WorldWideScience

Sample records for expanded civilian nuclear

  1. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  2. Canada: expanding nuclear fuel exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paehlke, R.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium is soon to be a very big business in Canada and most of the expansion is bound for export markets. The expansions that are planned are both in uranium mining and in fuel processing. Almost all environmental problems associated with the nuclear fuel cycle thus far in Canada have been associated with these two phases of the cycle: mining and processing. The water in Elliot Lake has been found to have high concentrations of radium and the drinking water of Serpent River, Ontario--downwater from Elliot Lake--has been found to be contaminated by excess radioactivity. Buildings in both Port Hope, Ontario, and Uranium City, Saskatchewan (near Eldorado's Saskatchewan minesite), have excess radiation counts attributable to radon and radon daughter gases. Several aspects of the expansion are currently undergoing environmental impact assessment. Far and away the most careful and balanced inquiry is the Saskatchewan government-appointed inquiry under Mr. Justice E. D. Bayda of the Saskatchewan Appeals Court. This inquiry is, in the first instance, examining a proposal by Amok Ltee., a consortium of a French multinational and the French government, to develop a $135 million uranium mine and mill at Cluff Lake in the northern portion of Saskatchewan. But the inquiry is considering all aspects and implications of the full nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage of the uranium boom in Canada centers on processing. Here two major new plants are proposed by Eldorado Nuclear: one at Port Granby, Ontario; the second at Varman, Saskatchewan. Several massive nuclear power stations are planned east of Toronto, but nuclear opposition is growing in Canada. (MCW)

  3. Civilian Nuclear Power. A report to the President, 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1962-11-20

    This overarching report on the role of nuclear power in the U.S. economy was requested by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in March, 1962. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was charged with producing the report, gaining input from individuals inside and outside government, including the Department of Interior, the Federal Power Commission, and the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Natural Resources. The study was to identify the objectives, scope, and content of a nuclear power development program in light of prospective energy needs and resources. It should recommend appropriate steps to assure the proper timing of development and construction of nuclear power projects, including the construction of necessary prototypes and continued cooperation between government and industry. There should also be an evaluation of the extent to which the U.S. nuclear power program will further international objectives in the peaceful uses of atomic energy.

  4. U.S.-Australia Civilian Nuclear Cooperation: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy” (S. 3844), on September 27, 2010. Representative Ileana Ros- Lehtinen introduced the companion bill, H.R. 6411, on...United States made it a potential nuclear target of the Soviet Union during the cold war.23 The Defense Support Program ( DSP )24 facility at Nurrungar... DSP later played a role in detecting Iraqi Scud missile launches during Operation Desert Storm. The Very Low Frequency (VLF) station involved in

  5. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Volume II assesses proliferation resistance. Chapters are devoted to: assessment of civilian nuclear systems (once-through fuel-cycle systems, closed fuel cycle systems, research reactors and critical facilities); assessment of associated sensitive materials and facilities (enrichment, problems with storage of spent fuel and plutonium content, and reprocessing and refabrication facilities); and safeguards for alternative fuel cycles.

  6. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  7. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The goal of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program has been to provide recommendations for the development and deployment of more proliferation-resistant civilian nuclear-power systems without jeopardizing the development of nuclear energy. In principle, new concepts for nuclear-power systems could be designed so that materials and facilities would be inherently more proliferation-resistant. Such advanced, i.e., less-developed systems, are the subject of this volume. Accordingly, from a number of advanced concepts that were proposed for evaluation, six representative concepts were selected: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor.

  8. On the future of civilian plutonium: An assessment of technological impediments to nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avedon, Roger Edmond

    This dissertation addresses the value of developing diversion- and theft-resistant nuclear power technology, given uncertain future demand for nuclear power, and uncertain risks of nuclear terrorism and of proliferation from the reprocessing of civilian plutonium. The methodology comprises four elements: Economics. An economic growth model coupled with market penetration effects for plutonium and for the hypothetical new technology provides a range of estimates for future nuclear demand. A flow model accounts for the longevity of capital assets (nuclear plants) over time. Terrorism. The commercial nuclear fuel cycle may provide a source of fissile material for terrorists seeking to construct a crude nuclear device. An option value model is used to estimate the effects of the hypothetical new technology on reducing the probability of theft. A game theoretic model is used to explore the deterrence value of physical security and then to draw conclusions about how learning on the part of terrorists or security forces might affect the theft estimate. The principal uncertainties in the theft model can be updated using Bayesian techniques as new data emerge. Proliferation. Access to fissile material is the principal technical impediment to a state's acquisition of nuclear weapons. A game theoretic model is used to determine the circumstances under which a state may proliferate via diversion. The model shows that the hypothetical new technology will have little value for counter-proliferation if diversion is not a preferred proliferation method. A technology policy analysis of the choice of proliferation method establishes that diversion is unlikely to be used because it has no constituency among the important parties to the decision, namely the political leadership, the scientific establishment, and the military. Value. The decision whether to develop a diversion- and theft-resistant fuel cycle depends on the perceived value of avoiding nuclear terrorism and proliferation

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations. While any final assessment of such measures and alternatives would have to examine the circumstances particular to each nation, it is hoped that the more generic assessments conducted here will be useful in suggesting guidelines for developing an improved nonproliferation regime which also helps to meet nuclear-energy needs. One chapter outlines the existing nonproliferation regime, including the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, bilateral and multilateral requirements for agreements of cooperation and transfers of technology, and existing provisons for sanctions for violation of nonproliferation commitments. The chapter then proceeds to an assessment of various alternatives for providing assurance of fuel supply in light of this current regime. Another chapter examines a set of technical and institutional measures and alternatives for various components of once-through and closed fuel cycles. The components of the once-through fuel cycle assessed are enrichment services and spent-fuel management; the components of closed fuel cycles assessed are reprocessing and plutonium management and fast-breeder reactor (FBR) deployment.

  10. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A

    2001-08-01

    The primary goal of this study is to frame the problem of nuclear proliferation in the context of protection and risks associated with nuclear materials flowing in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The perspective adopted for this study is that of a nuclear utility and the flow of fresh and spent nuclear fuel with which that utility must deal in the course of providing economic, safe, and ecologically acceptable electrical power to the public. Within this framework quantitative approaches to a material-dependent, simplified proliferation-risk metric are identified and explored. The driving force behind this search for such a proliferation metric derives from the need to quantify the proliferation risk in the context of evaluating various commercial nuclear fuel cycle options (e.g., plutonium recycle versus once-through). While the formulation of the algebra needed to describe the desired, simplified metric(s) should be straight forward once a modus operandi is defined, considerable interaction with the user of any final product that results is essential. Additionally, a broad contextual review of the proliferation problem and past efforts in the quantification of associated risks was developed as part of this study. This extensive review was essential to setting perspectives and establishing (feasibility) limits to the search for a proliferation metric(s) that meets the goals of this study. Past analyses of proliferation risks associated with the commercial nuclear fuel cycle have generally been based on a range of decision-analysis, operations-research tools. Within the time and budget constraints, as well as the self-enforced (utility) customer focus, the more subjective and data-intensive decision-analysis methodologies where not pursued. Three simplified, less-subjective approaches were investigated instead: a) a simplified 'four-factor' formula expressing as a normalized product political, material-quantity, material-quality, and material

  11. Quantitative Analysis of the Civilian Bilateral Cooperation in Front-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Viet Phuong; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A substantial part of such cooperation is related to the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which encompasses the processes that help manufacturing nuclear fuel, including mining and milling of natural uranium, refining and chemical conversion, enrichment (in case of fuels for Pressurized Water Reactor PWR), and fuel fabrication. Traditionally, the supply of natural uranium was dominated by Canada and Australia, whereas enrichment services have been mostly provided by companies from Western states or Russia, which are also the main customers of such services. However, Kazakhstan and African countries like Niger, Namibia, and Malawi have emerged as important suppliers in the international uranium market and recent forecasts show that China will soon become a major player in the front-end market as both consumer and service provider. In this paper, the correlation between bilateral civil nuclear cooperation in front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and the political and economic relationship among countries was examined through a dataset of bilateral nuclear cooperation in the post-Cold War era, from 1990 to 2011. Such finding has implication on not only the nonproliferation research but also the necessary reinforcement of export control regimes like such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Further improvement of this dataset and the regression method are also needed in order to increase the robustness of the findings as well as to cover the whole scope of the nuclear fuel cycle, including both front-end and back-end activities.

  12. Areas for US-India civilian nuclear cooperation to prevent/mitigate radiological events.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, Gopalan; Forden, Geoffrey Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Over the decades, India and the United States have had very little formal collaboration on nuclear issues. Partly this was because neither country needed collaboration to make progress in the nuclear field. But it was also due, in part, to the concerns both countries had about the others intentions. Now that the U.S.-India Deal on nuclear collaboration has been signed and the Hyde Act passed in the United States, it is possible to recognize that both countries can benefit from such nuclear collaboration, especially if it starts with issues important to both countries that do not touch on strategic systems. Fortunately, there are many noncontroversial areas for collaboration. This study, funded by the U.S. State Department, has identified a number of areas in the prevention of and response to radiological incidents where such collaboration could take place.

  13. The potential detection of low-level aerosol isotopes from new civilian nuclear processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, H S; Burnett, J L; Foxe, M P; Haas, D A; Keillor, M E; Lowrey, J D; Mayer, M F; McIntyre, J I; Wood, J S

    2017-08-01

    As the world faces a challenging future in maintaining the commercial availability of radioactive isotopes for medical use, new methods of medical isotope production are being pursued. Many of these are small in size and could effectively operate continuously. With the potential for much shorter retention times, a new suite of isotopes may soon be found in the environment. The authors estimate that many more aerosols containing low-level isotopes of gas/volatile origin could be detectable at short range and times, and a few at longer ranges and times as compared to those released in more common nuclear reactor operations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Roadmap for human resources for expanded Indian nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Indian Nuclear Society (India); Srinivasan, G.R.; Goyal, O.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with detailed requirement of human resources for all phases of nuclear power plant, for the manufacturing sector and the probable roadmap for achieving India's target. The accident in Fukushima has brought out that only nuclear power that avoids being a threat to the health and safety of the population and the environmental will be acceptable to the society and for this to be achieved human resources could be a single major contributor. India has ambitious plan of achieving 20,000MW by 2020 and 63,000MW by 2050. It is felt out of the three resources men, material and money; the critical shortage would be human resources both in quality and quantity. As per IAEA report (Publication of 2008 edition of energy, electricity and nuclear power estimates for the period of 2030), nuclear capacity must grow to at least 1.8 times current capacity by 2030 if global temperature rises are to be kept at 2°C. Objective of recruiting and training human resources for Indian Industry can be as follows: a) For catering domestic market. b) For catering international market later on for nuclear industries outside India. As India will be an important future international player. The above would require a multiplication of human resources by nearly seven times. In addition it has to be wholesome covering all levels and all skills and all disciplines and stages covering the whole nuclear cycle including regulators. Human resources are required for design and engineering, construction, commissioning, operation, manufacturing and for support services. The manpower for these has to be trained to achieve high quality of nuclear standards. Presently Indian Department of Atomic Energy(DAE) runs several training schools giving one year Post Graduate, tailor made courses. This needs to be multiplied by Joint efforts. Training should be on 'SAT (Systematic Approach to Training)' methodology to ensure focussed, specific, needed to culminate in safe, reliable and

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Volume IV provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  17. An expanded nuclear phylogenomic PCR toolkit for Sapindales1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth S.; Gostel, Morgan R.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We tested PCR amplification of 91 low-copy nuclear gene loci in taxa from Sapindales using primers developed for Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae). Methods and Results: Cross-amplification of these markers among 10 taxa tested was related to their phylogenetic distance from B. simaruba. On average, each Sapindalean taxon yielded product for 53 gene regions (range: 16–90). Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicales), by contrast, yielded product for two. Single representatives of Anacardiaceae and Rutacaeae yielded 34 and 26 products, respectively. Twenty-six primer pairs worked for all Burseraceae species tested if highly divergent Aucoumea klaineana is excluded, and eight of these amplified product in every Sapindalean taxon. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that customized primers for Bursera can amplify product in a range of Sapindalean taxa. This collection of primer pairs, therefore, is a valuable addition to the toolkit for nuclear phylogenomic analyses of Sapindales and warrants further investigation. PMID:28101434

  18. An expanded nuclear phylogenomic PCR toolkit for Sapindales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth S; Gostel, Morgan R; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    We tested PCR amplification of 91 low-copy nuclear gene loci in taxa from Sapindales using primers developed for Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae). Cross-amplification of these markers among 10 taxa tested was related to their phylogenetic distance from B. simaruba . On average, each Sapindalean taxon yielded product for 53 gene regions (range: 16-90). Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicales), by contrast, yielded product for two. Single representatives of Anacardiaceae and Rutacaeae yielded 34 and 26 products, respectively. Twenty-six primer pairs worked for all Burseraceae species tested if highly divergent Aucoumea klaineana is excluded, and eight of these amplified product in every Sapindalean taxon. Our study demonstrates that customized primers for Bursera can amplify product in a range of Sapindalean taxa. This collection of primer pairs, therefore, is a valuable addition to the toolkit for nuclear phylogenomic analyses of Sapindales and warrants further investigation.

  19. An expanded nuclear phylogenomic PCR toolkit for Sapindales 1

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Elizabeth S.; Gostel, Morgan R.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We tested PCR amplification of 91 low-copy nuclear gene loci in taxa from Sapindales using primers developed for Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae). Methods and Results: Cross-amplification of these markers among 10 taxa tested was related to their phylogenetic distance from B. simaruba. On average, each Sapindalean taxon yielded product for 53 gene regions (range: 16?90). Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicales), by contrast, yielded product for two. Single representatives of Ana...

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The six advanced concepts for nuclear power systems that were selected for evaluation are: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The design assessment was performed by identifying needs in six specific areas: conceptual plant design; reactor-physics considerations; fuel cycle alternatives; mechanical and thermal-hydraulic considerations; selection, development, and availability of materials; and engineering and operability. While none of the six concepts appears to be a credible commercial alternative to the liquid-metal fast-breeder within the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program horizon of 2025, there are a number of reasons for continued interest in the fast mixed-spectrum reactor: it is a once-through cycle fast reactor with proliferation risk characteristics similar to those of the light-water reactor; only about one-third as much uranium is required as for the once-through light-water reactor; the system will benefit directly from fast-breeder development programs; and, finally, the research and development required to develop the high-burnup metal fuel could benefit the on-going liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor program. Accordingly, a limited research and development effort on the high-burnup fuel seems justified, at present.

  1. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    Nucleonics Week, March 5, 2009, p. 1. 15 Nuclear Engineering International, November 2005, p. 37. 16 Uranium Information Centre, The Economics of...Nuclear Power, Briefing Paper 8, January 2006, p. 3. 17 “U.S. Utility Operating Costs, 2008,” Nucleonics Week, December 24, 2009. 18 CRS Report...Point (NY) Submitted 9/30/08 Areva EPR 1 Licensing suspended 12/1/09 Total Units 29 Sources: NRC, Nucleonics Week, Nuclear News, Nuclear Energy

  2. 78 FR 56869 - Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis Determination for Plutonium-238... Analysis (SA) of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Accomplishing Expanded Civilian...

  3. Ataxin-1 with an expanded glutamine tract alters nuclear matrix-associated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, P J; Koshy, B T; Cummings, C J

    1997-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is one of several neurodegenerative disorders caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract. It is characterized by ataxia, progressive motor deterioration, and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. To understand the pathogenesis of SCA1, we examined.......5 microm across, whereas the expanded ataxin-1 localizes to a single approximately 2-microm structure, before the onset of ataxia. Mutant ataxin-1 localizes to a single nuclear structure in affected neurons of SCA1 patients. Similarly, COS-1 cells transfected with wild-type or mutant ataxin-1 show...

  4. An Expert Elicitation of the Proliferation Resistance of Using Small Modular Reactors (SMR) for the Expansion of Civilian Nuclear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jonas; Gilmore, Elisabeth A; Gallagher, Nancy; Fetter, Steve

    2018-02-01

    To facilitate the use of nuclear energy globally, small modular reactors (SMRs) may represent a viable alternative or complement to large reactor designs. One potential benefit is that SMRs could allow for more proliferation resistant designs, manufacturing arrangements, and fuel-cycle practices at widespread deployment. However, there is limited work evaluating the proliferation resistance of SMRs, and existing proliferation assessment approaches are not well suited for these novel arrangements. Here, we conduct an expert elicitation of the relative proliferation resistance of scenarios for future nuclear energy deployment driven by Generation III+ light-water reactors, fast reactors, or SMRs. Specifically, we construct the scenarios to investigate relevant technical and institutional features that are postulated to enhance the proliferation resistance of SMRs. The experts do not consistently judge the scenario with SMRs to have greater overall proliferation resistance than scenarios that rely on conventional nuclear energy generation options. Further, the experts disagreed on whether incorporating a long-lifetime sealed core into an SMR design would strengthen or weaken proliferation resistance. However, regardless of the type of reactor, the experts judged that proliferation resistance would be enhanced by improving international safeguards and operating several multinational fuel-cycle facilities rather than supporting many more national facilities. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered.

  6. Expanded GAA repeats impair FXN gene expression and reposition the FXN locus to the nuclear lamina in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana M; Brown, Jill M; Buckle, Veronica J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Lufino, Michele M P

    2015-06-15

    Abnormally expanded DNA repeats are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), expanded GAA repeats in intron 1 of the frataxin gene (FXN) reduce FXN mRNA levels in averaged cell samples through a poorly understood mechanism. By visualizing FXN expression and nuclear localization in single cells, we show that GAA-expanded repeats decrease the number of FXN mRNA molecules, slow transcription, and increase FXN localization at the nuclear lamina (NL). Restoring histone acetylation reverses NL positioning. Expanded GAA-FXN loci in FRDA patient cells show increased NL localization with increased silencing of alleles and reduced transcription from alleles positioned peripherally. We also demonstrate inefficiencies in transcription initiation and elongation from the expanded GAA-FXN locus at single-cell resolution. We suggest that repressive epigenetic modifications at the expanded GAA-FXN locus may lead to NL relocation, where further repression may occur. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Trinucleotide-repeat expanded and normal DMPK transcripts contain unusually long poly(A) tails despite differential nuclear residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudde, Anke E E G; van Kessel, Ingeborg D G; André, Laurène M; Wieringa, Bé; Wansink, Derick G

    2017-06-01

    In yeast and higher eukaryotes nuclear retention of transcripts may serve in control over RNA decay, nucleocytoplasmic transport and premature cytoplasmic appearance of mRNAs. Hyperadenylation of RNA is known to be associated with nuclear retention, but the cause-consequence relationship between hyperadenylation and regulation of RNA nuclear export is still unclear. We compared polyadenylation status between normal and expanded DMPK transcripts in muscle cells and tissues derived from unaffected individuals and patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). DM1 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by (CTG)n repeat expansion in the DMPK gene. DM1 etiology is characterized by an almost complete block of nuclear export of DMPK transcripts carrying a long (CUG)n repeat, including aberrant sequestration of RNA-binding proteins. We show here by use of cell fractionation, RNA size separation and analysis of poly(A) tail length that a considerable fraction of transcripts from the normal DMPK allele is also retained in the nucleus (~30%). They carry poly(A) tails with an unusually broad length distribution, ranging between a few dozen to >500 adenosine residues. Remarkably, expanded DMPK (CUG)n transcripts from the mutant allele, almost exclusively nuclear, carry equally long poly(A) tails. Our findings thus suggest that nuclear retention may be a common feature of regulation of DMPK RNA expression. The typical forced nuclear residence of expanded DMPK transcripts affects this regulation in tissues of DM1 patients, but not through hyperadenylation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  9. Project on standards on good behaviour for the civilian nuclear industry; Projet de normes de bonne counduite pour l`industrie nculeaire civile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohl, Pierre; Derche, Bernard [Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire, Paris (France). Section Francaise

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear energy has provoked complex and sometimes heated debates involving politic, economic, scientific and moral issues, objective data alongside irrational feelings, short-term calculations as well as concerns touching on the far-reaching of humanity and the earth. These debates go beyond national borders as it is obvious that even though each country may hold divergent positions regarding the development of nuclear energy, their effects have an international scope, and, therefore, must be taken into account by all nations, even those who do not operate nuclear installations. Whatever conclusion may be drawn from these debates, decisions on nuclear energy are always taken by the political authorities, almost always at the highest level, be it national or international. These political decisions then become the body of legal standards, particularly the regulations which govern how nuclear energy is used. The main standards are for technical and scientific quality, applying to energy resource needs, to the reasons why the nuclear industry should be developed, to radioprotection and nuclear security, to protection of the environment, to radioactive waste management, to information and consulting to the public, to international cooperation, to non-proliferation of atomic weapons and to physical protection of nuclear materials. (author).

  10. DDX6 regulates sequestered nuclear CUG-expanded DMPK-mRNA in dystrophia myotonica type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Olof Joakim; Aagaard, Lars; Andrejeva, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by CUG triplet expansions in the 3′ UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). The etiology of this multi-systemic disease involves pre-mRNA splicing defects elicited by the ability of the CUG-expanded mRNA...... to ‘sponge’ splicing factors of the muscleblind family. Although nuclear aggregation of CUG-containing mRNPs in distinct foci is a hallmark of DM1, the mechanisms of their homeostasis have not been completely elucidated. Here we show that a DEAD-box helicase, DDX6, interacts with CUG triplet-repeat mRNA...... of MBNL1 in the nucleus. While the level of CUG-expanded mRNA is unaffected by increased DDX6 expression, the mRNA re-localizes to the cytoplasm and its interaction partner MBNL1 becomes dispersed and also partially re-localized to the cytoplasm. Finally, we show that DDX6 unwinds CUG-repeat duplexes...

  11. The expanded Kinesin-13 repertoire of trypanosomes contains only one mitotic Kinesin indicating multiple extra-nuclear roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Wickstead

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinesin-13 proteins have a critical role in animal cell mitosis, during which they regulate spindle microtubule dynamics through their depolymerisation activity. Much of what is known about Kinesin-13 function emanates from a relatively small sub-family of proteins containing MCAK and Kif2A/B. However, recent work on kinesins from the much more widely distributed, ancestral Kinesin-13 family, which includes human Kif24, have identified a second function in flagellum length regulation that may exist either alongside or instead of the mitotic role.The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei encodes 7 distinct Kinesin-13 proteins, allowing scope for extensive specialisation of roles. Here, we show that of all the trypanosomal Kinesin-13 proteins, only one is nuclear. This protein, TbKIN13-1, is present in the nucleoplasm throughout the cell cycle, but associates with the spindle during mitosis, which in trypanosomes is closed. TbKIN13-1 is necessary for the segregation of both large and mini-chromosomes in this organism and reduction in TbKIN13-1 levels mediated by RNA interference causes deflects in spindle disassembly with spindle-like structures persisting in non-mitotic cells. A second Kinesin-13 is localised to the flagellum tip, but the majority of the Kinesin-13 family members are in neither of these cellular locations.These data show that the expanded Kinesin-13 repertoire of trypanosomes is not associated with diversification of spindle-associated roles. TbKIN13-1 is required for correct spindle function, but the extra-nuclear localisation of the remaining paralogues suggests that the biological roles of the Kinesin-13 family is wider than previously thought.

  12. The expanded Kinesin-13 repertoire of trypanosomes contains only one mitotic Kinesin indicating multiple extra-nuclear roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstead, Bill; Carrington, Jamie T; Gluenz, Eva; Gull, Keith

    2010-11-23

    Kinesin-13 proteins have a critical role in animal cell mitosis, during which they regulate spindle microtubule dynamics through their depolymerisation activity. Much of what is known about Kinesin-13 function emanates from a relatively small sub-family of proteins containing MCAK and Kif2A/B. However, recent work on kinesins from the much more widely distributed, ancestral Kinesin-13 family, which includes human Kif24, have identified a second function in flagellum length regulation that may exist either alongside or instead of the mitotic role. The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei encodes 7 distinct Kinesin-13 proteins, allowing scope for extensive specialisation of roles. Here, we show that of all the trypanosomal Kinesin-13 proteins, only one is nuclear. This protein, TbKIN13-1, is present in the nucleoplasm throughout the cell cycle, but associates with the spindle during mitosis, which in trypanosomes is closed. TbKIN13-1 is necessary for the segregation of both large and mini-chromosomes in this organism and reduction in TbKIN13-1 levels mediated by RNA interference causes deflects in spindle disassembly with spindle-like structures persisting in non-mitotic cells. A second Kinesin-13 is localised to the flagellum tip, but the majority of the Kinesin-13 family members are in neither of these cellular locations. These data show that the expanded Kinesin-13 repertoire of trypanosomes is not associated with diversification of spindle-associated roles. TbKIN13-1 is required for correct spindle function, but the extra-nuclear localisation of the remaining paralogues suggests that the biological roles of the Kinesin-13 family is wider than previously thought.

  13. Comparing Civilian Support for Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srobana Bhattacharya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.

  14. Civilian Education and Training in the Department of Defense. How Can We Gauge Its Value

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) prides itself on providing "world class" training and continuing education to its military employees and would like to expand that reputation to its civilian employees...

  15. CYBER HOSTILITIES: CIVILIAN DIRECT PARTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which hostilities are being conducted has changed in recent years. The battle field has transpired beyond the physical realm and now has a virtual component. Because of this, it is now easier than ever for civilians to get involved in hostilities. International Humanitarian Law applies to all situations of armed conflict and according to the principle of distinction, the parties to the conflict must, at all times, distinguish between civilians and combatants. The problem arises when the line between combatants and civilians starts to get blurry. Direct civilian participation in hostilities has been addressed in both Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and in 2009 the International Committee of the Red Cross published the Interpretive guidance on the notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under international humanitarian law. Another document that addresses the problem of civilian direct participation is the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare prepared by an international group of experts at the invitation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in 2013. The guide prepared by the ICRC addresses the problem of civilian direct participation during conventional situations of armed conflict, while the Tallinn Manual addresses direct participation in situations of cyber warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study the application of civilian direct participation to situations of cyber warfare.

  16. Air Force Civilian Senior Leadership Development Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Billy P

    2008-01-01

    .... While Gen Jumper's sight picture recognizes the need to grow civilians for leadership positions, there is a more compelling reason for the Air Force to focus on civilian leadership development...

  17. Air Force Civilian Senior Leadership Development Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Air Force Civilian Leadership Developmental Challenges Although the Air Force has an approved and codified process for developing its future civilian...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE CIVILIAN SENIOR LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES by Billy P. Webb, DAF A Research Report Submitted...to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Civilian Senior Leadership Development Challenges 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  18. Three proteins, MBNL, MBLL and MBXL, co-localize in vivo with nuclear foci of expanded-repeat transcripts in DM1 and DM2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardaei, Majid; Rogers, Mark T; Thorpe, Helena M; Larkin, Kenneth; Hamshere, Marion G; Harper, Peter S; Brook, J David

    2002-04-01

    Myotonic dystrophy is a complex neuromuscular disorder associated with DNA expansion mutations in two different genes. In DM1 a CTG repeat in the 3'-untranslated region of DMPK is expanded, whereas in DM2 an intronic CCTG expansion occurs in the gene ZNF9. Transcripts containing expanded repeats form foci in the nuclei of DM1 and DM2 cells. Recent work using antibodies has shown that proteins related to Drosophila muscleblind co-localize with repeat foci in DM1 and DM2 cells. We show that rather than there being a single human muscleblind gene producing multiple proteins through alternative splicing, there are in fact three different muscleblind genes, MBNL, MBLL and MBXL, which map to chromosomes 3, 13 and X, respectively, and which show extensive alternative splicing. Two of the genes, MBNL and MBLL, are expressed in many adult tissues whereas MBXL is expressed predominantly in the placenta. Green fluorescent protein-tagged versions of MBNL, MBLL and MBXL co-localize with nuclear foci in DM1 and DM2 cells, suggesting that all three proteins may play a role in DM pathophysiology.

  19. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4 Alfa Mutation Associated with Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia and Atypical Renal Fanconi Syndrome: Expanding the Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improda, Nicola; Shah, Pratik; Güemes, Maria; Gilbert, Clare; Morgan, Kate; Sebire, Neil; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    The p.R63W mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF4A) results in macrosomia and atypical Fanconi syndrome, in addition to hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HI). We describe 2 infants carrying this mutation, presenting with additional features. Cases Series: Patient 1, a male born with a birth weight of 1.7 SDS, was diagnosed with HI on day 2 of life. He responded to 3-10 mg/kg/day of diazoxide. Raised serum creatinine led to the investigation of renal tubular function, showing leaking of electrolytes and protein. The patient also had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia with liver steatosis. Patient 2 was a male born with a weight of 0.36 SDS. His mother had renal Fanconi syndrome. He received parenteral nutrition and presented with HI at 1 month of age, while establishing enteral feeds. Biochemistry workup showed renal tubular leaking of calcium, sodium, and phosphate. A hypoglycaemia screen documented HI, and the patient was commenced on 2 mg/kg/day of diazoxide. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed in his mother, revealing overnight hypoglycaemia. Renal Fanconi syndrome represents the only HNF4A feature showing complete penetrance. Our cases suggest that the p.R63W HNF4A mutation must be considered in subjects with a normal birth weight and postulate the possibility of liver involvement as a part of this condition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Electronic-nuclear entanglement in H2 +: Schmidt decomposition of non-Born-Oppenheimer wave functions expanded in nonorthogonal basis sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Vicario, José Luis; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Moreno-Polo, Germán

    2017-08-01

    We compute the entanglement between the electronic and vibrational motions in the simplest molecular system, the hydrogen molecular ion, considering the molecule as a bipartite system, electron and vibrational motion. For that purpose we compute an accurate total non-Born-Oppenheimer wave function in terms of a huge expansion using nonorthogonal B-spline basis sets that expand separately the electronic and nuclear wave functions. According to the Schmidt decomposition theorem for bipartite systems, widely used in quantum-information theory, it is possible to find a much shorter but equivalent expansion in terms of the natural orbitals or Schmidt bases for the electronic and nuclear half spaces. Here we extend the Schmidt decomposition theorem to the case in which nonorthogonal bases are used to span the partitioned Hilbert spaces. This extension is first illustrated with two simple coupled systems, the former without an exact solution and the latter exactly solvable. In these model systems of distinguishable coupled particles it is shown that the entanglement content does not increase monotonically with the excitation energy, but only within the manifold of states that belong to an existing excitation mode, if any. In the hydrogen molecular ion the entanglement content for each non-Born-Oppenheimer vibronic state is quantified through the von Neumann and linear entropies and we show that entanglement serves as a witness to distinguish vibronic states related to different Born-Oppenheimer molecular energy curves or electronic excitation modes.

  1. Psychological Correlates of Civilian Preparedness for Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-08-01

    Preparedness for emergencies and disasters is imperative for public resilience. Previous studies have revealed low levels of civilian preparedness for conflicts. Classic behavioral models prove inapt in describing preparedness patterns in victimized populations chronically exposed to this threat. In an effort to expand this perspective, we hypothesized that other psychological constructs are correlated with preparedness. A cross-sectional, Internet-based study was performed in Israel in early 2016. A sociodemographically diverse sample included 385 participants, Jews and Arabs. The tools included a preparedness index, sense of preparedness questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Life Orientation Test, Behavioral Inhibition & Activation System scales, and ego defenses. The results suggested that optimistic and rational individuals reported significantly higher levels of preparedness, whereas those who scored highly on the trait anxiety scale and those with a tendency to use denial coping mechanisms reported significantly lower levels of preparedness. The findings suggest that additional constructs, other than classic threat perception components, might play a key role in governing preparedness behavior. In particular, psychological manipulation of dispositional optimism or optimistic thinking might be effective in motivating preparedness behavior. Future research should explore such innovative ways to promoting preparedness. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:451-459).

  2. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    This sixth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal year 1988. An epilogue chapter reports significant events from the end of the fiscal year on September 30, 1988 through March 1989. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPA) of 1987 made significant changes to the NWPA relating to repository siting and monitored retrievable storage and added new provisions for the establishment of several institutional entities with which OCRWM will interact. Therefore, a dominant theme throughout this report is the implementation of the policy focus and specific provisions of the Amendments Act. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Integration of defense waste into the Civilian Repository Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-24

    The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the fee calculation method proposed by Waste Management would result in an accurate and fair allocation of costs to both civilian and defense owners of nuclear waste. We reviewed Waste Management`s proposed cost allocation plans to be used in calculating fees for defense waste disposal. We also evaluated Waste Management`s actions toward developing a defense waste fee payment schedule. Our examination was made in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards which included tests of internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations to the extent necessary to satisfy the scope of the audit.

  4. 75 FR 64717 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Mail: Sophia Angelini. Attorney-Advisor, Office of the General Counsel for Civilian Nuclear Programs... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sophia Angelini, Attorney-Advisor, Office of the General Counsel for Civilian...

  5. Iraq: Learning Civilian Protection the Hard Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahr Muhammedally

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article—based on the author’s interviews with civilians and security forces in areas retaken from the Islamic State (also known as ISIS in Northern Iraq in 2015—examines challenges in civilian protection when pro-government forces take control of areas formerly under control of anti-government forces.1 It recommends to the Iraqi and Kurdish leadership specific harm mitigation training for their forces, a protection-based approach to shield civilians from harm from all sides, and provision of security to returnees, including protection both from crime and revenge attacks. Such preventative measures, if enacted before major military operations to retake populated areas under ISIS control begin, would better protect civilians, strengthen the government’s mission against ISIS and provide building blocks for a stable Iraq.

  6. Office of Civilian Response Deployment Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.

  7. Operationalizing Civilian Protection in Mali: The Case for a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Keenan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This practice note details an emerging best practice of civilian harm mitigation in armed conflict: namely, the creation of civilian casualty tracking, analysis and response processes by a warring party or peace operation force. It asserts that in Iraq, Afghanistan and soon Somalia, these processes to better understand civilian harm and address consequences have positively shaped mission tactics, training, and overall operations. In both Iraq and Afghanistan, tracking and analysis has lead to a marked decrease in civilian casualties and facilitated the making of amends for any civilian losses. The paper argues that for warring parties to achieve their mission—particularly one with a protection of civilians mandate as with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA—they must fully understand the impact of their actions on the civilian population, positive or negative. For this reason, a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell should be created for MINUSMA to improve its ability mitigate risk to civilians as required by its Security Council mandate.

  8. The Bali bombing: civilian aeromedical evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh D; Garner, Alan A; Morrison, Ion; Sharley, Peter H; Griggs, William M; Xavier, Colin

    2003-10-06

    After the Bali bombing on 12 October 2002, many injured Australians required evacuation to Darwin, and then to burns units around Australia. Many patients were evacuated from Denpasar by Qantas, with assistance from staff of civilian medical retrieval services. The transport of patients from Darwin to specialist burns units involved a coordinated response of civilian and military services. Some issues in responding to such disasters were identified, and a national coordinating network could improve future responses.

  9. Leading Change: Military Leadership in Civilian Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    lead to a very frustrating stalemate for both the military leader and the organization they join. LEADING CHANGE: MILITARY LEADERSHIP IN...Civilian adds, “For the military leader , managing a civilian workforce is different from leading military subordinates.”4 Military members must...must plot a course to get the organization on the right path. Finally, the leader must lead and manage change in their organization while keeping

  10. Democratic civilian control of the Nepalese Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    prescribed for a hapless sentry who falls asleep on duty, emanate from civilian authority or are decided by civilians. The decision of command and...when the military has autonomous jurisdiction over important aspects of state activity, it prevents DCC. He suggests possible range of civil military... jurisdictional boundaries, which he has depicted by dividing state activities in four concentric rings. External defense, internal security, public

  11. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  12. Reactions to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami: a preliminary matching study comparing nurses and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Soffer, Yechiel; Shrira, Amit

    2013-06-01

    The research of reactions to disasters is uncommon. Moreover, most studies target a specific population, whether civilians or professionals. The aim of this study was to compare the reactions of hospital personnel and civilians after exposure to a unique disaster that combines natural and nuclear disaster. A matching sample of nurses and civilians was compared using a brief questionnaire tapping into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, subjective health, perceived coping, life satisfaction, and meaning in life. The results revealed that the nurses had a lower level of PTSD symptoms and higher self-rated health, life satisfaction, and perceived coping in comparison with the civilians. These results are discussed in light of work characteristics that include exposure to traumatic events as part of their work and coping that is partially based on training.

  13. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  14. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. Military and civilian media coverage of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Kinn, Julie T; June, Jennifer D; Fullerton, Nicole R

    2011-01-01

    Military suicide has increased over the past decade and reports of Service Member and Veteran suicides receive media attention. Some methods of reporting suicide appear to cause a "media contagion" effect, potentially increasing suicide. This effect is explored in relation to media reports of both military and civilian suicides. To reduce possible contagion, recommendations for media reporting of suicides were adapted by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). We assessed 240 military and civilian newspaper reports of suicide from 15 different sources for compliance with the SPRC guidelines. Nearly all reviewed articles violated at least one guideline. Results highlighted military news articles regarding Service Members included more pejorative language and discussion of failed psychological treatment. Conversely, civilian articles romanticized the victim and provided more details regarding the suicide. Further exploration of military suicide reporting bias is discussed as a need in future research.

  16. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautray, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The author firstly gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the 1950s. "Neutronics", thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, taps, waste cock, safety circuits, heat exchange units, etc.) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. Notwithstanding, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling (i.e. inflammability) and other important security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchange devices) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the refabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. Among the priorities for a fully operational system (power station - the fuel cycle - operation-maintenance - the spent fuel pool and its cooling system-emergency cooling system-emergency electric power-transportation movements-equipment handling - final disposal of radioactive matter, independent safety barriers), the author includes materials (fabrication of targets, an irradiation and inspection instrument), the chemistry of all sorting processes, equipment "refabrication" or rehabilitation

  17. Civilian Direct Participation in Cyber Hostilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Delerue

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This article studies the application of a well-known notion of international humanitarian law, civilian direct participation in hostilities, to cyber warfare.

    According to the principle of distinction, civilians and combatants must be distinguished in times of armed conflict. The shift of hostilities from the real world into cyberspace affects neither the definition of combatants nor the negative definition of civilians. However, beyond the classical approach of the principle of distinction, the changing character of warfare also concerns cyber warfare. Indeed, the distinction between battlefields and civilian areas is increasingly less clear and a rising number of non-combatants directly participate in hostilities in various ways. Cyber means, and the development of cyber warfare, offer numerous new possibilities for non-combatants who want to take part in hostilities. It has never been this easy for civilians to get involved in hostilities and most civilians are ignorant of the consequences of their actions.

    Recently, two groups of experts have released documents partly related to this topic with divergent conclusions: the first one is the Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law adopted by the ICRC in 2009. The second one is the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare written at the behest of NATO’s Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. As these documents differ in their approach to reading of the topic, part of this article will analyze their divergences.

  18. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  19. An Argument for Documenting Casualties: Violence Against Iraqi Civilians 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Katharine; Stahl, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The problem of measuring the number of civilian fatalities in Iraq gained widespread media coverage when the Lancet published a study in October 2004 claiming that more than 100,000 Iraqi civilians...

  20. Civilian Training in High-Altitude Flight Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    exposure for We recommend that all pilots be required to take nuclear workers as 500millirem per year. They went expanded flight physiology training. We feel...required fordifferent A-8 situations in flight. A familia ;zation with 3. Aging: regulators and masks, equipment checks, and other general rules is

  1. 32 CFR 728.81 - Other civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... life or limb. Limit care to that necessary only during the period of the emergency, and if further..., Marine Corps Development and Education Command, Quantico, VA, may be rendered care at the Naval Medical... disease may be hospitalized and classed as civilian humanitarian nonindigents with the approval of the...

  2. Addressing Deficiencies in Army Civilian Leader Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-28

    competencies the Army and Nation requires. A well managed , comparable, and integrated Army leader training, education, and development framework, designed...Leavenworth, KS or Fort Belvoir, VA. The Intermediate Course targets Army civilian leaders who already reside in supervisory, management , or project...Leadership and Management Program (DLAMP), a competitively selected DOD- sponsored and DOD–funded leader development program that provided enhanced

  3. Permanent Civilian Musculoskeletal disability following injury-17 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was aimed at determining the magnitude of civilian permanent musculoskeletal disability from injuries and identifies trends observed in the proportions of major causes of the disability in the last two 'decades'. Settings: Addis Ababa University, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, ...

  4. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  5. Civilian radioactive waste management program plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy`s site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program`s ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program`s mission and vision, and summarizes the Program`s broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program`s approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program`s organization chart; the Commission`s regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms.

  6. Enhancing Military-Civilian Medical Synergies: The Role of Army Medical Practice in Civilian Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    newborn care. WBAMC has seven child MTFs—six in Texas and one in New Mexico —and is affiliated with five non-VA civilian hospitals and one VA medical...care and is affiliated with five smaller MTFs (labeled “ child ” 52 Enhancing Military–Civilian Medical Synergies MTFs, which are under the parent...pediatrics, podiatry, psychiatry, and substance abuse ) and even fewer services related to surgical specialties (pre-operative and post-operative follow

  7. Self-Expanding, Tough Biodegradable Elastomers for Wound Stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    the civilian setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self- expanding polyurethane foam...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Arsenal...setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self-expanding polyurethane foam significantly

  8. Winds of War: Enhancing Civilian and Military Partnerships to Assure Readiness: White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, C William

    2015-08-01

    This White Paper summarizes the state of readiness of combat surgeons and provides action recommendations that address the problems of how to train, sustain, and retain them for future armed conflicts. As the basis for the 2014 Scudder Oration, I explored how to secure an improved partnership between military and civilian surgery, which would optimize learning platforms and embed military trauma personnel at America's academic medical universities for trauma combat casualty care (TCCC). To craft and validate these recommendations, I conducted an integrative and iterative process of literature reviews, interviews of military and civilian leaders, and a survey of military-affiliated surgeons. The recommended action points advance the training of combat surgeons and their trauma teams by creating an expanded network of TCCC training sites and sourcing the cadre of combat-seasoned surgeons currently populating our civilian and military teaching hospitals and universities. The recommendation for the establishment of a TCCC readiness center or command within the Medical Health System of the Department of Defense includes a military and civilian advisory board, with the reformation of a think tank of content experts to address high-level solutions for military medicine, readiness, and TCCC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expanded Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  10. Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

  11. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Larionov , a consultant to the institute, both at RAND and in Moscow; and Drs. Alexei Arbatov and Aleksandr Savelyev and several of their colleagues during...MOSCOW’S ASPIRING CIVILIAN STRATEGISTS .... 17 Selected Views of the Institute Academics .......... i9 The Kokoshin- Larionov Framework .............. 22...including Lieutenant General Mikhail Milshtein, Major General Valentin Larionov , and Major General Vadim Makarevskii. 7According to a former IMEMO

  12. The Protection of Civilians: An Evolving Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gordon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the protection of civilians (POC in conflict has been a recurring feature of the humanitarian discourse the same has not been true in military doctrines, where the protection of civilians has long been cast in terms of arms bearers upholding their responsibilities under international humanitarian law (IHL. However, opportunities for and pressures on military actors to develop more specific capacities and approaches in this field have grown: partly as a response to the changing nature, location and scope of conflict, particularly the increasing proportion of internal conflicts fought by irregular armed groups in urban environments. It is also a response to the scale and complexity of protection challenges in the Balkans, Rwanda, Darfur and Libya - each of which has clearly demonstrated that threats to civilians are complex and dynamic and that no single international actor is capable of mitigating them without significant support from other institutions (O’Callaghan and Pantuliano, 2007. Despite the enormous growth in opportunities for interaction between militaries and humanitarians there is only a very limited literature on their interaction over protection issues and evaluations of the emerging doctrines. Consequently this article charts the growth in military policies towards POC in the UN, UK, NATO and a range of other states as well as drawing attention to the challenges that still remain in operationalising responses.

  13. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    This seventh Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal years (FY) 1989 and 1990. In November 1989, OCRWM is responsible for disposing of the Nation`s spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. To direct the implementation of its mission, OCRWM has established the following objectives: (1) Safe and timely disposal: to establish as soon as practicable the ability to dispose of radioactive waste in a geologic repository licensed by the NRC. (2) Timely and adequate waste acceptance: to begin the operation of the waste management system as soon as practicable in order to obtain the system development and operational benefits that have been identified for the MRS facility. (3) Schedule confidence: to establish confidence in the schedule for waste acceptance and disposal such that the management of radioactive waste is not an obstacle to the nuclear energy option. (4) System flexibility: to ensure that the program has the flexibility necessary for adapting to future circumstances while fulfilling established commitments. To achieve these objectives, OCRWM is developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposed deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for MRS, and a system for transporting the waste.

  14. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-08-01

    This is the fifth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report covers the activities and expenditures of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987, which ended on September 30, 1987. The activities and accomplishments of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987 are discussed in chapters 1 through 9 of this report. The audited financial statements of the Nuclear Waste Fund are provided in chapter 10. Since the close of the fiscal year, a number of significant events have occurred. Foremost among them was the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act) on December 21, 1987, nearly 3 months after the end of the fiscal year covered by this report. As a result, some of the plans and activities discussed in chapters 1 through 9 are currently undergoing significant change or are being discontinued. Most prominent among the provisions of the Amendments Act is the designation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only candidate first repository site to be characterized. Therefore, the site characterization plans for Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington, discussed in chapter 3, will not be issued. The refocusing of the waste management program under the Amendments Act is highlighted in the epilogue, chapter 11. 68 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-22

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t LEADERSHIP MAKES A DIFFERENCE : GROWING FEDERAL CIVILIAN LEADERS BY MS. ALICE MUELLERWEISS...to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Education Accreditation. USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT LEADERSHIP MAKES A DIFFERENCE : GROWING FEDERAL CIVILIAN LEADERS by

  16. Chasing Success: Air Force Efforts to Reduce Civilian Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    79. See Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell : America in the Age of Genocide (New York: Perseus Books, 2002). 80. NSHR Proceedings. 81. David L...US military thinking remained a barrier to change. There were other institutional reasons to avoid considering alter- natives; reducing civilian harm...as the experts most responsible for understanding civilian casualties.22 This remains a cultural and organizational barrier to mainstreaming civilian

  17. Complex Sequelae of Psychological Trauma Among Kosovar Civilian War Victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ford, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The impact of war trauma on civilians may include, but also extend beyond, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to include complex sequelae such as those described by the syndrome of Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS). Methods: In the present study, 102 civilian war

  18. Revamping Civilian Leadership Development in the Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 6 CHAPTER 2: THE SUPERVISOR 10 CHAPTER 3: THE MANAGER 12 CHAPTER 4: THE EXECUTIVE 13 CHAPTER 5...civilian leadership competencies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: UNCLASSIFIED 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER...responsibility and funding of the Marine Corps Civilian Leadership Development Program (MCCLDP) and Centrally Managed Programs (CMP) from Manpower and Reserve

  19. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-May 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    DOE/CH/10140-05 is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index.

  20. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This report is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index.

  1. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-July 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    DOE/CH/10140-5 is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, state and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure listings, and a topical report.

  2. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This document is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index.

  3. Proceedings of the nuclear Inter Jura`93. Nuclear energy and sustainable development: the role of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The importance of the law for the future of the nuclear energy within the context of the sustainable development is discussed in this Nuclear Inter Jura - Rio`93, which contains the individual papers, reports of working groups and a proposal of standards of good behavior for the civilian nuclear industry. This congress is divided in five sections: licensing and decommissioning; nuclear liability cover; international nuclear trade; radiological protection and radioactive waste management.

  4. Epidemiology of trauma: the civilian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C C

    1986-12-01

    Recent interest in civilian trauma as a public health problem dates from the National Academy of Sciences white paper in 1966. Civilian trauma patterns vary depending on locale--blunt trauma predominates in rural and smaller urban areas (65% to 80% of hospital admissions); penetrating trauma in larger urban areas outweighs blunt trauma by a ratio of 2 to 1. Approximately 50% of trauma deaths occur within minutes of injury, and efforts at prevention and reduction of injury are the only hope for decreasing mortality in this group. Thirty percent of trauma deaths occur in the first few hours, and reducing this rate will require optimization of prehospital and early hospital care. Aggressive efforts at intensive care unit management will be required to reduce the number of later deaths (20%). Several studies suggest that limiting the depth and duration of shock is a major factor in reducing the in-hospital mortality rate. Reducing mortality and morbidity nationwide requires several things. Although it is clear that preventive efforts must focus on legislation and public education, it is also clear that enforcement is a key element (eg, handgun violations, drunk driving). Emphasis in prehospital care probably should remain on field endotracheal intubation and expeditious transport to an appropriate facility. Recent data suggest that organization of in-hospital care of the multiply injured trauma victim along the lines of a dedicated trauma service can lead to reductions in morbidity and mortality from trauma. Finally, the commitment of federal and private agencies to supporting research on all aspects of trauma must be raised to a level commensurate with the seriousness of this major public health problem.

  5. Expanding Science Knowledge: Enabled by Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karla B.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Power Sources (RPSs) power opens up new and exciting mission concepts (1) New trajectories available (2) Power for long term science and operations Astonishing science value associated with these previously non-viable missions

  6. Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Description and User’s Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Brenden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In 2014, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology Innovation initiated the Nuclear Energy (NE)–Infrastructure Management Project by tasking the Nuclear Science User Facilities, formerly the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility, to create a searchable and interactive database of all pertinent NE-supported and -related infrastructure. This database, known as the Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database (NEID), is used for analyses to establish needs, redundancies, efficiencies, distributions, etc., to best understand the utility of NE’s infrastructure and inform the content of infrastructure calls. The Nuclear Science User Facilities developed the database by utilizing data and policy direction from a variety of reports from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Research Council, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and various other federal and civilian resources. The NEID currently contains data on 802 research and development instruments housed in 377 facilities at 84 institutions in the United States and abroad. The effort to maintain and expand the database is ongoing. Detailed information on many facilities must be gathered from associated institutions and added to complete the database. The data must be validated and kept current to capture facility and instrumentation status as well as to cover new acquisitions and retirements. This document provides a short tutorial on the navigation of the NEID web portal at NSUF-Infrastructure.INL.gov.

  7. Survey of Environmental Issues in the Civilian Aviation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The civilian aviation industry is increasingly being required to comply with the myriad environmental laws currently in force. To gain a better understanding of the types of environmental issues that are being dealt with in the industry, a survey of ...

  8. Civilian Industry Human Resource Transformation: What Can We Leverage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    .... In order to become a more efficient and effective organization and meet the needs of the Army of the future, can we in the human resource profession learn from the transformation efforts of the civilian industry...

  9. Using Deliberate Practice to Train Military-Civilian Interagency Coordination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaubien, Jeffrey M; Shadrick, Scott B; Paley, Michael J; Badugu, Sibyl; Ennis Jr., Charles W; Jacklin, Steve

    2006-01-01

    ...) to relieve suffering and help local authorities respond to crises. To be successful during SASOs, Army officers must effectively interact with their counterparts from other military, civilian, and non-profit organizations...

  10. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  11. 2014 Center for Army Leadership Annual Survey of Army Leadership (CASAL): Army Civilian Leader Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Course ( SDC ) while only half (53%) have participated in other CES courses. More than half of civilian leaders (59%) rate institutional courses as...via distributed learning (DL). The Supervisor Development Course ( SDC ) is viewed as relevant to the current duties of civilian and uniformed...of Army Civilian Leader Development. Supervisor Development Course The Supervisor Development Course ( SDC ) provides military and civilian

  12. Reacting to Conflict: Civilian Capabilities in the EU, UN and OSCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hylke; Petrov, Petar; Mahr, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses how the EU, UN and OSCE make resources available for civilian missions. It starts with an overview of civilian missions around the world before comparing civilian planning and conduct procedures in these international organisations. The report zooms in on EU civilian

  13. Replacing Military Personnel in Support Positions With Civilian Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    person costs of military and civil - ian employees, CBO estimated the federal government’s liabilities , including current and expected future costs of...Personnel in Commercial Positions With Civilian Personnel 18 CBO’s Approach to Estimating Savings: Current and Future Liabilities 19 BOX 3. WHY THE...sector so that, in principle , those same positions could be filled by civilian employees. To cut costs, DoD could transfer some of those positions to

  14. DoD Program for Stability of Civilian Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    for allied students ; and provides techimfal training for Air Force civilian aployees. Prepare LEAF extension courses, caeer developent course, LEAF and...MISSION: To provide students with such instruction in supply duties ashore and afloat so as to qualify them to perform with credit to themselves and...Care Sciences career fields to Air Force and other defense military, civilian, and allied students . Undergraduate pilot training program is conducted

  15. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  16. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  17. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: Nuclear Waste, Unit 1. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 1 of the four-part series Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to help students establish the relevance of the topic of nuclear waste to their everyday lives and activities. Particular attention is…

  18. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Nuclear disarmament after the cold war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    Now that the cold war is long over, our thinking of nuclear weapons and the role that they play in international security has undergone serious changes. The emphasis has shifted from superpower confrontation to nuclear proliferation, spread of weapon materials, and to the dangers of countries developing nuclear weapon capability under a cover of a civilian program. At the same time, the old cold-war dangers, while receded, have not disappeared completely. The United States and Russia keep maintaining thousands of nuclear weapons in their arsenals, some of them in very high degree of readiness. This situation presents a serious challenge that the international community has to deal with. Although Russia and the United States are taking some steps to reduce their nuclear arsenals, the traditional arms control process has stalled -- the last treaty that was signed in 2002 does not place serious limits on strategic forces of either side. The START Treaty, which provides a framework for verification and transparency in reduction of nuclear arsenals, will expire at the end of 2009. Little effort has been undertaken to extend the treaty or renegotiate it. Moreover, in recent years Russia has stepped up the efforts to modernize its strategic nuclear forces. The United States has resisted joining the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and has been working on controversial new nuclear weapon development programs. The U.S. missile defense program makes the dialogue between Russia and the United States even more difficult. The reluctance of Russia and the United States to engage in a discussion about drastic reductions of their nuclear forces undermines the case of nuclear nonproliferation and seriously complicated their effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapon technologies and expertise. One of the reasons for the current lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is the contradiction between the diminished role that nuclear weapons play in security of nuclear weapon

  19. Addressing Imbalances in US Nuclear Economic and Nonproliferation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Duchene

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign civilian nuclear start-ups have an increasing number of international partners capable of supplying fuel cycle technologies. The desire to prevent the spread of dual-use enrichment and reprocessing technology by asking partner states to rely on international fuel markets is a major obstacle for US negotiating civilian nuclear trade agreements, leading to delays. US participation in emerging nuclear markets is being undercut by foreign competition, leading to decreasing economic competition and influence in international nonproliferation issues. It is therefore necessary for the US to reinvest and complete its domestic nuclear fuel cycle and modify its process for implementing civilian nuclear cooperation agreements with other states. By reducing delays in negotiations, having a larger stake in the uranium fuel supply provided to international markets, and outlining a clear waste policy, Washington will advance both its economic and nonproliferation goals.

  20. 75 FR 43518 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces... alternatives for the storage, processing, and disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel and nuclear...

  1. 75 FR 53686 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Doc No: 2010-21867] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of... alternatives for the storage, processing, and disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel and nuclear...

  2. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  3. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  4. Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Fitness and Suitability Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Brenden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology Innovation (NE-4) initiated the Nuclear Energy-Infrastructure Management Project by tasking the Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) to create a searchable and interactive database of all pertinent NE supported or related infrastructure. This database will be used for analyses to establish needs, redundancies, efficiencies, distributions, etc. in order to best understand the utility of NE’s infrastructure and inform the content of the infrastructure calls. The NSUF developed the database by utilizing data and policy direction from a wide variety of reports from the Department of Energy, the National Research Council, the International Atomic Energy Agency and various other federal and civilian resources. The NEID contains data on 802 R&D instruments housed in 377 facilities at 84 institutions in the US and abroad. A Database Review Panel (DRP) was formed to review and provide advice on the development, implementation and utilization of the NEID. The panel is comprised of five members with expertise in nuclear energy-associated research. It was intended that they represent the major constituencies associated with nuclear energy research: academia, industry, research reactor, national laboratory, and Department of Energy program management. The Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Review Panel concludes that the NSUF has succeeded in creating a capability and infrastructure database that identifies and documents the major nuclear energy research and development capabilities across the DOE complex. The effort to maintain and expand the database will be ongoing. Detailed information on many facilities must be gathered from associated institutions added to complete the database. The data must be validated and kept current to capture facility and instrumentation status as well as to cover new acquisitions and retirements.

  5. Replacing Military Personnel in Some Support Positions With Federal Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-03

    Principal Analyst, National Security Division Replacing  Military   Personnel  in Some  Support Positions With Federal Civilians This presentation contains...data from and includes other information published in CBO’s Replacing  Military   Personnel  in  Support Positions With Civilian Employees, www.cbo.gov...2CONGRESS IONAL  BUDGET  OFFICE Transferring to civilians certain jobs  currently held by  military   personnel  could  reduce costs and increase DoD’s focus

  6. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylou Noble

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians, and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.

  7. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, Howard; Noble, Marylou

    2009-03-01

    Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians), and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.

  8. Civilian Agency Industry Working Group EVM World Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Jerald

    2013-01-01

    Objectives include: Promote the use of standards ]based, objective, and quantitative systems for managing projects and programs in the federal government. Understand how civilian agencies in general, manage their projects and programs. Project management survey expected to go out soon to civilian agencies. Describe how EVM and other best practices can be applied by the government to better manage its project and programs irrespective of whether work is contracted out or the types of contracts employed. Develop model policies aimed at project and program managers that are transportable across the government.

  9. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  10. Review of military and civilian trauma registries : Does consensus matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Thijs T C F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357301714; de Graaf, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413649393; Huizinga, Eelco P; Champion, Howard R; Hoencamp, Rigo; Leenen, Luke P H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071390596

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Structural collection of data from combat injuries is important to improve provided care and the outcome of (combat) casualties. Trauma registries are used in civilian and military health care systems for systematic administration of injury data. However, these registries often use

  11. 78 FR 21826 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... providing support to Federal, State, Tribal, and local law enforcement agencies, including response to civil... may not provide civilian law enforcement agencies. b. Support During Civil Disturbances The President is authorized by the Constitution and laws of the United States to employ the Armed Forces of the...

  12. A Civilian/Military Trauma Institute: National Trauma Coordinating Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    civilian settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Trauma, ICU, education , research, training, analysis, practice, coagulation, transfusion 16. SECURITY...continues to exist between what experimental animal investigations have revealed and what has been shown clinically in humans. The ultimate...blood pressure, decrease blood loss and improve survival in animal models of lethal hemorrhage, clinical studies investigating vasopressin are limited

  13. EU Civilian Crisis Management : Law and Practice of Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    In the growing collection of literature on the EU’s governance credentials, security and defence activities of the Union remain under-represented. This thesis attempts to fill that void by shedding light on the law and practice of accountability in EU civilian crisis management. Unknown to many, the

  14. Civilian Social Work: Serving the Military and Veteran Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Laura; Illingworth, Maria; DuLaney, Megan

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses social work practice areas for civilian social workers who provide services to military service members, veterans, and their families. These practice areas include education, child welfare, domestic violence, mental health, health care, substance abuse, and criminal justice. The authors examine the impact of the contemporary…

  15. Spectrum of Gunshot Injuries in Civilian Practice at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... In civilian practice, guns are used for sports, games and aggression or defence from it1,2. ..... possession of firearms which include: defence, sports and games16. In some countries ownership of personal gun(s) is .... Nig J of Surg Sc. 2000;2:81–85. 4. Adisa AC, Agu A. Gunshot injuries in Aba. JOMIP 2008 ...

  16. Civilian Vascular Injuries in an Urban African Referral Institution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ojective: To evaluate the pattern of civilian vascular injuries, demonstrate any change in pattern and document management challenges in a resource challenged environment. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: The division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of University College Hospital a major referral centre, ...

  17. Massacre over civilians during the war in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnar, Alan; Stemberga, Valter; Cuculić, Drazen; Coklo, Miran; Cućić, Tamara; Dobi-Babić, Renata

    2005-12-01

    The 1991-1995 War for independence of Croatia was a cruel armed conflict, provoked by the conquering aspirations of the "Yugoslav Federal Army" under Serbian command and Serbian terrorists. It took place on the territory of the Republic of Croatia and gave rise to a mass destruction of civilian and sacral buildings and civilian massacres. Here we present three representative cases as an example of the massacre over civilians that happened in the vicinity of Vrhovine, in northwestern Croatia. Seven civilians were taken from their homes in the village of Dabar, exposed to unprecedented, savage torture and cruel execution. Forensic medicine experts revealed that victims were beaten with blunt objects, probably the butt end of rifles or high boots, stabbed with sharp objects as they were dying, and finally killed by gunshots. Their dead bodies were mutilated by cutting auricles and exposed to post-mortem humiliation. Events at Vrhovine have all the characteristics of crimes against humanity and inapprehensible breaches of the Geneva Convention at the very end of 20th century.

  18. Installation Management Command: Preparing Civilians for the Army of 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    within the Generating Force. In doing so, it faced the risk of death and bodily harm by volunteering to stand alongside war-fighters in the...more we...train and develop our talented Army civilians, the more responsibility and autonomy they will acquire.” A lack of leadership training is not

  19. Airway status in civilian maxillofacial gunshot Injuries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Airway management of the maxillofacial gunshot injury constitutes a critical decision and an area that requires review in the context of civilian injuries. Most of our knowledge is extrapolated from military experience, which constitutes a different trauma patient group. This paper reports a retrospective survey of ...

  20. A Comparative Study of Military and Civilian Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    is being cheated in the time spent with the partner. SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP " Sex is the first major adjustment that most newly married couples have to...13 LEISURE ACTIVITIES..........................16 SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP .......................17 CHILDREN AN-D PARENTING...................20 FAMILY...civilian and military couples were surveyed with Prepare, an instrument designed for premarital personal and relationship evaluation by Dr. David Olson. The

  1. Impact Of The Military And Civilian Governments Policies And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact Of The Military And Civilian Governments Policies And Practices On Factionalism In Selected Unions Under The Nigeria Labour Congress, Osun State, ... have approached this problem by analyzing only the endogenous factors affecting conflicts in trade unions, thus neglecting the influence of exogenous factors.

  2. Portrait view of STS 41-G crew in civilian clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Portrait view of STS 41-G crew in civilian clothes. Bottom row (l.-r.) Payload specialists Marc Garneau and Paul Scully-Power, crew commander Robert Crippen. Second row (l-.r-) Pilot Jon McBride, and Mission Specialists David Leestma and Sally Ride. At very top is Mission Specialist Kathryn Sullivan.

  3. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  4. Civilian Penetrating Gunshot Injury to the Neurocranium in Enugu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... Introduction: Civilian penetrating gunshot injuries to the neurocranium are no longer uncommon in Nigeria. Such injuries are however poorly reported. They are associated with poor outcome and, at close range, are frequently fatal, especially when inflicted by high‑velocity weapons. Prompt transfer to ...

  5. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-September 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    ONWI-200 is a bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, state and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, subcontractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document is divided into three parts. The first two list reports in sequence by their work breakdown structure. Part 1 lists salt-specific reports, and Part 2 lists generic reports. Part 3 presents the bibliographic data for the reports in Parts 1 and 2.

  6. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-March 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    ONWI-200 is a bibliography of approved reports produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the Department of Energy, state and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, subcontractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who have need for a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document is divided into three parts. The first two list reports in sequence by their work breakdown structure. Part 1 lists salt-specific reports, and Part 2 lists generic reports. Part 3 presents the bibliographic data for the reports in Parts 1 and 2.

  7. Job Enrichment Application to Civilian Engineers in Base Civil Engineering Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    produced civilian engi- neers who indicated relatively high MPS measurements. The BCE civilian engieners who least desired obtain- ing growth satisfaction...the potential recep- tion by these young, low GS level civilian engieners is positive. Research objective seven. Determine if the core job dimension

  8. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  9. Global comparison of warring groups in 2002-2007: fatalities from targeting civilians vs. fighting battles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002-2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI, defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1. 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67% refrained from targeting civilians. 2. Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3. In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4. When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most warring groups in 2002-2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal

  10. [War and medicine in a culture of peace. 4. Synopsis of nuclear weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E

    2002-02-01

    The nuclear weapons have a terrifying power of devastation. A civilian nuclear accident has its own dramatic consequences. Both situations are, however, totally distinct with regard to medical consequences. The Gulf war and Balkan war syndromes might be in part caused by uranium used in conventional amunitions. The risk of nuclear terrorism is an emerging eventuality.

  11. War and medicine in a culture of peace. 4. Synopsis of nuclear weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Pierard, Gérald

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear weapons have a terrifying power of devastation. A civilian nuclear accident has its own dramatic consequences. Both situations are, however, totally distinct with regard to medical consequences. The Gulf war and Balkan war syndromes might be in part caused by uranium used in conventional amunitions. The risk of nuclear terrorism is an emerging eventuality. Peer reviewed

  12. Maxillofacial Gunshot Injuries: A Comparison of Civilian and Military Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Carlo; Pirgousis, Phillip; Steinberg, Barry

    2016-04-01

    To compare military with civilian gunshot wounds (GSWs) in the maxillofacial region in order to establish differences in presentation, morbidity, and surgical management. A cross-sectional study design was used. The University of Florida at Jacksonville oral and maxillofacial surgery operating room census and hospital trauma registry were both reviewed to identify maxillofacial GSW cases from 2005 through 2011. Military GSW data (2005 through 2011) were obtained from the US Department of Defense (DOD). The predictor variables were civilian versus military GSW events. The outcome variables of interest included the region of the face involved, race, gender, death during admission, hospital length of stay, and number of days in the intensive care unit (ICU). Descriptive statistics were computed. The sample was divided into military maxillofacial GSWs (n = 412) and civilian maxillofacial GSWs (n = 287 treated of 2,478 presented). A significant difference was measured between study groups regarding the region of the face involved (P = .0451), gender (P ≤ .0001), and race (P ≤ .0001). No significant relationship was measured regarding deaths during admission (P = .6510) for either study group. No standard deviation values for hospital length of stay or number of ICU days were provided by the DOD. The mean hospital length of stay for the military group was within the 95% confidence interval of the civilian group findings (6.0-7.6). The mean number of ICU days for the military group was not within the civilian group's 95% confidence interval (1.9-2.9). These data showed important differences in anatomic location, gender, and race distribution of maxillofacial GSWs between military and civilian populations. Limited analysis of hospital length of stay and number of ICU days might indicate no meaningful difference in hospital length of stay, although there was a statistical difference in the number of ICU days between the 2 populations. Future research comparing

  13. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Civilian doctors in military clinics--outsourcing for better medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankner, Rachel; Rieck, Jonathan; Bentacur, Ariel G; Bar Dayan, Yaron; Shahar, Amir

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether outsourcing of medical consulting services could improve the quality of medical treatment in military primary care clinics. Data were collected prospectively over 2 months in two regular army clinics manned by ordinary army doctors and in two intervention clinics also staffed with senior civilian doctors. The causes for doctor visits, diagnoses, and other patient data were collected. Information was recorded from 4970 soldier visits in the four clinics. Although a prescription of rest days was similar in both types of clinics, the level of tertiary referrals was lower by one-third in the intervention clinics compared to the regular clinics. Surrogate markers for quality of care, such as increased use of planned follow-up and reduced antibiotic use, were significantly better in the intervention clinics, and so was overall patient satisfaction. Integration of specialist civilian physicians in the military primary care system is highly beneficial and provides better care and saves costs.

  15. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  16. Exploring the Complexities of Army Civilians and the Army Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    performance, correction of inadequate performance, and separation (termination) for failure to improve their performance or meet required standards...table of penalties for infractions—misconduct and failure of performance—consisting of a suggested range of punishments for each of the various...should take steps to overcome the biases and presuppositions from both groups. Further, Army leaders need to determine if civilians are part of the

  17. Audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiana Pacheco Falcão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to the noise exposure level. METHODS This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 3,130 male civilian pilots aged between 17 and 59 years. These pilots were subjected to audiometric examinations for obtaining or revalidating the functional capacity certificate in 2011. The degree of hearing loss was classified as normal, suspected noise-induced hearing loss, and no suspected hearing loss with other associated complications. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry was performed using supra-aural headphones and acoustic stimulus of the pure-tone type, containing tone thresholds of frequencies between 250 Hz and 6,000 Hz. The independent variables were professional categories, length of service, hours of flight, and right or left ear. The dependent variable was pilots with suspected noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure level was considered low/medium or high, and the latter involved periods > 5,000 flight hours and > 10 years of flight service. RESULTS A total of 29.3% pilots had suspected noise-induced hearing loss, which was bilateral in 12.8% and predominant in the left ear (23.7%. The number of pilots with suspected hearing loss increased as the noise exposure level increased. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss in civilian pilots may be associated with noise exposure during the period of service and hours of flight.

  18. Audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Taiana Pacheco; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to the noise exposure level. This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 3,130 male civilian pilots aged between 17 and 59 years. These pilots were subjected to audiometric examinations for obtaining or revalidating the functional capacity certificate in 2011. The degree of hearing loss was classified as normal, suspected noise-induced hearing loss, and no suspected hearing loss with other associated complications. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry was performed using supra-aural headphones and acoustic stimulus of the pure-tone type, containing tone thresholds of frequencies between 250 Hz and 6,000 Hz. The independent variables were professional categories, length of service, hours of flight, and right or left ear. The dependent variable was pilots with suspected noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure level was considered low/medium or high, and the latter involved periods > 5,000 flight hours and > 10 years of flight service. A total of 29.3% pilots had suspected noise-induced hearing loss, which was bilateral in 12.8% and predominant in the left ear (23.7%). The number of pilots with suspected hearing loss increased as the noise exposure level increased. Hearing loss in civilian pilots may be associated with noise exposure during the period of service and hours of flight.

  19. Epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Mehmood, Amber; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Sajjad Akbar; Akhtar, Umbreen; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian population of Pakistan. Information about suicide terrorism-related events, deaths and injuries was extracted from the South-Asian Terrorism Portal (SATP) for the period from 2002 to October 2009. Of 198 events, civilians were involved in 194 events. Civilians accounted for 74.1% (N = 2017) of those who died and 93.8% (N = 6129) of those who were injured. In nine districts, mortality rates were more than one death per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The yearly trend showed a shift of attack targets from foreigners and sectarian targets in 2002-2005 to security forces or general public in 2006-2009. Attacks on public installations (mosques) or political gatherings resulted in a significantly greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of deaths (22 vs. 8) and injuries (59 vs. 24) per event compared with security installations. These results show that prevention might focus on political negotiation with armed groups and that appropriate measures should be taken to protect mosques and political gatherings.

  20. The perils of proliferation: Organization theory, deterrence theory, and the spread of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, S.D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    What is missing in the literature on nuclear proliferation is an alternative theory of the consequences of nuclear proliferation; the effects of nuclear weapons on the likelihood of war. This article presents such an alternative, rooted in organizational theory, which leads to a more pessimistic assessment of the future prospects for peace. Professional military organizations display strong proclivities toward organizational behaviors that lead to deterrence failures. Such organizational proclivities can be effectively countered only by tight and sustained civilian control of the military. There are strong reasons to believe that future nuclear-armed states will lack such positive mechanisms of civilian control.

  1. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  2. TRIPLE ACTION PALATE EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yordanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  3. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2003-06-24

    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  4. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  5. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  6. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  7. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  8. A civilian perspective on ballistic trauma and gunshot injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pape Hans-Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound contamination and wounding potential of firearms and ammunition. Gunshot injuries in civilians have more focal injury patterns and should be considered distinct entities. Methods A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed. Results Craniocerebral gunshot injuries are often lethal, especially after suicide attempts. The treatment of non space consuming haematomas and the indications for invasive pressure measurement are controversial. Civilian gunshot injuries to the torso mostly intend to kill; however for those patients who do not die at the scene and are hemodynamically stable, insertion of a chest tube is usually the only required procedure for the majority of penetrating chest injuries. In penetrating abdominal injuries there is a trend towards non-operative care, provided that the patient is hemodynamically stable. Spinal gunshots can also often be treated without operation. Gunshot injuries of the extremities are rarely life-threatening but can be associated with severe morbidity. With the exception of craniocerebral, bowel, articular, or severe soft tissue injury, the use of antibiotics is controversial and may depend on the surgeon's preference. Conclusion The treatment strategy for patients with gunshot injuries to the torso mostly depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient. Whereas hemodynamically unstable patients require immediate operative measures like thoracotomy or laparotomy, hemodynamically stable patients might be treated with minor surgical procedures (e.g. chest tube or even conservatively.

  9. A civilian perspective on ballistic trauma and gunshot injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound contamination and wounding potential of firearms and ammunition. Gunshot injuries in civilians have more focal injury patterns and should be considered distinct entities. Methods A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed. Results Craniocerebral gunshot injuries are often lethal, especially after suicide attempts. The treatment of non space consuming haematomas and the indications for invasive pressure measurement are controversial. Civilian gunshot injuries to the torso mostly intend to kill; however for those patients who do not die at the scene and are hemodynamically stable, insertion of a chest tube is usually the only required procedure for the majority of penetrating chest injuries. In penetrating abdominal injuries there is a trend towards non-operative care, provided that the patient is hemodynamically stable. Spinal gunshots can also often be treated without operation. Gunshot injuries of the extremities are rarely life-threatening but can be associated with severe morbidity. With the exception of craniocerebral, bowel, articular, or severe soft tissue injury, the use of antibiotics is controversial and may depend on the surgeon's preference. Conclusion The treatment strategy for patients with gunshot injuries to the torso mostly depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient. Whereas hemodynamically unstable patients require immediate operative measures like thoracotomy or laparotomy, hemodynamically stable patients might be treated with minor surgical procedures (e.g. chest tube) or even conservatively. PMID:20565804

  10. Tourniquet use for peripheral vascular injuries in the civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Edward; Dingley, Brittany; Smith, Andrew; Engels, Paul T; Ball, Chad G; Faidi, Samir; Nathens, Avery; Tien, Homer

    2014-03-01

    Haemorrhage in peripheral vascular injuries may cause life-threatening exsanguination. Tourniquets are used extensively by the military, with increased interest in the civilian setting to prevent deaths. This is a retrospective study of trauma patients at two large Canadian trauma centres with arterial injury after isolated extremity trauma. We hypothesized that tourniquet use may decrease mortality rate and transfusion requirements if applied early. The study group was all adult patients at two Level 1 Trauma Centres in two Canadian cities in Canada, who had arterial injuries from extremity trauma. The study period was from January 2001 to December 2010. We excluded patients with significant associated injuries. The intervention in this study was prehospital tourniquet use. The main outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, compartment syndrome, amputation, and blood product transfusion. 190 patients were included in the study, and only 4 patients had a prehospital tourniquet applied. They arrived directly from the scene of injury, had improvised tourniquets by police or bystanders, and showed a trend to be more hypotensive and acidotic. Four other patients had tourniquets applied in the trauma bay within 1h of injury. There were no differences in age, sex, injury severity or physiologic presentation between patients who had an early tourniquet applied and those who died without a tourniquet. However, six patients died without a tourniquet, and all bled to death. Of the eight patients who had early tourniquets applied, none died. Tourniquets may prevent exsanguination in the civilian setting for patients suffering either blunt or penetrating trauma to the extremity. Future studies will help determine the utility of deploying tourniquets in the civilian setting, given the rarity of exsanguinating haemorrhage from isolated extremity trauma in this setting. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Civilian primary care prescribing psychologist in an army medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David S

    2012-12-01

    The present article discusses the integration of a civilian prescribing psychologist into a primary care clinic at Madigan Army Medical Center. A description of the role of the prescribing psychologist in this setting is provided. The author asserts that integrating prescribing psychology into primary care can improve patient access to skilled behavioral health services including psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment. Potential benefits to the primary care providers (PCPs) working in primary care clinics are discussed. The importance of collaboration between the prescribing psychologist and PCP is emphasized. Initial feedback indicates that integration of a prescribing psychologist into primary care has been well received in this setting.

  12. From Crisis to Reform: Peacekeeping Strategies for the Protection of Civilians in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arthur Boutellis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The latest cycle of violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC and the brief occupation of Goma by the “M23” rebels call for a re-examination of how UN peacekeepers have approached the physical protection of civilians in the DRC over the past 13 years. This article examines how lessons from early protection crises led the UN missions in the DRC to develop a series of innovative tools for a better peacekeeping response based on improved civil-military coordination and enhanced communication with the local population. It analyzes how the need to mitigate the negative impact of joint UN-Congolese military operations led to a progressive shift from a largely UN-centric and troop-intensive approach to physical protection to a greater focus on the Congolese security forces. As the UN peacekeeping understanding of the protection of civilians – and its concomitant bureaucracy – continues to expand, peacekeeping strategies should refocus on strengthening national protection capacities through security sector reform. This article concludes that the 2012 crisis in DRC could serve as a trigger for such a shift, aimed at building legitimate institutions and encouraging the host government to shoulder its primary responsibility to protect its citizens. The new Intervention Brigade together with the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC and the region could provide the broader political strategy on which to anchor this reform process.

  13. U.S. Civilian Space Policy Priorities: Reflections 50 Years After Sputnik

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-02

    mathematics education . Sputnik... mathematics education , international relations, and commercial space transportation. This report describes Sputnik and its influence on today’s U.S. civilian...postsecondary

  14. Civilian gunshot wounds of the hip and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiw, Mykola J; Sethi, Anil; Coniglione, Franco; Holland, Danny; Hoard, Daniel; Colen, Robert; Tyburski, James G; Vaidya, Rahul

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate orthopaedic injuries associated with civilian hip and pelvic gunshot wounds and their required surgical interventions. Retrospective chart review. Level I urban trauma center. From 1999 to 2008, there were 2808 cases of gunshot wounds that reported to our hospital. Twelve hundred thirty-five patients had an associated fracture that included 42 patients with fractures of the hip and pelvis. The average age of patients was 30.3 years (range, 19-54 years) and 40 of the 42 were male. Eighteen patients (43%) underwent emergency laparotomy for suspected visceral and vascular injuries of which seven patients had a negative laporotomy. There were 18 ilium fractures, 10 hip fractures, nine acetabular fractures, seven pubic rami fractures, six sacral fractures, three sacroiliac joint injuries, and two ischial tuberosity fractures. Seven patients required orthopaedic surgical intervention, undergoing a total of 10 operative procedures. All fractures healed and there was no incidence of pelvic ring instability requiring surgical stabilization or chronic osteomyelitis. Nonorthopaedic injuries included 15 small/large bowel perforations (36%), seven vessel lacerations (17%), and two urogenital injuries (5%) that required surgery. Associated injuries included four patients with nerve damage that recovered partially. Pelvic fractures from civilian gunshot wounds often require emergent surgery for vascular, visceral, and urogenital injuries. Orthopaedic intervention is indicated for intra-articular pathology such as removal of projectiles or bone fragments and reconstruction of the hip and rarely the acetabulum. Pelvic instability and complications of orthopaedic injuries are uncommon. These injuries require a multidisciplinary approach in their management.

  15. Civilian exposure to chlorine gas: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govier, P; Coulson, J M

    2018-01-19

    Halogen pulmonary irritants (HPIs) are volatile liquids that directly damage the respiratory mucosa. Chlorine is readily available in large volumes as an industrial chemical and has a significant potential for accidental or deliberate release. We conducted a systematic review to determine the clinical features; treatment and long-term sequelae of civilian chlorine gas exposure. A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology. Medline; Ovid and Google Scholar databases were searched from 1966 to January 2017. A database of relevant papers was compiled and descriptive statistics used to summarise the data. Thirty-six papers describing 37 incidents involving 1566 individual acute exposers to chlorine gas were identified. The most common reported features were cough (29%), dyspnoea (22%), sore throat (16%), eye features (12%) and excessive sputum or haemoptysis (7%). Acute management included high-flow oxygen (32.8%); steroids (28.4%); bronchodilators (28.2%) and ventilation (2.3%). Nine deaths (0.6%) were reported. Follow-up data available in 60% of cases; full recovery was reported in 90% of cases where data was available. Acute chlorine gas exposure in civilian incidents presented with acute respiratory features and irritation of the eyes and throat. The development of pulmonary oedema or ARDS was relatively rare when compared to military experience in the First World War. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  17. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  18. 78 FR 36311 - Flag Recognition Benefit for Fallen Federal Civilian Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... June 17, 2013 Part II Office of Personnel Management 5 CFR Part 550 Flag Recognition Benefit for Fallen... 550 RIN 3206-AM58 Flag Recognition Benefit for Fallen Federal Civilian Employees AGENCY: Office of... benefit for fallen Federal civilian employees, and describe the eligibility requirements and procedures to...

  19. 2013 Center for Army Leadership Annual Survey of Army Leadership (CASAL): Army Civilian Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-30

    particularly courses offered entirely via distributed learning (DL). The Supervisor Development Course ( SDC ) is viewed as relevant to the current...assessed by the 2013 CASAL. 49 Supervisor Development Course The Supervisor Development Course ( SDC ) provides military and civilian supervisors and...managers of Army civilians the administration skills for management and basic supervision. The SDC is conducted via distributed learning (DL) and

  20. 2013 Center for Army Leadership Annual Survey of Army Leadership (CASAL): Army Civilian Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge and Self-Discipline. The lowest rated attributes are Total Fitness (physical, health, psychological, spiritual , behavioral and social...immediate superiors are strongly associated with positive ratings of their superior’s values, empathy , getting results and building trust. Civilian...living the Army Values, Getting Results and demonstrating Empathy explains a significant amount of variance in the level of trust civilian leader

  1. Military and Civilian L2 Instructors: Decoding Perceptions of U.S. Service Academy Cadets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zachary F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether cadets at a U.S. service academy perceived attitudinal differences toward their military and civilian L2 instructors along three variables: foreign language expertise, communicative anxiety, and relatability. Cadets' proficiency levels (divided by beginning and intermediate classes) and current instructor (civilian or…

  2. Are injuries from terror and war similar? A comparison study of civilians and soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Jaffe, Dena H

    2010-08-01

    To compare injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes from terror and war for civilians and soldiers. Injuries from terror and war are not necessarily comparable, especially among civilians and soldiers. For example, civilians have less direct exposure to conflict and are unprepared for injury, whereas soldiers are psychologically and physically prepared for combat on battlefields that are often far from trauma centers. Evidence-based studies distinguishing and characterizing differences in injuries according to conflict type and population group are lacking. A retrospective study was performed using hospitalization data from the Israel National Trauma Registry (10/2000-12/2006). Terror and war accounted for trauma hospitalizations among 1784 civilians and 802 soldiers. Most civilians (93%) were injured in terror and transferred to trauma centers by land, whereas soldiers were transferred by land and air. Critical injuries and injuries to multiple body regions were more likely in terror than war. Soldiers tended to present with less severe injuries from war than from terror. Rates of first admission to orthopedic surgery were greater for all casualties with the exception of civilians injured in terror who were equally likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit. In-hospital mortality was higher among terror (7%) than war (2%) casualties, and particularly among civilians. This study provides evidence that substantial differences exist in injury characteristics and hospital resources required to treat civilians and soldiers injured in terror and war. Hospital preparedness and management should focus on treating combat injuries that result from specific causes-terror or war.

  3. 32 CFR 705.36 - Government transportation of civilians for public affairs purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....36 Government transportation of civilians for public affairs purposes. (a) General policy. (1... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs), as appropriate. (8) Point to point transportation within... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government transportation of civilians for...

  4. HIV Infection among Civilian Applicants for Nigeria Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Itsifinus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: HIV/AIDS is a serious social pathology in public health, developmental and security problem since the productive and reproductive age group is mostly affected. This study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among civilian applicants enrolling into military services of Nigeria army where youth’s vulnerability to HIV infection is very high. METHOD: A periodic cross sectional study was carried out amongst the civilian applicants undergoing recruitment into the Nigeria Army between January-February and July-August 2005, to determine their HIV status. Samples were collected from the applicants after interview to collect their socio-demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 12 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 9260 samples collected, 204 (2.2% tested positive for HIV with the highest proportion (73.5% occurring in the 22-25yrs bracket. Infection was detected in both sexes. The mean age of the applicants was 22yrs, with age range of 18-30 yrs and sex ratio of 1:7 (M: F. Age sex-specificity shows aged between 21-24 years have the highest number of HIV-antibody positivity. CONCLUSION: Antibody-positive applicants were identified in all the regions of Nigeria and the prevalence suggests that the epidemiology of transmission is changing both quantitatively and qualitatively because HIV now occurs commonly among young adults in their teens and late 20s and the impact of HIV on the military has grave consequences on the stability of Nigeria. The adoption of routine screening of applicants at point of recruitment, serving and retiring from the military can also be a source of data for understanding the epidemiology of this disease among the civilian and the military but in as HIV counseling and testing is an important continuum of the disease prevention and treatment, there is need to review Nigerian Army HIV and AIDS policy. [TAF Prev Med

  5. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  6. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  7. Community Resilience of Civilians at War: A New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul

    2016-01-01

    A new concept of community resilience pertaining to the community's post adversity strength to vulnerability ratio was associated with five determinants: individual resilience, national resilience, well-being, community size, and sense of coherence. The data was collected four months after Israel's war in the Gaza Strip in 2014. Participants were 251 adult civilians living in southern Israel who have recently been threatened by massive missile attacks, and 259 adults living in northern Israel, which has not been under missile fire recently. The investigated variables predicted community resilience, and their effects were mediated by sense of coherence. Results which were similar for both samples were discussed in terms of the nature of resilience and in terms of proximal and distal exposure to war.

  8. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  9. OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) System Engineering Management Plant (SEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement a program for the safe and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To achieve this objective, the OCRWM is developing an integrated waste-management system consisting of three elements: the transportation system, the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, and the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS). The development of such a system requires management of many diverse disciplines that are involved in research, siting, design, licensing, and external interactions. The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe how the systems-engineering process will be implemented in the development of the waste-management system. Systems engineering will be used by the OCRWM to manage, integrate, and document all aspects of the technical development of the waste-management system and its system elements to ensure that the requirements of the waste-management program are met. It will be applied to all technical activities of the OCRWM program. It will be used by the OCRWM (1) to specify the sequence of technical activities necessary to define the requirements the waste-management system must satisfy, (2) to develop the waste-management system, can be optimized to most effectively satisfy the requirements. Furthermore, systems engineering will be used in the management of Program activities at the program, program-element, and project levels by specifying procedures, studies, reviews, and documentation requirements. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Practical nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Gemmell, Howard G; Sharp, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in patient care, and this book is an essential guide for all practitioners to the many techniques that inform clinical management. The first part covers the scientific basis of nuclear medicine, the rest of the book deals with clinical applications. Diagnostic imaging has an increasingly important role in patient management and, despite advances in other modalities (functional MRI and spiral CT), nuclear medicine continues to make its unique contribution by its ability to demonstrate physiological function. This book is also expanded by covering areas of d

  11. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  12. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Toshinsky; Vladimir Petrochenko

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing...

  13. civilian vascular injuries in an urban african referral institution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-12

    unexplained by other injuries), and/or non- expanding .... sustained. The patient that initially discharged against medical advice and represented 30 days after died of septic shock. Fifty percent of the patients stayed less than ten ...

  14. 75 FR 19877 - Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Aviation Regulation No. 100- 2] RIN 2120-AJ54 Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are... from U.S. military and civilian personnel (U.S. personnel) who are assigned outside the United States... for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in Support of U.S...

  15. 75 FR 9763 - Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Aviation Regulation No. 100-2] RIN 2120-AJ54 Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are... renewals from U.S. military and civilian personnel (U.S. personnel) who are assigned outside the United... activities that have resulted in overseas assignments for both military and civilian personnel. Because of...

  16. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  17. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1992. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. Information is presented on five parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export and Critical Assembly.

  18. The Best of Both Worlds: Psychiatry Training at Combined Civilian-Military Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Randon S; Hamaoka, Derrick A; Broderick, Pamela J; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2015-08-01

    Air Force psychiatry faces the task of training competent military psychiatrists in an era of continuing reductions. Beginning in the 1980s, the Air Force started collaborating with University partners to create hybrid training programs, civilian-military psychiatry residencies. These mergers provide stability for Air Force psychiatry training in the face of increased operational missions and uncertain military recruiting. As a result of these combined programs, Air Force psychiatry residents gain access to a broader range of civilian clinical experience and expertise while maintaining a focus on distinctive military requirements. The combining of programs opens up options for academic activities which may not have otherwise existed. Both military and civilian residents benefit from the occupational psychiatry experiences available within military clinical sites. These programs give civilian residents a chance to assist active duty members and their families and provide insight into the military "lifecycle." These collaborations benefit the universities by providing access to a larger pool of residents and faculty. The synthesis of the military and civilian programs raises some ongoing obstacles such as civilian residents' ability to gain access to military resources. The programs must also accommodate separate mechanisms for selecting residents (the National Residency Matching Program versus the Joint Selection Board for Graduate Medical Education). Military residents must also comply with military standards and requirements while maintaining the universities' standards of conduct and professionalism. Merging military training programs into university programs creates a vibrant opportunity to create exceptional military and civilian psychiatrists.

  19. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  20. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-03-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  1. Civilian stressors associated with alcohol use disorders in the National Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Cohen, Greg H; Calabrese, Joseph R; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol use disorders are a serious public health concern among soldiers. Although deployment-related exposures have been linked with alcohol use disorders in soldiers, less is understood about the link between modifiable, civilian stressors and post-deployment alcohol use disorders. To (1) compare the influence of civilian stressors and deployment-related traumatic events and stressors on post-deployment alcohol use disorders among Army National Guardsmen primarily deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq; and (2) evaluate whether civilian stressors influence a different set of alcohol use disorder phenotypes than deployment-related traumatic events and stressors. A cohort of Ohio National Guard soldiers was recruited in 2008-2009 and interviewed three times over 3 years. The analytic sample included Ohio National Guard soldiers who had been deployed by 2008-2009, had participated in at least one follow-up wave, had reported consuming at least one alcoholic drink in their lifetime, and had non-missing data on alcohol use disorders (n=1,095). Analyses were conducted in 2013. In a model including measures of civilian stressors and deployment-related traumatic events, only civilian stressors (OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.46, 2.94) were associated with subsequent alcohol use disorder. The effects of civilian stressors were only present among people with no history of alcohol use disorder. Independent of deployment-related exposures, post-deployment civilian stressors are associated with the onset of alcohol use disorder among reserve-component soldiers. Concerted investment to address daily civilian difficulties associated with reintegration into civilian life may be needed to prevent new cases of alcohol use disorders among returning military personnel. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MoEDAL expands

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The MoEDAL collaboration deployed a test array of 18 plastic Nuclear Track Etch Detector (NTD) stacks – covering an area of 1 m2 – in the MoEDAL/VELO cavern at Point 8 of the LHC ring in November 2009. This small array was supplemented by a further 110 stacks this past January. The MoEDAL test array, which now covers an area of 8 m2, will reveal its secrets early in 2013. The full MoEDAL detector will be installed in the next long shutdown of the LHC in 2013.   View of the MoEDAL detectors installed at Point 8 of the LHC ring in January 2011. MoEDAL (Monopole and Exotics Detector At the LHC), the seventh LHC experiment, was approved by the CERN Research Board at the end of 2009. Its goal is to search for very specific exotics such as highly ionising massive stable (or pseudo-stable) particles with conventional electrical charge and magnetic monopoles. “The main LHC experiments are designed to detect conventionally charged particles, with conventional ionisation patte...

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal

  4. 9/11/01 national emergency: implications for military nurse reservists and civilian health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Diana G; Wolfe, Elisabeth S

    2002-01-01

    Following the attack of September 11, 2001, as senior leaders in the reserves, we had to shift our focus from everyday civilian issues to our duties and responsibilities as military officers. These events led to an examination of the implications for civilian organizations of nurses serving as military reservists. In this article we address the personal and civilian employer impact of military reserve service during a national emergency and policy implications for administrators. Recommendations for preparing for organizational loss of reservists in key administrative and leadership positions and providing support for reservists while implementing a plan for a potential reserve call-up are suggested.

  5. Child sexual abuse and adulthood sexual assault among military veteran and civilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica R; Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E; Polusny, Melissa A

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adulthood sexual victimization (ASV), and adulthood sexual assault experiences in a comparison sample of female military veterans (n = 142) and civilian community members (n = 81). Women veterans were significantly more likely than civilian women to report adult sexual assault. Although comparable rates of CSA and ASV were found across groups, veterans more frequently reported having been sexually abused by a parental figure, reported longer durations of CSA, and significantly greater severity of ASV than civilians. Implications for mental health professionals providing sexual trauma services to female military personnel and veterans are discussed.

  6. The history of nuclear fear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, S.

    1993-04-01

    The history of military and civilian nuclear energy is not only a matter of hard technology, politics, and economics. Our thinking about bombs and reactors is also affected by images with a curious and sometimes overwhelming power. Weird rays that can transform flesh or create monsters, the atom-powered marvels of a future uptopia, the mad scientist who plots to destroy the world: all have an influence on the way people think. Already decades before scientists had discovered how to exploit nuclear energy, a web of interconnected symbols was fully formed in the public mind. These images can be traced back to primitive imagery and, still deeper, into common human experiences, but they were often connected specifically to nuclear energy by nuclear scientists themselves. After the actual development of nuclear technology, a variety of groups used the old symbolism for their propaganda. Since nuclear energy was the most impressive case of the application of the arcane mysteries of science by modern technological authorities, it came to stand for all that people hoped, and still more what they feared, from such authorities.

  7. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  8. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  9. A series of civilian fatalities during the war in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karaarslan, Bekir; Demirkıran, Dua Sümeyra; Zeren, Cem; Arslan, Muhammet Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    A considerable number of deaths due to firearm injuries have occurred during wars all over the world. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate demographic characteristics and injury properties of cases died during civil war in Syria. The postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 321 forensic deaths occurred between January and December 2012 were analyzed, retrospectively. Of the 321 forensic deaths,186 cases were injured and died in the civil war in Syria and, therefore, included in the scope of the study. Four cases died by natural causes or traffic accidents were excluded. Cases were most commonly (n=73, 39.2%) aged between 21 and 30 years, and 21.5% (n=40) of cases aged under 20 years. Of females, 68.8% (n=11) were children and young adults under 20 years of age. An overwhelming majority of deaths (n=125, 67.2%) were caused by explosive and shrapnel injuries, followed by (n=49, 26.3%) gunshot injuries related deaths. This study indicated that a significant proportion of those who died after being injured in the Syrian war were children, women and elderly people. The nature and localization of the observed injuries indicated open attacks by military forces regardless of targets being civilians and human rights violations.

  10. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  11. The development of the nation's oldest operating civilian hospital-sponsored aeromedical helicopter service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F

    1988-06-01

    The Vietnam War heightened civilian awareness as to the use of helicopters for medical evacuations. This led to the initiation of federally funded projects aimed at determining whether helicopters were practical for civilian aeromedical transports. In 1972, a Department of Transportation (DOT) summary concluded that helicopters for civilian medical transports were largely economically prohibitive and provided limited medical benefits in limited locales. Despite this report, in 1972 St. Anthony Hospital initiated a hospital-based emergency medical helicopter service (HEMS). This paper provides a historical review of the individuals and events responsible for the early success of the nation's longest operating civilian hospital-sponsored helicopter service. The author concludes that the early success of this program was due in part to the selection of an affordable, high altitude, helicopter; rapid response times to the scene of injury; the development of excellent EMS communications systems; the use of specialty trained flight crewmembers; and integration of HEMS into the existing EMS system.

  12. What Happened at No Gun Ri?: The Challenge of Civilians on the Battlefield

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehl, Dale

    2003-01-01

    .... This story prompted an investigation by the Department of the Army Inspector General that found evidence of war crimes inconclusive, but acknowledged that Americans killed Korean civilians in the vicinity of No Gun Ri...

  13. The use of force to protect civilians and humanitarian action: the case of Libya and beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruno Pommier

    2011-01-01

    .... Authorized by the international community as part of military operations in Libya, the use of force in protecting civilians has revived the concept of 'humanitarian war' and has raised a number...

  14. A Code of Ethics for Army Civilians - The Time is Now

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viall, Maureen

    1997-01-01

    ... and new work flexibilities will require a determination to adhere to the highest right. Army civilians are the only service component employees currently evaluated on key institutional values on their annual appraisals...

  15. Identification of Abuse and Health Consequences for Military and Civilian Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence and health consequences in civilian and active duty military women in the same geographic area using telephone survey and a case...

  16. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (CHAMPVA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (CHAMPVA) is a health care benefit program designed for the dependents of certain Veterans....

  17. The effect of graduate education on the job performance of civilian departments of defense employees

    OpenAIRE

    Usan, Abdullah.; Utoglu, Mustafa.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effects of graduate education on the job performance of Department of Defense (DoD) civilian employees. The data used in this thesis were drawn from the Department of Defense Civilian Personnel Data File, which was provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center. The raw data were restricted to employees who possess at least a Bachelor's degree and are paid under General Schedule (GS) or General Management (GM) pay systems. Four performance measur...

  18. Comparing the surgical timelines of military and civilians traumatic lower limb amputations

    OpenAIRE

    Staruch, R. M. T.; Jackson, P. C.; Hodson, J.; Yim, G.; Foster, M. A.; Cubison, T.; Jeffery, S.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    The care and challenges of injured service have been well documented in the literature from a variety of specialities. The aim of this study was to analyse the surgical timelines of military and civilian traumatic amputees and compare the surgical and resuscitative interventions. A retrospective review of patient notes was undertaken. Military patients were identified from the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) in 2009. Civilian patients were identified using the hospital informatics ...

  19. Beyond Military Service: An Analysis of United States Naval Academy Graduates’ Civilian Career Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    salary model estimates a 30 percent wage gap for females. This gap is comparable to the gender gap for continuously civilian peers who earn an average...significantly greater salary in the long run. The Selective Reserves suffered a wage penalty. The gender wage gap persists in this group of graduates and is...graduates experienced a similar gender gap in wages as their female peers. Some civilian career preparation activities returned higher salary for the

  20. Improvements Could Be Made in Reconciling Other Defense Organizations Civilian Pay to the General Ledger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    cannot accept the /Signed/ symbol in place of the actual signature. We appreciate the courtesies extended to the staff. Please direct questions to me at...basis for the graphic representation of a process map. • Process map: { uses a flowchart of a process, depicting inputs, activities, and output...organizational charts; • civilian pay flowcharts ; • SOPs for reconciling civilian pay; and • Mission Work Agreements with DCMA and MDA. We reviewed

  1. Who kills whom? The micro-dynamics of civilian targeting in civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Madhav; Quinn, Jason Michael

    2017-03-01

    Prior research on civilian targeting in civil war has focused on characteristics of either the government or rebel group that make them more or less likely to target civilians. However, no government or rebel group targets a population, but rather individuals within it. To date, no study has explored the issue of why particular civilians would be chosen by one actor versus the other. This study examines the divergent civilian-targeting strategies of governments and rebel groups. We argue that unique identification problems facing each political actor in civil war leads the parties to resort to social stereotypes based on data derived from known enemy subjects killed in combat. We specify and then test a model that accounts for time and space and the demographic characteristics of each victim utilizing a new dataset on the personal, political, and demographic characteristics of individual civilians targeted by the state and rebels in the civil war in Nepal (1996-2006). The findings demonstrate for the first time that governments (and rebels) tend to kill the same types of individuals in non-combat settings as they kill in combat exchanges, and the civilians targeted by each actor differ significantly in the extent that they share certain social traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  3. Nuclear Power and the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-01-01

    Increasing concern is being expressed about the environmental effects of electrical generating plants, both conventional and nuclear. The AEC has prepared this booklet to discuss for nuclear power plants those matters that appear to be the basis for this concern, and, in the process, hopefully to put them into better perspective. This report concentrates on a discussion of the radiological and thermal aspects of the environmental effects of nuclear power plants; on the procedures followed by the AEC to minimize the impact of nuclear plants on man and his environment; and on the research conducted by the AEC and others to further expand our knowledge.

  4. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Powsner, Rachel A; Powsner, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Fu

  5. Civilian and military missions SP-100 preliminary user requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-29

    This document defines the top level requirements of potential users of a space based nuclear electric power supply. This provides the SP-100 Project and information required to design the modular (10-1000 KWe) space power systems to meet the needs of most potential users.

  6. An Analysis of the effect of graduate education on the job performance of federal (DoD) civilian employees

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Guner.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between graduate education and the job performance of DoD civilian employees. The thesis focuses on selected job performance measures for all civilian DoD personnel employed between 1986 and 1999, except for those in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and direct and indirect hire civilian employees outside the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The Defense Manpower...

  7. Enhancing laboratory activities in nuclear medicine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Vesper; Martin, Chris; Schmitz, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Hands-on or active learning is important in nuclear medicine education. As more curricula start to require greater standards and as distance education expands, the effective use of laboratories in nuclear medicine education remains important in physics, instrumentation, and imaging but is often overlooked or underutilized. Laboratory exercises are a unique opportunity for nuclear medicine educators to facilitate students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a manner that often cannot occur in lectures or during online education. Given the lack of current laboratory tools and publications, there exists a requirement for nuclear medicine educators to develop, enhance, and monitor educational tools for laboratory exercises. Expanding technologies, variations in imaging and measurement systems, and the need to ensure that the taught technology is relevant to nuclear medicine students are issues faced by nuclear medicine educators. This article, based on principles of instructional design, focuses on the components and development of effective and enhanced nuclear medicine laboratories in our current educational environment.

  8. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    . It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...... as a guideline for evaluating game design thinking and for measuring solutions made in the development process. To strengthen our model of expanded design space, we will present examples from our game design courses.......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...

  9. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  10. The Credibility of America’s Extended Nuclear Deterrent: The Case of the Republic of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    developing civilian nuclear power as a hedge or using the threat of tipping as a political bargaining chip . Re- gardless, Turkey’s technical...textiles, footwear, leather goods, ceramics, glass, and railway cars as significant.18 Some of these goods, such as textiles, apparel, and

  11. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Waste Management System, Unit 4. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 4 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to explain how transportation, a geologic repository, and the multi-purpose canister will work together to provide short-term and long-term…

  12. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: Ionizing Radiation, Unit 2. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 2 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to convey factual information relevant to radioactivity and radiation and relate that information both to the personal lives of students…

  13. Flaws in the Concept of Nuclear Deterrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of nuclear deterrence is seriously flawed, and it violates the fundamental ethical principles of all major religions. Besides being morally unacceptable, nuclear weapons are also illegal according to a historic 1996 decision of the International Court of Justice, a ruling that reflects the opinion of the vast majority of the worldʼs peoples. Even a small nuclear war would be an ecological catastrophe, not only killing civilian populations indiscriminately in both belligerent and neutral countries, but also severely damaging global agriculture and making large areas of the earth permanently uninhabitable through radioactive contamination. The danger of accidental nuclear war continues to be very great today, and the danger of nuclear terrorism is increasing. In this perilous situation, it is necessary for the nuclear nations to acknowledge that the concept of deterrence has been a mistake, which is threatening the lives of all human beings as well as threatening devastation of the biosphere. Acknowledging that the policy of nuclear deterrence has been a grave error can reduce risk of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  14. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  15. Semantic integration of scientific publications and research data: proposal of model of expanded publication for the area of nuclear sciences; Integracao semantica de publicacoes cientificas e dados de pesquisa: proposta de modelo de publicacao ampliada para a area de ciencias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Luana Farias

    2014-07-01

    applied to the specificity of Nuclear Sciences. This was accomplished in two ways: through a literature review, for purposes of analysis and qualitative interpretation of the general concepts; and through the domain analysis approach that allowed empirically analyze the particular application area. As a final result was obtained a proposal of guidelines for a national policy for digital curation, and a model of scientific publication to the Nuclear Sciences area, in which the research data are linked to the academic publications by means of semantic relations systematized into taxonomy built for this purpose. Graphic models are used as a tool to represent and synthesize the resulting concepts. As a conclusion it is observed: changes in the scholarly communication cycle, the possibility of building a new scientific model as relevant standard to the practice of a more open and more collaborative science, and feasibility of incorporating the principles and theories of librarianship and Information Science for the organization of technical and scientific knowledge in the world of eScience. (author)

  16. Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K

    2010-01-01

    The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion.

  17. Cognitive Training Can Reduce Civilian Casualties in a Simulated Shooting Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Adam T; Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2015-08-01

    Shooting a firearm involves a complex series of cognitive abilities. For example, locating an item or a person of interest requires visual search, and firing the weapon (or withholding a trigger squeeze) involves response execution (or inhibition). The present study used a simulated shooting environment to establish a relationship between a particular cognitive ability and a critical shooting error-response inhibition and firing on civilians, respectively. Individual-difference measures demonstrated, perhaps counterintuitively, that simulated civilian casualties were not related to motor impulsivity (i.e., an itchy trigger finger) but rather to an individual's cognitive ability to withhold an already initiated response (i.e., an itchy brain). Furthermore, active-response-inhibition training reduced simulated civilian casualties, which revealed a causal relationship. This study therefore illustrates the potential of using cognitive training to possibly improve shooting performance, which might ultimately provide insight for military and law-enforcement personnel. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Adenoviruses isolated from civilian and military personnel in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Maria Carolina Maciel de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus are important pathogen primarily associated to respiratory infections of children and military personnel, even though it is also associated to cases of conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. We analyzed respiratory secretion collected from subjects with and without respiratory infection symptoms, being 181 civilians and 221 military subjects. The samples were inoculated in HEp-2 and/or A549 tissue cultures for viral isolation. Samples presenting cytopathogenic effect (CPE in any tissue culture were tested by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to confirm adenovirus isolation. The isolates confirmed as adenovirus were further analyzed by restriction endonuclease assay for determination of viral species. Three isolates were identified as specie A (two from civilian and one from military, one isolate from military was identified as specie C, and one isolate from civilian was identified as specie D. For two isolates the specie could not be identified.

  19. Educating nurses to care for military veterans in civilian hospitals: An integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Linda; Andrew, Sharon; Fossey, Matt

    2016-12-01

    In the UK, military veterans will receive care by civilian nurses in civilian hospitals. We propose that the nurses providing this care require an understanding of the unique experiences and specific health needs of veterans to deliver evidence-based care. To conduct an integrative review of published literature to explore how nursing programmes prepare nurses to care for the military veteran population in civilian hospitals. A systematic search was undertaken of a range of electronic databases, Google Scholar and hand searching of Military and Veteran health journals. Papers that focused on education of civilian nurses about veteran health and included primary research or description of practice-based innovations were included in the review. The search generated sixteen papers that were focused on nurse education in higher education institutions. Several papers focused on simulation as a teaching method for veteran-specific health issues or curriculum developments with educational innovations such as online courses. Six papers focusing in continuing professional education of nurses in the clinical setting were included as supplementary information. All papers reviewed were US focused and dated between January 2011 and September 2015. Our search concluded that there is a gap in knowledge in this subject area within a UK context, therefore our review includes UK background information to support the US findings. Civilian nurses need educational preparation to understand the specific needs of veterans. Educational institutions in the US have responded to nationwide initiatives to undertake that preparation. More empirical studies need to be undertaken to develop, test and evaluate educational innovations for preparing students and nurses delivering care to military veteran in civilian healthcare settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Military-to-civilian translation of battlefield innovations in operative trauma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H; Piper, Lydia C; Zogg, Cheryl K; Schneider, Eric B; Orman, Jean A; Butler, Frank K; Gerhardt, Robert T; Haut, Elliott R; Mather, Jacques P; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Schwartz, Diane A; Geyer, David W; DuBose, Joseph J; Rasmussen, Todd E; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2015-12-01

    Historic improvements in operative trauma care have been driven by war. It is unknown whether recent battlefield innovations stemming from conflicts in Iraq/Afghanistan will follow a similar trend. The objective of this study was to survey trauma medical directors (TMDs) at level 1-3 trauma centers across the United States and gauge the extent to which battlefield innovations have shaped civilian practice in 4 key domains of trauma care. Domains were determined by the use of a modified Delphi method based on multiple consultations with an expert physician/surgeon panel: (1) damage control resuscitation (DCR), (2) tourniquet use, (3) use of hemostatic agents, and (4) prehospital interventions, including intraosseous catheter access and needle thoracostomy. A corresponding 47-item electronic anonymous survey was developed/pilot tested before dissemination to all identifiable TMD at level 1-3 trauma centers across the US. A total of 245 TMDs, representing nearly 40% of trauma centers in the United States, completed and returned the survey. More than half (n = 127; 51.8%) were verified by the American College of Surgeons. TMDs reported high civilian use of DCR: 95.1% of trauma centers had implemented massive transfusion protocols and the majority (67.7%) tended toward 1:1:1 packed red blood cell/fresh-frozen plasma/platelets ratios. For the other 3, mixed adoption corresponded to expressed concerns regarding the extent of concomitant civilian research to support military research and experience. In centers in which policies reflecting battlefield innovations were in use, previous military experience frequently was acknowledged. This national survey of TMDs suggests that military data supporting DCR has altered civilian practice. Perceived relevance in other domains was less clear. Civilian academic efforts are needed to further research and enhance understandings that foster improved trauma surgeon awareness of military-to-civilian translation. Copyright © 2015

  1. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues; La production d'electricite d'origine nucleaire en France, dans le futur a long terme: Le cas des surgenerateurs: Les reacteurs nucleaires surgenerateurs: Les parametres physique et physico-chimiques, la thermodynamique associee des materiaux et de l'ingenierie mecanique: Nouveautes et options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R. [Academie des sciences, 23, quai de Conti, 75270 Paris cedex 06 (France)

    2011-06-15

    The author gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the fifties. Neutron transport theory, thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, heat exchanges...) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. However, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling and security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchangers) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the re-fabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. France was in the forefront of nuclear breeder power generation science, technological research and also in the knowledge base related to breeder reactors. It is in the country's interest to pursue these efforts. (author)

  2. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, affects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction.

  3. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  4. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  5. Medical assistance to civilians during peacekeeping operations: wielding the double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, M C

    Peacekeeping operations have become the main operational activity of the armed forces of the developed world over the past 10 years--a trend which appears likely to continue. Peacekeepers often remain deployed long after the armed conflict has ceased to help reconstruct civilian infrastructure. It is often possible to use the excess capacity of medical support units deployed with military forces to provide help to the local population. While this is appropriate immediately after a conflict when civilian clinics are overwhelmed, in the more prolonged reconstruction phase the seemingly simple clinical imperative to treat as many patients as possible becomes more complex.

  6. Protecting buildings from bomb damage: transfer of blast-effects mitigation technologies from military to civilian applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feasibility of Applying Blast-Mitigating Technolog

    1995-01-01

    ... to Civilian Applications Committee on Feasibility of Applying Blast-Mitigating Technologies and Design Methodologies from Military Facilities to Civilian Buildings Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995 Copyrightoriginal r...

  7. 20 CFR 1002.180 - When is an employee entitled to be reemployed by his or her civilian employer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is an employee entitled to be reemployed by his or her civilian employer? 1002.180 Section 1002.180 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE... Reemployment § 1002.180 When is an employee entitled to be reemployed by his or her civilian employer? The...

  8. Introduction to nuclear science, second edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bryan, Jeff C.

    2013-01-01

    This book was written to provide students who have limited backgrounds in the physical sciences and math with an accessible textbook on nuclear science. Expanding on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, Introduction to Nuclear Science, Second Edition provides a clear and complete introduction to nuclear chemistry and physics, from basic concepts to nuclear power and medical applications. Incorporating suggestions from professors using this book for their courses, the author has created a new text that is approximately 60 percent larger and more comprehensive and flexible than the first.New to This Edition: Thorough review of nuclear forensics, radiology, gamma cameras, and decay through proton or neutron emission More detailed explanations of the necessary mathematics A chapter on dosimetry of radiation fields Expanded discussion of applications, introduced earlier in the text More in-depth coverage of nuclear reactors, including a new chapter examining more reactor types, their safety systems,...

  9. Occurrence of hearing loss in a cohort of civilians employed at a US Navy industrial facility. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmkamp, J.C.; Bone, C.M.; Blood, C.G.; Kelley, J.B.; Seidman, J.H.

    1986-12-18

    Although hearing loss has been the focus of national surveys in the civilian population, these surveys typically do not include occupational exposure information. Furthermore, very few studies have addressed this problem in the military, particularly in industrial settings. Audiometric data, including hearing loss information, recorded and stored in the prototype application of the Navy's Occupational Health Information Management System (NOHIMS) has not been systematically evaluated to identify military and civilian populations that are at high risk for hearing loss. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in a cohort of Navy civilian workers employed at an industrialized facility. It is both appropriate and timely to look at hearing loss among civilian workers, as well as among the military, especially in relation to the recent Presidential initiative that established a government-wide five year goal of reducing civilian workplace injury/illness 3% per year.

  10. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  11. A Content Analysis of Army Newspapers Based in the Continental United States (CONUS) to Determine Editorial Differences Between Military and Civilian Editors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swiergosz, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A content analysis of four civilian enterprise Army newspapers published in the United States was conducted to determine if editorial differences in content and tone existed between military and civilian editors...

  12. Unity of Mission: Civilian-Military Teams in War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    chambers of commerce and business centers, these advisors engaged in a major telephone and e-mail campaign to apprise Iraqi business owners of commercial...of integrated machinery. . . . Colocation isn’t essential, but it bloody well helps.”24 When military and civilians are not colocated, or when, as

  13. Concept of developmental peace missions: implications for the military and civilians

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gueli, RJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available , it will demand the unity of effort of the diverse military and civilian actors involved in a mission. Thirdly, it will demand establishing dedicated institutions at the national, regional, and/or continental levels to improve coordination and planning among...

  14. Civilian Firearm and blast injuries of the Hand in Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 6 year review of 43 patients who sustained Civilian firearm and blast injuries of the hand at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital was done. Majority of patients seen were young males (93.1%). The firearm injuries occurred during armed robbery attacks (80.1%), while majority(82.7%) of the blast injuries followed ...

  15. Factors of Non-Persistence in Civilian Helicopter Flight Training: A Narrative Inquiry of Pilot Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Previous literature on retention of student helicopter pilots shows a gap in research of civilian schools and qualitative studies. To address this gap in the literature and to help helicopter flight schools better understand the incidents of attrition from flight training, this qualitative study investigated student and school-based factors…

  16. Moving forward with the responsibility to protect: using political inertia to protect civilians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rose, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    ... inertia of states to work for, rather than against, civilians. INTRODUCTION On March 19, 2011, U.S. warplanes targeted and destroyed military targets within Libya.1 President Barack Obama did not have Congressional approval for such actions.2 Instead, President Obama relied upon authorization from the United Nations Security Council and l...

  17. Protecting into Emotion: Therapeutic Enactments with Military Veterans Transitioning Back into Civilian Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfoura, Michael; Westwood, Marvin; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2014-01-01

    Over 18.5% of military personnel returning from war zones to civilian life suffer mental health issues, which can lead to family breakdown, homelessness and other problems. Almost 4000 Australian soldiers have returned home from active service in the last decade suffering from combat stress and mental health conditions. A 2009 Australian…

  18. Factors associated with civilian drivers involved in crashes with emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Christopher; Gerberich, Susan G; Manser, Michael P; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Becic, Ensar

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving civilian and emergency vehicles (EVs) have been a known problem that contributes to fatal and nonfatal injuries; however, characteristics associated with civilian drivers have not been examined adequately. This study used data from The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System to identify driver, roadway, environmental, and crash factors, and consequences for civilian drivers involved in fatal and nonfatal crashes with in-use and in-transport EVs. In general, drivers involved in emergency-civilian crashes (ECCs) were more often driving: straight through intersections (vs. same direction) of four-points or more (vs. not at intersection); where traffic signals were present (vs. no traffic control device); and at night (vs. midday). For nonfatal ECCs, drivers were more often driving: distracted (vs. not distracted); with vision obstructed by external objects (vs. no obstruction); on dark but lighted roads (vs. daylight); and in opposite directions (vs. same directions) of the EVs. Consequences included increased risk of injury (vs. no injury) and receiving traffic violations (vs. no violation). Fatal ECCs were associated with driving on urban roads (vs. rural), although these types of crashes were less likely to occur on dark roads (vs. daylight). The findings of this study suggest drivers may have difficulties in visually detecting EVs in different environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian Version in a Representative Military Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) and to establish the most accurate cutoff for prevalence estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative...

  20. War and Sacrifice in the Post-9/11 Era. The Military-Civilian Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul; Morin, Rich; Parker, Kim; Cohn, D'Vera; Funk, Cary; Mokrzycki, Mike

    2011-01-01

    As the United States marks the 10th anniversary of the longest period of sustained warfare in its history, the overwhelming majority of veterans of the post-9/11 era are proud of their military service. At the same time, many report that they have had difficulties readjusting to civilian life, and have suffered from post-traumatic stress. While…

  1. Experimental Civilian Personnel Office Project (EXPO): Final Report for Nonappropriated Fund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    trial, the degree to which they are used (Hall & Loucks, 1977), and the extent to which they conform to the concepts behind the changes ( Fullan ...Washington, DC: Atlanta Field Office, Civilian Personnel Evaluation Agency, Department of the Army. Fullan , M., & Pomfret, A. (1977). Research on

  2. Comparison of Penetrating Neck Injury Management in Combat Versus Civilian Trauma: A Review of 55 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Régloix, Stanislas Ballivet; Baumont, Leslie; Daniel, Yann; Maurin, Olga; Crambert, Anna; Pons, Yoann

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to describe a case series of penetrating neck injuries (PNIs) and compare their management in combat versus civilian trauma. From 2012 to 2014, all soldiers and civilians referred to Percy Military Training Hospital for PNI were analyzed. The mechanism of injury, type and site of the lesion, and initial emergency management were noted. Among the 55 patients, 26 were wounded in action, and 29 were civilians. PNIs were commonly stab wounds resulting from an assault. Anatomical zone II, as well as the central neck compartment, was the most affected area. The most affected organ was the larynx. 74% of patients underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA), surgical exploration was performed for 42% of patients, and 33% of patients required intensive care unit monitoring. The differences between the two groups in terms of management were not statistically significant. The current management is based on clinical examination and CTA and is similar between soldiers and civilians. Surgical exploration is less commonly used than CTA, which is a fast and accurate method to evaluate PNI for stable patients. The classification by compartment seems more relevant than the classification by anatomical zone, particularly in absence of medical imaging. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. The Law of Armed Conflict with Regard to the Protection of Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-13

    justice and equity. 󈧎 The principle of distinction had begun to take shape and was advanced by the Sp@nish Dominican Francisco de Vitoria who reasoned...determined by the bearing or non-bearing of arms. Vitoria argued that with regard to the peaceable civilian population, "all these are presumed innocent until

  4. Experiential Avoidance in Civilian War Survivors With Current Versus Recovered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Stangier, U.; Risch, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of experiential avoidance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following war-related stress. Eighty-four civilian war survivors were assigned to one of three PTSD groups — current PTSD, recovered PTSD and non-PTSD. Groups were subsequently compared in

  5. Art Therapy Services to Support Veterans' Transition to Civilian Life: The Studio and the Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Jennifer Marie

    2016-01-01

    Beyond having knowledge of the treatment of combat-related trauma, art therapists need to understand veterans' experiences of transition from military to civilian life in order to offer effective interventions. This article reviews the literature on veteran transition and the challenges common to transition difficulty and describes two major…

  6. An Analysis of the Effects of Military Service on Retirees’ Civilian Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Principal Advisor Carol Mitchell. Associzte Advisor .7 David ’R. Whipple . Chairman Department of Admiruistrative Sciences ABSTRACT Tfis thesis analvzcs...Rates of lAilitar, 1’eterans in the Era of tMe All.- Volunteer Force, studied two major questions. l- hey were: " flow do civilian earnings of veterans

  7. Immunity to Diphtheria and Tetanus in Army Personnel and Adult Civilians in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyyed Javad; Mohammadi, Babak; Rajabi, Jalil; Mohammadian Roshan, Ghasem

    2017-03-24

    This study aimed to investigate serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in army personnel and a sample population of adult civilians in Mashhad, Iran. Army personnel (n = 180) and civilians (n = 83) who presented at Mashhad army hospital participated in this study. Diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 77% and 94% of army personnel aged 18-34 years had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antitoxin level ≥0.1 IU/mL) and tetanus (antitoxin level >0.1 IU/mL), respectively. For civilians in this age group, the proportions were 76% for both diseases. Antitoxin levels waned with age. Thus, participants older than 50 years had lower immunity; this decrease in immunity was more pronounced for tetanus than for diphtheria in both army personnel and civilians. For both diseases, geometric mean antitoxin titers and the proportion of participants with at least basic protection were higher in subjects with a history of vaccination in the last 10 years (P diphtheria and tetanus. However, the large number of susceptible older adults (>50 years old) calls for improved booster vaccination protocols.

  8. The Shenyang Aircraft Company Reorganizes the Production of Products for Military-Civilian Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-11

    HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0459-91 11 September 1991 THE SHENYANG AIRCRAFT COMPANY REORGANIZES THE PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS FOR MILITARY-CIVILIAN USE...aircraft also 2 has radar and missile 4etection devices, as well as jamming emmission device systems. The windshield glass is capable of being heated. As a

  9. Civilian Personnel Administration in the Army: Deciding the Future of the Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-28

    Civilian Training, clearinghouse Education, and Development System (ACTEDS) -- Long-term training -- Personnel Proponent System -- Outplacement of...nonpersonal adverse actions such as RIF, outplacement ) -- Analysis of applicant qualifications -- Applicant assistance -- Delegation of direct hire...practice of hiring, promoting, and outplacing employees (Ulrich 1987, 174). Common staffing functions are listed in Table 2-2 below. Table 2-2. Staffing

  10. Analysis of Civilian Employee Attrition at the Naval Postgraduate School and Naval Support Activity - Monterey Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valverde, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    ...) and Naval Support Activity-Monterey Bay (NSA-MB) to determine what civilian non-faculty employee jobs are likely to be left vacant in the next three years due to attrition and to identify what training and skills will be needed by personnel whose...

  11. 75 FR 49913 - Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ..., determined that service of the group known as the ``''Honorably Discharged Members of The Gold Coast Native... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups SUMMARY: On...

  12. Suicidal or Self-Harming Ideation in Military Personnel Transitioning to Civilian Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Alyssa J.; Bender, Randall H.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Larson, Gerald E.

    2011-01-01

    Suicides have markedly increased among military personnel in recent years. We used path analysis to examine factors associated with suicidal/self-harming ideation among male Navy and Marine Corps personnel transitioning to civilian life. Roughly 7% of men (Sailors = 5.3%, Marines = 9.0%) reported ideation during the previous 30 days. Results…

  13. Comparing the surgical timelines of military and civilians traumatic lower limb amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.T. Staruch

    2016-03-01

    Despite this, their time to stump closure and length of stay were not statistically different compared to civilian patients. Such observations reflect the importance of an Orthoplastic approach, as well as daily surgical theatre co-ordination and weekly multi-disciplinary meetings in providing optimal care for these complex patients. This study reports the epidemiological observed differences between two lower limb trauma groups.

  14. Assessing What Factors Are Driving the Army Civilian Acquisition Multigenerational Workforce Age/Experience Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-06

    civilian workforce. To develop and sustain Army Force 2025, it is important that the Army hire, train, and retain a highly skill workforce to provide...conformity, patience • Satisfaction is a job well done • Being respected • Prefer job security over entrepreneurship — cautious • Unadventurous

  15. A CBO Paper: The Effects of Reserve Call-Ups on Civilian Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    civilian sector were self-employed or worked without pay in a family business as their pri- mary source of employment. Four percent were employed by...Government Local Government Self-Employed or Family Business Private Firm with More than 500 Employees Private Firm with 100 to 499 Employees Private Firm

  16. Information Technology Management: Defense Civilian Personnel Data System Functionality and User Satisfaction (D-2003-110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-27

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General June 27, 2003 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Defense...SUBTITLE Information Technology Management : Defense Civilian Personnel Data System Functionality and User Satisfaction (D-2003-110) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  17. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to Tehran, capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Fallahdoost, Shoaodin; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2012-01-01

    To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile). Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile). During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24%) were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8%) were male and 142 (44.2%) were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years+/-19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded areas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The presence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile attacks are necessary.

  18. Oil production and problems in Nigeria's Niger Delta: Military and civilian regimes' responses (1979--2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okereke, Ifeoma Christie

    This study examines the environmental and social problems caused by oil production in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It also determines how the military and civilian regimes respond to the problems. It critically discusses the environmental and social consequences of oil production in the region. The subjects include three military and two civilian regimes that ruled between 1979 and 2001. The study analyzes the overall nature and characteristics of the regimes along with their general roles in the governance of oil in Nigeria, the significance of oil to the country's political economy, and the issues of oil revenue allocation in the country. After analyzing how each regime responds to the problems in the Niger Delta region, it compares and contrasts the responses. Differences and similarities characterize the responses of the military and civilian regimes to the environmental and social problems in the Niger Delta region. However, the civilian regimes are slightly more sensitive than the military regimes to the problems in the region. While the similarities in response are attributable to the socioeconomic and political background and problems of Nigeria, the differences are linked to the basic differences in their political mandates and orientation. The issues and implications arising from the findings are critically analyzed leading to the exploration of the role of democracy in the developing countries. The study recommends political, socioeconomic, and environmental improvements of Nigeria generally as well as the Niger Delta region in particular. It also suggests areas of further studies.

  19. Advancing U.S. Strategic Communication through Greater Civilian-Military Coordination and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    WARFIGHTING SCHOOL ADVANCING U.S. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION THROUGH GREATER CIVILIAN-MILITARY COORDINATION AND INTERGRATION by Wendy A. Kolls U.S...Technology and Logistics , Defense Science Board, Task Force on Strategic Communication, January 2008. 3 E.g. the 2009 Pew Research Center Global

  20. Energy 83. Revised and Expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, John, Ed.

    Energy 80 is an energy education program for middle/junior high school students. This document is a booklet of energy topics designed for student use in the program. Topics considered in this booklet include: forms of energy; energy rules; solar energy; food energy; fossil fuels; coal; oil and gas production and consumption; nuclear fission;…

  1. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  2. Prevalence and severity of mental disorders in military personnel: a standardised comparison with civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, S; Goodwin, L; Höfler, M; Jacobi, F; Strehle, J; Zimmermann, P; Wittchen, H-U

    2017-04-01

    Provision and need for mental health services among military personnel are a major concern across nations. Two recent comparisons suggest higher rates of mental disorders in US and UK military personnel compared with civilians. However, these findings may not apply to other nations. Previous studies have focused on the overall effects of military service rather than the separate effects of military service and deployment. This study compared German military personnel with and without a history of deployment to sociodemographically matched civilians regarding prevalence and severity of 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. 1439 deployed soldiers (DS), 779 never deployed soldiers (NS) and 1023 civilians were assessed with an adapted version of the Munich Composite International Diagnostic interview across the same timeframe. Data were weighted using propensity score methodology to assure comparability of the three samples. Compared with adjusted civilians, the prevalence of any 12-month disorder was lower in NS (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.99) and did not differ in DS. Significant differences between military personnel and civilians regarding prevalence and severity of individual diagnoses were only apparent for alcohol (DS: OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6; NS: OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6) and nicotine dependence (DS: OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6; NS: OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.7) with lower values in both military samples. Elevated rates of panic/agoraphobia (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.3) and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.3-8.0) were observed in DS with high combat exposure compared with civilians. Rates and severity of mental disorders in the German military are comparable with civilians for internalising and lower for substance use disorders. A higher risk of some disorders is reduced to DS with high combat exposure. This finding has implications for mental health service provision and the need for targeted interventions. Differences to previous US and UK studies that

  3. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  4. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  5. The European Union in International Politics: Acting as a Global Civilian Power (GCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War the European Community lacking common military instruments was perceived as the example of a civilian power. However, in the early 1990s, under the framework of CFSP, the first concrete defence initiatives have been launched. By the end of the 1990s and after the agreement on the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP the first Rapid Reaction Forces were on the European military agenda. Such defence and military capabilities challenged the idea of the EU as a civil or civilian power. Thus, a main concern in the paper has been to assess the character and identity of the EU`s activities in the context of international relations. For this purpose, this study has explored the EU policy instruments such as the enlargement policy, external aid, environmental policy at the global level, multilateralism, and the EU armed forces. The study concludes that the enlargement policy accounts for an important EU strategy to shape the international environment through civilian means. Furthermore, the international aid policy of the EU states has primarily been based on the sense of duty to other countries as constructivists point out. The EU has also been vocal and has used environmental foreign policy as an instrument to demonstrate its global leadership role which is a clear indication of its commitment to global welfare. Thanks to its presence in the major multilateral interventions of the last decade, the EU has qualified itself as great supporter of multilateralism. Lastly, the EU military capabilities are not achieved by creating permanent European armed forces but are still based on the voluntary contributions of its member states. Therefore, the EU still can be portrayed as a global civilian power (GCP or civilian power Europe (CPE.

  6. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  7. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Development, Nuclear Power Plant, Uranium, Missiles, Space Firm Protested, Satellite, Rocket Launching, Nuclear Submarine, Environmental, Radioactivity, Nuclear Plant...

  8. Prehospital control of life-threatening truncal and junctional haemorrhage is the ultimate challenge in optimizing trauma care; a review of treatment options and their applicability in the civilian trauma setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostendorp, S E; Tan, E C T H; Geeraedts, L M G

    2016-09-13

    Exsanguination following trauma is potentially preventable. Extremity tourniquets have been successfully implemented in military and civilian prehospital care. Prehospital control of bleeding from the torso and junctional area's remains challenging but offers a great potential to improve survival rates. This review aims to provide an overview of potential treatment options in both clinical as preclinical state of research on truncal and junctional bleeding. Since many options have been developed for application in the military primarily, translation to the civilian situation is discussed. Medline (via Pubmed) and Embase were searched to identify known and potential prehospital treatment options. Search terms were|: haemorrhage/hemorrhage, exsanguination, junctional, truncal, intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, intervention, haemostasis/hemostasis, prehospital, en route, junctional tourniquet, REBOA, resuscitative thoracotomy, emergency thoracotomy, pelvic binder, pelvic sheet, circumferential. Treatment options were listed per anatomical site: axilla, groin, thorax, abdomen and pelvis Also, the available evidence was graded in (pre) clinical stadia of research. Identified treatment options were wound clamps, injectable haemostatic sponges, pelvic circumferential stabilizers, resuscitative thoracotomy, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), intra-abdominal gas insufflation, intra-abdominal self-expanding foam, junctional and truncal tourniquets. A total of 70 papers on these aforementioned options was retrieved. No clinical reports on injectable haemostatic sponges, intra-abdominal insufflation or self-expanding foam injections and one type of junctional tourniquets were available. Options to stop truncal and junctional traumatic haemorrhage in the prehospital arena are evolving and may offer a potentially great survival advantage. Because of differences in injury pattern, time to definitive care, different prehospital scenario's and level of

  9. Nuclear waste in the anthropocene. Uncertainties and unforeseeable timescales in the disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU); Goerg, Christoph [Klagenfurt Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Social Ecology

    2017-09-01

    From a scientific perspective, in particular following the Working Group on the Anthropocene of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (WGA-ISC), the major challenge for determining the Anthropocene and its start is the search for a ''golden spike''. The WGA-ISC agreed on nuclear fallout from disasters. For a full understanding of the Anthropocene, it however seems necessary to go further than that. We obtain a much broader understanding of the challenges that the new era represents for humanity if we take into account the so-called civilian use of nuclear energy and in particular the challenges posed by nuclear waste - long timescales and scientific uncertainties.

  10. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part B focuses on the ways in which experimental data may be analyzed to furnish information about nuclear parameters and nuclear models in terms of which the data are interpreted.This book discusses the elastic and inelastic potential scattering amplitudes, role of beta decay in nuclear physics, and general selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. The nuclear shell model, fundamental coupling procedure, vibrational spectra, and empirical determination of the complex potential are also covered. This publication is suitable for graduate students preparing for exper

  11. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  12. Antineutrino Monitoring of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Military and civilian applications of nuclear energy have left a significant amount of spent nuclear fuel over the past 70 years. Currently, in many countries worldwide, the use of nuclear energy is on the rise. Therefore, the management of highly radioactive nuclear waste is a pressing issue. In this paper, we explore antineutrino detectors as a tool for monitoring and safeguarding nuclear-waste material. We compute the flux and spectrum of antineutrinos emitted by spent nuclear fuel elements as a function of time, and we illustrate the usefulness of antineutrino detectors in several benchmark scenarios. In particular, we demonstrate how a measurement of the antineutrino flux can help to reverify the contents of a dry storage cask in case the monitoring chain by conventional means gets disrupted. We then comment on the usefulness of antineutrino detectors at long-term storage facilities such as Yucca mountain. Finally, we put forward antineutrino detection as a tool in locating underground "hot spots" in contaminated areas such as the Hanford site in Washington state.

  13. Design of Modern Reactors for Synthesis of Thermally Expanded Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strativnov, Eugene V.

    2015-05-01

    One of the most progressive trends in the development of modern science and technology is the creation of energy-efficient technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Nanolayered graphite (thermally exfoliated graphite) is one of the key important nanomaterials of carbon origin. Due to its unique properties (chemical and thermal stability, ability to form without a binder, elasticity, etc.), it can be used as an effective absorber of organic substances and a material for seal manufacturing for such important industries as gas transportation and automobile. Thermally expanded graphite is a promising material for the hydrogen and nuclear energy industries. The development of thermally expanded graphite production is resisted by high specific energy consumption during its manufacturing and by some technological difficulties. Therefore, the creation of energy-efficient technology for its production is very promising.

  14. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  15. Preserving Nuclear Grade Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Bob

    2008-02-05

    When people think of the government they think of the President, or Congress, or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), but there are thousands of people in government-related jobs doing things most don’t really notice everyday. You can find them everywhere, from the space science folks at NASA, to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) watching out for the bad guys. There are Rangers, and Social Workers, Nurses and Agricultural Managers. They are people working to keep the many facets of the USA rolling. One very diverse bunch is The Department of Energy (DOE) , a group who is expanding the ways we make and save energy to power our cars, homes, and businesses. Tucked away under the DOE is the National Nuclear Security Administration, the NNSA is an agency that maintains the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. It works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction. It provides the U.S. Navy with safe nuclear propulsion, and it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad, and it supports efforts in science and technology*. (* DOE/NNSA/KCP website info)

  16. Nuclear light bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear light bulb engine is a closed cycle concept. The nuclear light bulb concept provides containment by keeping the nuclear fuel fluid mechanically suspended in a cylindrical geometry. Thermal heat passes through an internally cooled, fused-silica, transparent wall and heats hydrogen propellant. The seeded hydrogen propellant absorbs radiant energy and is expanded through a nozzle. Internal moderation was used in the configuration which resulted in a reduced critical density requirement. This result was supported by criticality experiments. A reference engine was designed that had seven cells and was sized to fit in what was then predicted to be the shuttle bay mass and volume limitations. There were studies done of nozzle throat cooling schemes to remove the radiant heat. Elements of the nuclear light bulb program included closed loop critical assembly tests done at Los Alamos with UF6 confined by argon buffer gas. It was shown that the fuel region could be seeded with constituents that would block UV radiation from the uranium plasma. A combination of calculations and experiments showed that internal moderation produced a critical mass reduction. Other aspects of the research are presented.

  17. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  18. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  19. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohrer, Jim [IBM, North Castle, NY (United States); Pierce, Brian M. [Raytheon Co., Waltham, MA (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Golledge, Reginald G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Horn, Robert E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Turkle, Sherry [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yonas, Gerold [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glicken Turnley, Jessica [Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollack, Jordan [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Burger, Rudy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinett, Warren; Wilson, Larry Todd [Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Bainbridge, W. S.; Canton, J.; Kuekes, P.; Loomis, J.; Penz, P.

    2013-01-01

    To be able to chart the most profitable future directions for societal transformation and corresponding scientific research, five multidisciplinary themes focused on major goals have been identified to fulfill the overall motivating vision of convergence described in the previous pages. The first, “Expanding Human Cognition and Communication,” is devoted to technological breakthroughs that have the potential to enhance individuals’ mental and interaction abilities. Throughout the twentieth century, a number of purely psychological techniques were offered for strengthening human character and personality, but evaluation research has generally failed to confirm the alleged benefits of these methods (Druckman and Bjork 1992; 1994). Today, there is good reason to believe that a combination of methods, drawing upon varied branches of converging science and technology, would be more effective than attempts that rely upon mental training alone.

  20. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  1. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  2. Basic sciences of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Magdy M. (ed.) [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Biological Imaging Centre

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has become an ever-changing and expanding diagnostic and therapeutic medical profession. The day-to-day innovations seen in the field are, in great part, due to the integration of many scientific bases with complex technologic advances. The aim of this reference book, Basic Sciences of Nuclear Medicine, is to provide the reader with a comprehensive and detailed discussion of the scientific bases of nuclear medicine, covering the different topics and concepts that underlie many of the investigations and procedures performed in the field. Topics include radiation and nuclear physics, Tc-99m chemistry, single-photon radiopharmaceuticals and PET chemistry, radiobiology and radiation dosimetry, image processing, image reconstruction, quantitative SPECT imaging, quantitative cardiac SPECT, small animal imaging (including multimodality hybrid imaging, e.g., PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and PET/MRI), compartmental modeling, and tracer kinetics. (orig.)

  3. Expanding the Trilinos developer community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2010-10-01

    The Trilinos Project started approximately nine years ago as a small effort to enable research, development and ongoing support of small, related solver software efforts. The 'Tri' in Trilinos was intended to indicate the eventual three packages we planned to develop. In 2007 the project expanded its scope to include any package that was an enabling technology for technical computing. Presently the Trilinos repository contains over 55 packages covering a broad spectrum of reusable tools for constructing full-featured scalable scientific and engineering applications. Trilinos usage is now worldwide, and many applications have an explicit dependence on Trilinos for essential capabilities. Users come from other US laboratories, universities, industry and international research groups. Awareness and use of Trilinos is growing rapidly outside of Sandia. Members of the external research community are becoming more familiar with Trilinos, its design and collaborative nature. As a result, the Trilinos project is receiving an increasing number of requests from external community members who want to contribute to Trilinos as developers. To-date we have worked with external developers in an ad hoc fashion. Going forward, we want to develop a set of policies, procedures, tools and infrastructure to simplify interactions with external developers. As we go forward with multi-laboratory efforts such as CASL and X-Stack, and international projects such as IESP, we will need a more streamlined and explicit process for making external developers 'first-class citizens' in the Trilinos development community. This document is intended to frame the discussion for expanding the Trilinos community to all strategically important external members, while at the same time preserving Sandia's primary leadership role in the project.

  4. Assessment of USAF’s Civilian Hiring Process and the Potential Impact It Has on Our Ability to Recruit and Retain a Millennial Workforce in an Effort to Replenish an Aging Civilian Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    MILLENNIAL WORKFORCE IN AN EFFORT TO REPLENISH AN AGING CIVILIAN WORKFORCE By Derek T. Crowder, CMSgt, USAF A Research Report Submitted to the... Millennials to replenish our aging civilian work force. Millennials are those born between 1981 and 1999 and make up over 23 percent of the population and...our critical to the success of civil service. Understanding who millennials are, what they desire for employment should be a focus area for federal

  5. Civilian Power Program. Part 1, Summary, Current status of reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Author, Not Given

    1959-09-01

    This study group covered the following: delineation of the specific objectives of the overall US AEC civilian power reactor program, technical objectives of each reactor concept, preparation of a chronological development program for each reactor concept, evaluation of the economic potential of each reactor type, a program to encourage the the development, and yardsticks for measuring the development. Results were used for policy review by AEC, program direction, authorization and appropriation requests, etc. This evaluation encompassed civilian power reactors rated at 25 MW(e) or larger and related experimental facilities and R&D. This Part I summarizes the significant results of the comprehensive effort to determine the current technical and economic status for each reactor concept; it is based on the 8 individual technical status reports (Part III).

  6. Practice Makes Perfect?: The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Plaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available U.S. officials have recently claimed that the CIA has sharply reduced the number of civilian casualties resulting from covert Predator and Reaper drone strikes in the Taliban-controlled agencies of Northwest Pakistan. Critics, especially in Pakistan, along with human rights NGOs have, however, questioned these claims. This article examines independent databases tracking the drone strikes and finds that there is significant support for the U.S. officials’ claims, or at least for their more moderate assertions. It also briefly reviews the explanations that have been offered for the declining civilian death toll from drone strikes. It shows that there is reason to believe that this development is the deliberate result of adjustments to CIA targeting procedures and improvements in spy networks and technology, and thus is likely to prove broadly sustainable at least for the immediate future.

  7. The use of civilian-type GPS receivers by the military and their vulnerability to jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Combrinck

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We considered the impact of external influences on a GPS receiver and how these influences affect the capabilities of civilian-type GPS receivers. A standard commercial radio frequency signal generator and passive GPS antenna were used to test the sensitivity of GPS to intentional jamming; the possible effects of the terrain on the propagation of the jamming signal were also tested. It was found that the high sensitivity of GPS receivers and the low strength level of GPS satellite signals combine to make GPS receivers very vulnerable to intentional jamming or unintentional radio frequency interference. Terrain undulation was used to shield GPS antennas from the direct line-of-sight of the jamming antenna and this indicated that terrain characteristics can be used to mitigate the effects of jamming. These results illuminate the vulnerability of civilian-type GPS receivers to the possibility and the ease of disablement and establish the foundation for future work.

  8. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  9. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Martin B; Tuma, Matthias P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from civilian facilities. This paper presents the first global radioxenon emission inventory for nuclear power plants, based on North American and European emission reports for the years 1995-2005. Estimations were made for all power plant sites for which emission data were unavailable. According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year.

  10. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1993. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly.

  11. A Study of Army Civilian Entry Level and Mid-Level Program Management Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    acquisition enterprise will be key players in implementing the vision of Force 2025 by designing solutions to build up the expeditionary capacities of the...directly connected to superior business performance ( Gestalt International Study Center, 2016). “Organizations that invest in developing their people as...significant impact on their communities and the world” ( Gestalt International Study Center, 2016). Leader development training for civilian acquisition

  12. Achieving Medical Currency via Selected Staff Integration in Civilian and Veterans Administration Medical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    and the American College of Cardiology exist, their established standards are nonbinding. Instead, each state maintains a board of medical examiners... Congress of the United States, "Cornell University Law School U.S. Code 10 1074," 1 February 2010, http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/uscode10...DefenceInternet/DefenceFor/Jobseekers/CivilianC areers/SpecialistRecruitment.htm (accessed 28 January 2011). 32 26. Congress of the United States

  13. Design and Manufacture of a Solar-Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Civilian Surveillance Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourth, Nelson Javier Pedraza; Villamarin, Julio Enoc Parra; Rios, John Jairo Vaca; Bravo-Mosquera, Pedro David; Cerón-Muñoz, Hernán Darío

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to promote the development of renewable energy and take advantage of the new technologies for the benefit of sustainability, both the design and the manufacture methodologies of an experimental solarpowered unmanned aerial vehicle for civilian surveillance applications are presented. Throughout the document, it is provided the historical process around the development of the aircraft. Therefore, in the first part, it is shown the aerodynamic design, which includes the 2-D an...

  14. OCRWM annual report to Congress FY 1999 [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    During Fiscal Year 1999, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) continued to make significant progress in its characterization of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate geologic repository site. Although OCRWM's appropriation for Fiscal Year 1999 was lower than requested, the Program accomplished all three success measures in the Secretary's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Agreement with the President and completed important work in many other areas. This Annual Report reviews this work and looks toward future activities.

  15. Helping Soldiers Leverage Army Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities in Civilian Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    civilian occupations. We also identified survey questions associated with soft skills , such as leadership , teamwork, and attention to detail, to...survey questions associated with soft skills , such as leadership , teamwork, persistence, and attention to detail. Thus, the 1 Throughout this...means they do not leverage infantrymen’s KSAs. This occurs, in part, because soft skills , such as leadership , teamwork, and training, coaching, and

  16. 1989 OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] Bulletin compilation and index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-01

    The OCRWM Bulletin is published by the Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1989 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information contained in this year`s Bulletins. The pages have been numbered consecutively at the bottom for easy reference. 7 figs.

  17. Deploying Federal Civilians to the Battlefield: Incentives, Benefits, and Medical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    PROJECT LEAD THOMAS HAWLEY ANDREW HYDE JOHN E. KRUSE GREGORY A. MARCHAND MICHAEL MCERLEAN SUZANNE MCKENNA MARK PARKER SASHA...legislative assistants (MLAs) and fellows, Dan Madden, James Lively, Justin Johnson, and Caryll Rice, as well as the rest of the subcommittee MLAs...Ambassador Harry K. Thomas , Testimony before the HASC Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations hearing on “Civilians on the Battlefield: Incentives

  18. Military to Civilian: RCT of an Intervention to Promote Post-deployment Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    for improving outcomes among OIF/OEF veterans with post-deployment reintegration problems that can be used throughout VA for very little expense...civilian life2-4 Pilot Survey of Reintegration Difficulties ♦ Pilot survey results indicated that an estimated 96% of OEF/OIF combat veterans (n = 754...Certification & Accreditation) CONCLUSIONS ♦ Almost all OEF/OIF combat veterans express interest in services for reintegration problems ♦ Expressive Writing

  19. Retaining U.S. Air Force Pilots When the Civilian Demand for Pilots Is Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    FORCE ( PAF ), a division of the RAND Corporation, is the U.S. Air Force’s federally funded research and development center for studies and analyses. PAF ...information about PAF is available on our website: http://www.rand.org/ paf / v Contents Preface...Force ( PAF ) to provide information on recent and likely future changes in airline pilot demand and civilian opportunities for USAF pilots, assess

  20. Barriers of dental care utilization for children living in military and civilian areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Sujlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We planned our study to assess whether easy access to dental care facilities result in improved oral health and increased utilization of dental services by children. Materials and Methods: Four hundred child-parent pairs, 200 each from the military and civilian areas, were randomly selected (children aged 5 years. Prior to the clinical examination of their wards, parents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sociodemographic details, family structure, dental care utilization, and attitudinal variables toward oral health. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs were assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO criteria (1997. Statistical Analysis Used: Students′ t-test and chi-square test were used to assess the significance of difference between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis was performed for all covariates associated with the child′s dental attendance pattern. Results: The percentage prevalence of children affected by dental caries was observed to be statistically higher in the civilian area. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score was 2.35 ± 2.92 and 3.26 ± 3.35 in the military and civilian areas, respectively (t stat = 2.78, P = 0.002. The percentage of teeth requiring treatment was observed to be 22.5% and 27.6% in the military and civilian areas, respectively (χ2 = 16.77, P < 0.0001. Covariates significantly associated with increased child′s dental attendance were identified as: High level of the mother′s education, regularity of dental visits by the parents, the child′s increased brushing frequency, and past caries experience. Conclusion: Despite the adequate availability of dental facilities in military areas, untreated dental problems are prevalent. Our finding confirms that dental care utilization is not solely access-related, and other barriers need to be investigated.

  1. An Investigation of the Health Practices, Attitudes, and Perceptions of USAF Military and Civilian Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    currently as cigarette non- smokers . Table 4.11 provides additional information on comparisons, in percentages, between military and civilian personnel...encouraging current smokers to stop their ha:it. In separate critiques, one respondent stated "it [t.,e sale of tax -free, reduced price tobacco products...would you be interested in attending a program that would help you quit smoking?" Of the 88 reported cigarette smokers (survey question 15) and 27

  2. Assessment of USAFs Hiring Potential of Civilian Scientists and Engineers of the Millennial Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF USAF’S HIRING POTENTIAL OF CIVILIAN SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS OF THE MILLENNIAL GENERATION...government organizations. iv Abstract The Millennial Generation (individuals born 1981-2000) is entering the workforce in large numbers and...of Millennials and what they view as important in their work and social lives revealed policy approaches that could ensure the USAF maximizes it

  3. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  4. An Operational Statistical Analysis of United States Marine Corps Civilian Employee Injury Tracking Process and Injury Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rascon, Carlos G

    2008-01-01

    Organizations within the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Labor (DoL) report safety metrics that quantify DoD civilian employee injury incident rates and lost work time for all military services...

  5. Unwarranted Variation in the Medical Management of Injured Civilian Workers in the U.S. Army Medical Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, William A

    2005-01-01

    ... submitted from each Army medical treatment facility (MTF). Using hierarchical multiple linear regression, these variables were tested as potential predictors of the average total cost per case of an injured civilian employee in each MTF...

  6. The Trumpeter, Company 424 Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Redington in Swan Quarter, North Carolina; October Issue, Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a historic monthly report of Camp Redington Civilian Conservation Corps located in Swan Quarter, North Carolina. It describes the progress and...

  7. Craniocerebral gunshot wounds in civilian population: Analysis of experience in a single center in Monterrey, México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martínez-Bustamante, Daniel; Pérez-Cárdenas, Samuel; Ortiz-Nieto, José Manuel; Toledo-Toledo, Raúl; Martínez-Ponce de León, Ángel Raymundo

    2015-01-01

    Gunshot wounds in civilian population of México were quite rare. Currently, conflicts amongst organized crime groups are carried out with weapons, which are considered as exclusive use by the natiońs army...

  8. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  9. Brief interventions to reduce harmful alcohol use among military personnel: lessons learned from the civilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, William G; Hartman, Roger; Olshaker, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Among military personnel, service members between the ages 18 and 25 had a 27.3% prevalence of heavy drinking in the previous 30 days, compared to 15.3% among civilians in the same age group. In the civilian world, > 100 million patients are treated in U.S. emergency departments (ED) annually; 7.9% of these visits are alcohol related. Alcohol is associated with a broad range of health consequences that may ultimately present in the ED setting: traumatic injuries (e.g., motor vehicle crashes, intentional violence, falls); environmental injuries (e.g., frostbite); cardiovascular problems (e.g., hypertension, dilated cardiomyopathy); gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., hepatitis, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding); neurological problems (e.g., encephalopathy, alcohol withdrawal, withdrawal seizures), as well as psychological problems (e.g., depression, suicide). Seminal work has been done to create behavioral interventions for at-risk drinkers. These motivational interventions have been found to be successful in encouraging clients to change their risky behaviors. We present such a technique, called the Brief Negotiated Interview as performed in a civilian ED setting, in hopes of adapting it for use in the military context. Military health care providers could easily adapt this technique to help reduce risky levels of alcohol consumption among service members, retirees, or military dependents.

  10. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  11. German Involvement in the War against International Terrorism. End of Civilian Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Kříž

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks forced Germany to face a number of questions. One of them is determining the proper level of German political and military support for the USA in their war against terrorism. For Germany, i.e. for a country, whose foreign and security policies relies on the strategy of civilian power, it is a greater problem than in the case of other countries. American military operations in the fight against international terrorism take place in the context of a nation’s right to individual and collective self-defence. Despite this, the extent to which German participation in these operations is compatible with the policy of a civil power remains unclear. Most of the attributes of a military operation led by a civilian power are present – but not all of them. The main problem is the impossibility of assessing the degree of violence used by German soldiers within Operation Enduring Freedom. However, the findings we have obtained so far do not imply that the German military support of the U.S.A. contradicts a priori the policy expected from a civilian power.

  12. Delayed rupture of traumatic aneurysm after civilian craniocerebral gunshot injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachemi, M; Jourdan, C; Di Roio, C; Turjman, F; Ricci-Franchi, A; Mottolese, C; Artru, F

    2007-03-01

    There are few published large series on civilian craniocerebral gunshot injuries in children. Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare and highly unstable lesions. They represent less than 1% of all aneurysms and can either rupture within minutes after formation or remain quiescent for several weeks or years, manifesting with delayed hemorrhage and neurologic deterioration. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who was referred for coma after high-velocity craniocerebral gunshot wound and neurological deterioration 7 days after the initial injury. A massive right posterior occipital hematoma caused by the rupture of an unsuspected right posterior cerebral artery TICA was discovered. TICA was treated by coil embolization, with a good neurological recovery at 6-month follow-up. We discuss the pathogenesis and the management of TICA in a child after civilian craniocerebral gunshot injuries. TICAs should be suspected in patients with civilian craniocerebral gunshot injuries, presenting with secondary neurological deterioration, to carry out emergent CT scan and angiographic exploration before contemplating definitive endovascular treatment. Endovascular management may be a prompt safe-to-use technique and a valuable option, especially when surgery is highly risky.

  13. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  15. Re-integration of Former Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Combatants into Civilian Society in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Lanka. The three-year-long Humanitarian Operation conducted by the Sri Lankan Security Forces to liberate civilians from the cruel clutches of the...Sri Lanka. The three-year- long Humanitarian Operation conducted by the Sri Lankan Security Forces to liberate civilians from the cruel clutches of...ministry also oversees the PRAC program. Currently, Nayef bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, crowned as the First Deputy Prime Minister, holds the office of the

  16. Understanding, Predicting, and Preventing Life Changing and Life Threatening Health Changes among Aging Veterans and Civilians with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Veterans and Civilians with Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James S Krause, PhD RECIPIENT: Medical University of South Carolina Charleston...Threatening Health Changes among Aging Veterans and Civilians with Spinal Cord Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0629 5c. PROGRAM...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with secondary

  17. An Impaled Potential Unexploded Device in the Civilian Training Trauma Setting: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    tissue wound . A pressure dressing and tourniquet were applied and he was t ransported 78 to a local, Level IV Trauma Center. At this facility, the...Unexploded Device in the Civilian Training Trauma Setting: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Unexploded Device in the Civilian Trauma Setting: A Case Report and Review of the literature Article Type: Case Report Corresponding Author: Jamie L

  18. Precipitating Circumstances of Suicide among Active Duty U.S. Army Personnel Versus U.S. Civilians, 2005?2010

    OpenAIRE

    Logan, Joseph E.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Reger, Mark A; Gladden, Matt; SMOLENSKI, Derek J.; Floyd, C Faye; Gahm, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    To help understand suicide among soldiers, we compared suicide events between active duty U.S. Army versus civilian decedents to identify differences and inform military prevention efforts. We linked 141 Army suicide records from 2005 to 2010 to National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) data. We described the decedents? military background and compared their precipitators of death captured in NVDRS to those of demographically matched civilian suicide decedents. Both groups commonly had ...

  19. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Alessandro

    2005-04-01

    The activity of the Italian nuclear physicists community in the field of Nuclear Astrophysics is reported. The researches here described have been performed within the project "Fisica teorica del nucleo e dei sistemi a multi corpi", supported by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca.

  20. Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Langanke, K

    1999-01-01

    The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of gamma-rays from supernova remnants.

  1. Subcontinental Nuclear Instability: The Spiralling Nightmare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Shankar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The scheme that carved world order during the Cold War was a pitched battle for 'containment' against burgeoning communism. In turn, rationality gave way to the threat of catastrophic nuclear force as the basis of stability. If at all there is a historical lesson to be learned from that experience then it is that stability begins with serious and sustained dialogue between leadership; the alternative being what Kennedy termed "the peace of the grave." An appraisal of the contemporary global state of nuclear affairs will suggest that the three pillars of nuclear stability, namely, non-proliferation, control of fissile material production, and transparency of nuclear arsenals are wobbly for lack of foundational support. In the truancy of global foundational support the answer may well lie in reconstituting a framework for détente. In the Subcontinental context there looms a very real nuclear nightmare. It takes the form of a hair-trigger, opaque nuclear arsenal that has embraced tactical use under decentralized military control, is steered by an ambiguous doctrine, and guided by a military strategy that carouses with non-state actors. The effect of an weakened civilian leadership in Pakistan that is incapable of action to remove the military finger from the nuclear trigger can do little to dispel the nightmare. A singular feature of the deterrent relationship in the region is its tri-polar character. As is well known today, it is the collusive nature of the Sino-Pak nuclear relationship which created and sustains the Pakistan nuclear weapons program. This in stark contrast to the Indian nuclear doctrine that went public in 2003. The unleashing of Islamic radicals in the wake of US withdrawal from the Af-Pak region and their mounting internalization in the Pakistan military and political establishments brings into question the state and motivation of the nuclear command and control structures there. Stability in this context would suggest the

  2. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  3. Expanding cosmic horizons of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wainwright, Milton

    2003-02-01

    The conceptual boundaries of life are rapidly expanding far beyond the confines of our planet to encompass an ever-widening region of the universe. Complex organic molecules in interstellar dust and comets appear most plausibly to be biologically derived, or at least closely related spectroscopically and structurally to such material. A de novo origin of life from non-living material is reckoned to have so minuscule a probability that its occurrence once in the universe can be considered miracle enough. The widespread distribution of similar material (e.g with the characteristics of the diffuse infrared bands and 2175 absorption features) throughout the galaxy and in external galaxies adds weight to the theory of panspermia, where it is supposed that the components of life at a generic level are readily transferred from one place to another. Spectroscopic evidence consistent with life extends to redshifts z=0.5, and from elemental abundance studies alone (e.g, of C, O and metals) in distant galaxies the possibility of cosmic life extends to redshifts as high as z=3.

  4. The US Nuclear Data Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-19

    This report discusses the following topics: US Nuclear Data Network Meeting; TUNL A=3--20 Data Project Activity Report 1993; INEL Mass-chain Evaluation Project Activity Report for 1993; 1993 Isotopes; Nuclear Data Project Activity Report; The NNDC Activity Report Parts A and B; Minutes of the Formats and Procedures Subcommittee; Evaluation of High-spin Nuclear Data for ENSDF and Table of Superdeformed Nuclear Bands; Proposal for Support of a Experimental High-spin; Data File/Data-Network Coordinator; Radioactive Decay and Applications; A Plan for a Horizontal Evaluation of Decay Data; ENSDF On-line System; The MacNuclide Project Expanding the Scope of the Nuclear Structure Reference File; ENSDAT: Evaluated Nuclear Structure Drawings and Tables; Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and CSEWG Strategy Session; A Draft Proposal for a USNDN Program Advisory Council; Recommendations of Focus Group 1; Recommendations of Focus Group 2; Recommendations of Focus Group 3; Recommendations of Focus Group 4; The Table of Isotopes; The Isotopes CD-ROM; Electronic Table of Isotopes (ETOI); and Electronic Access to Nuclear Data.

  5. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  6. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  7. Overview of the Russian nuclear industry; Le panorama nucleaire russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    In 2004, President Poutine decided to replace the atomic energy ministry (Minatom) by the federal atomic energy agency (Rosatom). Several projects were launched during the next two years which aimed at bringing back Russia to the fore front of the world leaders of nuclear energy use and nuclear technology export. In 2007, Rosatom agency was changed to a public holding company and a new company, named Atomenergoprom, was created which gathers all civil nuclear companies (AtomEnergoMash for the exploitation of power plants, Technabsexport (Tenex) specialized in enrichment or Atomstryexport in charge of export activities). Thus, Rosatom is at the head of all civilian and military nuclear companies, of all research centers, and of all nuclear and radiological safety facilities. In 2006, Russian nuclear power plants supplied 15.8% of the whole power consumption. Russia wishes to develop its nuclear program with the construction of new reactors in order to reach a nuclear electricity share of 25% from now to 2020. This paper presents first the 2007 institutional reform of the Russian atomic sector, and the three sectorial federal programmes: 1 - development of the nuclear energy industrial complex for the 2007-2010 era and up to 2015 (future power plants, nuclear fuel centers and reactor prototypes), 2 - nuclear safety and radioprotection for the 2008-2015 era (waste management, remedial actions, radiation protection), 3 - military program (confidential). Then, the paper presents: the international actions (export of Russian technology, cooperation agreements, non-proliferation), the situation of the existing nuclear park (reactors in operation, stopped, under construction and in project), the fuel cycle activities (production of natural uranium, enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste management), the nuclear R and D in Russia, and the nuclear safety authority. (J.S.)

  8. NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY, CURRENT APPLICATIONS IN CLINICAL-PRACTICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEMEYER, MG; VANDERWALL, EE; KUIJPER, AFM; CLEOPHAS, AT; PAUWELS, EKJ

    The clinical applications of nuclear cardiology have rapidly expanded since the introduction of suitable imaging cameras and readily applicable isotopes. The currently available methods can provide useful data on estimates of ventricular function and detection of myocardial ischemia for adequate

  9. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Jürgen; Meiswinkel, Rüdiger; Bergmeister, Konrad; Fingerloos, Frank; Wörner, Johann-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply.Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overv

  10. Nuclear war and nuclear peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, G.; Moreton, E.; Freedman, L.; Baylis, J.

    1983-01-01

    This book is an in-depth examination of East-West tactical and strategic nuclear weapons policy. The contributors explore such issues as the history and implications of tactical weapons in Europe, the general conflicts that have characterized US and Soviet interaction, the development of British nuclear weapons policy, and arms control including SALT I and II and the START talks.

  11. The nuclear energy, public opinion and the awareness of work of nuclear institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastura, Valeria; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A.; Legey, Ana Paula; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F., E-mail: vpastura@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: analegey@hotmail.com, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia Nucleares

    2015-07-01

    With Brazil facing a prospect of expanding its nuclear-energy sources and the development of new nuclear techniques there is a need for imminent integration in the nuclear industry with the tool information. In this paper we propose the creation of a program aimed at the servers of the institutions that make up the Brazilian Nuclear Sector, with a view to preparing these to become multipliers in the dissemination of activities developed by the institution so that they can, with strong arguments, defending the work of industry criticism of this form of energy. The goal is to create an important process of change of mentality and attitude among people who relate to the servers in the industry, expanding the debate on the subject, so that society, clearly and free of prejudices can understand the benefits the use of nuclear energy. (author)

  12. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  13. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  14. Improving and expanding NGO programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A

    1993-06-01

    India has massive problems and is in need of improving and expanding non governmental organization (NGO) programs by broadening the scope of NGO activities, identifying successful NGO activities, and by moving closer to the community to participate in their activities. The problems and experience in the last few decades indicate that with expansion bureaucratization takes place. The institution begins to depend on donors and follows donor-driven agendas. As more money is given by the government, many more so called GONGO or Government-NGO projects materialize. Another problem is that the government almost always approaches the NGOs for the implementation of a project, and there is complete lack of cooperation at the planning stage. The government is considering a loan from the World Bank and UNICEF to launch a mother and child health program, but there has not been any discussion with the dozens of people who have worked on issues concerning mother and child health issues for many years. There is a need to be more demanding of the government about the various programs that are implemented for the government. Very few NGO health and family welfare projects are run by ordinary nurses or ordinary Ayurvedic doctors under ordinary conditions. Since successful NGO work has to be extended to other parts of the country, they will have to be run by ordinary people with very ordinary resources. Over the years, the NGO community has become preoccupied with its own agenda. Today, despite very sophisticated equipment and infrastructure, they are not able to reach the 60,000-70,000 workers and employees. Some of the ideas with respect to the strengthens and weaknesses of community participation have to be shared. NGOs should include all the existing non governmental organizations throughout the country, and have a dialogue with other nongovernmental bodies such as trade unions. The challenge is to adjust the current agenda, prevailing style, and present way of operating and move

  15. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  16. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  17. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  18. Nuclear Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Parashar, S. K. S; Aslan, Necdet; Aslaninejad, Morteza; Salar Elahi, A

    2014-01-01

    ... in both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion, with attendees from major fusion energy research centers worldwide. It is one of the most important issues in this field. Nuclear fusion continues t...

  19. Application of the office of civilian radioactive waste management QA requirements to the hanford spent nuclear fuel project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCORMACK, R.L.

    1999-05-12

    This document identifies, at a high-level, the Hanford SNF Project systems, structures, and components and activities that must implement to some degree the OCRWM QARD requirements to ensure compliance with RL direction. This document will also be used to support development of a QARD requirements matrix for the implementation of QARD requirements.

  20. Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Angela

    2003-04-01

    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  1. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  2. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  3. Nuclear energy an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Raymond L

    1993-01-01

    This expanded, revised, and updated fourth edition of Nuclear Energy maintains the tradition of providing clear and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the subject, with emphasis on the explanation of trends and developments. As in earlier editions, the book is divided into three parts that achieve a natural flow of ideas: Basic Concepts, including the fundamentals of energy, particle interactions, fission, and fusion; Nuclear Systems, including accelerators, isotope separators, detectors, and nuclear reactors; and Nuclear Energy and Man, covering the many applications of radionuclides, r

  4. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Conor D A; Lockey, David J; Rehn, Marius

    2016-11-08

    Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus were conducted in conjunction with simple searches of non-indexed databases; Web of Science, OpenDOAR and Evidence Search. The searches were last carried out on 20 April 2016 and only identified those papers published after the 1 January 1980. Included documents had to contain descriptions, discussions or experiences of the pre-hospital management of civilian mass shootings. From the 494 identified manuscripts, 73 were selected on abstract and title and after full text reading 47 were selected for inclusion in analysis. The search yielded reports of 17 mass shooting events, the majority from the USA with additions from France, Norway, the UK and Kenya. Between 1994 and 2015 the shooting of 1649 people with 578 deaths at 17 separate events are described. Quality appraisal demonstrated considerable heterogeneity in reporting and revealed limited data on mass shootings globally. Key themes were identified to improve future practice: tactical emergency medical support may harmonise inner cordon interventions, a need for inter-service education on effective haemorrhage control, the value of senior triage operators and the need for regular mass casualty incident simulation.

  5. Radiation physics for nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is expanding rapidly, with the development of exciting new diagnostic methods and treatments. This growth is closely associated with significant advances in radiation physics. In this book, acknowledged experts explain the basic principles of radiation physics in relation to nuclear medicine and examine important novel approaches in the field. The first section is devoted to what might be termed the "building blocks" of nuclear medicine, including the mechanisms of interaction between radiation and matter and Monte Carlo codes. In subsequent sections, radiation sources for medical applications, radiopharmaceutical development and production, and radiation detectors are discussed in detail. New frontiers are then explored, including improved algorithms for image reconstruction, biokinetic models, and voxel phantoms for internal dosimetry. Both trainees and experienced practitioners and researchers will find this book to be an invaluable source of up-to-date information.

  6. Bone cultures from war-wounded civilians in the Middle East: a surgical prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérard, Patrick; Boillot, François; Fakhri, Rasheed M

    2017-07-01

    Hidden infections in a reconstructive surgery program are frequently underestimated. A retrospective study was undertaken of 1,891 civilian war-wounded patients from Iraq, Syria, Yemen and Gaza treated in Amman from August 2006 to January 2016. One thousand three hundred and fifty-three underwent surgical interventions for previous bone injury and had systematic bone cultures. Among patients (167) without any clinical, biological or radiological signs of infection, 46% demonstrated infection based on bone cultures. We conclude that bone culture should become a prerequisite for any reconstruction in such contexts.

  7. In the Eye of the Beholder? UN and the Use of Drones to Protect Civilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Karlsrud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate on the UN’s possible use of drones for peacekeeping took a turn in 2013 when the Security Council granted the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO permission to contract surveillance drones for MONUSCO, its peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. This article examines what drone capability may entail for UN peacekeeping missions. We find that surveillance drones can help missions acquire better information and improve the situational awareness of its troops, as well as inform decision-making by leadership, police, and civilian components of the mission. We see a significant potential in the use of surveillance drones to improve efforts to protect civilians, increase UN troops’ situational awareness, and improve access to vulnerable populations in high-risk theaters. The use of drones can dramatically improve information-gathering capacities in proximity to populations at risk, thereby strengthening the ability of peacekeepers to monitor and respond to human rights abuses as well as violations of international humanitarian law (IHL. Drones may also enable peacekeepers to maintain stealth surveillance of potential spoilers, including arms smugglers and embargo breakers. They could additionally improve UN forces’ own targeting practices, further contributing to the protection of civilians (PoC. Furthermore, we emphasize how drone capability significantly increases peacekeepers’ precautionary obligations under IHL in targeting situations: the availability of drones triggers the obligation to use them to gather information in order to avoid civilian casualties or other violations of IHL or international human rights law. There may soon come a shift among human rights groups, from being skeptical of the use of drones by UN peacekeepers to demanding that peacekeeping operations be equipped with surveillance drones for humanitarian and human rights reasons – shifting the current debate, which has

  8. Office Civilian Waste Management Transportation Institutional Program Update on Collaborative Efforts with Key Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Saris; P. Austin; J.J. Offner

    2004-12-29

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) created the Office of National Transportation in 2003 recognizing the need to revitalize and accelerate development of the transportation system. The Department has made a commitment to work through a collaborative planning process before developing specific policies and procedures and making transportation decisions. OCRWM has begun to build the institutional framework to support development of this transportation system. Interactions with stakeholders have been initiated. The authors describe the key stakeholders, identified issues, regional and national planning activities, and mechanisms for interaction.

  9. Nuclear Proliferation Over the Next Decade: Causes, Warning Signs, and Policy Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    early 1972 upon becoming head of the Pakistani state. As University of Tampa Professor Maria Rost Rublee observes in this issue, Egyptian President Gamal...framework highlights, not every civilian or military member of a threatened country’s leadership will agree on the character or intensity of the threat, or...facilities. The leadership might be content with assembling its nuclear capabilities in a slow, measured manner (as Argentina and Egypt seemed to do, and

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  13. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  16. Cooperation and Collaboration among the Nation's Meteorology, Oceanography, and Satellite Operational Processing Centers: An Evolving Era in U.S. Civilian-Military Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Robert J.; Nelson, Cynthia A.; Caviness, Donald G.; Thormeyer, Carl D.; Martin, David L.; Pereira, John J.

    1996-09-01

    The United States has several meteorological, oceanographic, and satellite operational processing centers (OPCS) in the military and civilian sectors. Separate cooperative and complementary military and civilian OPCs provide sufficient redundancy for backup purposes; permit the development of state-of-the-an forecasting schemes, such as the ensemble technique; and ensure the diverse environmental needs of military and civilian users are met with the most efficient use of resources. The effective collaboration of the military and civilian OPCs has resulted in the development of a truly national meteorological and oceanographic resource not attainable within any single agency.

  17. Civilian Joint Task Force’ (CJTF – A Community Security Option: A Comprehensive and Proactive Approach of Reducing Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Bamidele

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Boko Haram uprising in 2009, the Nigerian government has employed various strategies as counter-terrorism measures to stem the atrocities of the group. These strategies include amnesty negotiations, implementation of emergency law in the northeast, increase in security spending to the deployment of military force. In the midst of these security measures, the civilian Joint Task Force (JTF emerged, first as a community effort, and later as a joint effort with the security forces to help fight Boko Haram. The civilian JTF has helped recover towns and villages from Boko Haram, rescued women in the northeast and helped identify Boko Haram members shielded by some local people. Although doubts have been expressed in some quatres that the civilian JTF could transform into ethnic militias, the Boko Haram security threat neutralized by the group indicates an untapped security potential in Nigerian communities. However, one approach that has yet to be pursued is community security option. Community security option is a model built around proactive citizen-driven communal response. This article explains the role of civilian JTF and how civilian JTF can be used to investigate terrorism in Nigeria. This article will contribute to the discourse on the imperative of African-inspired mechanisms to solving African security problems.

  18. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  19. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  20. Interservice Physician Assistant Program: Educators for an Expanding Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Douglas M; Orrahood, Scott A; Cooper, Christopher K; Alvitre, John J; Tozier, William

    2017-10-01

    The number of physician assistant (PA) programs has increased exponentially across the past decade, and the demand for PAs will likely remain strong through 2025. Because of this rapid growth, both new and established PA programs face significant challenges in recruiting experienced educators. We describe the value of using PAs trained through the Interservice Physician Assistant Program (IPAP) as civilian PA educators. The literature on IPAP and its graduates proved too limited to conduct a formal systematic review. We searched the PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases for works speaking to the value that IPAP-trained PAs may bring to civilian PA training. Those findings were supplemented with informal conversations with IPAP-trained PAs currently employed in the military and those working in civilian PA education. Themes were identified supporting the potential value of IPAP-trained PAs in civilian training. Military PAs work within hierarchical organizations and may transition easily to academic settings. They leave military service not only as highly trained and proficient primary care providers but also as experienced educators. Military PAs must demonstrate professionalism across their entire military careers. They serve as leaders and work in teams, but they are also experienced in negotiating up chains of command. They are trained in and apply the latest innovations in health care delivery and have provided care with a degree of autonomy uncommon in civilian PA practice. The PAs trained through IPAP leave the service with skills and experiences valuable to civilian PA training. Employing these PAs in civilian education honors their service contributions while addressing emerging PA educator workforce demands.

  1. State institutions and social identity: National representation in soldiers' and civilians' interview talk concerning military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed.

  2. Understanding the impact of war zone experiences: a primer for civilian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jane M

    2010-09-01

    As the United States continues to fight the war on terror in Iraq and Afghanistan, the number of personnel deployed to war zones and transitioning back to the home front increases. After nine years of intensive experience, military nurses have learned much about the needs of wounded warriors in critical care settings and in acute phases of recovery. Several articles have been published about the lessons learned and skill sets needed by military nurses in critical care settings. The unique nature of the volunteer military, along with the deployment of reservists and contractors to war zones, has created a sub-population of individuals who have transitioned or are transitioning back into their civilian world. Nurses involved in primary care and emergency nursing can learn much from the experiences of those nurses who have worked with traumatic brain injuries (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), alcohol abuse and substance abuse as ineffective coping mechanisms and risks of suicide. The purpose of this article is to share some of the lessons learned by military and veterans administration healthcare workers with civilian nurses.

  3. War on fear: Solly Zuckerman and civilian nerve in the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Ian

    2012-12-01

    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford's Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of 'blast' exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian 'nerve' emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations.

  4. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  5. Nuclear enthalpies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozynek Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Even small departures from a nuclear equilibrium density with constant nucleon masses require an increase of a nucleon enthalpy. This process can be described as volume corrections to a nucleon rest energy, which are proportional to pressure and absent in a standard Relativistic Mean Field (RMF with point-like nucleons. Bag model and RMF calculations show the modifications of nucleon mass, nucleon radius and a Parton Distribution Function (PDF of Nuclear Matter (NM above the saturation point originated from the pressure correction.

  6. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part A deals with the experimental and theoretical techniques involved in nuclear spectroscopy.This book discusses the interactions of charged particles with matter, gaseous ionization detectors, and particular mass attenuation coefficients. The magnetic gamma-ray spectrometers for photo or internal-conversion electrons, general characteristics of cross-section variation with energy, and measurement of fast neutron spectra are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the elastic scattering of photons by nuclei and measurement of widths of gamma-radiating levels.This pub

  7. Dilemmas and controversies within civilian and military organizations in the execution of humanitarian aid in Iraq: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Melinda J; Burnham, Gilbert M

    2010-01-01

    Civilian humanitarian assistance organizations and military forces are working in a similar direction in many humanitarian operations around the world. However, tensions exist over the role of the military in such operations. The purpose of this article is to review cultural perspectives of civilian and military actors and to discuss recent developments in civil-military humanitarian collaboration in the provision of health services in Iraq for guiding such collaborative efforts in postconflict and other settings in future. Optimal collaborative efforts are most likely to be achieved through the following tenets: defining appropriate roles for military forces at the beginning of humanitarian operations (optimally the provision of transportation, logistical coordination, and security), promoting development of ongoing relationships between civilian and military agencies, establishment of humanitarian aid training programs for Department of Defense personnel, and the need for the military to develop and use quantitative aid impact indicators for assuring quality and effectiveness of humanitarian aid.

  8. Family practice career attrition, 1969 to 1993: a comparison of 336 civilian and military graduates of one medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, L B; Gray, G R

    2000-08-01

    Instability of specialty choice and career after initial residency entry will affect health personnel projections. Military physicians may differ from civilian physicians in their specialty choice behaviors during their careers. A cohort of 336 graduates who chose family medicine residency training was identified from the graduating classes of 1969 through 1993 at a large private medical school. Current specialty identification was determined, and attrition from family medicine was computed. As of 1997, 275 graduates (82%) were still in family medicine careers, defined by American Academy of Family Physicians membership or current American Board of Family Practice certification. Of graduates who entered military programs, 22 of 77 (28%) had left family medicine careers; 39 of 259 (15%) of the graduates who entered civilian programs had left. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.007). Family medicine career retention is lower for males in military programs compared with males in civilian programs or females in military programs.

  9. A comparison of skin expansion and contraction between one expander and two expanders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhang, Jin-ming; Ji, Chen-yang; Meng, Hong; Huang, Jian-hua; Luo, He-yuan; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Liu, Xiao-tao; Hong, Xiao-fang

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the difference between the skin expansion and contraction rates for an expanded flap with one versus two expanders. The study cohort comprised 24 cases of two overlapping expanders and 15 cases of a single implanted expander involving 22 patients. The method of "wet-cloth sampling" was applied to measure the expanded flap area and the initial unexpanded area and to calculate the skin expansion rate. Two points 5 cm apart in the center of the expanded flap were selected before the second surgical stage. After removal of the expander, the distance between the two fixed points was measured and recorded. The contraction rate of the expanded flap then was calculated. During the same period of expansion in the two groups (p = 0.06, >0.01), the skin expansion rate was 3.5 ± 0.9 % in the group with two overlapping expanders and 2.6 ± 0.6 % in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002, 0.05). We fitted a linear regression model that was Y = 0.533 − 0.003X, where Y was the contraction rate of the expanded flap and X was the period of expansion. The contraction rate of the expanded flap was negatively correlated with the period of expansion. Compared with the traditional method of implanting a single expander, the new method of overlapping two expanders in a single cavity increased the skin expansion rate. The instantly expanded flap contraction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups, so the amount of expanded skin area absolutely increased. The clinical application of the new method is worth promoting. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  10. Potential benefits of an integrated military/civilian trauma system: experiences from two major regional conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashuk, Jeffry L; Peleg, Kobi; Glassberg, Elon; Givon, Adi; Radomislensky, Irina; Kluger, Yoram

    2017-02-21

    Although differences of opinion and controversies may arise, lessons learned from military conflicts often translate into improvements in triage, resuscitation strategies, and surgical technique. Our fully integrated national trauma system, providing care for both military and civilian casualties, necessitates close cooperation between all aspects of both sectors. We theorized that lessons learned from two regional conflicts over 8 years, with resultant improved triage, reduced hospital length of stay, and sustained low mortality would aid performance improvement and provide evidence of overall trauma system maturation. We performed an 8 year, retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry prospective data base for all casualties presenting to level 1 and 2 trauma centers nationwide during an earlier conflict (W1) (7/12/06-8/14/06) and sought to compare results to those of a more recent war(W2), (7/08/14-08/26/14), as well as to compare our results to non-war civilian morbidity and mortality during the same time frame. Of particular interest were: casualty distributions, injuries/ISS, patterns of evacuation/triage, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Data on 919 war casualties was available for evaluation. Of 490 evacuated during W1, 341 (70%) were transferred to Level 1 centers, compared with 307 (72%) from the 429 casualties in W2. In W2, significantly more severe injuries (ISS ≥16) were evacuated directly to level 1 centers (42, 76% vs. 20, 43% respectively; p = 0.0007). W2 vs. W1 saw a significant increase in evacuations using helicopter (219,51% vs. 180,37%; p logistic regression analyses, when controlling for ISS..Mortality was not significantly changed either overall or for injures with ISS ≥ 16: (1.2%in W1 vs. 1.9% in W2, p = 0.59, 10.9% in W1 vs. 10.6% in W2, p = 1.0, respectively). When compared to civilian related, (non-war) mortality during the same 8 year time frame, overall mortality was unchanged (1.6% vs

  11. The U.S. Army Person-Event Data Environment: A Military-Civilian Big Data Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vie, Loryana L; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Ho, Tiffany E; Labarthe, Darwin R; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    This report describes a groundbreaking military-civilian collaboration that benefits from an Army and Department of Defense (DoD) big data business intelligence platform called the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE). The PDE is a consolidated data repository that contains unclassified but sensitive manpower, training, financial, health, and medical records covering U.S. Army personnel (Active Duty, Reserve, and National Guard), civilian contractors, and military dependents. These unique data assets provide a veridical timeline capturing each soldier's military experience from entry to separation from the armed forces. The PDE was designed to afford unprecedented cost-efficiencies by bringing researchers and military scientists to a single computerized repository rather than porting vast data resources to individual laboratories. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania Positive Psychology Center joined forces with the U.S. Army Research Facilitation Laboratory, forming the scientific backbone of the military-civilian collaboration. This unparalleled opportunity was necessitated by a growing need to learn more about relations between psychological and health assets and health outcomes, including healthcare utilization and costs-issues of major importance for both military and civilian population health. The PDE represents more than 100 times the population size and many times the number of linked variables covered by the nation's leading sources of population health data (e.g., the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Following extensive Army vetting procedures, civilian researchers can mine the PDE's trove of information using a suite of statistical packages made available in a Citrix Virtual Desktop. A SharePoint collaboration and governance management environment ensures user compliance with federal and DoD regulations concerning human subjects' protections and also provides a secure

  12. How Do Federal Civilian Pay Freezes and Retirement Plan Changes Affect Employee Retention in the Department of Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    C O R P O R A T I O N How Do Federal Civilian Pay Freezes and Retirement Plan Changes Affect Employee Retention in the Department of Defense? Beth...AND SUBTITLE How Do Federal Civilian Pay Freezes and Retirement Plan Changes Affect Employee Retention in the Department of Defense? 5a. CONTRACT...are more financially lucrative. the three-yeAr pAy Freeze RAND used the DRM capability to study federal employee retention in DoD—in particular

  13. Nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  14. Nuclear Energy Principles, Practices, and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Bodansky, David

    2008-01-01

    The world faces serious difficulties in obtaining the energy that will be needed in coming decades for a growing population, especially given the problem of climate change caused by fossil fuel use. This book presents a view of nuclear energy as an important carbon-free energy option. It discusses the nuclear fuel cycle, the types of reactors used today and proposed for the future, nuclear waste disposal, reactor accidents and reactor safety, nuclear weapon proliferation, and the cost of electric power. To provide background for these discussions, the book begins with chapters on the history of the development and use of nuclear energy, the health effects of ionizing radiation, and the basic physics principles of reactor operation. The text has been rewritten and substantially expanded for this edition, to reflect changes that have taken place in the eight years since the publication of the first edition and to provide greater coverage of key topics. These include the Yucca Mountain repository plans, designs ...

  15. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the SP-100 space nuclear power system program is compared to that of more familiar solar-power systems. The SP-100 program develops, validates, and demonstrates the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kilowatts electric for use in future military and civilian space missions. Mission applications, including earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power, are enhanced or made possible by SP-100 technology. Attention is given to the SP-100 reference flight system design, the SP-100 nuclear reactor and nuclear-reactor shield, the platform-mounted, tethered, and free-flying reactors, and installation, operation, and disposal options, as well as lunar-Mars surface applications. The SP-100 is presented as one of the nuclear energy sources needed for long-life, compact, lightweight, continuous high power independent of solar orientation, specific orbits, or missions.

  16. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Bray; Ivy Bourgault

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing...

  17. Efficacy of Nickel-Titanium Palatal Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Paul

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : To conclude, a Ni-Ti expander brings about expansion by a combination of orthodontic and orthopedic effects by an increase in maxillary intermolar, maxillary intercanine and mandibular intercanine widths as also the opening of the midpalatal suture.

  18. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As human visions of space applications expand and as we probe further out into the universe, our needs for power will also expand, and missions will evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources have been defined. These include Earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration, and terrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the Moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. Presented here are results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear reactor energy sources, combined with various energy conversion devices for Earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rovers, surface power, and planetary exploration.

  19. Nuclear propulsion apparatus with alternate reactor segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Thomas

    1979-04-03

    1. Nuclear propulsion apparatus comprising: A. means for compressing incoming air; B. nuclear fission reactor means for heating said air; C. means for expanding a portion of the heated air to drive said compressing means; D. said nuclear fission reactor means being divided into a plurality of radially extending segments; E. means for directing a portion of the compressed air for heating through alternate segments of said reactor means and another portion of the compressed air for heating through the remaining segments of said reactor means; and F. means for further expanding the heated air from said drive means and the remaining heated air from said reactor means through nozzle means to effect reactive thrust on said apparatus.

  20. Beyond prometheus and Bakasura: Elements of an alternative to nuclear power in India's response to the energy-environment crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Manu Verghese

    In India, as elsewhere, modern energy-society relations and economic development, metaphorically, Prometheus and the insatiable demon Bakasura, respectively, have produced unprecedented economic growth even as they have ushered in the "energy-environment crisis." Government efforts interpret the crisis as insufficiently advanced modernity. Resulting efforts to redress this crisis reaffirm more economic growth through modern energy-society relations and economic development. The civilian nuclear power renaissance in India, amidst rapidly accelerating economic growth and global climate change, is indicative. It presents the prospect of producing "abundant energy" and being "green" at the same time. This confidence in civilian nuclear power is questioned. It is investigated as proceeding from the modern discourse of "Cornucopianism" and its institutionalization as "modern megamachine organization of society." It is found that civilian nuclear power as energy policy is based on a presumption of overabundance as imperative for viable social and economic development; is predisposed to centralization and secrecy; its institutionalization limits deliberation on energy-society relations to technocratic terms; such deliberation is restrained to venues accessible only to the highest political office and technocratic elite; it fails to redress entrenched "energy injustice;" it embodies "modern technique" fostering the "displaced person" while eclipsing the "complete human personality." Overall, despite its green rhetoric, civilian nuclear power reaffirms the "politics of commodification" and refutes social and political arrangements for sustainability and equity. Alternatives are surveyed as strategies for resistance. They include the DEFENDUS approach for energy planning, the "Human Development and Capability Approach" and the "Sustainable Energy Utility." These alternatives and the synergy between them are offered as avenues to resist nuclear power as a response to the

  1. 20 CFR 1002.149 - What is the employee's status with his or her civilian employer while performing service in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the employee's status with his or her civilian employer while performing service in the uniformed services? 1002.149 Section 1002.149 Employees... Furlough and Leave of Absence § 1002.149 What is the employee's status with his or her civilian employer...

  2. Civilian casualties of terror-related explosions: The impact of vascular trauma on treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-09-01

    A high prevalence (10%) of vascular trauma (VT) was previously described in terror-related trauma as compared with non-terror-related trauma (1%), in a civilian setting. No data regarding outcome of VT casualties of improvised explosive device (IED) explosions, in civilian settings, are available. The aim of the current study is to present the prognosis of civilian casualties of IED explosions with and without VT. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from September 2000 to December 2005 who were victims of explosions were included. These patients were subdivided into patients with VT (n = 109) and non-VT (NVT) (n = 1,152). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury, and treatment. Of 1,261 explosion casualties, there were 109 VT victims (8.6%). Patients with VT tended to be more complex, with a higher injury severity score (ISS): 17.4% with ISS 16 to 24 as compared with only 10.5%. In the group of critically injured patients (ISS, 25-75), 51.4% had VT compared with only 15.5% of the NVT patients. As such, a heavy share of hospitals' resources were used-trauma bay admission (62.4%), operating rooms (91.7%), and intensive care unit beds (55.1%). The percentage of VT patients who were admitted for more than 15 days was 2.3 times higher than that observed among the NVT patients. Lower-extremity VT injuries were the most prevalent. Although many resources are being invested in treating this group of patients, their mortality rate is approximately five times more than NVT (22.9% vs. 4.9%). Vascular trauma casualties of IED explosions are more complex and have poorer prognosis. Their higher ISS markedly increases the hospital's resource utilization, and as such, it should be taken into consideration either upon the primary evacuation from the scene or when secondary modulation is needed in order to reduce the burden of the hospitals receiving the casualties

  3. P.R. Chari (ed., Indo-US Nuclear Deal: Seeking Synergy in Bilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Sethi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rarely in the history of independent India has any issue of foreign policy attracted as much attention, called for such investment of political and intellectual energies, and divided the polity as fractiously as the Indo-US civilian nuclear cooperation agreement did between 2005 and 2008. Of course, some of this was expected given the unprecedented nature of the bilateral relationship being forged after a long period of estrangement. It is well known that Indo-US nuclear relations had been st...

  4. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  5. Future of nuclear power in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, V.L.; Shore, F.J.

    1976-03-30

    As of July 1975, there were 15 operable nuclear power plants in the Northeast, representing approximately 11 percent of the regional electric generating capability. Construction plans for the next two decades show a strong preference for nuclear units, there being 18 new units under construction and 33 additional units announced. Three projections (scenarios) covering the period from 1976 to 2000 are presented. The Base Case Nuclear Scenario assumes that the construction schedules as of August 31, 1975 are implemented. A Nuclear Moratorium Scenario assumes that no new plants are undertaken after January 1, 1977. Finally, a Maximum Nuclear Growth Scenario postulates a concerted effort to add additional nuclear capacity beginning in 1982, but constrained by the ability of industry to expand the capabilities needed to supply the components and fuel. Appreciable differences in the three scenarios do not appear until about 1985, a consequence of the long lead time in making plans and completing construction. The cumulative incremental costs of the Nuclear Moratorium Scenario postulated in this study exceed $160 billion by the year 2000. Despite the present favorable economics and performance of the nuclear units, and despite the strong preference of the planners for nuclear capacity to meet future demands, there are many factors which cast doubt on whether these plans will be executed. Cost escalation, combined with difficulties in raising capital funds, have forced many units to be deferred or canceled.

  6. Nuclear politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, John

    2009-04-01

    The sentiments expressed by Sidney Drell in his forum article "The nuclear threat: a new start" (February pp16-17) are laudable, but it was disappointing to find this almost entirely political story in isolation. The article, which outlined the prospects for reducing weapons stockpiles under the new US administration, would have been more pertinent as an introduction to a series describing the technology used in detecting nuclear-testing activity. It would have been interesting to discuss the specific equipment and methods used, together with the analysis and correlation techniques - along with an indication of how sensitive and reliable they are (if the information is not classified). It is far easier to detect an explosive event than it is to detect and quantify weapons stores, which is a key factor for any negotiated solution. Apart from deductions based on actual inspection and satellite surveillance, are there other techniques that can be applied to this issue?

  7. Mental Health Symptoms Among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandi D; Branscum, Adam J; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774 respondents from 44 colleges and universities. Participants were matched using propensity scores, and the prevalence of symptoms was compared using logistic regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. The odds of feeling overwhelmed in the last 12 months were significantly lower among student service members/veterans with a history of hazardous duty (odd ratio [OR] = 0.46, adjusted p value students. Military service, with and without hazardous duty deployment, was not a significant predictor of the total number of symptoms of poor mental health. Current student service members/veterans may not be disproportionately affected by poor psychological functioning.

  8. The revised Civilian Mississippi Scale for PTSD: reliability, validity, and cross-language stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, F H; Perilla, J L

    1996-04-01

    Examined in two studies the psychometric properties of a revised 30-item version of the civilian form of the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) developed by Keane, Caddell, and Taylor (1988). Study 1, whose sample was composed of 37 bilingual adults who had experienced a variety of traumatic events, was undertaken primarily to examine the linguistic equivalence of a Spanish translation of the scale. High cross-language stability was demonstrated, and both English and Spanish versions showed high internal consistency. Study 2, which used a sample of 404 victims of Hurricane Andrew, provided additional evidence of scale reliability and also showed that the scale correlates in meaningful ways with known traumatic stressors. Together the results indicate that the scale is applicable to different populations and events and constitutes a valid and reliable self-report, measure of PTSD.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Drinking Behaviors of Previously Deployed Military Personnel and Matched Civilian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Miles, Jeremy; Schell, Terry; Jaycox, Lisa; Marshall, Grant N.; Tanielian, Terri

    2011-01-01

    We examined drinking behaviors (frequency of use, quantity of use, and frequency of binge drinking) and correlates of frequency of use and binge drinking in a representative sample of previously deployed personnel from the US military (n = 1887). Drinking behaviors were compared with a matched sample of adults in U.S. households (n = 17,533). Comparable patterns of alcohol consumption were reported in both samples: 70% of previously deployed personnel and 69% of US adults reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days though, civilians drank on average more drinks on the days that they drank than did previously deployed military personnel. Regression analyses indicated that among previously deployed military personnel, deployment-related experiences (e.g., combat-related traumas) and psychological distress (e.g., symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder) were associated with frequency of drinking behaviors. We discuss the implication of our findings for developing interventions to modify drinking behaviors for military personnel. PMID:25324594

  10. Dual loyalty of physicians in the military and in civilian life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, Solomon R; Upshur, Ross E G

    2008-12-01

    The concept of the dual loyalty physicians may have to both a patient and a third party is important in elucidating the obligations of physicians. The extent to which loyalty may be deflected from a patient to a third party (e.g., an insurance company or a prison commander) is greatly underestimated and has not attracted significant scholarly analysis. We examined dual loyalty in civilian and military contexts and used the principles of public health ethics to construct a framework for determining the legitimacy of physicians' obligations. We illustrate the application of these principles to problems physicians encounter regarding communicable diseases, elder abuse, and driving fitness. In the complex military context, independent ethics tribunals should be created to adjudicate loyalty conflicts.

  11. Job stress and risk of menstrual duration disorder in female civilian flight attendants in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Audry Rampen

    2016-03-01

    disorder in female flight attendants.Methods: A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling was conducted on civilian female flightattendants age 19–50 years who underwent routine medical examination at Civil Aviation Medical Centerand Garuda Sentra Medika, Jakarta on May 18-29 2015. Menstrual duration disorder is menstruation morethan 8 days and/or shorter than usual perid (3-5 days. Stress was identified by usingcriteria of NationalInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire Mental Demands FormNumber 11. Relative risk was analyzed usng Cox regression.Results: Among 521 female civilian flight attendants, 393 were willing to participate in this study. Nineteensubjects were excluded, leaving 374 subjects for this analysis, and 35.8% of subjects had menstrualduration disorder. Job stress, flight type and age were dominant risk factors for menstrual duration disorder.Subjects with job stress and long haul flight within three months had higher risk for having menstrualduration disorder by 58% [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.58; confidence interval (CI = 0.96-2.62; P =0.071] and 69% (RRa = 1.69; CI = 1.17-2.43 respectively. Those between aged 30-39 years had 50% hadless risk of having menstrual duration disorder (RRa=0.50; 95% CI = 0.22-1.02; P = 0.057.Conclusion: Female civilian flight attendants with job stress, long haul flight within three months and youngerage had higher risk to be menstrual duration disorder. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:87-91Key words: menstrual duration, job stress, female civilian flight attendant, Indonesia

  12. Dual Loyalty of Physicians in the Military and in Civilian Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, Solomon R.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the dual loyalty physicians may have to both a patient and a third party is important in elucidating the obligations of physicians. The extent to which loyalty may be deflected from a patient to a third party (e.g., an insurance company or a prison commander) is greatly underestimated and has not attracted significant scholarly analysis. We examined dual loyalty in civilian and military contexts and used the principles of public health ethics to construct a framework for determining the legitimacy of physicians' obligations. We illustrate the application of these principles to problems physicians encounter regarding communicable diseases, elder abuse, and driving fitness. In the complex military context, independent ethics tribunals should be created to adjudicate loyalty conflicts. PMID:18923128

  13. Total flying hours and risk of high systolic blood pressure in the civilian pilot in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Afian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Tekanan darah sistolik tinggi di antara pilot sipil antara lain akan menyebabkan gangguan kardiovaskular sehingga akan mengganggu kelancaran penerbangan. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor dominan terhadap tekanan darah sistolik tinggi pada pilot sipil. Metode: Penelitian potong lintang dengan metode sampling purposif pada pilot yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada tanggal 18-29 Mei 2015. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah karakteristik demografi dan pekerjaan, klinis, kebiasaan olahraga, kebiasaan makan, indeks massa tubuh dan riwayat penyakit. Tekanan darah sistolik tinggi ialah tekanan darah sistolik140 mmHg atau lebih. Hasil: Dari 690 pilot yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala, 428 pilot laki-laki bersedia berpartisipasi mengikuti penelitian ini. Usia dan riwayat penyakit hipertensi merupakan faktor risiko dominan yang berhubungan dengan tekanan darah sistolik tinggi. Jika dibandingkan dengan pilot usia 19-39 tahun, yang berusia 40-65 tahun mempunyai 15,1 kali lipat lebih besar risiko terkena tekanan darah sistolik tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa= 15,12; p= 0,001]. Pilot dengan riwayat penyakit hipertensi dibandingkan dengan yang tidak ada riwayat memiliki risiko tekanan darah sistolik tinggi 93,2 kali lipat lebih besar (ORa= 93,21; p= 0,001 Kesimpulan: Usia 40-65 tahun dan memiliki riwayat hipertensi meningkatkan risiko tekanan darah sistolik tinggi di antara pilot sipil di Indonesia. Kata kunci: tekanan darah sistolik, total jam terbang, pilot sipil, Indonesia.  Abstract Background: Systolic high blood pressure among civilian pilots among others will cause cardiovascular disease and this condition will disrupt the flight.The purpose of this study was to identified the dominant factors related to high systolic blood pressure in the civilian pilots. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling method on a pilot who performed periodic

  14. Analysis of new workers' compensation claims in the Department of Defense civilian workforce, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cameron J L; Bigley, Daniel P; Mallon, Timothy M

    2015-03-01

    This study of Department of Defense (DoD) civilian employees Workers' Compensation (WC) claims for chargeback year 2000 through 2012 aimed to analyze the frequency, rates, and costs of WC claims representing 5% of the DoD annual personnel budget. A multiyear cross-sectional study of WC claims data identified the top five most frequent causes, natures, and anatomical sites; changes in frequency, worker age, costs, and time were evaluated for trends. The annual frequency and rate of new DoD WC claims decreased over time, whereas costs per new claim have increased. New claim frequencies, rates, and costs aggregated in older age groups. The increasing trend in costs of each claim and the overall program costs presents a need for case management. Analysis of WC claims data is necessary to help target injury prevention efforts and reduce program costs.

  15. Preventing fire-related occupational deaths: residential sprinklers save civilians, property, and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Frattaroli, Shannon; Somers, Scott

    2015-02-01

    Residential fires are an important public health problem, with proven strategies to prevent death and injury. Residential sprinkler systems are one such strategy. While the benefits of this technology tend to center on civilian lives and property, there are also benefits for firefighters. The purpose of this article is to describe these benefits and discuss residential sprinkler systems as a strategy to reduce the risk of firefighter injury and death. Because of the benefits for firefighter safety, firefighters' knowledge about fire prevention, and their authority on this topic, firefighters are an essential stakeholder for raising awareness among the public and policymakers about the existence of and benefits associated with residential sprinkler systems. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  16. Experiences of civilian nurses in triage during the Iran-Iraq War: An oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Kako, Mayumi; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani

    2017-10-01

    Nurses played a critical role in performing triage during the Iran-Iraq War. However, their experiences in triage have not been discussed. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the triage experiences of civilian nurses during the Iran-Iraq War. Oral history method and in-depth interviews were used to collect data to gain the nurses' experiences in triage. Four themes were extracted from the data, which were the development of triage, challenging environment to perform triage, development of mobile triage teams, and challenges of triage chemical victims for nurses. Triage is an important skill for nurses to manage critical situations such as disasters and wars. Nurses have to be competent in performing triage. Involvement in critical situations helps the nurses learn and gain more experience on how to manage unexpected events. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. China's First Civilian Three-line-array Stereo Mapping Satellite: ZY-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Deren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available On January 9th,2012,China launched its first civilian three-line-array stereo mapping satellite——ZY-3.ZY-3 is equipped with 2 front and back view TDI CCD cameras having the resolution better than 3.5 m and the width better than 50 km,1 TDI CCD camera with the resolution better than 2.1 m and the width better than 50 km and 1 multispectral camera with the resolution better than 5.8 m.In order to ensure accuracy and reliability,ZY-3 adopts a large platform which is equipped with double-frequency GPS and more gyroes.ZY-3 obtains its geolocation accuracy better than 15 m without GCPs,geolocation accuracy better than 3 m and plane geolocation accuracy better than 4 m with GCPs which completely satisfies 1∶50 000 mapping precision.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  20. Somatic distress among Kosovar civilian war survivors:relationship to trauma exposure and the mediating role of experiential avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ford, J.D.; Risch, A.K.; Morina, B.; Stangier, U.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of somatic distress (SD) in the aftermath of war, and the role of a process hypothesized to contribute to posttraumatic stress: experiential avoidance. Methods: Civilian war survivors (n = 163) from Kosovo were assessed in structured

  1. Civil Military Relations in the Modern Democratic Argentina Era: Army Soldiers as Military Professionals Versus Civilians in Uniform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    1983. In the wake of a disastrous military campaign fought against Great Britain for sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas ), the...discredit suffered by the Army about the War Against Subversion, and the Malvinas Islands war, President Menem reinforced civilian control over the military

  2. 77 FR 39655 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)/TRICARE: TRICARE Retail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...-2012-HA-0049] RIN 0720-AB57 Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)/TRICARE: TRICARE Retail Pharmacy Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense (DoD... CHAMPUS/TRICARE: TRICARE Retail Pharmacy Program on Tuesday, June 26, 2012 (77 FR 38019). This rule is...

  3. The development and implications of peer emotional support for student service members/veterans and civilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Barry, Adam E; Mroczek, Daniel K; Macdermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-04-01

    Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian counterparts and be at risk for social isolation. The present study compared the development and implications of emotional support from peers among 199 student service members/veterans and 181 civilian students through 3 distinct occasions over the course of 1 calendar year. Data were collected via electronic survey. Measured constructs included perceived emotional support from university friends, mental health, alcohol use, and academic functioning. A series of multilevel models revealed that student service members/veterans reported less emotional support from their peers compared with their civilian counterparts; yet, emotional support from peers increased similarly for both groups over time. Although, increasing peer emotional support was generally related to better academic and mental health outcomes for both groups, the links between emotional support and mental health were stronger for civilian students. Results suggest that mental health practitioners, particularly those on college campuses, should be prepared to deal with veteran-specific experiences that occur before and during college.

  4. Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Health Functioning in Women Veterans: Differential Outcomes Associated with Military and Civilian Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suris, Alina; Lind, Lisa; Kashner, T. Michael; Borman, Patricia D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined psychiatric, physical, and quality-of-life functioning in a sample of 270 women veterans receiving outpatient treatment at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed regarding their civilian (CSA) and military sexual assault (MSA) histories, and data regarding quality of life and health outcomes…

  5. The Use of University Services and Student Retention: Differential Links for Student Service Members or Veterans and Civilian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Kenona H.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M.; Barry, Adam E.

    2018-01-01

    Grounded in research and theory on college student retention, this study assessed differences in the use of various university services and the influence of key personnel on retention-related outcomes of student service members or veterans (SSM/Vs) compared with civilian students. Participants included 386 students, 199 (154 male, 45 female) of…

  6. 75 FR 6335 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)/TRICARE: Inclusion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)/TRICARE: Inclusion of TRICARE Retail Pharmacy Program in Federal Procurement of Pharmaceuticals...

  7. [Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    Wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. The study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. The mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. Among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. the mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Multidrug-resistant chronic osteomyelitis complicating war injury in Iraqi civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard A; Ronat, Jean-Baptiste; Fakhri, Rasheed M; Herard, Patrick; Blackwell, Nikki; Abgrall, Sophie; Anderson, Deverick J

    2011-07-01

    War-related orthopedic injury is frequently complicated by environmental contamination and delays in management, placing victims at increased risk for long-term infectious complications. We describe, among Iraqi civilians with war-related chronic osteomyelitis, the bacteriology of infection at the time of admission. In the Médecins Sans Frontières Reconstructive Surgery Project in Amman, Jordan, we retrospectively reviewed baseline demographics and results of initial intraoperative surgical cultures among Iraqi civilians with suspected osteomyelitis. One hundred thirty-seven patients (90% male; median age, 35 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 28-46]; median time since initial injury, 19 months [IQR, 10-35]) were admitted with suspected chronic osteomyelitis after war-related injury. One hundred seven patients had a positive intraoperative culture. Before arrival, patients had undergone a median of 4 (IQR, 2-6) surgical procedures in Iraq. Fifty-nine (55%) of 107 patients with confirmed osteomyelitis had a multidrug-resistant (MDR) organism isolated at admission: cefepime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (n = 40), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 16), and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 3). An association of borderline significance existed between a history of more than two prior surgical procedures in Iraq and an MDR isolate at program entry (multivariate: odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-30.6; p = 0.064). Health care actors, including Iraqi health facilities and humanitarian medical organizations, must be aware of the link between chronic war injury and antimicrobial drug resistance in this region and should be prepared for the management challenges involved with the treatment of chronic drug-resistant osteomyelitis.

  10. Treatment of civilian and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder with topiramate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Miranda R; Gilbert, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the use of topiramate for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to June week 4, 2010), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to May 2010), ISI Web of Science (1945 to July 3, 2010), and Iowa Drug Information Service (searched July 6, 2010) were searched using the terms posttraumatic stress disorder and topiramate. Guidelines and other sources were identified from bibliography searches. All English-language human studies and case reports that evaluated the use of topiramate for treatment of PTSD were evaluated. One case report, 1 case series, 2 open-label trials, and 1 placebo-controlled trial that used topiramate (monotherapy or adjunct) to treat civilian PTSD were identified and evaluated. The case report and case series reported subjective reduction of symptoms, and the open-label trials reported a significant reduction in PTSD Checklist-Civilian score. The placebo-controlled trial found no significant difference in Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score. One open-label trial and 2 placebo-controlled trials that used topiramate in combat-related PTSD were identified and evaluated. The open-label trial reported a significant reduction in CAPS score, and 1 placebo-controlled trial reported a statistically significant difference in CAPS score. However, the other placebo-controlled trial found no significant differences. In some of the trials evaluated, the clinical significance of outcomes reported is difficult to determine. Adverse effects were reported throughout the trials but generally were not considered serious. Based on the limited evidence available, topiramate is a possible alternative or adjunct option for patients with PTSD that is refractory to standard treatments.

  11. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.

  12. Head-and-face shape variations of U.S. civilian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Shu, Chang; Xi, Pengcheng; Bergman, Michael; Joseph, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify head-and-face shape variations of U.S. civilian workers using modern methods of shape analysis. The purpose of this study was based on previously highlighted changes in U.S. civilian worker head-and-face shape over the last few decades - touting the need for new and better fitting respirators - as well as the study's usefulness in designing more effective personal protective equipment (PPE) - specifically in the field of respirator design. The raw scan three-dimensional (3D) data for 1169 subjects were parameterized using geometry processing techniques. This process allowed the individual scans to be put in correspondence with each other in such a way that statistical shape analysis could be performed on a dense set of 3D points. This process also cleaned up the original scan data such that the noise was reduced and holes were filled in. The next step, statistical analysis of the variability of the head-and-face shape in the 3D database, was conducted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques. Through these analyses, it was shown that the space of the head-and-face shape was spanned by a small number of basis vectors. Less than 50 components explained more than 90% of the variability. Furthermore, the main mode of variations could be visualized through animating the shape changes along the PCA axes with computer software in executable form for Windows XP. The results from this study in turn could feed back into respirator design to achieve safer, more efficient product style and sizing. Future study is needed to determine the overall utility of the point cloud-based approach for the quantification of facial morphology variation and its relationship to respirator performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  14. Satellite Surveillance of Nuclear Plant, Assisting IAEA Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileikowsky, Curt

    1997-01-01

    One of the great problems for world society today is what to do with the 100 000 tons of spent fuel — produced by 400 power reactors in over 30 nations — that contain 1000 tons of civilian plutonium and that will double in volume over the next 10 to 15 years. That future amount of civilian plutonium represents material for 400 000 nuclear bombs: simple ones, relatively easily made, ideal for terrorists, of the strength of 10-70% of the Hiroshima bomb. Because of this risk, spent fuel has to be safeguarded for 10 000 years. The most straightforward way to eliminate the need for safeguarding spent fuel would be to burn it. That could best be done with an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor, i.e. one that cannot function without the assistance of a 1-2.5 GeV proton accelerator supplying the lacking neutrons and which therefore makes for an extremely safe plant that cannot run amok (as Chernobyl did for example). 100 of such plant could burn all the plutonium produced by the 400 present-type reactors in the world and simultaneously produce profitable electric power. But such a scheme requires proof that the accelerators could not themselves be used for producing nuclear bomb material. That utterly important task for world society could be significantly supported by the new commercial high resolution observation satellites.

  15. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  16. Design of laser afocal zoom expander system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lian; Zeng, Chun-Mei; Hu, Tian-Tian

    2018-01-01

    Laser afocal zoom expander system due to the beam diameter variable, can be used in the light sheet illumination microscope to observe the samples of different sizes. Based on the principle of afocal zoom system, the laser collimation and beam expander system with a total length of less than 110mm, 6 pieces of spherical lens and a beam expander ratio of 10 is designed by using Zemax software. The system is focused on laser with a wavelength of 532nm, divergence angle of less than 4mrad and incident diameter of 4mm. With the combination of 6 spherical lens, the beam divergence angle is 0.4mrad at the maximum magnification ratio, and the RMS values at different rates are less than λ/4. This design is simple in structure and easy to process and adjust. It has certain practical value.

  17. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving......Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... the materiality level or KAM. As a consequence, standard setters should carefully analyse the effect of additional information before making decisions on expanding the content of the audit report. Such expansions are not necessarily perceived as useful by stakeholders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd...

  18. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  19. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k...

  20. Nuclear technology and knowledge management in radioprotection; Tecnologia nuclear y gestion del conocimiento en Radioproteccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A.

    2007-07-01

    The cycle of life of nuclear power plant expands along seven well defined phases lasting about a century and therefore employing three successive generations. Each one of such phases is in need of specific knowledge on radiation protection matters. The nuclear moratorium introduced in Spain in 1983 suspended all those activities related to site selection, design and construction of new units and their commissioning. As it does not seem to be prudent to renounce to nuclear energy on a permanent basis, nuclear utilities, engineering and service companies, academic, research and state organizations agencies should establish programmes to recuperate the radiological knowledge and experience, among other subjects, acquired in the interrupted activities. Likewise, those responsible for the operation of nuclear power plants and the follow up activities should also establish knowledge management activities on radiation protection and other subject matters in line with the IAEA recommendations. (Author) 19 refs.

  1. Function of nuclear membrane proteins in shaping the nuclear envelope integrity during closed mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ju; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2017-06-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) not only protects the genome from being directly accessed by detrimental agents but also regulates genome organization. Breaches in NE integrity threaten genome stability and impede cellular function. Nonetheless, the NE constantly remodels, and NE integrity is endangered in dividing or differentiating cells. Specifically, in unicellular eukaryotes undergoing closed mitosis, the NE expands instead of breaking down during chromosome segregation. The newly assembling nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) penetrate the existing NE in interphase. A peculiar example of NE remodelling during nuclear differentiation in Tetrahymena involves formation of the redundant NE and clustered NPCs. Even under these conditions, the NE remains intact. Many recent studies on unicellular organisms have revealed that nuclear membrane proteins, such as LEM-domain proteins, play a role in maintaining NE integrity. This review summarizes and discusses how nuclear membrane proteins participate in NE integrity. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  3. Applications of nuclear physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  4. Keeping the Momentum and Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dion, Heather M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaMont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-22

    LANL has 70 years of experience in nuclear forensics and supports the community through a wide variety of efforts and leveraged capabilities: Expanding the understanding of nuclear forensics, providing training on nuclear forensics methods, and developing bilateral relationships to expand our understanding of nuclear forensic science. LANL remains highly supportive of several key organizations tasked with carrying forth the Nuclear Security Summit messages: IAEA, GICNT, and INTERPOL. Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements. Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable for nuclear material and environmental forensic characterization. Los Alamos National Laboratory uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met. Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).

  5. Comparative analysis of prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimah CU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carol Uzoamaka Chimah,1 Prosper Obunikem Uche Adogu,2 Kofoworola Odeyemi,3 Amobi Linus Ilika4 1Medical Department, Ministry of Defence Headquarters, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine and PHC, Nnamdi Azikiwe University/Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Health, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria.Methods: Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents’ sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and Χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05.Results: The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%] compared to civilians (21 [19.4%] were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000. The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek

  6. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ralf Sube, an experienced compiler of three wellknown four-language reference works has now prepared this glossary of nuclear engineering terms in English, German, French and Russian. Based on the proven lexicography of the Technik-Worterbuch series, it comprises about 30,000 terms in each language covering the following: Nuclear and Atomic Physics; Nuclear Radiation and Isotopes; Nuclear Materials; Nuclear Facilties; Nuclear Power Industry; Nuclear Weapons.

  7. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  8. Replicating an expanded genetic alphabet in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to replicate an unnatural base pair in living cells. This study highlights the technologies developed to create a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet and the potential challenges of moving forward. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  10. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  11. Expanding the Reader Landscape of Histone Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Bridgers, Joseph B; Strahl, Brian D

    2017-04-04

    In this issue of Structure,Klein et al. (2017) expand our understanding of what reader domains bind to by showing that MORF, a double PHD domain containing lysine acetyltransferase, is a preferential reader of histone lysine acylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  13. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  14. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic ...

  15. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  16. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 216-225. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0216-0225 ...

  17. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  18. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  19. Discrete Groups, Expanding Graphs and Invariant Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Presents the solutions to two problems: the first is the construction of expanding graphs - graphs which are of fundamental importance for communication networks and computer science, and the second is the Ruziewicz problem concerning the finitely additive invariant measures on spheres

  20. Expanding Educational Excellence: The Power of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Winn, Donna-Marie; Harradine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore four major barriers to academic success that must be addressed, briefly describe two projects that have worked to address these barriers, and make recommendations for moving forward as they work to expand educational excellence for all students. They provide examples of the myriad ways in which schools have the…

  1. Expanded Core Curriculum: 12 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Keri; Blankenship, Karen; Hatlen, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in teachers' and parents' understanding and implementation of or philosophy on the implementation of the content areas of the expanded core curriculum for students who are visually impaired. The results demonstrated some changes since the original survey results were reported in 1998 and a discrepancy between the…

  2. CLASSICS WHY THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (H. G. Wells, The Time Machine and other Stories). WHY IS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDING? Chemical Explosion and Astrophysical Explosion Similarities and Differences. The expansion of the Universe is a reliably established fact. There was the “Big Bang” about 15 billion years ago. But why did it happen? What are the ...

  3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and the distances of galaxies. H ubble also did a lot of pioneering w ork on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at H ubble's law and discuss how it ...

  4. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  5. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    compositions and (b) unravelling of the contributions of stress-depth and composition-depth profiles in expanded austenite layers are summarised and discussed. It is shown through simulation of line profiles that the combined effects of composition gradients, stress gradients and stacking fault gradients can...

  6. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  7. Nuclear "waffles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  9. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  10. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  11. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  12. Trends in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  13. Nuclear speckles are involved in nuclear aggregation of PABPN1 and in the pathophysiology of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoechea, Rocío; Tapia, Olga; Casafont, Iñigo; Berciano, José; Lafarga, Miguel; Berciano, María T

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear speckles are essential nuclear compartments involved in the assembly, delivery and recycling of pre-mRNA processing factors, and in the post-transcriptional processing of pre-mRNAs. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is caused by a small expansion of the polyalanine tract in the poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Aggregation of expanded PABPN1 into intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in skeletal muscle fibers is the pathological hallmark of OPMD. In this study what we have analyzed in muscle fibers of OPMD patients and in primary cultures of human myoblasts are the relationships between nuclear speckles and INIs, and the contribution of the former to the biogenesis of the latter. While nuclear speckles concentrate snRNP splicing factors and PABPN1 in control muscle fibers, they are depleted of PABPN1 and appear closely associated with INIs in muscle fibers of OPMD patients. The induction of INI formation in human myoblasts expressing either wild type GFP-PABPN1 or expanded GFP-PABPN1-17ala demonstrates that the initial aggregation of PABPN1 proteins and their subsequent growth in INIs occurs at the edges of the nuclear speckles. Moreover, the growing of INIs gradually depletes PABPN1 proteins and poly(A) RNA from nuclear speckles, although the existence of these nuclear compartments is preserved. Time-lapse experiments in cultured myoblasts confirm nuclear speckles as biogenesis sites of PABPN1 inclusions. Given the functional importance of nuclear speckles in the post-transcriptional processing of pre-mRNAs, the INI-dependent molecular reorganization of these nuclear compartments in muscle fibers may cause a severe dysfunction in nuclear trafficking and processing of polyadenylated mRNAs, thereby contributing to the molecular pathophysiology of OPMD. Our results emphasize the potential importance of nuclear speckles as nuclear targets of neuromuscular disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  15. State participation in the creation of fuel-cell-based power plants to meet civilian demand in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekhota, F.N.

    1996-04-01

    At present, up to 70% of Russian territory is not covered by central electrical distribution systems. In the field of fuel cell power plants, Russia is at parity with the leading foreign countries with respect to both technical and economic performance and the level of research being conducted. Civilian use of these generating systems on a broad scale, however, demands that a number of problems be solved, particularly those relating to the need for longer plant service life, lower unit cost of electricity, etc. The Ministry of Science and technical Policy of the Russian Federation issued a decree creating a new are of concentration, `Fuel Cell Based Power Plants for Civilian Needs,` in the GNTPR `Environmentally Clean Power Industry,` which will form the basis for financial support in this area out of the federal budget.

  16. No one leaves unchanged: insights for civilian mental health care professionals into the military experience and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Jose E; Weiss, Eugenia L; Yarvis, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to elucidate an understanding of military culture and experience, so as to better frame the services offered by civilian clinicians. Service members indoctrinated into such an influential culture can experience adjustment problems upon reentry into the larger society, and thus professional counselors and social workers must be ready to address the reintegration process with veteran clients. Furthermore, this article highlights a few of the major mental health concerns that are prevalent in combat veterans, especially for those returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), and presents a brief overview of treatment modalities implemented both within and outside of the military. Practical therapeutic suggestions for clinicians with little or no knowledge of the military are discussed. The objective is to educate and prepare civilian mental health practitioners to administer culturally sensitive prevention and intervention services to meet the unique needs of this population.

  17. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death of first-degree family members 9 years after the war in Kosovo. Compared to participants without war-related death of family members, those who had experienced such loss had signficantly higher prevalence rates of MDE, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and reported a lower quality of life 9 years after the war. These results indicate that bereaved civilian survivors of war experience significant mental health problems many years after the war.

  18. [Typhus fever morbidity among the military personnel and civilians in the regions around Volga river during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raĭkova, S V; Zav'ialov, A I

    2013-07-01

    The article is concerned to the materials about epidemiologic situation of typhus fever in the regions around Volga river (Saratovsky, Samarsky and others) during World War I (1914-1918) among the military personnel of the Russian army and among the civilians. The main reasons for spread of infection, ways of the transmission, and also measures for decreasing of level of morbidity on the different stages of evacuation of patients with typhus fever in the safer hospitals are shown. The most important methods of fighting against epidemic of typhus fever were: isolation of patients in separate special hospitals, desincection and disinfection measures in the foci of infection and organization appropriate sanitary conditions for military man in the army and among civilians. Acquired valuable experience of territorial and military doctors during the period of epidemic of typhus fever allowed receiving complex effective antiepidemic measures of fighting and prevention from this disease.

  19. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among active duty U.S. Army personnel versus U.S. civilians, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Joseph E; Skopp, Nancy A; Reger, Mark A; Gladden, Matt; Smolenski, Derek J; Floyd, C Faye; Gahm, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    To help understand suicide among soldiers, we compared suicide events between active duty U.S. Army versus civilian decedents to identify differences and inform military prevention efforts. We linked 141 Army suicide records from 2005 to 2010 to National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) data. We described the decedents' military background and compared their precipitators of death captured in NVDRS to those of demographically matched civilian suicide decedents. Both groups commonly had mental health and intimate partner precipitating circumstances, but soldier decedents less commonly disclosed suicide intent. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Budget Discipline In Nigeria: A Critical Evaluation of Military and Civilian Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Caleb Egbide

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nigeria budgetary practices havebeen characterised with indiscipline and flagrantdisregards to budgetary rules and procedures. This culture has been substantially attributed to the longyears of military rule. This paper juxtaposes military and civilian regimes in Nigeria with respect toadherence to budgetary estimates. Eight years for each regime were purposively considered (1991–1998 and 1999-2006. Time series data were retrieved from secondary sources and analyzed usingsimple variances, percentages, descriptive statistics as well as independent T-Test. The paper foundthat although budget discipline under democratic regime is arithmetically higher that budgetdiscipline under military system, the difference is not statistically significant. It was thereforerecommended that since budget is a law (appropriation Act; it should be accorded the same respectlike any other act of the National Assembly as a justification for the democratic tenet of the rule oflaw. To that endbudget implementation and control should be judiciously enforced with a view toachieving the lofty objectives that accompanies each year’s budget, as well as reduce the negativepressure that budget indiscipline engenders.

  1. Estimates of auditory risk from outdoor impulse noise. II: Civilian firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Gregory A; Wong, Adam; Liebe, Kevin; Lynd, James

    2009-01-01

    Firearm impulses are common noise exposures in the United States. This study records, describes and analyzes impulses produced outdoors by civilian firearms with respect to the amount of auditory risk they pose to the unprotected listener under various listening conditions. Risk estimates were obtained using three contemporary damage risk criteria (DRC) including a waveform parameter-based approach (peak SPL and B-duration), an energy-based criterion (A-weighted SEL and equivalent continuous level) and a physiological model (AHAAH). Results from these DRC were converted into a number of maximum permissible unprotected exposures to facilitate interpretation. Acoustic characteristics of firearm impulses differed substantially across guns, ammunition, and microphone location. The type of gun, ammunition and the microphone location all significantly affected estimates of auditory risk from firearms. Vast differences in maximum permissible exposures were observed; the rank order of the differences varied with the source of the impulse. Unprotected exposure to firearm noise is not recommended, but people electing to fire a gun without hearing protection should be advised to minimize auditory risk through careful selection of ammunition and shooting environment. Small-caliber guns with long barrels and guns loaded with the least powerful ammunition tend to be associated with the least auditory risk.

  2. Cranes, Crops and Conservation: Understanding Human Perceptions of Biodiversity Conservation in South Korea's Civilian Control Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Steiner, Frederick; Mueller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    South Korea's Civilian Control Zone (CCZ), a relatively untouched area due to tight military oversight since the end of Korean War, has received considerable attention nationally and internationally for its rich biodiversity. However, the exclusion of local communities from the process of defining problems and goals and of setting priorities for biodiversity conservation has halted a series of biodiversity conservation efforts. Through qualitative research, we explored CCZ farmers' views of key problems and issues and also the sources of their opposition to the government-initiated conservation approaches. Key findings include the farmers' concerns about the impact of conservation restrictions on their access to necessary resources needed to farm, wildlife impacts on the value of rice and other agricultural goods they produce, and farmers' strong distrust of government, the military, and planners, based on their experiences with past conservation processes. The findings regarding farmers' perceptions should prove useful for the design of future participatory planning processes for biodiversity conservation in the CCZ. This case highlights how conservative measures, perceived to be imposed from above—however scientifically valuable—can be undermined and suggests the value that must be placed on communication among planners and stakeholders.

  3. Politics, Police Accountability, and Public Health: Civilian Review in Newark, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alecia

    2016-04-01

    Police brutality, a longstanding civil rights issue, has returned to the forefront of American public debate. A growing body of public health research shows that excessive use of force by police and racial profiling have adverse effects on health for African Americans and other marginalized groups. Yet, interventions to monitor unlawful policing have been met with fierce opposition at the federal, state, and local levels. On April 30, 2015, the mayor of Newark, New Jersey signed an executive order establishing a Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) to monitor the Newark Police Department (NPD). Using a mixed-methods approach, this study examined how advocates and government actors accomplished this recent policy change in the face of police opposition and after a 50-year history of unsuccessful attempts in Newark. Drawing on official public documents, news media, and interviews conducted in April and May 2015, I propose that: (1) a Department of Justice investigation of the NPD, (2) the activist background of the Mayor and his relationships with community organizations, and (3) the momentum provided by the national Black Lives Matter movement were pivotal in overcoming political obstacles to reform. Examining the history of CCRB adoption in Newark suggests when and where advocates may intervene to promote policing reforms in other US cities.

  4. Civilian adult self injections of atropine-trimedoxime (TMB4) auto-injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Layish, Ido; Krivoy, Amir; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Rotman, Eran; Haim, Shmuel Bar; Yehezkelli, Yoav; Kozer, Eran

    2006-01-01

    The clinical effects of self injections of atropine-trimedoxime auto-injectors distributed to the civilian population as a field antidote for nerve agent attack were assessed. Data on self injections by adults (> or = 18 years) were collected from the Israel Poison Information Center and a hospital Emergency Department's records during a 2-year period. The data included demographics, time interval from injection, type of auto-injector, clinical manifestations and atropinization score. Sixty-five patients, all with unintentional self injections, were reported. Systemic atropine effects were observed in 24 patients, but no severe atropinization. The atropinization score was significantly higher in the 2 mg atropine dose group than in the two lower dose groups, which were in the normal range. No specific adverse effects attributable to trimedoxime were observed. Intravenous fluids and physostigmine were not required. Only mild reactions were observed following self-injection of atropine trimedoxime auto-injectors in adults, attesting to their relative safety under these conditions.

  5. Trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms associate with violence in inner city civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillikin, Cynthia; Habib, Leah; Evces, Mark; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Sanders, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    Understanding whether a history of psychological trauma is associated with perpetrating aggressive and violent behavior is of critical importance to public health. This relationship is especially important to study within urban areas where violence is prevalent. In this paper we examined whether a history of trauma or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in inner city civilians was associated with violent behavior. Data were collected from over 1900 primary care patients at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. Childhood trauma history was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and adult trauma history with the Traumatic Events Inventory (TEI). PTSD symptoms were measured with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and violent behaviors were measured with the Behavior Questionnaire (BQ). Using these measures we studied violent behavior in the inner city and its association with childhood or adult trauma history or PTSD. Trauma, PTSD and violence were all prevalent in this at-risk urban cohort. Perpetrating interpersonal violence was associated with a history childhood and adult trauma history, and with PTSD symptoms and diagnosis. An association between violent behavior and PTSD diagnosis was maintained after controlling for other pertinent variables such as demographics and presence of depression. Our findings point to a dysregulation of aggressive and violent behavior that may be a consequence of trauma and PTSD. These data indicate that more effective PTSD screening and treatment may help to reduce urban violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A PC-based discrete event simulation model of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airth, G.L. [Hands-on GPSS Training, Corvallis, OR (United States); Joy, D.S.; Nehls, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A System Simulation Model has been developed for the Department of Energy to simulate the movement of individual waste packages (spent fuel assemblies and fuel containers) through the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). A discrete event simulation language, GPSS/PC, which runs on an IBM/PC and operates under DOS 5.0, mathematically represents the movement and processing of radioactive waste packages through the CRWMS and the interaction of these packages with the equipment in the various facilities. This model can be used to quantify the impacts of different operating schedules, operational rules, system configurations, and equipment reliability and availability considerations on the performance of processes comprising the CRWMS and how these factors combine to determine overall system performance for the purpose of making system design decisions. The major features of the System Simulation Model are: the ability to reference characteristics of the different types of radioactive waste (age, burnup, etc.) in order to make operational and/or system design decisions, the ability to place stochastic variations on operational parameters such as processing time and equipment outages, and the ability to include a rigorous simulation of the transportation system. Output from the model includes the numbers, types, and characteristics of waste packages at selected points in the CRWMS and the extent to which various resources will be utilized in order to transport, process, and emplace the waste.

  7. A novel flight surgeon training model at a joint military and civilian surgical residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoucy, Erik S; Zakaluzny, Scott A; Galante, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    Graduating military preliminary interns are often required to fill flight surgeon billets. General surgery preliminary interns get experience evaluating surgical and trauma patients, but receive very little training in primary care and flight medicine. At a joint military and civilian training program, we developed a supplemental curriculum to help transition our interns into flight medicine. From 2013 to 2016, we developed a lecture series focused on aerospace medicine, primary care, and specialty topics including dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pediatrics, psychiatry, and women's health. During the 2016 iteration attended by 10 interns, pre- and post-participation 10-item Likert scale surveys were administered. Questions focused on perceived preparedness for primary care role and overall enthusiasm for flight medicine. Open-ended surveys from 2013 to 2016 were also used to gauge the effect of the curriculum. The composite number of agreement responses (indicating increased comfort with presented material) increased 63% after course completion. Disagreement responses and neutral responses decreased 78% and 30%, respectively. Open-ended surveys from 14 participants showed an overall positive impression of the curriculum with all indicating it aided their transition to flight medicine. Survey responses indicate an overall perceived benefit from participation in the curriculum with more confidence in primary care topics and improved transition to a flight medicine tour. This model for supplemental aerospace medicine and primary care didactics should be integrated into any residency program responsible for training military preliminary interns who may serve as flight surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Nuclear energy and process heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a

  9. Civil-Military Relations in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka: Successful Civilian Consolidation in the Face of Political Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    economic growth and at the same time, strong democratic developments with the powerful civilian government.3 In this context, this investigation attempts...Muttukrishna Sarvananthan, “Sri Lanka: Putting Entrepreneurship at the Heart of Economic Revival in the North, East, and Beyond,” Contemporary South Asia...Lanka illustrated an unusual case of a country maintaining economic growth and development during and after a conflict. This translated into

  10. Civil Military Relations in Turkey: Motives Behind the Shift of Power from Military to Civilians After the Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    REPORT DATE March 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CIVIL MILTARY RELATIONS IN TURKEY: MOTIVES BEHIND...made it different from all kinds of civilian professions. Huntington makes comparisons between an officer and a dentist and he concludes that...officer breaks this responsibility in order to follow his personal ambitions, he breaks also the fabric of society .4 Huntington’s sensible

  11. Army Corps of Engineers and Gulf Region Division contingency contracting in Iraq/Afghanistan: sustaining civilian voluntary workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Brosch, Paige; Wigfall, Henry; Clemons, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Joint Applied Project The objective of this project is to describe, analyze, and recommend the strategy and process of using an Army volunteer civilian contracting deployable workforce in Iraq and Afghanistan particularly in terms of the U S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) accomplishing the contingency contracting mission, and completing the construction portion of the reconstruction efforts. The Corps has been extensively involved in the nation building effort in Iraq/Afghanistan usi...

  12. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence in Austrian Adults: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study among Civilians and Military Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Heimo Lagler; Wolfgang Poeppl; Heidi Winkler; Harald Herkner; Angelus Faas; Gerhard Mooseder; Heinz Burgmann

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is globally increasing. The present study was performed to investigate the HEV seroprevalence, exposure risks as well as occupational risks for military personnel in Austria, a Central European country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study was performed in 997 healthy Austrian adults, professional soldiers and civilians. Routine laboratory and HEV specific antibodies were determined. In addition, epidemiological ...

  13. Retaining a Resilient and Enduring Workforce: Examination of Duty/Position Rotational Assignments for Civilian Acquisition Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-12

    1946 and 1964). The employees replacing “Generation X” and Baby Boomers are Millennials ; “ninety-one percent of Millennials (born 1977–1997) expect to...civilian employees are composed primarily of “Generation X” (people born roughly between 1965 and 1979) and Baby Boomers (people born roughly between...ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. 81 Meister, J. (2012, August 14). Job hopping is the ‘new normal’ for Millennials : Three ways to prevent a

  14. A Comparative Study of Job Burnout in Army Public Affairs Commissioned Officers and Department of the Army Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    34 David Friesen studied occupational burnout in two samples: 1,191 public school teachers and 190 principals and vice principals. Overall job stress ...drained, used up, fatigued , burned ..t, frustrated, stressed , and being at the end of their rope (Maslach 30). One civilian reported loving her...affairs. Much has been written 3about stress and battle fatigue . The Army spends a great deal of time and effort in preventing and reducing stress S

  15. U.S. Department of Defense Experiences with Substituting Government Civilian Employees for Military Personnel: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    conversions are executed mitigates the relevance of the labor market analysis and magnifies the risk of failing to hire suitable civilian replacements...One expert described such an instance: “The initial market analysis showed we had folks in the area with those skills , but when we went to get them...funds are appropriated. Excessive delays between authorization and execution should be avoided so that the conversions can be executed before market

  16. Saint Louis Center for Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills: A Collaborative Air Force-Civilian Trauma Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) June 2014 – December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Saint Louis Center for Sustainment of Trauma and...Readiness Skills: A Collaborative Air Force-Civilian Trauma Skills Training Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...in support of these campaigns have had to maintain a high degree of clinical skill to effectively render care to wounded combatants, a necessity

  17. National Service Programs and Their Effects on Military Manpower and Civilian Youth Problems. Budget Issue Paper for Fiscal Year 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Office Washington, D.C. 20402’ PREFACE The related problems of military recruitment and civilian youth unemployment and inadequate education and...as a means of dealing with the continuing, severe problem of youth unemployment CURRENT YOUTH PROBLEMS AND POLICIES Many issues and problems...concerning youth persist. These include: requirements for military manpower, unemployment among teenagers and young adults, unequal and inadequate

  18. Do Digital Social Networks Foster Civilian Partecipation among Millenials? Kitchenware Revolution and 15M Democratic Regeneration Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Calzada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays “education for citizenship” is presented as a solution for many of the political, social, and co-existential issues in Western democratic societies in order to tackle dysfunctionalities produced by globalization, populism, migration, information and communication technologies (ICTs, and violence. At the same time, particularly among “millennials” or “digital natives”, lack of civil commitment and apathy toward politics as a whole contrasts with their intensive usage of digital social networks, or social media. By examining in-depth the scientific literature about the potential conceptual correlations between the use of “digital social networks” and civilian participation among “millennials”, this paper explores two widely studied paradigmatic events of democratic regeneration: the “Kitchenware Revolution” in Iceland after the financial collapse on 6 October 2008, and the “15M Movement” in Spain after 15 May 2011. Despite the substantial relevance that digital social networks played in both cases, this paper wonders to what extent digital social networks foster millennials’ civilian participation, when, paradoxically, they seem to be the population target who contests the status quo but who is not actually being represented democratically in the formal political system. The author concludes that digital social networks could initially foster civilian participation, but they should be seen as a new artefact that, itself, does not necessarily lead to a better political representation of millennials. As well, this paper argues against the widespread assumption regarding the correlation between socioeconomic and educational status and Internet usage factors of millennials when it comes to civilian participation, particularly in extreme political mobilisation events such as the Kitchenware Revolution and 15M.

  19. Spanning "Bleeding" Boundaries: Humanitarianism, NGOs, and the Civilian-Military Nexus in the Post-Cold War Era

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Nancy C.

    2010-01-01

    How do nongovernmental (NGO), international (IO), and military organizations cope with their dependencies and address their perceptual and real diff erences in order to coordinate their fi eld operations? Th is question is addressed through the creation of a matrix grouping civilian (NGOs and IOs) and military operations into four general types: peacekeeping; disaster relief; complex humanitarian emergencies/warfare; and stabilization and reconstruction. Second, using ...

  20. Parameter estimation for an expanding universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieci Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parameter estimation for excitations of Dirac fields in the expanding Robertson–Walker universe. We employ quantum metrology techniques to demonstrate the possibility for high precision estimation for the volume rate of the expanding universe. We show that the optimal precision of the estimation depends sensitively on the dimensionless mass m˜ and dimensionless momentum k˜ of the Dirac particles. The optimal precision for the ratio estimation peaks at some finite dimensionless mass m˜ and momentum k˜. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by choosing the probe state as an eigenvector of the hamiltonian. This occurs because the largest quantum Fisher information is obtained by performing projective measurements implemented by the projectors onto the eigenvectors of specific probe states.

  1. Microwave Energy for Expanding Perlite Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Aguilar-Garib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perlite is an igneous mineral composed by silicon, aluminum, oxygen and water. It can be expanded by heating it up at temperatures above 870 °C, then it becomes plastic, and the steam formed inside pressures out of the mineral. Maximum expansion is possible if the particles are heated up quickly, since the expansion degree strongly depends on the remaining water in the particles at the time that they reach the temperature where they become plastic. The typical expansion process consist in pouring the particles in rotary kilns operated with natural gas, but it is proposed in this research that the particles can be heated quickly with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. Particles of 0.08 cm and 0.018 cm of average diameter were expanded 10 to 20 times.

  2. Health effects associated with geographical area of residence during the 1991 Gulf War: a comparative health study of Iraqi soldiers and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Hamdan, Thamer A; Grzybowski, Mary; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2011-01-01

    Although Iraqis sustained the gravest exposure conditions during the 1991 Gulf War (GW), little is known about the possible relationship between environmental exposures during the GW and long-term health in Iraqis. To study the relationship between distance from Kuwait during the GW and somatic health among Iraqi Soldiers vs civilians. A survey questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 742 GW veterans and 413 civilians in Iraq. The odds ratios were calculated for somatic disorders as a function of distance from Kuwait during the GW, as well as a self-reported environmental exposure index. Soldiers reported a significantly higher prevalence of somatic disorders as compared to civilians. Soldiers closest to Kuwait reported significantly more somatic disorders as compared to Soldiers deployed further away from Kuwait. Iraqi GW veterans are at an increased risk of numerous somatic disorders. Soldiers are at an increased risk compared to civilians, suggesting that war-associated exposures are of etiologic relevance.

  3. The 11S Proteasomal Activator REGγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation and Motor Neuron Viability through Distinct Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M. Yersak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA is caused by expression of a polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR. The inefficient nuclear proteasomal degradation of the mutant AR results in the formation of nuclear inclusions containing amino-terminal fragments of the mutant AR. PA28γ (also referred to as REGγ is a nuclear 11S-proteasomal activator with limited proteasome activation capabilities compared to its cytoplasmic 11S (PA28α, PA28β counterparts. To clarify the role of REGγ in polyQ-expanded AR metabolism, we carried out genetic and biochemical studies in cell models of SBMA. Overexpression of REGγ in a PC12 cell model of SBMA increased polyQ-expanded AR aggregation and contributed to polyQ-expanded AR toxicity in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. These effects of REGγ were independent of its association with the proteasome and may be due, in part, to the decreased binding of polyQ-expanded AR by the E3 ubiquitin-ligase MDM2. Unlike its effects in PC12 cells, REGγ overexpression rescued transgenic SBMA motor neurons from DHT-induced toxicity in a proteasome binding-dependent manner, suggesting that the degradation of a specific 11S proteasome substrate or substrates promotes motor neuron viability. One potential substrate that we found to play a role in mutant AR toxicity is the splicing factor SC35. These studies reveal that, depending on the cellular context, two biological roles for REGγ impact cell viability in the face of polyQ-expanded AR; a proteasome binding-independent mechanism directly promotes mutant AR aggregation while a proteasome binding-dependent mechanism promotes cell viability. The balance between these functions likely determines REGγ effects on polyQ-expanded AR-expressing cells.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... previous nuclear medicine exam. top of page What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days ...

  6. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  7. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  8. Expanding roles for GILT in immunity

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura Ciaccia; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), a thioredoxin-related oxidoreductase, functions in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation by reducing disulfide bonds of endocytosed proteins and facilitating their unfolding and optimal degradation. However, recent reports have greatly expanded our understanding of GILT’s function. Several studies of GILT and antigen processing have shown that the influence of GILT on the peptide re...

  9. Japan: Implications of an Expanded Military Role,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-03

    served by diplomatic, economic and foreign assistance strategies. The Fukuda and Ohira " doctrines " emphasized the role of non-military policy in...encourage it to expand economic assistance under the comprehensive security doctrine . Weinstein is criticizing U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union; he...the United States. The second category of opinion which developed centered -~ on support for a policy line orginally set forth In the Yoshida Doctrine

  10. Navy Nuclear-Powered Surface Ships: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Some Members of Congress, particularly on the House Armed Services Committee, have expressed interest in expanding the use of nuclear power to a wider array of Navy surface ships, starting with the Navy's planned CG(X...

  11. Navy Nuclear-Powered Surface Ships: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Some Members of Congress, particularly on the House Armed Services Committee, have expressed interest in expanding the use of nuclear power to a wider array of Navy surface ships, including the Navy's planned CG(X) cruiser...

  12. Vaccination-Related Side Effects, Humoral Immunity, and Adverse Events during the Civilian Smallpox Vaccination Campaign, Arkansas, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Smallpox vaccination has been associated with notable side effects and adverse events. This study assessed the frequency of each among public health workers immunized during the 2003 Arkansas civilian smallpox vaccination campaign to allow individuals and policymakers to make informed decisions whether repeat vaccination, as recommended in 10-year intervals, should be considered. This descriptive study summarizes postvaccination surveillance data for all civilians receiving smallpox vaccine (Dryvax) in Arkansas in 2003. Rates of side effects and adverse events were determined. Vaccinia-specific antibody titers among a subset of public health response team members were also assessed. Of the 1,124 vaccine recipients, 87% had a major take response. Substantial symptomatology, a 2% adverse event rate, a 0.5% hospitalization rate, and zero inadvertent transmission following vaccination were observed. Vaccinia-specific antibody titers increased on average 9-fold from 2.21*10(2) to 2.16*10(3) one month after vaccination. We found no association of age, sex, or racial subgroups with adverse events, hospitalizations, a lower take response rate, or lower postvaccination antibody titers. Prominent side effect profiles and adverse events among study participants seem to support individual and institutional reluctance to vaccinate civilians in the absence of smallpox reemergence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Black and blue: Exploring racial bias and law enforcement in the killings of unarmed black male civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alison V; Hall, Erika V; Perry, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    In late 2014, a series of highly publicized police killings of unarmed Black male civilians in the United States prompted large-scale social turmoil. In the current review, we dissect the psychological antecedents of these killings and explain how the nature of police work may attract officers with distinct characteristics that may make them especially well-primed for negative interactions with Black male civilians. We use media reports to contextualize the precipitating events of the social unrest as we ground our explanations in theory and empirical research from social psychology and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology. To isolate some of the key mechanisms at play, we disentangle racial bias (e.g., stereotyping processes) from common characteristics of law enforcement agents (e.g., social dominance orientation), while also addressing the interaction between racial bias and policing. By separating the moving parts of the phenomenon, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the factors that may have contributed to the killings. In doing so, we endeavor to more effectively identify and develop solutions to eradicate excessive use of force during interactions between "Black" (unarmed Black male civilians) and "Blue" (law enforcement). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter Wilhelm, E-mail: walter.focke@up.ac.za; Badenhorst, Heinrich; Mhike, Washington; Kruger, Hermanus Joachim; Lombaard, Dewan

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Expandable graphite is less well-ordered than its graphite bisulfate progenitor. • It includes graphite oxide as a randomly interstratified phase. • CO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} are released during thermal-driven exfoliation. - Abstract: Thermal analysis and other techniques were employed to characterize two expandable graphite samples. The expansion onset temperatures of the expandable graphite's were ca. 220 °C and 300 °C respectively. The key finding is that the commercial products are not just pure graphite intercalation compounds with sulfuric acid species intercalated as guest ions and molecules in between intact graphene layers. A more realistic model is proposed where graphite oxide-like layers are also randomly interstratified in the graphite flakes. These graphite oxide-like layers comprise highly oxidized graphene sheets which contain many different oxygen-containing functional groups. This model explains the high oxygen to sulfur atomic ratios found in both elemental analysis of the neat materials and in the gas generated during the main exfoliation event.

  15. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  17. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ESO Astronomers Contribute towards Resolution of Cosmic Puzzle Since the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920's, by measurement of galaxy velocities, astronomers have tried to learn how this expansion changes with time. Until now, most scientists have been considering two possibilities: the expansion rate is slowing down and will ultimately either come to a halt - whereafter the Universe would start to contract, or it will continue to expand forever. However, new studies by two independent research teams, based on observations of exploding stars ( supernovae ) by ESO astronomers [1] with astronomical telescopes at the La Silla Observatory as well as those of their colleagues at other institutions, appear to show that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating . The results take the discovery of the cosmological expansion one step further and challenge recent models of the Universe. If the new measurements are indeed correct, they show that the elusive "cosmological constant" , as proposed by Albert Einstein , contributes significantly to the evolution of the Universe. The existence of a non-zero cosmological constant implies that a repulsive force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion , and consequently leads to an ever-expanding Universe. This new research is being named as the "Breakthrough of the Year" by the renowned US science journal Science in the December 18, 1998, issue. A Press Release is published by the journal on this occasion. "Fundamental Parameters" of the Universe Three fundamental parameters govern all cosmological models based on the theory of General Relativity. They are 1. the current expansion rate as described by Hubble's constant , i.e. the proportionality factor between expansion velocity and distance 2. the average matter density in the Universe, and 3. the amount of "other energy" present in space. From the measured values of these fundamental

  18. RNA FISH for detecting expanded repeats in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Martyna O; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

    2016-04-01

    RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a widely used technique for detecting transcripts in fixed cells and tissues. Many variants of RNA FISH have been proposed to increase signal strength, resolution and target specificity. The current variants of this technique facilitate the detection of the subcellular localization of transcripts at a single molecule level. Among the applications of RNA FISH are studies on nuclear RNA foci in diseases resulting from the expansion of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats present in different single genes. The partial or complete retention of mutant transcripts forming RNA aggregates within the nucleoplasm has been shown in multiple cellular disease models and in the tissues of patients affected with these atypical mutations. Relevant diseases include, among others, myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) with CUG repeats, Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) with CAG repeats, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) with CGG repeats, myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) with CCUG repeats, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) with GGGGCC repeats and spinocerebellar ataxia type 32 (SCA32) with GGCCUG. In this article, we summarize the results obtained with FISH to examine RNA nuclear inclusions. We provide a detailed protocol for detecting RNAs containing expanded CAG and CUG repeats in different cellular models, including fibroblasts, lymphoblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells and murine and human neuronal progenitors. We also present the results of the first single-molecule FISH application in a cellular model of polyglutamine disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  20. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca