WorldWideScience

Sample records for expanded capacity repository

  1. Emplacement feasibility of a multi-tier, expanded capacity repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, Michael; Kessler, John; Fairhurst, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A geological repository at Yucca Mountain has been proposed for the disposal of spent fuel from the US commercial reactors and other radioactive waste. A legislative capacity of 70,000 MTHM has been set by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, including 63,000 MTHM of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), the projected amount of CSNF that will be produced by about 2014. Policy issues remain as to how to handle waste that is generated beyond 2014 from a growing nuclear industry in the US. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is independently evaluating the technical, rather than legislative, limit of CSNF that could be safely disposed at Yucca Mountain. Geological, thermal management, safety and cost factors have been recently evaluated by EPRI (2006; 2007) for grouped emplacement drifts and/or a multi-tier repository. EPRI's evaluation of emplacement feasibility for a multi-tier concept is described here. Expanded capacity concepts as envisioned for Yucca Mountain (EPRI, 2006; 2007) assume excavation of one or two additional levels of drifts parallel to or above and/or below the original drift excavations. For the latter multi-tier concept each 'tier' or 'level' would essentially replicate the original layer with a 30-m separation between tiers. This arrangement essentially doubles or triples the capacity of the repository for a two- or three-tier design, respectively. The main issues that affect the feasibility of expanded capacity design are; (i) ventilation requirements; (ii) radiation hazards; (iii) thermal and thermo-mechanical constraints. (i)Ventilation: The repository design involves waste packages mounted in close proximity to each other in 600-m long drifts that remain open and actively ventilated for at least 50-100 years. Analyses,conservatively assuming that all three repository levels operate simultaneously, indicate no technological obstacles in meeting ventilation requirements for sustained simultaneous operation ba sed on current industrial

  2. Study of nuclear waste storage capacity at Yucca mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Apted, M.; Kessler, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository is applying license for storing 70000 MTHM nuclear waste including commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The 70000 MTHM is a legal not the technical limit. To study the technical limit, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) carried out a systematic study to explore the potential impact if the repository will accept more waste. This paper describes the model and results for evaluating the spent-fuel disposal capacity for a repository at Yucca Mountain from the thermal and hydrological point of view. Two proposed alternative repository designs are analyzed, both of which would fit into the currently well-characterized site and, therefore, not necessitating any additional site characterization at Yucca Mountain. The two- and three-dimensional models for coupled thermo-hydrological analysis extends from the surface to the water table, covering all the major and subgroup rock layers of the planned repository, as well as formations above and below the repository horizon. A dual-porosity and dual-permeability approach is used to model coupled heat and mass transfer through fracture formations. The waste package heating and ventilation are all assumed to follow those of the current design. The results show that the repository is able to accommodate three times the amount of spent fuel compared to the current design, without extra spatial expansion or exceeding current thermal and hydrological constraints. (authors)

  3. The Peer Review Process: An Expanded Role for Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Richardson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer review has been regarded as a cornerstone of scientific research for a considerable time. Journals seeking to attract high quality scholarship rely on peer review to maintain their credentials in the publishing industry. However, over a period of time—and especially given the advent of the Internet—complaints have arisen from authors, reviewers and even editors as to the efficacy of the system. The authors outline a range of models which have evolved that either complement or replace evaluation processes which characterise traditional peer review. Research data is presented in the context of quality assessment. The authors introduce several approaches which are utilising repositories to support the process. Consideration is given as to how this might change the current institutional repository environment.

  4. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  5. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  6. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity

  7. Expanding OPEC production capacity: some legal and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sahlawi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There is general consensus that the global demand for oil will increase in the medium-to-long term. It is predicted that much of this additional demand will be for OPEC oil. Therefore, it will become necessary to expand OPEC production capacity to meet this perceived increase. In recent years, many OPEC countries have launched far-reaching and, in some cases, radical plans to expand their production capacity. However, given the various investment and political constraints faced by the 13 OPEC Members, each country differs markedly in its ability to boost production capacity sufficiently to meet self-imposed targets. In this paper, we examine the importance to the oil market of recent oil supply trends and possible future attempts to build OPEC production capacity, focussing in particular on the legal and environmental issues involved. A review is provided of the legal mechanisms currently evolving in OPEC Countries to encourage investment in their oil industries. In addition, we outline the impact of the environmental movement of OPEC's expansion programmes. (author)

  8. Methods for expanding the capacity of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    At the beginning of 1989 more than 55,000 metric tonnes of heavy metal (MTHM) of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) fuel had been discharged worldwide from nuclear power plants. Only a small fraction of this fuel has been reprocessed. The majority of the spent fuel assemblies are currently held at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) in storage awaiting either chemical processing or final disposal depending on the fuel concept chosen by individual countries. Studies made by NEA and IAEA have projected that annual spent fuel arising will reach about 10,000 t HM in the year 2000 and cumulative arising will be more than 200,000 t HM. Taking into account the large quantity of spent fuel discharged from NPP and that the first demonstrations of the direct disposal of spent fuel or HLW are expected only after the year 2020, long-term storage will be the primary option for management of spent fuel until well into the next century. There are several options to expand storage capacity: (1) to construct new away-from-reactor storage facilities, (2) to transport spent fuel from a full at-reactor pool to another site for storage in a pool that has sufficient space to accommodate it, (3) to expand the capacity of existing AR pools by using compact racks, double-tierce, rod consolidation and by increasing the dimensions of existing pools. The purpose of the meeting was: to exchange new information on the international level on the subject connected with the expansion of storage capacities for spent fuel; to elaborate the state-of-the-art of this problem; to define the most important areas for future activity; on the basis of the above information to give recommendations to potential users for selection and application of the most suitable methods for expanding spent fuel facilities taking into account the relevant country's conditions. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. An assessment of the effect on Olkiluoto repository capacity achievable with advanced fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juutilainen, P.; Viitanen, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Previously a few scenarios have been simulated for transition from thermal to fast reactor fleet in Finland in order to determine how much the transuranic inventory could be reduced with the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technologies. Those calculations, performed with COSI6 code developed by CEA, are extended in the present study, in which the effect of P-T on the capacity of the planned final disposal repository at Olkiluoto (Finland) is evaluated by taking into account the created fission products and transuranic residuals from the reprocessing operations. The decay heat is assumed to be the most restrictive factor in defining the waste disposal packing density. The repository capacity evaluation of this study is based on the comparison of the decay heats produced by the deposited waste in various scenarios. The reference scenario of this article involves only Light Water Reactors (LWR) in an open fuel cycle. The capacity requirement of the geological repository is estimated in a few closed fuel cycle scenarios, all including actinide transmutation with Fast Reactors (FR). The comparison between the P-T scenarios and reference is based on the decay heat production of the deposited waste. The COSI6 code is used for simulations to provide the repository decay heat curves. Applying the closed fuel cycle would change the disposal concept and schedule, because of which it is not quite straightforward to assess the impact of P-T on the capacity. However, it can be concluded that recycling the transuranic nuclides probably decreases the required volume for the disposal, but thermal dimensioning analysis is needed for more specific conclusions.

  10. Globally Happy: Individual Globalization, Expanded Capacities, and Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Heng-Hao; Chen, Wan-chi

    2012-01-01

    Deep integration of Asia into the global society necessarily affects wellbeing of local populations. This study proposes a notion of "extend capacities" to explain the relationships between individual globalization and subjective wellbeing among Asian populations in a context of increasing global integration. Using Amartya Sen's theory…

  11. Expanding Integrated Pest Management Capacity: Rwanda Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baributsa, Dieudonne; Flores, Luis; Rukazambuga, Daniel; Wise, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rwanda is developing its agricultural capacity to meet the needs of national food security while addressing food demands and requirements of regional and international markets. The Rwanda Horticultural Export Standards Initiative was developed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources in collaboration with Michigan State…

  12. The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops: growing and expanding : Growing and expanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Willmore, Peter; Mendez, Mariano; Santolik, Ondrej; Pierre-Philippe Mathieu, .; Smith, Randall

    The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops Program, inaugurated with a first workshop in X-ray astronomy in 2001 in Brazil, has not only grown considerably over the last 11 years, but has also broadened its scope, and now includes very diverse areas of space science. We will review the history of the

  13. Impacts of expanding airport capacity on competition and connectivity: the case of Gatwick and Heathrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; Krul, J.; Boonekamp, T.; Lieshout, R.

    2014-01-01

    The UK Airports Commission has short-listed three options for expanding airport capacity in the UK. One option concerns expansion of Gatwick with an additional runway. The other options concern expansion of runway capacity at Heathrow. The impacts of expansion on passenger and air freight user

  14. An Organizational Development Framework for Assessing Readiness and Capacity for Expanding Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Anthony A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a popular model for organizational development is utilized as a framework for assessing the organizational readiness and capacity of educational institutions whose leaders wish to establish or expand their online/distance education programs. Examples of institutionalization factors to consider and alternative models for assessing…

  15. Fuel cycle covariance of plutonium and americium separations to repository capacity using information theoretic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopatz, Anthony; Schneider, Erich; Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A light water reactor, fast reactor symbiotic fuel cycle scenario was modeled and parameterized based on thirty independent inputs. Simultaneously and stochastically choosing different values for each of these inputs and performing the associated fuel cycle mass-balance calculation, the fuel cycle itself underwent Monte Carlo simulation. A novel information theoretic metric is postulated as a measure of system-wide covariance. This metric is the coefficient of variation of the set of uncertainty coefficients generated from 2D slices of a 3D contingency table. It is then applied to the fuel cycle, taking fast reactor used fuel plutonium and americium separations as independent variables and the capacity of a fully-loaded tuff repository as the response. This set of parameters is known from prior studies to have a strong covariance. When measured with all 435 other input parameters possible, the fast reactor plutonium and americium separations pair was found to be ranked the second most covariant. This verifies that the coefficient of variation metric captures the desired sensitivity of sensitivity effects in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  16. Digital Repositories of Learning Material as a Support Tool for Knowledge Management and Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: For some years, digital repositories are emerging as a de facto standard service for storing, preserving and disseminate knowledge: academic, scientific information and, more recently, primary research data of institutions. Some of the digital repositories host also collections of material classified as learning objects; some others are created to manage only learning objects (LO), as the Learning Objects Digital Repositories, or were built to function as learning objects aggregators. The term “learning object” itself is involving different types of structures, organization and complexity. This paper will show how digital repositories, metadata standards and semantic web technologies can be valuable tools for managing educational content, which can contribute to build a learning and knowledge driven organization. (author

  17. Regulatory T cells expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals maintain phenotype, TCR repertoire and suppressive capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Angin

    Full Text Available While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4(+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region, characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection.

  18. Expanding Continuous Quality Improvement Capacity in the Medical Intensive Care Unit: Prehealth Volunteers as a Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Kelsey C; Lobingier, Hannah; McCully, Nancy; Lombard, Jackie; Hansen, Mark; Uchiyama, Makoto; Hagg, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    Health care delivery systems are challenged to support the increasing demands for improving patient safety, satisfaction, and outcomes. Limited resources and staffing are common barriers for making significant and sustained improvements. At Oregon Health & Science University, the medical intensive care unit (MICU) leadership team faced internal capacity limitations for conducting continuous quality improvement, specifically for the implementation and evaluation of the mobility portion of an evidence-based care bundle. The MICU team successfully addressed this capacity challenge using the person power of prehealth volunteers. In the first year of the project, 52 trained volunteers executed an evidence-based mobility intervention for 305 critically ill patients, conducting more than 200 000 exercise repetitions. The volunteers contributed to real-time evaluation of the project, with the collection of approximately 26 950 process measure data points. Prehealth volunteers are an untapped resource for effectively expanding internal continuous quality improvement capacity in the MICU and beyond.

  19. Interhemispheric interaction expands attentional capacity in an auditory selective attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalf, Paige E; Banich, Marie T; Erickson, Andrew B

    2009-04-01

    Previous work from our laboratory indicates that interhemispheric interaction (IHI) functionally increases the attentional capacity available to support performance on visual tasks (Banich in The asymmetrical brain, pp 261-302, 2003). Because manipulations of both computational complexity and selection demand alter the benefits of IHI to task performance, we argue that IHI may be a general strategy for meeting increases in attentional demand. Other researchers, however, have suggested that the apparent benefits of IHI to attentional capacity are an epiphenomenon of the organization of the visual system (Fecteau and Enns in Neuropsychologia 43:1412-1428, 2005; Marsolek et al. in Neuropsychologia 40:1983-1999, 2002). In the current experiment, we investigate whether IHI increases attentional capacity outside the visual system by manipulating the selection demands of an auditory temporal pattern-matching task. We find that IHI expands attentional capacity in the auditory system. This suggests that the benefits of requiring IHI derive from a functional increase in attentional capacity rather than the organization of a specific sensory modality.

  20. Expanding Resilience Indicators: A Case Study on Buffering Capacity Indicator in a Process Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The complexity of modern sociotechnical systems has created new challenges for safety, so that traditional approaches are not able to cope with them. Resilience engineering (RE is a good alternative to traditional approaches for safety management, however resilience is still a difficult concept to measure, and indicators such as buffering capacity, flexibility, and so on, which are thought to contribute to it, are undeveloped. Objectives This study aimed at expanding buffering capacity as one of the main indicators in order to facilitate measurement of resilience of a system. Materials and Methods We used the Delphi method in order to identify indicators, and data related to all the indicators were gathered by observation and interview. In this line, 32 of the experienced operators with at least 15 years of operational record were selected for semi-structured interviews. Gathered data was processed by the principal component analysis technique. The results were processed by the Minitab 15 software. Results In this study, 29 factors affecting this indicator were determined using the Delphi method; the scores of all factors were less than the scores of the best practice. On the other hand, the state of this indicator was poor in plant included in the study. Conclusions This was the first study that focused on expanding resilience indicators, and presents a new framework to simplify assessment of resilience and safety of a complex system.

  1. Strengthening and expanding the capacity of health worker education in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelo, Charles; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Simuyemba, Moses; Andrews, Benjamin; Katubulushi, Max; Chi, Benjamin; Njelesani, Evariste; Vwalika, Bellington; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Chipeta, James; Goma, Fastone; Nzala, Selestine; Banda, Sekelani; Mudenda, John; Ahmed, Yusuf; Hachambwa, Lotti; Wilson, Craig; Vermund, Sten; Mulla, Yakub

    2017-01-01

    Zambia is facing a chronic shortage of health care workers. The paper aimed at understanding how the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) program facilitated strengthening and expanding of the national capacity and quality of medical education as well as processes for retaining faculty in Zambia. Data generated through documentary review, key informant interviews and observations were analyzed using a thematic approach. The MEPI program triggered the development of new postgraduate programs thereby increasing student enrollment. This was achieved by leveraging of existing and new partnerships with other universities and differentiating the old Master in Public Health into specialized curriculum. Furthermore, the MEPI program improved the capacity and quality of training by facilitating installation and integration of new technology such as the eGranary digital library, E-learning methods and clinical skills laboratory into the Schools. This technology enabled easy access to relevant data or information, quicker turn around of experiments and enhanced data recording, display and analysis features for experiments. The program also facilitated transforming of the academic environment into a more conducive work place through strengthening the Staff Development program and support towards research activities. These activities stimulated work motivation and interest in research by faculty. Meanwhile, these processes were inhibited by the inability to upload all courses on to Moodle as well as inadequate operating procedures and feedback mechanisms for the Moodle. Expansion and improvement in training processes for health care workers requires targeted investment within medical institutions and strengthening local and international partnerships.

  2. Expanding Capacity and Promoting Inclusion in Introductory Computer Science: A Focus on Near-Peer Mentor Preparation and Code Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon-Barry, Heather; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; St. John, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    A dilemma within computer science departments is developing sustainable ways to expand capacity within introductory computer science courses while remaining committed to inclusive practices. Training near-peer mentors for peer code review is one solution. This paper describes the preparation of near-peer mentors for their role, with a focus on…

  3. Using expanded real options analysis to evaluate capacity expansion decisions under uncertainty in the construction material industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momani, Amer Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Capacity expansion generally requires large capital expenditure on illiquid assets. Therefore, decisions to enlarge capacity must support the organisation’s strategic objectives and provide valuable input for the budgeting process. This paper applies an expanded form of Real Options Analysis (ROA to generate and evaluate capacity expansion strategies under uncertainty in the construction material industry. ROA is applied to different expansion strategies associated with different demand scenarios. Evaluating a wider variety of strategies can reduce risk and sponsor decisions that maximise the firm’s value. The case study shows that the execution of a lead expansion strategy with 10-year intervals under a 50 per cent demand satisfaction scenario produces superior results.

  4. Expanding clinical research capacity through a community of practice (CoPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Alison; Jackson, Wanda; Nugus, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The proposed CoPER project (Community of Practice for Engaging in Research) responds to a need for increased research capacity in a clinical setting. We put forward an argument and a design for a prospective action research project to extend research capacity via an integrated academic and practitioner community of practice in an Emergency Department (ED). This paper explores the research needs of clinicians, articulates the concept of community of practice in light of these needs, and outlines the rationale for considering communities of practice as a potential contributor to building research capacity in a clinical setting. A potential methodology is suggested to test the linkage between research needs, the concept of a community of practice model in a clinical setting, and the contribution of such a model to building research capacity in a clinical setting via the CoPER framework. Combined data from this proposed mixed method action research (survey, focus groups, interviews, observation) are expected to enable the production of a set of facilitators and enablers with a view to building a community of research practice which make the case study transferable to other clinical and non-clinical work settings.

  5. The ISCB Student Council Internship Program: Expanding computational biology capacity worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupama, Jigisha; Francescatto, Margherita; Rahman, Farzana; Fatima, Nazeefa; DeBlasio, Dan; Shanmugam, Avinash Kumar; Satagopam, Venkata; Santos, Alberto; Kolekar, Pandurang; Michaut, Magali; Guney, Emre

    2018-01-01

    Education and training are two essential ingredients for a successful career. On one hand, universities provide students a curriculum for specializing in one's field of study, and on the other, internships complement coursework and provide invaluable training experience for a fruitful career. Consequently, undergraduates and graduates are encouraged to undertake an internship during the course of their degree. The opportunity to explore one's research interests in the early stages of their education is important for students because it improves their skill set and gives their career a boost. In the long term, this helps to close the gap between skills and employability among students across the globe and balance the research capacity in the field of computational biology. However, training opportunities are often scarce for computational biology students, particularly for those who reside in less-privileged regions. Aimed at helping students develop research and academic skills in computational biology and alleviating the divide across countries, the Student Council of the International Society for Computational Biology introduced its Internship Program in 2009. The Internship Program is committed to providing access to computational biology training, especially for students from developing regions, and improving competencies in the field. Here, we present how the Internship Program works and the impact of the internship opportunities so far, along with the challenges associated with this program.

  6. Expanding electricity capacity in Thailand to meet the twin challenges of supply security and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawiro, Thanawat; Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Limmeechokchai, Bundit

    2008-01-01

    Rapid growth in electricity demand in Thailand is a major challenge for electric utilities trying to ensure adequate supply. Continued reliance on natural gas for power supply makes the supply mix non-diversified and exposes the country to supply risks while a diversification to other fossil fuels imposes additional environmental burdens. To find an acceptable solution to this twin challenge, this paper assesses four scenarios of electricity capacity expansion planning for Thailand for the period between 2011 and 2025 under two different assumptions of fuel prices to reflect the case of international high oil price affecting cost of fuels for power generation in Thailand. It is found that the lowest environmental emissions are obtained from the scenario where power generation is highly dominated by natural gas. In contrast, the least cost electricity generation is achieved from the case if nuclear power plant is added into the Thai power system. Reliance on natural gas for power generation increases the spending on gas purchase as a share of the gross domestic product (GDP) - between 2.38% and 3.61% of (GDP). In addition, fuel import dependence, particularly for natural gas and coal, increases exposing the country to possible price volatility. (author)

  7. The ISCB Student Council Internship Program: Expanding computational biology capacity worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigisha Anupama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Education and training are two essential ingredients for a successful career. On one hand, universities provide students a curriculum for specializing in one's field of study, and on the other, internships complement coursework and provide invaluable training experience for a fruitful career. Consequently, undergraduates and graduates are encouraged to undertake an internship during the course of their degree. The opportunity to explore one's research interests in the early stages of their education is important for students because it improves their skill set and gives their career a boost. In the long term, this helps to close the gap between skills and employability among students across the globe and balance the research capacity in the field of computational biology. However, training opportunities are often scarce for computational biology students, particularly for those who reside in less-privileged regions. Aimed at helping students develop research and academic skills in computational biology and alleviating the divide across countries, the Student Council of the International Society for Computational Biology introduced its Internship Program in 2009. The Internship Program is committed to providing access to computational biology training, especially for students from developing regions, and improving competencies in the field. Here, we present how the Internship Program works and the impact of the internship opportunities so far, along with the challenges associated with this program.

  8. Evaluation of commercial repository capacity for the disposal of defense high-level waste. Comments and responses for DOE/DP--0020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) requires that the President evaluate the use of disposal capacity at one or more repositories to be developed for permanent disposal of civilian spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste for the disposal of defense high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy prepared a report titled ''An Evaluation of Commercial Repository Capacity for the Disposal of Defense High-Level Waste,'' DOE/DP-0020, to provide input for the President's evaluation. The report constituted the Department's input and recommendation to be considered by the President in making his evaluation. Although not required by the Act, the Department made the July 1984 draft of the report available to the general public for review and comment in order to increase public awareness, and develop a public record on the issue of disposal of defense high-level waste. Over 400 copies of the draft report were distributed. Thirty comment letters containing over 400 comments were received from representatives of states, localities, and Indian tribes, federal agencies, organizations representing utilities, public interest groups, individual utilities, and private citizens. All letters were reviewed and considered. Where appropriate, changes were made in the final report reflecting the comments received

  9. Mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia have altered capacity to expand differentiated hematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Priya; Le, Yevgeniya; Li, Yuhua; Sabloff, Mitchell; Mehic, Jelica; Rosu-Myles, Michael; Allan, David S

    2015-04-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment may be permissive to the emergence and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studying interactions between the microenvironment and leukemia cells should provide new insight for therapeutic advances. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are central to the maintenance of the hematopoietic niche. Here we compared the functions and gene expression patterns of MSCs derived from bone marrow aspirates of healthy donors and patients with AML. MSCs expanded from AML patients had heterogeneous morphology and displayed a wide range of proliferation capacity compared to MSCs from healthy controls. The ability of AML-MSCs to support the expansion of committed hematopoietic progenitors from umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells may be impaired while the expression of genes associated with maintaining hematopoietic quiescence appeared to be increased in AML-MSCs compared to healthy donors. These results highlight important potential differences in the biologic profile of MSCs from AML patients compared to healthy donors that may contribute to the emergence or progression of leukemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. National Radwaste Repository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce (Repository) is described. The Mochovce National Radioactive Waste Repository is a surface multi-barrier type storage facility for solid and treated solidified radioactive wastes generated from the Slovak Republic nuclear power plants operation and decommissioning, research institutes, laboratories and hospitals. The Repository comprises a system of single- and double-row storage boxes. The first double-row is enclosed by a steel-structure building. The 18 x 6 x 5.5 m storage boxes are made of reinforced concrete. The wall thickness is 600 mm. Two-double-rows, i.e. 80 storage boxes were built as part of Stage I (1 row = 20 storage boxes). Each storage box has a storage capacity of 90 fibre concrete containers of 3.1 m 3 volume. The total storage capacity is 7200 containers with the overall storage volume of 22320 m 3

  11. Differences in Cartilage-Forming Capacity of Expanded Human Chondrocytes From Ear and Nose and Their Gene Expression Profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, C.A.; Verwiel, E.T.P.; Slagt, I.; Koevoet, W.; Poublon, R.M.L.; Nolst-Trenite, G.J.; de Jong, R.J.B.; Jahr, H.; van Osch, G.J.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of culture-expanded human auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes as cell source for regeneration of stable cartilage and to analyze the differences in gene expression profile of expanded chondrocytes from these specific locations. Auricular

  12. Differences in cartilage-forming capacity of expanded human chondrocytes from ear and nose and their gene expression profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, Catharine A.; Verwiel, Eugène T. P.; Slagt, Inez; Koevoet, Wendy; Poublon, René M. L.; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J.; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.; Jahr, Holger; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of culture-expanded human auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes as cell source for regeneration of stable cartilage and to analyze the differences in gene expression profile of expanded chondrocytes from these specific locations. Auricular

  13. Repositories; Repositorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: cbf@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br

    2007-11-15

    The use of the nuclear energy is increasing in all areas. Then the radioactive waste management is in continuous development to comply the national and international established requirements. The final objective is to assure that it will not have any contamination of the public or the environmental, and that the exposition doses will be lower than the radiological protection limits. The multi barrier concept for the repository is internationally recognized. Among the repository types, the most used are: near surface, geological formations and of deposition in rock cavities. This article explains the concept and the types of repository and gives some examples of them. (author)

  14. Repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C M

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues of radioactive waste design are addressed in this paper. Two approaches to repository design considered herein are: (1) design to minimize the disturbance of the hot rock; and (2) designs that intentionally modify the hot rock to insure better containment of the wastes. The latter designs range from construction of a highly impermeable barrier around a spherical cavern to creating a matrix of tunnels and boreholes to form a cage within which the hydraulic pressure is nearly constant. Examples of these design alternatives are described in some detail. It is concluded that proposed designs for repositories illustrate that performance criteria considered acceptable for such facilities can be met by appropriate site selection and repository engineering. With these technically feasible design concepts, it is also felt that socioeconomic and institutional issues can be better resolved. (BLM)

  15. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  16. The in vitro and in vivo capacity of culture-expanded human cells from several sources encapsulated in alginate to form cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Pleumeekers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage has limited self-regenerative capacity. Tissue engineering can offer promising solutions for reconstruction of missing or damaged cartilage. A major challenge herein is to define an appropriate cell source that is capable of generating a stable and functional matrix. This study evaluated the performance of culture-expanded human chondrocytes from ear (EC, nose (NC and articular joint (AC, as well as bone-marrow-derived and adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. All cells (≥ 3 donors per source were culture-expanded, encapsulated in alginate and cultured for 5 weeks. Subsequently, constructs were implanted subcutaneously for 8 additional weeks. Before and after implantation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG and collagen content were measured using biochemical assays. Mechanical properties were determined using stress-strain-indentation tests. Hypertrophic differentiation was evaluated with qRT-PCR and subsequent endochondral ossification with histology. ACs had higher chondrogenic potential in vitro than the other cell sources, as assessed by gene expression and GAG content (p < 0.001. However, after implantation, ACs did not further increase their matrix. In contrast, ECs and NCs continued producing matrix in vivo leading to higher GAG content (p < 0.001 and elastic modulus. For NC-constructs, matrix-deposition was associated with the elastic modulus (R2 = 0.477, p = 0.039. Although all cells – except ACs – expressed markers for hypertrophic differentiation in vitro, there was no bone formed in vivo. Our work shows that cartilage formation and functionality depends on the cell source used. ACs possess the highest chondrogenic capacity in vitro, while ECs and NCs are most potent in vivo, making them attractive cell sources for cartilage repair.

  17. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation

  18. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation.

  19. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  20. Czech Republic. Dukovany repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The repository at the Dukovany site is a structure located above the land surface. It consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults. Each double-row has dimensions 38x160x6 meters and contains 2x28 vaults. The internal dimensions of each vault are 18x6x5.4 meters. The repository serves for reactor wastes from the Dukovany and Temelin nuclear power plants (NPPs). Its capacity is 55,000 m 3 or 130,000 drums. The repository is a fully engineered facility with multiple barriers. The first engineered barrier is the waste form (in the case of waste from the Dukovany NPP, the waste form is mainly bitumen, but concrete and glass are also considered as suitable solidification products). The second barrier is the container (a 200 litre steel drum or a HIC container), whereas the third consists of cut-off reinforced concrete walls with asphalt-based hydro-insulation. The fourth barrier is a cap which should protect the vaults against infiltration of rainwater and should serve also as an intrusion and erosion barrier. The fifth barrier is a drainage system around the repository which is composed of layers of gravel and sand. The void space in drums around the waste is filled with specially composed grout. Such waste packages are emplaced into the disposal vault, which is covered by pre-fabricated panels. Thereafter, joints between the panels are sealed and a provisional coverage added; the final cover, however, will be constructed only over the whole row of 28 vaults, until all vaults are filled with waste. The final cover will encompass the following components: reinforced concrete pre-fabricated panels (500 mm); cement overcoat (30 mm); insulation foil; concrete layer for cap levelling (5-150 mm); layer of asphalto-propylene concrete (150 mm); soil (450 mm); geotextile foil with topsoil (top surface vegetation). (author)

  1. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  2. Open DOAR the Directory of Open Access Repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The last year has seen wide-spread growth in the idea of using open access repositories as a part of a research institution's accepted infrastructure. Policy development from institutions and funding bodies has also supported the growth of the repository network. The next stage of expansion will be in the provision of services and cross-repository facilities and resources. Of course, it is hoped that these will then establish a feed-back loop to encourage repository population and further repository establishment, as the potential of open access to research materials is realised. The growth of repositories has been organic, with a variety of different repositories based in departments, institutions, funding agencies or subject communities, with a range of content, both in type and subject. Existing repositories are expanding their holdings, from eprints to associated research data-sets, or with learning objects and multimedia material. This presentation will look at the development of the Directory of Open Ac...

  3. Process mining software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poncin, W.; Serebrenik, A.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Software developers' activities are in general recorded in software repositories such as version control systems, bug trackers and mail archives. While abundant information is usually present in such repositories, successful information extraction is often challenged by the necessity to

  4. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  5. Grey Guide Repository: presentation and demo

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Schopfel, Joachim; Farace, Dominic; Frantzen, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation.

  6. The in vitro and in vivo capacity of culture-expanded human cells from several sources encapsulated in alginate to form cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Pleumeekers (Mieke); L. Nimeskern (Luc); J.L.M. Koevoet (Wendy); N. Kops (Nicole); R.M.L. Poublon (René); K.S. Stok (Kathryn); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Cartilage has limited self-regenerative capacity. Tissue engineering can offer promising solutions for reconstruction of missing or damaged cartilage. A major challenge herein is to define an appropriate cell source that is capable of generating a stable and functional matrix.

  7. Repository Rodeo Redux

    CERN Document Server

    Anez, Melissa; Donohue, Tim; Fyson, Will; Simko, Tibor; Wilcox, David

    2017-01-01

    You’ve got more repository questions and we’ve got more answers! Last year’s Repository Rodeo panel was a huge success, so we’re taking the show on the road to Brisbane for OR2017. Join representatives from the DSpace, Eprints, Fedora, Hydra, and Islandora communities as we (briefly) explain what each of our repositories actually does. We'll also talk about the directions of our respective technical and community developments, and related to the conference theme of Open: Innovation Knowledge Repositories, offer brief observations about the latest, most promising and/or most surprising innovations in our space. This panel will be a great opportunity for newcomers to Open Repositories to get a crash course on the major repository options and meet representatives from each of their communities. After a brief presentation from each representative, we'll open the session up for questions from the audience.

  8. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  9. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  10. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  11. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  12. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  13. Coupling fuel cycles with repositories: how repository institutional choices may impact fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; Miller, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The historical repository siting strategy in the United States has been a top-down approach driven by federal government decision making but it has been a failure. This policy has led to dispatching fuel cycle facilities in different states. The U.S. government is now considering an alternative repository siting strategy based on voluntary agreements with state governments. If that occurs, state governments become key decision makers. They have different priorities. Those priorities may change the characteristics of the repository and the fuel cycle. State government priorities, when considering hosting a repository, are safety, financial incentives and jobs. It follows that states will demand that a repository be the center of the back end of the fuel cycle as a condition of hosting it. For example, states will push for collocation of transportation services, safeguards training, and navy/private SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inspection at the repository site. Such activities would more than double local employment relative to what was planned for the Yucca Mountain-type repository. States may demand (1) the right to take future title of the SNF so if recycle became economic the reprocessing plant would be built at the repository site and (2) the right of a certain fraction of the repository capacity for foreign SNF. That would open the future option of leasing of fuel to foreign utilities with disposal of the SNF in the repository but with the state-government condition that the front-end fuel-cycle enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities be located in that state

  14. Expandable stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, J C; Carrasco, H

    1996-05-01

    Expandable metallic stents are effective in selected patients with malignant or benign airway stenoses. When used for malignant lesions, the primary purpose of the stent is to improve the quality of life; stents are usually chosen for palliation of symptoms in recognition of the low likelihood of success for other therapy. For patients with benign stenoses, the stents provide a permanent source of structural support to alleviate the narrowed segment. The advantages of the expandable metallic stents are as follows: (1) they can be inserted through an endotracheal tube or under local anesthesia with relative simplicity under fluoroscopic guidance; (2) they do not impair the drainage of sputum because ciliary movement is not interrupted; (3) over a period of a few weeks, the meshwork is gradually covered with mucosa as the stent becomes incorporated into the airway wall; (4) ventilation usually is not impaired if the metallic mesh stent covers another nonstenosed bronchus, because the interstices of the stent are nonobstructive; and (5) they are dynamic and continue to expand over time, particularly if concurrent treatment achieves an effect on the lesion that caused stenosis. Disadvantages of the expandable stent include (1) they often are only temporarily effective for tracheobronchial stenosis due to intraluminal tumor or granulation tissue, both of which can grow between the wires; (2) they are considered permanent stents because removal is difficult; and (3) they can be poorly positioned during placement or can become displaced by progressive migration after placement, and they cannot be repositioned. A relative contraindication to insertion is an inflammatory process or infection that can predispose to granulation formation, particularly at the points of maximal contact pressure of the stent to the airway mucosa. In the presence of inflammation, it may be better to use a silicone prosthesis until the inflammatory process subsides and fibrosis occurs. Granulation

  15. Gas generation in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.; McGahan, D.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    The nature and quantities of gases likely to be produced by various processes in repositories for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes are examined in this preliminary study. Many simplifying assumptions are made where published or experimental data is unavailable. The corrosion of the canisters and metallic components in wastes is likely to be the major gas production process in both types of repository. A significant contribution from microbiological activity is expected to occur in low level repositories, predominantly where no cement grouting of the cans has been carried out. A number of areas for further research, required before a more comprehensive study could be carried out, have been identified. (author)

  16. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  17. INIS: Nuclear Grey Literature Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2016-01-01

    As one of the world's largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, INIS represents an extraordinary example of world cooperation. Currently, as INIS members, 130 countries and 24 international organizations share and allow access to their valuable nuclear information resources, preserving them for future generations and offering a freely available nuclear knowledge repository. Since its creation in 1970, INIS has collected and provided access to more than 3.8 million bibliographic references to publications, documents, technical reports, non-copyrighted documentation, and other grey literature, as well as over a million full texts. Public interest throughout the years in accessing the INIS Collection has been remarkable. This paper deals with the challenges faced by INIS in its endeavour to increase the use, accessibility, usability and expandability of its on-line repository. It also describes document collection, the features and characteristics of implementing a new search engine, as well as the lessons learned. (author)

  18. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  19. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  20. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  1. Managing and Evaluating Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccala, Alesia; Oppenheim, Charles; Dhiensa, Rajveen

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: We examine the role of the digital repository manager, discuss the future of repository management and evaluation and suggest that library and information science schools develop new repository management curricula. Method: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with managers of five different types of repositories and a Web-based…

  2. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  3. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  4. Repository simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The repository simulation experiments described in this paper are designed to assess the performance of SRP waste glass under the most realistic repository conditions that can be obtained in the laboratory. These tests simulate the repository environment as closely as possible and introduce systematically the variability of the geology, groundwater chemistry, and waste package components during the leaching of the waste glass. The tests evaluate waste form performance under site-specific conditions, which differ for each of the geologic repositories under consideration. Data from these experiments will aid in the development of a realistic source term that can describe the release of radionuclides from SRP waste glass as a component of proposed waste packages. Hence, this information can be useful to optimize waste package design for SRP waste glass and to provide data for predicting long-term performance and subsequent conformance to regulations. The repository simulation tests also help to bridge the gap in interpreting results derived from tests performed under the control of the laboratory to the uncertainity and variability of field tests. In these experiments, site-specific repository components and conditions are emphasized and only the site specific materials contact the waste forms. An important feature of these tests is that both actual and simulated waste glasses are tested identically. 7 figures, 2 tables

  5. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  6. Trust in Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ISO 16363:2012, Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (ISO TRAC, outlines actions a repository can take to be considered trustworthy, but research examining whether the repository’s designated community of users associates such actions with trustworthiness has been limited. Drawing from this ISO document and the management and information systems literatures, this paper discusses findings from interviews with 66 archaeologists and quantitative social scientists. We found similarities and differences across the disciplines and among the social scientists. Both disciplinary communities associated trust with a repository’s transparency. However, archaeologists mentioned guarantees of preservation and sustainability more frequently than the social scientists, who talked about institutional reputation. Repository processes were also linked to trust, with archaeologists more frequently citing metadata issues and social scientists discussing data selection and cleaning processes. Among the social scientists, novices mentioned the influence of colleagues on their trust in repositories almost twice as much as the experts. We discuss the implications our findings have for identifying trustworthy repositories and how they extend the models presented in the management and information systems literatures.

  7. Sellafield repository design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997, UK Nirex Ltd carried out a programme of investigations to evaluate the potential of a site adjacent to the BNFL Sellafield works to host a deep repository for the United Kingdom's intermediate-level and certain low-level radioactive waste. The programme of investigations was wound down following the decision in March 1997 to uphold the rejection of the Company's planning application for the Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF), an underground laboratory which would have allowed further investigations to confirm whether or not the site would be suitable. Since that time, the Company's efforts in relation to the Sellafield site have been directed towards documenting and publishing the work carried out. The design concept for a repository at Sellafield was developed in parallel with the site investigations through an iterative process as knowledge of the site and understanding of the repository system performance increased. This report documents the Sellafield repository design concept as it had been developed, from initial design considerations in 1991 up to the point when the RCF planning application was rejected. It shows, from the context of a project at that particular site, how much information and experience has been gained that will be applicable to the development of a deep waste repository at other potential sites

  8. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  9. Socioeconomic impacts of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Federal and state decision makers, community leaders, and residents must know how communities will be changed by the impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This chapter identifies the factors affecting an assessment of socioeconomic impacts and the types of impacts (economic, demographic, fiscal, community service, and social) likely to occur as a result of repository development. Each of these types can be divided into standard (those which typically results from any large-scale development) and special impact categories (those which result from the fact that radioactive materials will be handled). 3 tables

  10. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  11. Process model repositories and PNML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Post, R.D.J.; Somers, L.J.A.M.; Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Kindler, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bringing system and process models together in repositories facilitates the interchange of model information between modelling tools, and allows the combination and interlinking of complementary models. Petriweb is a web application for managing such repositories. It supports hierarchical process

  12. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  13. CRIS and Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asserson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CRIS (Current Research Information Systems provide researchers, research managers, innovators, and others with a view over the research activity of a domain. IRs (institutional repositories provide a mechanism for an organisation to showcase through OA (open access its intellectual property. Increasingly, organizations are mandating that their employed researchers deposit peer-reviewed published material in the IR. Research funders are increasingly mandating that publications be deposited in an open access repository: some mandate a central (or subject-based repository, some an IR. In parallel, publishers are offering OA but replacing subscription-based access with author (or author institution payment for publishing. However, many OA repositories have metadata based on DC (Dublin Core which is inadequate; a CERIF (Common-European Research Information Format CRIS provides metadata describing publications with formal syntax and declared semantics thus facilitating interoperation or homogeneous access over heterogeneous sources. The formality is essential for research output metrics, which are increasingly being used to determine future funding for research organizations.

  14. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  15. Repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.; Pentz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of candidate repository sites has a number of programmatic objectives. Principal among these is the acquisition of data: a) to determine the suitability of a site relative to the DOE repository siting guidelines, b) to support model development and calculations to determine the suitability of a site relative to the post closure criteria of the NRC and EPA, c) to support the design of a disposal system, including the waste package and the engineered barrier system, as well as the shafts and underground openings of the repository. In meeting the gaols of site characterization, the authors have an obligation to conduct their investigations within an appropriate budget and schedule. This mandates that a well-constructed and systematic plan for field investigations be developed. Such a plan must fully account for the mechanisms which will control the radiologic performance in the repository. The plan must also flexibly and dynamically respond to the results of each step of field investigation, responding to the spatial variability of earth as well as to enhanced understandings of the performance of the disposal system. Such a plan must ensure that sufficient data are available to support the necessary probabilistic calculations of performance. This paper explores the planning for field data acquisition with specific reference to requirements for demonstrations of the acceptable performance for disposal systems

  16. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  17. Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David

    , different abstraction levels and enables users to analyze their own results, and allows to share data with collaborators. The approach of the Computational Materials Repository (CMR) is to convert data to an internal format that maintains the original variable names without insisting on any semantics...

  18. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  19. Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The goal of BioLINCC is to facilitate and coordinate the existing activities of the NHLBI Biorepository and the Data Repository and to expand their scope and...

  20. Consortial routes to effective repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Moyle, M.; Proudfoot, R.

    2009-01-01

    A consortial approach to the establishment of repository services can help a group of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to share costs, share technology and share expertise. Consortial repository work can tap into existing structures, or it can involve new groupings of institutions with a common interest in exploring repository development. This Briefing Paper outlines some of the potential benefits of collaborative repository activity, and highlights some of the technical and organisation...

  1. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  2. Publishers and repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The impact of self-archiving on journals and publishers is an important topic for all those involved in scholarly communication. There is some evidence that the physics arXiv has had no impact on physics journals, while 'economic common sense' suggests that some impact is inevitable. I shall review recent studies of librarian attitudes towards repositories and journals, and place this in the context of IOP Publishing's experiences with arXiv. I shall offer some possible reasons for the mis-match between these perspectives and then discuss how IOP has linked with arXiv and experimented with OA publishing. As well as launching OA journals we have co-operated with Cornell and the arXiv on Eprintweb.org, a platform that offers new features to repository users. View Andrew Wray's biography

  3. Distributed Web Service Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Nawrocki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability and popularity of computer systems has resulted in a demand for new, language- and platform-independent ways of data exchange. That demand has in turn led to a significant growth in the importance of systems based on Web services. Alongside the growing number of systems accessible via Web services came the need for specialized data repositories that could offer effective means of searching of available services. The development of mobile systems and wireless data transmission technologies has allowed the use of distributed devices and computer systems on a greater scale. The accelerating growth of distributed systems might be a good reason to consider the development of distributed Web service repositories with built-in mechanisms for data migration and synchronization.

  4. Shared Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, Rui; Bastião, Luís; Costa, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a solution for the integration of ownership concept and access control over medical imaging resources, making possible the centralization of multiple instances of repositories. The proposed architecture allows the association of permissions to repository resources and delegation of rights to third entities. It includes a programmatic interface for management of proposed services, made available through web services, with the ability to create, read, update and remove all components resulting from the architecture. The resulting work is a role-based access control mechanism that was integrated with Dicoogle Open-Source Project. The solution has several application scenarios like, for instance, collaborative platforms for research and tele-radiology services deployed at Cloud.

  5. Changes in the Expandability, Layer charge, and CEC of Smectitic Clay due to a Illitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin

    2007-01-01

    In a high-level waste(HLW) repository, the major fucntions of the smectitic clay for use as a buffer material are to inhibit the penetration of groundwater and to retard the release of radionuclides from the radioactive wastes to the surrounding environment. However, when the smectite clay is exposed to an elevated temperature due to radioactive decay heat and geochemical conditions for a long time, its physicochemical and mineralogical properties may be degradated and thus lose its barrier functions. It has been known in literature that the degradation of these properties of the smectitic clay occurs by a illitization in which the smectite transforms into illite. Therefore, an understanding of the illitization is essential to evaluate the long-term barrier performance of smectitic clay for the buffer of a HLW repository. This paper will carry out hydrothermal reaction tests with domestic smectitic clay which will be favorably considered for the buffer material of a Korean HLW repository, and investigate changes in the expandibility, layer charge and cation exchange capacity(CEC) of the smectitic clay due to a illitization

  6. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  7. Evaluation of repository safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  8. Evaluation of repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S.

    2002-01-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  9. Repository performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the

  10. Repository simulation model: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report documents the application of computer simulation for the design analysis of the nuclear waste repository's waste handling and packaging operations. The Salt Repository Simulation Model was used to evaluate design alternatives during the conceptual design phase of the Salt Repository Project. Code development and verification was performed by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWL). The focus of this report is to relate the experience gained during the development and application of the Salt Repository Simulation Model to future repository design phases. Design of the repository's waste handling and packaging systems will require sophisticated analysis tools to evaluate complex operational and logistical design alternatives. Selection of these design alternatives in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) and License Application Design (LAD) phases must be supported by analysis to demonstrate that the repository design will cost effectively meet DOE's mandated emplacement schedule and that uncertainties in the performance of the repository's systems have been objectively evaluated. Computer simulation of repository operations will provide future repository designers with data and insights that no other analytical form of analysis can provide. 6 refs., 10 figs

  11. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  12. Industrial complementarities between interim storage and reversible geological repository - 59237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The French Act voted in 2006 made the choice of deep geological disposal as the reference option for the long term management of high level (HLW) and intermediate level long-lived waste. The CIGEO repository project aims at avoiding or limiting burden to future generations, which could not be achieved by the extension in time of interim storage. The reversibility as provided by the Act will maintain a liberty of choice for waste management on a duration which is comparable to new storage facility. Interim storage is required to accommodate waste as long as the repository is not available. The commissioning of the repository in 2025 will not suppress needs for interim storage. The paper describes the complementarities between existing and future interim storage facilities and the repository project: repository operational issues and planning, HLW thermal decay, support for the reversibility, etc. It shows opportunities to prepare a global optimization of waste management including the utilization at best of storage capacities and the planning of waste emplacement in the repository in such a way to facilitate operational conditions and to limit cost. Preliminary simulations of storage-disposal scenarios are presented. Thanks to an optimal use of the waste management system, provision can be made for a progressive increase of waste emplacement flow during the first operation phase of the repository. It is then possible to stabilize the industrial activity level of the repository site. An optimal utilization of interim storage can also limit the diversity of waste packages emplaced simultaneously, which facilitates the operation of the repository. 60 years minimum interim storage duration is generally required with respect to HLW thermal output. Extending this interim storage period may reduce the underground footprint of the repository. Regarding reversibility, the capability to manage waste packages potentially retrieved from the repository should be analyzed. The

  13. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  14. INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY: EMPLOYMENT IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of «institutional repository» and determined the aspects of institutional repositories in higher education. Institutional Repositories are information systems that allow preserving, storing and disseminating scientific knowledge produced in higher education and scientific research institutions. This study presented the main aspects using institutional repositories in educational process (such as storage of scientific and educational information, means of organization activity of students, object of studying. This article produced the structure of communities and collections of the institutional. It is described the experience of implementing of DSpace in the learning process.

  15. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-11-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 m g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great as those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  16. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-07-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 ml g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great at those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland Cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  17. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  18. The Artful Universe Expanded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, B A

    2005-01-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great beauty. (book review)

  19. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, B A [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-29

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  20. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Bellodi, G; Benedetto, E; Dorda, U; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, G; Schmidt, F; Todesco, E; Zotter, Bruno W; Payet, J; Bartolini, R; Farvacque, L; Sen, T; Chin, Y H; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Furman, M; Qiang, J; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A; Vay, J L; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Cousineau, S M; Danilov, V; Holmes, J A; Shishlo, A; Kim, E S; Cai, Y; Pivi, M; Kaltchev, D I; Abell, D T; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Franchetti, G; Hofmann, I; Machida, S; Wei, J

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic acceleratorphysics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  1. Safety analysis in subsurface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The development of mathematical models to represent the repository-geosphere-biosphere system, and the development of a structure for data acquisition, processing, and use to analyse the safety of subsurface repositories, are presented. To study the behavior of radionuclides in geosphere a laboratory to determine the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient was constructed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Granite-repository - geochemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Some geochemical data of importance for a radioactive waste repository in hard rock are reviewed. The ground water composition at depth is assessed. The ground water chemistry in the vicinity of uranium ores is discussed. The redox system in Swedish bedrock is described. Influences of extreme climatic changes and of repository mining and construction are also evaluated

  3. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  4. Mining Hierarchies and Similarity Clusters from Value Set Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin J; Jiang, Guoqian; Brue, Scott M; Shen, Feichen; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-01-01

    A value set is a collection of permissible values used to describe a specific conceptual domain for a given purpose. By helping to establish a shared semantic understanding across use cases, these artifacts are important enablers of interoperability and data standardization. As the size of repositories cataloging these value sets expand, knowledge management challenges become more pronounced. Specifically, discovering value sets applicable to a given use case may be challenging in a large repository. In this study, we describe methods to extract implicit relationships between value sets, and utilize these relationships to overlay organizational structure onto value set repositories. We successfully extract two different structurings, hierarchy and clustering, and show how tooling can leverage these structures to enable more effective value set discovery.

  5. Technology overview of mined repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, R.; Thirumalai, K.

    1982-01-01

    Mined repositories present an environmentally viable option for permanent disposal of nuclear waste. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art mining technologies and identifies technological issues and developments necessary to mine a repository in basalt. The thermal loading, isolation, and retrieval requirements of a repository present unique technological challenges unknown to conventional mining practice. The technology issues and developments required in the areas of excavation, roof and ground support, equipment development, instrumentation development, and sealing are presented. Performance assessment methods must be developed to evaluate the adequacies of technologies developed to design, construct, operate, and decommission a repository. A stepwise test-and-development approach is used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to develop cost-effective technologies for a repository

  6. Influence analysis of Github repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Bai, Xiaomei; Yu, Shuo; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    With the support of cloud computing techniques, social coding platforms have changed the style of software development. Github is now the most popular social coding platform and project hosting service. Software developers of various levels keep entering Github, and use Github to save their public and private software projects. The large amounts of software developers and software repositories on Github are posing new challenges to the world of software engineering. This paper tries to tackle one of the important problems: analyzing the importance and influence of Github repositories. We proposed a HITS based influence analysis on graphs that represent the star relationship between Github users and repositories. A weighted version of HITS is applied to the overall star graph, and generates a different set of top influential repositories other than the results from standard version of HITS algorithm. We also conduct the influential analysis on per-month star graph, and study the monthly influence ranking of top repositories.

  7. Oxidation-reduction reactions. Overview and implications for repository studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, Michael J.; Arthur, Randolph C.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a survey and review on oxidation-reduction ('redox') reactions, with particular emphasis on implications for disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in deep geological formations. As an overview, the focus is on basic principles, problems, and proposed research related specifically to the assessment of redox for a HLW repository in Japan. For a more comprehensive treatment of redox and the myriad associated issues, the reader is directed to the cited textbooks used as primary references in this report. Low redox conditions in deep geological formations is a key assumption in the 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' (hereafter called H12'). The release behavior of multi-valent radioelements (e.g., Tc, Se, U, Pu, Np), as well as daughter radioelements of these radioelements, from a deep geological repository are sensitively related to redox conditions. Furthermore, the performance of certain barrier materials, such as overpack and buffer, may be impacted by redox conditions. Given this importance, this report summarizes some key topics for future technical studies supporting site characterization and repository performance as follows: To fully test the conceptual models for system Eh, it will be necessary to measure and evaluate trace element and isotopic information of both coexisting groundwater and reactive minerals of candidate rocks. Because of importance of volatile species (e.g., O 2 , H 2 etc.) in redox reactions, and given the high total pressure of a repository located 500 to 1000 meter deep, laboratory investigations of redox will necessarily require use of pressurized test devices that can fully simulate repository conditions. The stability (redox capacity) of the repository system with respect to potential changes in redox boundary condition induced by oxidizing waters intrusion should be established experimentally. An overall conceptual model that unifies

  8. Design perspectives for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ki; Koh, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Sang Sun; Lee, Byung Sik; Choi, Gi Won

    2007-01-01

    The underground waste repository is located at Gyeongju and is designed for the disposal of all the Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste(LILW). It is scheduled to commence operations in the beginning of 2009. The repository, with a disposal capacity of 800,000 drums, will be constructed in granite rock near the seashore at the Gyeongju site. The repository will be designed to be constructed in phases to reach its final capacity 800,000 drums. In the first phase of construction, the repository will have a capacity to store 100,000 drums. The repository will house all LILW generated in the Republic of Korea. The first phase of the repository design consists of an assess shaft, a construction tunnel, an operating tunnel, an unloading tunnel, and six(6) silos. The silos are located at 80 to 130 meters below Mean Sea level (MSL), in bedrock. Each silo is 24.8m in diameter and 52.4m in height. The silo will be reinforced with concrete lining for rock supports which will also act aas an engineered barrier in limiting radioactive nuclide release aft closure. After serving its intended function the repository will be filled and sealed. The primary objective of filling and sealing is to prevent ground water flow into the silo through the tunnel system and to prevent inadvertent intrusion into the repository after closure

  9. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  10. Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzell, Anni; Meer, Klaas Van Der

    2008-02-01

    The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

  11. Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)); Meer, Klaas Van Der (Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (BG))

    2008-02-15

    The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

  12. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. 'Buzz' Savage

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is investigating spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies that have the potential to improve the performance of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Separating actinides and selected fission products from spent fuel, storing some of them as low level waste and transmuting them in thermal and/or fast reactors has the potential to reduce the volume, short and long-term heat load and radiotoxicity of the high level waste destined for the repository, effectively increasing its capacity by a factor of 50 or more above the current legislative limit. (author)

  13. Presentation of the paper “Open access repositories as channel of publication scientific grey literature”

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Fernández, Tránsito; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Merlo Vega, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation of the paper entitled “Open access repositories as channel of publication scientific grey literature” in the TEEM 2015 International Conference held in Porto (Portugal) in October 7-9, 2015. In this paper we describe how the open access repositories are valid channels for the publication of scientific grey literature. Technological development facilitates the communication of scientific knowledge, allowing expand distribution channels and significantly reducing tra...

  14. Repository for fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    A repository for holding and storing fissile or other hazardous materials either under or above the ground is provided by enclosing one or more inner containers, such as standard steel drums, in a larger, corrosion-resistant outer shell, with a layer of foamed polyurethane occupying the space therebetween. The polyurethane foam is free of voids at its interfaces with the inner container and outer shell, and adheres to and reinforces same to provide a stress skin structure. Protection is afforded by the chemical and physical characteristics of the polyurethane foam against destructive influences such as water vapor intrusion, package leakage and damaging effects of the environment, such as freezing, electrolysis, chemical and bacterial action. The outer shell is shaped to conform generally to the shape of the inner container and is made of a tube of bituminized fiber material with endcaps of exterior grade plywood treated with wood preservative. A quantity of fluorescein dye is positioned within the inner container for monitoring each package for leakage

  15. Biospecimen repositories and cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Savitri

    2015-03-01

    Biospecimen repositories are important for the advancement of biomedical research. Literature on the potential for biobanking of fine-needle aspiration, gynecologic, and nongynecologic cytology specimens is very limited. The potential for biobanking of these specimens as valuable additional resources to surgically excised tissues appears to be excellent. The cervicovaginal specimens that can be used for biobanking include Papanicolaou-stained monolayer preparations and residual material from liquid-based cytology preparations. Different types of specimen preparations of fine-needle aspiration and nongynecologic specimens, including Papanicolaou-stained and Diff-Quik-stained smears, cell blocks. and dedicated passes/residual material from fine-needle aspiration stored frozen in a variety of solutions, can be used for biobanking. Because of several gaps in knowledge regarding the standard of operative procedures for the procurement, storage, and quality assessment of cytology specimens, further studies as well as national conferences and workshops are needed not only to create awareness but also to facilitate the use of cytopathology specimens for biobanking. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  17. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  18. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  19. Conceptual design of repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Engelmann, H.J.; Souquet, G.; Mayence, M.; Hamstra, J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the European Economic Communities programme of research into underground disposal of radioactive wastes repository design studies have been carried out for application in salt deposits, argillaceous formations and crystalline rocks. In this paper the design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual designs are presented in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Emphasis has been placed on the disposal of vitrified high level radioactive wastes although consideration has been given to other categories of radioactive waste

  20. Tools for Managing Repository Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Banker, Rajiv D.; Isakowitz, Tomas; Kauffman, Robert J.; Kumar, Rachna; Zweig, Dani

    1993-01-01

    working Paper Series: STERN IS-93-46 The past few years have seen the introduction of repository-based computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools which may finally enable us to develop software which is reliable and affordable. With the new tools come new challenges for management: Repository-based CASE changes software development to such an extent that traditional approaches to estimation, performance, and productivity assessment may no longer suffice - if they ever...

  1. Business models for digital repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Bjørnshauge, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Those setting up, or planning to set up, a digital repository may be interested to know more about what has gone before them. What is involved, what is the cost, how many people are needed, how have others made the case to their institution, and how do you get anything into it once it is built? I have recently undertaken a study of European repository business models for the DRIVER project and will present an overview of the findings.

  2. IAEA safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In September. 1988, the IAEA held its first formal meeting on the safeguards requirements for the final disposal of spent fuel and nuclear material-bearing waste. The consensus recommendation of the 43 participants from 18 countries at this Advisory Group Meeting was that safeguards should not terminate of spent fuel even after emplacement in, and closure of, a geologic repository.' As a result of this recommendation, the IAEA initiated a series of consultants' meetings and the SAGOR Programme (Programme for the Development of Safeguards for the Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geologic Repositories) to develop an approach that would permit IAEA safeguards to verify the non-diversion of spent fuel from a geologic repository. At the end of this process, in December 1997, a second Advisory Group Meeting, endorsed the generic safeguards approach developed by the SAGOR Programme. Using the SAGOR Programme results and consultants' meeting recommendations, the IAEA Department of Safeguards issued a safeguards policy paper stating the requirements for IAEA safeguards at geologic repositories. Following approval of the safeguards policy and the generic safeguards approach, the Geologic Repository Safeguards Experts Group was established to make recommendations on implementing the safeguards approach. This experts' group is currently making recommendations to the IAEA regarding the safeguards activities to be conducted with respect to Finland's repository programme. (author)

  3. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva

    2011-12-01

    represent a common type of locality for a repository, given that siting criteria are fulfilled. There is also a site that was selected without any association to existing nuclear sites or mines. This is the case for the French L'Aube repository. National repositories for disposal of all waste arising in that country are common, e.g. El Cabril in Spain and Low Level Repository close to Drigg in United Kingdom. The depth of the repositories varies from being on the surface to down to 650 metres below ground. The geological conditions of the different repositories are described as well as engineered barriers, geographical location and, if available, information on safety analysis. It can be noted that in the safety analysis of repositories located close to the coast (such as in Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom), the effect of post-glacial land rise or coastal erosion is taken into special consideration. In general, the size of the repository reflects the size of the nuclear programmes in the respective country. The activity content of the facility, both the total and normalised figures against the volume capacities, are compared for groups of radionuclides

  4. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva (SKB International AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    represent a common type of locality for a repository, given that siting criteria are fulfilled. There is also a site that was selected without any association to existing nuclear sites or mines. This is the case for the French L'Aube repository. National repositories for disposal of all waste arising in that country are common, e.g. El Cabril in Spain and Low Level Repository close to Drigg in United Kingdom. The depth of the repositories varies from being on the surface to down to 650 metres below ground. The geological conditions of the different repositories are described as well as engineered barriers, geographical location and, if available, information on safety analysis. It can be noted that in the safety analysis of repositories located close to the coast (such as in Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom), the effect of post-glacial land rise or coastal erosion is taken into special consideration. In general, the size of the repository reflects the size of the nuclear programmes in the respective country. The activity content of the facility, both the total and normalised figures against the volume capacities, are compared for groups of radionuclides

  5. Radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.; Barinov, A.; Prozorov, L.

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose to construct a radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety and reliable containment, MosNPO 'Radon' specialists have developed an advanced type repository - large diameter well (LBD) one. A project is started for the development of a technology for LDW repository construction and pilot operation of the new repository for 25-30 years. The 2 LDW repositories constructed at the 'Radon' site and the developed monitoring system are described

  6. Demystifying the institutional repository for success

    CERN Document Server

    Buehler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Institutional repositories remain key to data storage on campus, fulfilling the academic needs of various stakeholders. Demystifying the Institutional Repository for Success is a practical guide to creating and sustaining an institutional repository through marketing, partnering, and understanding the academic needs of all stakeholders on campus. This title is divided into seven chapters, covering: traditional scholarly communication and open access publishing; the academic shift towards open access; what the successful institutional repository looks like; institutional repository collaboratio

  7. Virtual patient repositories--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küfner, Julia; Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Hege, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Patients (VPs) are an important component of medical education. One way to reduce the costs for creating VPs is sharing through repositories. We conducted a literature review to identify existing repositories and analyzed the 17 included repositories in regards to the search functions and metadata they provide. Most repositories provided some metadata such as title or description, whereas other data, such as educational objectives, were less frequent. Future research could, in cooperation with the repository provider, investigate user expectations and usage patterns.

  8. Biological Web Service Repositories Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdidiales-Nieto, David; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2017-05-01

    Web services play a key role in bioinformatics enabling the integration of database access and analysis of algorithms. However, Web service repositories do not usually publish information on the changes made to their registered Web services. Dynamism is directly related to the changes in the repositories (services registered or unregistered) and at service level (annotation changes). Thus, users, software clients or workflow based approaches lack enough relevant information to decide when they should review or re-execute a Web service or workflow to get updated or improved results. The dynamism of the repository could be a measure for workflow developers to re-check service availability and annotation changes in the services of interest to them. This paper presents a review on the most well-known Web service repositories in the life sciences including an analysis of their dynamism. Freshness is introduced in this paper, and has been used as the measure for the dynamism of these repositories. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Reactive transport predictions for an Olkiluoto. Final repository tunnel unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, A.; Nordman, H.

    2007-09-01

    The presented hydrogeochemical reactive transport calculations concentrate to a defined unit piece (unit cell) of the planned Olkiluoto repository that is under design for spent nuclear fuel. The material properties assigned to the tunnel unit are based on literature as far as possible. Calculations make up geochemical future scenarios on the repository evolution. Most recent predictions on the potential future climate at Olkiluoto are utilised together with estimates how future hydraulic conditions affect the repository. Two climate scenarios are considered in detail. The Weichselian-R scenario is based on the repetition of the last glacial cycle, while the Emissions-M scenario attempts to predict the future groundwater conditions at Olkiluoto in the situation where the atmospheric greenhouse gasses delay the next glacial cycle at least for 100,000 years. The groundwater compositions, considered active at the repository depth in future, are judged in this study. Several geochemical processes are considered active at the repository depth. Calculations concentrate on the changes occurring with time within the tunnel unit. All simulations are done in geochemically reducing conditions. It turns out that sulphur cycling in these conditions is in central role considering the safety assessment studies of Olkiluoto repository. Furthermore, groundwater salinity and cation occupancy within the exchange sites of montmorillonite contributes to sealing properties of the engineered barrier system. Calculations attempt to estimate effects of possible future scenarios for the Olkiluoto repository. The results indicate that the buffer capacities assigned to the tunnel unit are large enough, at least to next 100,000 years, to maintain dissolved sulphide contents low in the groundwater infiltrating through the tunnel engineered barrier system. Geochemical reactions raise the bicarbonate levels within the groundwater. This is a useful buffer if low pH conditions emerge in the

  10. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  11. Bentonite as a backfill material for shallow land repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalmali, V.S.; Deshingkar, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Two commercially available indigenous bentonite samples were evaluated for their cesium and strontium sorption properties in distilled water and surface water. By converting them into sodium form, the distribution coefficients for both cesium (I) and strontium (II) increased. Sodium bentonite was recommended because of high sorption capacity for Cs(I), Mg(II) and Sr(II) for use as backfill material in shallow land repositories where cement waste form containing Cs, Sr and Be wastes are disposed. (author)

  12. Overly Honest Data Repository Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Fallaw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After a year of development, the library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has launched a repository, called the Illinois Data Bank (https://databank.illinois.edu/, to provide Illinois researchers with a free, self-serve publishing platform that centralizes, preserves, and provides persistent and reliable access to Illinois research data. This article presents a holistic view of development by discussing our overarching technical, policy, and interface strategies. By openly presenting our design decisions, the rationales behind those decisions, and associated challenges this paper aims to contribute to the library community's work to develop repository services that meet growing data preservation and sharing needs.

  13. Reduction of repository heat load using advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, Jeff; Miller, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    With the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain already nearing capacity full before opening, advanced fuel cycles that introduce reprocessing, fast reactors, and temporary storage sites have the potential to allow the repository to support the current reactor fleet and future expansion. An uncertainty analysis methodology that combines Monte Carlo distribution sampling, reactor physics data simulation, and neural network interpolation methods enable investigation into the factor reduction of heat capacity by using the hybrid fuel cycle. Using a Super PRISM fast reactor with a conversion ratio of 0.75, burn ups reach up to 200 MWd/t that decrease the plutonium inventory by about 5 metric tons every 12 years. Using the long burn up allows the footprint of 1 single core loading of FR fuel to have an integral decay heat of about 2.5x10 5 MW*yr over a 1500 year period that replaces the footprint of about 6 full core loadings of LWR fuel for the number of years required to fuel the FR, which have an integral decay heat of about.3 MW*yr for the same time integral. This results in an increase of a factor of 4 in repository support capacity from implementing a single fast reactor in an equilibrium cycle. (authors)

  14. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  15. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  16. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  18. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations

  19. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta

    2010-01-01

    The largest pool of organic material in a repository at closure is the organic material in the bentonite in buffer and backfill. It is impossible to make any assumptions as to how much of this material will be available for biodegradation, since the character of the material is unknown. However, it is unlikely that this organic material can dissolve in groundwater unless the bentonite loses its swelling capacity. The second largest pool will be the biofilms formed on the rock surfaces. This assumption presupposes that no cleaning is undertaken before repository closure. The third largest pool is the organic material produced by microorganisms using hydrogen from the anaerobic corrosion of iron in steel as an energy source. The following provides summary descriptions of the different pools of organic material that will remain in the repository: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would mainly be to reduce the redox potential soon after repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped during repository construction, an effect that would not jeopardise repository stability. If the dominant microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to the formation of HS - . The produced sulphide could corrode the copper canisters under anaerobic conditions if it reaches them. Another effect of microorganisms would be to increase the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the small amounts of such substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be to help maintain reducing conditions in the area, although this effect will likely be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among these materials, we emphasise the organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite, and wood. Hydrocarbons from asphalt may help reduce

  20. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The largest pool of organic material in a repository at closure is the organic material in the bentonite in buffer and backfill. It is impossible to make any assumptions as to how much of this material will be available for biodegradation, since the character of the material is unknown. However, it is unlikely that this organic material can dissolve in groundwater unless the bentonite loses its swelling capacity. The second largest pool will be the biofilms formed on the rock surfaces. This assumption presupposes that no cleaning is undertaken before repository closure. The third largest pool is the organic material produced by microorganisms using hydrogen from the anaerobic corrosion of iron in steel as an energy source. The following provides summary descriptions of the different pools of organic material that will remain in the repository: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would mainly be to reduce the redox potential soon after repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped during repository construction, an effect that would not jeopardise repository stability. If the dominant microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to the formation of HS-. The produced sulphide could corrode the copper canisters under anaerobic conditions if it reaches them. Another effect of microorganisms would be to increase the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the small amounts of such substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be to help maintain reducing conditions in the area, although this effect will likely be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among these materials, we emphasise the organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite, and wood. Hydrocarbons from asphalt may help reduce

  1. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  2. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  3. Barriers to migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.

    1999-01-01

    Natural inorganic sorbents are known as effective barriers that reduce the migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories and contaminated sites. They could be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in the repository and their presence in the host rock and the surrounding geological formations increases the retention properties of the strata. Natural occurring minerals from local origin are used in the study - zeolites (clinoptilolite and mordenite), celadonite and loess. Sorption of wide range of radionuclides is studies. Batch capacity is determined. Sorption of radionuclides from simulated natural solution is studied. Distribution coefficients are calculated from sorption isotherms. Desorption in presence of different natural solutions is studied. Sorption properties are compared. It is shown that clinoptilolite acts as effective barrier against migration of radionuclides from repositories. The presence of celadonite in the clinoptilolite rock increases the retention of polyvalent ions. The retention of radionuclides on loess samples fulfils the requirements for host media for repository for low and intermediate level waste. A method for construction of additional barrier to the existing in the country disposal vault for spent sealed sources is proposed

  4. Rock support for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, L.W.; Schmidt, B.

    1984-01-01

    The design of rock support for underground nuclear waste repositories requires consideration of special construction and operation requirements, and of the adverse environmental conditions in which some of the support is placed. While repository layouts resemble mines, design, construction and operation are subject to quality assurance and public scrutiny similar to what is experienced for nuclear power plants. Exploration, design, construction and operation go through phases of review and licensing by government agencies as repositories evolve. This paper discusses (1) the various stages of repository development; (2) the environment that supports must be designed for; (3) the environmental effects on support materials; and (4) alternative types of repository rock support

  5. Logistics characterization for regional spent fuel repositories concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Hudson, B.J.; Anthony, M.W.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes a study of logistics considerations for a four-region repository system for spent fuel disposal. The logistics considerations include: (1) yearly receipt and emplacement; (2) inventory; (3) away-from-reactor (AFR) storage; (4) nuclear capacity growth effects; (5) entire lifetime of reactors served by repository operations; (6) proportions of pressurized-water-reactor (PWR)/boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel; (7) proportions of rail and truck shipments; (8) shipping cask fleet requirements; (9) number of annual shipments; (10) mode (rail/truck) and cost of shipment; and (11) initial year for shipment to maintain full core reserve. The nation was divided into Northeast, North Central, Southern, and Western regions for evaluation purposes. Repository logistics were analyzed in each region based on three different capacity projections. For the Southern region, results for seven salt dome sites are presented. The Western region results cover four potential sites. The North Central and Northeastern regions results are not presented on a site specific basis. Conclusions are drawn based on the results. The methodology assumptions and references used in the logistics analysis are described for the convenience of the reader

  6. Coupled processes in repository sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.; Kelsall, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The significance of coupled processes in repository sealing is evaluated. In most repository designs, shaft seals will be located in areas of relatively low temperature perturbation, in which case the coupling of temperature with stress and permeability may be less significant than the coupling between stress and permeability that occurs during excavation. Constitutive relationships between stress and permeability are reviewed for crystalline rock and rocksalt. These provide a basis for predicting the development of disturbed zones near excavations. Field case histories of the degree of disturbance are presented for two contrasting rock types - Stripa granite and Southeastern New Mexico rocksalt. The results of field investigations in both rock types confirm that hydraulic conductivity or permeability is stress dependent, and that shaft seal performance may be related to the degree that stresses are perturbed and restored near the seal

  7. University digital repositories and authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Keefer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Access movement offers two strategies for making scientific information available without economic, technical or legal obstacles: the publication of articles in OA journals and the deposit by authors of their Works in stable institutional or discipline-based repositories. This article explores the implementation of the second “route” on the part of authors, because it is the strategy that offers the greatest possibility of attaining OA in the short term. However, it does require repositories to exert great effort in informing the authors of the advantages of self-archiving and of the procedures for depositing their work and, even helping them to do so – through services and promotional activities.

  8. Aspects on the gas generation and migration in repositories for high level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Andre; Buhmann, Dieter; Meleshyn, Artur; Moenig, Joerg; Spiessl, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    In a deep geological repository for high-level waste, gases may be produced during the post-closure phase by several processes. The generated gases can potentially affect safety relevant features and processes of the repository, like the barrier integrity, the transport of liquids and gases in the repository and the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository into the biosphere. German long-term safety assessments for repositories for high-level waste in salt which were performed prior 2010 did not explicitly consider gas transport and the consequences from release of volatile radionuclides. Selected aspects of the generation and migration of gases in repositories for high-level waste in a salt formation are studied in this report from the viewpoint of the performance assessment. The knowledge on the availability of water in the repository, in particular the migration of salt rock internal fluids in the temperature field of the radioactive waste repository towards the emplacement drifts, was compiled and the amount of water was roughly estimated. Two other processes studied in this report are on the one hand the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository and their potential impact in the biosphere and on the other hand the transport of gases along the drifts and shafts of the repository and their interaction with the fluid flow. The results presented show that there is some gas production expected to occur in the repository due to corrosion of container material from water disposed of with the backfill and inflowing from the host rock during the thermal phase. If not dedicated gas storage areas are foreseen in the repository concept, these gases might exceed the storage capacity for gases in the repository. Consequently, an outflow of gases from the repository could occur. If there are failed containers for spent fuel, radioactive gases might be released from the containers into the gas space of the backfill and subsequently transported together

  9. A scoping review of online repositories of quality improvement projects, interventions and initiatives in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytautas, Jessica P; Gheihman, Galina; Dobrow, Mark J

    2017-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is becoming an important focal point for health systems. There is increasing interest among health system stakeholders to learn from and share experiences on the use of QI methods and approaches in their work. Yet there are few easily accessible, online repositories dedicated to documenting QI activity. We conducted a scoping review of publicly available, web-based QI repositories to (i) identify current approaches to sharing information on QI practices; (ii) categorise these approaches based on hosting, scope and size, content acquisition and eligibility, content format and search, and evaluation and engagement characteristics; and (iii) review evaluations of the design, usefulness and impact of their online QI practice repositories. The search strategy consisted of traditional database and grey literature searches, as well as expert consultation, with the ultimate aim of identifying and describing QI repositories of practices undertaken in a healthcare context. We identified 13 QI repositories and found substantial variation across the five categories. The QI repositories used different terminology (eg, practices vs case studies) and approaches to content acquisition, and varied in terms of primary areas of focus. All provided some means for organising content according to categories or themes and most provided at least rudimentary keyword search functionality. Notably, none of the QI repositories included evaluations of their impact. With growing interest in sharing and spreading best practices and increasing reliance on QI as a key contributor to health system performance, the role of QI repositories is likely to expand. Designing future QI repositories based on knowledge of the range and type of features available is an important starting point for improving their usefulness and impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Repository development status in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, Alvaro; Zuloaga, Pablo [ENRESA (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes the status of repository development for the different waste categories. Low and Intermediate Waste Disposal facility of El Cabril was commissioned in 1992 and is in normal operation. The major modifications and activities during the last years are the adaptation to waste streams not initially foreseen such as some decommissioning waste or waste from steel industry, and the improvement of its performance assessment, supported by a R and D and refined models. As part of this facility, a new disposal facility specifically intended for very low activity waste has been constructed and commissioned in July 2008. Its design is based on the European Directive for hazardous waste disposal. National policy for Nuclear Spent Fuel and High-Level waste is focused on the development of a centralized storage facility of the vault type, whose site location would be selected through a volunteering process. Meanwhile, with the aim of solving specific problems, three individual storage facilities are in different status at reactor sites. Research on final solution, including some repository aspects as well as separation and transmutation are being carried out in accordance to ENRESA's R and D program. ENRESA has developed conceptual designs for non site specific repositories, both in granite and clay, and has carried out their corresponding performance assessment exercises. (authors)

  11. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts

  12. A Study on Establishment of Buffer Zone of Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Park, Joo Wan; Ju, Min Su; Kim, Chang Lak; Park, Jin Baek

    2008-01-01

    A new proposed repository has a final capacity of 800,000 drums radioactive waste. Most of foreign repositories have a general practice of segregating control zones which mainly contributes to classification of degree of control, whether it is called buffer zone or not. Domestic regulatory requirements of establishment of buffer zone in a repository are not much different from those of nuclear power plants for operation period, in which satisfactory design objective or performance objective is the most important factor in determination of the buffer zone. The meaning of buffer zone after closure is a minimum requested area which can prevent inadvertent intruders from leading to non-allowable exposure during institutional control period. Safety assessment with drinking well scenario giving rise to the highest probability of exposure among the intruder's actions can verify fulfillment of the buffer zone which is determined by operational safety of the repository. At present. for the repository to be constructed in a few years, the same procedure and concept as described in this paper are applied that can satisfy regulatory requirements and radiological safety as well. However, the capacity of the repository will be stepwise extended upto 800,000 drums, consequently its layout will be varied too. Timely considerations will be necessary for current boundary of the buffer zone which has been established on the basis of 100,000 drums disposal.

  13. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  14. Computer enhanced release scenario analysis for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Petrie, G.M.; Mullen, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    An interactive (user-oriented) computer tool is being developed at PNL to assist in the analysis of release scenarios for long-term safety assessment of a continental geologic nuclear waste repository. Emphasis is on characterizing the various ways the geologic and hydrologic system surrounding a repository might vary over the 10 6 to 10 7 years subsequent to final closure of the cavern. The potential disruptive phenomena are categorized as natural geologic and man-caused and tend to be synergistic in nature. The computer tool is designed to permit simulation of the system response as a function of the ongoing disruptive phenomena and time. It is designed to be operated in a determinatic manner, i.e., user selection of the desired scenarios and associated rate, magnitude, and lag time data; or in a stochastic mode. The stochastic mode involves establishing distributions for individual phenomena occurrence probabilities, rates, magnitudes, and phase relationships. A Monte-Carlo technique is then employed to generate a multitude of disruptive event scenarios, scan for breaches of the repository isolation, and develop input to the release consequence analysis task. To date, only a simplified one-dimensional version of the code has been completed. Significant modification and development is required to expand its dimensionality and apply the tool to any specific site

  15. The preliminary design and feasibility study of the spent fuel and high level waste repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.; Holub, J.; Kucerka, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the year 1993, began the Program of Development of the Spent Fuel and High Level Waste Repository in the Conditions of the Czech Republic. During the first phase, the basic concept and structure of the Program has been developed, and the basic design criteria and requirements were prepared. In the conditions of the Czech Republic, only an underground repository in deep geological formation is acceptable. Expected depth is between 500 to 1000 meters and as host rock will be granites. A preliminary variant design study was realized in 1994, that analyzed the radioactive waste and spent fuel flow from NPPs to the repository, various possibilities of transportation in accordance to the various concepts of spent fuel conditioning and transportation to the underground structures. Conditioning and encapsulation of spent fuel and/or radioactive waste is proposed on the repository site. Underground disposal structures are proposed at one underground floor. The repository will have reserve capacity for radioactive waste from NPPs decommissioning and for waste non acceptable to other repositories. Vertical disposal of unshielded canisters in boreholes and/or horizontal disposal of shielded canisters is studied. As the base term of the start up of the repository operation, the year 2035 has been established. From this date, a preliminary time schedule of the Project has been developed. A method of calculating leveled and discounted costs within the repository lifetime, for each of selected 5 variants, was used for economic calculations. Preliminary expected parametric costs of the repository are about 0,1 Kc ($0.004) per MWh, produced in the Czech NPPs. In 1995, the design and feasibility study has gone in more details to the technical concept of repository construction and proposed technologies, as well as to the operational phase of the repository. Paper will describe results of the 1995 design work and will present the program of the repository development in next period

  16. Hydrothermal conditions around a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1981-12-01

    Numerical solutions for the hydrothermal conditions around a hard rock repository for nuclear fuel waste are presented. The objective of the present investigation is to illustrate in principle the effect of heat released from a hypothetical radioactive waste repository with regard to anisotropy in the rock permeability. Permeability and porosity are assumed to be constant or to decrease exponentially with depth. The hypothetical repository is situated below a horizontal ground surface or below the crest of a hill, and it is assumed that the water table follows the topography. Major interest in the analysis is directed towards the influence of anisotropy in the permeability on the flow patterns and travel times for water particles, being traced from the repository to the ground surface. The presented results show that anisotropy in the permeability may have a significant influence on the flow conditions around the repository and subsequently also on the travel times from the repository. (Authors)

  17. People's perception of LILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Polic, Marko

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Social acceptability of the radioactive waste repository presents a great problem in every country with such a waste. Even if people agree with the need for its construction, the chosen location should be far from their homes (NIMBY). The reasons for such attitudes were attributed to different causes: uneducated public, differences in understanding of radioactivity and risk by experts and lay public, risk communication problems, lack of credibility and social trust, etc. While in earlier days public was blamed for its irrationality, and need for education and information was emphasized, today it is realized that public trust is extremely important if effective risk communication is to be achieved. It is also recognized that it is not so much the content of the risk message itself, as the lack of trust to those responsible for provision of information that is behind this opposition. Perhaps we could apply here Petty and Caciopo's elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, with credibility as a factor in peripheral route of persuasion. Nevertheless also general lowering of social trust should explain social non-agreement. This lack of trust in experts and political institutions is perhaps caused by outwitting public in earlier years, its bad experiences with responsible officials, dangerous accidents (e.g. TMI, Chernobyl), increased influence that professions have over people's welfare, a greater value placed on equality and better educated public, etc. In 1996 the ARAO re-initiated the search for a LILW repository location with a new, so-called combined approach to the site selection, where the technical, geologically led process is combined with participation of local community. In order to get information on people's perception of the LILW repository construction, their willingness to accept it and factors that influence the acceptability, several surveys have been conducted. Groups of experts and lay persons answered the questionnaires. The results of

  18. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  19. Groundwater movements around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    1977-10-01

    Based on regional models of groundwater flow, the regional hydraulic gradient at depth is equal to the regional topographic gradient. As a result, the equipotentials are near vertical. The permeability distribution with depth influences the groundwater flow patterns. A zone of sluggish flows, the quiescent zone is developed when the permeability decreases with depth. This feature is accentuated when horizontal anisotropy, with the horizontal permeability higher then the vertical permeability, is included. The presence of an inactive zone will be a prerequesite for a satisfactory repository site. The effect of an inclined discontinuity representing a singular geological feature such as a fault plane or shear zone has been modelled. The quiescent zone does not appear to be unduly disturbed by such a feature. However, meaningful quantitative predictions related to the flows in a typical singular feature cannot be made without more specific data on their hydraulic properties. Two dimensional analysis has been made for a site specific section of a candidate repository site at Forsmark, Sweden. The lateral extent of the model was defined by major tectonic features, assumed vertical. Potential gradients and pore velocities have been computed for a range of boundary conditions and assumed material properties. The potential gradients for the model with anisotropic permeability approach the average potential gradient between the boundaries. The result of this study of the initial groundwater conditions will be used as input data for the analyses of the thermomechanical perturbations of the groundwater regime. In the long term, the groundwater flow will return to the initial conditions. The residual effects of the repository on the flow will be discussed in part 2 of this report. (author)

  20. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  1. National radioactive wasterRepository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the scheme of the Mochovce National radioactive waste repository for the Slovak Republic is presented. The National radioactive waste repository in Mochovce is a surface type storage facility. It is intended for final disposal of solid and solidified low and intermediate radioactive waste produced during the operation of nuclear power plants and institutions located within the territory of the Slovak Republic. The Repository site is situated about 2 km northwest to the Mochovce NPP

  2. Performance assessment of Mochovce repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrskova, A; Hanusik, V [Dept. of Accident Management and Risk Assessment, Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2000-07-01

    The near-surface disposal site at Mochovce is designed for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is a vault-type concrete structure housing the reinforced concrete containers as the final waste packages. This paper shortly presents the long-term safety analysis methods applied for the post-closure phase of the repository. The main aim of paper is description of the philosophy of analysis, development of the scenarios, their modeling and comparing of the results of normal evolution scenario, alternative scenario and intruders scenario for some radionuclides. (author)

  3. Performance assessment of Mochovce repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrskova, A.; Hanusik, V.

    2000-01-01

    The near-surface disposal site at Mochovce is designed for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is a vault-type concrete structure housing the reinforced concrete containers as the final waste packages. This paper shortly presents the long-term safety analysis methods applied for the post-closure phase of the repository. The main aim of paper is description of the philosophy of analysis, development of the scenarios, their modeling and comparing of the results of normal evolution scenario, alternative scenario and intruders scenario for some radionuclides. (author)

  4. Office of Geologic Repositories quality assurance plan for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This document sets forth geologic repository program-wide quality assurance program requirements and defines management's quality assurance responsibilities for the Office of Geologic Repositories and its projects. (LM)

  5. The European Repository Landscape 2008 Inventory of Digital Repositories for Research Output

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Graaf, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a common knowledge base for European research is necessary. Research repositories are an important innovation to the scientific information infrastructure. In 2006, digital repositories in the 27 countries of the European we

  6. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.

    2016-11-08

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later, thousands of universities and other institutions have answered this call, but many more have not due to gaps in budgets, awareness and, most of all, practical guidance on creating an institutional repository. This workshop provides you with an essential primer on what it takes to establish a fully-functioning institutional repository. Every aspect of the process will be covered, including policies, procedures, staffing guidelines, workflows and repository technologies.

  7. Center for Leadership Development (CLD) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Center for Leadership Development Repository stores various data including policies, procedures, governance, guidance, security, and financial documents of the...

  8. Nuclear waste repository design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlke, B.M.; Monsees, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive underground excavation will be required for construction of a mined geologic repository for nuclear waste. Hundreds of thousands of feet of drift will be required based on the conceptual layout design for each candidate nuclear waste repository. Comparison of boring and blasting excavation methods are discussed, as are special design and construction requirements (e.g., quality assurance procedures and performance assessment) for the nuclear waste repository. Comparisons are made between boring and blasting construction methods for the repository designs proposed for salt, volcanic tuff, and basalt

  9. Implementing and Sustaining Data Lifecycle best Practices: a Framework for Researchers and Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, S.

    2016-02-01

    Emerging data management mandates in conjunction with cross-domain international interoperability are posing new challenges for researchers and repositories. Domain repositories are serving in this critical, growing role monitoring and leading data management standards and capability within their own repository and working on mappings between repositories internationally. Leading research institutions and companies will also be important as they develop and expand data curation efforts. This landscape poses a number of challenges for developing and ensuring the use of best practices in curating research data, enabling discovery, elevating quality across diverse repositories, and helping researchers collect and organize it through the full data life cycle. This multidimensional challenge will continue to grow in complexity. The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is developing two programs to help researchers and data repositories develop and elevate best practices and address these challenges. The goal is to provide tools for the researchers and repositories, whether domain, institutional, or other, that improve performance throughout the data lifecycle across the Earth and space science community. For scientists and researchers, AGU is developing courses around handling data that can lead toward a certification in geoscience data management. Course materials will cover metadata management and collection, data analysis, integration of data, and data presentation. The course topics are being finalized by the advisory board with the first one planned to be available later this year. AGU is also developing a program aimed at helping data repositories, large and small, domain-specific to general, assess and improve data management practices. AGU has partnered with the CMMI® Institute to adapt their Data Management Maturity (DMM)SM framework within the Earth and space sciences. A data management assessment using the DMMSM involves identifying accomplishments and

  10. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed

  11. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  12. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  13. Low- and intermediate-level waste repository-induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth, Dorset (United Kingdom); Senger, R. [Intera Inc., Ennetbaden (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    system has been designed to perform with sufficient safety margin for a range of siting conditions. The barriers include the host rock, its surrounding geological setting, the waste forms, drums and the cementitious backfill. They have a range of attributes that intrinsically favour safety and that avoid or minimise detrimental phenomena and uncertainties or mitigate their effects. Nevertheless, potentially detrimental repository-induced effects remain and in the present report, these are investigated and discussed considering a broad spectrum of parameters, reflecting, among other things, the range of potential siting conditions. The L/ILW emplacement caverns are designed, constructed, operated and finally backfilled in such a way that formation of excavation damaged zones is limited. Specifically this is achieved by restricting the size of the excavations and the depth of the repository, using a low-deformation, controlled construction and excavation method and by the fact that the excavations will be backfilled relatively soon after construction with grain supported mortar. At expected repository depths, the caverns will need to be supported to ensure stability and worker protection; this will prevent rock falls and further extension of the EDZ. Based on the modelling results, it can be concluded that the extent of the EDZ around the L/ILW emplacement caverns will not exceed a thickness of one cavern diameter and that the hydraulic conductance of the EDZ around the emplacement caverns, access tunnels and shafts will not exceed a value of 10{sup -7} m{sup 3}/s. Self sealing of the EDZ and low hydraulic gradients along the tunnels will result in negligible radionuclide transport by the EDZ pathway. It is shown that gas pressure build-up is controlled by the gas transport capacity of the pathways between the main repository and the access tunnel forming the so-called EGTS. Results obtained with the sensitivity cases for a repository depth of 500 m below ground level

  14. Low- and intermediate-level waste repository-induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J.; Smith, P.; Savage, D.; Senger, R.

    2016-10-01

    system has been designed to perform with sufficient safety margin for a range of siting conditions. The barriers include the host rock, its surrounding geological setting, the waste forms, drums and the cementitious backfill. They have a range of attributes that intrinsically favour safety and that avoid or minimise detrimental phenomena and uncertainties or mitigate their effects. Nevertheless, potentially detrimental repository-induced effects remain and in the present report, these are investigated and discussed considering a broad spectrum of parameters, reflecting, among other things, the range of potential siting conditions. The L/ILW emplacement caverns are designed, constructed, operated and finally backfilled in such a way that formation of excavation damaged zones is limited. Specifically this is achieved by restricting the size of the excavations and the depth of the repository, using a low-deformation, controlled construction and excavation method and by the fact that the excavations will be backfilled relatively soon after construction with grain supported mortar. At expected repository depths, the caverns will need to be supported to ensure stability and worker protection; this will prevent rock falls and further extension of the EDZ. Based on the modelling results, it can be concluded that the extent of the EDZ around the L/ILW emplacement caverns will not exceed a thickness of one cavern diameter and that the hydraulic conductance of the EDZ around the emplacement caverns, access tunnels and shafts will not exceed a value of 10 -7 m 3 /s. Self sealing of the EDZ and low hydraulic gradients along the tunnels will result in negligible radionuclide transport by the EDZ pathway. It is shown that gas pressure build-up is controlled by the gas transport capacity of the pathways between the main repository and the access tunnel forming the so-called EGTS. Results obtained with the sensitivity cases for a repository depth of 500 m below ground level indicate that

  15. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  16. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1986-12-01

    This document is the third joint annual report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that are in progress at the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This Government supported mine serves as an underground test facility for research and development (R and D)-work in the field of nuclear waste repository research and simulation experiments. The tests are designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. This document covers the following sections: Issues and test objectives: This section presents issues that are investigated by the Brine Migration Test, and the test objectives derived from these issues; test site: This section describes the test site location and geology in the Asse mine; test description: A description of the test configuration, procedures, equipment, and instrumentation is given in this section; actual test chronology: The actual history of the test, in terms of the dates at which major activities occured, is presented in this section. Test results: This section presents the test results observed to data and the planned future work that is needed to complete the test; conclusions and recommendations: This section summarizes the conclusions derived to date regarding the Brine Migration Test. Additional work that would be useful to resolve the issues is discussed. (orig.)

  18. USGS studies of physical--chemical relationships in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The amount and physical properties of brine that can occur in salt repositories at elevated temperatures and pressures adjacent to waste-bearing cannisters will have considerable impact on the mechanical strength and stability of the repository. Brine will form readily from H 2 O absorbed on surfaces, diffusion along grain boundaries, movement of fluid inclusions, dehydration of hydrous minerals such as gypsum, polyhalite or clays, or even from leakage through failed shaft openings. A T-P diagram for NaCl--H 2 O shows the limits for coexisting solid-liquid-gas assemblages in salt repositories. Isobaric T-X diagrams are included to show compositional details at pressures below the critical point and above it. Properties of the fluid phases such as volume, density, heat capacity, enthalpy, viscosity, surface tension, osmotic coefficients, etc. can be well described (>0.01% to 2 O. Because aggregates of solids are mechanically weakened by interstitial liquid, determination of mechanical properties of brine-bearing aggregates is needed. A maximum of one third by weight of brine (not H 2 O), and probably much less, will destroy rock strength

  19. An Optimal Centralized Carbon Dioxide Repository for Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Poiencot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Florida’s electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels, from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s is also presented.

  20. Basic repository environment assessment design basis, Cypress Creek Dome Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Gulf Interior Region at Cypress Creek Cone, Mississippi. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.66 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste from assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relatively easy access to the site. Construction would require an estimated 7 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 53 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Richton Dome site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Gulf Interior Region at Richton Dome in Perry County, Mississippi. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote-and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1,000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.49 billion. Costs include those for the WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively easy access to the site. Construction would require an estimated 6.25 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 52 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  2. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis: Deaf Smith County site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Palo Duro Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities or remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.64 billion. Costs include those for the collocate WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region, the relatively easy access to the site, and the relatively weak nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7 to 7.5 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 62 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  3. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Davis Canyon site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Davis Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1,000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collected waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.49 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 50 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  4. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Lavender Canyon site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Lavender Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.51 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPP, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 51 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  5. Expanding leadership capacity: educational levels for nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder-Wise, Patricia S; Scott, Elaine S; Sullivan, Dori Taylor

    2013-06-01

    A master's degree in nursing administration prepares the nurse to lead nursing and interprofessional teams, to create new and innovative approaches to improve care processes and outcomes, as well as traditional management responsibilities related to budgets, human resources, quality and safety, and a healthy work environment. Are we not at a critical juncture in our profession when we should challenge the profession to require a master's degree education for all levels of nursing administration?

  6. Expanding the power base. Building capacities for comparative energy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.; Bui, D.T.; Conzelmann, G.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of national energy systems is reaching unprecedented degrees of complexity. In addition to uncertainty of future energy demand, technology performance and costs, planners and decision makers are confronted with issues such as environment protection, sustainable development, deregulation and market liberalization. At the same time, public sector funds for energy investment projects are being progressively reduced. The IAEA offers its Member States a comprehensive programme of technical assistance and cooperation which covers many diverse areas related to peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In the area of comparative energy assessment, the objective of assistance is to strengthen national capabilities for elaborating sustainable patterns of energy supply and use. Assistance is provided in three ways, namely by: distributing state-of-the-art methodologies and decision-making tools tailored to the special needs of developing countries; providing training in model application, interpretation of results and translation into decision or policy making; and carrying out national studies in co-operation with requesting Member States

  7. National radioactive waste repository draft EIS. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Most Australians benefit either directly or indirectly from the medical, industrial and scientific use of radioactive materials. This use produces a small amount of radioactive waste, including low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive waste such as lightly contaminated soil, plastic, paper, laboratory equipment, smoke detectors, exit signs and gauges.This waste is temporarily stored at more than 100 urban and rural locations around Australia, much of it in buildings that were neither designed nor located for the long-term storage of radioactive material and that are nearing or have reached capacity. Storage locations include hospitals, research institutions, and industry and government stores. Storing such waste in many locations in non-purpose built facilities potentially poses greater risk to the environment and people than disposing of the material in a national, purpose-built repository where the material can be safely managed and monitored. The objectives of the national repository are to: 1. strengthen Australia's radioactive waste management arrangements by promoting the safe and environmentally sound management of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive waste 2. provide safe containment of these wastes until the radioactivity has decayed to background levels. To meet these objectives, it is proposed to construct a national near-surface repository at either the preferred site on the Woomera Prohibited Area (WPA) or either of the two nearby alternative sites. The facility is not intended for the disposal of radioactive ores from mining. A national store for long-lived intermediate level waste will not be co-located with the national repository, and would be subject to a separate environmental assessment process.One preferred and two alternative sites have been selected for the national repository, following an extensive site selection process. All three sites are located in northern South Australia in a region known as central

  8. ExpandED Options: Learning beyond High School Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Through ExpandED Options by TASC, New York City high school students get academic credit for learning career-related skills that lead to paid summer jobs. Too many high school students--including those most likely to drop out--are bored or see classroom learning as irrelevant. ExpandED Options students live the connection between mastering new…

  9. Interoperability Across the Stewardship Spectrum in the DataONE Repository Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Vieglais, D.; Wilson, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    , where repositories can incrementally increase their requirements as they want to satisfy more use cases. Within DataONE, metadata search services support minimal metadata models, but significantly expanded precision and recall become possible when repositories provide more extensively curated metadata.

  10. Technical conservatisms in NWTS repository conceptual designs. National Waste Terminal Storage Repository No. 1: special study No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Prior studies have developed conceptual designs for National Waste Terminal Storage Repositories 1 and 2. Due to the considerable detail and volume of the documents describing these designs, it is often difficult to identify and comprehend the substantial conservatisms contained within them. This study identifies and explains the major technical conservatisms in these two conceptual designs in a concise and readily understandable format. The areas discussed include thermal loading of the geologic structure, rock mechanics and underground design, waste throughput capacity, hoisting systems, nuclear criticality safety, confinement of radioactive materials, occupational exposure and health physics, environmental effects, and cost estimates. Conservatisms are described in detail, quantified where possible, and compared to appropriate criteria

  11. Development of a central final repository management for the coordination of the waste for Schacht Konrad from public authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graffunder, Iris; Dominke-Bendix, Carola; Waldek, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The central final repository management is supposed to fulfill the following tasks: active collaboration of Konrad contract draft, signing of internal contracts and agreements, cooperation contract with GNS, cooperation with coordination authorities, inventory taking of wastes (existing inventory and prognosis) and interim storage capacities of public authorities, development of planning and management software, optimization of the final repository documentation, container management, logistics concept, long-term disposal planning and prognosis, planning and coordination of the annual waste amount, management and documentation of disposed waste allocation, coordination of transport schedules, consulting service for waste obligations (final repository requirements, product control, documentation).

  12. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  13. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  14. Analisis Konten dan Kebijakan Akses Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2016-07-01

    Abstract; Institutional repository has become a major concern of higher education in Indonesia. The number of institutional respository was increased, one of the reason is the ranking web of repositories has been conducted by the Cybermetrics Lab in 2008. At that time, many institutions started to build institutional repository in order to manage the scientific work and also trying to reach the better ranks. Meanwhile, it is an achievement of institution performance which can be promote and increase visibility for the institution. University of Surabaya has also developed the institutional repository and managed by the library. The aims of this study is to analyze the content availability and access policies defined by the University of Surabaya repository  providing services to the academic community and external users. The method used in this study by using observations of the institutional repository University of Surabaya with a literature review to clarify the analysis of the content and access policies. The results of this study indicate that the library's role is has the authority to manage the scientific work of academic community can be done through the institutional repository. However there is still need for library to be proactive to communicate regulations on mandatory deposit of scientific work and create intensive promotion of the institutional repository.

  15. Electronic Repository of Russian Historical Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhonov, Vyacheslav; Kessler, Gijs; Markevich, Andrei; de Vries, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Repository for Russian Historical Statistics brings together data extracted from various published and unpublished sources in one place. Its principal focus is Russian economic and social history of the last three centuries (18th-21st). The repository caters to the needs of the

  16. Decompression of magma into repository tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Woods, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is nontrivial to find and design safe repository sites for nuclear waste. It appears common sense to drill tunnels as repository sites in a mountain in remote and relatively dry regions. However, erosion of the waste canisters by naturally abundant chemicals in the mountains water cycle remains a

  17. Numerical modeling of magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno

    2001-01-01

    This report explains the numerical programs behind a comprehensive modeling effort of magma-repository interactions. Magma-repository interactions occur when a magma dike with high-volatile content magma ascends through surrounding rock and encounters a tunnel or drift filled with either a magmatic

  18. Asset Reuse of Images from a Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    According to Markus's theory of reuse, when digital repositories are deployed to collect and distribute organizational assets, they supposedly help ensure accountability, extend information exchange, and improve productivity. Such repositories require a large investment due to the continuing costs of hardware, software, user licenses, training,…

  19. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  20. Towards Content Development For Institutional Digital Repository ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth in Information and Communication Technology has lead to the emergence of Institutional Digital Repository, a digital archive for the preservation and dissemination of institutional research outputs. Institutional Digital Repositories make possible global dissemination of research outputs through the use of the ...

  1. Demonstration of a repository performance assessment capability at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. A demonstration of this capability used the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  2. Review of the potential effects of alkaline plume migration from a cementitious repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive use of cement and concrete is envisaged in the construction of geological repositories for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, both for structural, and encapsulation and backfilling purposes. Saturation of these materials with groundwater may occur in the post-closure period of disposal, producing a hyperalkaline pore fluid with a pH in the range 10-13.5. These pore fluids have the potential to migrate from the repository according to local groundwater flow conditions and react chemically with the host rock. These chemical reactions may affect the rock's capacity to retard the migration of radionuclides released from the repository after the degradation of the waste packages. The effects of these chemical reactions on the behaviour of the repository rock as a barrier to waste migration need to be investigated for the purposes of assessing the safety of the repository design (so-called 'safety assessment' or 'performance assessment'). The objectives of the work reported here were to: identify those processes influencing radionuclide mobility in the geosphere which could be affected by plume migration; review literature relevant to alkali-rock reaction; contact organisations carrying out relevant research and summarise their current and future activities; and make recommendations how the effects of plume migration can be incorporated into models of repository performance assessment. (author)

  3. EEI/UWASTE oversight of the DOE Repository Program by the Repository Information Exchange Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, C.J.; Supko, E.M.; Schwartz, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Utility Nuclear Waste and Transportation Program of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI/UWASTE) has conducted reviews of the US DOE's repository program through its Repository Information Exchange Team (RIET or Team). Eight such reviews have been conducted since 1985 covering topics that include repository program management and control; repository schedule; repository budget; quality assurance; site characterization; repository licensing; environmental issues; and institutional and public information activities. The utility industry has used these repository program reviews as a forum for providing DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with comments on the direction of the repository program, advice for future actions regarding quality assurance activities and repository licensing, and suggestions for management and control of the Repository Program. The most significant recommendations made by the utility industry through the RIET are discussed along with any subsequent action by OCRWM in response to or subsequent to utility industry recommendations. The process used by the RIET to develop its recommendations to OCRWM regarding the repository program is also discussed

  4. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  5. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 ''Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work

  6. A global nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wunan

    As a concerned scientist, I think that having a global nuclear waste repository is a reachable goal for human beings. Maybe through this common goal, mankind can begin to treat each other as brothers and sisters. So far, most human activities are framed by national boundaries, which are purely arbitrary. Breaking through these national boundaries will be very beneficial to human beings.Formation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program in 1986 indicates a growing awareness on the part of scientists regarding Earth as a system. The Apollo missions gave us a chance to look back at Earth from space. That perspective emphasized that our Earth is just one system: our only home. It is in deed a lonely boat in the high sea of dark space. We must take good care of our “boat.”

  7. Hydrologic issues in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remson, I.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Extrapolation of Darcy's law to the transport of water an solutes in unfractured poorly permeable rocks being studied for nuclear waste disposal is questioned. The hydrologic literature includes numerous references to both non-Darcian flow in dense materials devoid of macrofractures and microfractures and to threshold gradients below which no flow occurs. For such situations to occur, the pore-size range must be small enough so that all pore water is sufficiently close to mineral surfaces to be affected by the surficial forces. Then the flow will be non-Newtonian and non-Darcian, and solute transport will be by molecular diffusion. If fluid transport in very dense unfractured rocks is non-Darcian, useful methods of testing candidate host rocks become apparent. In situ nondestructive pressure testing of canister waste emplacement boreholes in a mined repository can verify the absence of both fracture flow and Darcian flow. 18 references

  8. Trustworthy Digital Repositories: Building Trust the Old Fashion Way, EARNING IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkade, D.; Chandler, C. L.; Shepherd, A.; Rauch, S.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Allison, M. D.; Copley, N. J.; Ake, H.; York, A.

    2016-12-01

    There are several drivers increasing the importance of high quality data management and curation in today's research process (e.g., OSTP PARR memo, journal publishers, funders, academic and private institutions), and proper management is necessary throughout the data lifecycle to enable reuse and reproducibility of results. Many digital data repositories are capable of satisfying the basic management needs of an investigator looking to share their data (i.e., publish data in the public domain), but repository services vary greatly and not all provide mature services that facilitate discovery, access, and reuse of research data. Domain-specific repositories play a vital role in the data curation process by working closely with investigators to create robust metadata, perform first order QC, and assemble and publish research data. In addition, they may employ technologies and services that enable increased discovery, access, and long-term archive. However, smaller domain facilities operate in varying states of capacity and curation ability. Within this repository environment, individual investigators (driven by publishers, funders, or institutions) need to find trustworthy repositories for their data; and funders need to direct investigators to quality repositories to ensure return on their investment. So, how can one determine the best home for valuable research data? Metrics can be applied to varying aspects of data curation, and many credentialing organizations offer services that assess and certify the trustworthiness of a given data management facility. Unfortunately, many of these certifications can be inaccessible to a small repository in cost, time, or scope. Are there alternatives? This presentation will discuss methods and approaches used by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO; a domain-specific, intermediate digital data repository) to demonstrate trustworthiness in the face of a daunting accreditation landscape.

  9. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  10. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  11. Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH) 2 which carbonates with CO 2 in air to form CaCO 3 and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO 2 from the repository atmosphere

  12. Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ which carbonates with CO/sub 2/ in air to form CaCO/sub 3/ and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO/sub 2/ from the repository atmosphere.

  13. How many geologic repositories will be needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.J.; Halstead, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    DOE's postponement of site-specific work on the second repository program had rekindled debate over the number of geologic repositories needed for disposal of high level radioactive waste. The multiple repository approach grew out of the March, 1979 IRG report, which recommended co-disposal of civilian and defense HLW in a system of regional repositories. The multiple repository approach was adopted by DOE, and incorporated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act passed by Congress in December, 1982. Since the late 1970's, the slower than anticipated growth of the nuclear power industry has substantially reduced earlier estimates of the amount of civilian spent fuel which will require geologic disposal. Reactors currently in operation (78.5 GWe) and reactors in the construction pipeline (28 GWe) are expected to discharge about 103,200 MTU of spent fuel by the year 2036, assuming no increase in fuel burnup rate. By the year 2020, defense high level radioactive wastes equivalent to as much as 27,000 MTU could require geologic disposal. Small amounts of high level waste from other sources will also require geologic disposal. Total disposal requirements appear to be less than 140,000 MTU. The five sites nominated for the first repository, as well as hypothetical sites in granite, the host rock under primary consideration for the second repository, all appear capable of accommodating up to 140,000 MTU

  14. Barriers of repository under the conditions of underground isolation of heat releasing radioactive waste in permafrost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, A.N.; Fedorovich, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main positions and the leading principle of the ensuring of the environmental safety of the method of the underground isolation of radioactive waste in permafrost rock are presented in this work and it is shown here the peculiarities in realization of the principle of the multibarrier protection. It is substantiated here the principle of the optimal time of the capacity for work of the repository's engineered barriers. The possibility of the exclusion of the radionuclides migration beyond the working volume of the repository during the time of the potential danger of radioactive waste is also substantiated in these papers

  15. The Yucca Mountain Repository - Too Little, Too Late

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.G.; Pentz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) announced that the nation's first (and only pursued) deep geological disposal system (repository) for 70,000 metric tonnes of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level radioactive waste (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain (YM) site in Nevada would: 1. Not be able to accommodate the projected stockpile of utility-generated SNF beyond 2010. 2. Open no earlier than in 2020, i.e., more than 22 years behind the statutory-mandated opening date. In the meantime, the US DOE is legally obligated to compensate the utilities from January 31, 1998, until it takes title to the utilities' SNF. In 2005 when the YM SNF repository was projected to open in 2010, the utilities estimated that, depending upon how close to 2010 the YM repository opened, the 'breach-of-contract' compensation could be in the range of between 100 billion and 300 billion U.S. dollars ($300 B), which would exceed the 2008 projected life-cycle cost of $96 B for the YM repository. It thus seems appropriate to look beyond the YM repository and call upon the U.S. Congress to promptly act and open new avenues allowing the US DOE to more timely and cost-effectively take title to both existing and pending SNF the current fleet of 104 reactors will generate through the next 60 years. Options for SNF arising from an additional 50 reactors should also be provided. Based on our more than 60 years of combined involvement in nuclear waste management in the USA and abroad, we submit the following industrial-scale-proven, repository-related, nuclear-waste-management and disposition solutions for prompt Congressional consideration and action: 1. An increase in the disposal capacity (and perhaps mission) of the YM repository. 2. Prompt establishment of at least one large federal monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for utility-generated SNF. 3. Continued research in reprocessing options of existing and pending SNF with defined milestones. 4. Resurrection of a second

  16. Disruption scenarios for a nuclear-waste repository on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, R.L.; Bingham, F.W.; Barr, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Scenarios are being constructed for the release of radioactive maerial from hypothetical repositories in different types of rock at NTS. Deductive event trees are constructed; each path through an event tree is a scenario. The complete set of NTS event trees comprises about 340 scenarios, not counting the multiple paths through the subtrees made by expanding complex events. Each of these scenarios is being analyzed for 10 different types of rocks

  17. Geochemical modelling of bentonite porewater in high-level waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersin, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The description of the geochemical properties of the bentonite backfill that serves as engineered barrier for nuclear repositories is a central issue for perfomance assessment since these play a large role in determining the fate of contaminants released from the waste. In this study the porewater chemistry of bentonite was assessed with a thermodynamic modelling approach that includes ion exchange, surface complexation and mineral equilibrium reactions. The focus was to identify the geochemical reactions controlling the major ion chemistry and acid-base properties and to explore parameter uncertainties specifically at high compaction degrees. First, the adequacy of the approach was tested with two distinct surface complexation models by describing recent experimental data performed at highly varying solid/liquid ratios and ionic strengths. The results indicate adequate prediction of the entire experimental data set. Second, the modelling was extended to repository conditions, taking as an example the current Swiss concept for high-level waste where the compacted bentonite backfill is surrounded by argillaceous rock. The main reactions controlling major ion chemistry were found to be calcite equilibrium and concurrent Na-Ca exchange reactions and de-protonation of functional surface groups. Third, a sensitivity analysis of the main model parameters was performed. The results thereof indicate a remarkable robustness of the model with regard to parameter uncertainties. The bentonite system is characterised by a large acid-base buffering capacity which leads to stable pH-conditions. The uncertainty in pH was found to be mainly induced by the pCO 2 of the surrounding host rock. The results of a simple diffusion-reaction model indicate only minor changes of porewater composition with time, which is primarily due to the geochemical similarities of the bentonite and the argillaceous host rock. Overall, the results show the usefulness of simple thermodynamic models to

  18. Learning frameworks as an alternative to repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of ‘learning frameworks’. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and question collections of digital learning objects in large repositories and to argue for large learning frameworks which organise a number of thematically related digital learning materials. Whereas...... a learning object repository contains all kinds of materials, a learning framework consists of an organisation of materials related to a common theme. Further, a repository consists of single, self-contained objects, whereas a learning framework is an open-ended environment which presents a number...

  19. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  20. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  1. Far-field thermomechanical response of argillaceous rock to emplacement of a nuclear-waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1980-08-01

    Before heat-producing wastes can be emplaced safely in any argillaceous rock, it will be necessary to understand the far-field thermal and thermomechanical response of this rock to waste emplacement. This report presents the results of a first series of calculations aimed at estimating the far-field response of argillite to waste emplacement. Because the thermal and mechanical properties of argillite are affected by its content of expandable clay, its behavior is briefly compared and contrasted with that of a shale having the same matrix thermal properties, but containing no expandable clay. Under this assumption, modeled temperatures are the same for the two rock types at equivalent power densities and reflect the large dependence of in-situ temperatures on both initial power density and waste type. Thermomechanical calculations indicate that inclusion of contraction behavior of expandable clays in the assumed argillite thermal expansion behavior results, in some cases, in generation of a large zone in and near the repository that has undergone volumetric contraction but is surrounded by uniformly compressive stresses. Information available to date indicates that this contraction would likely result in locally increased fluid permeability and decreased in-situ thermal conductivity, but might well be advantageous as regards radionuclide retention, because of the increased surface area within the contracted zone. Assumption of continuous and positive expansion behavior for the shale eliminates the near-repository contraction and tensional zones, but results in near-surface tensional zones directly above the repository

  2. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  3. Andra's geologic repository monitoring strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschaert, S.; Lesoille, S.; Bertrand, J.; Landais, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After having concluded a feasibility study of deep geological disposal for high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in 2005, Andra was charged by the Planning Act no. 2006-739 to design and create an industrial site for geological disposal called Cigeo which must be reversible for at least a century-long period. The French Safety Guide recommends that Andra develop a monitoring program to be implemented at repository construction and conducted until closure, and possibly after closure, with the aim to confirming prior expectations and enhancing knowledge of relevant processes. This abstract focuses on underground structure monitoring. The monitoring system is based on a combination of in-situ instrumentation and nondestructive methods to obtain the required level of reliable performance. To optimize the device distribution, we take into account both the repetitive design of disposal cells and the homogeneity of the rock properties. This resulted in distinguishing pilot disposal cells that are highly instrumented and standard disposal cells where the instrumentation density could be reduced; monitoring will rely mostly on robotic nondestructive evaluations. If monitoring technologies do not comply with all monitoring objectives, real withdrawal tests of high level wastes in some pilot disposal cells are also planned to provide the possibility of carrying out visual inspection, destructive analyses and samplings on construction materials. Such cells are planned to be dismantled because of the potential disturbance of their component performances from the testing process. Based on this overall strategy, Andra has analyzed the technical requirements that must be met by its monitoring equipment. First, these must be able to provide information on key THMCR (Thermal- Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical and Radiological) processes, to provide a three-dimensional image of a disposal component's behavior and thus to understand

  4. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-01-01

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data

  5. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-09-12

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data.

  6. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities

  7. Economics of mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Dippold, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    During 1982, Congress considered legislation to provide for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The result of this legislative effort was the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), PL 97-425, signed into law January 7, 1983. An important part of the NWPA was the establishment of special funds in the US Treasury for Waste Disposal and Interim Storage to be financed by user fees to pay for all costs of the program. An initial fee of 1.0 mill per kilowatt-hour was specified. The Secretary was asked to annually review the amount of the fees established... to evaluate whether collection of the fee will provide sufficient revenues to offset the costs... In the event of a prospective fee cost mismatch, the Secretary was asked to propose an adjustment to the fee to insure full cost recovery. A series of studies were sponsored by DOE in 1982 to estimate program costs, to calculate the necessary fees to assure cost recovery, and to address uncertainties that could affect future program costs and consequent fee schedules. A brief summary of the 1982 cost estimates is presented. Sources of key cost uncertainties are discussed and the bases for the cost recovery fee calculations are summarized. 17 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  8. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  9. Building the repositories to serve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The project to design and build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory also includes the exciting opportunity to implement client/server information systems. Lab technologists were eager to take advantage of the cost savings inherent in the open systems and a distributed, client server environment and, at the same time, conscious of the need to provide secure repositories for sensitive data as well as a schedule sensitive acquisition strategy for mission critical software. During the first year of project activity, micro-based project management and business support systems were acquired and implemented to support a small study project of less than 400 people allocating contracts of less than $1 million. The transition to modern business systems capable of supporting more than 10,000 participants (world wide) who would be researching and developing the new technologies that would support the world's largest scientific instrument, a 42 Tevatron, superconducting, super collider became a mission critical event. This paper will present the SSC Laboratory's strategy to balance its commitment to open systems, structured query language (SQL) standards and its success with acquiring commercial off the shelf software to support immediate goals. Included will be an outline of the vital roles played by other labs (Livermore, CERN, Brookhaven, Fermi and others) and a discussion of future collaboration potentials to leverage the information activities of all Department of Energy funded labs

  10. Building the repositories to serve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersch, D.

    1993-04-01

    The project to design and build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory also includes the exciting opportunity to implement client/server information systems. Lab technologists were eager to take advantage of the cost savings inherent in the open systems and a distributed, client server environment and, at the same time, conscious of the need to provide secure repositories for sensitive data as well as a schedule sensitive acquisition strategy for mission critical software. During the first year of project activity, micro-based project management and business support systems were acquired and implemented to support a small study project of less than 400 people allocating contracts of less than $1 million. The transition to modern business systems capable of supporting more than 10,000 participants (world wide) who would be researching and developing the new technologies that would support the world's largest scientific instrument, a 42 Tevatron, superconducting, super collider became a mission critical event. This paper will present the SSC Laboratory's strategy to balance our commitment to open systems, structured query language (SQL) standards and our success with acquiring commercial off the shelf software (COTS) to support our immediate goals. Included will be an outline of the vital roles played by other labs (Livermore, CERN, Brookhaven, Fermi and others) and a discussion of future collaboration potentials to leverage the information activities of all Department of Energy (DOE) funded labs

  11. Staffing and Workflow of a Maturing Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora L. Madsen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutional repositories (IRs have become established components of many academic libraries. As an IR matures it will face the challenge of how to scale up its operations to increase the amount and types of content archived. These challenges involve staffing, systems, workflows, and promotion. In the past eight years, Kansas State University's IR (K-REx has grown from a platform for student theses, dissertations, and reports to also include faculty works. The initial workforce of a single faculty member was expanded as a part of a library-wide reorganization, resulting in a cross-departmental team that is better able to accommodate the expansion of the IR. The resultant need to define staff responsibilities and develop resources to manage the workflows has led to the innovations described here, which may prove useful to the greater library community as other IRs mature.

  12. Shaft placement in a bedded salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasi, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    Preferred shaft pillar sizes and shaft locations were determined with respect to the induced thermal stresses in a generic bedded salt repository at a depth of 610 m with a gross thermal loading of 14.8 W/m 2 . The model assumes isotropic material properties, plane strain and linear elastic behavior. Various shaft locations were analyzed over a 25 year period. The thermal results show that for this time span, the stratigraphy is unimportant except for the region immediately adjacent to the repository. The thermomechanical results show that for the given repository depth of 610 m, a minimum central shaft pillar radius of 244 m is required to equal the material strength in the barrier pillar. An assumed constant stress and constant temperature distribution creep model of the central shaft region adjacent to the repository conservatively overestimates a creep closure of 310 mm in a 6.1 m diameter centrally-located shaft

  13. Preliminary design of the repository, stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  14. Decision theory applied to radioactive repository construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present, through the presentation of an example, the applicability of the decision theory on the selection and construction of a repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. (author)

  15. Preliminary design of the repository. Stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-04-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  16. Biospecimen Repository Access and Data Sharing (BRADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BRADS is a repository for data and biospecimens from population health research initiatives and clinical or interventional trials designed and implemented by NICHD’s...

  17. NIMH Repository and Genomics Resources (RGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIMH Repository and Genomics Resource (RGR) stores biosamples, genetic, pedigree and clinical data collected in designated NIMH-funded human subject studies. The...

  18. Evaluasi Website Repositori Institusi Universitas Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The  development  of  institutional  repositories  (IRs  in Indonesia within the broader framework of open access has significant impact on preserving intellectual capital and scholarly communication. Institutional  repositories  play  a  fundamental  role  in  centralizing, preserving,  and  making  accessible  institution’s  intellectual  capital. Evaluation of the system is to determine the functionality the system to meet the users need. Using a descriptive analysis this study wants to evaluate institutional repositories of University of Surabaya. The result is usefull for institution to develop the repository systems.

  19. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.; Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later

  20. Expanding the grid in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the changes and strategies that are currently being adopted by AltaLink to expand Alberta's electricity grid in relation to wind power development. The company is Alberta's largest transmission facility operator. Wind power currently accounts for approximately 5 percent of the province's generation mix. Applications for new wind farms will increase Alberta's 629 MW of wind power generation capacity to 5530 MW. Alberta's transmission regulation requires that 100 percent of in-merit generation can occur when transmission facilities are in service, and that 95 percent of in-merit generation can occur under abnormal operating conditions. A new transmission line is being constructed in the Pincher Creek and Lethbridge region as part of a southern Alberta transmission reinforcement project. The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) and Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) are working together to ensure that adequate resources are available while system reliability is maintained. The Ardenville wind farm is the first wind power project to be energized under the new connection model launched by the AESO. The connection model was developed to identify, connect, and construct new energy projects. The project will also identify connection routes with the lowest overall impact on the province. Alberta will also continue to implement technologies that ensure the development of a smart grid. tabs., figs.

  1. 48 CFR 227.7108 - Contractor data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repositories. 227.7108 Section 227.7108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Technical Data 227.7108 Contractor data repositories. (a) Contractor data repositories may be established when permitted by agency procedures. The contractual instrument establishing the data repository must...

  2. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  3. Memory provisions for the Manche Surface Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Jean-Noel; Espiet-Subert, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The French La Manche repository site received its last radioactive waste package in 1994. In 2003, the official surveillance phase of the closed repository started under the supervision of Andra (the national industrial operator), the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and society (e.g. the local municipalities). Florence Espiet explained that information on the existence of the repository, its content, how it was operated and how it works needs to be preserved. It also is planned to review the information periodically for a minimum of 300 years. She described the creation of two documents on memory (a detailed and a summary one), both on permanent paper, and the preservation of the land registration. The latter constitutes 'passive' provisions for preserving memory. In addition, a number of 'active' provisions are and will be put in place: guided visits, exhibitions, partnerships with organisations dealing with memory preservation, and the creation of a think tank. The latter consists of local citizens and politicians, retired employees from Andra and artists that meet several times a year and reflect on memory preservation from the perspective of, for instance, local history, education, arts and rituals. Finally, two types of markers will be used to preserve the repository's memory: i) three herbaria cataloguing the plants growing on the site of the repository, including a very short description of the repository, will be stored at different sites in France; ii) a stele indicating the main characteristics of the repository, potentially linked to an art work, will be erected at the repository

  4. Impact of retrievability of repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Gaag, J. v.d.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the retrievability on the design of the repository will be handled. Retrievability of radioactive waste from a repository in geological formations has received increasing attention during recent years. It is obvious that this retrievability will have consequences in terms of mining engineering, safety and cost. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate cost consequences by comparing two extreme options for retrievable storage. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  5. Transfer systems in an underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Ehrlich, D.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to logistic problem definitions taking into account the waste types of the wastes to be disposed of and the mining conditions, transport and handling of radioactive wastes in a repository, particularly require the keeping of safety technological marginal conditions mainly resulting from the accident analyses carried out. The realization of these safety technological aspects is described taking the planned Konrad repository as an example. (author)

  6. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) project is a NASA-industry partnership with Bigelow Aerospace (BA) that has developing the first human-rated expandable...

  7. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  8. Tissue expander infections in children: look beyond the expander pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A C; Davison, S P; Manders, E K

    1999-11-01

    Infection of the expander pocket is the most common complication encountered with soft-tissue expansion. It is usually due to direct inoculation with skin flora either at the time of expander insertion or from extrusion of the device. The authors report two cases of infection of tissue expanders in which the children had concomitant infected sites distant from the prosthesis. Etiological bacteria of common pediatric infections like otitis media and pharyngitis were cultured from the infected expander pocket, raising suspicion that translocation of the organism to the expander had occurred. Aggressive antibiotic treatment, removal of the prosthesis, and flap advancement is advocated.

  9. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  10. The development of safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research and development on geological repositories for High Level Waste (HLW) focuses on the short- and long-term safety aspects of the repository. If the repository will also be used for the disposal of spent fuel, safeguards aspects have to be taken into account. Safety and safeguards requirements may be contradictory; the safety of a geological repository is based on the non-intrusion of the geological containment, while safeguards require regular inspections of position and amount of the spent fuel. Examples to reconcile these contradictory requirements are the use of information required for the safety assessment of the geological repository for safeguards purposes and the adaptation of the safeguards approach to use non-intrusive inspection techniques. The principles of an inspection approach for a geological repository are now generally accepted within the IAEA. The practical applicability of the envisaged inspection techniques is still subject to investigation. It is specifically important for the Belgian situation that an inspection technique can be used in clay, the geological medium in which Belgium intends to dispose its HLW and spent fuel. The work reported in this chapter is the result of an international cooperation in the framework of the IAEA, in which SCK-CEN participates

  11. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In this paper I try to explore whether the EU can go on expanding and thereby become culturally ever more diversified, and at the same retain its stability. The answer is, in principle, affirmative. Europe has always been much diversified, and therefore it is not possible to define a European...... identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among the member...

  12. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  13. The expanding plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, M.C.M. van den.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis concerns the fundamental aspects of an argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. This type of plasma is not only used for fundamental research but also for technologically orientated research on plasma deposition and plasma sources. The important characteristics of the plasma are a strong supersonic expansion in which the neutral particle and ion densities decrease three orders of magnitude, followed by a stationary shock front. After the shock front the plasma expands further subsonically. A part of this thesis is devoted to the discussion of a newly constructed combined Thomson-Rayleigh scattering set up. With this set up the electron density, the electron temperature and the neutral particle density are measured locally in the plasma for different conditions. In the analysis of the measured spectra weak coherent effects and the measured apparatus profile are included. The inaccuracies are small, ranging from 1 to 4 percent for the electron density and 2 to 6 percent for the electron temperature, depending on the plasma conditions. The inaccuracy of the neutral particle density determination is larger and ranges from 10 to 50 percent. The detection limits for the electron and neutral particle density are 7.10 17 m -3 and 1.10 20 m -3 respectively. A side path in this thesis is the derivation of the Saha equation for a two-temperature plasma. The reason for this derivation was the dispute in the literature about the correct form of this equation. In this thesis it is shown, from the correct extension of the second law of thermodynamics and from the non-equilibrium formalism of Zubarev, That in the limit of m e /m h ->0 the generalized Saha equation depends on the electron temperature only. (author). 221 refs.; 54 figs.; 13 tabs

  14. VerSi. A method for the quantitative comparison of repository systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempfer, T.U.; Ruebel, A.; Resele, G. [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Moenig, J. [GRS Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Decision making and design processes for radioactive waste repositories are guided by safety goals that need to be achieved. In this context, the comparison of different disposal concepts can provide relevant support to better understand the performance of the repository systems. Such a task requires a method for a traceable comparison that is as objective as possible. We present a versatile method that allows for the comparison of different disposal concepts in potentially different host rocks. The condition for the method to work is that the repository systems are defined to a comparable level including designed repository structures, disposal concepts, and engineered and geological barriers which are all based on site-specific safety requirements. The method is primarily based on quantitative analyses and probabilistic model calculations regarding the long-term safety of the repository systems under consideration. The crucial evaluation criteria for the comparison are statistical key figures of indicators that characterize the radiotoxicity flux out of the so called containment-providing rock zone (einschlusswirksamer Gebirgsbereich). The key figures account for existing uncertainties with respect to the actual site properties, the safety relevant processes, and the potential future impact of external processes on the repository system, i.e., they include scenario-, process-, and parameter-uncertainties. The method (1) leads to an evaluation of the retention and containment capacity of the repository systems and its robustness with respect to existing uncertainties as well as to potential external influences; (2) specifies the procedures for the system analyses and the calculation of the statistical key figures as well as for the comparative interpretation of the key figures; and (3) also gives recommendations and sets benchmarks for the comparative assessment of the repository systems under consideration based on the key figures and additional qualitative

  15. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  16. Appraisal of hard rock for potential underground repositories of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1977-10-01

    The mechanical safety and stability of such an underground repository depends largely on the virgin state of stress in the rock, groundwater pressures, the strengths of the rocks, heating by the decay of the radioactive wastes, and the layout of the excavations and the disposition of waste cannisters within them. A large body of pertinent data exists in the literature, and each of these factors has been analyzed in the light of this information. The results indicate that there are no fundamental geological nor mechanical reasons why repositories capable of storing radioactive wastes should not be excavated at suitable sites in hard rock. However, specific tests to determine the mechanical and thermal properties of the rocks at a site would be needed to provide the data for the engineering design of a repository. Also, little experience exists of the effects on underground excavations of thermal loads, so that this aspect requires theoretical study and experimental validation. The depths of these potential repositories would lie in the range from 0.5 to 2.0 km below surface, depending upon the strength of the rock. Virgin states of stress have been measured at such depths which would retard the ingress of groundwater and obviate the incidence of faulting. A typical repository comprising three horizons each with a total area of 5 km 2 would have the capacity to store wastes with thermal output of 240 MW

  17. Status of LANL investigations of temperature constraints on clay in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporuscio, Florie A.; Cheshire, Michael C.; Newell, Dennis L.; McCarney, Mary Kate

    2012-01-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign is presently evaluating various generic options for disposal of used fuel. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize and bound Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) conditions in high heat load repositories. The UFD now has the ability to evaluate multiple EBS materials, waste containers, and rock types at higher heat loads and pressures (including deep boreholes). The geologic conditions now available to the U.S.A. and the international community for repositories include saturated and reduced water conditions, along with higher pressure and temperature (P, T) regimes. Chemical and structural changes to the clays, in either backfill/buffer or clay-rich host rock, may have significant effects on repository evolution. Reduction of smectite expansion capacity and rehydration potential due to heating could affect the isolation provided by EBS. Processes such as cementation by silica precipitation and authigenic illite could change the hydraulic and mechanical properties of clay-rich materials. Experimental studies of these repository conditions at high P,T have not been performed in the U.S. for decades and little has been done by the international community at high P,T. The experiments to be performed by LANL will focus on the importance of repository chemical and mineralogical conditions at elevated P,T conditions. This will provide input to the assessment of scientific basis for elevating the temperature limits in clay barriers.

  18. Source terms; isolation and radiological consequences of carbon-14 waste in the Swedish SFR repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesboel, R.; Puigdomenech, I.; Evans, S.

    1990-01-01

    The source term, isolation capacity, and long-term radiological exposure of 14 C from the Swedish underground repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR) is assessed. The prospective amount of 14 C in the repository is assumed to be 5 TBq. Spent ion exchange resins will be the dominant source of 14 C. The pore water in the concrete repository is expected to maintain a pH of >10.5 for a period of at least 10 6 y. The cement matrix of the repository will retain most of the 14 CO 3 2- initially present. Bacterial production of CO 2 and CH 4 from degradation of ion-exchange resins and bitumen may contribute to 14 C release to the biosphere. However, CH 4 contributes only to a small extent to the overall carbon loss from freshwater ecosystems. The individual doses to local and regional individuals peaked with 5x10 -3 and regional individuals peaked with 5x10 -3 and 8x10 -4 μSv y -1 respectively at about 2.4x10 4 years. A total leakage of 8.4 GBq of 14 C from the repository will cause a total collective dose commitment of 1.1 manSv or 130 manSv TBq -1 . (authors)

  19. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2007-11-01

    A compilation of the origin and composition of organic material possibly left in a repository is made. Recommendations of precautions and actions for the different material are listed as well. As a brief summary, the different categories of organic material of relevance for the repository are: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would be mainly a reduction of the redox potential in the initial stages after the repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped due to the repository construction. This effect would not jeopardize the stability of the repository. If the dominating microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to formation of HS - . The produced sulphide can corrode copper under anaerobic conditions, if it reaches the canisters. Another effect of microorganisms would be the increase of the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the low amounts of the excreted substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be a contribution to the maintenance of reducing conditions in the area, although it is likely that this effect will be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among them we can highlight organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite and wood. The most important compounds from the repository safety perspective will be those hydrocarbons from asphalt that may contribute to decreasing the redox potential around the repository, and the products of degradation of cellulose. This last category of compounds may contribute to enhance the complexing capacity of the groundwater around the repository and it is recommended to minimize the amount of cellulose left in the repository. 4. Fuels and engine emissions. No important effects from these organics in the repository are expected

  20. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta [Vita vegrandis, Hindaas (Sweden); Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    A compilation of the origin and composition of organic material possibly left in a repository is made. Recommendations of precautions and actions for the different material are listed as well. As a brief summary, the different categories of organic material of relevance for the repository are: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would be mainly a reduction of the redox potential in the initial stages after the repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped due to the repository construction. This effect would not jeopardize the stability of the repository. If the dominating microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to formation of HS{sup -}. The produced sulphide can corrode copper under anaerobic conditions, if it reaches the canisters. Another effect of microorganisms would be the increase of the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the low amounts of the excreted substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be a contribution to the maintenance of reducing conditions in the area, although it is likely that this effect will be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among them we can highlight organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite and wood. The most important compounds from the repository safety perspective will be those hydrocarbons from asphalt that may contribute to decreasing the redox potential around the repository, and the products of degradation of cellulose. This last category of compounds may contribute to enhance the complexing capacity of the groundwater around the repository and it is recommended to minimize the amount of cellulose left in the repository. 4. Fuels and engine emissions. No important effects from these organics in the repository are expected

  1. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  2. Encapsulation plant preliminary design, phase 2. Repository connected facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-12-01

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be located in Olkiluoto. The encapsulation plant is a part of the disposal facility. In this report, an independent encapsulation plant is located above the underground repository. In the encapsulation plant, the spent fuel is received and treated for disposal. In the fuel handling cell, the spent fuel assemblies are unloaded from the spent fuel transport casks and loaded into the disposal canisters. The gas atmosphere of the disposal canister is changed, the bolted inner canister lid is closed, and the electron beam welding method is used to close the lid of the outer copper canister. The disposal canisters are cleaned and transferred into the buffer store after the machining and inspection of the copper lid welds. From the buffer store, the disposal canisters are transferred into the repository spaces by help of the canister lift. All needed stages of operation are to be performed safely without any activity releases or remarkable personnel doses. The bentonite block interim storage is associated with the encapsulation plant. The bentonite blocks are made from bentonite powder. The bentonite blocks are used as buffer material around the disposal canister in the deposition hole. The average production rate of the encapsulation plant is 40 canisters per year. The nominal maximum production capacity is 100 canisters per year in one shift operation. (orig.)

  3. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  4. Fons antic i repositoris universitaris a Espanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Morillas, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Es mostra la presència de col·leccions de fons antic en els repositoris de les biblioteques universitàries espanyoles després d'analitzar tots els repositoris. Per a aquesta anàlisi, com a part de la metodologia emprada, s'ha elaborat un model o llista que consta d'onze elements. Del conjunt de les universitats espanyoles, seixanta tenen repositoris, vint-i-vuit dels quals (16,8 % disposen de col·leccions de fons antic. Com que del concepte de repositori institucional no sembla desprendre's que tingui com a finalitat incloure aquest tipus de col·leccions, es reflexiona sobre la peculiaritat que una part dels repositoris universitaris espanyols inclogui col·leccions d'aquestes característiques.Se muestra la presencia de colecciones de fondo antiguo en los repositorios de las bibliotecas universitarias españolas después de analizar todos los repositorios. Para este análisis, como parte de la metodología empleada, se ha elaborado un modelo o lista que consta de once elementos. Del conjunto de las universidades españolas, sesenta cuentan con repositorios y, de estos, veintiocho (16,8 % disponen de colecciones de fondo antiguo. Debido a que del concepto de repositorio institucional no parece desprenderse que tenga como finalidad albergar este tipo de colecciones, se hace una reflexión sobre la peculiaridad de que parte de los repositorios universitarios españoles incluya colecciones de estas características.This paper uses an analysis of the repositories of Spanish universities to identify which institutions contain rare book and manuscript collections. The method used in this analysis involved examining each university on the basis of a list comprising eleven elements. A total of 60 universities were found to have repositories but only 28 (16.8 % of these contained rare book and manuscript collections. In the light of these figures, which suggest that Spanish university repositories do not generally consider the preservation of rare

  5. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  6. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  7. Surgent University : The Establishment and Evaluation of a National Online Clinical Teaching Repository for Surgical Trainees and Students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to develop a new teaching strategy for medical students while creating a national online repository system (Surgent University). Then, the potential of this e-learning modality to facilitate learning of clinical surgery was evaluated. Methods. An online repository and Internet-based interface was designed and hosted on the medical education Web site, www.surgent.ie. Participation was by medical students across 3 Irish universities. Student use of the repository was quantitatively assessed over an 8-week period. They were then invited to complete an anonymous survey assessing the effectiveness of the online repository. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with P < .05 considered significant. Results. Over the study period, the online repository received 6105 uploaded facts by 182 final-year medical students from 3 different universities. The repository Web pages were accessed 54 061 times with 4609 individual searches of the repository. Of the 60 participating students invited to provide survey-based feedback, there were 40 respondents, giving a 66.7% response rate. Of those surveyed, 70% (n = 28) rated the online repository as highly beneficial and 75% (n = 30) as highly relevant. Overall, 87.5% (n = 35) felt that it should be continued, and 70% (n = 28) felt that it should be expanded beyond surgery to include other hospital specialties. Those finding the program interface user-friendly were more likely to find it beneficial (P = .031) and relevant to their ongoing education (P = .002). Conclusions. A user-friendly interface allows for high levels of usage, whereas a "student-centered" structure ensures that the facts uploaded are beneficial and relevant to medical students\\' education.

  8. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  9. Efficacy of backfilling and other engineered barriers in a radioactive waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-09-01

    In the United States, investigation of potential host geologic formations was expanded in 1975 to include hard rocks. Potential groundwater intrusion is leading to very conservative and expensive waste package designs. Recent studies have concluded that incentives for engineered barriers and 1000-year canisters probably do not exist for reasonable breach scenarios. The assumption that multibarriers will significantly increase the safety margin is also questioned. Use of a bentonite backfill for surrounding a canister of exotic materials was developed in Sweden and is being considered in the US. The expectation that bentonite will remain essentially unchanged for hundreds of years for US repository designs may be unrealistic. In addition, thick bentonite backfills will increase the canister surface temperature and add much more water around the canister. The use of desiccant materials, such as CaO or MgO, for backfilling seems to be a better method of protecting the canister. An argument can also be made for not using backfill material in salt repositories since the 30-cm-thick space will provide for hole closure for many years and will promote heat transfer via natural convection. It is concluded that expensive safety systems are being considered for repository designs that do not necessarily increase the safety margin. It is recommended that the safety systems for waste repositories in different geologic media be addressed individually and that cost-benefit analyses be performed

  10. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  11. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs

  12. Planning the rad waste repository - Croatian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lokner, V.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in Croatia from various nuclear applications as well as from the Krsko NPP (Slovenian and Croatian joint venture facility). The national programme on radioactive waste management is aimed at straightening existing infrastructure, establishing new (more transparent) system of responsibilities and development of new legislation. The siting of LL/ILW repository is important segments of the whole radioactive waste management cycle. The status and efficiency of the rad waste management infrastructure in the country have the significant influence on all the activities related to the project of repository construction - from the very first phases of preliminary planning and background preparations to advanced phases of the project development. The present status of the Croatian national radioactive waste infrastructure and its influence on the repository project are presented. The role of national legislation and institutional framework are specially discussed. (author)

  13. Augmenting interoperability across repositories architectural ideas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The aDORe digital repository architecture designed and implemented by the Los Alamos Research Library is fully standards-based and highly modular, with the various components of the architecture interacting in a protocol-driven manner. Although aDORe was designed for use in the context of the Los Alamos Library, its modular and standards-based design has led to interesting insights regarding possible new levels of interoperability in a federation of heterogeneous repositories. The presentation will discuss these insights, and will illustrate that attractive federations of repositories can be built by introducing rather basic interoperability requirements. The presentation will also show that, once these requirements are met, a powerful service framework that overlays the federation can emerge.

  14. Reducing Psychological Resistance to Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Quinn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of digital repositories is dependent on the cooperation of scholars to deposit their work. Although many researchers have been resistant to submitting their work, the literature on digital repositories contains very little research on the psychology of resistance. This article looks at the psychological literature on resistance and explores what its implications might be for reducing the resistance of scholars to submitting their work to digital repositories. Psychologists have devised many potentially useful strategies for reducing resistance that might be used to address the problem; this article examines these strategies and how they might be applied.

  15. A Repository of Semantic Open EHR Archetypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a repository of openEHR archetypes that have been translated to OWL. In the work presented here, five different CKMs (Clinical Knowledge Managers have been downloaded and the archetypes have been translated to OWL. This translation is based on an existing translator that has been improved to solve programming problems with certain structures. As part of the repository a tool has been developed to keep it always up-to-date. So, any change in one of the CKMs (addition, elimination or even change of an archetype will involve translating the changed archetypes once more. The repository is accessible through a Web interface (http://www.openehr.es/.

  16. Initial design process of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the final disposal of high level wastes is to isolate the waste from the biosphere for extremely long periods of time by emplacement of wastes into deep stable geological formations. Several geological formations have been considered as candidate host environments for high level waste disposal and several techniques have been developed for repository design. In this study, interrelationships of main parameters of a general repository design have been defined and effective parameters are shown at each step. Initial design process is based on the long term stability of underground openings as disposal galleries. For this reason, this design process includes two main analyses: mechanical analysis and thermal analysis. Each of the analysis systems is directly related to each other by technical precautions. As a result of this design process, general information about the acceptable depth of the repository, layout and emplacement pattern can be taken. Final design study can be established on the result of initial design process. (author)

  17. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This Paper describes a mathematical model design to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  18. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1992-07-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This paper describes a mathematical model designed to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (Author)

  19. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  20. Alternative measure for performance of HLW geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhang, Ahn; Chambre, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    A repository performance model that can show effects of canister multiplicity and repository configuration has been developed. Masses of a radionuclide in the repository and in the far field are proposed as performance measures. Canister multiplicity has significant effects on the release of long-lived radionuclides from the repository. As more canisters are included in the same water stream, the radionuclide concentration in the stream increases, but becomes independent of the number of canisters for sufficiently many canisters. Effects of reduction of radionuclide mass in the repository on the repository performance are clearly observed if the canister multiplicity is taken into account and the mass-based measures are applied. (author)

  1. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  2. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  3. Operation of an organic Rankine cycle dependent on pumping flow rates and expander torques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xufei; Xu, Jinliang; Miao, Zheng; Zou, Jinghuang; Yu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    An ORC (organic Rankine cycle) was developed with R123 as the working fluid. The heat capacity is in ∼100 kW. The match between pump and expander is investigated. Lower pump frequencies (f 10 Hz) adapt low expander torques only, and cause unstable flow and pump cavitation for larger expander torques. Ultra-low expander torques generate sufficiently high vapor superheatings to decrease expander efficiencies. Ultra-high expander torques achieve saturation vapor at the expander inlet, causing liquid droplets induced shock wave to worsen expander performance. An optimal range of expander torques exists to have better expander performance. A liquid subcooling of 20 °C is necessary to avoid pump cavitation. Expander powers and efficiencies show parabola shapes versus expander torques, or vapor superheatings at the expander inlet. The optimal vapor superheating is 13 °C. The cavitation mechanisms and measures to avoid cavitation are analyzed. This paper notes the overestimation of ORC performance by equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. Assumptions should be dependent on experiments. Future studies are suggested on organic fluid flow, heat transfer and energy conversion in various components. - Highlights: • The match between pump and expander is investigated. • A liquid subcooling of 20 °C is needed at pump inlet. • A vapor superheating of 13 °C is necessary at expander inlet. • Cavitation in pumps and expanders are analyzed. • The equilibrium thermodynamics overestimate ORC performances.

  4. The Morsleben radwaste repository. Preparing for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, M.; Schmitt, R.

    2001-06-01

    The publication is intended to illustrate with a brief chronology the history and the present situation of the Morsleben radwaste repository, including specific aspects such as the geology of the site and construction and engineering activities, the particulars of waste form emplacement and log-term storage conditions, topical issues relating to radiological safety during operation and after decommissioning. The brochure is designed for the general audience interested in background information on all aspects of the uses, operation and decommissioning of a radwaste repository in Germany. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Overview of the current CRWMS repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.B.; Teraoka, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current design for a potential geologic repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of the paper is to present the key design features of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface facilities and MGDS subsurface facilities. The paper describes the following: surface layout; waste handling operations design; subsurface design; and the underground transport and emplacement design. A more detailed presentation of key features is provided in the ''Reference design description for a geologic repository'' which is located on the YMP Homepage at www.ymp.gov

  6. GreyGuide Forum and Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...

  7. Citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.E.; Olsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    The following study presents a proposed strategy for citizen participation during the planning stages of nuclear waste repository siting. It discusses the issue from the general perspective of citizen participation in controversial issues and in community development. Second, rural institutions and attitudes toward energy development as the context for developing a citizen participation program are examined. Third, major citizen participation techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for resolving public policy issues are evaluated. Fourth, principles of successful citizen participation are presented. Finally, a proposal for stimulating and sustaining effective responsible citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting and management is developed

  8. Considerations for developing seismic design criteria for nuclear waste storage repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, G.N.; Yanev, P.I.; Scholl, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The function of seismic design criteria is to reduce the potential for hazards that may arise during various stages of the repository life. During the operational phase, the major concern is with the possible effects of earthquakes on surface facilities, underground facilities, and equipment. During the decommissioned phase, the major concern is with the potential effects of earthquakes on the geologic formation, which may result in a reduction in isolation capacity. Existing standards and guides or criteria used for the static and seismic design of licensed nuclear facilities were reviewed and evaluated for their applicability to repository design. This report is directed mainly toward the development of seismic design criteria for the underground structures of repositories. An initial step in the development of seismic design criteria for the underground structures of repositories is the development of performance criteria, or minimum standards of acceptable behavior. A number of possible damage modes are identified for the operating phase of the repository; however, no damage modes are foreseen that would perturb the long-term function of the repository, except for the possibility of increased permeability within the rock mass. Subsequent steps in formulating acceptable seismic design criteria for the underground structures involve the quantification of the design process. The report discusses the necessity of specifying the form of ground motion that would be needed for seismic analysis and the procedures that may be used for making ground motion predictions. Further discussions outline what is needed for analysis, including rock properties, failure criteria, modeling techniques, seismic hardening criteria for the host rock mass, and probabilistic considerations

  9. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  10. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  11. The expanding universe: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Pössel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    An introduction to the physics and mathematics of the expanding universe, using no more than high-school level / undergraduate mathematics. Covered are the basics of scale factor expansion, the dynamics of the expanding universe, various distance concepts and the generalized redshift-luminosity relation, among other topics.

  12. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  13. The Vital Role of Free Access in Supporting Digital Repositories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... the scientific research forward, stressing that the free access to the scientific .... links in the digital repositories for the scientific journals publishers not to mention .... psychology, physics and encryption. Moreover, repositories.

  14. Visual querying and analysis of large software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alexandru

    We present a software framework for mining software repositories. Our extensible framework enables the integration of data extraction from repositories with data analysis and interactive visualization. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by presenting several case studies performed on

  15. Geohydrological simulation of a deep coastal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, S.

    1995-12-01

    This conceptual-numerical study treats the dewatering and resaturation phases associated with the construction, use and closure of a coastal nuclear waste repository located at depth in sparsely fractured Baltic Shield rocks. The main objective is to simulate the extent and duration of saline intrusion for a reasonable set of geohydrological assumptions. Long-term changes in the chemical environment associated with saline intrusion may affect the properties of the buffer zone material (bentonite). The first part of the study deals with history matching of a simple model geometry and the second part treats the dewatering and resaturation phases of the simulated repository. The history matching supports the standpoint that the occurrence of saline ground water reflects an ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing of the Baltic Shield. The drawdown after fifty years of dewatering is highly dependent on the permeability of the excavated damaged zone. If the permeability close the repository is unaltered the entire region between the top side of the model and the repository is more or less partially saturated at the end of the simulation period. The simulations of a fifty year long recovery period suggest that the distribution between fresh and saline ground waters may be quite close to the conditions prior to the dewatering phase already after fifty years of closure despite an incomplete pressure recovery, which is an interesting result considering the objective of the study. 12 refs

  16. Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prause, Christian; Ternier, Stefaan; De Jong, Tim; Apelt, Stefan; Scholten, Marius; Wolpers, Martin; Eisenhauer, Markus; Vandeputte, Bram; Specht, Marcus; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Prause, C., Ternier, S., De Jong, T., Apelt, S., Scholten, M., Wolpers, M., et al. (2007). Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE. In D. Massart, J.-N. Colin & F. V. Assche (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Learning Object Discovery & Exchange (LODE'07). September,

  17. Repository Services for Outcome-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totschnig, Michael; Derntl, Michael; Gutiérrez, Israel; Najjar, Jad; Klemke, Roland; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik; Müller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Totschnig, M., Derntl, M., Gutiérrez, I., Najjar, J., Klemke, R., Klerkx, J., Duval, E., & Müller, F. (2010). Repository Services for Outcome-based Learning. Fourth International Workshop on Search and Exchange of e-le@rning Materials (SE@M’10). September, 27-28, 2010, Barcelona, Spain.

  18. Design of repository sealing systems - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, R.D.; Shukla, D.K.; Kelsall, P.C.; D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers, Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Isolating nuclear waste in geologic repositories will require the sealing of penetrations such as access shafts and tunnels, disposal rooms, and exploration boreholes. This paper discusses seal designs developed for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. Designs are based on a multiple component concept whereby individual components are designed for a specific function and location. For a repository in salt the major function of the seals is to exclude groundwater inflow. Two main types of component are included for this purpose: (1) bulk-heads are dense concrete structures keyed into the walls of the penetration and are intended to reduce flow at the interface between the seal and the salt; (2) backfills are granular materials compacted in place in the penetration. In the repository the major backfill material is crushed salt, which is expected to consolidate and recrystallize as the rooms close in response to salt creep. Densely compacted clays will be used as backfill in the shafts closer to potential sources of water inflow. 22 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  19. The Sellafield repository project information programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curd, P J [United Kingdom Nirex Limited (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    The Sellafield Repository Project Information programme has been guided by formal research and by feedback through members of the team. Progress has been made and a significant majority of local people support the project and feel it will benefit the area. (author)

  20. The Sellafield repository project information programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Sellafield Repository Project Information programme has been guided by formal research and by feedback through members of the team. Progress has been made and a significant majority of local people support the project and feel it will benefit the area. (author)

  1. Local groundwater depression around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.

    1978-01-01

    Local Groundwater Depression around a Repository. A two-dimensional flow analysis was made to study the effect on the groundwater table due to drainage of the storage tunnels during the construction resp. operation period. The net accretion to the phreatic surface was assumed evenly distributed in space and time. Numerical examples with equipotentials and consecutive positions of the phreatic surface are presented

  2. Data deposit into the ASEP repository

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelařová, Zdeňka; Doleželová, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 14, Special winter issue (2018), s. 44-49 ISSN 1574-1796 Institutional support: RVO:67985971 Keywords : data repositories * ASEP * Library of the Czech Academy of Sciences * Czech Academy of Sciences Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies

  3. Business process model repositories : framework and survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Large organizations often run hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Managing such large collections of business processes is a challenging task. Intelligent software can assist in that task by providing common repository functions such as storage, search and version management. They can

  4. A framework for business process model repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Muehlen, zur M.; Su, J.

    2010-01-01

    Large organizations often run hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Managing such large collections of business processes is a challenging task. Intelligent software can assist in that task by providing common repository functions such as storage, search and version management. They can

  5. Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Francis, N.; Houseworth, J.; Kramer, N.

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic

  6. New expanded bed adsorbents for the recovery of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Olander, M. A.; Sondergaard, M.

    2000-01-01

    A 20-40 mum pellicular high density (similar to3.7 g cm(-3)) expanded bed material has been designed for the capture of DNA and other large macromolecules. Anion exchangers fashioned out of these supports exhibited dramatically enhanced DNA binding capacities over commercial anion exchange...

  7. The repository ecology an approach to understanding repository and service interactions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Hagemann, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of university institutions and other organisations are deciding to deploy repositories and a growing number of formal and informal distributed services are supporting or capitalising on the information these repositories provide. Despite reasonably well understood technical architectures, early majority adopters may struggle to articulate their place within the actualities of a wider information environment. The idea of a repository ecology provides developers and administrators with a useful way of articulating and analysing their place in the information environment, and the technical and organisational interactions they have, or are developing, with other parts of such an environment. This presentation will provide an overview of the concept of a repository ecology and examine some examples from the domains of scholarly communications and elearning.

  8. The repository ecology: an approach to understanding repository and service interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of university institutions and other organisations are deciding to deploy repositories and a growing number of formal and informal distributed services are supporting or capitalising on the information these repositories provide. Despite reasonably well understood technical architectures, early majority adopters may struggle to articulate their place within the actualities of a wider information environment. The idea of a repository ecology provides developers and administrators with a useful way of articulating and analysing their place in the information environment, and the technical and organisational interactions they have, or are developing, with other parts of such an environment. This presentation will provide an overview of the concept of a repository ecology and examine some examples from the domains of scholarly communications and elearning. View John Robertson's biography

  9. Desiderata for healthcare integrated data repositories based on architectural comparison of three public repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2013-01-01

    Integrated data repositories (IDRs) are indispensable tools for numerous biomedical research studies. We compare three large IDRs (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2), HMO Research Network's Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) repository) in order to identify common architectural features that enable efficient storage and organization of large amounts of clinical data. We define three high-level classes of underlying data storage models and we analyze each repository using this classification. We look at how a set of sample facts is represented in each repository and conclude with a list of desiderata for IDRs that deal with the information storage model, terminology model, data integration and value-sets management.

  10. High-level waste repository-induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth, Dorset (United Kingdom); Senger, R. [Intera Inc., Ennetbaden (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    by restricting the size of the excavations and the depth of the repository, using a low-deformation, controlled construction and excavation method and by the fact that the excavations will be backfilled relatively soon after construction with a swelling backfill material. At expected repository depths, the rooms will need to be supported to ensure stability and worker protection; this will prevent rock falls and further extension of the EDZ. Based on the modelling results, it can be concluded that the extent of the EDZ around the HLW emplacement rooms will not exceed a thickness of one room diameter and that the average hydraulic conductance of the EDZ around emplacement rooms, access tunnels and shafts will not exceed a value of 10{sup -7} m{sup 3}/s. Self-sealing of the EDZ and low hydraulic gradients along the tunnels will result in negligible radionuclide transport by the EDZ pathway. The relevant chemical interactions are taken into account when designing and assessing the performance of a HLW repository. In the current reference design, tunnel support is provided by a concrete liner. It is expected that degradation of the liner and corrosion of the steel canister and other supporting structures will lead to some alteration of the bentonite buffer and Opalinus Clay. These detrimental effects are taken into account in dose calculations and have been found not to have a significant impact on the calculated dose rates. For the reference gas generation rates, the gas transport capacity of the Opalinus Clay is sufficiently high to dispel gas without invoking pathway dilation as a gas transport mechanism and without causing damage to the rock. Even if potential transport pathways for gas along the excavations and EDZ are disregarded, overpressures that would lead to the onset of pathway dilation are reached only in cases combining conservative gas generation rates with a low-permeability host rock, and these overpressures are still insufficient to cause rock damage

  11. High-level waste repository-induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J.; Smith, P.; Savage, D.; Senger, R.

    2016-10-01

    by restricting the size of the excavations and the depth of the repository, using a low-deformation, controlled construction and excavation method and by the fact that the excavations will be backfilled relatively soon after construction with a swelling backfill material. At expected repository depths, the rooms will need to be supported to ensure stability and worker protection; this will prevent rock falls and further extension of the EDZ. Based on the modelling results, it can be concluded that the extent of the EDZ around the HLW emplacement rooms will not exceed a thickness of one room diameter and that the average hydraulic conductance of the EDZ around emplacement rooms, access tunnels and shafts will not exceed a value of 10 -7 m 3 /s. Self-sealing of the EDZ and low hydraulic gradients along the tunnels will result in negligible radionuclide transport by the EDZ pathway. The relevant chemical interactions are taken into account when designing and assessing the performance of a HLW repository. In the current reference design, tunnel support is provided by a concrete liner. It is expected that degradation of the liner and corrosion of the steel canister and other supporting structures will lead to some alteration of the bentonite buffer and Opalinus Clay. These detrimental effects are taken into account in dose calculations and have been found not to have a significant impact on the calculated dose rates. For the reference gas generation rates, the gas transport capacity of the Opalinus Clay is sufficiently high to dispel gas without invoking pathway dilation as a gas transport mechanism and without causing damage to the rock. Even if potential transport pathways for gas along the excavations and EDZ are disregarded, overpressures that would lead to the onset of pathway dilation are reached only in cases combining conservative gas generation rates with a low-permeability host rock, and these overpressures are still insufficient to cause rock damage. It is

  12. Towards a Swedish repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.-E.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power is producing electricity for the benefit of society but is also leaving radioactive residues behind. It is our responsibility to handle these residues in a safe and proper manner. The development of a system for handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants has proceeded in steps. The same is true for the actual construction of facilities and will continue to be the case for the final repository for spent fuel and other types of long-lived wastes. The primary objective in constructing the repository will be to isolate and contain the radioactive waste. In case the isolation fails for some reason the multibarrier system should retain and retard the radionuclides that might come into contact with the groundwater. A repository is now planned to be built in two steps where the first step will include deposition of about 400 canisters with spent fuel. This first step should be finished in about 20 years from now and be followed by an extensive evaluation of the results from not only this particular step but also from the development of alternative routes before deciding on how to proceed. A special facility to encapsulate the spent fuel is also required. Such an encapsulation plant is proposed to be constructed as an extension of the existing interim storage CLAB. Finding a site for the repository is a critical issue in the implementation of any repository. The siting process started a few years ago and made some progress but is by no means yet completed. It will go on at least into the early part of the next decade. When the present nuclear power plants begin to be due for retirement there should also be some facilities in place to take permanent care of the long-lived radioactive residues. Progress in siting will be a prerequisite for success in our responsibility to make progress towards a safe permanent solution of the waste issue. (orig.)

  13. Chemical buffering capacity of clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucaire, C.; Pearson, F.J.; Gautschi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term performance of a nuclear waste repository is strongly dependent on the chemical properties of the host rock. The host rock establishes the chemical environment that determines such important performance attributes as radionuclide solubilities from the waste and the transport rates from the repository to the accessible environment. Clay-rich rocks are especially favourable host rocks because they provide a strong buffering capacity to resist chemical changes prompted either internally, by reactions of the waste itself and emplacement materials, or externally, by changes in the hydrologic systems surrounding the host rock. This paper will focus on three aspects of the stability of clay-rich host rocks: their ability to provide pCO 2 and redox buffering, and to resist chemical changes imposed by changes in regional hydrology and hydro-chemistry. (authors)

  14. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and

  15. Prestudy Oskarshamn. Tourism in Oskarshamn with or without a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordblom, C.J.; Foghagen, C.

    1998-11-01

    Consequences for the tourism at Oskarshamn from siting a spent fuel repository in the community are studied. Four questionnaire/interview enquires were performed, and the analysis of the results show that no noticeable effects are expected. Still, an uncertainty about the impact of a repository is felt by the public, and more thorough information about the repository and its components is needed

  16. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories... information concerning geologic repositories. (a) In lieu of an environmental report, the Department of Energy... connection with any geologic repository developed under Subtitle A of Title I, or under Title IV, of the...

  17. Semantic Linking of Learning Object Repositories to DBpedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Manuel; Vidal, Juan C.; Otero-Garcia, Estefania; Bugarin, Alberto; Barro, Senen

    2012-01-01

    Large-sized repositories of learning objects (LOs) are difficult to create and also to maintain. In this paper we propose a way to reduce this drawback by improving the classification mechanisms of the LO repositories. Specifically, we present a solution to automate the LO classification of the Universia repository, a collection of more than 15…

  18. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  19. The Use of Digital Repositories for Enhancing Teacher Pedagogical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Kalimi, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the usage of local learning material repositories at school, as well as related teachers' attitudes and training. The study investigates the use of these repositories for enhancing teacher performance and assesses whether the assimilation of the local repositories increases their usage of and contribution to by teachers. One…

  20. 48 CFR 227.7207 - Contractor data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repositories. 227.7207 Section 227.7207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7207 Contractor data repositories. Follow 227.7108 when it is in the Government's interests to have a data repository include computer software or to...

  1. Institutional Repositories as Infrastructures for Long-Term Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Helena; Gamalielsson, Jonas; Lundell, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The study describes the conditions for long-term preservation of the content of the institutional repositories of Swedish higher education institutions based on an investigation of how deposited files are managed with regards to file format and how representatives of the repositories describe the functions of the repositories.…

  2. The Lincoln Repository presentation: ten reasons why you should put a copy of your work in the Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Stainthorp, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Slideshow presentation created to promote the Lincoln Repository to staff at the University of Lincoln. Consists of ten reasons why academic authors should consider depositing copies of their work in the Repository.

  3. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36 Cl and 93 Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  4. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  5. The effect of microorganisms on asphaltopropylene concrete in a radioactive waste repository. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavackova, I.; Hlavacek, I.; Mara, M.; Wasserbauer, R.

    1993-11-01

    The permeability of asphaltopropylene concrete (APC) was examined after the action of aerobic bacteria and molds, and the changes in its volume, weight and swelling capacity were recorded. APC has been used as a sealing material in low level radioactive waste pits at the Dukovany NPP repository. Results of check-up sampling of microorganisms in the repository are evaluated. Sulphate reducing bacteria, which have been detected in soil near the reactor site, were isolated and their action upon asphaltopropylene (AP) was investigated. The resistance of bitumen layers containing model waste, against the action of aerobic bacteria and molds and against water was also examined. Bitumen samples containing model waste were found to absorb water at low temperatures considerably faster than unfilled bitumen. At elevated temperatures the absorption of water is appreciable, causing high weight losses of the bituminized waste layer due to degradation. The time dependences of the bitumen sample weight at 20 degC and 60 degC in distilled and cement water are given in the Appendix. The results included in the final reports ''Investigation of the effect of microorganisms on asphaltopropylene-based insulating materials employed as sealing in the secondary radioactive waste repository at the Dukovany NPP in relation to the microbial flora present. Bacteria'' and ''Investigation of the impact of biodegradation effects of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms including molds on asphalt and asphaltopropylene in conditions of the ground repository at the Dukovany NPP'' are also given. (J.B.). 8 tabs., 33 figs

  6. Introduction to the second international workshop on the design and construction of final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian repository design studies are reviewed. Two conceptual designs are described. The first is a single-level spent-fuel repository using the in-floor borehole emplacement configuration. The disposal container for 72 bundles is made of titanium. The depth will probably be 1000 m. Maximum temperature must not exceed 100 deg C. The near-surface extension zone must not exceed 100 m in depth. The cost for disposal of 10.1 million bundles over 89 years is estimated to be about C$13 billion. The second concept, a single level spent-fuel repository using the in-room emplacement configuration, may be more suitable for the stress conditions that may be encountered in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield at a depth greater than 500 m. In this case, the container is made of copper, and the capacity of the repository will be determined by maintaining the emplacement area at about 2 km square, and the required container to container and room to room spacing to satisfy the temperature criterion. A concrete floor will be provided.The buffer material will be formed in pre-compacted blocks. 10 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. Logistics Modeling of Emplacement Rate and Duration of Operations for Generic Geologic Repository Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    This study identified potential geologic repository concepts for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and (2) evaluated the achievable repository waste emplacement rate and the time required to complete the disposal for these concepts. Total repository capacity is assumed to be approximately 140,000 MT of spent fuel. The results of this study provide an important input for the rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) disposal cost analysis. The disposal concepts cover three major categories of host geologic media: crystalline or hard rock, salt, and argillaceous rock. Four waste package sizes are considered: 4PWR/9BWR; 12PWR/21BWR; 21PWR/44BWR, and dual purpose canisters (DPCs). The DPC concepts assume that the existing canisters will be sealed into disposal overpacks for direct disposal. Each concept assumes one of the following emplacement power limits for either emplacement or repository closure: 1.7 kW; 2.2 kW; 5.5 kW; 10 kW; 11.5 kW, and 18 kW.

  8. Logistics Modeling of Emplacement Rate and Duration of Operations for Generic Geologic Repository Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    This study identified potential geologic repository concepts for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and (2) evaluated the achievable repository waste emplacement rate and the time required to complete the disposal for these concepts. Total repository capacity is assumed to be approximately 140,000 MT of spent fuel. The results of this study provide an important input for the rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) disposal cost analysis. The disposal concepts cover three major categories of host geologic media: crystalline or hard rock, salt, and argillaceous rock. Four waste package sizes are considered: 4PWR/9BWR; 12PWR/21BWR; 21PWR/44BWR, and dual purpose canisters (DPCs). The DPC concepts assume that the existing canisters will be sealed into disposal overpacks for direct disposal. Each concept assumes one of the following emplacement power limits for either emplacement or repository closure: 1.7 kW; 2.2 kW; 5.5 kW; 10 kW; 11.5 kW, and 18 kW.

  9. Radionuclide transport from near-surface repository for radioactive waste - The unsaturated zone approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, V. [Vilnius University (Lithuania); Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre (Lithuania); Motiejunas, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    About 100 000 m{sup 3} of solid conditioned Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), generated during operation and decommissioning of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP), are to be disposed of in a near-surface repository (NSR) - a 'hill'-type repository with reinforced concrete vaults and with engineered and natural barriers. The northeastern Lithuania and the environment of the INPP in particular were recognized as the areas most suitable for a near-surface repository (Stabatiske Site). The engineered barriers of the repository consist of concrete cells surrounded by clay-based material of low permeability with about the same isolating capacity in all directions. The clay materials must be effectively compactable so that required hydraulic conductivity is reached. The Lithuanian Triassic clay turned out to be sufficiently rich in smectites and was proposed as main candidate for sealing of the repository. When the concrete vaults are filled, the repository cover will be constructed. The surface of the mound will be planted with grass. In this study a computer code FEFLOW 5.0 was applied for simulating the transport of the most mobile radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 94}Nb) with moisture through an unsaturated vault of the near-surface repository in Stabatiske Site. The HYDRUS-1D analysis was used to assess the radionuclide transport in the repository and to estimate initial activity concentrations of radionuclides transported from the cemented waste matrix. Radionuclide release from the vault in the unsaturated conditions after closure of the repository and consequent contaminant plume transport has been assessed taking into account site-specific natural and engineering conditions and based on a normal evolution scenario. The highest peak radionuclide activity concentrations were estimated applying the FEFLOW code. The highest value of {sup 14}C activity concentration(about 1.3x10{sup 8} Bq/m{sup 3}) at the groundwater table

  10. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2005-01-01

    This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the

  11. Adipose tissue expandability and the early origins of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2009-11-01

    The most prevalent phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are characterized by insulin resistance and androgen excess. The adipose tissue (AT) expandability hypothesis explains the development of insulin resistance in obesity and in cases of AT deficit. In line with this hypothesis, we propose that hyperinsulinemic androgen excess in PCOS is often underpinned by exhaustion of the capacity to expand subcutaneous AT in a metabolically safe way. Such exhaustion might occur when a positive energy imbalance meets a normal fat-storage capacity and/or when a normal energy balance faces a low fat storage capacity. This concept thus explains how PCOS phenotypes might result from obesity, prenatal growth restraint or a genetic lipodystrophy, or, experimentally, from prenatal androgen excess.

  12. Design aspects of the alpha repository. II. Conceptual layouts of underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Five conceptual repository layouts are presented: linear repository, 1 panel; bow tie repository, 2 panels; maltese cross repository, 4 panels; snowflake repository; 5 panels, and sash window repository, 8 panels. The layouts are compared with respect to excavation requirements, haulage distances, ventilation flow path designs, and safety features

  13. The Geodetic Seamless Archive Centers Service Layer: A System Architecture for Federating Geodesy Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, J.; Boler, F. M.; Bock, Y.; Jamason, P.; Squibb, M. B.; Noll, C. E.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    Three geodesy Archive Centers, Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC), NASA's Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) and UNAVCO are engaged in a joint effort to define and develop a common Web Service Application Programming Interface (API) for accessing geodetic data holdings. This effort is funded by the NASA ROSES ACCESS Program to modernize the original GPS Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC) technology which was developed in the 1990s. A new web service interface, the GSAC-WS, is being developed to provide uniform and expanded mechanisms through which users can access our data repositories. In total, our respective archives hold tens of millions of files and contain a rich collection of site/station metadata. Though we serve similar user communities, we currently provide a range of different access methods, query services and metadata formats. This leads to a lack of consistency in the userís experience and a duplication of engineering efforts. The GSAC-WS API and its reference implementation in an underlying Java-based GSAC Service Layer (GSL) supports metadata and data queries into site/station oriented data archives. The general nature of this API makes it applicable to a broad range of data systems. The overall goals of this project include providing consistent and rich query interfaces for end users and client programs, the development of enabling technology to facilitate third party repositories in developing these web service capabilities and to enable the ability to perform data queries across a collection of federated GSAC-WS enabled repositories. A fundamental challenge faced in this project is to provide a common suite of query services across a heterogeneous collection of data yet enabling each repository to expose their specific metadata holdings. To address this challenge we are developing a "capabilities" based service where a repository can describe its specific query and metadata capabilities. Furthermore, the architecture of

  14. VerSi - A Methodology for a Comparison of Potential Repository Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Wilhelm

    2010-09-01

    In the year 2000 the moratorium on the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a potential repository for all kinds of radioactive waste became effective as a result of the consensus agreement between the Federal Government and the utilities about phasing out nuclear energy in Germany. All exploration activities were interrupted for at maximum ten years to clarify conceptual and safety relevant questions. A new set of safety requirements for the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep geological formations was established in July 2009 by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). As the BMU intended to carry out a comparison of potential repository sites it was necessary to initiate the development of a methodology for the identification of the site with the highest level of safety. A comparison of different repository sites requires a tool ensuring most confident and objective criteria for the comparison, whereas up to present long-term safety analyses were focused on confirming the suitability of sites by meeting the protection objectives by the measures of dose and risk. Within the 2006 established project VerSi a methodology for comparing different sites in different host rocks will be developed on the basis of long-term safety analyses taking into account geoscientific databases, inventory of radioactive waste, waste containers, corresponding disposal concepts and the feasibility of appropriate backfilling and closure concepts. The development of the method is aiming at providing measures other than dose and risk for the evaluation of the level of safety. For testing the tools a HLW-repository hosted in a salt dome (Gorleben) will be compared with a generic HLW-repository in consolidated clay as a host rock. As until now in Germany no clay stone site has been investigated for hosting a HLW repository, the required data are transferred from international research projects and repository concepts

  15. Thermal analyses of spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2003-06-01

    This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3V type 1- or 2-panel repository based on the rock properties measured from the Olkiluoto investigations. The report describes first the development of a calculation methodology for the thermal analysis of a repository for nuclear fuel. The disposed canisters produce residual heat due to decay (or disintegration) of radioactive products. The decay heat is conducted to surrounding rock mass. The methods were applied to determine the effect of different parameters on the highest canister temperature and to support the planning, dimensioning and operation of the repository. The thermal diffusivity of the rock is low and the heat released from the canisters is spread into the surrounding rock volume quite slowly causing thermal gradient in the rock close to canisters and the canister temperature is increased remarkably. The maximum temperature on the canister surface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by the spacing between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the distance between separate panels of the repository and the pre-cooling time affecting power of the canisters. Because of the fact that the disposal operation takes several decades, the moment of disposal of an individual canister in addition to the location has an influence on the maximum temperature in the canister. Also, a second disposal panel in the repository has a thermal interaction with the other panel. This interaction is expressed after a few decades at the strongest. It became apparent that the temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by analytic line heat source model much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first verified and

  16. Safety analysis of the VLJ repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H.

    1991-05-01

    The VLJ repository is an underground disposal facility for the low and medium level waste generated at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The repository is located within 1 km from TVO I and TVO II (2 x 710 MWe) BWR's on the Olkiluoto island at the west coast of Finland. It contains two rock silos excavated at the depth of 60...100 meters in the bedrock. Low level waste will be disposed of in a shotcreted rock silo. For bituminized medium level waste, a separate silo of reinforced concrete has been built inside the shotcreted rock silo. The post-closure safety analysis has been done for the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of the VLJ repository. In addition to the normal evolution scenario, several disturbed evolution and accident scenarios have been analysed. In the reference scenario, radio-nuclides are assumed to be released from the bituminized waste within 500 years, the concrete silo is assumed to gradually disintegrate and finally to collapse at 5 000 years, all concrete in the silo is assumed to be also chemically depleted within 6 000 years, and all the seals of the repository are assumed to deteriorate within 12 000 years. The ability of alone natural barriers to restrict the release of radionuclides into the biosphere has been evaluated by means of scenarios where the degradation of engineered barriers has been assumed to take place at a still faster rate. In one of the disturbed evolution scenarios it has been assumed that the concrete silo for medium level waste is severely impaired immediately after sealing of the repository. Effects of gas generation and consequences of human intrusion have been evaluated, too. The results of the safety analysis show that radiation doses of any significance are caused only if a well is bored in the vicinity of the repository or if the groundwater discharge spot is inhabited and used for cultivation. In the reference scenario the maximum expectation value of the individual dose rate is 0.3 mSv/a

  17. What do we mean by a cold repository?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of thermal loading of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada has been the subject of intense discussion within the project technical community. While terms such as ''Hot Repository'' and ''Cold Repository'' are frequently used, they have not been clearly defined. In particular, the definition of a cold repository has remained the opinion of each individual. This has led to confusion and misunderstanding. In this paper, a number of observed definitions for a cold repository are discussed along with the technical implications, assumptions and inconsistencies. Finally, a common language is suggested

  18. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  19. Neutrinos in an expanding Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Universe contains several billion neutrinos for each nucleon. In this paper, we follow the history of these relic neutrinos as the Universe expanded. At present, their typical velocity is a few hundred km/s and, therefore, their spectra are affected by gravitational forces. This may have led to a phenomenon that could explain two of todays great mysteries: The large-scale structure of the Universe and the increasing rate at which it expands. (paper)

  20. Review. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel SR 97 - Post-closure safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, Ove

    2000-01-01

    SKB states that the chosen scenarios provide good coverage of future evolutionary pathways for the deep repository. This is not the case. SKB has not made full use of the established interaction matrices and the new method of THMC diagrams to generate the relevant and important scenarios and to construct the important pathways of variables and processes, either in the established interaction matrices and the presented THMC diagrams. Hence, SKB is demonstrating in SR 97 that they lack a well thought through, sound and solid method to select and evaluate scenarios for the purpose of demonstrating the safety of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The evolution of the system is presented for the components of the repository system (fuel, canister, buffer/backfill, geosphere) and the effects of four different scenarios, but time only enters into the system for discrete events or processes, e.g. description of the relative radiotoxicity and heat decay of the fuel, temperature distribution, iron exchange process, pH in buffer, redox capacity and radionuclear release at the three sites. There is a lack of method and way of describing the evolution of the complete repository system, including the major scenarios, as a function of time. It is essential that SKB is able to: - consider the full range of potential scenarios, - grade the scenarios according to their significance for repository design and performance and safety assessment, - consider whether simple engineering actions could be taken to inhibit the development of adverse scenarios. This cannot be done with the system presented in SR 97, and so SKB do not have a full predictive capability - which is required for the engineering design of such an important and costly structure as a repository. Geoscientific investigation material for three selected sites are presented by SKB in the technical report dealing with waste, repository design and sites. Here a general overview is missing of the geological and rock

  1. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. SR 97 - Post-closure safety. Main Report. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.

    1999-11-01

    In preparation for coming site investigations for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Government and nuclear regulatory authorities have requested an assessment of the repository's long-term safety. The purpose is to demonstrate whether the risk of harmful effects in individuals in the vicinity of the repository complies with the acceptance criterion formulated by the Swedish regulatory authorities, i.e. that the risk may not exceed 10 -6 per year. Geological data are taken from three sites in Sweden to shed light on different conditions in Swedish granitic bedrock. The future evolution of the repository system is analyzed in the form of five scenarios. The first is a base scenario where the repository is postulated to be built entirely according to specifications and where present-day conditions in the surroundings are postulated to persist. The four other scenarios show how the evolution of the repository differs from that in the base scenario if the repository contains a few initially defective canisters, in the event of climate change, earthquakes, and future inadvertent human intrusion. The time horizon for the analyses is at most one million years, in accordance with preliminary regulations. By means of model studies and calculations, the base scenario analyzes how the radioactivity of the fuel declines with time, the repository's thermal evolution as a result of the decay heat in the fuel, the hydraulic evolution in buffer and backfill when they become saturated with water, and the long-term groundwater flow in the geosphere on the three sites. The overall conclusion of the analyses in the base scenario is that the copper canisters isolating capacity is not threatened by either the mechanical or chemical stresses to which it is subjected. The safety margins are great even in a million-year perspective. The internal evolution in initially defective canisters and the possible resultant migration of radionuclides in buffer, geosphere

  2. Ventilation System Strategy for a Prospective Korean Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki

    2005-01-01

    In the stage of conceptual design for the construction and operation of the geologic repository for radioactive wastes, it is important to consider a repository ventilation system which serves the repository working environment, hygiene and safety of the public at large, and will allow safe maintenance like moisture content elimination in repository for the duration of the repositories life, construction/operation/closure, also allowing safe waste transportation and emplacement. This paper describes the possible ventilation system design criteria and requirements for the prospective Korean radioactive waste repositories with emphasis on the underground rock cavity disposal method in the both cases of low and medium-level and high-level wastes. It was found that the most important concept is separate ventilation systems for the construction (development) and waste emplacement (storage) activities. In addition, ventilation network system modeling, natural ventilation, ventilation monitoring systems and real time ventilation simulation, and fire simulation and emergency system in the repository are briefly discussed.

  3. Natural sorbents as barriers against migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.; Gradev, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The sorption properties of Bulgarian inorganic sorbents - clinoptilolite, vermiculite, bentonite, glauconite, celadonite and loess, which can be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in radwaste repository are studied. Experimental data about sorption and desorption capacities, radiation and thermal stability of sorbents from different Bulgarian deposits are reported and compared. Clinoptilolite from Beli Plast and its sodium variety from Kostino and Moryantsi is recommended as a barrier against radionuclide migration from radwaste repository due to their high sorption capacity of 137 Ce, 90 Sr and 60 Co. The high selectivity of vermiculite for polyvalent ions ( 144 Ce, 59 Fe and 90 Sr) gives grounds to include the sorption on vermiculite as a second step in the ion exchange technology for low level laundry waste decontamination. Bentonite is studied as a proposed buffer, backfill and sealing material. Its selectivity for cesium is lower compared to those of clinoptilolite. Thus a tailored-made mixture of bentonite and clinoptilolite will act as a barrier against radionuclides in different oxidation state. Glauconite can be successfully used as a barrier against migration of 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Loess is also included in the study, as the Kozloduy NPP is sited on loess formation and it is a natural potential site for low and intermediate level waste burial. It is concludes that zeolites and clays of Bulgarian deposits can be used effectively against radionuclide migration from radioactive waste repositories. 59 refs., 5 tabs. (author)

  4. Digital Repository of Research Institutes – RCIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kaczyńska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the project of Digital Repository of Scientific Institutes RCIN and presents opportunities for promoting science by digitization and sharing them on the Internet. The Repository has been created by the 16 Scientific Institutes in Warsaw, Krakow and Bialowieza to modernize the science-research and IT infrastructure, to increase digital resources of mathematical, technical, natural and medical sciences, and to popularize and promote of Polish science. That dissemination and popularization of science affects its development and competitiveness in the international arena and it allows transfer of research results to the economy. In addition, Institutes of RCIN providing contemporary and archival materials of science, support the intellectual capital of Polish science and raise awareness of professional literature of search on the Internet. Project RCIN is implemented in the years 2010–2014 and financing is provided by the funds of the European Fund of Regional Development.

  5. Geological study of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Kitano, Koichi

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the stability and the barrier efficiency of the deep underground radioactive waste repositories become a subject of great concern. The purpose of this paper is to gather informations on the geology, engineering geology and hydrogeology in deep galleries in Japan. Conclusion can be summarised as follows: (1) The geological structure of deep underground is complicated. (2) Stress in deep underground is greatly affected by crustal movement. (3) Rock-burst phenomena occur in the deep underground excavations. (4) In spite of deep underground, water occasionally gush out from the fractured zone of rock mass. These conclusion will be useful for feasibility study of underground waste disposal and repositories in Japan. (author)

  6. The German quality system for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)--Federal Office for Radiation protection--has to guarantee that the requirements resulting from different regulations concerning planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a waste repository are fulfilled. In addition, the results of the safety assessments lead to nuclear-specific requirements on the design of the plant as well as to requirements on the radioactive waste packages intended to be disposed of. Therefore, the implementation of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) system is an essential task in order to ensure that the designed quality is achieved so that the necessary precaution against damage is taken. In this paper, a detailed description of QA and QC to be applied to the planned Konrad repository as well as the basic principles and the present status of the waste package QC are indicated and discussed

  7. Summary of repository siting models. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.; Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports that will provide critical reviews and summaries of computer programs that can be used to analyze the potential performance of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The computer programs identified address the following phenomena: saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow, heat transport, solute transport, surface water runoff, geomechanical interactions, and geochemical interactions. The report identifies 183 computer programs that can be used to analyze a repository site and provides a summary description of 31 computer programs. The summary descriptions can be used: to assist in code evaluation, to facilitate code comparison, to determine applicability of codes to specific problems, to identify code deficiencies, and to provide a screening mechanism for code selection

  8. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used

  9. Use of modeling in repository licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, J.M. III; Echols, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    A review of the regulatory history of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations applicable to the licensing of a geologic repository, as well as a review of NRC administrative (licensing) decisions and federal case law, support the NRC's use of simplified models, in appropriate circumstances, which provide well-documented and reasonably conservative bounding assumptions, together with the use of expert judgement, natural analogues, and other aids to supplement available information, in reaching its reasonable assurance determination whether the public health and safety will be adequately protected if the Yucca Mountain, Nevada site should be licensed for development as a geologic repository. Specific examples are provided to assist the reader to better understand how such qualitative concepts as open-quote reasonable assurance close-quote, open-quote reasonably conservative close-quote, and open-quote adequate close-quote protection are used in an administrative context to resolve technical issues

  10. Analysis of Turkey’s Institutional Open Repositories: An Example of Dokuz Eylül University Institutional Open Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Levent Ertürk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the declaration of the Budapest Open Access Initiative in 2001, institutional open repositories are known as the most important tool of the self archiving, which is also known as green road. There are 26 institutional repositories, which are all compatible to international standards. All the institutional open repositories of Turkey mentioned before are listed in international open archive directories. In this study institutional open repository of Dokuz Eylül University is examined and institutional open repositories of Turkey are discussed.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, B. A.

    2005-07-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music—a new type of `cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson,\\endcolumn hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature’s code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one’s mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  12. Geoscience Digital Data Resource and Repository Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Schuster, D.; Hou, C. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The open availability and wide accessibility of digital data sets is becoming the norm for geoscience research. The National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted a data management planning requirement in 2011, and many scientific publishers, including the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society, have recently implemented data archiving and citation policies. Many disciplinary data facilities exist around the community to provide a high level of technical support and expertise for archiving data of particular kinds, or for particular projects. However, a significant number of geoscience research projects do not have the same level of data facility support due to a combination of several factors, including the research project's size, funding limitations, or topic scope that does not have a clear facility match. These projects typically manage data on an ad hoc basis without limited long-term management and preservation procedures. The NSF is supporting a workshop to be held in Summer of 2018 to develop requirements and expectations for a Geoscience Digital Data Resource and Repository Service (GeoDaRRS). The vision for the prospective GeoDaRRS is to complement existing NSF-funded data facilities by providing: 1) data management planning support resources for the general community, and 2) repository services for researchers who have data that do not fit in any existing repository. Functionally, the GeoDaRRS would support NSF-funded researchers in meeting data archiving requirements set by the NSF and publishers for geosciences, thereby ensuring the availability of digital data for use and reuse in scientific research going forward. This presentation will engage the AGU community in discussion about the needs for a new digital data repository service, specifically to inform the forthcoming GeoDaRRS workshop.

  13. Benchmark problems for repository siting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.; Thomas, S.D.; Lester, B.H.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes benchmark problems to test computer codes used in siting nuclear waste repositories. Analytical solutions, field problems, and hypothetical problems are included. Problems are included for the following types of codes: ground-water flow in saturated porous media, heat transport in saturated media, ground-water flow in saturated fractured media, heat and solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated fractured media, and solute transport in unsaturated porous media

  14. Waste repository planned for Bruce Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2004-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Kincardine, the municipality nearest the Bruce site, have agreed in principal to the construction of a deep geologic repository for low and medium level radioactive waste on the site. The two parties signed the 'Kincardine Hosting Agreement' on October 13, 2004 to proceed with planning, seek regulatory approval and further public consultation of the proposed project. A construction Licence is not expected before 2013. (author)

  15. Repository-based software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    1992-01-01

    The activities performed during September 1992 in support of Tasks 01 and 02 of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program are outlined. The recommendations and implementation strategy defined at the September 9-10 meeting of the Reuse Acquisition Action Team (RAAT) are attached along with the viewgraphs and reference information presented at the Institute for Defense Analyses brief on legal and patent issues related to software reuse.

  16. Repository waste-handling operations, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottam, A.E.; Connell, L.

    1986-04-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Mission Plan and the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geologic Disposal System state that beginning in 1998, commercial spent fuel not exceeding 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, or a quantity of solidified high-level radioactive waste resulting from the reprocessing of such a quantity of spent fuel, will be shipped to a deep geologic repository for permanent storage. The development of a waste-handling system that can process 3000 metric tons of heavy metal annually will require the adoption of a fully automated approach. The safety and minimum exposure of personnel will be the prime goals of the repository waste handling system. A man-out-of-the-loop approach will be used in all operations including the receipt of spent fuel in shipping casks, the inspection and unloading of the spent fuel into automated hot-cell facilities, the disassembly of spent fuel assemblies, the consolidation of fuel rods, and the packaging of fuel rods into heavy-walled site-specific containers. These containers are designed to contain the radionuclides for up to 1000 years. The ability of a repository to handle more than 6000 pressurized water reactor spent-fuel rods per day on a production basis for approximately a 23-year period will require that a systems approach be adopted that combines space-age technology, robotics, and sophisticated automated computerized equipment. New advanced inspection techniques, maintenance by robots, and safety will be key factors in the design, construction, and licensing of a repository waste-handling facility for 1998

  17. Towards an Open Repository of Teaching Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Millard, David; Howard, Yvonne; Wills, Gary; Watson, Julie; Arrebola, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe our work to create a set of usability tools for CLARE, an EPrints installation storing Learning Objects. These tools include Web 2.0 style presentation and comments, and a concept map browser. Although the evaluation of our tools was broadly positive, through workshops with the language teaching community we discovered that a Learning Object repository is too heavyweight to be used as an everyday tool for sharing learning resources. In this paper we present the new r...

  18. Using neural networks in software repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Srinivas, Kankanahalli; Boetticher, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first topic is an exploration of the use of neural network techniques to improve the effectiveness of retrieval in software repositories. The second topic relates to a series of experiments conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using adaptive neural networks as a means of deriving (or more specifically, learning) measures on software. Taken together, these two efforts illuminate a very promising mechanism supporting software infrastructures - one based upon a flexible and responsive technology.

  19. Geologic environments for nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleologos Evan K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level radioactive waste (HLW results from spent reactor fuel and reprocessed nuclear material. Since 1957 the scientific consensus is that deep geologic disposal constitutes the safest means for isolating HLW for long timescales. Nuclear power is becoming significant for the Arab Gulf countries as a way to diversify energy sources and drive economic developments. Hence, it is of interest to the UAE to examine the geologic environments currently considered internationally to guide site selection. Sweden and Finland are proceeding with deep underground repositories mined in bedrock at depths of 500m, and 400m, respectively. Equally, Canada’s proposals are deep burial in the plutonic rock masses of the Canadian Shield. Denmark and Switzerland are considering disposal of their relative small quantities of HLW into crystalline basement rocks through boreholes at depths of 5,000m. In USA, the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada lies at a depth of 300m in unsaturated layers of welded volcanic tuffs. Disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as well as the German HLW repository favour structurally-sound layered salt stata and domes. Our article provides a comprehensive review of the current concepts regarding HLW disposal together with some preliminary analysis of potentially appropriate geologic environments in the UAE.

  20. Salt repository project closeout status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Hydrothermal evolution of repository groundwaters in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters in the near field of a radioactive waste repository in basalt will change their chemical composition in response to reactions with the basalt. These reactions will be promoted by the heat generated by the decaying waste. It is important to predict both the rate and the extent of these reactions, and the secondary minerals produced, because the alteration process controls the chemical environment affecting the corrosion of the canister, the solubility and complexation of migrating radionuclides, the reactivity of the alteration products to radionuclides sorption, and the porosity and permeability of the host rock. A comprehensive review of the literature leads to the preliminary finding that hydrothermally altering basalts in geothermal regions such as Iceland lead to a secondary mineralogy and groundwater composition similar to that expected to surround a repository. Furthermore, laboratory experiments replicating the alteration conditions approximate those observed in the field and expected in a repository. Preliminary estimates were made of the rate of hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass and the zero-order dissolution rate of basaltic materials. The rates were compared with those for rhyolitic glasses and silicate minerals. Preliminary calculations made of mixed process alteration kinetics, involving pore diffusion and surface reaction suggest that at temperatures greater than 150 0 C, alteration proceeds so rapidly as to become pervasive in normally fractured basalt exposed to higher temperatures in the field. 70 references

  2. Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay

  3. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R and D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''

  4. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the nearfield around a HLW repository in argillaceous formations. Vol. I. Laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang; Czaikowski, Oliver; Rothfuchs, Tilmann; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2013-06-15

    All over the world, clay formations are being investigated as host medium for geologic disposal of radioactive waste because of their favourable properties, such as very low hydraulic conductivity against fluid transport, good sorption capacity for retardation of radionuclides, and high potential of self-sealing of fractures. The construction of a repository, the disposal of heat-emitting high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the backfilling and sealing of the remaining voids, however, will inevitably induce mechanical (M), hydraulic (H), thermal (T) and chemical (C) disturbances to the host formation and the engineered barrier system (EBS) over very long periods of time during the operation and post-closure phases of the repository. The responses and resulting property changes of the clay host rock and engineered barriers are to be well understood, characterized, and predicted for assessing the long-term performance and safety of the repository.

  5. Appraisal of hard rock for potential underground repositories of radioactive wastes. LBL-7004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1978-01-01

    Underground burial of radioactive wastes in hard rock may be an effective and safe means of isolating them from the environment and from man. The mechanical safety and stability of such an underground repository depends largely on the virgin state of stress in the rock, groundwater pressures, the strengths of the rocks, heating by the decay of the radioactive wastes, and the layout of the excavations and the disposition of waste cannisters within them. A large body of pertinent data exists in the literature, and each of these factors has been analyzed in the light of this information. The results indicate that there are no fundamental geological nor mechanical reasons why repositories capable of storing radioactive wastes should not be excavated at suitable sites in hard rock. However, specific tests to determine the mechanical and thermal properties of the rocks at a site would be needed to provide the data for the engineering design of a repository. Also, little experience exists of the effects on underground excavations of thermal loads, so that this aspect requires theoretical study and experimental validation. The depths of these potential repositories would lie in the range from 0.5 km to 2.0 km below surface, depending upon the strength of the rock. Virgin states of stress have been measured at such depths which would retard the ingress of groundwater and obviate the incidence of faulting. A typical repository comprising three horizons each with a total area of 5 km 2 would have the capacity to store wastes with thermal output of 240 MW

  6. Protocol for characterization of clay as a backfill and coverage layers for surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daisy M.M.; Tello, Clédola C.O.

    2017-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management includes the operations since generation of the waste until its storage in repository, ensuring the protection of human beings and the environment from the possible negative impacts. The radioactive waste is segregated, treated, conditioned in suitable packages for posterior storage or disposal in repository. The 'RBMN Project' objective is to implement the repository for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities in Brazil, proposing a definitive solution for their storage. Engineered and natural barriers as the backfill and coverage layers will compose the disposal system of a near surface repository, concept proposed by the 'RBMN Project'. The use of these barriers aims to avoid or restrict the release of radionuclides from the waste to the human beings and environment. The waterproofing barriers are composed of clays. Certainly, for the national repository, will be used those clays existing in the place where it will be constructed. Them some basic tests will have to be carried out to verify the suitability of these clays as barriers. These tests were determined and performed with reference clay, a Brazilian bentonite constituted of 67.2% montmorillonite. The results were compared with national and international literature of materials with similar mineralogical features. The values found with 95% of confidence interval were 9.73±0,35 μm for granulometric size; 13,3±0,6% for the moisture content and 816±9 mmol.kg -1 for the capacity of cationic exchange. A protocol for characterization of clay was elaborated presenting these tests for it future use. (author)

  7. Protocol for characterization of clay as a backfill and coverage layers for surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daisy M.M.; Tello, Clédola C.O., E-mail: marymarchezini@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management includes the operations since generation of the waste until its storage in repository, ensuring the protection of human beings and the environment from the possible negative impacts. The radioactive waste is segregated, treated, conditioned in suitable packages for posterior storage or disposal in repository. The 'RBMN Project' objective is to implement the repository for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities in Brazil, proposing a definitive solution for their storage. Engineered and natural barriers as the backfill and coverage layers will compose the disposal system of a near surface repository, concept proposed by the 'RBMN Project'. The use of these barriers aims to avoid or restrict the release of radionuclides from the waste to the human beings and environment. The waterproofing barriers are composed of clays. Certainly, for the national repository, will be used those clays existing in the place where it will be constructed. Them some basic tests will have to be carried out to verify the suitability of these clays as barriers. These tests were determined and performed with reference clay, a Brazilian bentonite constituted of 67.2% montmorillonite. The results were compared with national and international literature of materials with similar mineralogical features. The values found with 95% of confidence interval were 9.73±0,35 μm for granulometric size; 13,3±0,6% for the moisture content and 816±9 mmol.kg{sup -1} for the capacity of cationic exchange. A protocol for characterization of clay was elaborated presenting these tests for it future use. (author)

  8. Modelling of radionuclide transport along the underground access structures of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [SAM Switzerland GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Hayek, M. [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    system are finally evaluated using biosphere dose conversion factors. The detailed modelling approaches used are to some extent rather simple and stylised. All simplifications clearly lead to an overestimate of releases. The results obtained for the HLW and for the L/ILW repository are generally similar. Quantitative differences arise from the size of the main facility, from the inventory and the properties of the emplaced waste, as well as from the concepts of how radionuclides are released from the different waste forms. The results show that radionuclide release along the access structures of a deep geological repository is extremely low. Radionuclide release occurs predominantly through the host rock. Globally increasing the hydraulic conductivities that are assumed for the tunnel system and the seals (including the excavation damage zone along these underground structures) increases the calculated flows along all access routes, but the increase is found to level off with increasing hydraulic conductivity of seals and excavation damage zones, as flow becomes ultimately controlled by the limited capacity of the host rock to supply water. The dose rate maxima due to releases via the access structures show the same asymptotic behaviour as the flow, and remain low in all cases. The calculated release rates along the access structures are very low for all variants considered and, in particular, far less than the release rates from the host rock. It is thus concluded that the type of main access route to the underground facilities of a deep geological repository with properties as assumed for the present study is not relevant to its post-closure safety. Finally, even for highly unfavourable parameter values for the hydraulic properties of the seals and the associated excavation damage zones, the calculated dose rates remain well below the regulatory protection criterion of 0.1 mSv per year, often by several orders of magnitude. This finding demonstrates the robustness of

  9. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I andC) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I andC systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures

  10. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  11. Optimizing the Capacity and Operation of U.S. Army Ammunition Production Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayram, Vedat

    2002-01-01

    .... The Army must also manage and maintain capacity to replenish ammunition consumed by major theater wars without expanding the industrial base, The combined organic and inorganic industrial base...

  12. Tissue Expander Overfilling: Achieving New Dimensions of Customization in Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiser, Matthew D; Lahair, Tracy; Carty, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Overfill of tissue expanders is a commonly used modality to achieve customized dimensions in breast reconstruction. Little formal study of the dynamics of hyperexpansion of these devices has been performed to date, however. Overfill trials were performed using both Natrelle 133 MV and Mentor 8200 tissue expanders of indicated capacities ranging from 250 to 800 mL. Each expander was initially filled to its indicated capacity with normal water and then injected in regular increments to 400% overfill. Measurements of each expander's width, height, and projection were made at indicated capacity and with each successive incremental overfill injection, and these results were then recorded, collated, and analyzed. Over the first 50% overfill, all expanders demonstrated a logarithmic increase in projection (mean increase, 143 ± 9%) while maintaining essentially stable base dimensions. Overfill levels in excess of 50% were accompanied by linear increases in height, width, and projection, during which projection approached, but never equaled, base dimensions. Stress versus strain analyses demonstrated nonlinear biomechanical dynamics during the first 50% overfill, followed by standard elastic dynamics up to 400% overfill. At no point during the study, did expander tensions outstrip elastic properties, thereby explaining the lack of device rupture. Through overfilling, tunable geometries of tissue expanders can be accessed that may provide for increasing customization of reconstructions, particularly at overfill volumes up to 50% over indicated capacity. This study should serve to guide tissue expander selection and fill volumes that surgeons may implement in obtaining ideal reconstructed breast shapes.

  13. Croatian Capacity for Management of the NPP Krsko Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, Ivica; Lokner, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Together with Slovenia, Croatia is responsible for management of the NPP Krsko radioactive waste and spent fuel. So far, no firm agreement on specific solutions has been reached between the two countries. On the contrary, all activities related to revision and development of the joint Program of the NPP decommissioning and spent fuel and radioactive waste management were discontinued several years ago. Unless Slovenia and Croatia definitely agree on joint solutions in the meantime, Croatia will have to begin transfer of one half of the NPP Krsko spent fuel and radioactive waste into its territory in about nine years. Presently, however, Croatian capacities for such an undertaking are seriously inadequate in several respects, and they are not developing in any promising way. For no rational reason, this state of the Croatian capacities has been maintained (recently even deteriorating in some respects) for at least a decade, disregarding also for at least two years the explicit requirements of the EU Directive 2011/70/EURATOM aimed at establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. In fall of 2012, Fund for financing the NPP Krsko decommissioning and spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal was appointed as the Croatian expert organization for revision and development of the program of these same activities it had originally been supposed only to finance. In 2013 the Fund expanded its activities to a low-profile attempt at revitalization of the Croatian radioactive waste repository project, although the Fund is not yet properly capacitated for either of these tasks. The above is hardly in compliance with the Directive requirements, such as to establish 'a national legislative, regulatory and organisational framework' 'that allocates responsibility... between relevant competent bodies'. The lack of competent experts in the field appears to affect the quality of Croatian legislative

  14. Salt Repository Project site study plan for seismographic monitoring: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study plan describes the seismographic monitoring activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field programs has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Sixteen new and three relocated seismographic stations will be added to the now existing network of 13 stations for a total of 32 stations in the network. The areal extent is being expanded and selected regions covered more densely to provide more accurate monitoring and location of microearthquakes. More sophisticated instruments are being used at selected locations to allow for more detailed analysis. A few seismographs are being installed at depth to provide a limited 3-D monitoring network in the area of the repository. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technique Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 32 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Thermal modeling for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.

    1994-03-01

    Repository performance models based on numerical simulation of fluid and heat flows have recently been developed by several different groups. Model conceptualizations generally focus on large-scale average behavior. This comparison finds that current performance assessment (PA) models use generally similar approximations and parameters. Certain differences exist in some performance-relevant parameters, especially absolute permeabilities, characteristic curves, and thermal conductivities. These reflect present uncertainties about the most appropriate parameters applicable to Yucca Mountain and must be resolved through future field observations and laboratory measurements. For a highly heterogeneous fractured-porous hydrogeologic system such as Yucca Mountain, water infiltration through the unsaturated zone is expected to be dominated by highly localized phenomena. These include fast channelized flow along preferential paths in fractures, and frequent local ponding. The extended dry repository concept proposed by the Livermore group is reviewed. Predictions of large-scale drying around the repository on the average for large thermal loads cannot be taken to indicate that waste packages will not be contacted by liquid water, and that aqueous-phase transport of contaminants is not possible. Specifically, the authors find that modest water infiltration, on the order of a few millimeters per year, would be sufficient to overwhelm the vaporization capacity of the repository heat and inundate the waste packages within a time frame of a few thousand years. A preliminary analysis indicates that channelized flow of water may persist over large vertical distances. The vaporization-condensation cycle has a capacity for generating huge amounts of ponded water. A small fraction of the total condensate, if ponded and then episodically released, would be sufficient to cause liquid phase to make contact with the waste packages

  16. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  17. New Roles, New Responsibilities: Examining Training Needs of Repository Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Simons

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories play a critical role in the research lifecycle. Funding agencies are increasingly seeking an improved return on their investment in research. Repositories facilitate this process by providing storage of, and access to, institutional research outputs and, more recently, research data. While repositories are generally managed within the academic library, repository staff require different skills and knowledge compared with traditional library roles. This study reports on a survey of Australasian institutional repository staff to identify skills and knowledge sets. METHODS Institutional repository staff working at universities in Australia and New Zealand were invited to participate in an online survey which incorporated both open and closed-ended question types. RESULTS The survey found significant gaps in the current provision of formal training and coursework related to institutional repositories, which echoed findings in the United Kingdom, Italy, and the United States. DISCUSSION There is clearly a need for more and varied training opportunities for repository professionals. Repository work requires a specific set of skills that can be difficult to find and institutions will benefit from investing in training and ongoing development opportunities for repository staff. CONCLUSION The data from this study could be used to facilitate staff recruitment, development, training, and retention strategies.

  18. Data repositories for medical education research: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan; Pappas, Cleo; Sandlow, Leslie J

    2010-05-01

    The authors explore issues surrounding digital repositories with the twofold intention of clarifying their creation, structure, content, and use, and considering the implementation of a global digital repository for medical education research data sets-an online site where medical education researchers would be encouraged to deposit their data in order to facilitate the reuse and reanalysis of the data by other researchers. By motivating data sharing and reuse, investigators, medical schools, and other stakeholders might see substantial benefits to their own endeavors and to the progress of the field of medical education.The authors review digital repositories in medicine, social sciences, and education, describe the contents and scope of repositories, and present extant examples. The authors describe the potential benefits of a medical education data repository and report results of a survey of the Society for Directors of Research in Medicine Education, in which participants responded to questions about data sharing and a potential data repository. Respondents strongly endorsed data sharing, with the caveat that principal investigators should choose whether or not to share data they collect. A large majority believed that a repository would benefit their unit and the field of medical education. Few reported using existing repositories. Finally, the authors consider challenges to the establishment of such a repository, including taxonomic organization, intellectual property concerns, human subjects protection, technological infrastructure, and evaluation standards. The authors conclude with recommendations for how a medical education data repository could be successfully developed.

  19. General conceptual design study for a high level radioactive waste repository in a granite formation. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The object of the general conceptual design study for a repository for disposal of radioactive waste in a granite formation is to ensure that the technology available in 1980 is suitable for the construction of such a repository. The recommended techniques and equipment are suitable for construction of a repository, located at a depth of 1000 metres in a granite batholith, with a capacity of 30,000 AVM canisters, cooled for 30 years on the surface, at a rate of 1,000 canisters per year. The structure consists of six access shafts of 4 and 5 metres diameter, drilled from the surface by the big-hole method, serving a network of 82 parallel galleries, 2,300 metres long, mined by conventional blasting. Shafts 100 metres deep are drilled in the floor of each gallery (74 shafts per gallery), each shaft accommodating five canisters. This represents an aggregate gallery length of 200 kilometres and an aggregate shaft length of 600 kilometres. The cost of the operation is 1.3% of the cost (ex-works) of the energy produced by the power stations generating the waste. Construction, operation and final abandonment will take 81 years. The sensitivity study of the design showed, by varying certain parameters, that location of the repository at a depth of 500 metres is not recommended and that the area covered by the repository of 4 km 2 is halved if the canisters are first cooled for 100 years

  20. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  1. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  2. Determination of Heat Capacity of Yucca Mountain Stratigraphic Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hadgu; C. Lum; J.E. Bean

    2006-01-01

    The heat generated from the radioactive waste to be placed in the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will affect the thermal-hydrology of the Yucca Mountain stratigraphic layers. In order to assess the effect of the movement of repository heat into the fractured rocks accurate determination of thermodynamic and hydraulic properties is important. Heat capacity is one of the properties that are required to evaluate energy storage in the fractured rock. Rock-grain heat capacity, the subject of this study, is the heat capacity of the solid part of the rock. Yucca Mountain consists of alternating lithostratigraphic units of welded and non-welded ash-flow tuff, mainly rhyolitic in composition and displaying varying degrees of vitrification and alteration. A number of methods exist that can be used to evaluate heat capacity of the stratigraphic layers that consist of different compositions. In this study, the mineral summation method has been used to quantify the heat capacity of the stratigraphic layers based on Kopp's rule. The mineral summation method is an addition of the weighted heat capacity of each mineral found in a specific layer. For this study the weighting was done based on the mass percentage of each mineral in the layer. The method utilized a mineralogic map of the rocks at the Yucca Mountain repository site. The Calico Hills formation and adjacent bedded tuff layers display a bimodal mineral distribution of vitric and zeolitic zones with differing mineralogies. Based on this bimodal distribution in zeolite abundance, the boundary between the vitric and zeolitic zones was selected to be 15% zeolitic abundance. Thus, based on the zeolite abundance, subdivisions have been introduced to these layers into ''vitric'' and ''zeolitic'' zones. Heat capacity values have been calculated for these layers both as ''layer average'' and ''zone average''. The heat capacity determination method presented in this report did not account for spatial

  3. Review. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel SR 97 - Post-closure safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephansson, Ove [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-12-01

    SKB states that the chosen scenarios provide good coverage of future evolutionary pathways for the deep repository. This is not the case. SKB has not made full use of the established interaction matrices and the new method of THMC diagrams to generate the relevant and important scenarios and to construct the important pathways of variables and processes, either in the established interaction matrices and the presented THMC diagrams. Hence, SKB is demonstrating in SR 97 that they lack a well thought through, sound and solid method to select and evaluate scenarios for the purpose of demonstrating the safety of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The evolution of the system is presented for the components of the repository system (fuel, canister, buffer/backfill, geosphere) and the effects of four different scenarios, but time only enters into the system for discrete events or processes, e.g. description of the relative radiotoxicity and heat decay of the fuel, temperature distribution, iron exchange process, pH in buffer, redox capacity and radionuclear release at the three sites. There is a lack of method and way of describing the evolution of the complete repository system, including the major scenarios, as a function of time. It is essential that SKB is able to: - consider the full range of potential scenarios, - grade the scenarios according to their significance for repository design and performance and safety assessment, - consider whether simple engineering actions could be taken to inhibit the development of adverse scenarios. This cannot be done with the system presented in SR 97, and so SKB do not have a full predictive capability - which is required for the engineering design of such an important and costly structure as a repository. Geoscientific investigation material for three selected sites are presented by SKB in the technical report dealing with waste, repository design and sites. Here a general overview is missing of the geological and rock

  4. Post-closure radiation dose assessment for Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Mingyan; Zhang Xiabin; Yang Chuncai

    2006-01-01

    A brief introduction of post-closure long-term radiation safety assessment results was represented for the yucca mountain high-level waste geographic disposal repository. In 1 million years after repository closure, for the higher temperature repository operating mode, the peak annual dose would be 150 millirem (120 millirem under the lower-temperature operating mode) to a reasonably maximally exposed individual approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) from the repository. The analysis of a drilling intrusion event occurring at 30,000 years indicated a peak of the mean annual dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) downstream of the repository would be 0.002 millirem. The analysis of an igneous activity scenario, including a volcanic eruption event and igneous intrusion event indicated a peak of the mean annual dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual approximately 18 kilometers downstream of the repository would be 0.1 millirem. (authors)

  5. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-01-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking

  6. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  7. Stability of expanded plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the stabilization of the expanded plasma focus formed by 4.5 kJ plasma focus device of Mather type by magnetic field is presented. The experimental results of the induced axial magnetic field and electric probe measurements of the expanded plasma focus show that, the plasma consists of three plasmoids, electron temperature measurements off the plasmoids at a point close to the muzzle are 26 eV, 30 eV and 27 eV respectively and the electron densities are 6.6 x 10 14 , 6.1 x 10 14 / cm 3 respectively. The presence of external axial magnetic field (B 2 = 1.6 kg) at the mid distance between the breech and the muzzle has a less effect on the stability of expanded focus and it causes a restriction for the plasma motion. the electron temperature of the three plasmoids are found to increase in that case by 23%, 18.5% respectively. When this axial magnetic field is applied at the muzzle end, it leads to a more stable expanded plasma focus which consists mainly of one plasmoid with electron temperature of 39 eV and density of 3.4 x 10 14 / cm 3 . 5 figs

  8. 'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qixin; Shou Yuemei; He Bangrong

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

  9. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of ... structure. [1] reported that the standard workability tests are not suitable for the polystyrene aggregate concrete since they are sensitive to the unit weight of concrete. [2] made ...

  10. Expanding the Universe of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Definitions of "education" and "rural" are debunked and expanded. The three major tasks of rural education are educating people to understand their own needs, the unavoidable changes that will transform rural Australia within their lifetimes, and the range of technologies that can enhance their well-being. Presents a strategy…

  11. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE POTENTIAL REPOSITORY HORIZON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. BEAN

    2004-09-27

    The primary purpose of this report is to assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of bulk thermal conductivity in the host horizon for the repository at Yucca Mountain. More specifically, the lithostratigraphic units studied are located within the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) and consist of the upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul), the middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn), the lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll), and the lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln). Design plans indicate that approximately 81 percent of the repository will be excavated in the Tptpll, approximately 12 percent in the Tptpmn, and the remainder in the Tptul and Tptpln (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168370]). This report provides three-dimensional geostatistical estimates of the bulk thermal conductivity for the four stratigraphic layers of the repository horizon. The three-dimensional geostatistical estimates of matrix and lithophysal porosity, dry bulk density, and matrix thermal conductivity are also provided. This report provides input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. These models include the ''Drift Degradation Analysis, Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model, Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms, Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'', and ''Drift Scale THM Model''. These models directly or indirectly provide input to the total system performance assessment (TSPA). The main distinguishing characteristic among the lithophysal and nonlithophysal units is the percentage of large-scale (centimeters-meters) voids within the rock. The Tptpul and Tptpll, as their names suggest, have a higher percentage of lithophysae than the Tptpmn and the Tptpln. Understanding the influence of the lithophysae is of great importance to understanding bulk thermal conductivity.

  12. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (YMP 2000a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6)

  13. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (CRWMS M and O 2000b) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) engineering design basis in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The engineering design basis documented in the PDD is to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the engineering design basis from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the engineering design basis captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 2-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1),the Engineering Design Bases (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6)

  14. Institutional Repository Sebagai Sarana Komunikasi Ilmiah Yang Sustainable Dan Reliable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizuddin Harliansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract; Institutional repositories development has drawn the attention of many scholars throughout the world. Using the keywords ‘institutional repositories’, there are over 300 peer-reviewed articles related on the topic has been indexed in Library, Information Science, & Technology Abstracts (LISTA and SCOPUS. There are also hundreds of theses, dissertations, and websites dedicated on this blooming trends. These are proofs that the importance of IR in higher education has been acknowledged by many professionals in the field. This paper aims at clarifying the role of repositories in strengthening scholarly communication in higher education and research institution and explaining some basic repositories concepts (types of repositories and their characteristics, as well as exploring its relations with open access movement, the development ideas, and resources that could be kept in repositories and deposit policies. Abstrak; Pengembangan institutional repositories telah banyak menyita perhatian dari kalangan ilmiah di seluruh dunia. Melalui kata kunci ‘institutional repositories’, ada lebih dari 300 artikel terulas mitra bestari yang berhubungan dengan topik ini, yang telah terindeks di Library, Information Science, & Technology Abstracts (LISTA, dan SCOPUS. Terdapat juga ratusan tesis, disertasi, dan website yang mengulas trend ini. Inilah bukti bahwa pentingnya institutional repositories (IR telah dipahami oleh para profesional di bidangnya. Tulisan ini akan menjelaskan aturan-aturan repository dalam memperkuat komunikasi ilmiah di perguruan tinggi dan lembaga riset, menjelaskan konsep-konsep dasar repositories, termasuk tipe-tipe repository dan karakteristiknya. Tulisan ini juga akan memperdalam konsep repositories dalam hubungannya dengan gerakan open access, pengembangan ide-ide, sumber-sumber ilmiah yang dapat disimpan di repositories, serta kebijakan penyimpanan di dalamnya.

  15. Radionuclide getters in the near-field chemistry of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, T.R.; Lee, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The ultimate release of radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository will depend upon the natural and man-made barriers surrounding the site. An opportunity exists to enhance natural radionuclide retention through improved sorption, by the use of suitable additives applied to the repository backfill material. This programme of work was designed to identify problem isotopes, to search for suitable materials to enhance their retention and ultimately to provide, through experimental studies, an understanding of their effectiveness under repository conditions. (Author)

  16. United States Crystalline Repository Project - key research areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patera, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Crystalline Repository Project is responsible for siting the second high-level nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock for the US Department of Energy. A methodology is being developed to define data and information needs and a way to evaluate that information. The areas of research the Crystalline Repository Project is involved in include fluid flow in a fractured network, coupled thermal, chemical and flow processes and cooperation in other nations and OECD research programs

  17. Multinational/regional repository - an illusion or solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.

    2006-01-01

    The concept and current status of multinational and regional repositories are presented in the paper. Particular emphasis is given to the results and findings of the recent EU project SAPIERR, investigating the feasibility of regional repository concepts in Europe. Prospects for further development of multinational repositories are also brought forward and the impact and potential benefits of this approach to our national disposal programme are discussed as well. (author)

  18. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  19. Thermal dimensioning of spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2009-09-01

    This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3V type nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto for the BWR, VVER and EPR fuel canisters, which are disposed at vertical position in the horizontal tunnels in a rectangular geometry according to the preliminary Posiva plan. This report concerns only the temperature dimensioning of the repository and does not take into account the possible restrictions caused by the stresses induced in the rock. The maximum temperature on the canister-bentonite interface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity or in predicted decay power) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by adjusting the space between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the pre-cooling time affecting on power of the canisters. The temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by superposing analytic line heat source models much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first calibrated by numerical analysis (by control volume method). This was done by comparing the surface temperatures of a single canister calculated numerically and analytically. For the Olkiluoto repository of one panel having 900 canisters of BWR, VVER and EPR spent fuel was analyzed. The analyses were performed with an initial canister power of 1 700 W, 1 370 W and 1 830 W, respectively. These decay heats are obtained when the pre-cooling times of the fuels are 32.9, 29.6 and 50.3 years (the burn-up values 40, 40 and 50 MWd/kgU, respectively). The analyses gave as a result the canister spacing (6.0-10.8 m), when the tunnel spacing was 25 m, 30 m or 40 m. On the edge areas of the panel with constant canister spacing the temperatures of the canisters are lower than in the middle area of the repository. Thus it is possible to pack

  20. Digital Repository as Instrument for Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakopov, Zaven N.

    2016-03-01

    In the modern technologically advanced world, implicit knowledge, but also certain manifestations of tacit knowledge, is accumulated primarily in digital form, increasing the dependence of Knowledge Management (KM) on tools and specifically on digital content management platforms and repositories. The latter, powered by subject classification system such as a thesaurus or an ontology, can form a complete Knowledge Organization System (KOS). The purpose of this paper is to describe and (re)define the role of these systems as an integral part of KM, and present an example of such a KOS, including its major role in knowledge preservation. (author)

  1. Zircaloy cladding degradation under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, L.; Raghavan, S.; Chin, B.A.

    1990-12-01

    Creep, a potential degradation mechanism of Zircaloy cladding after repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel, has been investigated. The deformation and fracture map methodology has been used to predict maximum allowable initial storage temperatures to achieve a thousand year life without rupture as a function of spent-fuel history. Maximum allowable temperatures are 340 degree C (613 K) for typically stressed rods (70--100 MPa) and 300 degree C (573 K) for highly stressed rods (140--160 MPa). 10 refs., 2 figs

  2. Microbial processes in a clay repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canniere, Pierre de [Federal Agency of Nuclear Control (FANC), Brussels (Belgium); Meleshyn, Artur [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The safety of a deep geologic repository (DGR) for nuclear waste must be ensured for geological times exceeding human imagination taking into account large uncertainties. The long-term effects of complex biogeochemical processes potentially affecting the integrity and the long-term safety of engineered barriers might still be unknown. The aim of this presentation is to give a general overview of some microbial processes which have contributed to shape the Earth since probably billions of years and whose unexpected consequences for nuclear waste disposal should be appropriately tackled. (orig.)

  3. Gas evolution and migration in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.H.

    1989-05-01

    Significant volumes of gas will be formed in a repository due to corrosion of metallic wastes and microbial degradation of certain organic wastes. This review sets out the progress that has been made over the last year in understanding the extent of formation of gas and its migration through the near and far fields and the effects these could give rise to. Topics where information is still required are also identified. This paper updates the Current Status review prepared in early 1988 and published as NSS/G104. (author)

  4. Situation concerning the HLW repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempert, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste has been defined in Germany as: maintenance-free, safe emplacement of radioactive waste, time unlimited and no intention of retrievability. The responsibility for final disposal lies in the hands of the German Federal Government, which has assigned a federal authority to plan, erect and operate the federal facilities for long-term storage of nuclear waste. The federal authority has in lack of industrial experience contracted my company DBE which is responsible for the engineering, erection and operation of all German nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  5. Hydrogen modelling for vitrified wastes repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinis, S.; Breton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Safety assessments for High Level Wastes (HLW) have led ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs) to study the occurrence of a gas production rate in a repository. This paper deals with the description of an analytical model used for the gas production rate assessment and brings us the first results. The geometry used is restrained to a single borehole associated with a drift in a crystalline formation. Different concepts were studied in this assessment. First results have been obtained. For example, in the case of a permeable plug, the saturation time of the borehole is about 300 years. 5 refs., 5 figs

  6. Strategic management of HLW repository projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to strategic management of HLW repository projects based on the premise that a primary objective of project activities is resolution of issues. The approach would be implemented by establishing an issues management function with responsibility to define the issues agenda, develop and apply the tools for assessing progress toward issue resolution, and develop the issue resolution criteria. A principal merit of the approach is that it provides a defensible rationale for project plans and activities. It also helps avoid unnecessary costs and schedule delays, and it helps assure coordination between project functions that share responsibilities for issue resolution

  7. A Framework for Integrating Oceanographic Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Fox, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanographic research covers a broad range of science domains and requires a tremendous amount of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Advances in cyberinfrastructure are making it easier to share data across disciplines through the use of web services and community vocabularies. Best practices in the design of web services and vocabularies to support interoperability amongst science data repositories are only starting to emerge. Strategic design decisions in these areas are crucial to the creation of end-user data and application integration tools. We present S2S, a novel framework for deploying customizable user interfaces to support the search and analysis of data from multiple repositories. Our research methods follow the Semantic Web methodology and technology development process developed by Fox et al. This methodology stresses the importance of close scientist-technologist interactions when developing scientific use cases, keeping the project well scoped and ensuring the result meets a real scientific need. The S2S framework motivates the development of standardized web services with well-described parameters, as well as the integration of existing web services and applications in the search and analysis of data. S2S also encourages the use and development of community vocabularies and ontologies to support federated search and reduce the amount of domain expertise required in the data discovery process. S2S utilizes the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to describe the components of the framework, including web service parameters, and OpenSearch as a standard description for web services, particularly search services for oceanographic data repositories. We have created search services for an oceanographic metadata database, a large set of quality-controlled ocean profile measurements, and a biogeographic search service. S2S provides an application programming interface (API) that can be used to generate custom user interfaces, supporting data and application

  8. Safeguarding Structural Data Repositories against Bad Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Helliwell, John R; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2016-02-02

    Structural biology research generates large amounts of data, some deposited in public databases or repositories, but a substantial remainder never becomes available to the scientific community. In addition, some of the deposited data contain less or more serious errors that may bias the results of data mining. Thorough analysis and discussion of these problems is needed to ameliorate this situation. This perspective is an attempt to propose some solutions and encourage both further discussion and action on the part of the relevant organizations, in particular the PDB and various bodies of the International Union of Crystallography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Complex geologic characterization of the repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, T R [British Petroleum Research Center, Sunberry, England; Szymanski, J S

    1982-01-01

    The present basis for characterizing geological environments is identified in this paper, and the additional requirements imposed by the need to isolate high-level waste safely are discussed. Solutions to these additional requirements are proposed. The time scale of concern and the apparent complexity of the required multidisciplinary approach are identified. It is proposed that an increased use of the geologic record, together with a recognition that all geologic processes operate within an interdependent system, be a key feature in geologic characterization of deep repositories.

  10. New content in digital repositories the changing research landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Research institutions are under pressure to make their outputs more accessible in order to meet funding requirements and policy guidelines. Libraries have traditionally played an important role by exposing research output through a predominantly institution-based digital repository, with an emphasis on storing published works. New publishing paradigms are emerging that include research data, huge volumes of which are being generated globally. Repositories are the natural home for managing, storing and describing institutional research content. New Content in Digital Repositories explores the diversity of content types being stored in digital repositories with a focus on research data, creative works, and the interesting challenges they pose.

  11. Effects of repository conditions on environmental impact reduction by recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts (EI) of high-level wastes (HLW) disposed of in a water-saturated repository (WSR) and in the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) for various fuel cycle cases have been evaluated and compared to observe the difference in the recycling effects for differing repository conditions. With the impacts of direct spent fuel disposal in each repository as the reference level, separation of actinides by Urex+ and borosilicate vitrification clearly reduces the environmental impacts of YMR, while separation by Purex and borosilicate vitrification would not necessarily reduce the environmental impact of WSR. (authors)

  12. Oceanographic Data Repositories: An Analysis of the International Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Couto Corrêa da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The preservation and organization of oceanographic research data enables the scientific community to consult and reuse information of different kinds, and this is made possible by the repositories, meaning the services that facilitate data storage and dissemination. This paper reviews the current situation of oceanographic data repositories across different countries and evaluates them according to a series of indicators. The writers propose that although interest in storing and reusing oceanographic data has increased in recent years, the repositories are still in the process of developing their systems for processing, disseminating and reusing data. The repositories also differ in terms of architecture and the organizational level of the content they offer.

  13. Digital Repositories An investigation of best practices for content recruitment to academic digital repositories and the conditions for their livelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Reidun Anette

    2009-01-01

    A digital repository is a web accessible database, aimed at preserving the research material of an institution or scientific community. A digital repository serves as a tool for dissemination of research material and can increase the impact of the research by making it freely accessible. Digital repositories are often mentioned as a possible aid in relation to the Open Access debate; how research material should be freely accessible to anyone, anywhere at any time. However, for a digital repository to fully unleash its potential as a crucial component of Open Access, it is reliant on the ability to successfully collect and organize content. To a large extent this involves initiating self-archiving of research material by scientists throughout the academic world. This is not a trivial task, and many current repositories are inadequate in this respect, remaining empty, unvisited shelves. This thesis explores best practices for content recruitment to digital repositories, through the review of literature, and an...

  14. The Ec prototype repository project: implications of assessments for refining repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svemar, C.

    2004-01-01

    The most important issue in the evaluation of the repository performance is the long term safety of the repository. Analyses for this issue focuses on the 'steady state' conditions which start at the time when the repository has been saturated and the groundwater table returned to its normal level. The bentonite buffer around the canisters is saturated and homogeneous, and the canister is located exactly in the centre of the buffer. The backfill in the tunnel has been saturated as well and fills the earlier open spaces in the tunnel completely. The task of the activities taking places prior to the start of the 'steady state' conditions, like excavation, deposition, backfilling and sealing, with due consideration to the processes a consequences they may cause in the long run, is to provide for these 'ideal' conditions, as close as possible. While studying these activities in detail it has become obvious that development of methods and techniques needs to be carefully addressed before the decision is made on how to apply them in the repository. One general finding is that the situation in engineering of details is not that much different from the situation in geological characterisation of a site in detail; one more detail of engineering and the consequences it brings often complicates the situation rather than supports the solution prioritized so far. Many of the practical issues have been studied in the Prototype Repository project in the AEspoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Pusch et al., 2000). The Prototype Repository consists of two sections with four respectively two deposition holes with bentonite buffer and canister, the latter holding electrical heaters. The sections are separated by a concrete plug, and the whole test is to be separated from the rest of the laboratory by an outer plug. The project has two objectives: 1. To demonstrate the integrated function of tile deep repository components under realistic conditions and to compare results with models and

  15. Korea: an expanding economy trying to gain energy independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, M.

    1980-01-01

    South Korea expects to have 6426 MW of power installed by 1986, representing 30.7% of its capacity. Following a summary of nuclear activities in South Korea the current situation is discussed. Prospects for energy supply and demand are shown. The difficulties associated with the expanding nuclear programme are mainly on the international front, eg those relating to fuel supply, or to proliferation issue. (UK)

  16. The influence of discontinuity interfaces on physical, chemical and mechanical properties and the behaviour of repository backfill materials (Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, J.; Pacovsky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Safe disposal (isolation) of high radioactive waste requires solving many non-standard engineering problems which are complicated due to the demand of reliability of underground repository construction with respect to long term safety. Required durability of most engineered structures is about 10-100 years. Proposed underground repository construction must guarantee the demand for safe disposal of highly radioactive waste for 100 thousand to 1 million years. Extrapolation methodologies are developed and applied on findings of experimental research. One of the techniques is used in geotechnical sciences to determine data needed for the extrapolation the cyclical impact of different processes. Repeated impact of the same action or diversifying the different actions can accelerate some processes which are slow at normal conditions. Long term cyclical impact of moisture on a section of the barrier system (loaded by temperature) may cause changes of the quality of properties, such as permeability, sorption capacity, thermal conductivity and swelling capacity. (author)

  17. Spent fuel performance in geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    The performance assessment of the waste package is a current area of study in the United States program to develop a geologic repository for nuclear waste isolation. The waste package is presently envisioned as the waste form and its surrounding containers and possibly a packing material composed of crushed host rock or mixtures of that rock with clays. This waste package is tied to performance criteria set forth in recent legislation. It is the goal of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to obtain the necessary information on the waste package, in several geologic environments, to show that the waste package provides reasonable assurance of meeting established performance criteria. This paper discusses the United States program directed toward managing high-level radioactive waste, with emphasis on the current effort to define the behavior of irradiated spent fuel in repository groundwaters. Current studies are directed toward understanding the rate and nature (such as valence state, colloid form if any, solid phase controlling solubility) of radionuclide release from the spent fuel. Due to the strong interactive effect of radiation, thermal fields, and waste package components on this release, current spent fuel studies are being conducted primarily in the presence of waste package components over a wide range of potential environments

  18. Monitored Geologic Repository Concept of Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This updated document provides the top level guidance for development of the individual systems for the MGR which will be further developed in the System Description Documents. This document will serve as guidance for the development of functional interface and operational requirements. However, the data and engineering values presented in Monitored Geologic Repository Concept of Operations are provided as estimates or summaries of the current design. The original analyses or supporting documents must be utilized if the data or engineering values are used for design inputs. The concepts presented will be utilized as inputs for the development of operational concepts for the individual systems. It is recognized that the references listed may contain existing data or data which are to be verified. However, the data and engineering values presented will not impact the concepts presented in this technical document. As such, the data and engineering values are not being tracked as To Be Verified data. This revision was created to incorporate changes resulting from Enhanced Design Alternative II and Revision 3, DCN 01, of the Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements (YMP 1999)

  19. Learning object repositories as knowledge management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their creators for open access and potential reuse. Nevertheless, most of the existing LORs are designed more as digital repositories, rather than as Knowledge Management Systems (KMS. By exploiting KMSs functionalities in LORs would bare the potential to support the organization and sharing of educational communities’ explicit knowledge (depicted in digital educational resources constructed by teachers and/or instructional designers and tacit knowledge (depicted in teachers’ and students’ experiences and interactions of using digital educational resources available in LORs. Within this context, in this paper we study the design and the implementation of fourteen operating LORs from the KMSs’ perspective, so as to identify additional functionalities that can support the management of educational communities’ explicit and tacit knowledge. Thus, we propose a list of essential LORs’ functionalities, which aim to facilitate the organization and sharing of educational communities’ knowledge. Finally, we present the added value of these functionalities by identifying their importance towards addressing the current demands of web-facilitated educational communities, as well as the knowledge management activities that they execute.

  20. Commercial nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Patricio, J.G.; Heley, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is an ongoing research and engineering effort being conducted by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell), which is under contract to the US Department of Energy. The objectives of this program are to assess the feasibility of and to provide the technology needed to design and construct a licensed commercial nuclear waste repository in the deep basalt formations underlying the Hanford Site. An extensive preconceptual design effort was undertaken during 1979 to develop a feasible concept that could serve as a reference design for both surface and underground facilities. The preconceptual design utilized existing technology to the greatest extent possible to offer a system design that could be utilized in establishing schedule and cost baseline data, recommend alternatives that require additional study, and develop basic design requirements that would allow evolution of the design process prior to the existence of legislated criteria. This paper provides a description of the concept developed for the subsurface aspects of this nuclear waste repository

  1. Environmentally assisted cracking mechanisms in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1987-02-01

    This paper assesses how environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) mechanisms in candidate container materials can be identified to enhance the accuracy of long-term projections of performance in the repository. In low and intermediate strength steels, the role of the two principal mechanisms, slip dissolution/film rupture (SD/FR) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), is a very complex and controversial issue. No unanimity exists concerning the operative cracking mechanisms, and there is no unique or rigorous approach that would be persuasive in selecting an appropriate model. Both of the proposed mechanisms have common rate controlling processes such as surface adsorption rate, passivation rate, and oxidation rupture rate, which makes it difficult to identify the operative mechanism. Development of a quantitative model for predicting environmental effects for low-carbon steels in repository environments would provide a theoretical basis for assuring the long-term structural integrity of waste-package containment. To date, only one quantitative model has been developed. The agreement between predicted and observed behavior suggests that SD/FR processes control the environmental acceleration in crack growth rates for this class of materials. Deviations from predicted behavior due to HE effects should be uncovered experimentally. 59 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.L.; Greenberg, A.H.; Anderson, T.L.; Yates, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs

  3. Sample management implementation plan: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Sample Management Implementation Plan is to define management controls and building requirements for handling materials collected during the site characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. This work will be conducted for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO). The plan provides for controls mandated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Salt Repository Project (SRP) Sample Management will interface with program participants who request, collect, and test samples. SRP Sample Management will be responsible for the following: (1) preparing samples; (2) ensuring documentation control; (3) providing for uniform forms, labels, data formats, and transportation and storage requirements; and (4) identifying sample specifications to ensure sample quality. The SRP Sample Management Facility will be operated under a set of procedures that will impact numerous program participants. Requesters of samples will be responsible for definition of requirements in advance of collection. Sample requests for field activities will be approved by the SRPO, aided by an advisory group, the SRP Sample Allocation Committee. This document details the staffing, building, storage, and transportation requirements for establishing an SRP Sample Management Facility. Materials to be managed in the facility include rock core and rock discontinuities, soils, fluids, biota, air particulates, cultural artifacts, and crop and food stuffs. 39 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. SR 97 - Post-closure safety. Main Report. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, A. [ed.

    1999-11-01

    In preparation for coming site investigations for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Government and nuclear regulatory authorities have requested an assessment of the repository's long-term safety. The purpose is to demonstrate whether the risk of harmful effects in individuals in the vicinity of the repository complies with the acceptance criterion formulated by the Swedish regulatory authorities, i.e. that the risk may not exceed 10{sup -6} per year. Geological data are taken from three sites in Sweden to shed light on different conditions in Swedish granitic bedrock. The future evolution of the repository system is analyzed in the form of five scenarios. The first is a base scenario where the repository is postulated to be built entirely according to specifications and where present-day conditions in the surroundings are postulated to persist. The four other scenarios show how the evolution of the repository differs from that in the base scenario if the repository contains a few initially defective canisters, in the event of climate change, earthquakes, and future inadvertent human intrusion. The time horizon for the analyses is at most one million years, in accordance with preliminary regulations. By means of model studies and calculations, the base scenario analyzes how the radioactivity of the fuel declines with time, the repository's thermal evolution as a result of the decay heat in the fuel, the hydraulic evolution in buffer and backfill when they become saturated with water, and the long-term groundwater flow in the geosphere on the three sites. The overall conclusion of the analyses in the base scenario is that the copper canisters isolating capacity is not threatened by either the mechanical or chemical stresses to which it is subjected. The safety margins are great even in a million-year perspective. The internal evolution in initially defective canisters and the possible resultant migration of radionuclides in

  5. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...... layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  6. Seal-less cryogenic expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, L.E.; Christopher, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    In an expander for use in a split Stirling cycle refrigeration system of the type wherein a displacer moves with reciprocating motion inside an expander housing, and wherein a plunger force and a regenerator force are formed on the displacer, the plunger force cyclically varying and having a time of minimum and maximum plunger force amplitude, and the regenerator force cyclically varying and having a time of minimum and maximum regenerator force amplitude, the improvement is described comprising: (a) means for maintaining displacer forces, such that the maximum plunger force amplitude is substantially equal to the maximum regenerator force amplitude; and (b) means for adjusting a time difference, the time difference being the time between the time of maximum plunger force and the time of maximum regenerator force such that a measure of the cooling power of the refrigeration system is maximized

  7. Establishing the concept of buffer for a high-level radioactive waste repository: An approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The buffer is a key component of the engineered barrier system in a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. The present study reviewed the requirements and functional criteria of the buffer reported in literature, and also based on the results, proposed an approach to establish a buffer concept which is applicable to an HLW repository in Korea. The hydraulic conductivity, radionuclide-retarding capacity (equilibrium distribution coefficient and diffusion coefficient), swelling pressure, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, organic carbon content, and initialization rate were considered as major technical parameters for the functional criteria of the buffer. Domestic bentonite (Ca-bentonite) and, as an alternative, MX-80 (Na-bentonite) were proposed for the buffer of an HLW repository in Korea. The technical specifications for those proposed bentonites were set to parameter values that conservatively satisfy Korea's functional criteria for the Ca-bentonite and Swedish criteria for the Na-bentonite. The thickness of the buffer was determined by evaluating the means of shear behavior, radionuclide release, and heat conduction, which resulted in the proper buffer thickness of 0.25 to 0.5 m. However, the final thickness of the buffer should be determined by considering coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical evaluation and economics and engineering aspects as well.

  8. Gabbro as a host rock for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.; Smellie, J.; Liedholm, M.

    1992-09-01

    As an alternative to granitic rocks, gabbro and other basic rock types have been investigated with respect to their suitability to host a nuclear waste repository. The present report summarizes and examines existing geoscientific knowledge of relevance in assessing the potential merits of gabbro as a repository host rock. Implications in terms of site selection, repository construction and post-closure repository performance are also discussed. The objective of the study is to provide a basis for decisions as regards future consideration of the gabbro alternative. It is found that there are rather few gabbro bodies in Sweden, that are potentially of sufficient size to host a repository. Thus, gabbro offers little latitude as regards site selection. In comparison to siting a repository in granitic rocks, this is a major disadvantage, and it may in fact remove gabbro from further consideration. The potential advantages of gabbro refer to repository performance, and include low hydraulic conductivity and a chemical environment promoting efficient radionuclide retardation. However, results from field investigations show that groundwater flow in gabbro bodies is largely controlled by intersecting heterogeneities, in particular granitic dykes, that are significantly more conductive to water than the gabbro. In the far-field scale significant to repository performance, this may reduce or eliminate the potential effects of favourable hydraulic and chemical characteristics of the gabbro itself. In conclusion, there are apparent difficulties associated with siting a repository in gabbro, due to lack of sufficiently large gabbro bodies. On the basis of the present state of knowledge, no decisive differences can be demonstrated when comparing gabbro with granitic rocks, neither with respects to repository construction, nor as regards repository performance. (au)

  9. Optimizing Resources for Trustworthiness and Scientific Impact of Domain Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K.

    2017-12-01

    Domain repositories, i.e. data archives tied to specific scientific communities, are widely recognized and trusted by their user communities for ensuring a high level of data quality, enhancing data value, access, and reuse through a unique combination of disciplinary and digital curation expertise. Their data services are guided by the practices and values of the specific community they serve and designed to support the advancement of their science. Domain repositories need to meet user expectations for scientific utility in order to be successful, but they also need to fulfill the requirements for trustworthy repository services to be acknowledged by scientists, funders, and publishers as a reliable facility that curates and preserves data following international standards. Domain repositories therefore need to carefully plan and balance investments to optimize the scientific impact of their data services and user satisfaction on the one hand, while maintaining a reliable and robust operation of the repository infrastructure on the other hand. Staying abreast of evolving repository standards to certify as a trustworthy repository and conducting a regular self-assessment and certification alone requires resources that compete with the demands for improving data holdings or usability of systems. The Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA), a data facility funded by the US National Science Foundation, operates repositories for geochemical, marine Geoscience, and Antarctic research data, while also maintaining data products (global syntheses) and data visualization and analysis tools that are of high value for the science community and have demonstrated considerable scientific impact. Balancing the investments in the growth and utility of the syntheses with resources required for certifcation of IEDA's repository services has been challenging, and a major self-assessment effort has been difficult to accommodate. IEDA is exploring a partnership model to share

  10. DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: AN EXPANDED VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    JAMES M. UTTERBACK; HAPPY J. ACEE

    2005-01-01

    The term "disruptive technology" as coined by Christensen (1997, The Innovator's Dilemma; How New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Harvard Business School Press) refers to a new technology having lower cost and performance measured by traditional criteria, but having higher ancillary performance. Christensen finds that disruptive technologies may enter and expand emerging market niches, improving with time and ultimately attacking established products in their traditional markets. This...

  11. Entropy in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frautschi, S.

    1982-01-01

    The question of how the observed evolution of organized structures from initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding causal region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its maximum possible value, thus allowing for the development of order. The related questions of whether entropy will continue increasing without limit in the future, and whether such increase in the form of Hawking radiation or radiation from positronium might enable life to maintain itself permanently, are considered. Attempts to find a scheme for preserving life based on solid structures fail because events such as quantum tunneling recurrently disorganize matter on a very long but fixed time scale, whereas all energy sources slow down progressively in an expanding universe. However, there remains hope that other modes of life capable of maintaining themselves permanently can be found

  12. Elaboration of protocol for characterization of clay as a filling material and coverage for surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daisy Mary Marchezini dos

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear energy in its various applications generates wastes that must be properly treated. The Radioactive Waste Management covers operations since generation of the waste until to its storage in repository ensuring the protection of man and of environment of the possible negative impacts. The radioactive waste are segregated, treated, conditioned in suitable packaging and posteriorly are stored or disposal in repository. The “RBMN Project” is a priority project of CNEN to implementation the repository for the deposition of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated by nuclear energy activities in Brazil, proposing a definitive solution for its storage. Engineered and natural barriers as the filling layer and coverage layer will compose the disposal system of a near surface repository, concept proposed by the “RBMN Project”. The use these barriers views to avoid or restrict the release of radionuclides present in waste for the humans beings and environment. The waterproofing barriers are composed of clays. Certainly, for the national repository, will be used those clays existing in the place where it will be implanted it. So some fundamentals tests will have to be carried for to verify the suitability of these clays as barriers. These tests were determined and realized with a reference clay, a brazilian bentonite constituted of 67.2% montmorillonite. The results were compared with national and international literature of materials with similar mineralogical features. The values found with 95% reliance were 9.73±0,35 μm for granulometric size. For the moisture content were 13,3±0,6% and for capacity of cationic exchange were , 816±9 mmol.kg"-"1. For the hydraulic conductivity, without the use of internal pressure, it was obtained maximum value of 59.0% saturated. In addition, during the observed period, there was no percolation in the test specimen submitted to internal pressure of 200 kPa. This result leads to the conclusion that the

  13. Development of a central final repository management for the coordination of the waste for Schacht Konrad from public authorities; Aufbau des zentralen Endlagerungsmanagements fuer die Koordination der Konrad-Abfaelle aus der oeffentlichen Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffunder, Iris; Dominke-Bendix, Carola; Waldek, Achim [Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Betriebsstaette Karlsruhe; Wunn, Christoph [admoVa Consulting GmbH, Bad Camberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The central final repository management is supposed to fulfill the following tasks: active collaboration of Konrad contract draft, signing of internal contracts and agreements, cooperation contract with GNS, cooperation with coordination authorities, inventory taking of wastes (existing inventory and prognosis) and interim storage capacities of public authorities, development of planning and management software, optimization of the final repository documentation, container management, logistics concept, long-term disposal planning and prognosis, planning and coordination of the annual waste amount, management and documentation of disposed waste allocation, coordination of transport schedules, consulting service for waste obligations (final repository requirements, product control, documentation).

  14. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Stig [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Forsgren, Ebbe [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lange, Fritz [Lange Art AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    This report documents a proposal for the design of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The proposal is based on the principles that were formulated in the original KBS-3 study, but has been supplemented by investigations and experience to reflect current knowledge. The purpose of the report is to provide an integrated picture of the deep repository, as a basis for SKB's other work, e.g. environmental impact assessments, transport systems, safety issues and alternative locations, and to provide a co-ordinated account of the conditions and requirements concerning all of the necessary functions in the deep repository in order to have a well functioning facility. In addition, it should be possible to use the report as: a tool in the task of achieving a co-ordinated, safe and accepted design for the facility, a basis for further planning and costing, a basis for adaptation to geographic and other conditions for the particular location, a basis for information material, both within SKB and for interested parties outside, such as public authorities, municipalities and the general public. The capacity of the deep repository has been chosen on the basis of 40 years of operation of the Swedish nuclear power reactors, which will produce approximately 9,000 tons of uranium, equivalent to approximately 4,500 canisters. The design outlined is based on theoretical analyses of functions, safety requirements, procedures etc. that can be identified during the various phases of the construction and operation of the repository. In addition, preliminary organisation and staffing plans have been drawn up, for use as the basis for planning the necessary buildings. The report gives a vision of the overall layout and function of the facility, and a proposal for the design of all individual parts of the repository. The relationships between the various parts of the repository are described, both above and below ground, as is the interplay between the part above ground and part

  15. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Stig; Forsgren, Ebbe; Lange, Fritz

    2002-04-01

    This report documents a proposal for the design of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The proposal is based on the principles that were formulated in the original KBS-3 study, but has been supplemented by investigations and experience to reflect current knowledge. The purpose of the report is to provide an integrated picture of the deep repository, as a basis for SKB's other work, e.g. environmental impact assessments, transport systems, safety issues and alternative locations, and to provide a co-ordinated account of the conditions and requirements concerning all of the necessary functions in the deep repository in order to have a well functioning facility. In addition, it should be possible to use the report as: a tool in the task of achieving a co-ordinated, safe and accepted design for the facility, a basis for further planning and costing, a basis for adaptation to geographic and other conditions for the particular location, a basis for information material, both within SKB and for interested parties outside, such as public authorities, municipalities and the general public. The capacity of the deep repository has been chosen on the basis of 40 years of operation of the Swedish nuclear power reactors, which will produce approximately 9,000 tons of uranium, equivalent to approximately 4,500 canisters. The design outlined is based on theoretical analyses of functions, safety requirements, procedures etc. that can be identified during the various phases of the construction and operation of the repository. In addition, preliminary organisation and staffing plans have been drawn up, for use as the basis for planning the necessary buildings. The report gives a vision of the overall layout and function of the facility, and a proposal for the design of all individual parts of the repository. The relationships between the various parts of the repository are described, both above and below ground, as is the interplay between the part above ground and part below

  16. Calculations of the Temperature Evolution of a Repository for Spent Fuel in Crystalline and Sedimentary Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, R.; Sasaki, T.; Ando, K.; Smith, P.A.; Schneider, J.W.

    1998-08-01

    tunnel spacing from 20 m (base case) to 10 m gives significantly increased temperatures, while an increase to 40 m has a less pronounced effect on thermal evolution, (iii), that the thermal properties of the bentonite and host rock are less sensitive parameters, with lower near-field temperatures calculated for increased thermal conductivities and heat capacities, (iv) that the presence of air gaps within and around the bentonite has little effect on thermal evolution, as do changes to longitudinal canister pitch and tunnel diameter and (v), that lower temperatures are calculated for a repository at a depth of 600 m in the Opalinus Clay host rock (principally due to the shallower repository depth and therefore lower ambient rock temperature) than for a repository at 1200 m depth in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland. Temperatures in the middle and outer parts of the bentonite are reduced by about 10 o C if the depth of the repository in crystalline is reduced to 900 m. (authors)

  17. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  18. Creating Complex Repository Collections, Such as Journals, with Manakin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jack; Mikeal, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a devised method of collection organisation within a DSpace repository using a Manakin theme and descriptive metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Using a Manakin theme, a user interface for a repository collection containing the contents of a serial was created to divide the collection into…

  19. Building a repository on European colonial architecture and town planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    During the past two years the TU Delft Library has developed a repository to store data about architecture and town planning in the former Dutch colonies. Historical images, books, journals and archives coming from libraries and museums are scanned and stored into the repository. Information about

  20. Microsoft Repository Version 2 and the Open Information Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Bergstraesser, Thomas; Carlson, Jason; Pal, Shankar; Sanders, Paul; Shutt, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes the programming interface and implementation of the repository engine and the Open Information Model for Microsoft Repository, an object-oriented meta-data management facility that ships in Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server. Discusses Microsoft's component object model, object manipulation, queries, and information…

  1. Collaboration Nation: The Building of the Welsh Repository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information about the Welsh Repository Network (WRN), innovative work being undertaken to build an integrated network of institutional digital repositories. A collaborative approach, in particular through the provision of centralised technical and organisational support, has demonstrated…

  2. Management of radioactive waste at Novi Han Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.G.; Mateeva, M.D.; Milanov, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The Novi Han Repository is the only existing repository in Bulgaria for the disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. The repository was constructed in the early sixties according to the existing requirements. It was operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for more than thirty years without any accident or release of radioactivity to the environment, but without any investment for upgrading. As a consequence, the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority temporarily stopped the operation of the repository in 1994. The measures for upgrading the Novi Han Repository, supported by the IAEA under TC Project BUL/4/005 'Increasing Safety of Novi Han Repository', are presented in this paper. They comprise: assessment of radionuclide inventory and future waste arisings, characterisation of disposal vaults, characterisation of the site, safety assessment, upgrading of the monitoring system, option study for the selection of treatment and conditioning processes and the development of a conceptual design for low and intermediate level waste processing and storage facility, immediate measures for improvement of the existing disposal vaults and infrastructure, construction of above-ground temporary storage structures, and resuming the operation of the Novi Han Repository. The necessary activities for re-licensing of the Novi Han Repository, construction of a waste processing and storage facility and a disposal facility for spent sealed sources are discussed. (author)

  3. Digital Preservation in the Context of Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockx-Yu, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the issues and challenges of digital preservation facing institutional repositories and to illustrate the Joint Information Systems Committee's (JISC) view on institutional repositories and its key initiatives in helping UK institutions address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A combination of published work and JISC…

  4. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  5. Data vaults: a database welcome to scientific file repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.; Kargın, Y.; Kersten, M.; Manegold, S.; Zhang, Y.; Datcu, M.; Espinoza Molina, D.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient management and exploration of high-volume scientific file repositories have become pivotal for advancement in science. We propose to demonstrate the Data Vault, an extension of the database system architecture that transparently opens scientific file repositories for efficient in-database

  6. Upgrading of radon's type near surface repository in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1959, the Soviet government decided to construct the near surface radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' near the Baldone city. It was put in operation in 1962. The changes in the development of the repository were induced by the necessarily to upgrade it for disposal of radioactive wastes from the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The safety assessment of repository was performed during 2000-2001 under the PHARE project for necessary upgrades of repository. The outline design for new vaults and interim storage for long lived radioactive wastes was elaborated during 2003-2004 years. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for upgrade of Baldone repository was performed during 2004-2005 years. It was found, that additional efforts must be devoted for solution of social aspects o for successful operation and upgrade of repository. It was shown by EIA, that the local population has a negative opinion against the upgrade of repository in Latvia. The main recommendations for upgrades were connected with increasing the safety of repository, increasing of PR activities for education of society and developing of compensation mechanism for local municipality. (author)

  7. Exploring the Coming Repositories of Reproducible Experiments: Challenges and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire, Juliana; Bonnet, Philippe; Shasha, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Computational reproducibility efforts in many communities will soon give rise to validated software and data repositories of high quality. A scientist in a field may want to query the components of such repositories to build new software workflows, perhaps after adding the scientist’s own algorithms...

  8. Neural network-based retrieval from software reuse repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David A.; Srinivas, Kankanahalli

    1992-01-01

    A significant hurdle confronts the software reuser attempting to select candidate components from a software repository - discriminating between those components without resorting to inspection of the implementation(s). We outline an approach to this problem based upon neural networks which avoids requiring the repository administrators to define a conceptual closeness graph for the classification vocabulary.

  9. Development of the SIOPE DIPG network, registry and imaging repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sophie E M; Baugh, Joshua; Chaney, Brooklyn

    2017-01-01

    was developed, The SIOPE DIPG Registry and Imaging Repository, to centrally collect data of DIPG patients. As for April 2016, clinical data as well as MR-scans of 694 patients have been entered into the SIOPE DIPG Registry/Imaging Repository. The median progression free survival is 6.0 months (95% Confidence...

  10. Digital Libraries and Repositories in India: An Evaluative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rekha; Mahesh, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design/methodology/approach: The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital…

  11. Structure, Features, and Faculty Content in ARL Member Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Holly; Koenig, Jay; McGeachin, Robert B.; Tucker, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions about the optimal way to present repository content to authors, submitters, and end-users, prompted this study. The authors examined, through an observation and a survey, the institutional repositories of peer institutions in the ARL for good practices related to the presentation and organization of faculty-authored institutional…

  12. Science is the first step to siting nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    As Shaw [2014] notes, U.S. research on shale as a repository host was halted before expending anything close to the effort devoted to studying crystalline rock, salt, and - most notably - tuff at Yucca Mountain. The new political reality regarding Yucca Mountain may allow reconsideration of the decision to abandon research on shale as a repository host.

  13. Gas cooled reactor decommissioning. Packaging of waste for disposal in the United Kingdom deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, S.V.; Wisbey, S.J.; Wood, P.

    1998-01-01

    United Kingdom Nirex Limited has been established to develop and operate a deep underground repository for the disposal of the UK's intermediate and certain low level radioactive waste. The UK has a significant Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) programme, including both Magnox and AGR (Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) capacity, amounting to 26 Magnox reactors, 15 AGR reactors as well as research and prototype reactor units such as the Windscale AGR and the Windscale Piles. Some of these units are already undergoing decommissioning and Nirex has estimated that some 15,000 m 3 (conditioned volume) will come forward for disposal from GCR decommissioning before 2060. This volume does not include final stage (Stage 3) decommissioning arisings from commercial reactors since the generating utilities in the UK are proposing to adopt a deferred safe store strategy for these units. Intermediate level wastes arising from GCR decommissioning needs to be packaged in a form suitable for on-site interim storage and eventual deep disposal in the planned repository. In the absence of Conditions for Acceptance for a repository in the UK, the dimensions, key features and minimum performance requirements for waste packages are defined in Waste Package Specifications. These form the basis for all assessments of the suitability of wastes for disposal, including GCR wastes. This paper will describe the nature and characteristics of GCR decommissioning wastes which are intended for disposal in a UK repository. The Nirex Waste Package Specifications and the key technical issues, which have been identified when considering GCR decommissioning waste against the performance requirements within the specifications, are discussed. (author)

  14. Design and production of the KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Lena

    2010-12-15

    The report contains the common basis for a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report presents the role of the Production reports within the safety report and their common purposes and objectives. An important part of the report is to present the background and sources to the principles to be applied in the design, the functions of the KBS-3 repository and the barrier functions the engineered barriers and rock. Further, the methodology to substantiate detailed design premises for the engineered barriers, underground openings and other parts of the KBS-3 repository is presented. The report also gives an overview of the KBS-3 system and its facilities and the production lines for the spent fuel, the engineered barriers and underground openings. Finally, an introduction to quality management, safety classification and their application is given

  15. Design and production of the KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, Lena

    2010-12-01

    The report contains the common basis for a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report presents the role of the Production reports within the safety report and their common purposes and objectives. An important part of the report is to present the background and sources to the principles to be applied in the design, the functions of the KBS-3 repository and the barrier functions the engineered barriers and rock. Further, the methodology to substantiate detailed design premises for the engineered barriers, underground openings and other parts of the KBS-3 repository is presented. The report also gives an overview of the KBS-3 system and its facilities and the production lines for the spent fuel, the engineered barriers and underground openings. Finally, an introduction to quality management, safety classification and their application is given

  16. Analysis of the seismic hazard to an underground waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Conclusions are: The consequence associated with intense vibratory shaking of a well-designed repository is essentially negligible. The specification of an appropriate seismic vibratory design criteria could best be accomplished with a Bayesian seismic hazard assessment, using geologic slip rates as input. The consequence associated with fault displacement is very site specific and dependent on the host geologic media and its permeability changes in response to fault displacement. The probability of faulting through a repository in its million year design life is rather high, principally because of a high probability of primary or secondary faulting on undetected faults. The faulting probability can be minimized by deploying sophisticated site certification programs. High resolution microseismic surveillance seems to be most appropriate. The author's judgement is that the repository simulation program can neglect consequences associated with shaking of the repository, but that the probability of significant fault displacement through the repository during its design life should be conservatively taken as one

  17. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  18. Repository-analog experiments of nuclear waste leaching and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for radionuclide migration from a breached nuclear-waste repository depends on the leaching and subsequent interaction of the leached radionuclides with materials in the groundwater flow path. An attempt is made to consider all interactions using experiments that integrate repository materials. Results of a repository-analog experiment using borosilicate glass, fissured granite, and flowing water suggest: (1) plutonium was immobile possibly because of its low solubility; (2) caesium migrated down slowly because of sorption; and (3) neptunium remained oxidized even in water of low oxidation potential. By summing the effects of all interactions, not just sorption, the repository-analog experiment produced radionuclide migration that could be expected from a breached repository. (author)

  19. Understanding large scale groundwater flow to aid in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Gascoyne, M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Ophori, D.U.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) with support from Ontario Hydro has developed a concept for the safe disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a deep (500 to 1000 m) mined repository in plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept involves the use of multiple engineered and natural barriers to ensure long-term safety. The geosphere, comprised of the enclosing rock mass and the groundwater which occurs in cracks and pores in the rock, is expected to serve as an important natural barrier to the release and migration of wastes from the engineered repository. Although knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the rock at potential repository sites is needed to help design the engineered barriers of the repository it can also be used to aid in repository siting, to take greater advantage of natural conditions in the geosphere to enhance its role as a barrier in the overall disposal system

  20. Exploring Characterizations of Learning Object Repositories Using Data Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Alejandra; Vidal, Christian; Menendez, Victor; Zapata, Alfredo; Prieto, Manuel

    Learning object repositories provide a platform for the sharing of Web-based educational resources. As these repositories evolve independently, it is difficult for users to have a clear picture of the kind of contents they give access to. Metadata can be used to automatically extract a characterization of these resources by using machine learning techniques. This paper presents an exploratory study carried out in the contents of four public repositories that uses clustering and association rule mining algorithms to extract characterizations of repository contents. The results of the analysis include potential relationships between different attributes of learning objects that may be useful to gain an understanding of the kind of resources available and eventually develop search mechanisms that consider repository descriptions as a criteria in federated search.

  1. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing institutions technical and organisational requirements for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined by the OAIS...... Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements e.g. for bit safety, accessibility...

  2. [The subject repositories of strategy of the Open Access initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Guimarães, M C; da Silva, C H; Horsth Noronha, I

    2012-11-01

    The subject repositories are defined as a set of digital objects resulting from the research related to a specific disciplinary field and occupy a still restricted space in the discussion agenda of the Free Access Movement when compared to amplitude reached in the discussion of Institutional Repositories. Although the Subject Repository comes to prominence in the field, especially for the success of initiatives such as the arXiv, PubMed and E-prints, the literature on the subject is recognized as very limited. Despite its roots in the Library and Information Science, and focus on the management of disciplinary collections (subject area literature), there is little information available about the development and management of subject repositories. The following text seeks to make a brief summary on the topic as a way to present the potential to develop subject repositories in order to strengthen the initiative of open access.

  3. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation in order to use their resources for preservation n in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing the technical and organizational requirements of institutions for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions’ repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined...... by the OAIS Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements, such as for bit safety, accessibility...

  4. Creation of Data Repositories to Advance Nursing Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Joseph; Rodriguez, Margaret; Currie, Jackson; Salata, Robert; Webel, Allison R

    2017-12-01

    Data repositories are a strategy in line with precision medicine and big data initiatives, and are an efficient way to maximize data utility and form collaborative research relationships. Nurse researchers are uniquely positioned to make a valuable contribution using this strategy. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the benefits and challenges associated with developing data repositories, and to describe the process we used to develop and maintain a data repository in HIV research. Systematic planning, data collection, synthesis, and data sharing have enabled us to conduct robust cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses with more than 200 people living with HIV. Our repository building has also led to collaboration and training, both in and out of our organization. We present a pragmatic and affordable way that nurse scientists can build and maintain a data repository, helping us continue to make to our understanding of health phenomena.

  5. Site investigation requirements for a deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, I.W.

    1992-03-01

    Techniques currently available for measuring geotechnical parameters needed in the design, construction and assessment of a deep underground repository have been critically examined. These techniques have been considered under four main areas: definition of the rock discontinuity structure, definition of the in-situ stress distribution in the rock mass, estimation of the geomechanical characteristics of the rock mass, and estimation of flow and transport characteristics of the rock mass. The review concludes that generally rocks and rock masses are not well characterised by tests from cores or from boreholes and gives reason to support this view. The only parameters which can be measured accurately are laboratory index properties which are useful only in a comparative assessment of different rock types. Finally the review concludes that the only way to obtain useful data on rock behaviour is through large pilot scale tests with appropriate and controlled boundary conditions conducted preferably in the potential host strata. (author)

  6. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M and O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents

  7. SRP [Salt Repository Project] configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This configuration management plan describes the organization, policies, and procedures that will be used on the Salt Repository Project (SRP) to implement the configuration management disciplines and controls. Configuration management is a part of baseline management. Baseline management is defined in the SRP Baseline Procedures Notebook and also includes cost and schedule baselines. Configuration management is a discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of an item, to control changes to those characteristics, to record and report change processing and implementation status, and to audit the results. Configuration management is designed as a project management tool to determine and control baselines, and ensure and document all components of a project interface both physically and functionally. The purpose is to ensure that the product acquired satisfies the project's technical and operational requirements, and that the technical requirements are clearly defined and controlled throughout the development and acquisition process. 5 figs

  8. Repository design sensitivity study: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary sensitivity study of the salt repository design has been performed to identify critical site and design parameters to help guide future site characterization and design optimization activities. The study considered the SCP-conceptual design at the Deaf Smith County site in Texas with the horizontal waste package emplacement mode as the base case. Relative to this base case, parameter variations were compared. Limited studies were performed which considered the vertical emplacement mode geometry. The report presents the reference data base and design parameters on which the study was based (including the range of parameters that might be expected). Detailed descriptions of the numerical modeling methods and assumptions are included for the thermal, thermomechanical and hydrogeological analyses. The impacts of parameter variations on the sensitivity of the rock mass response are discussed. Recommendations are provided to help guide site characterization activities and advanced conceptual design optimization activities. 47 refs., 119 refs., 22 tabs

  9. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  10. Environmental impact of Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2005-01-01

    Environmental impact of the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) has been quantitatively evaluated in terms of the radiotoxicity of transuranic (TRU) and fission-product radionuclides existing in the environment after released from failed packages. Inventory abstraction has been made based on the data published in Final Environmental Impact Statement published by US DOE. Mathematical model and computation code have been developed based on analytical solutions. Environmental impact from the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) packages is about 90% of the total impact including the contribution from defense waste (DW) packages. Impacts due to isotopes of Cm, Am, Pu and Np, and their decay daughters are dominant, compared with those from fission-product nuclides. Numerical results show that reduction of the TRU nuclides by a factor of 100 makes the impact from CSNF smaller than that from DW. (author)

  11. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  12. Informing future societies about nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990 a working group of the NKS (the Nordic nuclear safety program) was formed and give the task of established a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories. The Group investigated what tipy of information should be conserved; in what form the information should be kept; the quality of the information; and the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. Topics covered include the following: scientific aspects including social context of scientific solutions; information management; systems for conservation and retrieval of information including the problems of prediction; archives, markers, archives vs. markers, and continuing processes in society; Archive media including paper documents, microfilm, digital media, media lifetimes; and finally conclusions and recommendations

  13. Repository Waste Package Transporter Shielding Weight Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.E. Sanders; Shiaw-Der Su

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository requires the use of a waste package (WP) transporter to transport a WP from a process facility on the surface to the subsurface for underground emplacement. The transporter is a part of the waste emplacement transport systems, which includes a primary locomotive at the front end and a secondary locomotive at the rear end. The overall system with a WP on board weights over 350 metric tons (MT). With the shielding mass constituting approximately one-third of the total system weight, shielding optimization for minimal weight will benefit the overall transport system with reduced axle requirements and improved maneuverability. With a high contact dose rate on the WP external surface and minimal personnel shielding afforded by the WP, the transporter provides radiation shielding to workers during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. This paper presents the design approach and optimization method used in achieving a shielding configuration with minimal weight

  14. Canister transfer into repository in shaft alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, H.; Kukkola, T.; Autio, J.

    2005-09-01

    In this report, a study of lift transportation of a massive canister for spent nuclear fuel is considered. The canister is transferred from ground level to repository, which lies in the depth of 400 to 500 m in the bedrock. The canister is a massive metal vessel, whose weight is 19 to 29 tons, and which is strongly irradiant (gamma and neutrons), and which contains 1.4 to 2.2 tons of very strongly radio-active material, the activity of the fuel should not be spread in the environment even during postulated accidents. The study observes that the lift alternative is possible to be built and through good design practices and good maintenance procedures its safety, reliability and usability can be kept on such high level that canister transport is estimated to be licensable. (orig.)

  15. PA/SA for Slovenian LILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    1999-01-01

    The RAO Agency started with a new site selection procedure in 1996. As part of the preparational work for the new disposal facility, tools for assessment of the specific disposal concept influence on the environment and human has to be developed. Therefore the Slovenian assessment team that has been organized, joined the IAEAs ISAM programme, in which different approaches to performance and safety assessment were applied to safety cases. As part of the ISAM individual (national) safety cases. The RAO Agency, together with other Slovenian Inst.ions, performed the preliminary performance assessment of the Slovenian LILW repository for generic site location. The method and the results of the safety case are presented in this paper.(author)

  16. Extreme scenarios for nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M J [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Div. of Applied Sciences; Crouch, E [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Energy and Environmental Policy Center

    1982-09-01

    Two extreme scenarios for release of radioactive waste have been constructed. In the first, a volcanic eruption releases 1 km/sup 2/ of an underground nuclear waste repository, while in the second, waste enters the drinking water reservoir of a major city. With pessimistic assumptions, upper bounds on the number of cancers due to radiation are calculated. In the volcano scenario, the effects of the waste are smaller than the effects of natural radioactivity in the volcanic dust if the delay between emplacement and eruption exceeds 2000 yr. The consequences of the waste in drinking water depend on the survival time of the canisters and the rate of leaching of the nuclides from the waste matrix. For a canister life of 400 yr and a leach time of 6300 yr the cancer rate in the affected area would increase by 25%.

  17. Extreme scenarios for nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M J; Crouch, E

    1982-09-01

    Two extreme scenarios for release of radioactive waste have been constructed. In the first, a volcanic eruption releases 1 km2 of an underground nuclear waste repository, while in the second, waste enters the drinking water reservoir of a major city. With pessimistic assumptions, upper bounds on the number of cancers due to radiation are calculated. In the volcano scenario, the effects of the water are smaller than the effects of natural radioactivity in the volcanic dust if the delay between emplacement and eruption exceeds 2000 yr. The consequences of the waste in drinking water depend on the survival time of the canisters and the rate of leaching of the nuclides from the waste matrix. For a canister life of 400 yr and a leach time of 6300 yr the cancer rate in the affected area would increase by 25%.

  18. Salt Repository Project transportation system interface requirements: Transportation system/repository receiving facility interface requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Insalaco, J.W.; Trainer, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is a preliminary review of the interface between the transportation system and the repository receiving facility for a nuclear waste mined geologic disposal system in salt. Criteria for generic cask and facility designs are developed. These criteria are derived by examining the interfaces that occur as a result of the operations needed to receive nuclear waste at a repository. These criteria provide the basis for design of a safe, operable, practical nuclear waste receiving facility. The processing functions required to move the shipping unit from the gate into the unloading area and back to the gate for dispatch are described. Criteria for a generic receiving facility are discussed but no specific facility design is presented or evaluated. The criteria are stated in general terms to allow application to a wide variety of cask and facility designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Nuclear waste in a repository: amount as a factor in risk duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, E.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the amount of nuclear waste in a nuclear repository and the safety of the repository is examined. It is shown that the amount of a given hazardous nuclide that is potentially leachable depends on the initial amount of waste in the repository and the time that has elapsed since the repository was put into operation. Nuclear repository safety can be enhanced if repositories are designed as modular units with leach-resistant watertight compartments

  20. The Open Data Repositorys Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-01-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of researcher's workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity.

  1. Repository tunnel construction in deep clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, B.G.; Mair, R.J.; Taylor, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    One of the objects of the Hades project at Mol, Belgium has been to evaluate the feasibility of construction of a deep repository in the Boom clay formation at depth of approximately 225 metres. The main objective of the present project was to analyse and interpret the detailed geotechnical measurements made around the Hades trial shaft and tunnel excavations and evaluate the safety of radioactive waste disposal in a repository facility in deep clay formations. Plasticity calculations and finite element analyses were used which gave results consistent with the in-situ measurements. It was shown that effective stress analysis could successfully predict the observed field behaviour. Correct modelling of the small-strain stiffness of the Boom clay was essential if reasonable predictions of the pore pressure response due to construction are to be made. The calculations undertaken indicated that, even in the long term, the pressures on the test drift tunnel lining are likely to be significantly lower than the overburden pressure. Larger long-term tunnel lining pressures are predicted for impermeable linings. A series of laboratory stress path tests was undertaken to determine the strength and stiffness characteristics of the Boom clay. The tests were conducted at appropriate effective stress levels on high-quality samples retrieved during construction of the test drift. The apparatus developed for the testing is described and the results discussed. The development of a self boring retracting pressure-meter is described. This novel in-situ testing device was specifically designed to determine from direct measurements the convergence/confinement curve relevant to tunnelling in clay formations. 44 refs., 60 figs., 3 tabs

  2. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Bristow, T.; Blake, D. F.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of research workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software (http://www.opendatarepository.org) strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity. We gratefully acknowledge the support for this study by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA), and NASA NNX11AP82A

  3. Assessment of cement durability in repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.A.; Vicente, R.; Isiko, V.L.K.; Miyamoto, H.; Marumo, J.T.; Gobbo, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed at investigating the durability of cement paste under nuclear waste repository conditions using accelerated tests. Cement paste samples are examined after being exposed to the environmental conditions that are expected to prevail in the repository environment and the results are compared with those obtained with unexposed specimens or specimens exposed to reference conditions. The following exposure conditions were selected: a) Immersion in salt solution, distilled water, or kept in dry storage; b) Room temperature (20 C. degrees) or high temperature (60 C. degrees); c) Immersion time of 30 days or 60 days (not for dry storage); d) Irradiation to a dose of (400 kGy) or background radiation (0 kGy). After exposure to the stressing conditions, the effects of each factor on the cement paste samples were observed by changes in their characteristics. Compressive strength tests were performed on all samples and some of them were investigated in terms of changes in mineralogy by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). With the results obtained so far it was possible to point out the following conclusions. First, after a period of immersion in water, cement paste samples further hydrated and presented higher mechanical resistance, as expected. Secondly, dry storage did not allow a complete hydration as a consequence of pore water evaporation. High temperatures intensified this process and led to the ettringite decomposition to meta-ettringite. Thirdly, higher temperature accelerated hydration kinetics and promoted higher mechanical resistance in samples kept under immersion. Fourthly, the irradiation dose applied was unable to change the mineralogy of cement paste samples and fifthly, no statistically significant differences were observed between 30 or 60 days exposure time, for the test conditions

  4. The PBase Scientific Workflow Provenance Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Cuevas-Vicenttín

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific workflows and their supporting systems are becoming increasingly popular for compute-intensive and data-intensive scientific experiments. The advantages scientific workflows offer include rapid and easy workflow design, software and data reuse, scalable execution, sharing and collaboration, and other advantages that altogether facilitate “reproducible science”. In this context, provenance – information about the origin, context, derivation, ownership, or history of some artifact – plays a key role, since scientists are interested in examining and auditing the results of scientific experiments. However, in order to perform such analyses on scientific results as part of extended research collaborations, an adequate environment and tools are required. Concretely, the need arises for a repository that will facilitate the sharing of scientific workflows and their associated execution traces in an interoperable manner, also enabling querying and visualization. Furthermore, such functionality should be supported while taking performance and scalability into account. With this purpose in mind, we introduce PBase: a scientific workflow provenance repository implementing the ProvONE proposed standard, which extends the emerging W3C PROV standard for provenance data with workflow specific concepts. PBase is built on the Neo4j graph database, thus offering capabilities such as declarative and efficient querying. Our experiences demonstrate the power gained by supporting various types of queries for provenance data. In addition, PBase is equipped with a user friendly interface tailored for the visualization of scientific workflow provenance data, making the specification of queries and the interpretation of their results easier and more effective.

  5. Flexural Behaviour Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Containing Expanded Glass As Lightweight Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Jamal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flexural properties of reinforced concrete beams containing expanded glass as a partial fine aggregate (sand replacement are investigated. Four concrete mixes were employed to conduct this study. The fine aggregate was replaced with 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% (by volume expanded glass. The results suggest that the incorporation of 50% expanded glass increased the workability of the concrete. The compressive strength was decreasing linearly with the increasing amount of expanded glass. The ductility of the concrete beam significantly improved with the incorporation of the expanded glass. However, the load-carrying capacity of the beam and load at which the first crack occurs was reduced. It was concluded that the inclusion of expanded glass in structural concrete applications is feasible.

  6. From the repository to the deep geological repository - and back to the Terrain surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodynsky, R.

    2011-01-01

    How deep is 'safe'? How long is long-term? How and for how long will something be isolated? Which rock, which formation and which location are suitable? A repository constructed for the safekeeping of radioactive or highly toxic wastes can be erected either on the surface, near the surface or underground. Radioactive waste is currently often stored at near-surface locations. The storage usually takes place nearby of a nuclear power plant in pits or concrete tombs (vaults). However, repositories can also be found in restricted areas, e.g. near nuclear weapon production or reprocessing plants (WAA) or nuclear weapons test sites (including Tomsk, Russia, Hanford and Nevada desert, USA), or in extremely low rainfall regions (South Africa). In addition there are disused mines which are now used as underground repositories. Low-level and medium-active (SMA) but also high-level waste (HAA) are stored at these types of sites (NPP, WAA, test areas, former mines). In Russia (Tomsk, Siberia) liquid radioactive waste has been injected into deep geological formations for some time (Minatom, 2001). However, all these locations are not the result of a systematic, scientific search or a holistic process for finding a location, but the result of political decisions, sometimes ignoring scientific findings. Why underground storage is given preference over high-security landfill sites (HSD) often has economic reasons. While a low safety standard can significantly reduce the cost of an above-ground high-security landfill as a waste disposal depot, spending remains high, especially due to the need for capital formation to cover operating expenses after filling the HSD. In the case of underground storage, on the other hand, no additional expenses are required for the period after backfilling. The assumption of lower costs for a deep repository runs through the past decades and coincides with the assumption that the desired ideal underground conditions actually exist and will

  7. Initial demonstration of the NRC`s capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; Fehringer, D.; Ford, W.; Margulies, T.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.; Randall, J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes.

  8. The deep geologic repository technology programme: toward a geoscience basis for understanding repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the Deep Geologic Repository Technology Programme (DGRTP) several Geoscience activities are focused on advancing the understanding of groundwater flow system evolution and geochemical stability in a Canadian Shield setting as affected by long-term climate change. A key aspect is developing confidence in predictions of groundwater flow patterns and residence times as they relate to the safety of a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel waste. This is being achieved through a coordinated multi-disciplinary approach intent on: i) demonstrating coincidence between independent geo-scientific data; ii) improving the traceability of geo-scientific data and its interpretation within a conceptual descriptive model(s); iii) improving upon methods to assess and demonstrate robustness in flow domain prediction(s) given inherent flow domain uncertainties (i.e. spatial chemical/physical property distributions, boundary conditions) in time and space; and iv) improving awareness amongst geo-scientists as to the utility of various geo-scientific data in supporting a safety case for a deep geologic repository. This multi-disciplinary DGRTP approach is yielding an improved understanding of groundwater flow system evolution and stability in Canadian Shield settings that is further contributing to the geo-scientific basis for understanding and communicating aspects of DGR safety. (author)

  9. Waste Package and Material Testing for the Proposed Yucca Mountain High Level Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, Thomas; Pasupathi, V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the repository lifetime, the waste package containment barriers will perform various functions that will change with time. During the operational period, the barriers will function as vessels for handling, emplacement, and waste retrieval (if necessary). During the years following repository closure, the containment barriers will be relied upon to provide substantially complete containment, through 10,000 years and beyond. Following the substantially complete containment phase, the barriers and the waste package internal structures help minimize release of radionuclides by aqueous- and gaseous-phase transport. These requirements have lead to a defense-in-depth design philosophy. A multi-barrier design will result in a lower breach rate distributed over a longer period of time, thereby ensuring the regulatory requirements are met. The design of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) has evolved. The initial waste package design was a thin walled package, 3/8 inch of stainless steel 304, that had very limited capacity, (3 PWR and 4 BWR assemblies) and performance characteristics, 300 to 1,000 years. This design required over 35,000 waste packages compared to today's design of just over 10,000 waste packages. The waste package designs are now based on a defense-in-depth/multi-barrier philosophy and have a capacity similar to the standard storage and rail transported spent nuclear fuel casks. Concurrent with the development of the design of the waste packages, a comprehensive waste package materials testing program has been undertaken to support the selection of containment barrier materials and to develop predictive models for the long-term behavior of these materials under expected repository conditions. The testing program includes both long-term and short-term tests and the results from these tests combination with the data published in the open literature are being used to develop models for predicting performance of the waste packages

  10. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  11. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockgaard, Niclas

    2010-12-01

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  12. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Józef; Błasiak, Przemysław; Kolasiński, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  13. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Józef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  14. The industrial organization of the repository. Pitfall or logical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frostenson, Magnus

    2010-11-01

    From a systems perspective the organization of the Swedish final repository project for nuclear waste is studied. Different aspects of organization are identified in the report, covering dimensions of geographical, operative, structural, responsibility and contextual organization. Following SKB's site selection for the applications for the final repository for spent nuclear system and the closing of the surplus value agreement, issues concerning operative, structural and contextual organization tend to become particularly pressing, which is reflected in three research questions: - How will the final repository project be organized operatively and structurally over time? - Why is the final repository project organized in this way by SKB? - What kind of contextual organization takes place in the final repository project and what are the consequences of these activities? How the different industrial units of the final repository project should be run and within which structure, for example concerning ownership and integration of units, is established in the report. SKB's reasons for choosing this kind of organization are also highlighted. Apart from legal and safety-related demands that must be met together with the demands of the owners, SKB's strategic preference for insourcing conditions organizational choices. The traditional task centred operative and structural organization of SKB is also reflected in the organizational choices for the present and future units of the final depository system. Contextual organization implies deepened actor relationships between SKB's owners and SKB on the one side and the municipalities Oesthammar and Oskarshamn on the other. Through active organizing, the final repository arena 'narrows down' and the final repository issue turns into an in many respects local issue. There is a clear tendency that the roles of SKB are multiplied in order to handle the demands that central stakeholders - in particular the municipalities - place on

  15. Review of microbial responses to abiotic environmental factors in the context of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Stroes-Gascoyne, S

    2000-10-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behaviour into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modelling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories, 1) abiotic factors, 2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, 3) nutrient considerations and 4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography (included in Appendix A) represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain. The first part of the report (Chapters 1-3) is a review of general microbial states, phases and requirements for growth, conditions for 'normal growth' and other types of growth, survival strategies and cell death. It contains primarily well-established ideas in microbiology. Microbial capabilities for survival and adaptation to environmental changes are examined because a repository placed at Yucca Mountain would have two effects. First, the natural environment would be perturbed by the excavation and construction of the repository and

  16. Review of microbial responses to abiotic environmental factors in the context of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Stroes-Gascoyne, S

    2000-10-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behaviour into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modelling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories, 1) abiotic factors, 2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, 3) nutrient considerations and 4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography (included in Appendix A) represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain. The first part of the report (Chapters 1-3) is a review of general microbial states, phases and requirements for growth, conditions for 'normal growth' and other types of growth, survival strategies and cell death. It contains primarily well-established ideas in microbiology. Microbial capabilities for survival and adaptation to environmental changes are examined because a repository placed at Yucca Mountain would have two effects. First, the natural environment would be perturbed by the excavation and construction of the

  17. Expander for Thin-Wall Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, R.

    1983-01-01

    Tool locally expands small-diameter tubes. Tube expander locally expands and deforms tube: Compressive lateral stress induced in elastomeric sleeve by squeezing axially between two metal tool parts. Adaptable to situations in which tube must have small bulge for mechanical support or flow control.

  18. A comparative investigation on absorption performances of three expanded graphite-based complex materials for toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shande; Tian Shuanghong; Feng Yunfeng; Lei Jiajia; Wang, Piaopiao; Xiong Ya

    2010-01-01

    Three kinds of expanded graphite-based complex materials were prepared to absorb toluene by dispersing plant oil, animal oil and mineral oil on the surface of expanded graphite, respectively. These complex materials were characterized by scanning electronic micrograph, contact angle meter and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area. And their absorption capacities for toluene were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the surfaces of the three types of sorbents were very hydrophobic and nonporous, but they all had excellent absorption capacities for toluene. And their absorption capacities were proportional to the toluene concentration in streams and decreased differently with increasing the absorption temperature. It was noteworthy that the absorption capacities varied with the unsaturated degree of the complex materials and kept unchanged under different relative humidities of streams. Moreover, the regeneration experiments showed that after 15-run regeneration the absorption capacities of expanded graphite modified by mineral oil almost kept unchanged, while that of expanded graphite loaded plant oil and animal oil dropped by 157 and 93.6 mg g -1 , respectively. The losses of their absorption capacities were ascribed to the destruction of their unsaturated carbon bounds.

  19. Radioactive Waste Repositories and Incentives to Local Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste (RW) repository depends on various and often community-specific factors. Although radiological risk from a properly constructed low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository is practically negligible, routine safety considerations will favor low populated areas and therefore probably underdeveloped communities. Repository acceptance in such communities is more likely to be facilitated by prospective benefits to local economy, such as infrastructure development and increased employment, as well as by dedicated financial incentives to the community. Direct financial compensation to the local community for acceptance of the repository has been considered in some documents in countries experienced in RW management, but it has not become a widely accepted practice. In Croatia, a possibility for such compensation is mentioned in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository site. In Slovenia, the government has already specified the annual amount of 2.33 million euro as a compensation for 'limited land use' to be shared by local communities in the vicinity of the planned LILW repository during its operation. Applicability of the Slovenian compensations to the prospective joint Slovenian-Croatian repository is not yet clear, at least in the aspect of joint funding. The joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 did conservatively include the compensations into the repository cost estimates, but that might not be retained in subsequent revisions of the Program. According to the agreement between governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the Nuclear power plant Krsko, Croatian side has no obligations to participate in 'public expenditures' introduced after the agreement, as would be the case of community compensations for LILW repository in Slovenia. Before further decisions on joint NPP Krsko waste management are made, including the issue of LILW

  20. Building Scientific Data's list of recommended data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, A. L.; Khodiyar, V.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.

    2016-12-01

    When Scientific Data launched in 2014 we provided our authors with a list of recommended data repositories to help them identify data hosting options that were likely to meet the journal's requirements. This list has grown in size and scope, and is now a central resource for authors across the Nature-titled journals. It has also been used in the development of data deposition policies and recommended repository lists across Springer Nature and at other publishers. Each new addition to the list is assessed according to a series of criteria that emphasize the stability of the resource, its commitment to principles of open science and its implementation of relevant community standards and reporting guidelines. A preference is expressed for repositories that issue digital object identifiers (DOIs) through the DataCite system and that share data under the Creative Commons CC0 waiver. Scientific Data currently lists fourteen repositories that focus on specific areas within the Earth and environmental sciences, as well as the broad scope repositories, Dryad and figshare. Readers can browse and filter datasets published at the journal by the host repository using ISA-explorer, a demo tool built by the ISA-tools team at Oxford University1. We believe that well-maintained lists like this one help publishers build a network of trust with community data repositories and provide an important complement to more comprehensive data repository indices and more formal certification efforts. In parallel, Scientific Data has also improved its policies to better support submissions from authors using institutional and project-specific repositories, without requiring each to apply for listing individually. Online resources Journal homepage: http://www.nature.com/scientificdata Data repository criteria: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/data-policies#repo-criteria Recommended data repositories: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/repositories Archived copies of the list: https