper, we propose a practical and efficient computational framework for maximum likelihood estimation of multivariate probit regression models. This approach uses the Monte Carlo EM (MCEM) algorithm, with parameter expansion to complete the M-step, to avoid the direct evaluation of the intractable multivariate normal orthant probabilities. The parameter expansion not only enables a closed-form solution in the M-step but also improves efficiency. Using the simulation studies, we compare the performance of our approach with the MCEM algorithms developed by Chib and Greenberg (1998) and Song and Lee (2005), as well as the iterative approach proposed by Li and Schafer (2008). Our approach is further illustrated using a real-world example. PMID:21042430

  7. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    missions for various combinations of clock and state arc length. Thereby, we quantify the relative capabilities of the one- and two-way laser range systems. In addition, we study the optimal data analysis strategies for these missions, which we apply for LRO orbit determination. Finally, we compare the performance of the laser ranging systems with typical DSN tracking.

  8. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  9. AUDITOR ROTATION - A CRITICAL AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocanu Mihaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts out from the challenge regarding auditor tenure launched in 2010 by the Green Paper of the European Commission Audit Policy: Lessons from the Crisis. According to this document, the European Commission speaks both in favor of the mandatory rotation of the audit firm, and in favor of the mandatory rotation of audit partners. Rotation is considered a solution to mitigate threats to independence generated by familiarity, intimidation and self-interest in the context of a long-term audit-client relationship. At international level, there are several studies on auditor rotation, both empirical (e.g. Lu and Sivaramakrishnan, 2009, Li, 2010, Kaplan and Mauldin, 2008, Jackson et al., 2008 and normative in nature (e.g. Marten et al., 2007, Muller, 2006 and Gelter, 2004. The objective of the present paper is to perform a critical and comparative analysis of the regulations on internal and external rotation in force at international level, in the European Union and in the United States of America. Moreover, arguments both in favor and against mandatory rotation are brought into discussion. With regard to the research design, the paper has a normative approach. The main findings are first of all that by comparison, all regulatory authorities require internal rotation at least in the case of public interest entities, while the external rotation is not in the focus of the regulators. In general, the most strict and detailed requirements are those issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission from the United States of America. Second of all, in favor of mandatory rotation speaks the fact that the auditor becomes less resilient in case of divergence of opinions between him and company management, less stimulated to follow his own interest, and more scrupulous in conducting the audit. However, mandatory rotation may also have negative consequences, thus the debate on the opportunity of this regulatory measure remains open-ended.

  10. Migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene containers and discrimination of these two kinds of polystyrene by principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qin-Bao; Song, Xue-Chao; Fang, Hong; Wu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) containers into isooctane was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). EPS containers were in two-sided contact with isooctane at temperatures of 25 and 40°C. It was shown that recycled EPS gave greater migration ratios compared with virgin EPS, which indicated that styrene and ethylbenzene migrated more easily from recycled EPS. In addition, an analytical method to distinguish between virgin and recycled EPS containers was established by GC-MS followed by principal component analysis (PCA). The relative peak area of the identified compounds was used as input data for PCA. Distinct separation between virgin and recycled EPS was achieved on a score plot. Extension of this method to other plastics may be of great interest for recycled plastics identification.

  11. An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsons, Kari; Johnson, Sara K

    2013-08-01

    Since Amato and Gilbreth's (1999) meta-analysis of nonresident father involvement and child well-being, nonmarital childbirths and nonresident father involvement both have increased. The unknown implications of such changes motivated the present study, a meta-analytic review of 52 studies of nonresident father involvement and child well-being. Consistent with Amato and Gilbreth, we found that positive forms of involvement were associated with benefits for children, with a small but statistically significant effect size. Amounts of father-child contact and financial provision, however, were not associated with child well-being. Going beyond Amato and Gilbreth, we analyzed the associations between different types of fathering and overall child well-being, and between overall father involvement and different types of child well-being. We found that nonresident father involvement was most strongly associated with children's social well-being and also was associated with children's emotional well-being, academic achievement, and behavioral adjustment. The forms of father involvement most strongly associated with child well-being were involvement in child-related activities, having positive father-child relationships, and engaging in multiple forms of involvement. Moderator analyses demonstrated variation in effect sizes based on both study characteristics and demographic variables. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy and practice. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  12. Network analysis of transcriptomics expands regulatory landscapes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Ryan S.; Overall, Christopher C.; McDermott, Jason E.; Hill, Eric A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; McCue, Lee Ann; Taylor, Ronald C.; Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-08-27

    Cyanobacterial regulation of gene expression must contend with a genome organization that lacks apparent functional context, as the majority of cellular processes and metabolic pathways are encoded by genes found at disparate locations across the genome. In addition, the fact that coordinated regulation of cyanobacterial cellular machinery takes place with significantly fewer transcription factors, compared to other Eubacteria, suggests the involvement of post-transcriptional mechanisms and regulatory adaptations which are not fully understood. Global transcript abundance from model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 grown under 42 different conditions was analyzed using context-likelihood of relatedness. The resulting 903-gene network, which was organized into 11 modules, not only allowed classification of cyanobacterial responses to specific environmental variables but provided insight into the transcriptional network topology and led to the expansion of predicted regulons. When used in conjunction with genome sequence, the global transcript abundance allowed identification of putative post-transcriptional changes in expression as well as novel potential targets of both DNA binding proteins and asRNA regulators. The results offer a new perspective into the multi-level regulation that governs cellular adaptations of fast-growing physiologically robust cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to changing environmental variables. It also extends a methodological knowledge-based framework for studying multi-scale regulatory mechanisms that operate in cyanobacteria. Finally, it provides valuable context for integrating systems-level data to enhance evidence-driven genomic annotation, especially in organisms where traditional context analyses cannot be implemented due to lack of operon-based functional organization.

  13. Analysis of environmental constraints on expanding reserves in current and future reservoirs in wetlands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    Louisiana wetlands require careful management to allow exploitation of non-renewable resources without destroying renewable resources. Current regulatory requirements have been moderately successful in meeting this goal by restricting development in wetland habitats. Continuing public emphasis on reducing environmental impacts of resource development is causing regulators to reassess their regulations and operators to rethink their compliance strategies. We examined the regulatory system and found that reducing the number of applications required by going to a single application process and having a coherent map of the steps required for operations in wetland areas would reduce regulatory burdens. Incremental changes can be made to regulations to allow one agency to be the lead for wetland permitting at minimal cost to operators. Operators need cost effective means of access that will reduce environmental impacts, decrease permitting time, and limit future liability. Regulators and industry must partner to develop incentive based regulations that can provide significant environmental impact reduction for minimal economic cost. In addition regulators need forecasts of future E&P trends to estimate the impact of future regulations. To determine future activity we attempted to survey potential operators when this approach was unsuccessful we created two econometric models of north and south Louisiana relating drilling activity, success ratio, and price to predict future wetland activity. Results of the econometric models indicate that environmental regulations have a small but statistically significant effect on drilling operations in wetland areas of Louisiana. We examined current wetland practices and evaluated those practices comparing environmental versus economic costs and created a method for ranking the practices.

  14. Performance analysis of orthogonal pairs designed for an expanded eukaryotic genetic code.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Nehring

    Full Text Available The suppression of amber stop codons with non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs is used for the site-specific introduction of many unusual functions into proteins. Specific orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (o-aaRS/amber suppressor tRNA(CUA pairs (o-pairs for the incorporation of ncAAs in S. cerevisiae were previously selected from an E. coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA(CUA mutant library. Incorporation fidelity relies on the specificity of the o-aaRSs for their ncAAs and the ability to effectively discriminate against their natural substrate Tyr or any other canonical amino acid.We used o-pairs previously developed for ncAAs carrying reactive alkyne-, azido-, or photocrosslinker side chains to suppress an amber mutant of human superoxide dismutase 1 in S. cerevisiae. We found worse incorporation efficiencies of the alkyne- and the photocrosslinker ncAAs than reported earlier. In our hands, amber suppression with the ncAA containing the azido group did not occur at all. In addition to the incorporation experiments in S. cerevisiae, we analyzed the catalytic properties of the o-aaRSs in vitro. Surprisingly, all o-aaRSs showed much higher preference for their natural substrate Tyr than for any of the tested ncAAs. While it is unclear why efficiently recognized Tyr is not inserted at amber codons, we speculate that metabolically inert ncAAs accumulate in the cell, and for this reason they are incorporated despite being weak substrates for the o-aaRSs.O-pairs have been developed for a whole plethora of ncAAs. However, a systematic and detailed analysis of their catalytic properties is still missing. Our study provides a comprehensive scrutiny of o-pairs developed for the site-specific incorporation of reactive ncAAs in S. cerevisiae. It suggests that future development of o-pairs as efficient biotechnological tools will greatly benefit from sound characterization in vivo and in vitro in parallel to monitoring intracellular ncAA levels.

  15. Outcome With the Repositionable and Retrievable Boston Scientific Lotus Valve Compared With the Balloon-Expandable Edwards Sapien 3 Valve in Patients Undergoing Transfemoral Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    New generation devices for transfemoral aortic valve replacement were optimized on valve positioning and reduction of residual aortic regurgitation. We compared 30-day, 12-month, and 24-month outcomes of the Boston Scientific Lotus valve (Lotus) and the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien 3 (ES3) valve. Primary end point was all-cause mortality or disabling stroke within 12 months. Between 2014 and 2016, 537 patients were enrolled at our center, and 202 patients received Lotus and 335 ES3. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation was lower with the repositionable and retrievable Lotus valve compared with the ES3. Rate of pacemaker implantation was significantly higher with the Lotus valve compared with the ES3 valve (36.1% versus 14.9%, P<0.01). Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 early safety end point at 30 days was 7.4% with both devices with no difference in all-cause mortality (Lotus, 1.9%; ES3, 1.8%; P=0.87), rate of disabling stroke (Lotus, 1.5%; ES3, 2.1%; P=0.62), or major vascular complications (Lotus, 2.9%; ES3, 2.4%; P=0.69). The primary end point at 12 months was similar between groups. In a propensity score-matched comparison, there was no difference in the primary end point within 12 months (Lotus, 15.5%; ES3, 18.6%; P=0.69) and 24 months (Lotus, 21.9%; ES3, 26.4%; P=0.49). Transfemoral aortic valve replacement with the ES3 and the Lotus were associated with similar 30-day, 12-month, and 24-month clinical outcomes. Need for permanent pacemaker implantation was significantly higher with the repositionable Lotus device. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02162069. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Expanding public health in China: an empirical analysis of healthcare inputs and outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F; Lv, J H; Wang, H L; Gao, J M; Zhou, Z L

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese Government claims that China's health policy is primarily focused on prevention. However, this does not appear to be the case. Researchers with an interest in China's health policy may be aware that the Chinese Government launched a health reform in 2009 to improve the health status of the entire population by 2020.1 This health reform has been in place for 7 years, and only 4 years now remain to achieve the overall objectives by 2020. This study analyzed the main inputs and outputs of China's health reform in order to identify the main problems and highlight the major challenges. It is hoped that this study will provide some reference for health reform in China and other developing countries. This study focused on health, with human resources and healthcare costs as the main input indicators, and 2-week prevalence of illness and prevalence of non-communicable diseases as the main output indicators. By longitudinal comparison of real data from 2009 to 2014, the effects of China's health reform were analyzed to identify the main challenges, enabling suggestions to be made for future reference. This was a retrospective analysis of empirical data. Data were collected between 2009 and 2014 as follows: (1) data on the distribution of healthcare professionals were collected from the Statistical Bulletin of China's Health Development, issued by the National Health and Family Planning Commission every year between 2009 and 2014; (2) data on government health expenditure were obtained from the Annual National Public Fiscal Expenditure Data, released by the Financial Ministry of the People's Republic of China from 2009 to 2014; (3) data on the prevalence of chronic diseases, 2-week prevalence of illness, residents' medical service demands, and utilization of health services were obtained from the Fourth and Fifth National Health Care Surveys in 2008 and 2013; and (4) data on total healthcare expenditure, medical expenditure and out-of-pocket payments were

  17. Radial dilation of nephrostomy balloons: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kari Hendlin; Manoj Monga

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The dynamics of percutaneous balloon expansion may differ with increasing extrinsic compressive forces and increasing inflation pressures. This study compares the ability of percutaneous balloons to expand under different radial constrictive forces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three 30F nephrostomy balloons were tested: Bard X-Force™, Boston Scientific Microvasive Amplatz Tractmaster™, and Cook Ultraxx™. With a super stiff guidewire in place, the balloon tip was secured ...

  18. Cost analysis of postmastectomy reconstruction: A comparison of two staged implant reconstruction using tissue expander and acellular dermal matrix with abdominal-based perforator free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Fadayomi, Ayotunde; Lin, Samuel J; Singhal, Dhruv; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-09-01

    Two staged tissue expander-implant with acellular dermal matrix (TE/I + ADM) and deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap are the most common implant and autologous methods of reconstruction in the U.S. Implant-based techniques are disproportionally more popular, partially due to its presumed cost effectiveness. We performed a comprehensive cost analysis to compare TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap. A comparative cost analysis of TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap was performed. Medicare reimbursement costs for each procedure and their associated complications were calculated. Pooled probabilities of complications including cellulitis, seroma, skin necrosis, implant removal, flap loss, partial flap loss, and fat necrosis, were calculated using published studies from 2010 to 2016. Average actual cost for successful TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap were $13 304.55 and $10 237.13, respectively. Incorporating pooled complication data from published literature resulted in an increase in cost to $13 963.46 for TE/I + ADM and $12 624.29 for DIEP flap. The expected costs for successful TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap were $9700.35 and $8644.23, which are lower than the actual costs. DIEP flap breast reconstruction incurs lower costs compared to TE/I + ADM. These costs are lower at baseline and when additional costs from pooled complications are incorporated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparative pharmacoeconomic analysis of benzathine penicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjecting the cost and effectiveness to sensitivity analysis did not change this conclusion. Statistical analysis shows that there is a statistically significant difference in the effectiveness (outcome) of benzathine penicillin and procaine penicillin injection, (56.2%) (χ2 = 48.58, P<0.5), Therefore there is association between ...

  20. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  1. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  2. MANAGEMENT AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATASET ENSEMBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Senior Director, Scientific Computing

    2010-05-17

    The primary Phase I technical objective was to develop a prototype that demonstrates the functionality of all components required for an end-to-end meta-data management and comparative visualization system.

  3. Characteristics and trends on global environmental monitoring research: a bibliometric analysis based on Science Citation Index Expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Fu, Hui-Zhen; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2017-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and trends of the environmental monitoring from 1993 to 2012. Study emphases covered publication outputs, language, categories, journals, countries/territories, institutions, words, and hot issues. The results indicated that the annual output of environmental monitoring publications increased steadily. The environmental sciences and analytical chemistry were the two most common categories. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment published the most articles. The USA and the UK ranked in the top two in terms of all five indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency took the leading position of the institutions in terms of publication output. The synthesized analysis by words in title, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus provided important clues for hot issues. Researchers paid more attention on water environment monitoring than other environmental factors. The contaminants including organic contaminants, heavy metal, and radiation were most common research focuses, and the organic contaminants and heavy metal of the degree of concern were gradually rising. Sensor and biosensor played an important role in the field of environmental monitoring devices. In addition to conventional device detection method, the remote sensing, GIS, and wireless sensor networks were the mainstream environmental monitoring methods. The international organization, social awareness, and the countries' positive and effective political and policies promoted the published articles.

  4. Targeted analysis of ganglioside and sulfatide molecular species by LC/ESI-MS/MS with theoretically expanded multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Takao; Taguchi, Ryo

    2008-12-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been applied primarily to the analysis of glycosphingolipids separated from other complex mixtures by TLC, but it is difficult to obtain quantitative profiling of each glycosphingolipid among the different spots on TLC by MALDI-MS. Thus, the development of a convenient approach that utilizes liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization (LC/ESI)-MS has received interest. However, previously reported methods have been insufficient to separate and distinguish each ganglioside class. Here we report an effective method for the targeted analysis of theoretically expected ganglioside molecular species by LC/ESI tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) in combination with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). MRM detection specific for sialic acid enabled us to analyze ganglioside standards such as GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1, and GT1 at picomolar to femtomolar levels. Furthermore, other gangliosides, such as GD2, GD3, GT2, GT3, and GQ1, were also detected in glycosphingolipid standard mixtures from porcine brain and acidic glycolipid extract from mouse brain by theoretically expanded MRM. We found that this approach was also applicable to sulfatides contained in the glycosphingolipid mixtures. In addition, we established a method to separate and distinguish regioisomeric gangliosides, such as GM1a and -1b, GD1a, -1b, and -1c, and GT1a, -1b, and -1c with diagnostic sugar chains in the MRM.

  5. Comparative analysis of seismic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Hwang, Mi Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    SRA methodologies are separated into SPSA and SMM. SPSA methodology that has been widely used for seismic risk analysis has two kinds of methodologies such as Zion method and SSMRP method. SPSA methodology is suitable to interfacing with the analysis of internal event. However, the results of SPSA have uncertainties because of uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis and subjective judgement. Zion method specially developed for commercial use is less expensive and less time consuming but more uncertain than SSMRP method, since the former performs the fragility analysis less in detail than the latter. SMM is impossible to interface with the analysis of internal event but the uncertainties that are occurred during seismic hazard analysis is reduced because of the screening using RLE (review level earthquake). Therefore, if SPSA-based SMM methodology is chosen to be developed, the results of SRA will be more reliable and it requires low costs and time. In addition, the new methodology will require the development of a new evaluating code for SRA. (Author) 26 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  7. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  8. Expanding the knowledge on dried blood spots and LC-MS-based protein analysis: two different sampling materials and six protein targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosting, Cecilie; Gjelstad, Astrid; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug

    2017-05-01

    The combination of dried blood spots (DBS) and bottom-up LC-MS-based protein analysis was investigated in the present paper using six model proteins (1 mg/mL of each protein) with different physicochemical properties. Two different materials for DBS were examined: a water-soluble DBS material (carboxymethyl cellulose, (CMC)) and a commercially available (non-soluble) material (DMPK-C). The sample preparation was optimised regarding the water-soluble material and achieving acceptable repeatability of the signal was emphasised. Five microlitres of whole blood were deposited and dried on either CMC or DMPK-C. The samples were dissolved (CMC) or extracted (DMPK-C) prior to tryptic digest and matrix precipitation. The optimization of the sample preparation showed that an increased buffer concentration (100 mM ammonium bicarbonate) for dissolving the DBS samples gave better repeatability combined with a decrease in analyte signal. CMC seemed to add extra variability (RSD 8-60%) into the analysis compared to sample prepared without CMC (RSD 6-36%), although equal performance compared to DMPK-C material (RSD 13-60%) was demonstrated. The stability of the analytes was examined for different storage periods (1 and 4 weeks) and different storage temperatures (-25, 25, and 40 °C). The stability on both CMC (> 70% compared to reference) and DMPK-C (> 50% compared to reference) was acceptable for most of the peptides. This paper shows that both DBS materials can be used in targeted LC-MS-based protein analysis of proteins with different physicochemical properties. Graphical Abstract Overview of the experimental set-up for expanding the knowledge of dried blood spots in LC-MS-based protein anaysis.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL AND MANUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to analyze the current road traffic data collection methods - comparing both mechanical and manual mode of Traffic Survey simulation - in terms of capabilities and limitations on Nigeria roads using Ogoja (Mbok) Junction and Mfum road in Cross River State as a case study. The tendency of the mechanical ...

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetic analysis with two omeprazole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharmacokinetics of omeprazole pharmaceutical products Proceptin® 20mg capsule and Losec® 20mg MUPS tablet were compared in healthy subjects. The study was an open-‐label, randomized, two-‐treatment, two-sequence, two-way crossover, single-dose bioavailability study conducted under fasting conditions ...

  11. Comparative analysis of aggregate agricultural productivity between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... used animal manure had a higher aggregate agricultural productivity than the HEIT farmers who used inorganic fertilizer. ... utilization of animal manure be put in place by the government. Key words: Aggregate agricultural .... (Kelly et al., 1995). To compare input productivities across goods or to aggregate.

  12. Comparative analysis of aggregate agricultural productivity between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study compared the aggregate agricultural productivity between the Low External Input Technology (LEIT) and High External Input Technology (HEIT) Farms in Imo State of Nigeria. The state is divided into three agricultural zones, out of which two were randomly selected for the study. Using a multistage sampling ...

  13. A dynamic range compression and three-dimensional peptide fractionation analysis platform expands proteome coverage and the diagnostic potential of whole saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Stone, Matthew D; Onsongo, Getiria; Van Riper, Susan K; Griffin, Timothy J

    2009-12-01

    Comprehensive identification of proteins in whole human saliva is critical for appreciating its full diagnostic potential. However, this is challenged by the large dynamic range of protein abundance within the fluid. To address this problem, we used an analysis platform that coupled hexapeptide libraries for dynamic range compression (DRC) with three-dimensional (3D) peptide fractionation. Our approach identified 2340 proteins in whole saliva and represents the largest saliva proteomic dataset generated using a single analysis platform. Three-dimensional peptide fractionation involving sequential steps of preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), strong cation exchange, and capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography was essential for maximizing gains from DRC. Compared to saliva not treated with hexapeptide libraries, DRC substantially increased identified proteins across physicochemical and functional categories. Approximately 20% of total salivary proteins are also seen in plasma, and proteins in both fluids show comparable functional diversity and disease-linkage. However, for a subset of diseases, saliva has higher apparent diagnostic potential. These results expand the potential for whole saliva in health monitoring/diagnostics and provide a general platform for improving proteomic coverage of complex biological samples.

  14. Treatment effect of balloon kyphoplasty and Sky expander kyphoplasty on vertebral compression fracture: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the treatment effect of balloon kyphoplasty (Pkp and Sky expander kyphoplasty (Sky on vertebral compression fracture, and provide a theoretical basis for clinical application. Methods  The database of Ovid medline, PubMed, Web of science, EMbase and CNKI from Jan. 1995 to Oct. 2012 were retrieved with computer, and relevant journals were manually retrieved, for the collection of the literature of therapeutic studies on treatment of vertebral compression fracture with Pkp and Sky method. The literature collected was then selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and analyzed by Meta-analysis software RevMan 5.0.25. Results  A total of 4 papers were selected based on that criterion, including 146 cases of Pkp group and 83 cases of Sky group. Random effect model analysis showed no significant difference existed between the two groups regarding postoperative anterior height and column height of vertebral body, Cobb angle and pain relieve (SMD=0.50, 95%CI -0.27–1.27; SMD=0.33, 95%CI -0.11–0.77; SMD=0.46, 95%CI -0.74–1.66; SMD=-0.09, 95%CI -0.37–0.18. However, the subgroup analysis showed the effect of Sky was better than that of Pkp on restoring anterior height and column height of vertebral body and Cobb angle. Conclusion  No significant difference was found regarding the treatment effect between Pkp and Sky method in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, but the clinical effect of Sky was better because of fewer complications and lower medical cost.

  15. Hidden Markov models for evolution and comparative genomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Nadezda A; Favorov, Alexander V; Mironov, Andrey A

    2013-01-01

    The problem of reconstruction of ancestral states given a phylogeny and data from extant species arises in a wide range of biological studies. The continuous-time Markov model for the discrete states evolution is generally used for the reconstruction of ancestral states. We modify this model to account for a case when the states of the extant species are uncertain. This situation appears, for example, if the states for extant species are predicted by some program and thus are known only with some level of reliability; it is common for bioinformatics field. The main idea is formulation of the problem as a hidden Markov model on a tree (tree HMM, tHMM), where the basic continuous-time Markov model is expanded with the introduction of emission probabilities of observed data (e.g. prediction scores) for each underlying discrete state. Our tHMM decoding algorithm allows us to predict states at the ancestral nodes as well as to refine states at the leaves on the basis of quantitative comparative genomics. The test on the simulated data shows that the tHMM approach applied to the continuous variable reflecting the probabilities of the states (i.e. prediction score) appears to be more accurate then the reconstruction from the discrete states assignment defined by the best score threshold. We provide examples of applying our model to the evolutionary analysis of N-terminal signal peptides and transcription factor binding sites in bacteria. The program is freely available at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/~nadya/tHMM and via web-service at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/treehmmweb.

  16. Hidden Markov models for evolution and comparative genomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda A Bykova

    Full Text Available The problem of reconstruction of ancestral states given a phylogeny and data from extant species arises in a wide range of biological studies. The continuous-time Markov model for the discrete states evolution is generally used for the reconstruction of ancestral states. We modify this model to account for a case when the states of the extant species are uncertain. This situation appears, for example, if the states for extant species are predicted by some program and thus are known only with some level of reliability; it is common for bioinformatics field. The main idea is formulation of the problem as a hidden Markov model on a tree (tree HMM, tHMM, where the basic continuous-time Markov model is expanded with the introduction of emission probabilities of observed data (e.g. prediction scores for each underlying discrete state. Our tHMM decoding algorithm allows us to predict states at the ancestral nodes as well as to refine states at the leaves on the basis of quantitative comparative genomics. The test on the simulated data shows that the tHMM approach applied to the continuous variable reflecting the probabilities of the states (i.e. prediction score appears to be more accurate then the reconstruction from the discrete states assignment defined by the best score threshold. We provide examples of applying our model to the evolutionary analysis of N-terminal signal peptides and transcription factor binding sites in bacteria. The program is freely available at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/~nadya/tHMM and via web-service at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/treehmmweb.

  17. Comparing methods for single paragraph similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dennis, Simon; Kwantes, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-fold. First, similarities generated from six semantic models were compared to human ratings of paragraph similarity on two datasets-23 World Entertainment News Network paragraphs and 50 ABC newswire paragraphs. Contrary to findings on smaller textual units such as word associations (Griffiths, Tenenbaum, & Steyvers, 2007), our results suggest that when single paragraphs are compared, simple nonreductive models (word overlap and vector space) can provide better similarity estimates than more complex models (LSA, Topic Model, SpNMF, and CSM). Second, various methods of corpus creation were explored to facilitate the semantic models' similarity estimates. Removing numeric and single characters, and also truncating document length improved performance. Automated construction of smaller Wikipedia-based corpora proved to be very effective, even improving upon the performance of corpora that had been chosen for the domain. Model performance was further improved by augmenting corpora with dataset paragraphs. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    upon qualitative interviews with residents as well as road network data and travel speed data collected with GPS to offer a combination of local testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. It is argued that the use of digital network analysis enables planners to obtain a better......A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... knowledge of the spatial patterns of urban accessibility, while the analysis of mobility practices of residents enables a better understanding of the constraints people experience related to their livelihood strategies. Finally, the paper addresses how local residents engage in providing and improving...

  19. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  20. Comparative Analysis of GOCI Ocean Color Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI is the first geostationary ocean color sensor in orbit that provides bio-optical properties from coastal and open waters around the Korean Peninsula at unprecedented temporal resolution. In this study, we compare the normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw products generated by the Naval Research Laboratory Automated Processing System (APS with those produced by the stand-alone software package, the GOCI Data Processing System (GDPS, developed by the Korean Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI. Both results are then compared to the nLw measured by the above water radiometer at the Ieodo site. This above-water radiometer is part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AeroNET. The results indicate that the APS and GDPS processed  correlates well within the same image slot where the coefficient of determination (r2 is higher than 0.84 for all the bands from 412 nm to 745 nm. The agreement between APS and the AeroNET data is higher when compared to the GDPS results. The Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE between AeroNET and APS data ranges from 0.24 [mW/(cm2srμm] at 555 nm to 0.52 [mW/(cm2srμm]  at 412 nm while RMSE between AeroNET and GDPS data ranges from 0.47 [mW/(cm2srμm] at 443 nm to 0.69 [mW/(cm2srμm]  at 490 nm.

  1. Suicide by aircraft: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Corey B; Grabowski, Jurek George; Li, Guohua

    2005-08-01

    Suicide is the 11 th leading cause of death in the United States. The objective of this study is to document the characteristics of aviation-related suicides and suicide attempts. Aviation accidents reported by the National Transportation Safety Board between 1983 and 2003 were screened for cases in which suicide was listed as a probable cause. For each suicide case, two accidents were randomly selected as controls, matched on sex of pilot, type of flight, state, and year of occurrence. Mantel-Haenszel summary Chi-square tests were used to compare cases to controls. Conditional logistic regression modeling was performed to assess the association of pilot and flight characteristics with suicide-related crashes. During the 21-yr study period, 37 pilots committed or attempted suicide by aircraft, with 36 resulting in at least one fatality. All the cases were men and involved general aviation flights. Toxicological test results revealed that 24% of the cases had used alcohol and 14% had used other illicit drugs. Underlying factors included domestic and social problems (46%), legal trouble (40%), and pre-existing psychiatric conditions (38%). Compared with controls, suicide cases involved younger pilots (p aircraft (p crashes caused by suicide differ from unintentional aviation accidents in pilot characteristics, crash circumstances, and outcomes.

  2. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  3. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Crime Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Collins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information is limited on how firearms move from legal possession to illegal possession and use in criminal activities, largely because of data collection capacity and a lack of recent, exhaustive recovery data across jurisdictions. This article includes both an analysis of firearms trace data and prisoner interviews across multiple jurisdictions: New Orleans, Louisiana, Prince George’s County, Maryland, and Chicago, Illinois. Findings indicate that recoveries and trace successes vary across jurisdictions and by type of crime. Jurisdiction regulations were associated with the proportion of guns purchased in state and time to recovery but not with purchaser characteristics. Interviews from imprisoned offenders in two jurisdictions revealed the most common method of obtaining a crime gun was to steal it or buy it off the street.

  5. Comparative analysis of some search engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Edosomwan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being ‘relevant’ or ‘non-relevant’ for evaluation of the search engine’s precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70% and average response time (2 s. Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

  6. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  7. Recognizing chemicals in patents: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam; Wiegandt, David Luis; Schmedding, Florian; Leser, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data. Here, we evaluate the two state-of-the-art chemical NER tools, tmChem and ChemSpot, on four different annotated patent corpora, two of which consist of full texts. We study the overall performance of the tools, compare their results at the instance level, report on high-recall and high-precision ensembles, and perform cross-corpus and intra-corpus evaluations. Our findings indicate that full patents are considerably harder to analyze than patent abstracts and clearly confirm the common wisdom that using the same text genre (patent vs. scientific) and text type (abstract vs. full text) for training and testing is a pre-requisite for achieving high quality text mining results.

  8. LINGUISTIC AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Alpatov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article analyses the book on political systems and processes in the East prepared by MGIMO-University authors and edited by Alexei D. Voskressenski in order to show the differences in approach and methods used in linguistics and political science. The author shows two significant differences in present-day stressing that linguistics of the XIX century was closer to the present-day political science? As he believes. The first difference includes monism of political science approach, since the book reveals monistic scale from totalitarianism to democracy, while linguistic has abandoned the monistic view on typology. The second difference is the value-addedness of the political science approach. The value-free norm in linguistics presupposes setting up of a single standard for all speakers in order to reach full mutual understanding. In political science subjective criteria are decisive for evaluation. The article gives examples from the book to prove that political science, compared to linguistics, is not aimed at overcoming contradictions, distinguishing between the terms, avoiding unproved statements and subjective evaluations.

  9. Reduction of the domino effect in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures through short-segment fixation with intravertebral expandable pillars compared to percutaneous kyphoplasty: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture is the leading cause of disability and morbidity in elderly people. Treatment of this condition remains a challenge. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures can be managed with various approaches, but each has limitations. In this study, we compared the clinical outcomes obtained using short-segment fixation with intravertebral expandable pillars (I-VEP) to those obtained with percutaneous kyphoplasty in patients who had suffered vertebral compression fractures. Methods The study included 46 patients with single-level osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures. Twenty-two patients in Group I underwent short-segment fixation with I-VEP and 24 patients in Group II underwent kyphoplasty. All patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively using a visual analogue scale, anterior height of the fractured vertebra, and kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra. The latter 2 radiological parameters were measured at the adjacent segments as well. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of gender or fracture level, but the mean age was greater in Group II patients (p = 0.008). At the 1-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in the visual analogue scale scores, anterior height of the fractured vertebra, or the value representing anterior height above the fractured vertebra and kyphotic angle below the fractured vertebra, after adjusting for the patients’ gender, fracture level, and age. When considered separately, the anterior height below the fractured vertebra was significantly higher and the kyphotic angle above the fractured vertebra was significantly smaller in Group I than in Group II (p = 0.029 and p = 0.008, respectively). The kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra was significantly smaller in Group II than in Group I (p kyphoplasty restored and maintained the collapsed vertebral body with less kyphotic deformity than that induced by short-segment fixation with I

  10. Expanding Access to a New, More Affordable Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in Kenya: Service Delivery Costs Compared With Other Contraceptive Methods and Perspectives of Key Opinion Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Kate H; Solomon, Marsden; Brett, Tracey; Bratt, John H; Pascual, Claire; Njunguru, Jesse; Steiner, Markus J

    2016-08-11

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) is one of the most effective forms of contraception and offers important non-contraceptive health benefits. However, it is not widely available in developing countries, largely due to the high price of existing products. Medicines360 plans to introduce its new, more affordable LNG IUS in Kenya. The public-sector transfer price will vary by volume between US$12 to US$16 per unit; for an order of 100,000 units, the public-sector transfer price will be approximately US$15 per unit. We calculated the direct service delivery cost per couple-years of protection (CYP) of various family planning methods. The model includes the costs of contraceptive commodities, consumable supplies, instruments per client visit, and direct labor for counseling, insertion, removal, and resupply, if required. The model does not include costs of demand creation or training. We conducted interviews with key opinion leaders in Kenya to identify considerations for scale-up of a new LNG IUS, including strategies to overcome barriers that have contributed to low uptake of the copper intrauterine device. The direct service delivery cost of Medicines360's LNG IUS per CYP compares favorably with other contraceptive methods commonly procured for public-sector distribution in Kenya. The cost is slightly lower than that of the 3-month contraceptive injectable, which is currently the most popular method in Kenya. Almost all key opinion leaders agreed that introducing a more affordable LNG IUS could increase demand and uptake of the method. They thought that women seeking the product's non-contraceptive health benefits would be a key market segment, and most agreed that the reduced menstrual bleeding associated with the method would likely be viewed as an advantage. The key opinion leaders indicated that myths and misconceptions among providers and clients about IUDs must be addressed, and that demand creation and provider training should be prioritized

  11. Toward a Broader Concept of Value: Identifying and Defining Elements for an Expanded Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Kamal-Bahl, Sachin; Towse, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    This commentary identifies and defines potentially useful expansions to traditional cost-effectiveness analysis as often used in health technology assessment. Since the seminal 1977 article by Weinstein and Stason, the recommended approach has been the use of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio based on the metric of the cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained, allowing comparisons across different technologies. An expanded framework, incorporating a wider range of the elements of value, is proposed. In addition to the core value drivers of health gain and other health system cost savings (if any), we propose adding other less recognized elements related to the value of knowing and informational externalities. We describe each of five factors related to the value of knowing: 1) a reduction in uncertainty, reflecting the benefit of a companion diagnostic increasing the certainty of a patient׳s response to a medicine; 2) insurance value related to greater peace of mind due to protection against catastrophic health and financial loss; 3) the value of hope for a "cure," leading individuals to become risk seekers in some circumstances; 4) real option value due to life extension opening possibilities for individuals to benefit from future innovation; and 5) spillovers or externalities arising from benefits of scientific advances that cannot be entirely appropriated by those making the advances. Further thought and research are needed on how best to measure and integrate these elements into an incremental value framework and on coverage and pricing decisions. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Scientific Papers Included in the Sciences Citation Index Expanded Written by South Korean Plastic Surgeons: 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Go

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of our study was to analyze scientific papers published by South Korean plastic surgeons in journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE, and to evaluate the publication and research activities of Korean plastic surgeon.MethodsWe conducted a survey of SCIE papers in the field of plastic surgery published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010 using Web of Science software. We further analyzed these results according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution, and type of papers. We also compared the total number of citations to published scientific papers. We analyzed the rank of South Korea among other countries in representative journals.ResultsOverall, 667 papers were published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010. The number of publications increased dramatically from 2003 (n=31 to 2010 (n=139. Subsequently, the ten most productive Korean medical colleges were identified. All published papers received 2,311 citations and the citation to paper ratio was 3.49. The rank of Korea among other countries in terms of the number of published papers remained in the top 10 during the recent 10 years.ConclusionsPublication output of Korean plastic surgeon over the last 10 years showed a remarkable growth in terms of quantity and quality. Currently, Korea is among the top six countries in representative plastic surgery journals. Korean plastic surgeons have played a central role in this progress, and it is anticipated that they will continue to do so in the future.

  13. Experimental and Potential Analysis of a Single-Valve Expander for Waste Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Rankine cycle test system is established to recover exhaust energy from a 2.0 L gasoline engine. Experiments on the system’s performance are carried out under various working conditions. The experimental results indicate that the recovery power of the expander is strongly related to the load and speed of the gasoline engine. It is found that when the output power of the gasoline engine is 39.8–76.6 kW, the net power of the expander is 1.8–2.97 kW, which is equivalent to 3.9%–4.9% of the engine power. The performance simulation shows that the mass flow rate, power output, and isentropic efficiency of the piston expander are directly determined by the intake valve timing. Selecting a suitable intake valve timing can optimize the performance of the expander. The simulation results show that a 1 kW increment in power can be obtained only by selecting an optimum intake open timing. The experimental results further verify that the single-valve piston expander, because of its small dimensions, simple structure, and high speed, is appropriate, and has great potential for energy recovery of gasoline engine exhaust and has good prospects for engineering applications.

  14. Mechanical Recanalization of Cerebral Artery Embolic Occlusion Using a Self-Expanding Stent: Experimental Analysis in Canine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Snag Joon; Lee, Deok Hee; Suh, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of a self-expanding stent for acute embolic occlusion, and recanalization mechanism by histologic examination. Five mongrel dogs were used as study subjects. Each vertebral artery was occluded, and a self-expanding stent was used for recanalization. We evaluated the technical success rate for the placement of the stent to the targeted vessel, the recanalization rate, and residual stenosis. We obtained two specimens of the stented vertebral arteries for histologic evaluation. One dog died of an unknown cause during the induction of anesthesia. In two dogs, only one side of the vertebral artery was used, whereas both vertebral arteries were used in the remaining dogs. A total of six vertebral arteries were successfully occluded. The technical success rate for stenting without complication was 66.7%. The immediate recanalization rate after stenting was 100%. The residual stenosis was 35.6 {+-} 18.6%. On microscopic examination, the stent concentrically displaced the clot and the clot was captured between the stent mesh and arterial wall. Self-expanding stents were effective in revascularizing the cerebrovascular embolic occlusion. The self-expanding stent seemed to achieve recanalization by pushing the clot to the arterial wall and capturing the clot between the stent mesh and arterial wall.

  15. Hidden Curriculum: An Analysis of Cultural Content of the ELT Textbooks in Inner, Outer, and Expanding Circle Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Naser; Meihami, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great body of work examining the cultural content of the international and local ELT textbooks, the cultural content and elements of the ELT textbooks in the inner, outer, and expanding circle countries have seldom been reported. That said, the purpose of this study was twofold: first, it was aimed to investigate the cultural content…

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis on of Skid-Mounted Coal-bed Methane Liquefaction Device using Cryogenic Turbo-Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Niu, Lu; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Xiaojiang; Lou, Fang; Chen, Liang; Hou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) reserves are rich in Sinkiang of China, and liquefaction is a critical step for the CBM exploration and utilization. Different from other CBM gas fields in China, CBM distribution in Sinkiang is widespread but scattered, and the pressure, flow-rate and nitrogen content of CBM feed vary significantly. The skid-mounted liquefaction device is suggested as an efficient and economical way to recover methane. Turbo-expander is one of the most important parts which generates the cooling capacity for the cryogenic liquefaction system. Using turbo-expander, more cooling capacity and higher liquefied fraction can be achieved. In this study, skid-mounted CBM liquefaction processes based on Claude cycle are established. Cryogenic turbo-expander with high expansion ratio is employed to improve the efficiency of CBM liquefaction process. The unit power consumption per liquefaction mole flow-rate for CBM feed gas is used as the object function for process optimization, compressor discharge pressure, flow ratio of feed gas to turbo-expander and nitrogen friction are analyzed, and optimum operation range of the liquefaction processes are obtained.

  17. Demonstrating Impact through Replicable Analysis: Implications of an Evaluation of Arkansas's Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Josh; Brite-Lane, Allison; Crook, Tina; Hakkak, Reza; Fuller, Serena

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation described in this article focused on the effectiveness of Arkansas's Extension-based Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) but demonstrates an analytic approach that may be useful across Extension programs. We analyzed data from 1,810 Arkansas EFNEP participants' entry and exit Behavior Checklists to assess…

  18. The risk of cancer in recipients of living-donor, standard and expanded criteria deceased donor kidney transplants: a registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Maggie K M; Lim, Wai H; Turner, Robin M; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Wong, Germaine

    2014-12-27

    Kidneys from expanded criteria deceased donors may elicit a strong inflammatory response, predisposing recipients to an increased risk of cancer after transplantation. We aimed to determine the association between donor types and cancer risk after kidney transplantation. Using the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, we assessed the association between different donor types (living donor, standard, and expanded criteria deceased donors) and the risk of cancer after kidney transplantation using adjusted Cox proportional hazard and competing risk models. Over a median follow-up period of 4.4 years in 7,040 patients (34,684 patient-years), 468 patients (6.6%) developed cancer. The overall risks for cancer were 1,080, 1,444, and 2,018 per 100,000 patient-years for recipients of living donor, standard, and expanded criteria deceased donor kidneys, respectively. Compared to recipients of living-donor kidneys, recipients of expanded criteria deceased donor kidneys were at an increased risk of cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.15-2.02; P = 0.004), particularly for genitourinary cancer (adjusted HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.10; P = 0.038) and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (adjusted HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.38-5.37; P = 0.004). Recipients of expanded criteria deceased donor kidneys are at substantially increased risk of cancer, especially cancers with a viral etiology. Allocation of expanded criteria deceased donor kidneys to potential recipients should balance the harms, such as the excess risk of cancer against the survival gains and quality-of-life benefits associated with transplantation.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Measles Morbidigf and Mortalityin Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Measles Morbidigf and. Mortalityin Calabar during the Eaqaanded Programme. ' on Immunization and the National Programme on. Immunization Eras. IS Etuk*, EE Ekanem'h", JJ Udo*. Summary. Etuk IS, Ekanem EE, UdoJJ. Comparative Analysis of Measles Morbidity and Mortality in Calabar ...

  20. Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries. Couverture du livre Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes. Directeur(s) : Caren Grown et Imraan Valodia. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge ...

  1. Reshaping Health Care in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reshaping Health Care in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis of Health Care Reform in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Book cover Reshaping Health Care in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis of Health Care Reform. Editor(s):. Sonia Fleury, Susana Belmartino, and Enis Baris. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 2000.

  2. EBI metagenomics in 2016 - an expanding and evolving resource for the analysis and archiving of metagenomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alex; Bucchini, Francois; Cochrane, Guy; Denise, Hubert; Hoopen, Petra ten; Fraser, Matthew; Pesseat, Sebastien; Potter, Simon; Scheremetjew, Maxim; Sterk, Peter; Finn, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    EBI metagenomics (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/metagenomics/) is a freely available hub for the analysis and archiving of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data. Over the last 2 years, the resource has undergone rapid growth, with an increase of over five-fold in the number of processed samples and consequently represents one of the largest resources of analysed shotgun metagenomes. Here, we report the status of the resource in 2016 and give an overview of new developments. In particular, we describe updates to data content, a complete overhaul of the analysis pipeline, streamlining of data presentation via the website and the development of a new web based tool to compare functional analyses of sequence runs within a study. We also highlight two of the higher profile projects that have been analysed using the resource in the last year: the oceanographic projects Ocean Sampling Day and Tara Oceans. PMID:26582919

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE FUNDAMENTAL AND TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petrusheva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world of investing and trading, in order to have a definite advantage and constantly create profit, you need to have a strategic approach. Generally speaking, the two main schools of thought and strategies in financial markets are fundamental and technical analysis. Fundamental and technical analysis differ in several aspects, such as the way of functioning and execution, the time horizon used, the tools used and their objective. These differences lead to certain advantages and disadvantages of each of the analyses. Fundamental and technical analysis are also a subject of critical reviews by the academic and scientific community and many of these reviews concern the methods of their application, i.e. the possibility of combining the two analyses and using them complementarily to fully utilize their strengths and advantages.

  4. Validating the Construct of Coercion in Family Routines: Expanding the Unit of Analysis in Behavioral Assessment with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M.; Irvin, Larry K.; Blumberg, E. Richard; Laverty, Robelyn; Horner, Robert H; Sprague, Jeffrey R

    2004-01-01

    We conducted an observational study of parent-child interaction in home activity settings (routines) of families raising young children with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. Our aim was to empirically investigate the construct validity of coercion in typical but unsuccessful family routines. The long-term goal was to develop an expanded ecological unit of analysis that may contribute to sustainable behavioral family intervention. Ten children with autism and/...

  5. comparative analysis of the growth performance and haemolymph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    4 No.2 2011. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HAEMOLYMPH .... Statistical Analysis. Data collected from the experiments were analyzed by one way analysis of variance. (ANOVA) and student- Newman kuel's test was used for the ... bigger and grow faster than albino snails. The lack of.

  6. Measuring populism: comparing two methods of content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.; Pauwels, T.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of populism - particularly over time and space - has received only scarce attention. In this research note two different ways to measure populism are compared: a classical content analysis and a computer-based content analysis. An analysis of political parties in the United Kingdom,

  7. Study and design of beam expander with wide aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Jin, Guangyong; Cai, Jixing; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the capacity of beam collimation for laser beam expander, it is necessary to design a more reasonable and feasible structure of beam expander system. Laser beam expander is used to compress the laser divergence angle, in order to reduce the energy losing in long distance scanning acquisition system. This paper introduces the working principle and design idea of the laser beam expander, the collimating multiplying power focal length and the collimated magnification formula of expander main, secondary mirror. According to the third-order aberration theory, Considering the spherical aberration, sine difference and divergence angle, the reasonable analysis of optical path, ZEMAX optical design software was used to design large-diameter laser beam expander and analysis and optimize, And given the actual design data and results. Display the maximum optical path difference is +/-0.01λ of the main light ray and each light ray. To combination the rear- group objective lens of Galileo and Kepler beam expander, a large-diameter(1.475m) laser beam expander was designed with 0.2m in the diameter, 1/2m in the relative caliber. In the objective lens System, a high-order aspherical was used to the aberration of extra-axial point. we can see that the image quality is close to the diffraction limit from the curves of wavefront. In addition to improve image quality effectively, the system has the characteristics of simple structure, less costly and less design difficulty to compare with the other beam expanding system. And make the output beam's divergence angle smaller, energy density higher, and the beam quality has been greatly improved. The results show that the beam expander is fully meet the design requirements, the use effect is good. Design and research of laser beam expanding system not only improves the quality of the laser beam in the laser system, but also enlarge the application field of laser technology in photoelectric system.

  8. Hypothermic machine perfusion reduces delayed graft function and improves one-year graft survival of kidneys from expanded criteria donors: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expanded criteria donors (ECDs are currently accepted as potential sources to increase the donor pool and to provide more chances of kidney transplantation for elderly recipients who would not survive long waiting periods. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP is designed to mitigate the deleterious effects of simple cold storage (CS on the quality of preserved organs, particularly when the donor is in a marginal status. METHODS: We compared the transplant outcomes in patients receiving ECD kidneys with either HMP or CS graft preservation. Articles from the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched and all studies reporting outcomes from HMP versus CS methods of kidney preservation were included in this meta-analysis. The parameters analyzed included the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, primary non-function (PNF and one-year graft and patient survival. RESULTS: A total of seven studies qualified for the review, involving 2374 and 8716 kidney grafts with HMP or CS preservation respectively, all from ECD donors. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF was significantly reduced with an odd ratio(OR of 0.59 (95% CI 0.54-0.66, P<0.001 and one-year graft survival was significantly improved with an OR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.03-1.21, P = 0.005 in HMP preservation compared to CS. However, there was no difference in the incidence of PNF (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.21-1.40, P = 0.20, and one-year patient survival (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.02, P = 0.36 between HMP and CS preservation. CONCLUSIONS: HMP was associated with a reduced incidence of DGF and an with increased one-year graft survival, but it was not associated with the incidence of PNF and one-year patient survival.

  9. Doing more for less: identifying opportunities to expand public sector access to safe abortion in South Africa through budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Harries, Jane; Constant, Deborah; Morroni, Chelsea; Pleaner, Melanie; Fetters, Tamara; Grossman, Daniel; Blanchard, Kelly; Sinanovic, Edina

    2017-08-03

    To estimate the costs of public-sector abortion provision in South Africa and to explore the potential for expanding access at reduced cost by changing the mix of technologies used. We conducted a budget impact analysis using public sector abortion statistics and published cost data. We estimated the total costs to the public health service over 10 years, starting in South Africa's financial year 2016/17, given four scenarios: (1) holding service provision constant, (2) expanding public sector provision, (3) changing the abortion technologies used (i.e. the method mix), and (4) expansion plus changing the method mix. The public sector performed an estimated 20% of the expected total number of abortions in 2016/17; 26% and 54% of all abortions were performed illegally or in the private sector respectively. Costs were lowest in scenarios where method mix shifting occurred. Holding the proportion of abortions performed in the public-sector constant, shifting to more cost-effective service provision (more first-trimester services with more medication abortion and using the combined regimen for medical induction in the second trimester) could result in savings of $28.1 million in the public health service over the 10-year period. Expanding public sector provision through elimination of unsafe abortions would require an additional $192.5 million. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting the methods provided. More research is needed to understand whether the cost of expanding access could be offset by savings from averting costs of managing unsafe abortions. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting to more first-trimester methods, including more medication abortion, and shifting to a combined mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen for second trimester medical induction. Expanding access in addition to method mix changes would require additional funds. Copyright

  10. Effect of bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance on the craniofacial structures using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Cheon; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Ki Beom; Araujo, Eustaquio A; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze stress distribution and displacement of the craniofacial structures resulting from bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance using finite element analysis. Five designs of rapid maxillary expanders were made: a tooth-borne hyrax expander (type A); a bone-borne expander (type B); and 3 bone-borne surgically assisted modalities: separation of the midpalatal suture (type C), added separation of the pterygomaxillary sutures (type D), and added LeFort I corticotomy (type E). The geometric nonlinear theory was applied to evaluate the Von Mises stress distribution and displacement. The surgical types C, D, and E demonstrated more transverse movement than did the nonsurgical types A and B. The amounts of expansion were greater in the posterior teeth in types A and B, but in types C, D, and E, the amounts of expansion were greater in the anterior teeth. At the midpalatal suture, the nonsurgical types showed more anterior expansion than did the posterior region, and higher stresses than with the surgical types. Type B showed the highest stresses at the infraorbital margin, anterior and posterior nasal spines, maxillary tuberosity, and pterygoid plate and hamulus. The 3 surgical models showed similar amounts of stress and displacement along the teeth, midpalatal sutures, and craniofacial sutures. Therefore, when using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander in an adult, it is recommended to assist it with midpalatal suture separation, which requires minimal surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is Single-Stage Prosthetic Reconstruction Cost Effective? A Cost-Utility Analysis for the Use of Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction Relative to Expander-Implant Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Naveen M; Fischer, John P; Basta, Marten N; Nahabedian, Maurice Y

    2016-09-01

    Prosthetic breast reconstruction is most commonly performed using the two-stage (expander-implant) technique. However, with the advent of skin-sparing mastectomy and the use of acellular dermal matrices, one-stage prosthetic reconstruction has become more feasible. Prior studies have suggested that one-stage reconstruction has economic advantages relative to two-stage reconstruction despite a higher revision rate. This is the first cost-utility analysis to compare the cost and quality of life of both procedures to guide patient care. A comprehensive literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases to include studies directly comparing matched patient cohorts undergoing single-stage or staged prosthetic reconstruction. Six studies were selected examining 791 direct-to-implant reconstructions and 1142 expander-implant reconstructions. Costs were derived adopting both patient and third-party payer perspectives. Utilities were derived by surveying an expert panel. Probabilities of clinically relevant complications were combined with cost and utility estimates to fit into a decision tree analysis. The overall complication rate was 35 percent for single-stage reconstruction and 34 percent for expander-implant reconstruction. The authors' baseline analysis using Medicare reimbursement revealed a cost decrease of $525.25 and a clinical benefit of 0.89 quality-adjusted life-year when performing single-stage reconstructions, yielding a negative incremental cost-utility ratio. When using national billing, the incremental cost-utility further decreased, indicating that direct-to-implant breast reconstruction was the dominant strategy. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the authors' conclusions. Direct-to-implant breast reconstruction is the dominant strategy when used appropriately. Surgeons are encouraged to consider single-stage reconstruction when feasible in properly selected patients.

  12. Experimental and thermodynamic analysis of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) of gasoline engine using swash-plate expander

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, José,; Ruiz Rosales, Santiago; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; ROYO PASCUAL, LUCÍA; Haller, R.; Nicolas, B.; Glavatskaya, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental testing of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 liter turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Five engine operating points have been tested, they correspond to a nominal heat input into the boiler of 5, 12, 20, 25 and 30 kW. With the available bill of material based on prototypes, power balances and cycles efficiencies were estim...

  13. A comparative study between release analysis and column flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Pineres; Juan Barraza [Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper shows the results of a comparative study between release analysis and column flotation of three Colombian coals: Guachinte (South West), Cerrejon (North) and Nech (Midlands). Analysis release was used in order to evaluate the coal potential cleaning in terms of both low ash and high organic recovery of froth. Results from release analysis were compared with those from a column flotation and showed that the froth from Nechi coal had the highest recovery and the lowest ash, followed by Cerrejon and then by Guachinte. Results of release analysis were in agreement with the column flotation. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The analysis of three-dimensional effects of nitanium palatal expander 2 and hyrax maxillary expansion appliances on craniofacial structures: A finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze three-dimensional effects of stress distribution and displacement on the craniofacial structures, following the application of forces from Nitanium Palatal Expander 2 (NPE2 and Hyrax appliance in early mixed dentition period using finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of the young dried human skull, NPE2 and Hyrax were constructed, and the initial activation of the expanders was simulated to carry out the analysis and to evaluate the von misses stresses and displacement on the craniofacial structures. Results: Both the models demonstrated the highest stresses at the mid-palatal suture, with maximum posterior dislocation. The inferior nasal floor showed highest downward displacement and point A showed outward, backward, and upward displacement in both the models. The pattern of stress distribution was almost similar in both the groups, but NPE2 revealed lower magnitude stresses than Hyrax. The cusp of the erupting canine and the mesiobuccal cusp of the second molar showed outward, backward, and downward displacement signifying eruption pattern following maxillary expansion. Conclusions: Nickel titanium palatal expander-2 and Hyrax produced similar stress pattern in early mixed dentition period finite element model. We conclude from this finite element method study that NPE2 is equally effective as Hyrax when used in early mixed dentition period as it exhibits orthopedic nature of expansion with minimal residual stresses in the craniofacial structures.

  15. Geometry Analysis and Effect of Turbulence Model on the Radial Rotor Turbo-Expander Design for Small Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Arifin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is one of the most promising technology for small electric power generations. The geometry analysis and the effect of turbulence model on the radial turbo-expanders design for small ORC power generation systems were discussed in this paper. The rotor blades and performance were calculated using several working fluids such as R134a, R143a, R245fa, n-Pentane, and R123. Subsequently, a numerical study was carried out in the fluid flow area with R134a and R123 as the working fluids. Analyses were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD ANSYS Multiphysics on two real gas models, with the k-epsilon and SST (shear stress transport turbulence models. The result shows the distribution of Mach number, pressure, velocity and temperature along the rotor blade of the radial turbo-expanders and estimation of performance at various operating conditions. The operating conditions are as follow: 250,000 grid mesh flow area, real gas model SST at steady state condition, 0.4 kg/s of mass flow rate, 15,000 rpm rotor speed, 5 bar inlet pressure, and 373K inlet temperature. By using those conditions, CFD analysis shows that the turbo-expander able to produce 6.7 kW and 5.5 kW of power when using R134a and R123, respectively.

  16. Preparation of the implementation plan of AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (M-EPDG) in Connecticut : Phase II : expanded sensitivity analysis and validation with pavement management data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The study re-evaluates distress prediction models using the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and expands the sensitivity analysis to a wide range of pavement structures and soils. In addition, an extensive validation analysis of th...

  17. EBI metagenomics in 2016--an expanding and evolving resource for the analysis and archiving of metagenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alex; Bucchini, Francois; Cochrane, Guy; Denise, Hubert; ten Hoopen, Petra; Fraser, Matthew; Pesseat, Sebastien; Potter, Simon; Scheremetjew, Maxim; Sterk, Peter; Finn, Robert D

    2016-01-04

    EBI metagenomics (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/metagenomics/) is a freely available hub for the analysis and archiving of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data. Over the last 2 years, the resource has undergone rapid growth, with an increase of over five-fold in the number of processed samples and consequently represents one of the largest resources of analysed shotgun metagenomes. Here, we report the status of the resource in 2016 and give an overview of new developments. In particular, we describe updates to data content, a complete overhaul of the analysis pipeline, streamlining of data presentation via the website and the development of a new web based tool to compare functional analyses of sequence runs within a study. We also highlight two of the higher profile projects that have been analysed using the resource in the last year: the oceanographic projects Ocean Sampling Day and Tara Oceans. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Kernel Methods for Statistical Shape Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dambreville, Samuel; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-01-01

    .... In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of shape learning techniques such as linear PCA, kernel PCA, locally linear embedding and propose a new method, kernelized locally linear embedding...

  19. Comparative analysis of myocardial revascularization methods for ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkeev M.S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature is devoted to the comparative analysis of clinical researches of efficiency and frequency of complications after application of surgical and medicamentous methods of treatment of coronary heart disease.

  20. Functional and comparative analysis of expressed sequences from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional and comparative analysis of expressed sequences from Diuraphis noxia infested wheat obtained utilizing the conserved Nucleotide Binding Site. Lynelle Lacock, Chantal van Niekerk, Shilo Loots, Franco du Preez, Anna-Maria Botha ...

  1. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of the wines produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the characteristics of the wines produced from the fruit juices of vitis vinifera (Grapevine), Citrus sinensis sweet orange) and Ananos comosus (pineapple)using pure cultured brewer's yeast.

  2. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  3. Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of genetic diversity among different Jatropha curcas genotypes. S Gupta, M Srivastava, GP Mishra, PK Naik, RS Chauhan, SK Tiwari, M Kumar, R Singh ...

  4. Flow pattern analysis of a full-scale expanded granular sludge bed-type reactor under different organic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M X; Wang, K J; Zuo, J E; Yan, Z; Fang, H; Yu, J W

    2012-03-01

    The hydraulic characteristics of a lab-scale and a full-scale (275 m(3)) expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB)-type reactor under different organic loading rates varying from 10 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) to 45 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) were investigated. A modified combined model composed of two completely mixing regions and a plug flow region was sufficient for simulating the flow pattern of a full-scale EGSB-type reactor. Moreover, the outputs fitted the measured tracer distribution results well. The simplified model structure was in very good agreement with the physical structure of a full-scale EGSB-type reactor. The upflow (liquid+gas) velocity, high concentration of granular sludge, and gas hold-up effect may contribute to the generation of dead spaces (maximum of 19.5%). The bed expansion characteristics indicated that the sludge bed of the EGSB-type reactor performed as a suspended bed, in which the bed expansion was controlled between 20% and 30%, rather than the usually considered expanded bed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of ascending aortic dimension on acute procedural success following self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A multicenter retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshio; Yoon, Sung-Han; Abramowitz, Yigal; Watanabe, Yusuke; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Lin, Mao-Shin; Chan, Jason; Sharma, Rahul; Kawashima, Hideyuki; Israr, Sharjeel; Kawamori, Hiroyuki; Miyasaka, Masaki; Rami, Tanya; Kazuno, Yoshio; Mangat, Geeteshwar; Kashif, Mohammad; Chakravarty, Tarun; Kao, Hsien-Li; Lee, Michael Kang-Yin; Nakamura, Mamoo; Kozuma, Ken; Cheng, Wen; Makkar, Raj R

    2017-10-01

    Self-expanding (SE) valves are characterized with long stent frame design and the radial force of the device exists both in the inflow and outflow level. Therefore, we hypothesized that device success of SE-valves may be influenced by ascending aortic dimensions (AAD). The aim of this study was to determine the influence of AAD on acute device success rates following SE transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). In 4 centers in the United States and Asia, 214 consecutive patients underwent SE-TAVR. Outcomes were assessed in line with Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria. AAD was defined as the sum of the short and long axis aortic diameter divided by 2. Overall, device success rate was 85.0%. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased AAD (Odds ratio 1.27) and % oversizing (Odds ratio 0.88) were found to be independent predictors of unsuccessful device implantation. The c-statistic of the model for device success was area under the curve 0.79, sensitivity 81.3% and specificity 44.0%. Co-existence of several risk factors was associated with an exponential fall to 64.2% in device success rate. For a large AAD, however, optimally oversized SE-valves (threshold 16.2%) resulted with high device success rates compared to suboptimal oversizing (88.6% vs. 64.2%, p=0.005). Larger AAD and smaller degrees of oversizing were confirmed to be the most relevant predictors of unsuccessful device implantation following SE-valve implantations. Optimal oversizing of great significance was noted, particularly that with a large AAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative analysis of watershed and edge based segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... Background: Useful information which is helpful in the diagnosis of various disorders is obtained from the analysis of individual blood cells. Aim: To perform a comparative analysis between edge-based segmentation and watershed segmentation on images of the red blood cells. Method: The images.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil Properties in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. IS Eneji, R Sha'Ato, SE Ejembi. Abstract. Variations in the properties of termitaria and their surrounding soil properties within the University of Agriculture Makurdi were investigated using routine soil analysis ...

  8. A comparative analysis of watershed and edge based segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Useful information which is helpful in the diagnosis of various disorders is obtained from the analysis of individual blood cells. Aim: To perform a comparative analysis between edge-based segmentation and watershed segmentation on images of the red blood cells. Method: The images to be used for the ...

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Engines in Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy inference engine has found successful applications in a wide variety of fields, such as automatic control, data classification, decision analysis, expert engines, time series prediction, robotics, pattern recognition, etc. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three fuzzy inference engines, max-product, max-min ...

  10. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  11. Comparative analysis and relationships of six important crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using informatics tools to compare important species is now feasible as structural genomics continue in importance and establishment of structure-function relationships become a common way of comparative analysis. Currently, many of the technical issues involved in sequencing complete genomes have been solved.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jodi Renee Abbott

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this descriptive research study was to compare charter and traditional public schools on the academic knowledge of fifth grade students as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) in a suburb of a large southwestern city. This analysis also compared charter and traditional public schools on AYP status. It was…

  13. Customer service on the Czech mobile telecommunication market. Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlík, Radek

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to compare the quality of customer service between the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs) on the Czech mobile telecommunication market. The mystery shopping method is used as the source of data for the comparative analysis.

  14. comparative cost and strength analysis of cement and aggregate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... Abstract. This research presents a comparative cost and strength analysis of cement and aggregate replace- ment materials which is aimed at reducing the cost of concrete production. Tests were performed to compare the strength and cost of seven various cement replacement materials(rice husk ash,.

  15. Comparative Cost and Strength Analysis of Cement and Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research presents a comparative cost and strength analysis of cement and aggregate replacement materials which is aimed at reducing the cost of concrete production. Tests were performed to compare the strength and cost of seven various cement replacement materials(rice husk ash, groundnut husk ash, palm oil ...

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CELEBRITY AND NON-CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Asad; Muhammad Naseem Hayat; Shafaqat Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    This study is undertaken to make a comparative analysis of celebrity advertisement and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions, and advertising attributes. For this purpose, a simple random sample of 200 students studying four different disciplines was taken from the Private University in Lahore. For econometric proof, reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and independent sample T-test was used to interpret th...

  17. [Key technologies in image analysis of comparative genomic hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, J; Ji, L; Wang, M

    2001-12-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization has become a new technique in molecular-cytogenetics, and it has found significant applications in tumor pathology. Image analysis is an important part of comparative genomic hybridization. It analyzes the fluorescent images by many steps and finally determines whether there is any abnormality in the copy number of the test tumor tissue. This paper expatiates on the key steps in the image analysis of comparative genomic hybridization, including background correction, chromosome segmentation, chromosome axis determination, karyotyping and determining ratio profile. The future trend is also discussed.

  18. How Did Urban Land Expand in China between 1992 and 2015? A Multi-Scale Landscape Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; He, Chunyang; Liu, Zhifeng; Dou, Yinyin

    2016-01-01

    Effective and timely quantification of the spatiotemporal pattern of urban expansion in China is important for the assessment of its environmental effects. However, the dynamics of the most recent urban expansions in China since 2012 have not yet been adequately explained due to a lack of current information. In this paper, our objective was to quantify spatiotemporal patterns of urban expansion in China between 1992 and 2015. First, we extracted information on urban expansion in China between 1992 and 2015 by integrating nighttime light data, vegetation index data, and land surface temperature data. Then we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of urban expansion at the national and regional scales, as well as at that of urban agglomerations. We found that China experienced a rapid and large-scale process of urban expansion between 1992 and 2015, with urban land increasing from 1.22 × 104 km2 to 7.29 × 104 km2, increasing in size nearly fivefold and with an average annual growth rate of 8.10%, almost 2.5 times as rapid as the global average. We also found that urban land in China expanded mainly by occupying 3.31 × 104 km2 of cropland, which comprised 54.67% of the total area of expanded urban land. Among the three modes of growth-infilling, edge expansion, and leapfrog-edge expansion was the main cause of cropland loss. Cropland loss resulting from edge expansion of urban land totalled 2.51 × 104 km2, accounting for over 75% of total cropland loss. We suggest that effective future management with respect to edge expansion of urban land is needed to protect cropland in China.

  19. A New Positive Definite Expanded Mixed Finite Element Method for Parabolic Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new positive definite expanded mixed finite element method is proposed for parabolic partial integrodifferential equations. Compared to expanded mixed scheme, the new expanded mixed element system is symmetric positive definite and both the gradient equation and the flux equation are separated from its scalar unknown equation. The existence and uniqueness for semidiscrete scheme are proved and error estimates are derived for both semidiscrete and fully discrete schemes. Finally, some numerical results are provided to confirm our theoretical analysis.

  20. Serial intravascular ultrasound analysis of bifurcation lesions treated using the novel self-expanding sideguard side branch stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Dani, Lokesh; Leon, Martin B; Grube, Eberhard

    2009-11-01

    We used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to assess the efficacy of the Cappella Sideguard stent system for treating coronary bifurcation lesions. Treatment of bifurcation lesions is associated with restenosis at the side branch (SB) ostium, presumably due to inadequate coverage or stent-vessel wall malapposition. To address these limitations, the Sideguard stent was developed. It includes a balloon-deployed, self-expanding, thin-strut, low-stress, nitinol bare metal stent with anatomic funnel-shaped flaring at the SB ostium. Of 25 patients enrolled in the Sideguard I First-In-Man study, complete serial (after intervention and 6-month follow-up) IVUS images were available in 11 patients. All patients were treated with (1) predilation of the SB, (2) Sideguard stenting in the SB, (3) Cypher stenting in the main vessel, and (4) kissing balloon inflations. The Sideguard stent area at the SB carina increased from 3.9 +/- 1.2 to 4.6 +/- 1.1 mm(2) (p = 0.04), resulting in no change in lumen area (3.9 +/- 1.3 vs 4.0 +/- 1.3 mm(2), p = 0.77) despite an intimal hyperplasia (IH) area of 0.6 +/- 0.7 mm(2). Six patients had minimal IH; the increase in stent area translated into an increase in lumen area of 0.4 +/- 0.6 mm(2); 5 patients had relatively more IH (1.3 +/- 0.4 mm(2)), but the increase in stent area of 1.3 +/- 0.3 mm(2) compensated for the IH, resulting in no lumen decrease. In contrast, the main vessel stent area at the carina did not change (5.9 +/- 1.1 vs 6.0 +/- 1.2 mm(2), p = 0.35). In conclusion, serial IVUS analyses of the self-expanding bare metal Sideguard stent indicate preserved SB ostial lumen dimensions at follow-up due to additional increases in stent area that more than compensated for IH.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthase Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daniel; Frane, Nicole D; Brecht, Ryan M; Keeler, Jesse; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Quorum sensing is cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinate attacks on their hosts by inducing virulent gene expression, biofilm production, and other cellular functions, including antibiotic resistance. AHL synthase enzymes synthesize N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, commonly referred to as autoinducers, to facilitate quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. Studying the synthases, however, has proven to be a difficult road. Two assays, including a radiolabeled assay and a colorimetric (DCPIP) assay are well-documented in literature to study AHL synthases. In this paper, we describe additional methods that include an HPLC-based, C-S bond cleavage and coupled assays to investigate this class of enzymes. In addition, we compare and contrast each assay for both acyl-CoA- and acyl-ACP-utilizing synthases. The expanded toolkit described in this study should facilitate mechanistic studies on quorum sensing signal synthases and expedite discovery of antivirulent compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparative analysis of genomic signal processing for microarray data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert S H; Sungoor, Ala; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-12-01

    Genomic signal processing is a new area of research that combines advanced digital signal processing methodologies for enhanced genetic data analysis. It has many promising applications in bioinformatics and next generation of healthcare systems, in particular, in the field of microarray data clustering. In this paper we present a comparative performance analysis of enhanced digital spectral analysis methods for robust clustering of gene expression across multiple microarray data samples. Three digital signal processing methods: linear predictive coding, wavelet decomposition, and fractal dimension are studied to provide a comparative evaluation of the clustering performance of these methods on several microarray datasets. The results of this study show that the fractal approach provides the best clustering accuracy compared to other digital signal processing and well known statistical methods.

  3. Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika

    2017-12-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.

  4. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakham, F.; Belayachi, L.; Ussery, David

    2011-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding...... the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str...

  5. Comparative analysis of land cadastral system in Macedonia and Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Stojčeska, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    In the graduation thesis the topic of cadastral systems in Macedonia and Slovenia is discussed. The historical development, organization and functioning of today's cadastral systems in both countries is presented and compared. The development of cadastre of real property in Macedonia is presented in detail, where the land recording is presented from the title deeds system (tapija) to today's unified cadastre. The thesis comprises a comparative analysis of land administration syste...

  6. Patient Participation at Health Care Conferences: Engaged Patients Increase Information Flow, Expand Propagation, and Deepen Engagement in the Conversation of Tweets Compared to Physicians or Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Utengen, Audun; Rouholiman, Dara; Gamble, Jamison G; Grajales III, Francisco Jose; Pradhan, Nisha; Staley, Alicia C.; Bernstein, Liza; Young, Sean D.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Chu, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care conferences present a unique opportunity to network, spark innovation, and disseminate novel information to a large audience, but the dissemination of information typically stays within very specific networks. Social network analysis can be adopted to understand the flow of information between virtual social communities and the role of patients within the network. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the impact engaged patients bring to health care conferen...

  7. Comparative genome analysis of filamentous fungi reveals gene family expansions associated with fungal pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Soanes

    Full Text Available Fungi and oomycetes are the causal agents of many of the most serious diseases of plants. Here we report a detailed comparative analysis of the genome sequences of thirty-six species of fungi and oomycetes, including seven plant pathogenic species, that aims to explore the common genetic features associated with plant disease-causing species. The predicted translational products of each genome have been clustered into groups of potential orthologues using Markov Chain Clustering and the data integrated into the e-Fungi object-oriented data warehouse (http://www.e-fungi.org.uk/. Analysis of the species distribution of members of these clusters has identified proteins that are specific to filamentous fungal species and a group of proteins found only in plant pathogens. By comparing the gene inventories of filamentous, ascomycetous phytopathogenic and free-living species of fungi, we have identified a set of gene families that appear to have expanded during the evolution of phytopathogens and may therefore serve important roles in plant disease. We have also characterised the predicted set of secreted proteins encoded by each genome and identified a set of protein families which are significantly over-represented in the secretomes of plant pathogenic fungi, including putative effector proteins that might perturb host cell biology during plant infection. The results demonstrate the potential of comparative genome analysis for exploring the evolution of eukaryotic microbial pathogenesis.

  8. Comparative Genome Analysis of Filamentous Fungi Reveals Gene Family Expansions Associated with Fungal Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soanes, Darren M.; Alam, Intikhab; Cornell, Mike; Wong, Han Min; Hedeler, Cornelia; Paton, Norman W.; Rattray, Magnus; Hubbard, Simon J.; Oliver, Stephen G.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Fungi and oomycetes are the causal agents of many of the most serious diseases of plants. Here we report a detailed comparative analysis of the genome sequences of thirty-six species of fungi and oomycetes, including seven plant pathogenic species, that aims to explore the common genetic features associated with plant disease-causing species. The predicted translational products of each genome have been clustered into groups of potential orthologues using Markov Chain Clustering and the data integrated into the e-Fungi object-oriented data warehouse (http://www.e-fungi.org.uk/). Analysis of the species distribution of members of these clusters has identified proteins that are specific to filamentous fungal species and a group of proteins found only in plant pathogens. By comparing the gene inventories of filamentous, ascomycetous phytopathogenic and free-living species of fungi, we have identified a set of gene families that appear to have expanded during the evolution of phytopathogens and may therefore serve important roles in plant disease. We have also characterised the predicted set of secreted proteins encoded by each genome and identified a set of protein families which are significantly over-represented in the secretomes of plant pathogenic fungi, including putative effector proteins that might perturb host cell biology during plant infection. The results demonstrate the potential of comparative genome analysis for exploring the evolution of eukaryotic microbial pathogenesis. PMID:18523684

  9. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-01-01

    New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage. We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under scenarios of existing and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses assessed the extension of eligibility to include individuals with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, or all HIV-positive adults, compared with the previous (2010) recommendation of initiation with CD4 counts of 350 cells per μL or less. We assessed costs from a health-system perspective, and calculated the incremental cost (in US$) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted to compare competing strategies. Strategies were regarded very cost effective if the cost per DALY averted was less than the country's 2012 per-head gross domestic product (GDP; South Africa: $8040; Zambia: $1425; India: $1489; Vietnam: $1407) and cost effective if the cost per DALY averted was less than three times the per-head GDP. In South Africa, the cost per DALY averted of extending eligibility for antiretroviral therapy to adult patients with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less ranged from $237 to $1691 per

  10. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  11. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  12. Expanding the Scope of Organizational Behavior Management: Relational Frame Theory and the Experimental Analysis of Complex Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C.; Bunting, Kara; Herbst, Scott; Bond, Frank W.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    Behavior analysis in general and applied behavior analysis in particular requires a well developed, empirically supported, and useful approach to human language and cognition in order to fulfill its mission of providing a relatively adequate comprehensive account of complex human behavior. This article introduces a series of articles in which the…

  13. comparative analysis of some existing kinetic models with proposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGNATIUS NWIDI

    But based on values of ARE%, first proposed kinetic model accounted for 93.3% while pseudo second-order kinetic model accounted for 6.7% of the results for biosorption of the three heavy metals by the five microbes. Keynotes: Heavy metals, Biosorption, Kinetics Models, Comparative analysis, Average Relative Error. 1.

  14. Comparative analysis of codon usage bias in Crenarchaea and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the pattern of optimal codon usage in Archaea. Comparative analysis was executed to understand the pattern of codon usage bias between the high expression genes (HEG) and the whole genomes in two Archaeal phyla, Crenarchaea and Euryarchaea. The G+C% of the ...

  15. A comparative analysis of returns of various financial asset classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of returns of various financial asset classes in South Africa: a triumph of bonds? ... Southern African Business Review ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in ...

  16. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory properties of dokuwa produced in Niger State Metropolis. ... Sensory evaluation of the samples on the basis of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability showed that significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the samples. The sample from ...

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Administrative Competencies of Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Comparative Analysis of Admin. Competencies of Male & Female Principals leadership roles of supervisors as well. Explaining each of these skills,. Sergiovanni and Starrat (1979) argued that technical skills assume ability to use knowledge, methods and techniques to perform specific tasks. The mechanics associated with ...

  18. a comparative analysis of first day neonatal mortality between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FIRST DAY NEONATAL MORTALITY BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS AND ADULT. FEMALES GIVING BIRTH ..... Multivariable logistic regression on predictors of neonatal mortality and maternal age5. Number of .... Provision of low cost special care units for LBW neonates to ...

  19. Comparative analysis of acon- Plasmodium falciparum rapid malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of acon- Plasmodium falciparum rapid malaria diagnostic test with routine microscopy among school children and pregnant women in a rural community in Enugu State, ... The following parameters were determined: intrinsic validity, predictive values, species diagnostic power and logistic factors.

  20. Comparative Analysis of VLF Signal Variation along Trajectory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparative qualitative analysis of amplitude and phase delay variations was carried out along the trajectory of GQD/22.1 kHz and NAA/24.0 kHz VLF signal traces, propagating from Skelton (UK) and Maine (USA) toward Belgrade, induced by four isolated solar X-ray flare events occurred during the period from September ...

  1. Comparative demand analysis for rice in Edo, delta and Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the comparative demand analysis for rice types in Edo, Delta and Lagos states of Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure, involving four stages, was used to select eight hundred and twelve (812) households. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of ...

  2. Comparative Demand Analysis for Rice in Three States of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dauda Omoba

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... The study examined the comparative demand analysis for rice types in Edo, Delta and Lagos states of .... variables, such as age, education level, household ..... Variable. Entire sample Mean Lagos. Delta. Edo. Income. Rural. Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Low Middle High. Expenditure.

  3. Comparative analysis of accident potiential of priority junction with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of accident potiential of priority junction with different layouts and controls. M Salifu. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers Vol. 3 (1) 2005: pp. 42-53. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African ...

  4. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  5. Comparative and Familial Analysis of Handedness in Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, population-level handedness has been considered a hallmark of human evolution. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable debate. This paper summarizes published data on handedness in great apes. Comparative analysis indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos show population-level right…

  6. A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in South Africa in 2010. ... Southern African Business Review ... In South Africa, the King II Report on Corporate Governance recommended that organisations should produce a sustainability report some time during the reporting cycle (IOD 2009: 13). The latest ...

  7. Comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in selected markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in some selected markets of Akwa Ibom and Abia states of Nigeria. It specifically looked at market integration, costs and return, marketing margin, marketing efficiency and factors influencing marketing efficiency in both states. Data were collected from 60 ...

  8. A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in South Africa in 2010. 29 the strategy ... M. Ungerer. 30 could result in a competitive advantage for the organisation (Lazarus & McManus. 2006: 925). Table 1: The advantages and disadvantages of transparency in disclosure of strategic information.

  9. Comparative analysis of transformed potato microtubers and its non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid progress of transgenic biotechnology has significantly promoted the development and production of genetically modified (GM) crops. The aim of this study was to compare some compositional analysis and genetic variation of transformed potato microtubers (Solanum tuberosum L. Desiree) line (which harbor ...

  10. A comparative analysis of the perception and understanding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the perception and understanding of physical education and school sport among South African children aged 6-15 years. ... PE teachers are qualified in some cases and grossly unqualified in many others. PE programmes in white schools and urban cities offer a wide and balanced variety of ...

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development Interventions on Organizational Leadership and Management Practice: A Case Of Green Earth Program ... A pre- assessment of leadership and management practice at Green Earth was conducted which identified six problem areas or improvement issues.

  12. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Abdullahi and Audu. 35. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and Tango Deposits in Gombe State, Nigeria. Abdullahi S.L1 and Audu A.A2. 1Kano State Polytechnic, Kano - Nigeria. 2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University Kano ...

  13. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many homes in Nigeria are in remote locations where grid electricity supply could not be extended. This paper attempts to present a concise life-cycle-cost comparison of diesel generator power supply system and photovoltaic power system for a remote rural application. In this comparative analysis, conceptual designs ...

  14. comparative analysis of salivary glucose and electrolytes in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    periodontitis. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SALIVARY GLUCOSE AND ELECTROLYTES IN. DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS WITH PERIODONTITIS. 1. Department of Physiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. 2. Department of Medicine, Endocrinology Unit, University College Hospital, Ibadan. T.J. Lasisi1 and A.A. Fasanmade2.

  15. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Fore- casts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from. NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  16. A comparative analysis of Numerov and Nystrom methods | Unanam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, two test problems were used to study the behaviour and performance of two numerical methods (Numerov and Nystrom) of solving second order initial value problem (IVP) of ordinary differential equation without the first order term. A test implementation of each of the methods and a comparative analysis of the ...

  17. A comparative analysis of cohesion in academic and newspaper texts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents findings on a comparative analysis of cohesion in academic and newspaper texts on road traffic accidents. Cohesive devices are the surface structure features that link different parts of a text and make it flow logically. They are the necessary reins that hold the clauses of a text together. Coherence, on ...

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the Caracteristics of Authors in Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the characteristics of Nigerian s of articles published in the African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science (AJLAIS), the Nigerian Libraries (NL), Lagos Librarian (LL) and the Nigerian Library and Information Science Review (NLISR), between 1994 and 2000 was carried out.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Engines in Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    robotics, pattern recognition, etc. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three fuzzy inference engines, max-product, max-min and root sum in fuzzy controllers using profitability control data. The presented results shows that RSS inference engine gives largest output membership function, while the product inference ...

  20. Comparative economic analysis of yam minisett and ware yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on comparative economic analysis of yam minisett and ware yam production was conducted using 150 yam farmers as respondents. A structured questionnaire was used in collecting data from the yam farmers. Statistical tools such as frequency distribution, percentages, means and gross margin were used for ...

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  2. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices – Allium sativum L. Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Capsicum frutescens L. commonly consumed in Nigeria. ... Phytochemical screening indicated that these spices are also rich in phytonutrients including alkaloid, tannin, carotenoids, saponin and flavonoids.

  3. Analysis of the karyotype of expanded human adipose-derived stem cells for bone reconstruction of the maxillo-facial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, C; Stanco, D; Ragazzini, S; Romagnoli, L; Martella, E; Lazzati, S; Marchetti, C; Donati, D; Lucarelli, E

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were recently proposed for bone maxillofacial reconstruction in association with biomaterials. For this application MSC must be ex-vivo expanded in order to obtain, for a given volume of implanted biomaterial, a relevant number of bone forming cells. Previously conducted pre-clinical studies suggested that a concentration of 6 x 10(8) ASC associated with 900 mg of anorganic bovine bone (ABB) could be effective for human maxillary sinus floor elevation. A keystone issue to guarantee the quality and safety of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products containing expanded MSC and ASC is their chromosome stability in culture: this topic has been widely investigated and conflicting results have been published. Abnormal karyotype of human ex-vivo expanded MSC and ASC was found by some authors, while, at the same time, several other studies showed the MSC and ASC karyotype to be normal. It is therefore important that all the results obtained on MSC and ASC karyotype analysis be published. Given this context, the aim of this manuscript, aim of this manuscript is to verify the karyotype stability of ASC in view of their applications in clinical trials. ASC obtained from the adipose tissue of 4 donors were expanded over extended culture time. Based on previous ASC expansions we hypothesized to be able to obtain 6 x 10(8) cells by passage 7. Karyotype analysis of 30 metaphases was planned to be investigated at passage 2, 7, and 15 in all the cultures. No abnormalities were found in the karyotype of two donors at all the passages tested, while a translocation was found in 2 metaphases of a donor at passage 7, but not at passage 15, and in the fourth donor in 5 metaphases a trisomy was found at passage 15. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected only after extended ASC expansion. Whether these anomalies can be related to risk for the patient's safety will have to be demonstrated by in-vivo studies.

  4. Comparative analysis of equalization methods for SC-FDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Kozlov, Alexander; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce comparative analysis for different types of equalization schemes, based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) optimization. The following types of equalizers were compared: linear equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) and turbo equalization. Performance...... and complexity of these schemes were tested for Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) system with Single Input Single Output (SISO) antenna configuration. SC-FDMA is a common technique, which is used in the UTRA LTE Uplink, so the results of complexity and performance analysis could...... be applied to find the appropriate equalization algorithm to be used in the Uplink channel of the LTE – the famous standard in 4G telecommunications. Simulation results in the end in this paper show bit error ratio (BER) and modulation error ratio (MER) for compared schemes....

  5. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  6. Radial dilation of nephrostomy balloons: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Hendlin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The dynamics of percutaneous balloon expansion may differ with increasing extrinsic compressive forces and increasing inflation pressures. This study compares the ability of percutaneous balloons to expand under different radial constrictive forces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three 30F nephrostomy balloons were tested: Bard X-Force™, Boston Scientific Microvasive Amplatz Tractmaster™, and Cook Ultraxx™. With a super stiff guidewire in place, the balloon tip was secured by elevated vice grips on either side of the balloon. A string was wrapped around the balloon center once, and incremental increases in load were added (2g, 42g, 82g, and 122g to represent increasing extrinsic compression. The balloon was inflated with a contrast agent and circumference changes were measured at increments of 4 ATM, 10 ATM, and burst pressure. Balloons were tested in triplicate for each load. RESULTS: All balloons were unable to reach 90% of their expected diameter with larger constrictive loads (122g at low (4 ATM and nominal (10 ATM inflation pressures. Only the Bard and Cook balloons reached at least 90% of the expected diameter with a coefficient of variance (CV less than 10% at burst pressure under the larger constrictive load (122g, 94.3% ± 6.7%, CV 7.1% and 96.3% ± 2.9%, CV 3.0% respectively. All balloons performed well under low constriction forces and reached at least 80% of the expected diameter by 10 ATM under all constrictive loads. CONCLUSIONS: The Bard X-Force and Cook Ultraxx percutaneous nephrostomy balloons achieved the most reliable radial dilation against large constrictive forces simulating fascial or retroperitoneal scar tissue.

  7. Radial dilation of nephrostomy balloons: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Kari; Monga, Manoj

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of percutaneous balloon expansion may differ with increasing extrinsic compressive forces and increasing inflation pressures. This study compares the ability of percutaneous balloons to expand under different radial constrictive forces. Three 30F nephrostomy balloons were tested: Bard X-Force, Boston Scientific Microvasive Amplatz Tractmaster, and Cook Ultraxx. With a super stiff guidewire in place, the balloon tip was secured by elevated vice grips on either side of the balloon. A string was wrapped around the balloon center once, and incremental increases in load were added (2g, 42g, 82g, and 122g) to represent increasing extrinsic compression. The balloon was inflated with a contrast agent and circumference changes were measured at increments of 4 ATM, 10 ATM, and burst pressure. Balloons were tested in triplicate for each load. All balloons were unable to reach 90% of their expected diameter with larger constrictive loads (122g) at low (4 ATM) and nominal (10 ATM) inflation pressures. Only the Bard and Cook balloons reached at least 90% of the expected diameter with a coefficient of variance (CV) less than 10% at burst pressure under the larger constrictive load (122g), 94.3% +/- 6.7%, CV 7.1% and 96.3% +/- 2.9%, CV 3.0% respectively. All balloons performed well under low constriction forces and reached at least 80% of the expected diameter by 10 ATM under all constrictive loads. The Bard X-Force and Cook Ultraxx percutaneous nephrostomy balloons achieved the most reliable radial dilation against large constrictive forces simulating fascial or retroperitoneal scar tissue.

  8. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  9. BLAT-Based Comparative Analysis for Transposable Elements: BLATCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbum Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  10. MetaComp: comprehensive analysis software for comparative meta-omics including comparative metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Yang, Longshu; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Huaiqiu

    2017-10-02

    During the past decade, the development of high throughput nucleic sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis techniques have enabled the characterization of microbial communities through metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics data. To reveal the diversity of microbial communities and interactions between living conditions and microbes, it is necessary to introduce comparative analysis based upon integration of all four types of data mentioned above. Comparative meta-omics, especially comparative metageomics, has been established as a routine process to highlight the significant differences in taxon composition and functional gene abundance among microbiota samples. Meanwhile, biologists are increasingly concerning about the correlations between meta-omics features and environmental factors, which may further decipher the adaptation strategy of a microbial community. We developed a graphical comprehensive analysis software named MetaComp comprising a series of statistical analysis approaches with visualized results for metagenomics and other meta-omics data comparison. This software is capable to read files generated by a variety of upstream programs. After data loading, analyses such as multivariate statistics, hypothesis testing of two-sample, multi-sample as well as two-group sample and a novel function-regression analysis of environmental factors are offered. Here, regression analysis regards meta-omic features as independent variable and environmental factors as dependent variables. Moreover, MetaComp is capable to automatically choose an appropriate two-group sample test based upon the traits of input abundance profiles. We further evaluate the performance of its choice, and exhibit applications for metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics samples. MetaComp, an integrative software capable for applying to all meta-omics data, originally distills the influence of living environment on microbial community by regression analysis

  11. Evaluating the risks of clinical research: direct comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rid, Annette; Abdoler, Emily; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S; Wendler, David

    2014-09-01

    Many guidelines and regulations allow children and adolescents to be enrolled in research without the prospect of clinical benefit when it poses minimal risk. However, few systematic methods exist to determine when research risks are minimal. This situation has led to significant variation in minimal risk judgments, raising concern that some children are not being adequately protected. To address this concern, we describe a new method for implementing the widely endorsed "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. This standard defines research risks as minimal when they do not exceed the risks posed by daily life activities or routine examinations. This study employed a conceptual and normative analysis, and use of an illustrative example. Different risks are composed of the same basic elements: Type, likelihood, and magnitude of harm. Hence, one can compare the risks of research and the risks of daily life by comparing the respective basic elements with each other. We use this insight to develop a systematic method, direct comparative analysis, for implementing the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. The method offers a way of evaluating research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities, such as the risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, or other psychological harm. We thus illustrate how direct comparative analysis can be applied in practice by using it to evaluate whether the anxiety induced by a respiratory CO2 challenge poses minimal or greater than minimal risks in children and adolescents. Direct comparative analysis is a systematic method for applying the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk to research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities. It thereby offers a method to protect children and adolescents in research, while ensuring that important studies are not blocked because of unwarranted concerns about research risks.

  12. Preferred analysis methods for Affymetrix GeneChips. II. An expanded, balanced, wholly-defined spike-in dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Concomitant with the rise in the popularity of DNA microarrays has been a surge of proposed methods for the analysis of microarray data. Fully controlled "spike-in" datasets are an invaluable but rare tool for assessing the performance of various methods. Results We generated a new wholly defined Affymetrix spike-in dataset consisting of 18 microarrays. Over 5700 RNAs are spiked in at relative concentrations ranging from 1- to 4-fold, and the arrays from each condition are balanced with respect to both total RNA amount and degree of positive versus negative fold change. We use this new "Platinum Spike" dataset to evaluate microarray analysis routes and contrast the results to those achieved using our earlier Golden Spike dataset. Conclusions We present updated best-route methods for Affymetrix GeneChip analysis and demonstrate that the degree of "imbalance" in gene expression has a significant effect on the performance of these methods. PMID:20507584

  13. Comparative analysis of special preparedness young water-slalom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Okun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify indicators is specially trained water-slalom aged 10–12 years. Material & Methods: methods of theoretical analysis, synthesis and synthesis of information, pedagogical control tests (tests, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: presented materials research performance technical readiness of 60 young water-slalom groups of initial training. A comparative analysis of the results and regulatory requirements, the proposed curriculum for youth sports schools. Conclusions: the results of the study suggest lagging performance testing young athletes behind the standards of the program requirements, indicating insufficient specially trained water-slaloms.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuchev Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.

  15. Comparative analysis of tax administration system in Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Sergeevich Naydenov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on tax administration attractiveness for taxpayers in the Russian Federation. The authors provide an overview of existing approaches to understanding the nature of the tax administration. To solve the problem of estimating the attractiveness of the tax administration in this study, we proposed a methodological approach based on comparative analysis of the rank of territorial systems of tax administration. In the basis of comparative analysis is the calculation of a set of indicators that characterize the tax administration system attractiveness from the standpoint of the taxpayer, with subsequent calculation of integral indexes and rankings of the Russian Federation. The results assessing the attractiveness of the tax administration system in the regions are shown. In this paper, we attempt to assess modern tax administration as one of the key economic institutions, as well as to obtain quantitative data on the status of the tax administration in Russia's regions.

  16. Comparative analysis about dynamic performances of grid synchronization schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Hao; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    For a grid-connected Voltage-Source Converter (VSC), dynamics of the grid synchronization plays an important role in affecting the converter performances and stability. Due to its significance, this paper gives a comparative analysis about some basic grid synchronization schemes, through viewpoint...... of dynamic performances, which appeared as the impacts of voltage perturbation on the estimated angle error (Δθ). The analyzed synchronization schemes cover Synchronous-Reference-Frame Phase-Locked Loop (SRF-PLL), Second-Order Generalized Integrator Frequency-Locked Loop (SOGI-FLL)-based scheme......, and Decoupled Double SRF-PLL (DDSRF-PLL), in which their small-signal models, regarding the voltage perturbation, are derived in the stationary-reference frame and compared with the frequency responses diagrams. Based on the analysis, their common features and differences are summarized and finally validated...

  17. Mammalian comparative sequence analysis of the Agrp locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Kaelin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Agouti-related protein encodes a neuropeptide that stimulates food intake. Agrp expression in the brain is restricted to neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is elevated by states of negative energy balance. The molecular mechanisms underlying Agrp regulation, however, remain poorly defined. Using a combination of transgenic and comparative sequence analysis, we have previously identified a 760 bp conserved region upstream of Agrp which contains STAT binding elements that participate in Agrp transcriptional regulation. In this study, we attempt to improve the specificity for detecting conserved elements in this region by comparing genomic sequences from 10 mammalian species. Our analysis reveals a symmetrical organization of conserved sequences upstream of Agrp, which cluster into two inverted repeat elements. Conserved sequences within these elements suggest a role for homeodomain proteins in the regulation of Agrp and provide additional targets for functional evaluation.

  18. Gene expression profiling and expanded immunohistochemistry tests to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer management: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S; Scope, A; Rafia, R; Pandor, A; Harnan, S; Evans, P; Wyld, L

    2013-10-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) and expanded immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests aim to improve decision-making relating to adjuvant chemotherapy for women with early breast cancer. The aim of this report is to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of nine GEP and expanded IHC tests compared with current prognostic tools in guiding the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer in England and Wales. The nine tests are BluePrint, Breast Cancer Index (BCI), IHC4, MammaPrint, Mammostrat, NPI plus (NPI+), OncotypeDX, PAM50 and Randox Breast Cancer Array. Databases searched included MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Databases were searched from January 2009 to May 2011 for the OncotypeDX and MammaPrint tests and from January 2002 to May 2011 for the other tests. A systematic review of the evidence on clinical effectiveness (analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility) and cost-effectiveness was conducted. An economic model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy treatment guided by four of the nine test (OncotypeDX, IHC4, MammaPrint and Mammostrat) compared with current clinical practice in England and Wales, using clinicopathological parameters, in women with oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+), lymph node-negative (LN-), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) early breast cancer. The literature searches for clinical effectiveness identified 5993 citations, of which 32 full-text papers or abstracts (30 studies) satisfied the criteria for the effectiveness review. A narrative synthesis was performed. Evidence for OncotypeDX supported the prognostic capability of the test. There was some evidence on the impact of the test on decision-making and to support the case that OncotypeDX predicts chemotherapy benefit; however, few studies were UK based and limitations in relation to study design were identified

  19. Strategic planning effectiveness comparative analysis of the Macedonian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Šuklev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is an important element in the organizational success and the key to effectiveness and overall competitiveness of the organizations. Strategic planning practice and effectiveness has been the subject of much academic debate in the Western context, but little empirical research and comparative analysis exists on this subject in emerging and developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between strategic planning and the organizational effectiveness with the examination of a wider list of strategic planning dimensions and different approaches and measures to assess the strategic planning effectiveness in the case of the Republic of Macedonia, as well as to conduct comparative analysis of the strategic planning effectiveness in different emerging and developing countries. After the initial processing of the total number of received questionnaires, 113 questionnaires proceeded to the next phase of processing, as companies were found to be strategic planners. Two regression models were performed, enclosed with necessary tests, as well as in order to achieve unidimensionality, factor analysis was performed for all stated items for each of the investigated variables. The empirical analysis conducted in Macedonian companies shows that strategic planning can generally contribute to organizational effectiveness. A significant correlation between different strategic planning dimensions and the strategic planning effectiveness was found in the relationship between the formality of strategic planning, the management participation in strategic planning and the employee participation in strategic planning. The comparative analysis conducted in this study with the purpose of comparing the case of Republic of Macedonia with the studies in the other emerging and developing counties, and indicating the probable reasons for potential differences in strategic planning effectiveness in different counties, refers to

  20. Perceptions of Industry Change: Decadal Comparative Analysis of Consumer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Bowen, Erin E.; Headley, Dean E.; Sabin, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal comparisons of perceptions are rarely available over rapid industrial change, and few industries have changed to the degree of airline travel in the post-9/11 decade. This study presents comparative analysis of airline consumer perceptions following September 11th 2001 to findings from a Congressperson-initiated survey of 3,500 travelers ending 2011. The National Airline Quality Rating (AQR), released annually each April at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. and viewe...

  1. Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kalapish

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.

  2. Comparative analysis oil industry of Russia, OPEC and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Khairytdinov I.; Shalina O.

    2016-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the oil and liquid hydrocarbons markets — the largest producers and consumers countries, the major oil companies. A comparative analysis oil industry of the Russia, OPEC countries, USA is delivered. The authors come to the conclusion that most OPEC countries and Russia occupy leading positions at the expense of large stockpiles of conventional oil, low cost, as well as economies of scale, being the natural recipients of rent. Their extraction profitable...

  3. Initial Implementation of a comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  4. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    C. T. (2007). Predictors of depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of young children with or at risk for developmental delay. Journal of...Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wayne Fisher, Ph.D... Autism in Military Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0444 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Wayne W. Fisher

  5. Revision urethroplasty success is comparable to primary urethroplasty: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Max A; Kinnaird, Adam S; Rourke, Keith F

    2014-10-01

    To assess the efficacy and complications of revision urethroplasty compared with urethroplasty-naïve controls. A retrospective analysis was performed of 534 urethroplasties performed by a single surgeon from August 2003 to March 2011. Patient age, stricture length, location, etiology, comorbidities, and type of surgery were recorded. Statistical comparison between the revision cohort and urethroplasty-naïve group were made using Fisher, χ(2), and unpaired t tests, with significance at P comparable to results in urethroplasty-naïve patients. Patients undergoing revision urethroplasty are more likely to require tissue transfer and experience higher rates of chordee and urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  7. MUNICIPAL INDICATORS SYSTEM SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Saccol Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the indicators of sustainable development in the municipalities of Chapeco , Joaçaba , Port Union and Mafra, which developed the urban and territorial expansion of the West and North of the Santa Catarina region during the twentieth century . Thus, the objective of the analysis is to identify the similarities and differences of municipal sustainable development of each municipality , proposing alternative ways to improve these indexes, through the concepts Sachs (1997. The work is guided by a comparative analysis of data considering the indicators in 2012 and 2014 , through a survey of documentary approach . From this analysis , identified and demonstrated the points with disabilities, but at the same time essential to raise the indices of sustainability of municipalities in socio-cultural terms, economic, environmental and political

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CELEBRITY AND NON-CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Asad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is undertaken to make a comparative analysis of celebrity advertisement and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions, and advertising attributes. For this purpose, a simple random sample of 200 students studying four different disciplines was taken from the Private University in Lahore. For econometric proof, reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and independent sample T-test was used to interpret the results. Our findings show that there is no significant difference between celebrity and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchasing intentions, and advertising attributes. The limitations and recommendations of this research are also given.

  9. Comparative analysis of breast cancer detection in mammograms and thermograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Marina; Jankovic, Dragan; Peulic, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we present a system based on feature extraction techniques for detecting abnormal patterns in digital mammograms and thermograms. A comparative study of texture-analysis methods is performed for three image groups: mammograms from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society mammographic database; digital mammograms from the local database; and thermography images of the breast. Also, we present a procedure for the automatic separation of the breast region from the mammograms. Computed features based on gray-level co-occurrence matrices are used to evaluate the effectiveness of textural information possessed by mass regions. A total of 20 texture features are extracted from the region of interest. The ability of feature set in differentiating abnormal from normal tissue is investigated using a support vector machine classifier, Naive Bayes classifier and K-Nearest Neighbor classifier. To evaluate the classification performance, five-fold cross-validation method and receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed.

  10. Comparing methods for analysis of biomedical hyperspectral image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas J.; Sweat, Brenner; Abbott, Caitlyn; Favreau, Peter F.; Annamdevula, Naga S.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 2 decades, hyperspectral imaging technologies have been adapted to address the need for molecule-specific identification in the biomedical imaging field. Applications have ranged from single-cell microscopy to whole-animal in vivo imaging and from basic research to clinical systems. Enabling this growth has been the availability of faster, more effective hyperspectral filtering technologies and more sensitive detectors. Hence, the potential for growth of biomedical hyperspectral imaging is high, and many hyperspectral imaging options are already commercially available. However, despite the growth in hyperspectral technologies for biomedical imaging, little work has been done to aid users of hyperspectral imaging instruments in selecting appropriate analysis algorithms. Here, we present an approach for comparing the effectiveness of spectral analysis algorithms by combining experimental image data with a theoretical "what if" scenario. This approach allows us to quantify several key outcomes that characterize a hyperspectral imaging study: linearity of sensitivity, positive detection cut-off slope, dynamic range, and false positive events. We present results of using this approach for comparing the effectiveness of several common spectral analysis algorithms for detecting weak fluorescent protein emission in the midst of strong tissue autofluorescence. Results indicate that this approach should be applicable to a very wide range of applications, allowing a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the combined biology, hardware, and computational analysis for detecting a specific molecular signature.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  12. Comparative profitability analysis of selected rainfed and irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land, fertilizer and agrochemicals were significant at varying levels and positively related to profit. The study therefore recommends that more financial assistance in the form of credit should be given to farmers so as to expand their production. Also, a minimum guaranty price of the farm produce should be enforced.

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Sequence Database: an expanded data model integrating natural language text and sequence analysis programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, R; Machekano, R; Gonzales, M J; Dupnik, K; Schapiro, J M; Shafer, R W

    2001-01-01

    The HIV Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Sequence Database is an on-line relational database that catalogs evolutionary and drug-related sequence variation in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease enzymes, the molecular targets of anti-HIV therapy (http://hivdb.stanford.edu). The database contains a compilation of nearly all published HIV RT and protease sequences, including submissions from International Collaboration databases and sequences published in journal articles. Sequences are linked to data about the source of the sequence sample and the antiretroviral drug treatment history of the individual from whom the isolate was obtained. During the past year 3500 sequences have been added and the data model has been expanded to include drug susceptibility data on sequenced isolates. Database content has also been integrated with didactic text and the output of two sequence analysis programs.

  14. Comparative analysis as a basic research orientation: Key methodological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has accumulated a vast experience in the field of cross-cultural studies reflected in the publications based on the results of mass surveys conducted in Moscow, Maikop, Beijing, Guangzhou, Prague, Belgrade, and Pristina. However, these publications mainly focus on the comparisons of the empirical data rather than methodological and technical issues, that is why the aim of this article is to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides (countries involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. The authors are sure that no sociologist would ever doubt the necessity and importance of comparative analysis in the broadest sense of the word, but at the same time very few are ready to discuss its key methodological challenges and prefer to ignore them completely. We summarize problems of the comparative analysis in sociology as follows: (1 applying research techniques to the sample in another country - both in translating and adapting them to different social realities and worldview (in particular, the problematic status of standardization and qualitative approach; (2 choosing “right” respondents to question and relevant cases (cultures to study; (3 designing the research scheme, i.e. justifying the sequence of steps (what should go first - methodology or techniques; (4 accepting the procedures that are correct within one country for cross-cultural work (whether or not that is an appropriate choice.

  15. Expanding the Repertoire of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamases by Functional Metagenomic Analysis of Soil Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje D.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pollini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    as metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), were identified in six soil samples, including two subclass B1 (GRD23-1 and SPN79-1) and seven subclass B3 (CRD3-1, PEDO-1, GRD33-1, ESP-2, ALG6-1, ALG11-1, and DHT2-1). Except PEDO-1 and ESP-2, these enzymes were distantly related to any previously described MBLs (33 to 59......% identity). RAIphy analysis indicated that six enzymes (CRD3-1, GRD23-1, DHT2-1, SPN79-1, ALG6-1, and ALG11-1) originated from Proteobacteria, two (PEDO-1 and ESP-2) from Bacteroidetes and one (GRD33-1) from Gemmatimonadetes. All MBLs detected in soil microbiota were functional when expressed in E. coli...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Shift Registers in Different Nanometer Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh MEHRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, power and speed efficient registers have been designed using different nanometer technologies. Serial in Serial out (SISO and Serial in Parallel out (SIPO shift registers are designed using 180 nm and 90 nm technologies. Both the design are analyzed and compared based on power, delay and power-delay-product (PDP. Present portable real time system demands high performance in terms of speed along with low power consumption. The concept of technology scale down has been used to optimize power and delay in booth designs. The schematic of SISO and SIPO has been developed using Cadence Virtuoso software and analysis has been performed using Analog Design Environment. It has been observed from simulation analysis that 90 nm based SISO design shows an improvement of 68.61 % in power and 54.92 % in delay as compared to 180 nm technology. Likewise SIPO design has shown an improvement of 67.75 % in power and 53.32 % in delay as compared to 180 nm technology.

  17. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of streptococcus pseudopneumoniae with viridans group streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, is a novel member of the genus Streptococcus, falling close to related members like S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. Its recent appearance has shed light on streptococcal infections, which has been unclear till recently. In this study, the transcriptome of S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T was analyzed using the S. pneumoniae R6 microarray platform and compared with those of S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T, S. mitis KCTC 3556T, and S. oralis KCTC 13048T strains. Results Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed the extent of genetic relatedness among the species, and implies that S. pseudopneumoniae is the most closely related to S. pneumoniae. A total of 489, 444 and 470 genes were upregulated while 347, 484 and 443 were downregulated relative to S. pneumoniae in S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis and S. mitis respectively. Important findings were the up-regulation of TCS (two component systems and transposase which were found to be specific to S. pseudopneumoniae. Conclusions This study provides insight to the current understanding of the genomic content of S. pseudopneumoniae. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed hierarchical clustering of expression data of S. pseudopneumoniae with S. pneumoniae and S. mitis with S. oralis. This proves that transcriptional profiling can facilitate in elucidating the genetic distance between closely related strains.

  18. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Cotton Fiber Development and Protein Extraction Method Comparison in Late Stage Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mujahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinct stages of cotton fiber development and maturation serve as a single-celled model for studying the molecular mechanisms of plant cell elongation, cell wall development and cellulose biosynthesis. However, this model system of plant cell development is compromised for proteomic studies due to a lack of an efficient protein extraction method during the later stages of fiber development, because of a recalcitrant cell wall and the presence of abundant phenolic compounds. Here, we compared the quality and quantities of proteins extracted from 25 dpa (days post anthesis fiber with multiple protein extraction methods and present a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study of fiber development from 10 dpa to 25 dpa. Comparative analysis using a label-free quantification method revealed 287 differentially-expressed proteins in the 10 dpa to 25 dpa fiber developmental period. Proteins involved in cell wall metabolism and regulation, cytoskeleton development and carbohydrate metabolism among other functional categories in four fiber developmental stages were identified. Our studies provide protocols for protein extraction from maturing fiber tissues for mass spectrometry analysis and expand knowledge of the proteomic profile of cotton fiber development.

  19. Canine Mammary Carcinomas: A Comparative Analysis of Altered Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruk M. Lutful Kabir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer represents the second most frequent neoplasm in humans and sexually intact female dogs after lung and skin cancers, respectively. Many similar features in human and dog cancers including, spontaneous development, clinical presentation, tumor heterogeneity, disease progression and response to conventional therapies have supported development of this comparative model as an alternative to mice. The highly conserved similarities between canine and human genomes are also key to this comparative analysis, especially when compared to the murine genome. Studies with canine mammary tumor (CMT models have shown a strong genetic correlation with their human counterparts, particularly in terms of altered expression profiles of cell cycle regulatory genes, tumor suppressor and oncogenes and also a large group of non-coding RNAs or microRNAs (miRNAs. Because CMTs are considered predictive intermediate models for human breast cancer, similarities in genetic alterations and cancer predisposition between humans and dogs have raised further interest. Many cancer-associated genetic defects critical to mammary tumor development and oncogenic determinants of metastasis have been reported and appear to be similar in both species. Comparative analysis of deregulated gene sets or cancer signaling pathways has shown that a significant proportion of orthologous genes are comparably up- or down-regulated in both human and dog breast tumors. Particularly, a group of cell cycle regulators called cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs acting as potent tumor suppressors are frequently defective in CMTs. Interestingly, comparative analysis of coding sequences has also shown that these genes are highly conserved in mammals in terms of their evolutionary divergence from a common ancestor. Moreover, co-deletion and/or homozygous loss of the INK4A/ARF/INK4B (CDKN2A/B locus, encoding three members of the CKI tumor suppressor gene families (p16/INK4A, p14ARF and p15

  20. Options for improving evacuation: Investigating an unconventional strategy and expanding route options using TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol Abel; Onyejekwe, Sandra; Wynn, Garlin; Mosley, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Various agencies including state departments of transportation, emergency management offices, a municipal works agency, or a highway patrol agency may prepare evacuation plans. Storm strength and landfall predictions determine procedures and strategies. Studies have been conducted that examined various methods considering evacuees' behaviors, traffic control, safety, and preferential routing. The occasions when a hurricane is imminent require residents to make a choice between sheltering-in-place or evacuating. Tremendous growth is anticipated in many US coastal communities and that will place greater pressure on evacuation strategies in future years. Given the inevitability of future hurricane evacuations and the intensive growth projections for US coastal areas, this research examines evacuation options with a focus on the Houston-Galveston region. The research examines two scenarios using the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System simulation model which relies on a GIS base. Study results showed that both scenarios perform well as alternative options for inclusion in regional planning. It is recommended that these two scenarios be included in the array of responses available for decision makers depending on the myriad of variables-citizen response, congestion levels on the roadways and location, and prediction of an impending storm. The options may be applied independently or in concert with other strategies.

  1. Expanding the Repertoire of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamases by Functional Metagenomic Analysis of Soil Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje D.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pollini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    as metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), were identified in six soil samples, including two subclass B1 (GRD23-1 and SPN79-1) and seven subclass B3 (CRD3-1, PEDO-1, GRD33-1, ESP-2, ALG6-1, ALG11-1, and DHT2-1). Except PEDO-1 and ESP-2, these enzymes were distantly related to any previously described MBLs (33 to 59......% identity). RAIphy analysis indicated that six enzymes (CRD3-1, GRD23-1, DHT2-1, SPN79-1, ALG6-1, and ALG11-1) originated from Proteobacteria, two (PEDO-1 and ESP-2) from Bacteroidetes and one (GRD33-1) from Gemmatimonadetes. All MBLs detected in soil microbiota were functional when expressed in E. coli......, resulting in detectable imipenem-hydrolyzing activity and significantly increased MICs of clinically relevant ss-lactams. Interestingly, the MBLs yielded by functional metagenomics generally differed from those detected in the same soil samples by antibiotic selective culture, showing that the two...

  2. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  3. Expanding the Repertoire of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamases by Functional Metagenomic Analysis of Soil Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudeta, Dereje D.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Rossolini, Gian M.; Amos, Gregory C. A.; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenemases are bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze carbapenems, a group of last-resort β-lactam antibiotics used for treatment of severe bacterial infections. They belong to three β-lactamase classes based amino acid sequence (A, B, and D). The aim of this study was to elucidate occurrence, diversity and functionality of carbapenemase-encoding genes in soil microbiota by functional metagenomics. Ten plasmid libraries were generated by cloning metagenomic DNA from agricultural (n = 6) and grassland (n = 4) soil into Escherichia coli. The libraries were cultured on amoxicillin-containing agar and up to 100 colonies per library were screened for carbapenemase production by CarbaNP test. Presumptive carbapenemases were characterized with regard to DNA sequence, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of β-lactams, and imipenem hydrolysis. Nine distinct class B carbapenemases, also known as metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), were identified in six soil samples, including two subclass B1 (GRD23-1 and SPN79-1) and seven subclass B3 (CRD3-1, PEDO-1, GRD33-1, ESP-2, ALG6-1, ALG11-1, and DHT2-1). Except PEDO-1 and ESP-2, these enzymes were distantly related to any previously described MBLs (33 to 59% identity). RAIphy analysis indicated that six enzymes (CRD3-1, GRD23-1, DHT2-1, SPN79-1, ALG6-1, and ALG11-1) originated from Proteobacteria, two (PEDO-1 and ESP-2) from Bacteroidetes and one (GRD33-1) from Gemmatimonadetes. All MBLs detected in soil microbiota were functional when expressed in E. coli, resulting in detectable imipenem-hydrolyzing activity and significantly increased MICs of clinically relevant ß-lactams. Interestingly, the MBLs yielded by functional metagenomics generally differed from those detected in the same soil samples by antibiotic selective culture, showing that the two approaches targeted different subpopulations in soil microbiota. PMID:28082950

  4. Expanding Local Cancer Clinical Trial Options: Analysis of the Economic Impact of the Midwest Cancer Alliance in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafford, J Atlee; Gurley-Calvez, Tami; Krebill, Hope; Lai, Sue Min; Christiadi; Doolittle, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    Patients benefit from receiving cancer treatment closer to home when possible and at high-volume regional centers when specialized care is required. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the economic impact of retaining more patients in-state for cancer clinical trials and care, which might offset some of the costs of establishing broader cancer trial and treatment networks. Kansas Cancer Registry data were used to estimate the number of patients retained in-state for cancer care following the expansion of local cancer clinical trial options through the Midwest Cancer Alliance based at the University of Kansas Medical Center. The 2014 economic impact of this enhanced local clinical trial network was estimated in four parts: Medical spending was estimated on the basis of National Cancer Institute cost-of-care estimates. Household travel cost savings were estimated as the difference between in-state and out-of-state travel costs. Trial-related grant income was calculated from administrative records. Indirect and induced economic benefits to the state were estimated using an economic impact model. The authors estimated that the enhanced local cancer clinical trial network resulted in approximately $6.9 million in additional economic activity in the state in 2014, or $362,000 per patient retained in-state. This estimate includes $3.6 million in direct spending and $3.3 million in indirect economic activity. The enhanced trial network also resulted in 45 additional jobs. Retaining patients in-state for cancer care and clinical trial participation allows patients to remain closer to home for care and enhances the state economy.

  5. Expanding the Repertoire of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamases by Functional Metagenomic Analysis of Soil Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudeta, Dereje D; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Rossolini, Gian M; Amos, Gregory C A; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenemases are bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze carbapenems, a group of last-resort β-lactam antibiotics used for treatment of severe bacterial infections. They belong to three β-lactamase classes based amino acid sequence (A, B, and D). The aim of this study was to elucidate occurrence, diversity and functionality of carbapenemase-encoding genes in soil microbiota by functional metagenomics. Ten plasmid libraries were generated by cloning metagenomic DNA from agricultural (n = 6) and grassland (n = 4) soil into Escherichia coli. The libraries were cultured on amoxicillin-containing agar and up to 100 colonies per library were screened for carbapenemase production by CarbaNP test. Presumptive carbapenemases were characterized with regard to DNA sequence, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of β-lactams, and imipenem hydrolysis. Nine distinct class B carbapenemases, also known as metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), were identified in six soil samples, including two subclass B1 (GRD23-1 and SPN79-1) and seven subclass B3 (CRD3-1, PEDO-1, GRD33-1, ESP-2, ALG6-1, ALG11-1, and DHT2-1). Except PEDO-1 and ESP-2, these enzymes were distantly related to any previously described MBLs (33 to 59% identity). RAIphy analysis indicated that six enzymes (CRD3-1, GRD23-1, DHT2-1, SPN79-1, ALG6-1, and ALG11-1) originated from Proteobacteria, two (PEDO-1 and ESP-2) from Bacteroidetes and one (GRD33-1) from Gemmatimonadetes. All MBLs detected in soil microbiota were functional when expressed in E. coli, resulting in detectable imipenem-hydrolyzing activity and significantly increased MICs of clinically relevant ß-lactams. Interestingly, the MBLs yielded by functional metagenomics generally differed from those detected in the same soil samples by antibiotic selective culture, showing that the two approaches targeted different subpopulations in soil microbiota.

  6. Efficacy of a Self-expanding Tract Sealant Device in the Reduction of Pneumothorax and Chest Tube Placement Rates After Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: A Matched Controlled Study Using Propensity Score Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrar, Judy U., E-mail: judy.ahrar@mdanderson.org; Gupta, Sanjay [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Ensor, Joe E. [Houston Methodist Research Institute, The Houston Methodist Cancer Center (United States); Mahvash, Armeen; Sabir, Sharjeel H.; Steele, Joseph R.; McRae, Stephen E.; Avritscher, Rony; Huang, Steven Y.; Odisio, Bruno C.; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J.; Tam, Alda L. [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the use of a self-expanding tract sealant device (BioSentry™) on the rates of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion after percutaneous lung biopsy.Materials and MethodsIn this retrospective study, we compared 318 patients who received BioSentry™ during percutaneous lung biopsy (treated group) with 1956 patients who did not (control group). Patient-, lesion-, and procedure-specific variables, and pneumothorax and chest tube insertion rates were recorded. To adjust for potential selection bias, patients in the treated group were matched 1:1 to patients in the control group using propensity score matching based on the above-mentioned variables. Patients were considered a match if the absolute difference in their propensity scores was ≤equal to 0.02.ResultsBefore matching, the pneumothorax and chest tube rates were 24.5 and 13.1% in the control group, and 21.1 and 8.5% in the treated group, respectively. Using propensity scores, a match was found for 317 patients in the treatment group. Chi-square contingency matched pair analysis showed the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (20.8 vs. 32.8%; p = 0.001) and chest tube (8.2 vs. 20.8%; p < 0.0001) rates compared to the control group. Sub-analysis including only faculty who had >30 cases of both treatment and control cases demonstrated similar findings: the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (17.6 vs. 30.2%; p = 0.002) and chest tube (7.2 vs. 18%; p = 0.001) rates.ConclusionsThe self-expanding tract sealant device significantly reduced the pneumothorax rate, and more importantly, the chest tube placement rate after percutaneous lung biopsy.

  7. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterston, Robert H.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F.; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brown, Stephen D.; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D.; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Church, Deanna M.; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S.; Cook, Lisa L.; Copley, Richard R.; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D.; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M.; Eddy, Sean R.; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D.; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A.; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Furey, Terrence S.; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A.; Green, Eric D.; Gregory, Simon; Guigo, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C.; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B.; Johnson, L. Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A.; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W. James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L.; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Kulbokas III, Edward J.; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J.P.; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; et al.

    2002-12-15

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

  8. Comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules. It is possible to recycle even very old products by modern standard processes in a value-conserving manner. About 90% of the materials recovered from solar panels can be recycled into useful products. Carbon emission and energy cost are low in manufacturing recycled SPV. Modules can be manufactured with recycled materials and reinstalled in systems as a full quality product with today’s technology good for another 25–30 years. Analysis of all the models of PV module is done with the help of MATLAB. This helps in comparison and proves the effectiveness of the recycled PV module based systems.

  9. Efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stuart; Hansen, Thomas; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical relevance of the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and citalopram by meta-analysis. Studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) with both escitalopram and citalopram treatment arms were identified. Adult patients had to meet DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The primary outcome measure was the treatment difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram, n=995; citalopram, n=1014). Escitalopram was significantly more effective than citalopram in overall treatment effect, with an estimated mean treatment difference of 1.7 points at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram. In this meta-analysis, the statistically significant superior efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram was shown to be clinically relevant.

  10. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  11. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-01

    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  12. Stigma, sex work, and substance use: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; McCarthy, Bill; Jansson, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Stigma is a widely used concept in social science research and an extensive literature claims that stigmatisation contributes to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies compare groups that vary in the extent to which they are stigmatised and even fewer studies examine stigma's independent and mediating effects. This article addresses these gaps in a comparative study of perceived stigma and drug use among three low-income feminised service occupations: sex work, food and alcoholic beverage serving, and barbering and hairstyling. An analysis of longitudinal data shows positive associations between sex work, perceived stigma, and socially less acceptable drug use (for example, heroin and cocaine), and that stigma mediates part of the link between sex work and the use of these drugs. Our overall findings suggest that perceived stigma is pronounced among those who work in the sex industry and negatively affects health independently of sex work involvement. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  13. Comparative analysis of vitamin status of schoolchildren in recreational period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the vitamin status of schoolchildren during the summer recreation of 90th years of the last century and now. The study involved 167 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. With the help of questionnaires developed by the authors assessed the severity of symptoms of vitamin deficiency, the prevalence of vitamin supplementation, frequency and volume of consumption of fruits and vegetables. It is confirmed that the saturation is the state of the vitamin in children is the best compared with data from 20 years ago, the state of multi-vitamin deficiency is replaced mono-vitamin deficit. The results, data evaluation and the availability of additional fortification of the diet of fruit and vegetables support the need for measures aimed at improving vitamin status. Using the questionnaire method is most appropriate for monitoring the vitamin status of schoolchildren.

  14. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  15. Comparative analysis of measles virus RNA by oligonucleotide fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J.R.; Meulen, V. ter (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-01-01

    Isolates from two cases of acute measles, one case of acute measles encephalitis and three patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were compared. This comparison was based upon the electrophoretic analysis of T/sub 1/ oligonucleotides from single-stranded, full-length RNA isolated from cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. Although all viruses have oligonucleotides in common, each isolate generated a unique pattern of oligonucleotides. However, no group of oligonucleotides was observed which would allow differentiation between viruses isolated from acute infections and those isolated from CNS diseases; indicating that probably all measles viruses differ in their nucleotide sequence, regardless of origin.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ESTIMATION METHODS OF PHARMACY ORGANIZATION BANKRUPTCY PROBABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Adzhienko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of this study was to determine the probability of bankruptcy by various methods in order to predict the financial crisis of pharmacy organization. Estimating the probability of pharmacy organization bankruptcy was conducted using W. Beaver’s method adopted in the Russian Federation, with integrated assessment of financial stability use on the basis of scoring analysis. The results obtained by different methods are comparable and show that the risk of bankruptcy of the pharmacy organization is small.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Transport Terminologyusage on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he paper deals with the comparative analysis of the usage of transport terminology on the Internet using the popular search engine www.google.lt. It analyses the frequency of correct and incorrect usage of lexis, word-building and pronominal forms. The charts show what mistakes are mostly made and that they are mainly term building mistakes. The usage of new loanwords can be justified because most of them are not considered as serious language mistakes. Although, mistakes of another kind can only be explained as the negligence of the authors of the Internet text.

  18. Comparative analysis of plates obtained with different aerial photogrammetric cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelbl, Otto

    The image quality and metric precision of three aerial cameras, the Zeiss Jena LMK, the Wild Heerbrugg RC10A, and the Zeiss Oberkochen RMK, are compared. The metric precision analysis is based on an aerial triangulation of a photogrammetric block of six bands using seven plates with the scale set at 1:5500. Differences in image quality were successfully analyzed by determination of the modulation transfer function under flight conditions, and the reproduction of singularized points is also considered. Results using Panatomic-X film demonstrate that the quality of the image depends principally on the objective used.

  19. Racial classification in the evolutionary sciences: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Human racial classification has long been a problem for the discipline of anthropology, but much of the criticism of the race concept has focused on its social and political connotations. The central argument of this paper is that race is not a specifically human problem, but one that exists in evolutionary thought in general. This paper looks at various disciplinary approaches to racial or subspecies classification, extending its focus beyond the anthropological race concept by providing a comparative analysis of the use of racial classification in evolutionary biology, genetics, and anthropology.

  20. TRENDS OF THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR VENTURE FUNDING: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Drachuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore of the global venture capital market and to reveal of its development trends. Methodology. To achieve this goal used methods: statistical analysis, forecasting method autoregression model, the calculation of the coefficient of variation, Spearman rank correlation coefficient and linear Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. The analysis of the development of the global venture capital market for the years 2007-2015 executed. The coefficients of variation of the volume of venture capital investment and the number of venture capital deals are designed. According to the calculations, variations in the volume of venture capital investment rate is 11.8%, which is almost 2.1 times higher than the value of the coefficient of variation in the number of venture capital deals in the global market of venture capital investments (5.7%. It means: the actual data volume of venture capital investment and the number of venture capital deals are homogeneous collections, because the values of the coefficients of variation of these indices is less than 33%. A characteristic feature of these indicators is a low level of variability and minor fluctuations, that is, a tendency even venture investments of innovative development in the world. To determine the closeness of the connection between the amount of capital raised in the IPO, and the number of transactions Spearman rank correlation coefficient is calculated, as well as the strength of correlation between the volume of investment and the number of transactions in the global market transactions M&A – linear Pearson correlation coefficient. Between the amount of capital raised in the IPO, and the amount of venture capital transactions revealed a strong positive correlation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient close to 1. This indicates positive trends in the development of the global market of venture IPO, because by investing venture capital in innovation is a

  1. Peace Negotiations in the Third World: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Benítez Manaut

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the negotiations and peace processes in the Third World are analized from a comparative viewpoint in order to focus in on the case of Centroamerica. Reference is made to the special features and common elements of those peace processes in otherregions of the Third World and they are compared to those which have taken place in Centroamerica. It is a retrospective and comparative analysis. For this reason, the author has decided to carry out a brief typology of those conflicts offered by Centroamerica: inNicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala. Later, the author goes on to analyse the most relevant peace and negotiation processes involving the Third World including one or two from Latin America: the cases of Panama, Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq, Colombia, southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia and Angola and Cambodia. Later, the author goes overthe peace process periods in Centroamerica and the temporary contradictions which are presented by internal conflict, regional conflict and geopolitical conflict. Finally, a comparative methodological exercise is carried out which allows to focus on modes of implementation of the peace processes.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of fibrosarcoma and skin fibroblast cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral, Ogunc; Uysal, Hamdi

    2015-02-01

    Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and cancer cell lines provides for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of cancer development and is essential for developing more effective strategies for new biomarker or drug target discovery. The purpose of this study is to compare protein expression levels between fibrosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines. In our study, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques were carried out to compare the protein profile between fibrosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines. We prepared cell lysate samples to analyze intracellular proteins and secretome samples to analyze extracellular proteins in both cell lines. Our results revealed 13 upregulated proteins and 1 downregulated protein of which all of them identified in fibrosarcoma cell line after the comparison with fibroblast cell line cell lysates. When comparing secretome profiles of both cell lines, we found and identified 13 proteins only expressed in fibrosarcoma cell line. These identified proteins have common functions such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis in cancer. The data obtained from this study indicates that these proteins have importance on understanding the molecular mechanism of fibrosarcoma. These proteins may serve as candidate biomarkers and drug targets for future clinical studies.

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Christine M; Berkman, Nancy D; Lohr, Kathleen N; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bann, Carla M; Cullen, Katherine; Quattlebaum, Mary J; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    Psychological and pharmacological interventions for binge-eating disorder have previously demonstrated efficacy (compared with placebo or waitlist control); thus, we aimed to expand that literature with a review of comparative effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE,® EMBASE,® Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL® for binge-eating disorder treatment articles and selected studies using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were sufficient for network meta-analysis comparing two pharmacological interventions; psychological interventions were analysed qualitatively. In all, 28 treatment comparisons were included in this review: one pharmacological comparison (second-generation antidepressants versus lisdexamfetamine) and 26 psychological comparisons. Only three statistically significant differences emerged: lisdexamfetamine was better at increasing binge abstinence than second-generation antidepressants; therapist-led cognitive behavioural therapy was better at reducing binge-eating frequency than behavioural weight loss, but behavioural weight loss was better at reducing weight. The majority of other treatment comparisons revealed few significant differences between groups. Thus, patients and clinicians can choose from several effective treatment options. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Comparative Numerical Analysis Of Advertising Board Tower Using Adina And Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the subject of comparative stress and displacement analysis for different computer aided design program environments is discussed. For the purposes of analysis ADINA and Autodesk ROBOT program were used. In both programs an advertising board tower was modeled. Static analysis was adopted for the computations. Obtained results allowed showing small differences and limitations between those two environments.

  5. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  6. Expanding access to off-grid rural electrification in Africa: An analysis of community-based micro-grids in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubi, Charles Gathu

    lead to elite capture. Experiences from different micro-grid settings illustrate the manner in which a coincidence of interest between the elites and the rest of members and access to external support can create incentives and mechanisms to enable community-wide access to scarce services, hence mitigating elite capture. Moreover, access to external support was found to increase the likelihood of participation for the relatively poor households. The policy-relevant message from this research is two-fold. In rural areas with suitable sites for micro-hydro power, the potential for community micro-grids appear considerable to the extent that this option would seem to represent "the road not taken" as far as policies and initiatives aimed at expanding RE are concerned in Kenya and other African countries with comparable settings. However, local participatory initiatives not complimented by external technical assistance run a considerable risk of locking rural households into relatively more costly and poor-quality services. By taking advantage of existing and/or building a dense network of local organizations, including micro-finance agencies, the government and development partners can make available to local communities the necessary support---financial, technical or regulatory---essential for efficient design of micro-grids in addition to facilitating equitable distribution of electricity benefits.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Results of Online and Offline Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Milorad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The logic that customer satisfaction is the starting point of marketing and business activities is based on the assumption that customer satisfaction leads to customer loyalty, keeping in mind all of the positive effects that customer loyalty has on business success of an organization. Because of this, marketing and management theory and practice dedicate particular attention to the concepts of customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this paper we will use the surveys of customers of banking services not only to show the levels of their satisfaction and loyalty, but also to make a comparative analysis of data obtained through online and offline research. This approach was made possible because the research was carried out on a sample which was divided in two groups. All of the participants answered the questions from a unique questionnaire, however, one group took the survey via the Internet (online while data from the other group of participants was collected in the field by using printed questionnaires (offline. The findings of the comparative analysis of online and offline survey results are presented in the final part of the paper.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of ductal and lobular invasive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, N C S; Gomig, T H B; Milioli, H H; Cordeiro, F; Costa, G G; Urban, C A; Lima, R S; Cavalli, I J; Ribeiro, E M S F

    2016-04-04

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the first among women. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are the two major histological subtypes, and the clinical and molecular differences between them justify the search for new markers to distinguish them. As proteomic analysis allows for a powerful and analytical approach to identify potential biomarkers, we performed a comparative analysis of IDC and ILC samples by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Twenty-three spots were identified corresponding to 10 proteins differentially expressed between the two subtypes. ACTB, ACTG, TPM3, TBA1A, TBA1B, VIME, TPIS, PDIA3, PDIA6, and VTDB were upregulated in ductal carcinoma compared to in lobular carcinoma samples. Overall, these 10 proteins have a key role in oncogenesis. Their specific functions and relevance in cancer initiation and progression are further discussed in this study. The identified peptides represent promising biomarkers for the differentiation of ductal and lobular breast cancer subtypes, and for future interventions based on tailored therapy.

  10. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-12-19

    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  11. The Comparative Analysis of Aversive and Ordinary Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C. Marion, Jr.

    There is a vast amount of literature concerning the psychological and physiological effects of ordinary noise on the individual. However, few publications have addressed the analysis of aversive noise. This research analyzes three noises which produce the familiar goose flesh or chilling effect responsivity. These aversive sounds which are made by chalk squeaking on the chalkboard, fingernails on the chalkboard and rubbing styrofoam against a smooth surface are digitally compared to ordinary noise to show how these aversive sounds differ from sounds which are only annoying. This work, which uses Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is a combination with cross correlation analysis and other innovative methods to produce comparative data on noises, illustrates subtle differences between ordinary and aversive noise which may be useful for future work in acoustics or experimental psychology. The literature review shows disagreement among the numerous works on the effects of ordinary noise on human subjects. One explanation for this difference is the failure to adequately measure and define the dynamic nature of the noise used. The existing literature also establishes that a mixture of tones plus random noise is more annoying (but not aversive) than either the random noise or the tones alone. This investigation shows that one property of aversive noises is the combination of randomness plus tones which vary rapidly with time. This paper utilizes a new digital technique which improves the FFT analyzer resolution by a factor of 25. The resulting +/-2 Hz accuracy facilitated the presentation of frequency variation as a function of time data. Other computer generated graphical data includes the percent harmonic deviation as a function of time, the rate of change of fundamental frequency, and the rate of change in harmonic deviation. From these dynamic data, average values are calculated which show the aversive noise to be consistently greater in mean frequency deviation

  12. In silico comparative genomic analysis of GABAA receptor transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Christopher J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtypes of the GABAA receptor subunit exhibit diverse temporal and spatial expression patterns. In silico comparative analysis was used to predict transcriptional regulatory features in individual mammalian GABAA receptor subunit genes, and to identify potential transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of the GABAA receptor gene clusters. Results Previously unreported putative promoters were identified for the β2, γ1, γ3, ε, θ and π subunit genes. Putative core elements and proximal transcriptional factors were identified within these predicted promoters, and within the experimentally determined promoters of other subunit genes. Conserved intergenic regions of sequence in the mammalian GABAA receptor gene cluster comprising the α1, β2, γ2 and α6 subunits were identified as potential long range transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of these genes. A region of predicted DNase I hypersensitive sites within the cluster may contain transcriptional regulatory features coordinating gene expression. A novel model is proposed for the coordinate control of the gene cluster and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunits, based upon the selective action of putative Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions (S/MARs. Conclusion The putative regulatory features identified by genomic analysis of GABAA receptor genes were substantiated by cross-species comparative analysis and now require experimental verification. The proposed model for the coordinate regulation of genes in the cluster accounts for the head-to-head orientation and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunit genes, and for the disruption of transcription caused by insertion of a neomycin gene in the close vicinity of the α6 gene, which is proximal to a putative critical S/MAR.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Diurnal/Circadian Transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Boyle

    Full Text Available From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its connection to help regulate diurnal physiology. One potential reason is the sheer size of the output network. Diurnal/circadian transcriptomic studies are reporting that around 10% of the expressed genome is rhythmically controlled. Zebrafish is an important model system for the study of the core circadian mechanism in vertebrate. As Zebrafish share more than 70% of its genes with human, it could also be an additional model in addition to rodent for exploring the diurnal/circadian output with potential for translational relevance. Here we performed comparative diurnal/circadian transcriptome analysis with established mouse liver and other tissue datasets. First, by combining liver tissue sampling in a 48h time series, transcription profiling using oligonucleotide arrays and bioinformatics analysis, we profiled rhythmic transcripts and identified 2609 rhythmic genes. The comparative analysis revealed interesting features of the output network regarding number of rhythmic genes, proportion of tissue specific genes and the extent of transcription factor family expression. Undoubtedly, the Zebrafish model system will help identify new vertebrate outputs and their regulators and provides leads for further characterization of the diurnal cis-regulatory network.

  14. Continuing Medical Education in six European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Livio; Gritti, Sara; De Compadri, Paola; Casadei, Gianluigi

    2010-03-01

    We examined Continuing Medical Education (CME) systems in a sample of six EU countries: Austria, Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, and the UK. The aim of this comparative study was to assess the main country-specific institutional settings applied by governments. A common scheme of analysis was applied to investigate the following variables: (i) CME institutional framework; (ii) benefits and/or penalties to participants; (iii) types of CME activities and system of credits; (iv) accreditation of CME providers and events; (v) CME funding and sponsorship. The analysis involved reviewing the literature on CME policy and interviewing a selected panel of local experts in each country (at least one public manager, one representative of medical associations and one pharmaceutical manager). CME is formally compulsory in Austria, France, Italy and the UK, although no sanctions are enforced against non-compliant physicians in practice. The only two countries that offer financial incentives to enhance CME participation are Belgium and Norway, although limited to specific categories of physicians. Formal accreditation of CME providers is required in Austria, France and Italy, while in the other three countries accreditation is focused on activities. Private sponsorship is allowed in all countries but Norway, although within certain limits. This comparative exercise provides an overview of the CME policies adopted by six EU countries to regulate both demand and supply. The substantial variability in the organization and accreditation of schemes indicates that much could be done to improve effectiveness. Although further analysis is needed to assess the results of these policies in practice, lessons drawn from this study may help clarify the weaknesses and strengths of single domestic policies in the perspective of pan-European CME harmonization.

  15. Decision on performing interim analysis for comparative clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyongsun Pak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In randomized-controlled trials, interim analyses are often planned for possible early trial termination to claim superiority or futility of a new therapy. While unblinding is necessary to conduct the formal interim analysis in blinded studies, blinded data also have information about the potential treatment difference between the groups. We developed a blinded data monitoring tool that enables investigators to predict whether they observe such an unblinded interim analysis results that supports early termination of the trial. Investigators may skip some of the planned interim analyses if an early termination is unlikely. We specifically focused on blinded, randomized-controlled studies to compare binary endpoints of a new treatment with a control. Assuming one interim analysis is planned for early termination for superiority or futility, we conducted extensive simulation studies to assess the impact of the implementation of our tool on the size, power, expected number of interim analyses, and bias in the treatment effect. The numerical study showed the proposed monitoring tool does not affect size or power, but dramatically reduces the expected number of interim analyses when the effect of the treatment difference is small. The tool serves as a useful reference when interpreting the summary of the blinded data throughout the course of the trial, without losing integrity of the study. This tool could potentially save the study resources and budget by avoiding unnecessary interim analyses.

  16. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

  17. Comparative analysis of prophages in Streptococcus mutans genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tiwei; Fan, Xiangyu; Long, Quanxin; Deng, Wanyan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    Prophages have been considered genetic units that have an intimate association with novel phenotypic properties of bacterial hosts, such as pathogenicity and genomic variation. Little is known about the genetic information of prophages in the genome of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of human dental caries. In this study, we identified 35 prophage-like elements in S. mutans genomes and performed a comparative genomic analysis. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses of prophage sequences revealed that the prophages could be classified into three main large clusters: Cluster A, Cluster B, and Cluster C. The S. mutans prophages in each cluster were compared. The genomic sequences of phismuN66-1, phismuNLML9-1, and phismu24-1 all shared similarities with the previously reported S. mutans phages M102, M102AD, and ϕAPCM01. The genomes were organized into seven major gene clusters according to the putative functions of the predicted open reading frames: packaging and structural modules, integrase, host lysis modules, DNA replication/recombination modules, transcriptional regulatory modules, other protein modules, and hypothetical protein modules. Moreover, an integrase gene was only identified in phismuNLML9-1 prophages. PMID:29158986

  18. A comparison of skin expansion and contraction between one expander and two expanders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhang, Jin-ming; Ji, Chen-yang; Meng, Hong; Huang, Jian-hua; Luo, He-yuan; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Liu, Xiao-tao; Hong, Xiao-fang

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the difference between the skin expansion and contraction rates for an expanded flap with one versus two expanders. The study cohort comprised 24 cases of two overlapping expanders and 15 cases of a single implanted expander involving 22 patients. The method of "wet-cloth sampling" was applied to measure the expanded flap area and the initial unexpanded area and to calculate the skin expansion rate. Two points 5 cm apart in the center of the expanded flap were selected before the second surgical stage. After removal of the expander, the distance between the two fixed points was measured and recorded. The contraction rate of the expanded flap then was calculated. During the same period of expansion in the two groups (p = 0.06, >0.01), the skin expansion rate was 3.5 ± 0.9 % in the group with two overlapping expanders and 2.6 ± 0.6 % in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002, 0.05). We fitted a linear regression model that was Y = 0.533 − 0.003X, where Y was the contraction rate of the expanded flap and X was the period of expansion. The contraction rate of the expanded flap was negatively correlated with the period of expansion. Compared with the traditional method of implanting a single expander, the new method of overlapping two expanders in a single cavity increased the skin expansion rate. The instantly expanded flap contraction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups, so the amount of expanded skin area absolutely increased. The clinical application of the new method is worth promoting. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  19. Analysis of spatial genetic structure in an expanding Pinus halepensis population reveals development of fine-scale genetic clustering over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, D; Nathan, R; Vendramin, G G

    2006-10-01

    We analysed the change of spatial genetic structure (SGS) of reproductive individuals over time in an expanding Pinus halepensis population. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study to analyse the temporal component of SGS by following the dynamics of successive cohorts of the same population over time, rather than analysing different age cohorts at a single time. SGS is influenced by various factors including restricted gene dispersal, microenvironmental selection, mating patterns and the spatial pattern of reproductive individuals. Several factors that affect SGS are expected to vary over time and as adult density increases. Using air photo analysis, tree-ring dating and molecular marker analysis we reconstructed the spread of reproductive individuals over 30 years beginning from five initial individuals. In the early stages, genotypes were distributed randomly in space. Over time and with increasing density, fine-scale (< 20 m) SGS developed and the magnitude of genetic clustering increased. The SGS was strongly affected by the initial spatial distribution and genetic variation of the founding individuals. The development of SGS may be explained by fine-scale environmental heterogeneity and possibly microenvironmental selection. Inbreeding and variation in reproductive success may have enhanced SGS magnitude over time.

  20. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomic Analysis of Mycobacterium Kansasii

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahid, Yara

    2014-04-01

    The group of Mycobacteria is one of the most intensively studied bacterial taxa, as they cause the two historical and worldwide known diseases: leprosy and tuberculosis. Mycobacteria not identified as tuberculosis or leprosy complex, have been referred to by ‘environmental mycobacteria’ or ‘Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) is one of the most frequent NTM pathogens, as it causes pulmonary disease in immuno-competent patients and pulmonary, and disseminated disease in patients with various immuno-deficiencies. There have been five documented subtypes of this bacterium, by different molecular typing methods, showing that type I causes tuberculosis-like disease in healthy individuals, and type II in immune-compromised individuals. The remaining types are said to be environmental, thereby, not causing any diseases. The aim of this project was to conduct a comparative genomic study of M. kansasii types I-V and investigating the gene expression level of those types. From various comparative genomics analysis, provided genomics evidence on why M. kansasii type I is considered pathogenic, by focusing on three key elements that are involved in virulence of Mycobacteria: ESX secretion system, Phospholipase c (plcb) and Mammalian cell entry (Mce) operons. The results showed the lack of the espA operon in types II-V, which renders the ESX- 1 operon dysfunctional, as espA is one of the key factors that control this secretion system. However, gene expression analysis showed this operon to be deleted in types II, III and IV. Furthermore, plcB was found to be truncated in types III and IV. Analysis of Mce operons (1-4) show that mce-1 operon is duplicated, mce-2 is absent and mce-3 and mce-4 is present in one copy in M. kansasii types I-V. Gene expression profiles of type I-IV, showed that the secreted proteins of ESX-1 were slightly upregulated in types II-IV when compared to type I and the secreted forms of ESX-5 were highly down

  1. Comparative Analysis between Conventional PI and Fuzzy LogicPI Controllers for Indoor Benzene Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nun Pitalúa-Díaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hazardous concentrations of volatile organic compounds indoors in small workshops could affect the health of workers, resulting in respirative diseases, severe intoxication or even cancer. Controlling the concentration of volatile organic compounds is required to prevent harmful conditions for workers in indoor environments. In this document, PI and fuzzy PI controllers were used to reduce hazardous indoor air benzene concentrations in small workplaces. The workshop is represented by means of a well-mixed room model. From the knowledge obtained from the model, PI and fuzzy PI controllers were designed and their performances were compared. Both controllers were able to maintain the benzene concentration within secure levels for the workers. The fuzzy PI controller performed more efficiently than the PI controller. Both approaches could be expanded to control multiple extractor fans in order to reduce the air pollution in a shorter time. The results from the comparative analysis showed that implementing a fuzzy logic PI controller is promising for assuring indoor air quality in this kind of hazardous work environment.

  2. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...... condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ......, ECtHR and IACHR. It is found that the threat of governmental noncompliance and the strength of the constituency possessed by an IC have the most explanatory power, although there is still a significant residual that can only be explained by looking at factors relating to judicial choices and agency....

  3. Comparative analysis of customer satisfaction in postal and banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Milijanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is a comparative analysis of customer satisfaction towards postal and banking services in Serbia. In addition, this paper should provide guidance on how managements of the Post Office and the Bank should behave on the market. The survey was conducted throughout the whole Serbian territory. The subject of the research is to measure the perception of postal and banking services, in order to assess the quality of services and the impact of expectations on the level of perceived quality. Testing and final conclusions about the level of quality of postal and banking services was carried out on the basis of the existing literature and modified SERVQUAL model.

  4. Perret & Piacentini. A Comparative Analysis of Two Parallel Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Alonso Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is very common to understand the home of the masters of architecture as a manifesto of their respective architectures. Nevertheless, those houses are usually identified with single-family models, relegating collective examples. Only the apartment-atelier that Le Corbusier elevated in Porte Molitor (1930-33 is saved from this oblivion. However, there are at the same time two other examples of house-studio by two masters of the moment: Perret and Piacentini. Both are parallel in their vital dynamics and in their programs: The Roman house-studio of Piacentini in Lungotevere Tor di Nona (1929-31 and the Parisian building of Raynouard (1929-33, where Perret established his home and his agence (office. The coincidence of theme and the parallelism of place facilitate the comparative analysis in a common historical time, with their debates between tradition and vanguard.

  5. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  6. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  7. Comparative Analysis on Nuclear Fuel Sustainability Aspect of FBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik; Irwanto, Dwi; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Recycle program of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will have some challanges in term of fuel cycle capability and its facilities as well as nuclear non-proliferation concern of special nuclear materials. A different analysis approach as a comparative study have been analyzed based on breeding ratio and heavy metal inventory ratio concepts in fast breeder reactor (FBR) type. Breeding ratio and heavy metal inventory obtain higher than unity which shows breeding gain or surplus inventory of heavy metals are obtained. Breeding ratio indicates the fuel conversion capability from conversion process of fertile materials into fissile material such as fertile materials of U-238, Pu-238, Pu-240 and fissile materials of Pu-239 and Pu-241. Inventory ratio approaches are appropriate to estimate some selected actinide as a mass inventory production such as plutonium inventory ratio which estimate the surplus mass inventory from the ratio of produced plutonium at the net of operation to the initial inventory ratio.

  8. A comparative analysis between fuzzy topsis and simplified fuzzy topsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sharifah Aniza Sayed; Mohamad, Daud

    2017-08-01

    Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making plays an important role in solving problems in decision making under fuzzy environment. Among the popular methods used is the fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) where the solution is based on the shortest distance from its positive ideal solution and the farthest distance from its negative ideal solution. The fuzzy TOPSIS method was first introduced by Chen (2000). At present, there are several variants of fuzzy TOPSIS methods and each of them claimed to have its own advantages. In this paper, a comparative analysis is made between the classical fuzzy TOPSIS method proposed by Chen in 2000 and the simplified fuzzy TOPSIS proposed by Sodhi in 2012. The purpose of this study is to show the similarities and the differences between these two methods and also elaborate on their strengths and limitations as well. A comparison is also made by providing numerical examples of both methods.

  9. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION DYNAMICS IN ASIA

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    Pawel Voronin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s rise to prominence in the international community following the end of the Cold War, the growth in economic power and population numbers project that China will become the leading world power within several decades, regardless of the course its government takes. The article aimes to contribute to answering the question whether this rise will be peaceful through a comparative analysis of resolved and unresolved territorial disputes between China and groups of neighbouring states between 1986 and 2013. While previous studies have focused rather exclusively on Chinese behaviour, this text will examine both sides of the dispute and the behavior of the parties in light of regional dynamics. 

  10. Comparative Analysis of Human Gut Microbiota by Barcoded Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anders F.; Lindberg, Mathilda; Jakobsson, Hedvig; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Nyrén, Pål; Engstrand, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Humans host complex microbial communities believed to contribute to health maintenance and, when in imbalance, to the development of diseases. Determining the microbial composition in patients and healthy controls may thus provide novel therapeutic targets. For this purpose, high-throughput, cost-effective methods for microbiota characterization are needed. We have employed 454-pyrosequencing of a hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene in combination with sample-specific barcode sequences which enables parallel in-depth analysis of hundreds of samples with limited sample processing. In silico modeling demonstrated that the method correctly describes microbial communities down to phylotypes below the genus level. Here we applied the technique to analyze microbial communities in throat, stomach and fecal samples. Our results demonstrate the applicability of barcoded pyrosequencing as a high-throughput method for comparative microbial ecology. PMID:18665274

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF JET VORTEX TYPE SUPERCHAGES

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    A. Rogovyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of mathematical modeling there was carried out a comparative analysis of characteristics of jet vortex type superchargers. Dependences of the energy performance of vortex ejector on the geometry parameters and the largest values in terms of efficiency as well as the coefficient of ejection are analyzed. There were built combined characteristics of vortex chamber pumps and vortex ejectors. Vortex chamber pump has advantage pressure in an exit channel over the vortex ejector, consequently there is a more effective power transmission from a working medium, besides the withdrawal of pumping medium in a tangential channel allows to avoid energy losses owing to rotation of a stream in an exit channel.

  12. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

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    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  14. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

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    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  15. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors

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    Marconato Laura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous tumors in dog have been demonstrated to share many features with their human counterparts, including relevant molecular targets, histological appearance, genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional treatments. Mammary tumors in dog therefore provide an attractive alternative to more classical mouse models, such as transgenics or xenografts, where the tumour is artificially induced. To assess the extent to which dog tumors represent clinically significant human phenotypes, we performed the first genome-wide comparative analysis of transcriptional changes occurring in mammary tumors of the two species, with particular focus on the molecular pathways involved. Results We analyzed human and dog gene expression data derived from both tumor and normal mammary samples. By analyzing the expression levels of about ten thousand dog/human orthologous genes we observed a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the mammary tumor samples, as compared to their normal counterparts. Pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed a great degree of similarity in the perturbation of many cancer-related pathways, including the 'PI3K/AKT', 'KRAS', 'PTEN', 'WNT-beta catenin' and 'MAPK cascade'. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional relationships between different gene signatures observed in human breast cancer are largely maintained in the canine model, suggesting a close interspecies similarity in the network of cancer signalling circuitries. Conclusion Our data confirm and further strengthen the value of the canine mammary cancer model and open up new perspectives for the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics and the development of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers to be used in clinical studies.

  16. Bisphenol A alters gut microbiome: Comparative metagenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keng-Po; Chung, Yan-Tung; Li, Rong; Wan, Hin-Ting; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Mounting evidence has shown that an alteration of the gut microbiota is associated with diet, and plays an important role in animal health and metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the influence of environmental contaminants on the gut microbial community. Bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used for manufacturing plastic products, has recently been classified as an environmental obesogen. Although many studies have demonstrated the metabolic-disrupting effects of BPA on liver and pancreatic functions, the possible effects of this synthetic compound on the metabolic diversity of the intestinal microbiota is unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on caecum samples of CD-1 mice, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary BPA intake may influence the gut microbiota composition and functions, an important attributing factor to development of the metabolic syndrome. A high-fat diet (HFD) and high-sucrose diet (HSD) were included as the positive controls for comparing the changes in the intestinal microbial profiles. Our results demonstrated a significant reduction of species diversity in the gut microbiota of BPA-fed mice. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed that dietary BPA intake led to a similar gut microbial community structure as that induced by HFD and HSD in mice. In addition, comparative analysis of the microbial communities revealed that both BPA and a HFD favored the growth of Proteobacteria, a microbial marker of dysbiosis. Consistently, growth induction of the family Helicobacteraceae and reduction of the Firmicutes and Clostridia populations were observed in the mice fed BPA or a HFD. Collectively, our study highlighted that the effects of dietary BPA intake on the shift of microbial community structure were similar to those of a HFD and HSD, and revealed microbial markers for the development of diseases associated with an unstable microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative analysis of readmission rates after outpatient cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioton, Lauren M; Alghoul, Mohammed S; Kim, John Y S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the increasing scrutiny of surgical procedures, outpatient cosmetic surgery has an established record of safety and efficacy. A key measure in assessing surgical outcomes is the examination of readmission rates. However, there is a paucity of data on unplanned readmission following cosmetic surgery procedures. The authors studied readmission rates for outpatient cosmetic surgery and compared the data with readmission rates for other surgical procedures. The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data set was queried for all outpatient procedures. Readmission rates were calculated for the 5 surgical specialties with the greatest number of outpatient procedures and for the overall outpatient cosmetic surgery population. Subgroup analysis was performed on the 5 most common cosmetic surgery procedures. Multivariate regression models were used to determine predictors of readmission for cosmetic surgery patients. The 2879 isolated outpatient cosmetic surgery cases had an associated 0.90% unplanned readmission rate. The 5 specialties with the highest number of outpatient surgical procedures were general, orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic, and otolaryngologic surgery; their unplanned readmission rates ranged from 1.21% to 3.73%. The 5 most common outpatient cosmetic surgery procedures and their associated readmission rates were as follows: reduction mammaplasty, 1.30%; mastopexy, 0.31%; liposuction, 1.13%; abdominoplasty, 1.78%; and breast augmentation, 1.20%. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that operating time (in hours) was an independent predictor of readmission (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.81; P=.010). Rates of unplanned readmission with outpatient cosmetic surgery are low and compare favorably to those of other outpatient surgeries.

  18. Comparative analysis of linear motor geometries for Stirling coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Rajesh V.; Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Compared to rotary motor driven Stirling coolers, linear motor coolers are characterized by small volume and long life, making them more suitable for space and military applications. The motor design and operational characteristics have a direct effect on the operation of the cooler. In this perspective, ample scope exists in understanding the behavioural description of linear motor systems. In the present work, the authors compare and analyze different moving magnet linear motor geometries to finalize the most favourable one for Stirling coolers. The required axial force in the linear motors is generated by the interaction of magnetic fields of a current carrying coil and that of a permanent magnet. The compact size, commercial availability of permanent magnets and low weight requirement of the system are quite a few constraints for the design. The finite element analysis performed using Maxwell software serves as the basic tool to analyze the magnet movement, flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetic saturation levels on the core. A number of material combinations are investigated for core before finalizing the design. The effect of varying the core geometry on the flux produced in the air gap is also analyzed. The electromagnetic analysis of the motor indicates that the permanent magnet height ought to be taken in such a way that it is under the influence of electromagnetic field of current carrying coil as well as the outer core in the balanced position. This is necessary so that sufficient amount of thrust force is developed by efficient utilisation of the air gap flux density. Also, the outer core ends need to be designed to facilitate enough room for the magnet movement under the operating conditions.

  19. Do newly marketed generic medicines expand markets using descriptive time series analysis and mixed logit models? Korea as an exemplar and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Godman, Brian

    2016-04-14

    There have been concerns in Korea that the availability of cheaper generics can appreciably increase prescribed volumes thereby negating their beneficial effects on overall pharmaceutical expenditure. Consequently, this study aimed to explore market changes after newly entered generics including market expansion and substitution effects, and to examine factors contributing to the prescribing of newly entered generics using atorvastatin as an exemplar. This is because previous studies have shown market expansion had occurred following generic atorvastatin. Explore market expansion effects by extracting all statins users from July 2008 to June 2010 from the nationally representative dataset of 2008, combined with the National Health Insurance Claims data, with atorvastatin's patent expiring in July 2008. The data consisted of medical visit episodes of patients who had been prescribed statins at least once during the observational period. Patients who had been prescribed any statin before the observation period were classified as the previously treated group and those who had not as the newly treated group. Descriptive time series analysis was conducted and the mixed logit model applied to understand factors contributing to generic atorvastatin prescriptions. Market expansion was observed after generic atorvastatin availability with an appreciable increase in number of newly treated patients, whereas substitution effect was found among previously treated patients. Newly treated patients tended to get significantly lower daily doses (p < 0.0001). According to the mixed logistic analysis, newly treated patients were more likely to be prescribed generic atorvastatin (OR = 2.58; 95% CI, 2.05-3.26) than their counterparts. Clinicians and secondary hospitals were also key drivers of generic atorvastatin (ORs were 10.41 and 9.81, respectively). Newly marketed generic statins in Korea resulted in an expanding market by substantially increasing the number of new patients with

  20. Comparative analysis on flexibility requirements of typical Cryogenic Transfer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Mohit; Kumar, Uday; Choukekar, Ketan; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic systems and their applications; primarily in large Fusion devices, utilize multiple cryogen transfer lines of various sizes and complexities to transfer cryogenic fluids from plant to the various user/ applications. These transfer lines are composed of various critical sections i.e. tee section, elbows, flexible components etc. The mechanical sustainability (under failure circumstances) of these transfer lines are primary requirement for safe operation of the system and applications. The transfer lines need to be designed for multiple design constraints conditions like line layout, support locations and space restrictions. The transfer lines are subjected to single load and multiple load combinations, such as operational loads, seismic loads, leak in insulation vacuum loads etc. [1]. The analytical calculations and flexibility analysis using professional software are performed for the typical transfer lines without any flexible component, the results were analysed for functional and mechanical load conditions. The failure modes were identified along the critical sections. The same transfer line was then refurbished with the flexible components and analysed for failure modes. The flexible components provide additional flexibility to the transfer line system and make it safe. The results obtained from the analytical calculations were compared with those obtained from the flexibility analysis software calculations. The optimization of the flexible component’s size and selection was performed and components were selected to meet the design requirements as per code.

  1. Comparative analysis of quantitative efficiency evaluation methods for transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Qin, Jin; Hong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency could offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic. Based on the introduction and related mathematical analysis of three quantitative evaluation methods for transportation network efficiency, this paper compares the information measured by them, including network structure, traffic demand, travel choice behavior and other factors which affect network efficiency. Accordingly, the applicability of various evaluation methods is discussed. Through analyzing different transportation network examples it is obtained that Q-H method could reflect the influence of network structure, traffic demand and user route choice behavior on transportation network efficiency well. In addition, the transportation network efficiency measured by this method and Braess's Paradox can be explained with each other, which indicates a better evaluation of the real operation condition of transportation network. Through the analysis of the network efficiency calculated by Q-H method, it can also be drawn that a specific appropriate demand is existed to a given transportation network. Meanwhile, under the fixed demand, both the critical network structure that guarantees the stability and the basic operation of the network and a specific network structure contributing to the largest value of the transportation network efficiency can be identified.

  2. Comparative analysis of Klafki and Heimann's didactic models

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    Bojović Žana P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of Klafki's didactic thinking which is based on an analysis of different kinds of theories on the nature of education and Heimann's didactic which is based on the theory of teaching and learning shows that both are dealing with teaching in its entirety. Both authors emphasize the role of contents, methods, procedures and resources for material and formal education and both use anthropological and social reality as their starting point. According to Klafki, resources, procedures, and methods are in form of dependency where it is important to know what and why should something be learnt, whereas Heimann sees the same elements in the form of interdependency. Each of the didactic conceptions, from their point of view, define the position of goals and tasks in education as well as how to achieve them. Determination and formulation of objectives is a complex, responsible, and very difficult task, and a goal must be clearly defined, because it emanates the guidelines for the preparation of didactic methodology educational programs and their planning. The selection of content in didactic methodology scenarios of education and learning, are only possible if the knowledge, skills and abilities that are necessary for a student to develop are explicitly indicated. The question of educational goals is the main problem of didactics for only a clearly defined objective implicates the selection of appropriate methods and means for its achievement, and it should be a permanent task of the current didactic conception now and in the future.

  3. A comparative analysis of Chikungunya and Zika transmission

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    Julien Riou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent global dissemination of Chikungunya and Zika has fostered public health concern worldwide. To better understand the drivers of transmission of these two arboviral diseases, we propose a joint analysis of Chikungunya and Zika epidemics in the same territories, taking into account the common epidemiological features of the epidemics: transmitted by the same vector, in the same environments, and observed by the same surveillance systems. We analyse eighteen outbreaks in French Polynesia and the French West Indies using a hierarchical time-dependent SIR model accounting for the effect of virus, location and weather on transmission, and based on a disease specific serial interval. We show that Chikungunya and Zika have similar transmission potential in the same territories (transmissibility ratio between Zika and Chikungunya of 1.04 [95% credible interval: 0.97; 1.13], but that detection and reporting rates were different (around 19% for Zika and 40% for Chikungunya. Temperature variations between 22 °C and 29 °C did not alter transmission, but increased precipitation showed a dual effect, first reducing transmission after a two-week delay, then increasing it around five weeks later. The present study provides valuable information for risk assessment and introduces a modelling framework for the comparative analysis of arboviral infections that can be extended to other viruses and territories.

  4. Comparative multiplex dosage analysis in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, F; Chiavetta, V; Ragalmuto, A; Vinci, M; Ruggeri, G; Schinocca, P; Romano, V

    2013-04-12

    We developed a new application of comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) for evaluation of the ataxin 2 gene. Expansions of the triplet CAG can cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), a neurodegenerative disease with an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. Molecular diagnosis of SCA2 is routinely based on the use of conventional PCR to detect the CAG expansion. However, PCR does not amplify an allele with an expansion of many triplets (>80), which is typically found in infantile and juvenile forms of SCA2, thus leading to false negatives. We propose the analysis of the ATXN2 gene by CMDA to complement existing methods currently used for the detection of large expansions of the CAG repeat. Using CMDA, the presence of any longer mutated allele in a heterozygous patient or fetus would be inferred due to dosage variation of the very frequent normal allele #22. CMDA can be completed in 1 day, at very low cost, and would be a useful tool for prenatal diagnosis and for diagnosis of presymptomatic forms of early-onset SCA2.

  5. Comparative analysis of methods for genome-wide nucleosome cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintales, Luis; Vázquez, Enrique; Antequera, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Nucleosomes contribute to compacting the genome into the nucleus and regulate the physical access of regulatory proteins to DNA either directly or through the epigenetic modifications of the histone tails. Precise mapping of nucleosome positioning across the genome is, therefore, essential to understanding the genome regulation. In recent years, several experimental protocols have been developed for this purpose that include the enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage or immunoprecipitation of chromatin followed by next-generation sequencing of the resulting DNA fragments. Here, we compare the performance and resolution of these methods from the initial biochemical steps through the alignment of the millions of short-sequence reads to a reference genome to the final computational analysis to generate genome-wide maps of nucleosome occupancy. Because of the lack of a unified protocol to process data sets obtained through the different approaches, we have developed a new computational tool (NUCwave), which facilitates their analysis, comparison and assessment and will enable researchers to choose the most suitable method for any particular purpose. NUCwave is freely available at http://nucleosome.usal.es/nucwave along with a step-by-step protocol for its use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

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    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  7. Juvenile spondylolysis: a comparative analysis of CT, SPECT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.S.D. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hide, I.G. [Freeman Hospital, Department of Radiology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Papastefanou, S. [James Cook University Hospital, Department Radiology, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Greenough, C.G. [James Cook University Hospital, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate whether MRI correlates with CT and SPECT imaging for the diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis, and to determine whether MRI can be used as an exclusive image modality. Juveniles and young adults with a history of extension low back pain were evaluated by MRI, CT and SPECT imaging. All images were reviewed blindly. Correlative analyses included CT vs MRI for morphological grading and SPECT vs MRI for functional grading. Finally, an overall grading system compared MRI vs CT and SPECT combined. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa statistic. Seventy-two patients (mean age 16 years) were recruited. Forty pars defects were identified in 22 patients (31%), of which 25 were chronic non-union, five acute complete defects and ten acute incomplete fractures. Kappa scores demonstrated a high level of agreement for all comparative analyses. MRI vs SPECT (kappa: 0.794), MRI vs CT (kappa: 0.829) and MRI vs CT/SPECT (kappa: 0.786). The main causes of discrepancy were between MRI and SPECT for the diagnosis of stress reaction in the absence of overt fracture, and distinguishing incomplete fractures from intact pars or complete defects. MRI can be used as an effective and reliable first-line image modality for diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis. However, localised CT is recommended as a supplementary examination in selected cases as a baseline for assessment of healing and for evaluation of indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  8. A Comparative Analysis of MOOC (Massive Open Online Course Platforms

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    Maria CONACHE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The MOOC platforms have known a considerable development in recent years due to the enlargement of online space and the shifting between traditional to virtual activities. These plat-forms made it possible for people almost everywhere to take online academic courses offered by top universities via open access to web and with unlimited participation. Thus, it came naturally to us to address the question what makes them so successful? The purpose of this paper is to report comparatively MOOC platforms in terms of features, based on the user’s implication and demands. First, we chose four relevant lifelong learning platforms and then we structured three main categories for the platforms' qualification, depending on which we built our theory regarding the comparison between them. Our analysis consists of three sets of criteria: business model, course design and popularity among online users. Starting from this perspective, we built a range of representative factors for which we highlighted the major aspects for each plat-form in our comparative research

  9. N-terminal protein processing: A comparative proteogenomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonissone, Stefano; Gupta, Nitin; Romine, Margaret F.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Terminal Methionine Excision (NME) is a universally conserved mechanism with the same specificity across all life forms that removes the first Methionine in proteins when the second residue is Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr, Pro, or Val. In spite of its necessity for proper cell functioning, the functional role of NME remains unclear. In 1988, Arfin and Bradshaw connected NME with the N-end protein degradation rule and postulated that the role of NME is to expose the stabilizing residues with the goal to resist protein degradation. While this explanation (that treats 7 stabilizing residues in the same manner) has become the de facto dogma of NME, comparative proteogenomics analysis of NME tells a different story. We suggest that the primary role of NME is to expose only two (rather than seven) amino acids Ala and Ser for post-translational modifications (e.g., acetylation) rather than to regulate protein degradation. We argue that, contrary to the existing view, NME is not crucially important for proteins with 5 other stabilizing residue at the 2nd positions that are merely bystanders (their function is not affected by NME) that become exposed to NME because their sizes are comparable or smaller than the size of Ala and Ser.

  10. Comparative analysis of the mammalian WNT4 promoter

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    Shaw Geoffrey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WNT4 is a critical signalling molecule in embryogenesis and homeostasis, but the elements that control its transcriptional regulation are largely unknown. This study uses comparative cross species sequence and functional analyses between humans and a marsupial (the tammar wallaby,Macropus eugenii to refine the mammalian Wnt4 promoter. Results We have defined a highly conserved 89 bp minimal promoter region in human WNT4 by comparative analysis with the tammar wallaby. There are many conserved transcription factor binding sites in the proximal promoter region, including SP1, MyoD, NFκB and AP2, as well as highly conserved CpG islands within the human, mouse and marsupial promoters, suggesting that DNA methylation may play an important role in WNT4 transcriptional regulation. Conclusion Using a marsupial model, we have been able to provide new information on the transcriptional regulators in the promoter of this essential mammalian developmental gene, WNT4. These transcription factor binding sites and CpG islands are highly conserved in two disparate mammals, and are likely key controlling elements in the regulation of this essential developmental gene.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT LIDAR SYSTEM CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES

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    M. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With light detection and ranging (LiDAR now being a crucial tool for engineering products and on the fly spatial analysis, it is necessary for the user community to have standardized calibration methods. The three methods in this study were developed and proven by the Digital Photogrammetry Research Group (DPRG for airborne LiDAR systems and are as follows; Simplified, Quasi-Rigorous, and Rigorous. In lieu of using expensive control surfaces for calibration, these methods compare overlapping LiDAR strips to estimate the systematic errors. These systematic errors are quantified by these methods and include the lever arm biases, boresight biases, range bias and scan angle scale bias. These three methods comprehensively represent all of the possible flight configurations and data availability and this paper will test the limits of the method with the most assumptions, the simplified calibration, by using data that violates the assumptions it’s math model is based on and compares the results to the quasi-rigorous and rigorous techniques. The overarching goal is to provide a LiDAR system calibration that does not require raw measurements which can be carried out with minimal control and flight lines to reduce costs. This testing is unique because the terrain used for calibration does not contain gable roofs, all other LiDAR system calibration testing and development has been done with terrain containing features with high geometric integrity such as gable roofs.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Chinese and Shona Vowels

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    Herbert Mushangwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative analysis between Chinese and Shona vowel system. The research is biased towards helping Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona however it is expected to benefit other researchers interested in comparative researches. The main focus of this research is on the major differences that exist between these two languages, with an aim to predict and combat the possible pronunciation errors that may result from native language transfer. The research findings show that Chinese language’s vowel system is more complex than the Shona vowel system. It is therefore assumed that though Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona language may find it challenging to acquire the Chinese vowel system, however if students are advised in advanced the differences between the Chinese and Shona vowels represented by same letters in the writing systems of these two languages, students are likely to have less pronunciation errors in Chinese since they will not borrow the Shona pronunciation strategies.

  13. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

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    S. V. Malchikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  14. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

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    S. V. Malchikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  15. EMERGING ECONOMIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MIST AND IBSA COUNTRIES

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    Gonca Oguz Gok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results

  16. Transcriptomics and comparative analysis of three antarctic notothenioid fishes.

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    Seung Chul Shin

    Full Text Available For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic notothenioid fish have undergone extraordinary periods of evolution and have adapted to a cold and highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. While these species are considered an attractive model with which to study physiology and evolutionary adaptation, they are poorly characterized at the molecular level, and sequence information is lacking. The transcriptomes of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and Pleuragramma antarcticum were obtained by 454 FLX Titanium sequencing of a normalized cDNA library. More than 1,900,000 reads were assembled in a total of 71,539 contigs. Overall, 40% of the contigs were annotated based on similarity to known protein or nucleotide sequences, and more than 50% of the predicted transcripts were validated as full-length or putative full-length cDNAs. These three Antarctic fishes shared 663 genes expressed in the brain and 1,557 genes expressed in the liver. In addition, these cold-adapted fish expressed more Ub-conjugated proteins compared to temperate fish; Ub-conjugated proteins are involved in maintaining proteins in their native state in the cold and thermally stable Antarctic environments. Our transcriptome analysis of Antarctic notothenioid fish provides an archive for future studies in molecular mechanisms of fundamental genetic questions, and can be used in evolution studies comparing other fish.

  17. Textbooks in transitional countries: Towards a methodology for comparative analysis

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    Miha Kovač

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, the paper analyses the ambiguous nature of the book as a medium: its physical production and its distribution to the end user takes place on a market basis; on the other hand, its content is predominantly consumed in a sector that was at least in the continental Europe traditionally considered as public and non-profit making. This ambiguous nature of the book and with it the impact of the market on the organization of knowledge in book format remains a dark spot in contemporary book research. On the other hand, textbooks are considered as ephemera both in contemporary education and book studies. Therefore, research on textbooks publishing models could be considered as a blind-spot of contemporary social studies. As a consequence, in the majority of European countries, textbook publishing and the organization of the textbook market are considered as self-evident. Throughout a comparative analysis of textbook publishing models in small transitional and developed countries, the paper points out that this self-evident organization of the textbook market is always culturally determined. In its final part, the paper compares different models of textbook publishing and outlines the scenarios for the development of the Slovene textbook market.

  18. Comparability of mixed IC₅₀ data - a statistical analysis.

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    Tuomo Kalliokoski

    Full Text Available The biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 is the most commonly used metric for on-target activity in lead optimization. It is used to guide lead optimization, build large-scale chemogenomics analysis, off-target activity and toxicity models based on public data. However, the use of public biochemical IC50 data is problematic, because they are assay specific and comparable only under certain conditions. For large scale analysis it is not feasible to check each data entry manually and it is very tempting to mix all available IC50 values from public database even if assay information is not reported. As previously reported for Ki database analysis, we first analyzed the types of errors, the redundancy and the variability that can be found in ChEMBL IC50 database. For assessing the variability of IC50 data independently measured in two different labs at least ten IC50 data for identical protein-ligand systems against the same target were searched in ChEMBL. As a not sufficient number of cases of this type are available, the variability of IC50 data was assessed by comparing all pairs of independent IC50 measurements on identical protein-ligand systems. The standard deviation of IC50 data is only 25% larger than the standard deviation of Ki data, suggesting that mixing IC50 data from different assays, even not knowing assay conditions details, only adds a moderate amount of noise to the overall data. The standard deviation of public ChEMBL IC50 data, as expected, resulted greater than the standard deviation of in-house intra-laboratory/inter-day IC50 data. Augmenting mixed public IC50 data by public Ki data does not deteriorate the quality of the mixed IC50 data, if the Ki is corrected by an offset. For a broad dataset such as ChEMBL database a Ki- IC50 conversion factor of 2 was found to be the most reasonable.

  19. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  20. TRIPLE ACTION PALATE EXPANDER

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    Svetlana Yordanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  1. Whole genome comparative analysis of four Georgian grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabidze, V; Pipia, I; Gogniashvili, M; Kunelauri, N; Ujmajuridze, L; Pirtskhalava, M; Vishnepolsky, B; Hernandez, A G; Fields, C J; Beridze, Tengiz

    2017-12-01

    Grapevine is the one of the most important fruit species in the world. Comparative genome sequencing of grape cultivars is very important for the interpretation of the grape genome and understanding its evolution. The genomes of four Georgian grape cultivars-Chkhaveri, Saperavi, Meskhetian green, and Rkatsiteli, belonging to different haplogroups, were resequenced. The shotgun genomic libraries of grape cultivars were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq. Pinot Noir nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast DNA were used as reference. Mitochondrial DNA of Chkhaveri closely matches that of the reference Pinot noir mitochondrial DNA, with the exception of 16 SNPs found in the Chkhaveri mitochondrial DNA. The number of SNPs in mitochondrial DNA from Saperavi, Meskhetian green, and Rkatsiteli was 764, 702, and 822, respectively. Nuclear DNA differs from the reference by 1,800,675 nt in Chkhaveri, 1,063,063 nt in Meskhetian green, 2,174,995 in Saperavi, and 5,011,513 in Rkatsiteli. Unlike mtDNA Pinot noir, chromosomal DNA is closer to the Meskhetian green than to other cultivars. Substantial differences in the number of SNPs in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of Chkhaveri and Pinot noir cultivars are explained by backcrossing or introgression of their wild predecessors before or during the process of domestication. Annotation of chromosomal DNA of Georgian grape cultivars by MEGANTE, a web-based annotation system, shows 66,745 predicted genes (Chkhaveri-17,409; Saperavi-17,021; Meskhetian green-18,355; and Rkatsiteli-13,960). Among them, 106 predicted genes and 43 pseudogenes of terpene synthase genes were found in chromosomes 12, 18 random (18R), and 19. Four novel TPS genes not present in reference Pinot noir DNA were detected. Two of them-germacrene A synthase (Chromosome 18R) and (-) germacrene D synthase (Chromosome 19) can be identified as putatively full-length proteins. This work performs the first attempt of the comparative whole genome analysis of different haplogroups

  2. Comparative kinetic analysis of two fungal beta-glucosidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauve, Marie; Mathis, Hugues; Huc, Delphine; Casanave, Dominique; Monot, Frédéric; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2010-02-11

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is still considered as one of the main limiting steps of the biological production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a complex multistep process, and various kinetic models have been proposed. The cellulase enzymatic cocktail secreted by Trichoderma reesei has been intensively investigated. beta-glucosidases are one of a number of cellulolytic enzymes, and catalyze the last step releasing glucose from the inhibitory cellobiose. beta-glucosidase (BGL1) is very poorly secreted by Trichoderma reesei strains, and complete hydrolysis of cellulose often requires supplementation with a commercial beta-glucosidase preparation such as that from Aspergillus niger (Novozymes SP188). Surprisingly, kinetic modeling of beta-glucosidases lacks reliable data, and the possible differences between native T. reesei and supplemented beta-glucosidases are not taken into consideration, possibly because of the difficulty of purifying BGL1. A comparative kinetic analysis of beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger and BGL1 from Trichoderma reesei, purified using a new and efficient fast protein liquid chromatography protocol, was performed. This purification is characterized by two major steps, including the adsorption of the major cellulases onto crystalline cellulose, and a final purification factor of 53. Quantitative analysis of the resulting beta-glucosidase fraction from T. reesei showed it to be 95% pure. Kinetic parameters were determined using cellobiose and a chromogenic artificial substrate. A new method allowing easy and rapid determination of the kinetic parameters was also developed. beta-Glucosidase SP188 (Km = 0.57 mM; Kp = 2.70 mM) has a lower specific activity than BGL1 (Km = 0.38 mM; Kp = 3.25 mM) and is also more sensitive to glucose inhibition. A Michaelis-Menten model integrating competitive inhibition by the product (glucose) has been validated and is able to predict the beta-glucosidase activity of both enzymes

  3. Comparative kinetic analysis of two fungal β-glucosidases

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    Casanave Dominique

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is still considered as one of the main limiting steps of the biological production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a complex multistep process, and various kinetic models have been proposed. The cellulase enzymatic cocktail secreted by Trichoderma reesei has been intensively investigated. β-glucosidases are one of a number of cellulolytic enzymes, and catalyze the last step releasing glucose from the inhibitory cellobiose. β-glucosidase (BGL1 is very poorly secreted by Trichoderma reesei strains, and complete hydrolysis of cellulose often requires supplementation with a commercial β-glucosidase preparation such as that from Aspergillus niger (Novozymes SP188. Surprisingly, kinetic modeling of β-glucosidases lacks reliable data, and the possible differences between native T. reesei and supplemented β-glucosidases are not taken into consideration, possibly because of the difficulty of purifying BGL1. Results A comparative kinetic analysis of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger and BGL1 from Trichoderma reesei, purified using a new and efficient fast protein liquid chromatography protocol, was performed. This purification is characterized by two major steps, including the adsorption of the major cellulases onto crystalline cellulose, and a final purification factor of 53. Quantitative analysis of the resulting β-glucosidase fraction from T. reesei showed it to be 95% pure. Kinetic parameters were determined using cellobiose and a chromogenic artificial substrate. A new method allowing easy and rapid determination of the kinetic parameters was also developed. β-Glucosidase SP188 (Km = 0.57 mM; Kp = 2.70 mM has a lower specific activity than BGL1 (Km = 0.38 mM; Kp = 3.25 mM and is also more sensitive to glucose inhibition. A Michaelis-Menten model integrating competitive inhibition by the product (glucose has been validated and is able to predict the

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohui; Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-04-14

    In cultures containing multiple sources of nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a sequential use of nitrogen sources through a mechanism known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). To identify proteins differentially expressed due to NCR, proteomic analysis of S. cerevisiae S288C under different nitrogen source conditions was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), revealing 169 candidate protein spots. Among these 169 protein spots, 121 were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins were closely associated with four main biological processes through Gene Ontology (GO) categorical analysis. The identification of the potential proteins and cellular processes related to NCR offer a global overview of changes elicited by different nitrogen sources, providing clues into how yeast adapt to different nutritional conditions. Moreover, by comparing our proteomic data with corresponding mRNA data, proteins regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level could be distinguished. Biological significance In S. cerevisiae, different nitrogen sources provide different growth characteristics and generate different metabolites. The nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) process plays an important role for S. cerevisiae in the ordinal utilization of different nitrogen sources. NCR process can result in significant shift of global metabolic networks. Previous works on NCR primarily focused on transcriptomic level. The results obtained in this study provided a global atlas of the proteome changes triggered by different nitrogen sources and would facilitate the understanding of mechanisms for how yeast could adapt to different nutritional conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative analysis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis of 411 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Binici, Irfan; Baran, Ali Irfan; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Saydan, Muhammed Rıdvan

    2015-06-24

    Tuberculosis is a disease that can involve every organ system. While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPT) is also an important clinical problem. The current study aimed to outline and compare the demographic and clinical features of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in adults. Medical records of 411 patients (190 women, 221 men) treated between January 2010 and July 2014 in provincial tuberculosis control dispensary was retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared for pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases. Of these 411 cases, 208 (50.6%) had pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 203 were diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) (49.4%). The average ages for PTB and EPTB groups were 33.00-27.00 and 31.00-29.75, respectively (p = 0.513). Men were more frequently affected by PTB (59.6%), while EPTB was more commonly detected in women (52.2%) (p = 0.016). Main diagnostic modalities for PTB were sputum/smear analyses (72.7%), clinical-radiological data (21.7%) and biopsy (6.1%); while biopsy (71.5%), sputum/fluid analysis (18.8%) and clinical-radiological data (4.9%) were used for confirming EPTB (p EPTB involvement were lymph nodes (39.4%), followed by pleura (23.6%), peritoneum (9.9%) and bone (7.4%). Extrapulmonary involvement of tuberculosis is common and females are more likely to be affected. Increased clinical awareness is important since atypical presentations of the disease may constitute diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

  6. A comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Kemal; Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2013-05-01

    The need to analyze high-dimension biological data is driving the development of new data mining methods. Biclustering algorithms have been successfully applied to gene expression data to discover local patterns, in which a subset of genes exhibit similar expression levels over a subset of conditions. However, it is not clear which algorithms are best suited for this task. Many algorithms have been published in the past decade, most of which have been compared only to a small number of algorithms. Surveys and comparisons exist in the literature, but because of the large number and variety of biclustering algorithms, they are quickly outdated. In this article we partially address this problem of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing biclustering methods. We used the BiBench package to compare 12 algorithms, many of which were recently published or have not been extensively studied. The algorithms were tested on a suite of synthetic data sets to measure their performance on data with varying conditions, such as different bicluster models, varying noise, varying numbers of biclusters and overlapping biclusters. The algorithms were also tested on eight large gene expression data sets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed on the resulting biclusters, and the best enrichment terms are reported. Our analyses show that the biclustering method and its parameters should be selected based on the desired model, whether that model allows overlapping biclusters, and its robustness to noise. In addition, we observe that the biclustering algorithms capable of finding more than one model are more successful at capturing biologically relevant clusters.

  7. Comparative analysis of Acinetobacters: three genomes for three lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallenet, David; Nordmann, Patrice; Barbe, Valérie; Poirel, Laurent; Mangenot, Sophie; Bataille, Elodie; Dossat, Carole; Gas, Shahinaz; Kreimeyer, Annett; Lenoble, Patricia; Oztas, Sophie; Poulain, Julie; Segurens, Béatrice; Robert, Catherine; Abergel, Chantal; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Médigue, Claudine; Weissenbach, Jean; Cruveiller, Stéphane

    2008-03-19

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the source of numerous nosocomial infections in humans and therefore deserves close attention as multidrug or even pandrug resistant strains are increasingly being identified worldwide. Here we report the comparison of two newly sequenced genomes of A. baumannii. The human isolate A. baumannii AYE is multidrug resistant whereas strain SDF, which was isolated from body lice, is antibiotic susceptible. As reference for comparison in this analysis, the genome of the soil-living bacterium A. baylyi strain ADP1 was used. The most interesting dissimilarities we observed were that i) whereas strain AYE and A. baylyi genomes harbored very few Insertion Sequence elements which could promote expression of downstream genes, strain SDF sequence contains several hundred of them that have played a crucial role in its genome reduction (gene disruptions and simple DNA loss); ii) strain SDF has low catabolic capacities compared to strain AYE. Interestingly, the latter has even higher catabolic capacities than A. baylyi which has already been reported as a very nutritionally versatile organism. This metabolic performance could explain the persistence of A. baumannii nosocomial strains in environments where nutrients are scarce; iii) several processes known to play a key role during host infection (biofilm formation, iron uptake, quorum sensing, virulence factors) were either different or absent, the best example of which is iron uptake. Indeed, strain AYE and A. baylyi use siderophore-based systems to scavenge iron from the environment whereas strain SDF uses an alternate system similar to the Haem Acquisition System (HAS). Taken together, all these observations suggest that the genome contents of the 3 Acinetobacters compared are partly shaped by life in distinct ecological niches: human (and more largely hospital environment), louse, soil.

  8. Comparative analysis of Acinetobacters: three genomes for three lifestyles.

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    David Vallenet

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is the source of numerous nosocomial infections in humans and therefore deserves close attention as multidrug or even pandrug resistant strains are increasingly being identified worldwide. Here we report the comparison of two newly sequenced genomes of A. baumannii. The human isolate A. baumannii AYE is multidrug resistant whereas strain SDF, which was isolated from body lice, is antibiotic susceptible. As reference for comparison in this analysis, the genome of the soil-living bacterium A. baylyi strain ADP1 was used. The most interesting dissimilarities we observed were that i whereas strain AYE and A. baylyi genomes harbored very few Insertion Sequence elements which could promote expression of downstream genes, strain SDF sequence contains several hundred of them that have played a crucial role in its genome reduction (gene disruptions and simple DNA loss; ii strain SDF has low catabolic capacities compared to strain AYE. Interestingly, the latter has even higher catabolic capacities than A. baylyi which has already been reported as a very nutritionally versatile organism. This metabolic performance could explain the persistence of A. baumannii nosocomial strains in environments where nutrients are scarce; iii several processes known to play a key role during host infection (biofilm formation, iron uptake, quorum sensing, virulence factors were either different or absent, the best example of which is iron uptake. Indeed, strain AYE and A. baylyi use siderophore-based systems to scavenge iron from the environment whereas strain SDF uses an alternate system similar to the Haem Acquisition System (HAS. Taken together, all these observations suggest that the genome contents of the 3 Acinetobacters compared are partly shaped by life in distinct ecological niches: human (and more largely hospital environment, louse, soil.

  9. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rawson. Clark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified products to meet their own sustainability goals, they must have an understanding of the effectiveness of different certification systems. To understand the relative performance of three systems, we determined: (1 the criteria used to compare the Forest Stewardship Council, Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management, and Sustainable Forestry Initiative, (2 if consensus exists regarding their ability to achieve sustainability goals, and (3 what research gaps must be filled to improve our understanding of how forest certification systems affect sustainable forest management. We conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of 26 grey literature references (books, industry and nongovernmental organization publications and 9 primary literature references (articles in peer-reviewed academic journals that compared at least two of the aforementioned certification systems. The Forest Stewardship Council was the highest performer for ecological health and social sustainable forest management criteria. The Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management and Sustainable Forestry Initiative performed best under sustainable forest management criteria of forest productivity and economic longevity of a firm. Sixty-two percent of analyses were comparisons of the wording of certification system principles or criteria; 34% were surveys of foresters or consumers. An important caveat to these results is that only one comparison was based on

  10. Specialty and full-service hospitals: a comparative cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kathleen; Burgess, James F; Young, Gary J

    2008-10-01

    To compare the costs of physician-owned cardiac, orthopedic, and surgical single specialty hospitals with those of full-service hospital competitors. The primary data sources are the Medicare Cost Reports for 1998-2004 and hospital inpatient discharge data for three of the states where single specialty hospitals are most prevalent, Texas, California, and Arizona. The latter were obtained from the Texas Department of State Health Services, the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Additional data comes from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database. We identified all physician-owned cardiac, orthopedic, and surgical specialty hospitals in these three states as well as all full-service acute care hospitals serving the same market areas, defined using Dartmouth Hospital Referral Regions. We estimated a hospital cost function using stochastic frontier regression analysis, and generated hospital specific inefficiency measures. Application of t-tests of significance compared the inefficiency measures of specialty hospitals with those of full-service hospitals to make general comparisons between these classes of hospitals. Results do not provide evidence that specialty hospitals are more efficient than the full-service hospitals with whom they compete. In particular, orthopedic and surgical specialty hospitals appear to have significantly higher levels of cost inefficiency. Cardiac hospitals, however, do not appear to be different from competitors in this respect. Policymakers should not embrace the assumption that physician-owned specialty hospitals produce patient care more efficiently than their full-service hospital competitors.

  11. Determinants of Banking Credit Default in Indonesia: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imaduddin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the determinants of Islamic banking credit default compared with conventional banking in Indonesia. This study utilized timeseries analysis, by which ordinary least square method is adopted. 40 monthly data observations from January 2003 until April 2006 are used. The study is divided into two models, namely Islamic banking model and conventional banking model. The values of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking and non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking are treated as the dependent variables. The results showed that two-month lagged of non-performing financing (NPF, total asset (ASSET, the amount of thirdparty-funds (TPF, one-month lagged of total financing (DFIN, and growthof gross-domestic product (GDPG variables have significant impact to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking. Meanwhile, the three-month lagged of non-performing loan (DDDNPL, total asset (CASSET, three-month as well as two-month period lagged of total loan (DDDCRED and DDCRED, inter-bank money market (PUAB, and growth of gross-domestic (GDPG are significant to influence the ratio of non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking. The result also implied that the general election in 2004 had a significant influence to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking.Even tough from the outset, it seems Islamic banking has a better performance than conventional banking by having a relatively low NPF, this study, however, has found the opposite. Albeit, Islamic banking showing a good long-runas well as short-run dynamics among all variables in the beginning, after modifying the model into autoregressive in the main analysis, results showed that conventional banking has a better performance than Islamic banking with higher correlation of determination. In this regard, we cannot assume thatIslamic banking is performing poorly in managing credit default problems. This is because the result

  12. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2003-06-24

    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  13. Scientific literature on monosialoganglioside in the Science Citation Index-Expanded: A bibliometric analysis of articles from 1942 to 2011 by each decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanli; Li, Miaojing; Liu, Zhijun; Liu, Ruichun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-05

    The monosialoganglioside (GM1) is a popular topic of research but the bibliometric analysis of GM1 over the decades in Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) remains poorly understood. To identify the global research and to improve the understanding of research trends in the GM1 field from 1942 to 2011. A bibliometric study. We performed a bibliometric analysis based on the SCI-E published by the Institute of Scientific Information. Articles closely related to GM1 were included. Exclusive criteria: (1) Articles related to gangliosidosis, disialo-ganglioside, trisialo-ganglioside or ganglioside GQIb. (2) Document types such as meeting abstracts, reviews, proceedings papers, notes, and letters. (1) Type of publication output; (2) number of author outputs; (3) distribution of output in subject categories; (4) publication distribution of countries; (5) distribution of output in journals, and (6) distribution of citations in each decade. During 1942 to 2011, there were 10 126 papers on GM1 that were added to the SCI. Articles (8 004) were the most frequently used document type comprising 79.0%, followed by meeting abstracts, reviews and proceedings papers. Research on GM1 could be found in the SCI from 1942, it was developed in the 1970s, greatly increased in the 1980s, and reached a peak in the 1990s, and it was slightly decreased in 2000. The distribution of subject categories showed that GM1 research covered both clinical and basic science research. The USA, Japan, and Germany were the three most productive countries, and the publication numbers in the USA were highest in all decades. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Neurochemistry and Biochemistry were core subject journals in GM1 studies in each decade. This study highlights the topics in GM1 research that are being published around the world.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert; West, Peter

    2005-05-20

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  15. Comparative analysis of used car price evaluation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuancan; Hao, Lulu; Xu, Cong

    2017-05-01

    An accurate used car price evaluation is a catalyst for the healthy development of used car market. Data mining has been applied to predict used car price in several articles. However, little is studied on the comparison of using different algorithms in used car price estimation. This paper collects more than 100,000 used car dealing records throughout China to do empirical analysis on a thorough comparison of two algorithms: linear regression and random forest. These two algorithms are used to predict used car price in three different models: model for a certain car make, model for a certain car series and universal model. Results show that random forest has a stable but not ideal effect in price evaluation model for a certain car make, but it shows great advantage in the universal model compared with linear regression. This indicates that random forest is an optimal algorithm when handling complex models with a large number of variables and samples, yet it shows no obvious advantage when coping with simple models with less variables.

  16. Comparative and genetic analysis of the porcine glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Antonín; Wagenknecht, Daniel; Van Poucke, Mario; Kubícková, Svatava; Bartenschlager, Heinz; Musilová, Petra; Rubes, Jirí; Geldermann, Hermann; Peelman, Luc J

    2004-08-01

    The genomic sequence of the porcine (Sus scrofa) glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene (approximately 5.7 kb), encoding glucocerebrosidase (glucosylceramidase; acid beta-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.45), was determined and compared with human (Homo sapiens) GBA and GBAP (pseudogene). The porcine gene harbours 11 exons and 10 introns, and the genomic organization is identical with human GBA. The exon sequences, coding for signal peptide and mature protein, show 81% and 90% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding human GBA sequences. Short interspersed elements, SINEs (PREs), are present in introns 2, 4 and 7. There is no evidence of a pseudogene in pig. The deduced protein sequence of GBA consists of 39 amino acids of signal peptide (long form) and 497 amino acids of the mature protein; the latter shows 90% sequence identity with the human protein. Four polymorphisms were observed within the porcine gene: insertion/deletion of one of the two SINEs (PREs) in intron 2 (locus PREA); deletion of a 37- to 39-bp stretch in intron 4 (one direct repeat and 5' end of PRE); deletion of a 47-bp stretch in the middle part of PRE in intron 4 (locus PREB); and single-base transition (C-T) in intron 6 (locus HaeIII-RFLP). GBA was assigned to chromosome 4q21 by FISH and was localized to the same region by linkage analysis and RH mapping, i.e., to the chromosome 4 segment where quantitative trait loci for growth and some carcass traits are located.

  17. Mental health network governance: comparative analysis across Canadian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowicz, Mary E; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Adair, Carol E; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot; Peters, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective Modes of governance were compared in ten local mental health networks in diverse contexts (rural/urban and regionalized/non-regionalized) to clarify the governance processes that foster inter-organizational collaboration and the conditions that support them. Methods Case studies of ten local mental health networks were developed using qualitative methods of document review, semi-structured interviews and focus groups that incorporated provincial policy, network and organizational levels of analysis. Results Mental health networks adopted either a corporate structure, mutual adjustment or an alliance governance model. A corporate structure supported by regionalization offered the most direct means for local governance to attain inter-organizational collaboration. The likelihood that networks with an alliance model developed coordination processes depended on the presence of the following conditions: a moderate number of organizations, goal consensus and trust among the organizations, and network-level competencies. In the small and mid-sized urban networks where these conditions were met their alliance realized the inter-organizational collaboration sought. In the large urban and rural networks where these conditions were not met, externally brokered forms of network governance were required to support alliance based models. Discussion In metropolitan and rural networks with such shared forms of network governance as an alliance or voluntary mutual adjustment, external mediation by a regional or provincial authority was an important lever to foster inter-organizational collaboration. PMID:21289999

  18. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  19. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Voigt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. RESULTS: A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  20. The Chlamydia psittaci Genome: A Comparative Analysis of Intracellular Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluz, Hans Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. Results A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. Conclusions This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions. PMID:22506068

  1. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the gorilla MHC genomic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilming, Laurens G.; Hart, Elizabeth A.; Coggill, Penny C.; Horton, Roger; Gilbert, James G. R.; Clee, Chris; Jones, Matt; Lloyd, Christine; Palmer, Sophie; Sims, Sarah; Whitehead, Siobhan; Wiley, David; Beck, Stephan; Harrow, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a critical role in vertebrate immune response and because the MHC is linked to a significant number of auto-immune and other diseases it is of great medical interest. Here we describe the clone-based sequencing and subsequent annotation of the MHC region of the gorilla genome. Because the MHC is subject to extensive variation, both structural and sequence-wise, it is not readily amenable to study in whole genome shotgun sequence such as the recently published gorilla genome. The variation of the MHC also makes it of evolutionary interest and therefore we analyse the sequence in the context of human and chimpanzee. In our comparisons with human and re-annotated chimpanzee MHC sequence we find that gorilla has a trimodular RCCX cluster, versus the reference human bimodular cluster, and additional copies of Class I (pseudo)genes between Gogo-K and Gogo-A (the orthologues of HLA-K and -A). We also find that Gogo-H (and Patr-H) is coding versus the HLA-H pseudogene and, conversely, there is a Gogo-DQB2 pseudogene versus the HLA-DQB2 coding gene. Our analysis, which is freely available through the VEGA genome browser, provides the research community with a comprehensive dataset for comparative and evolutionary research of the MHC. PMID:23589541

  2. Environmental management in sugar-energy sector: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of the environmental variable in the business environment, companies started to give greater attention to strategies and practices focused on the rational use of natural resources and minimize the environmental impacts of their business operations. Many productive sectors stood out in the reflections on production and the environment, as is the case of the sugar energy industry, which constitutes a sector with a highly demanding industrial activity of natural resources, whether as sources of inputs as depositories of waste production. Thus, the aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of environmental practices of two sugar energy plants, both from the point of view of their operational strategy and regarding the suitability of the disposal of waste generated by the industrial area. It was concluded that, although many practices adopted by businesses are analogous, one of the studied plants have distinctive environmental performance, because of the increased attention given to the implementation of environmental practices and especially the inclusion of the environmental variable in their strategies.

  3. Statistical correlation analysis for comparing vibration data from test and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. G.; Strang, R. F.; Purves, L. R.; Hershfeld, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A theory was developed to compare vibration modes obtained by NASTRAN analysis with those obtained experimentally. Because many more analytical modes can be obtained than experimental modes, the analytical set was treated as expansion functions for putting both sources in comparative form. The dimensional symmetry was developed for three general cases: nonsymmetric whole model compared with a nonsymmetric whole structural test, symmetric analytical portion compared with a symmetric experimental portion, and analytical symmetric portion with a whole experimental test. The theory was coded and a statistical correlation program was installed as a utility. The theory is established with small classical structures.

  4. Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M D

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of video games has met with mixed reviews. In the US, an ongoing debate focusing on the potential problems of video game playing has been taken up by parents, politicians and social scientists. A number of the concerns that have been raised about the playing of video games in the US are very similar to the concerns raised about the playing of fruit machines (slot machines) in the UK. This paper attempts to put the on-going US and UK amusement machine debates into an empirical perspective and attempts a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines by examining: incidence of play, sex differences and psychological characteristics of machine players, observational findings in arcade setting, the alleged negative consequences of amusement machine playing (i.e. increased aggression and addiction), and an appraisal of amusement machines' positive aspects. Future directions and an expanded version of Brown's (1989) developmental model of a pathology of man-machine relationships are also discussed.

  5. Comparative analysis on the probability of being a good payer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihova, V.; Pavlov, V.

    2017-10-01

    Credit risk assessment is crucial for the bank industry. The current practice uses various approaches for the calculation of credit risk. The core of these approaches is the use of multiple regression models, applied in order to assess the risk associated with the approval of people applying for certain products (loans, credit cards, etc.). Based on data from the past, these models try to predict what will happen in the future. Different data requires different type of models. This work studies the causal link between the conduct of an applicant upon payment of the loan and the data that he completed at the time of application. A database of 100 borrowers from a commercial bank is used for the purposes of the study. The available data includes information from the time of application and credit history while paying off the loan. Customers are divided into two groups, based on the credit history: Good and Bad payers. Linear and logistic regression are applied in parallel to the data in order to estimate the probability of being good for new borrowers. A variable, which contains value of 1 for Good borrowers and value of 0 for Bad candidates, is modeled as a dependent variable. To decide which of the variables listed in the database should be used in the modelling process (as independent variables), a correlation analysis is made. Due to the results of it, several combinations of independent variables are tested as initial models - both with linear and logistic regression. The best linear and logistic models are obtained after initial transformation of the data and following a set of standard and robust statistical criteria. A comparative analysis between the two final models is made and scorecards are obtained from both models to assess new customers at the time of application. A cut-off level of points, bellow which to reject the applications and above it - to accept them, has been suggested for both the models, applying the strategy to keep the same Accept Rate as

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  7. [Comparative analysis of early diagnostic tools for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Song-jie; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Ya-li; Zhou, Yi-dong; Guan, Jing-hong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xue-jing; Han, Shao-mei

    2012-11-01

    Mammography is the principle imaging modality used for early diagnosis of breast cancer in Western countries. It has not been well-established whether this Western diagnostic modality is adoptable for Chinese women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respective accuracy of the common diagnostic tools for breast cancer including history-taking, physical examination, ultrasound and mammography. Clinical presentation and investigations for consecutive patients undergoing history-taking, physical examination, ultrasound, mammography and pathological assessment at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were prospectively recorded between April 2010 and September 2011. Breast cancer high-risk factors acquired by history-taking were input into the risk assessment model established previously by Eleventh Five Year Key Programs for Science and Technology Development of China (Grant No. 2006BAI02A09) and classified into low-, medium-, high- and extremely high-risk groups. The low- and medium-risk groups were defined as test negative, while the high- and extremely high-risk groups were defined as test positive. Each mammogram and ultrasound was reported prospectively using a five-point reporting scale of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Clinical data were compared with pathological findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PRV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of respective diagnostic methods were calculated and compared. The patients were divided into two groups, above and below 50 years of age for subgroup analysis. A total of 1468 patients (1475 breast lesions) constituted the study population. The median age was 44 (range 13 - 92) years. Five hundred and fifty-one patients were diagnosed as breast cancer. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years and breast cancer peaked in the age group of 40 - 60 years. The sensitivity of risk assessment model, physical examination

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING INTENSIVE METHODS OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mytnyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study and analysis of comparable existing intensive methods of teaching foreign languages. This work is carried out to identify the positive and negative aspects of intensive methods of teaching foreign languages. The author traces the idea of rational organization and intensification of teaching foreign languages from their inception to the moment of their preparation in an integrated system. advantages and disadvantages of the most popular methods of intensive training also analyzed the characteristic of different historical periods, namely cugestopedichny method G. Lozanov method activation of reserve possibilities of students G. Kitaygorodskoy, emotional-semantic method I. Schechter, an intensive course of learning a foreign language L. Gegechkori , sugestokibernetichny integral method of accelerated learning a foreign language B. Petrusinskogo, a crash course in the study of spoken language by immersion A. Plesnevich. Analyzed the principles of learning and the role of each method in the development of methods of intensive foreign language training. The author identified a number of advantages and disadvantages of intensive methods of teaching foreign languages: 1 the assimilation of a large number of linguistic, lexical and grammatical units; 2 active use of acquired knowledge, skills and abilities in the practice of oral speech communication in a foreign language; 3 the ability to use language material resulting not only in his speech, but also in understanding the interlocutor; 4 overcoming psychological barriers, including fear of the possibility of making a mistake; 5 high efficiency and fast learning; 6 too much new language material that is presented; 7 training of oral forms of communication; 8 decline of grammatical units and models.

  9. Comparative analysis of metagenomes of Italian top soil improvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliucci, Federica; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Michelacci, Valeria; Morabito, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes as well as of different antimicrobial resistance-associated genes. The genes conferring resistance to Fluoroquinolones was the most relevant class of antimicrobial resistance genes observed in all the samples tested. To a lesser extent traits associated with the resistance to Methicillin in Staphylococci and genes conferring resistance to Streptothricin, Fosfomycin and Vancomycin were also identified. The most represented metal resistance genes were cobalt-zinc-cadmium related, accounting for 15-50% of the sequence reads in the different metagenomes out of the total number of those mapping on the class of resistance to compounds determinants. Moreover the taxonomic analysis performed by comparing compost-based samples and biosolids derived from municipal sewage-sludges treatments divided the samples into separate populations, based on the microbiota composition. The results confirm that the metagenomics is efficient to detect genomic traits associated with pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in complex matrices and this approach can be efficiently used for the traceability of TSI samples using the microorganisms' profiles as indicators of their origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative analysis grass carpets sizes and plugs for zoysiagrass cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo De Sousa Raats

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The zoysiagrass is currently the most used in Brazil for the formation of lawns, mainly due to their aesthetic characteristics and hardness. Planting is usually done using carpets with 1.25 x 0.40 m, covering all the area. But in some situations, aiming to reduce costs, may be suggested planting plugs or carpets with spaces of each others. This work aimed to evaluate the lawn formation using different formats of carpets and plugs in various planting distances. Thus, the land in a ground level were prepared and planted with zoysiagrass carpets with dimensions of 0.20 x 0.25, 0.40 x 0.25, 0.05 and 0.10 x 1.25 x 1.25 m spacing 0.10, 0.20 or 0.40 m. beyond the use of plugs at spaced 0.20 and 0.40 m. Every 30 days there were performed measurements of the area and observed the percentage of occupancy with zoysiagrass. The analysis results indicated that plaques formats that approximate to a square, 0.40 x 0.20 x 0.25 m, with high width / length, and spacing of 0.10 m, have an occupancy rate of the larger area, 75.89% and 62.07% respectively compared with carpets with rectangular shapes, and also higher than the planting of plugs. The use of 0,40 x 0,25 m plaques, spaced of 0,10 m, allowed an economy of 36,5% in the initial costs.

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid and Adult Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sulima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cestodiases are common parasitic diseases of animals and humans. As cestodes have complex lifecycles, hexacanth larvae, metacestodes (including cysticercoids, and adults produce proteins allowing them to establish invasion and to survive in the hostile environment of the host. Hymenolepis diminuta is the most commonly used model cestode in experimental parasitology. The aims of the present study were to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of two consecutive developmental stages of H. diminuta (cysticercoid and adult and to distinguish proteins which might be characteristic for each of the stages from those shared by both stages. Somatic proteins of H. diminuta were isolated from 6-week-old cysticercoids and adult tapeworms. Cysticercoids were obtained from experimentally infected beetles, Tenebrio molitor, whereas adult worms were collected from experimentally infected rats. Proteins were separated by GeLC-MS/MS (one dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally protein samples were digested in-liquid and identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified proteins were classified according to molecular function, cellular components and biological processes. Our study showed a number of differences and similarities in the protein profiles of cysticercoids and adults; 233 cysticercoid and 182 adult proteins were identified. From these proteins, 131 were present only in the cysticercoid and 80 only in the adult stage samples. Both developmental stages shared 102 proteins; among which six represented immunomodulators and one is a potential drug target. In-liquid digestion and LC-MS/MS complemented and confirmed some of the GeLC-MS/MS identifications. Possible roles and functions of proteins identified with both proteomic approaches are discussed.

  12. Evacuation Decision Making and Expanded Roles of Adult Daycare Services in the Great East Japan Earthquake: Qualitative Analysis Using Semistructured Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroko; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Obuchi, Shuichi P; Shimmei, Masaya; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    The roles of adult daycare services during disaster evacuations in the relationships with community resilience are unknown. The initial 72 hours after a disaster are crucial because people in the disaster area depend on their own efforts or the resources available at the moment until the arrival of external support. To clarify the evacuation-related decision making of the administrators of adult daycare services within 72 hours after the Great East Japan Earthquake and to describe the roles of adult daycare services during the month following the earthquake. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. The transcribed interviews were analyzed anonymously through an inductive qualitative content analysis using ATLAS.ti. Kesennuma City, Miyagi Prefecture. Eleven key informants (3 primary care providers and 8 administrators) from 8 institutions. Immediately after the disaster, 6 institutions implemented shelter-in-place. The evacuation behaviors of the adult daycare institutions were diverse, but each institution was transformed repeatedly within 72 hours. With respect to evacuation decision making, the primary issues involved whether to go to mandatory evacuation sites. However, after 3 days, the institutions relocated from these sites to other places. During a period of approximately 1 month, 7 institutions managed the evacuation of service users and care providers. The expanded institutional roles were as follows: "confirming the safety of the users' families," "substituting residential facilities," and "imposing leadership during the evacuation." If institutions choose to shelter-in-place, it should be sustained for as long as possible. Sufficiently planned stores of food and water to accommodate daytime users are needed. Institutions that employ shelter-in-place as an evacuation plan should maintain close contact with local governments. Furthermore, local governments should predetermine how to manage these institutions in the event of a disaster. To build

  13. An Expanded Analysis of Pharmacogenetics Determinants of Efavirenz Response that Includes 3'-UTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Marelize; Evans, Jonathan; Skelton, Michelle; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Smith, Peter J; Dandara, Collet

    2015-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor prescribed as part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in South Africa. Despite administration of fixed doses of EFV, inter-individual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported. Poor treatment outcomes such as development of adverse drug reactions or treatment failure have been linked to EFV plasma concentrations outside the therapeutic range (1-4 μg/mL) in some studies. The drug metabolizing enzyme (DME), CYP2B6, is primarily responsible for EFV metabolism with minor contributions by CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and UGT2B7. DME coding genes are also regulated by microRNAs through targeting the 3'-untranslated region. Expanded analysis of 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including those in the 3'-UTR, was performed to identify pharmacogenetics determinants of EFV plasma concentrations in addition to CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs. SNPs in CYP1A2, CYP2B6, UGT2B7, and NR1I2 (PXR) were selected for genotyping among 222 Bantu-speaking South African HIV-infected patients receiving EFV-containing HAART. This study is a continuation of earlier pharmacogenetics studies emphasizing the role of genetic variation in the 3'-UTR of genes which products are either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic targets of EFV. Despite evaluating thirty SNPs, CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs remain the most prominent predictors of EFV plasma concentration. We have shown that CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs are the most important predictors of EFV plasma concentration after taking into account all other SNPs, including genetic variation in the 3'-UTR, and variables affecting EFV metabolism.

  14. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  15. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Cockpit Display Development Tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gebhardt, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    ..., Virtual Application Prototyping System (VAPS) and Display Editor. The comparison exploits the analysis framework establishing the advantages and disadvantages of the three software development suites...

  17. Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in rice and comparative analyses with Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mount Stephen M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, genomic sequencing efforts were finished for Oryza sativa (cultivated rice and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. Additionally, these two plant species have extensive cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. We employed the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA to identify and analyze alternatively spliced isoforms in both species. Results A comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing was performed in rice that started with >1.1 million publicly available spliced ESTs and over 30,000 full length cDNAs in conjunction with the newly enhanced PASA software. A parallel analysis was performed with Arabidopsis to compare and ascertain potential differences between monocots and dicots. Alternative splicing is a widespread phenomenon (observed in greater than 30% of the loci with transcript support and we have described nine alternative splicing variations. While alternative splicing has the potential to create many RNA isoforms from a single locus, the majority of loci generate only two or three isoforms and transcript support indicates that these isoforms are generally not rare events. For the alternate donor (AD and acceptor (AA classes, the distance between the splice sites for the majority of events was found to be less than 50 basepairs (bp. In both species, the most frequent distance between AA is 3 bp, consistent with reports in mammalian systems. Conversely, the most frequent distance between AD is 4 bp in both plant species, as previously observed in mouse. Most alternative splicing variations are localized to the protein coding sequence and are predicted to significantly alter the coding sequence. Conclusion Alternative splicing is widespread in both rice and Arabidopsis and these species share many common features. Interestingly, alternative splicing may play a role beyond creating novel combinations of transcripts that expand the proteome. Many isoforms will presumably have negative

  18. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  19. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  20. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of intergenic spacers and small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phylogenetic analysis of test isolates included assessment of variation in sequences and length of IGS and SSU-rRNA genes with reference to 16 different microsporidian sequences. The results proved that IGS sequences have more variation than SSU-rRNA gene sequences. Analysis of phylogenetic trees reveal that ...

  1. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of Streptomycin And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethambutol tablet therefore appears to be more cost effective than streptomycin injection. Subjecting the cost and effectiveness to sensitivity analysis did not change this conclusion. Statistical analysis shows that there is a statistically significant difference in the effectiveness (outcome) of ethambutol (95%) and streptomycin ...

  2. Comparability problems in the analysis of multiway data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, I.; Smilde, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Almost all methods for the analysis of multiway data assume that the comparison of any two entries in the data array under study reflects or represents meaningful content-specific information. This is especially the case if one wants the data analysis to yield insight into the real mechanisms

  3. Comparative analysis of steel structures stationary conveyors with hanging belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of computation of metal structures LLC «Сonveyor» with the subsequent analysis of its main struc-tural units. The analysis results of the metal structures, LLC «Сonveyor» with a similar metal structure obtained in the optimal design process.

  4. Origin analysis of expanded stacking faults by applying forward current to 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shohei; Naijo, Takanori; Yamashita, Tamotsu; Miyazato, Masaki; Ryo, Mina; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Miyajima, Masaaki; Senzaki, Junji; Kato, Tomohisa; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Okumura, Hajime

    2017-08-01

    Stacking faults expanded by the application of forward current to 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes were observed using a transmission electron microscope to investigate the expansion origin. It was experimentally confirmed that long-zonal-shaped stacking faults expanded from basal-plane dislocations converted into threading edge dislocations. In addition, stacking fault expansion clearly penetrated into the substrate to a greater depth than the dislocation conversion point. This downward expansion of stacking faults strongly depends on the degree of high-density minority carrier injection.

  5. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  6. Comparative analysis of rubber seed methyl ester with other methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The important properties of biodiesel such as specific gravity, flash point, cloud point and pour point were determined and compared with that of diesel. Other properties such as kinematic viscosity sulphur content, Aniline point and Acid value of rubber seed methyl ester were deduced and compared with other methyl esters.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine and compare prevalence of aflatoxin contamination of household maize in two different altitude areas and different maize harvest seasons, in Makueni County in Kenya. Design: A comparative descriptive analytical study. Setting:Kibwezi and Kilome sub-counties of Makueni County, Kenya. Subjects: ...

  8. Comparative analysis of the agro-technology generation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... staff compared with the university which had better training facilities and provided competitive incentives to extension workers. The paper recommends restructuring of the ADP and university extension systems, such that each will concentrate on the areas it has greater comparative advantage and complement each other.

  9. a comparative analysis of the sociolinguistic profiles of english in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares the historical and sociolinguistic contexts of English in Kenya and Uganda addressing several questions such as: What are the similarities and differences in the sociolinguistic profiles of English in these two East African countries? How do the roles English plays in Kenya compare to its roles in ...

  10. A comparative analysis of the sociolinguistic profiles of English in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper compares the historical and sociolinguistic contexts of English in Kenya and Uganda addressing several questions such as: What are the similarities and differences in the sociolinguistic profiles of English in these two East African countries? How do the roles English plays in Kenya compare to its roles ...

  11. A comparative analysis of the sociolinguistic profiles of English in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares the historical and sociolinguistic contexts of English in Kenya and Uganda addressing several questions such as: What are the similarities and differences in the sociolinguistic profiles of English in these two East African countries? How do the roles English plays in Kenya compare to its roles in ...

  12. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. White

    2005-09-14

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  13. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. Results We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Conclusions Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These

  14. Comparative Analysis Of Empowerment Under Farmer Field School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FFS) strategy and the Conventional Extension (CONE) strategy. Data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire, and interview from 140 randomly selected farmers in Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Data analysis was by the use of ...

  15. Linux, OpenBSD, and Talisker: A Comparative Complexity Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    .... Rigorous engineering principles are applicable across a broad range of systems. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare three operating systems, including two general-purpose operating systems (Linux and OpenBSD...

  16. Comparative analysis of the quality of biometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    FILIPČÍK, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to describe and analyze the types of biometric identification and selected biometric methods and identify their strengths and weaknesses compared to the current document type of identification and verification of persons and compared to other biometric methods and then focus on the relationships and support of biometric methods in terms of IS / ICT services. The work will consist of 5 types of biometric methods namely dactyloscopy, hand geometry scanning, facial scanning...

  17. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  18. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: A combined analysis of 12 mathematical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Eaton (Jeffrey); D. Menzies; J. Stover (John); V. Cambiano (Valentina); L. Chindelevitch (Leonid); A. Cori (Anne); J.A.C. Hontelez (Jan); S. Humair (Salal); C.C. Kerr (Cliff); D.J. Klein (David); S. Mishra (Sharmistha); K.M. Mitchell (Kate); B.E. Nichols (Brooke); K. Vickerman; R. Bakker (Roel); T. Bärnighausen (Till); A. Bershteyn (Anna); D.E. Bloom (David); M-C. Boily (Marie-Claude); S.T. Chang (Stewart); T. Cohen (Ted); P. Dodd (Peter); C. Fraser (Christophe); C. Gopalappa (Chaitra); J. Lundgren (Jens); N.K. Martin (Natasha); T.S. Mikkelsen; E. Mountain (Elisa); Q.D. Pham (Quang); T. Pickles (Tom); A. Phillips (Andrew); S. Platt; C. Pretorius (Carel); H.J. Prudden (Holly); J.A. Salomon (Joshua); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); B.G. Wagner (Bradley); R.G. White (Richard); D.C. Wilson (David); L. Zhang (Lingling); J. Blandford (John); G. Meyer-Rath (Gesine); M. Remme (Michelle); P. Revill (Paul); N. Sangrujee (Nalinee); F. Terris-Prestholt (Fern); M.C. Doherty (Meg); N. Shaffer (Nathan); P.J. Easterbrook (Philippa); G. Hirnschall (Gottfried); T.B. Hallett (Timothy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for

  19. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  20. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  1. Global Melt Down and Banking Sector Performance, A Comparative Analysis of MCB Compare with HBL

    OpenAIRE

    Shaukat Ali Raza; Hassan Jawad Soomro; Ali Hassan Halepoto; Dr. Ashi Zeeshan; Faiz M. Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the performance of HBL with compare with MCB in Pakistan. Data were collected from various secondary sources annual reports, State Bank reports of HBL and MCB branches operated in Pakistan. The main reason of slow growth Pakistan was the low down of deposit rates of the customers. The financial ratios such as return on Assets (ROA), return on Equity (ROE), Loan to Deposit ratio (LDR) Loan to Asset Ratio (LAR) Debt to equity Ratio (DER), Assets Utilization(AU), and I...

  2. A randomized controlled clinical multicenter trial comparing the clinical and histological performance of a new, modified polylactide-co-glycolide acid membrane to an expanded polytetrafluorethylene membrane in guided bone regeneration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David; Weber, Franz E; Grunder, Ueli; Andreoni, Claude; Burkhardt, Rino; Jung, Ronald E

    2014-02-01

    To compare the clinical and histological outcomes of a resorbable modified polylactide/polyglycolide acid (PLGA) test membrane and a titanium-reinforced expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) control membrane used for guided bone regeneration (GBR) around dental implants. A total of 40 patients with peri-implant dehiscence-type defects were randomly allocated to a GBR procedure using either a modified PLGA test or an ePTFE control membrane. Soft tissue condition, implant integration, adverse events and quality of life were recorded during the 6-month healing period. At re-entry peri-implant bone defect dimensions were measured and compared with values recorded at implant/GBR surgery. A biopsy was retrieved for qualitative and quantitative histological analyses. A comparison between the groups was conducted using non-parametric statistical tests. Soft tissue complications were observed in five test patients and two control patients. Except for soft tissue complications and incomplete regeneration, no procedure- or device-related adverse events were observed. The vertical bone defect component was, in mean, reduced by-5.1 mm (95% CI -6.8, -3.3) in the test group and -6.9 mm (95% CI -8.2, -5.5 mm) in the control group. The mean residual vertical defect height measured 1.2 ± 2.4 mm in the test group and 0.3 ± 1.1 mm in the control group meaning a mean defect resolution of 81% in the test group and 96% in the control group (P = 0.161). The horizontal bone thickness at implant shoulder level decreased from a mean of 3.2 mm to 1.4 mm (-56%, mean -1.7 mm, 95% CI -2.3, -1.1) in the test group and from 3.3 mm to 2.5 mm (-24%, mean -0.8 mm, 95% CI -1.3, -0.3) in the control group (P = 0.022). Qualitative and quantitative histological analyses did not show significant differences in the tissue composition between groups. Peri-implant GBR was successfully performed using either of the membranes. The control membrane was able to better maintain the horizontal thickness of

  3. Comparative Analysis of Two Models of the Strouma River Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitko Petrov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A modified method of regression analysis for modelling of the water quality of river ecosystems is offered. The method is distinguished from the conventional regression analysis of that the factors included in the regression dependence are time functions. Two type functions are tested: polynomial and periodical. The investigations show better results the periodical functions give. In addition, a model for analysis of river quality has been developed, which is a modified method of the time series analysis. The model has been applied for an assessment of water pollution of the Strouma river. An assessment for adequately of the obtained model of the statistical criteria - correlation coefficient, Fisher function and relative error is developed and it shows that the models are adequate and they can be used for modelling of the water pollution on these indexes of the Strouma river. The analysis of the river pollution shows that there is not a materially increase of the anthropogenic impact of the Strouma river in the Bulgarian part for the period from 2001 to 2004.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Wiki Discretionary Access Control in a CONOPS Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crawford, Frederick L

    2008-01-01

    This research conducts a comparative analysis of discretionary access controls of current wikis by experimenting with their discretionary access controls and functionality, comparing the wiki software...

  5. Comparative genomic analysis as a tool for biologicaldiscovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Biology is a discipline rooted in comparisons. Comparative physiology has assembled a detailed catalogue of the biological similarities and differences between species, revealing insights into how life has adapted to fill a wide-range of environmental niches. For example, the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying capacity of vertebrate has evolved to provide strong advantages for species respiring at sea level, at high elevation or within water. Comparative- anatomy, -biochemistry, -pharmacology, -immunology and -cell biology have provided the fundamental paradigms from which each discipline has grown.

  6. comparative analysis of path loss prediction models for urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Obota, O. Simeonb, J. Afolayanc. Department of Electrical/Electronics & Computer Engineering, University of Uyo, Akwa .... assignments, proper determination of electric field strength, interference analysis, handover ..... stalled in a vehicle has an antenna height of. 2m. The distance between the mobile and the.

  7. A comparative study of multiple regression analysis and back ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Sarkar

    prediction for robotic GMAW-based rapid manufacturing through a neural network and a second-order regression analysis. J. Intell. Manuf. 25(1): 157–163. [32] Kim I-S, Lee S-H and Yarlagadda P K 2003 Comparison of multiple regression and back propagation neural network approaches in modelling top bead height of ...

  8. A comparative study on change vector analysis based change ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    From this viewpoint, different change detection algorithms have been developed for land-use land-cover (LULC) region. Among the different change detection algorithms, change vector analysis (CVA) has level headed capability of extracting maximuminformation in terms of overall magnitude of change and the direction of ...

  9. Comparative analysis of beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study isolated and discussed the factors driving beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Anambra State, Nigeria. Cross sectional data generated from 120 households randomly selected from five villages in Ekwusigo L.G.A was used. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis was ...

  10. Comparative analysis of different brands of prednisolone tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment involves analysis of nine brands of prednisolone, using ultra violet spectrophotometer in the range of (200-400nm) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in which the samples were dissolved in various solvents and their various absorbance, peak area at various wavelength were determined ...

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Darwin D.; Stolz, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    According to Altbach in 2004, "everyone wants a world-class university". Corresponding developmental efforts undertaken by higher education institutions are very often referenced to improvements in ranking results. Surprisingly, there is relatively little analysis of variations in higher education ranking systems across countries…

  12. A comparative gender analysis of Nigerian migrant networks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This would be particularly useful in understanding African immigration to South Africa which is the most attractive destination point of Africans migrating within the continent. Questions that can be researched in this regard include what would a gender disaggregated analysis of the demographic profile of African migrants to ...

  13. Reading in Two Languages: A Comparative Miscue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate what miscue analysis, a method described as a "window" into the reading process, can reveal about first and second language reading. Two participants, native English speakers proficient in Spanish, read and retold two folktales: one in English and one in Spanish. The researcher performed…

  14. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of OPN signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results showed that 23, 33, 59 and 74 genes were significantly changed in the above four kinds of liver diseases, respectively. H-clustering analysis showed that the expression profiles of OPN signalling-related genes were notably different in four kinds of liver diseases. Subsequently, a total of above-mentioned 147 ...

  15. A comparative study on change vector analysis based change ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    evaluate the overall transformed information over three different MODerate resolution. Imaging ... detection analysis includes the use of multi-spectral bands of multi-temporal satellite data sets to discriminate the LULC .... regions have been calculated according to following Equation (Malila 1980; Chen et al 2003) in which ...

  16. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murukarthick Jayakodi

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study will provide a comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of ginseng adventitious roots, and a way for successful transcriptome analysis and profiling of resource plants with less genomic information. The transcriptome profiling data generated in this study are available in our newly created adventitious root transcriptome database (http://im-crop.snu.ac.kr/transdb/index.php for public use.

  17. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of intergenic spacers and small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... isolates included assessment of variation in sequences and length of IGS and SSU-rRNA genes with .... host and Gene Bank Acc. No. of microsporidian species used in the phylogenetic analysis. Accession number Organism name. Host. Order. Family ... SSU-rRNA gene phylogenetic tree one additional.

  18. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology ...

  19. Comparative analysis of case screening with varying cough duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The sensitivity analysis of the study showed that using .2 weeks cough with two sputum samples gives almost similar values as .3 weeks cough with three sputum samples, but this needs further confirmatory results of culture sensitivity. Hence, using .2 weeks cough with two sputum samples as the diagnostic ...

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Concept of Shakespearean Tragedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam; Nasir, Muhammad Haseeb

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the analysis of Shakespearean tragedies is presented. It reveals that Shakespeare's plays are full of conflicting thoughts, and expression is so convincing that it is not possible to plan a system of philosophy out of them. Each character, from the king to the clown, from the most highly intellectual to the simpleton, judges life…

  1. Comparative Analysis of Selected Factors Affecting Fruit Phenotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Big trees provide good mechanical strength to support heavy fruits (Wolfe and Denton, 2001). Also a study by Leakey et al. (2005) found the weight of .... Data analysis. Data on weight, diameter of individual fruits and number of fruits per tree was analysed to obtain range, mean and standard error of mean using Minitab ...

  2. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework ... Despite significant curriculum reform that underlines a more balanced perspective of science encompassing the acquisition of knowledge through inquiry, the ...

  3. a comparative analysis of the rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... estimates of in-situ strength can be attained if the correlation between the compressive strength and the non-destructive test measurement for the same kind of concrete is established. Analysis of the results show that no significant difference exists between the set of results obtained from both methods ...

  4. Comparative analysis on chemical composition of bentonite clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of some analytical techniques such as X-ray Flourescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectral (IR) analysis and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize bentonite samples from Ashaka and Tango (Gombe State, Nigeria). The results obtained for the two samples were ...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Uncertainties in Urban Surface Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper a comparison between three different surface runoff models, in the numerical urban drainage tool MOUSE, is conducted. Analysing parameter uncertainty, it is shown that the models are very sensitive with regards to the choice of hydrological parameters, when combined overflow...... analysis, further research in improved parameter assessment for surface runoff models is needed....

  6. Comparative analysis of production costs and revenues of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The revenues generated depended on the fishing efforts as well as the quantity and quality of the catch. Annual return on investment was used in the analysis instead of the linear assessment of depreciation over the years mainly because of the traditional sources of loans which required payment within 1 year of operations.

  7. Comparative analysis of inter population genetic diversity in Puntius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variation in different population of the freshwater cyprinid Puntius filamentosus was studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Samples were collected from five different locations of southern Western Ghats, India. The morphometric characters of population from Alancholai showed ...

  8. Comparative analysis of actigraphy performance in healthy young subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina J. Bellone

    2016-10-01

    Although data accessibility and ease of use was very different for the diverse devices, there were no significant differences for sleep onset, total sleep time and sleep efficiency recordings, where applicable. In conclusion, depending on the type of study and analysis desired (as well as cost and compliance of use, we propose some relative advantages for the different actigraphy/temperature recording devices.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Property Investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    Property Market Maturity, Unpublished. Thesis, Department of Estate Management,. University ofLagos, Akoka, Nigeria. Graham, P. (2009). Analysis of Stock Market. Investment Strategies. An Interactive. Qualifying Project Report Submitted to the. Faculty of Worchester Polytechnic. Greer, G. E. and Farrell, M. D. (1984).

  10. Comparative analysis of mangrove species and seedlings in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collection was based on identification, enumeration and recording. Density of species and seedlings were analysis using number of stem wood per hectare while relative abundance was expressed in percentage. Mangrove species density was highest in Plots 4 and lowest in Plot 1. Rhizophora racemosa had highest ...

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood

  12. Comparing optimization algorithms for item selection in Mokken scale analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straat, J.H.; van der Ark, L.A.; Sijtsma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mokken scale analysis uses an automated bottom-up stepwise item selection procedure that suffers from two problems. First, when selected during the procedure items satisfy the scaling conditions but they may fail to do so after the scale has been completed. Second, the procedure is approximate and

  13. Comparative Analysis of Two Mathematical Models for Prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical modeling for prediction of compressive strength of sandcrete blocks was performed using statistical analysis for the sandcrete block data obtained from experimental work done in this study. The models used are Scheffe's and Osadebe's optimization theories to predict the compressive strength of sandcrete ...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Foreign and Local Rice Demand in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acomparative analysis of foreign and local rice consumption in Umuahia North and Ikwuano local government Areas of Abia state was undertaken in this study. A total of 93 rice consumers were selected using the simple random technique across the two local government areas. Data, which comprised of information on the ...

  15. Comparative pollen analysis of honeys from apiary and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been doubts as to the authenticity of honeys purchased in the open markets mainly due to sharp practices of vendors. Hence, pollen analysis was carried out on honeys from open markets and those from an apiary to ascertain the veracity of the claims. Eleven honey samples, six from the apiary and five from the ...

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of the effects of dietary mugwort ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteomic analysis by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in finishing pigs (LY × D) grown on a diet supplemented with mugwort powder found roughly 300 spots on a polyacrylamide gel image. Among them, the expression levels of 12 spots were higher than those of the control group.

  17. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Picture Archiving and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: An incremental cost analysis for chest radiographs,, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging brain scans with and without contrast were performed. The overall incremental cost for PACS in comparison with a conventional radiology site was determined. The net present value was also determined to ...

  18. Comparative analysis of resource productivity in sole and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shadow prices of excluded activities in the optimized plans also indicate that three-crop mixtures are in better competitive positions as compared to sole crops. It is recommended that programmes for optimum resource allocation within the framework of intercropping be developed while extension agents should rely on ...

  19. Aborted and refractory status epilepticus in children : A comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechtsen, Florise A. C. P.; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    Purpose: The aims of this retrospective study were: (1) to compare the demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, and EEG findings of status epilepticus aborted with medication (ASE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE), (2) to describe the treatment response of status epilepticus (SE),

  20. Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is to comparatively analyse the performance of property and stock market returns with a view to determining whether indirect investment in property shares can be a substitute for direct property investment in Abuja, Nigeria. The study utilized mean score, variance, standard deviation, coefficient ...

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Local Governance between South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2014 South Africa will be celebrating 20 years of democracy, which requires introspection on its state of local governance. China is used as a comparative case study because its economic growth has been strongly linked to local governance strategies. The article makes use of three variables to determine strategies ...

  2. Comparative analysis between maturity traits, yield components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work reports on the results of comparative traits involving 10 tattasai pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown for 2 years under contrasting conditions of wet and dry season as treatment in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The result showed non significant effect of years, year x treatment and ...

  3. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and

  4. Regulation of pharmacists: a comparative law and economics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of pharmacists from an economic perspective, focusing on licensing, price and fee regulation, advertising restrictions and rules on exercise of the profession, and restrictions on business structure. A comparative overview is presented of the most common forms of

  5. Comparative Analysis of Salt Taste Perception among Diabetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired salt taste perception has been described in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension occurs more frequently in diabetics than the general population. We compared salt taste perception among patients with type 2 diabetes (n=59), hypertension (n=57) and concurrent hypertension and diabetes (n=56) ...

  6. Reasoning and Proving Opportunities in Textbooks: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.; Choi, Kyong Mi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed and compared reasoning and proving opportunities in geometry lessons from American standard-based textbooks and Korean textbooks to understand how these textbooks provide student opportunities to engage in reasoning and proving activities. Overall, around 40% of exercise problems in Core Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP)…

  7. A comparative analysis of returns of various financial asset classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... As such it is anticipated worldwide that many pension funds and other institutional investors invest in the South African equities to track the worldwide emerging market index. This study analyses the performance of equities compared with bonds and cash in the South African financial markets as a proxy for ...

  8. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization analysis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH) with biotin-labeled rice genomic DNA to the chromosomes of Zea mays, Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor, Setaria italic and Secale cereale were conducted to analyze genomic homology between rice and other grass (Gramineae) speices. At 75% stringency, the rice ...

  9. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    OpenAIRE

    Iwańska Dagmara; Madej Anna; Urbanik Czesław

    2013-01-01

    Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Patient Package Inserts of Local and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: The patient package insert is an important source of drug information. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the PPI of the anti-infective agents manufactured in Palestine with the imported equivalents. Method: The selection criteria generated 15 different antiinfective agents available ...

  11. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of. MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the ...

  12. Comparative molecular analysis of old olive ( Olea europaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive is an important Mediterranean tree species having many different ways of utilizations. The olive grove is an important farming sector in Turkey and dates back to thousands years, particularly in Anatolia. An historical culture of olive resulted in a broad genetic base for olive which is a long-lived tree. We compared the ...

  13. A comparative analysis of the Libyan national essential medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The concordance between generic medicines listed in the WMLEM 2009 (standard reference list) and the LPLEM 2006 (comparator list) was evaluated. ... Antituberculosis medications had the highest discrepancy rate for antibacterial BEMs with one-third of the single medicines recommended by the WHO in the ...

  14. Comparative analysis of genetic crossover operators in knapsack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an evolutionary algorithms and technique based on natural selections of individuals called chromosomes. In this paper, a method for solving Knapsack problem via GA (Genetic Algorithm) is presented. We compared six different crossovers: Crossover single point, Crossover Two point, ...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Genetic Crossover Operators in Knapsack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an evolutionary algorithms and technique based on natural selections of individuals called chromosomes. In this paper, a method for solving. Knapsack problem via GA (Genetic Algorithm) is presented. We compared six different crossovers: Crossover single point, Crossover Two ...

  16. Comparative analysis of diagnostic applications of autoscan tools on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire with 3 items questions as checklist, 2 Auto scan tools were used for the study and test carried out on 5 vehicle systems at the 3 centers where Innova 1360B with snap shoot (AST1) was compared with Innova 1360B without snap shoot (AST2) were used for vehicle diagnosis. The instrument was ...

  17. comparative analysis of the properties of concrete produced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    PAVEMENT WORK. M. JOEL AND I. D. MBAPUUN. (Received 4 April 2016; Revision Accepted 10 June 2016). ABSTRACT. The properties of different grades of concrete produced with Portland limestone Cement (PLC) grades. 32.5N and 42.5R was compared in the study. Initial and Final setting time tests were perform on ...

  18. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of four species of Dendropsophus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the museum of natural history. University of Kansas 1-2, 1–753. Duellman W. E. and Trueb L. 1983 Frogs of the Hyla columbiana group: taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships. In: Advances in herpetology and evolutionary biology (ed. A. G. J. Rhodin and K. Miyata). Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University,.

  19. Comparative performance analysis of Thyristor and IGBT based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the performance of a split-phase motor and a three-phase induction motor drives for soft starting is evaluated. The paper systematically investigates and compares the characteristics of a variable voltage fed induction motor drive for two different types of soft starters; one based on IGBT and another based on ...

  20. Comparative analysis of lamivudine in two commercially available ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to compare the analytical results of two brands of ART drug, Lamivox-150 and Lamidine using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV spectroscopy in order to select a validated, simple, cost-effective and affordable analytical technique. The two brands of a lamivudine tablets were ...